WorldWideScience

Sample records for acoustic countermeasures

  1. Research on the Combination of Underwater Acoustic Countermeasure Equipments Against Torpedo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Jie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Today the use of acoustic countermeasure equipment has become the main means in submarine defense torpedo operation. Combination of acoustic countermeasure equipments are used during the operation so that we can amplify the countermeasure effect. Based on the subject of the acoustic countermeasure equipments’ combined use, this paper analyses the interference between these soft kill countermeasure equipments including gas curtain, acoustic decoy and acoustic interferometer, summarizes the advantages and disadvantages of the different combined use of acoustic countermeasure equipments.

  2. Electronic countermeasures (ECM) and acoustic countermeasures (ACM) supported protection for merchant ships against SSM/ASM missiles and mines

    OpenAIRE

    Wallander, Bo L.

    1989-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution unlimited The necessity for merchant ship self protection has become more and more obvious during recent years. This thesis will investigate the threat (missiles and mines) and associated counter-measures that might be installed to provide a reasonable degree of protection. The results indicate that it is possible to get protection against a sea-skimming missile with a combination of ECM and ESM deployed aboard the ship. For protection against the ...

  3. Countermeasure System and Method to Emulate Target with Spatial Extent

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ayers, Roderick E

    2006-01-01

    ...). The individual countermeasure devices are programmed to produce acoustic signals, such as in response to a ping or pulse by an incoming torpedo, that collectively appear to be an echo similar...

  4. Countermeasures and barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, Johannes [Oersted - DTU, Automation, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

    2005-10-01

    In 1973 Haddon proposed ten strategies for reducing and avoiding damages based on a model of potential harmful energy transfer (Haddon, 1973). The strategies apply to a large variety of unwanted phenomena. Haddon's pioneering work on countermeasures has had a major influence on later thinking about safety. Considering its impact it is remarkable that the literature offers almost no discussions related to the theoretical foundations of Haddon's countermeasure strategies. The present report addresses a number of theoretical issues related to Haddon's countermeasure strategies, which are: 1) A reformulation and formalization of Haddon's countermeasure strategies. 2) An identification and description of some of the problems associated with the term 'barrier'. 3) Suggestions for a more precise terminology based on the causal structure of countermeasures. 4) Extending the scope of countermeasures to include sign-based countermeasures. (au)

  5. Countermeasures and barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, Johannes

    2005-10-01

    In 1973 Haddon proposed ten strategies for reducing and avoiding damages based on a model of potential harmful energy transfer (Haddon, 1973). The strategies apply to a large variety of unwanted phenomena. Haddon's pioneering work on countermeasures has had a major influence on later thinking about safety. Considering its impact it is remarkable that the literature offers almost no discussions related to the theoretical foundations of Haddon's countermeasure strategies. The present report addresses a number of theoretical issues related to Haddon's countermeasure strategies, which are: 1) A reformulation and formalization of Haddon's countermeasure strategies. 2) An identification and description of some of the problems associated with the term 'barrier'. 3) Suggestions for a more precise terminology based on the causal structure of countermeasures. 4) Extending the scope of countermeasures to include sign-based countermeasures. (au)

  6. Pyrotechnic countermeasures: II. Advanced aerial infrared countermeasures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, Ernst-Christian [Diehl BGT Defence GmbH and Co. KG, Fischbachstrasse 16, D-90552 Roethenbach a. d. Pegnitz (Germany)

    2006-02-15

    This paper discusses the technology of advanced aerial infrared countermeasures and related work disclosed in the unclassified literature. Missile-seeker head counter-countermeasures include spectral discrimination, kinematical discrimination, rise-time discrimination, UV/VIS discrimination and area temperature matching. Advanced flare payloads designed to counter dual color seekers contain selectively emitting compositions based primarily on high carbon fuels and perchlorates. Other advanced payloads consist of low temperature emitters like pyrophoric metal foils and gasless pyrotechnic compositions like Fe/KClO{sub 4}. The optimization of black body flares, still considered essential to a successful countermeasure solution, make use of new fuels based on e.g. meta-stable alloys and nanometer-sized powders as well as high energetic oxidizers. Kinematic flares today use combined propellant and infrared grains. 116 references from the public domain are given. For part I see Propellants, Explos., Pyrotech. 2001, 26, 3. (Abstract Copyright [2006], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  7. Countermeasures in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baggenstos, M.; Brunner, H.

    1995-01-01

    Concerning countermeasures in Switzerland, part of them are tested every year in exercises. An operational emergency management in the EPZ (Emergency Planning Zones) is a condition for operating a NPP (Nuclear Power Plant) in Switzerland. The NPP operators have to pay special installations and preparations, automatic monitoring network in the inner EPZ and iodine tablets for the EPZ population. Countermeasures concerning EPZ, sheltering hospitals, farmers are summarized in this document. It also presents the use of iodine tablets based on the ICRP's recommendations (International Commission Radiological Protection), and the implementation of evacuation plans, public information or exercises organised by the EOR (Emergency Organisation Radioactivity). (TEC). 4 refs., 1 fig

  8. Disaster countermeasures around nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatsuta, Yoshinori

    1982-01-01

    The following matters are described. Safety regulation administration for nuclear power plants; nuclear disaster countermeasures in the United States; disaster countermeasures around nuclear facilities (a report of the ad hoc committee in Nuclear Safety Commission), including general requirements, the scope of areas to take the countermeasures, emergency environmental monitoring, guidelines for taking the countermeasures, and emergency medical treatment. In the nuclear safety administration, the system of stationing safety expert personnel on the sites of nuclear power generation and qualifying the persons in charge of reactor operation in the control room is also introduced. As for the disaster countermeasures, such as the detection of an abnormal state, the notification of the abnormality to various organs concerned, the starting of emergency environmental monitoring, the establishment of the countermeasure headquarters, and emergency measures for the local people. (Mori, K.)

  9. Fatigue Countermeasures in Aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    rbucks® Short 1 Starbucks ® Tall 1 Sta rbucks® Grande 1 Coke® 1 Mountain Dew® 1 cup tea 2 Anacin® 2 Excedrin Xtra. Strength 1 Max. Strength NoDoz® 46...72. Dinges OF, Price N],Maislin G, Powell JW, Ecker AJ, Malli.s MM. Szuba, et a1. Prospective laboratory re-validation of ocular-based drowsiness...detection technologies and countermeasures. In: Wierwille WW, Hanowski RJ, Olson RL, Dinges OF, Price NJ, Maislin G, et a1. NHTSA Drowsy Driver ·Detection

  10. Countermeasure in forest ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johanson, K.J.

    1992-01-01

    It is suggested that for economic reasons local governments in the areas of Sweden which are most contaminated from the Chernobyl major nuclear accident, as well as the forest companies, should have an interest in countermeasures for reducing the Cesium-137 acitivity concentrations in moose. This viewpoint is explained. Potassium fertilizing experiments were carried out on rocky ground with a shallow layer of soil or at a boggy area with peat soil. By fertilizing the heater, eaten by moose Cesium-137 activity could be reduced by 50%. The mean value was 11,000 Bq kg -1 . The decrease occuring within 2-3 months also showed that there is an exchange of radiocesium in heather plants. There was found a large seasonal variation in the Cesium-137 activity concentration in roe-deer, so another countermeasure was to change the time of the hunting season from August to May where cesium activity in the meat was lowest. Deer were also given salt licks with Geisesalt (resulting in 50% reduction) and cesiumbinder in their fodder (as yet no reliable results) in furhter attempts to reduce cesium activity in their meat. Results are presented in the form of graphs. (AB)

  11. Countermeasures implemented in intensive agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firsakova, S.; Hove, K.; Alexakhin, R.; Prister, B.; Arkhipov, N.; Bogdanov, G.

    1996-01-01

    The wide application of countermeasures in agriculture at different times after the Chernobyl accident provided an opportunity to estimate the most efficient means of reducing radionuclide transfer through the chain soil-plant-animal-man. The choice of countermeasures against the background of traditional practices was governed by a variety of factors, including the composition of the radioactive fallout, the soil types, land usage, the time elapsed since the accident and the economics. The efficiency of the various countermeasures was assessed in terms of both reduction of individual dose in the contaminated areas and of the collective dose. The estimation of the various countermeasures comparative efficiency is presented, their impact on individual doses reduction and the contribution reduction of produce produced in the contaminated area into the collective dose of the population is shown

  12. Short-term countermeasures questionnaire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hogan, R.

    1995-01-01

    This document presents the analysis of a questionnaire transmitted to fourteen countries. The questions were about shot-term countermeasures countries have implemented in case of a nuclear accident. Those questions concerned the main different aspects of the issue, such as the objective of the countermeasures implemented, the kind of measures depending on the people concerned (emergency workers or not, children, pregnant women...), or the use of stable iodine in order to avoid a contamination. (TEC)

  13. Countermeasures in radiation emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narayanan, K.K.

    1998-01-01

    ICRP Publication 60 (1990) contains recommendations on two radiological situations: (i) Human activities that add radiation exposure to that which people normally incur due to background radiation, or that increases the likelihood of their incurring exposure are termed PRACTICES. Here the occurrences of the exposure are foreseen and can be limited by control of source and by application of the ICRP system of dose limitation and (ii) The human activities that seek to reduce the existing radiation exposure, or the existing likelihood of incurring exposure which is not part of a controlled practice are termed INTERVENTIONS. Here the source of exposure is not subject to control, for example, in accident situations so that any subsequent exposure can be limited only by some form of INTERVENTION. The relevant general recommendations on intervention are that the countermeasures forming a program of intervention, which always have some disadvantage, should be justified in the sense that they should do more good than harm. Their form, scale and duration should be then optimised so as to maximise the net benefit

  14. A gravity loading countermeasure skinsuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldie, James M.; Newman, Dava J.

    2011-04-01

    Despite the use of several countermeasures, significant physiological deconditioning still occurs during long duration spaceflight. Bone loss - primarily due to the absence of loading in microgravity - is perhaps the greatest challenge to resolve. This paper describes a conceptual Gravity Loading Countermeasure Skinsuit (GLCS) that induces loading on the body to mimic standing and - when integrated with other countermeasures - exercising on Earth. Comfort, mobility and other operational issues were explored during a pilot study carried out in parabolic flight for prototype suits worn by three subjects. Compared to the 1- or 2-stage Russian Pingvin Suits, the elastic mesh of the GLCS can create a loading regime that gradually increases in hundreds of stages from the shoulders to the feet, thereby reproducing the weight-bearing regime normally imparted by gravity with much higher resolution. Modelling shows that the skinsuit requires less than 10 mmHg (1.3 kPa) of compression for three subjects of varied gender, height and mass. Negligible mobility restriction and excellent comfort properties were found during the parabolic flights, which suggests that crewmembers should be able to work normally, exercise or sleep while wearing the suit. The suit may also serve as a practical 1 g harness for exercise countermeasures and vibration applications to improve dynamic loading.

  15. Zhengzhou Distribution Research and Countermeasures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cao Wujun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the acceleration of urbanization process in China, the city has become an increasingly important part of the logistics. This paper analyzes the current development in Zhengzhou logistics and distribution, and use the SWOT analysis model to analyze the Zhengzhou logistics and distribution strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and challenges presented in Zhengzhou distribution tertiary network architecture, and finally summarized the Zhengzhou logistics countermeasures and suggestions distribution.

  16. Evolution in radioactive waste countermeasures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriguchi, Yasutaka

    1984-01-01

    The establishment of radioactive waste management measures is important to proceed further with nuclear power development. While the storage facility projects by utilities are in progress, large quantity of low level wastes are expected to arise in the future due to the decommissioning of nuclear reactors, etc. An interim report made by the committee on radioactive waste countermeasures to the Atomic Energy Commission is described as follows: the land disposal measures of ultra-low level and low level radioactive wastes, that is, the concept of level partitioning, waste management, the possible practice of handling wastes, etc.; the treatment and disposal measures of high level radioactive wastes and transuranium wastes, including task sharing among respective research institutions, the solidification/storage and the geological formation disposal of high level wastes, etc. (Mori, K.)

  17. Architectural acoustics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Long, Marshall

    2014-01-01

    .... Beginning with a brief history, it reviews the fundamentals of acoustics, human perception and reaction to sound, acoustic noise measurements, noise metrics, and environmental noise characterization...

  18. Acoustic emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, R.W.

    1976-01-01

    The volume contains six papers which together provide an overall review of the inspection technique known as acoustic emission or stress wave emission. The titles are: a welder's introduction to acoustic emission technology; use of acoustic emission for detection of defects as they arise during fabrication; examples of laboratory application and assessment of acoustic emission in the United Kingdom; (Part I: acoustic emission behaviour of low alloy steels; Part II: fatigue crack assessment from proof testing and continuous monitoring); inspection of selected areas of engineering structures by acoustic emission; Japanese experience in laboratory and practical applications of acoustic emission to welded structures; and ASME acoustic emission code status. (U.K.)

  19. Sensor-guided threat countermeasure system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Brent C.; Hackel, Lloyd A.; Hermann, Mark R.; Armstrong, James P.

    2012-12-25

    A countermeasure system for use by a target to protect against an incoming sensor-guided threat. The system includes a laser system for producing a broadband beam and means for directing the broadband beam from the target to the threat. The countermeasure system comprises the steps of producing a broadband beam and directing the broad band beam from the target to blind or confuse the incoming sensor-guided threat.

  20. Countermeasures to Enhance Sensorimotor Adaptability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomberg, J. J.; Peters, B. T.; Mulavara, A. P.; Brady, R. A.; Batson, C. C.; Miller, C. A.; Cohen, H. S.

    2011-01-01

    adaptability. These results indicate that SA training techniques can be added to existing treadmill exercise equipment and procedures to produce a single integrated countermeasure system to improve performance of astro/cosmonauts during prolonged exploratory space missions.

  1. Social intervention and risk reduction - indirect countermeasures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higgins, N.A.; Morrey, M.

    1996-01-01

    An indirect countermeasure (IC) is an action which is intended to mitigate detrimental effects experienced by individuals or the community after an accident. Indirect countermeasures (ICs) achieve this, both by averting radiation risks arising from the accident, but by removing or reducing other risks and sources of stress or harm to which the community may be subject. ICs naturally fall into two categories: social action ICs, which range from introducing compensation payments to providing information centres; and risk reducing ICs which mitigate risks to which the population might be exposed, such as radon. By including a consideration of ICs in an assessment of the optimal response, it is likely that a decision maker will become aware of a greater range of harms and benefits that might result from the application of a countermeasure. The decision maker will then be in a better position to judge the appropriateness of any action. (author)

  2. NASA Exercise Physiology and Countermeasures Project Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loerch, Linda; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori

    2009-01-01

    Efficient exercise countermeasures are necessary to offset or minimize spaceflight-induced deconditioning and to maximize crew performance of mission tasks. These countermeasure protocols should use the fewest crew and vehicle resources. NASA s Exercise Physiology and Countermeasures (ExPC) Project works to identify, collect, interpret, and summarize evidence that results in effective exercise countermeasure protocols which protect crew health and performance during International Space Station (ISS) and future exploration-class missions. The ExPC and NASA s Human Research Program are sponsoring multiple studies to evaluate and improve the efficacy of spaceflight exercise countermeasures. First, the Project will measure maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max) during cycle ergometry before, during, and after ISS missions. Second, the Project is sponsoring an evaluation of a new prototype harness that offers improved comfort and increased loading during treadmill operations. Third, the Functional Tasks Test protocol will map performance of anticipated lunar mission tasks with physiologic systems before and after short and long-duration spaceflight, to target system contributions and the tailoring of exercise protocols to maximize performance. In addition to these studies that are actively enrolling crewmember participants, the ExPC is planning new studies that include an evaluation of a higher-intensity/lower-volume exercise countermeasure protocol aboard the ISS using the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device and second-generation treadmill, studies that evaluate bone loading during spaceflight exercise, and ground-based studies that focus on fitness for duty standards required to complete lunar mission tasks and for which exercise protocols need to protect. Summaries of these current and future studies and strategies will be provided to international colleagues for knowledge sharing and possible collaboration.

  3. Communication Acoustics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blauert, Jens

    Communication Acoustics deals with the fundamentals of those areas of acoustics which are related to modern communication technologies. Due to the advent of digital signal processing and recording in acoustics, these areas have enjoyed an enormous upswing during the last 4 decades. The book...... the book a source of valuable information for those who want to improve or refresh their knowledge in the field of communication acoustics - and to work their way deeper into it. Due to its interdisciplinary character Communication Acoustics is bound to attract readers from many different areas, such as......: acoustics, cognitive science, speech science, and communication technology....

  4. Acoustic Neuroma

    Science.gov (United States)

    An acoustic neuroma is a benign tumor that develops on the nerve that connects the ear to the brain. ... can press against the brain, becoming life-threatening. Acoustic neuroma can be difficult to diagnose, because the ...

  5. Countermeasures that work : a highway safety countermeasure guide for state highway safety offices : eighth edition : 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    The guide is a basic reference to assist State Highway Safety Offices in selecting effective, evidence- based : countermeasures for traffic safety problem areas. These areas include: : - Alcohol-and Drug-Impaired Driving; : - Seat Belts and Child Res...

  6. Threats and countermeasures for network security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denning, Peter J.

    1991-01-01

    In the late 1980's, the traditional threat of anonymous break-ins to networked computers was joined by viruses and worms, multiplicative surrogates that carry out the bidding of their authors. Technologies for authentication and secrecy, supplemented by good management practices, are the principal countermeasures. Four articles on these subjects are presented.

  7. Risk Analysis and Security Countermeasure Selection

    CERN Document Server

    Norman, Thomas L

    2009-01-01

    Explains how to evaluate the appropriateness of security countermeasures, from a cost-effectiveness perspective. This title guides readers from basic principles to complex processes in a step-by-step fashion, evaluating DHS-approved risk assessment methods, including CARVER, API/NPRA, RAMCAP, and various Sandia methodologies

  8. NEDAC: A worm countermeasure mechanism | Ahmad | Science ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article presents an Internet worm countermeasure mechanism that uses DNS activities as a behavioural technique to detect worm propagation. The mechanism also uses a data-link containment solution to block traffic from an infected host. The concept has been demonstrated using a developed prototype and tested in ...

  9. The modelling of countermeasures in COSYMA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkart, K.; Hasemann, I.

    1991-01-01

    The modelling of countermeasures in COSYMA has been extended in comparison to UFOMOD and MARC in order to allow the user considerable freedom in specifying a wide range of emergency actions and criteria at which these actions will be assumed to be imposed and withdrawn, so that most of the recommendations and criteria adopted in different countries inside and outside the EC can be modelled. Countermeasures are implemented with the aim of reducing either acute exposure during and shortly after the accident or continuing and long-term exposure due to deposited or incorporated radionuclides. Different countermeasures may be necessary in different areas or even in the same area (e.g. sheltering followed by evacuation). Therefore not just several types of individual protective actions but different combinations thereof are modelled in COSYMA. Each of the individual protective actions may be assumed to have a large variety of possible features characterized by parameters with user-defined values. Some of the countermeasures can be assumed to be initiated automatically in a certain area; others are defined on the basis of dose criteria

  10. Post-Chernobyl scientific perspectives: Agricultural countermeasures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richards, J.I.; Hance, R.J.

    1996-01-01

    One of the lessons of Chernobyl is that farming is vulnerable to the effects of a nuclear accident hundreds, even thousands, of miles away from the site. Therefore plans are needed for countermeasures that can reduce contamination of agricultural produce, regardless of whether or not a country has its own nuclear programme. The plans need to specify radiation levels for foods and feedstuffs at which intervention is necessary and to include a range of countermeasures to be taken to protect agriculture under a range of possible post-accident situations. The FAO/WHO Codes Alimentarius Commission has developed international standards for radionuclides contamination to be applied to food moving in international trade. The intervention levels are based on a number of conservative assumptions to be confident that there will be essentially no effect over a lifetime of exposure. An important purpose of agricultural countermeasures is to maximize the quantity of food produced which passes intervention criteria. The present report discusses how the Joint FAO/IAEA programme on nuclear techniques in food and agriculture has approached agricultural countermeasures

  11. Modelling of agricultural countermeasures in RODOS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, J.; Wilkins, B.T.; Nisbet, A.F.; Ivanov, Y.A.; Perepelyatnikova, L.V.; Fesenko, S.V.; Sanzharova, N.I.; Bouzdalkin, C.N.

    1996-01-01

    Predictions of the effects of agricultural countermeasures taken to reduce doses are an important part of the decision making process following an accidental release of radioactive material into the environment. Models have been developed for this purpose within the EC decision support system, RODOS. This paper describes the methodology used and the development of databases on the practicability of agricultural countermeasures for use in such a system. Within RODOS a wide range of potentially practicable countermeasures are considered and endpoints related to their imposition are calculated such that the economic and health impacts can be evaluated. The methodology utilizes time-dependent information from a food chain model, together with databases of empirical transfer parameters and effectiveness factors for the various countermeasures. Measures implemented in both the immediate aftermath of an accident and in the longer term are considered. A database containing robust representative data that can be applied to relatively large areas is currently implemented in RODOS. The database utilizes information from the Chernobyl accident compiled within an EC initiated collaborative project (JSP1) by institutes in the Ukraine, Russia, Belarus and the NRPB. Detailed data for four settlements in these countries have been compiled and compared with the robust database. The use of detailed databases at a local level in the three countries, where account is taken of factors such as soil type, is also discussed. The applicability of agricultural countermeasures implemented in the Ukraine, Russia and Belarus following the Chernobyl accident to agricultural systems in the UK has been evaluated and the appropriateness of the compiled databases for wider application is discussed

  12. Acoustic cloaking and transformation acoustics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Huanyang; Chan, C T

    2010-01-01

    In this review, we give a brief introduction to the application of the new technique of transformation acoustics, which draws on a correspondence between coordinate transformation and material properties. The technique is formulated for both acoustic waves and linear liquid surface waves. Some interesting conceptual devices can be designed for manipulating acoustic waves. For example, we can design acoustic cloaks that make an object invisible to acoustic waves, and the cloak can either encompass or lie outside the object to be concealed. Transformation acoustics, as an analog of transformation optics, can go beyond invisibility cloaking. As an illustration for manipulating linear liquid surface waves, we show that a liquid wave rotator can be designed and fabricated to rotate the wave front. The acoustic transformation media require acoustic materials which are anisotropic and inhomogeneous. Such materials are difficult to find in nature. However, composite materials with embedded sub-wavelength resonators can in principle be made and such 'acoustic metamaterials' can exhibit nearly arbitrary values of effective density and modulus tensors to satisfy the demanding material requirements in transformation acoustics. We introduce resonant sonic materials and Helmholtz resonators as examples of acoustic metamaterials that exhibit resonant behaviour in effective density and effective modulus. (topical review)

  13. Development towards optimization of emergency countermeasures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susnik, J.

    1995-01-01

    We report on severe accident scenarios consequences evaluation in connection to the applied emergency countermeasures and use of the PC COSYMA code. We present some of the results for the reactor core melt accident assumed to happen at the 632 MWE PWR Krsko Nuclear Power Plant in Slovenia. The efficiency of several potential countermeasures in limiting the late health effects was studied. Regarding the source term, the majority of release parameters are as specified for category 2 in the German Risk Study. Site specific data were used. As the outside (meteorologic) conditions during the potential accident onset can be very different, the study limited to the deterministic runs, assuming the wind direction upstream the Sava river into the WNW direction, wind speed of 5 ms -1 and the C Pasquill stability category. The population distribution file was formed from the NEK-FSAR data for the 1991. (author)

  14. Topological Acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhaoju; Gao, Fei; Shi, Xihang; Lin, Xiao; Gao, Zhen; Chong, Yidong; Zhang, Baile

    2015-03-01

    The manipulation of acoustic wave propagation in fluids has numerous applications, including some in everyday life. Acoustic technologies frequently develop in tandem with optics, using shared concepts such as waveguiding and metamedia. It is thus noteworthy that an entirely novel class of electromagnetic waves, known as "topological edge states," has recently been demonstrated. These are inspired by the electronic edge states occurring in topological insulators, and possess a striking and technologically promising property: the ability to travel in a single direction along a surface without backscattering, regardless of the existence of defects or disorder. Here, we develop an analogous theory of topological fluid acoustics, and propose a scheme for realizing topological edge states in an acoustic structure containing circulating fluids. The phenomenon of disorder-free one-way sound propagation, which does not occur in ordinary acoustic devices, may have novel applications for acoustic isolators, modulators, and transducers.

  15. Acoustical Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Litniewski, Jerzy; Kujawska, Tamara; 31st International Symposium on Acoustical Imaging

    2012-01-01

    The International Symposium on Acoustical Imaging is a unique forum for advanced research, covering new technologies, developments, methods and theories in all areas of acoustics. This interdisciplinary Symposium has been taking place continuously since 1968. In the course of the years the proceedings volumes in the Acoustical Imaging Series have become a reference for cutting-edge research in the field. In 2011 the 31st International Symposium on Acoustical Imaging was held in Warsaw, Poland, April 10-13. Offering both a broad perspective on the state-of-the-art as well as  in-depth research contributions by the specialists in the field, this Volume 31 in the Series contains an excellent collection of papers in six major categories: Biological and Medical Imaging Physics and Mathematics of Acoustical Imaging Acoustic Microscopy Transducers and Arrays Nondestructive Evaluation and Industrial Applications Underwater Imaging

  16. Radon problems in Sweden. Investigations and countermeasures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snihs, J.O.; Ehdwall, H.

    1978-11-01

    For some years radon has been of great concern in Sweden both as a source of occupational exposure in mines and other underground spaces and as a source of radiation exposures in dwellings has lately increased to a considerable extent and appropriate measurements and possible countermeasures are under intensive discussion. The policy and general principles of the supervision especially at work places are described here with a brief description of the progress of the development work on measuring methods. (author)

  17. Acoustic textiles

    CERN Document Server

    Nayak, Rajkishore

    2016-01-01

    This book highlights the manufacturing and applications of acoustic textiles in various industries. It also includes examples from different industries in which acoustic textiles can be used to absorb noise and help reduce the impact of noise at the workplace. Given the importance of noise reduction in the working environment in several industries, the book offers a valuable guide for companies, educators and researchers involved with acoustic materials.

  18. Zika Virus: Medical Countermeasure Development Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Robert W.; Homan, Jane; Callahan, Michael V.; Glasspool-Malone, Jill; Damodaran, Lambodhar; Schneider, Adriano De Bernardi; Zimler, Rebecca; Talton, James; Cobb, Ronald R.; Ruzic, Ivan; Smith-Gagen, Julie; Janies, Daniel; Wilson, James

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Reports of high rates of primary microcephaly and Guillain–Barré syndrome associated with Zika virus infection in French Polynesia and Brazil have raised concerns that the virus circulating in these regions is a rapidly developing neuropathic, teratogenic, emerging infectious public health threat. There are no licensed medical countermeasures (vaccines, therapies or preventive drugs) available for Zika virus infection and disease. The Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) predicts that Zika virus will continue to spread and eventually reach all countries and territories in the Americas with endemic Aedes mosquitoes. This paper reviews the status of the Zika virus outbreak, including medical countermeasure options, with a focus on how the epidemiology, insect vectors, neuropathology, virology and immunology inform options and strategies available for medical countermeasure development and deployment. Methods Multiple information sources were employed to support the review. These included publically available literature, patents, official communications, English and Lusophone lay press. Online surveys were distributed to physicians in the US, Mexico and Argentina and responses analyzed. Computational epitope analysis as well as infectious disease outbreak modeling and forecasting were implemented. Field observations in Brazil were compiled and interviews conducted with public health officials. PMID:26934531

  19. Zika Virus: Medical Countermeasure Development Challenges.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert W Malone

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Reports of high rates of primary microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome associated with Zika virus infection in French Polynesia and Brazil have raised concerns that the virus circulating in these regions is a rapidly developing neuropathic, teratogenic, emerging infectious public health threat. There are no licensed medical countermeasures (vaccines, therapies or preventive drugs available for Zika virus infection and disease. The Pan American Health Organization (PAHO predicts that Zika virus will continue to spread and eventually reach all countries and territories in the Americas with endemic Aedes mosquitoes. This paper reviews the status of the Zika virus outbreak, including medical countermeasure options, with a focus on how the epidemiology, insect vectors, neuropathology, virology and immunology inform options and strategies available for medical countermeasure development and deployment.Multiple information sources were employed to support the review. These included publically available literature, patents, official communications, English and Lusophone lay press. Online surveys were distributed to physicians in the US, Mexico and Argentina and responses analyzed. Computational epitope analysis as well as infectious disease outbreak modeling and forecasting were implemented. Field observations in Brazil were compiled and interviews conducted with public health officials.

  20. Nutritional Countermeasures to Ameliorate Losses in Muscle Mass and Function

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Major Accomplishments This project represents a combination of two NASA-funded protocols, which investigated nutritional countermeasures to activity-induced...

  1. Sea Mines and Countermeasures: A Bibliography. Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-07-01

    ABSTRACT: Acoustically mapping ( fingerprinting ) the main channel, or ’Q’ routes, of a harbor, over relatively long time periods by using transducers... fingerprint or reference mapping of the bottom. This acoustical record or map, which is quite stable over long periods of time, is used to compare newly...for the area to be cleared. The robots would proceed to spread out and canvas the area for mines. When a robot encountered a mine, it would stop and

  2. Cryptanalysis of Two Fault Countermeasure Schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banik, Subhadeep; Bogdanov, Andrey

    2015-01-01

    function with some additional randomness and computes the value of the function. The second called the unmasking function, is computed securely using a different register and undoes the effect of the masking with random bits. We will show that there exists a weakness in the way in which both these schemes...... is meant for the protection of block ciphers like AES. The second countermeasure was proposed in IEEE-HOST 2015 and protects the Grain-128 stream cipher. The design divides the output function used in Grain-128 into two components. The first called the masking function, masks the input bits to the output...

  3. Human Adaptation to Space: Space Physiology and Countermeasures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogarty, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews human physiological responses to spaceflight, and the countermeasures taken to prevent adverse effects of manned space flight. The topics include: 1) Human Spaceflight Experience; 2) Human Response to Spaceflight; 3) ISS Expeditions 1-16; 4) Countermeasure; and 5) Biomedical Data;

  4. 77 FR 15398 - Attentive Driving: Countermeasures for Distraction Forum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-15

    ... NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD Attentive Driving: Countermeasures for Distraction Forum The National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) will convene a forum, Attentive Driving: Countermeasures for... a period of 3 months from the date of the event. Distracted driving is a serious safety risk on our...

  5. Effectiveness and environmental considerations for non-dispersant chemical countermeasures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, A.H.; Kucklick, J.H.; Michel, J.

    1999-01-01

    Mechanical countermeasures for oil spill response have various effectiveness and operational limitations under certain spill situations. This has led to an interest in and use of alternative treatment methods. This chapter reviews the potential utility of one such group, nondispersant chemical countermeasures, in controlling the adverse impacts from marine oil spills. The types of nondispersant chemical countermeasures presented here include: herding agents, emulsion treating agents, solidifiers, elasticity modifiers, and shoreline cleaning agents. Each countermeasure group is discussed separately to provide a definition, mechanism of action, and effectiveness and environmental considerations for the group. Where ever possible, examples are given of countermeasure use during an actual spill. In addition to the groups mentioned above, a few other treating agents are briefly described under the section 'Miscellaneous Agents' to illustrate other, less prominent types of chemical countermeasures. Non-dispersant chemical countermeasures appear to have discrete response niches, i.e. situations where the countermeasures are well-suited and offer potential benefits. The key is matching conditions for optimal effectiveness with the appropriate incident-specific characteristics and window of opportunity. The practical aspects of logistics are not addressed because, if their potential utility can be demonstrated, the resolution of these issues would follow. (author)

  6. Battlefield acoustics

    CERN Document Server

    Damarla, Thyagaraju

    2015-01-01

    This book presents all aspects of situational awareness in a battlefield using acoustic signals. It starts by presenting the science behind understanding and interpretation of sound signals. The book then goes on to provide various signal processing techniques used in acoustics to find the direction of sound source, localize gunfire, track vehicles, and detect people. The necessary mathematical background and various classification and fusion techniques are presented. The book contains majority of the things one would need to process acoustic signals for all aspects of situational awareness in one location. The book also presents array theory, which is pivotal in finding the direction of arrival of acoustic signals. In addition, the book presents techniques to fuse the information from multiple homogeneous/heterogeneous sensors for better detection. MATLAB code is provided for majority of the real application, which is a valuable resource in not only understanding the theory but readers, can also use the code...

  7. Acoustics Research

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fisheries acoustics data are collected from more than 200 sea-days each year aboard the FRV DELAWARE II and FRV ALBATROSS IV (decommissioned) and the FSV Henry B....

  8. Acoustical Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Akiyama, Iwaki

    2009-01-01

    The 29th International Symposium on Acoustical Imaging was held in Shonan Village, Kanagawa, Japan, April 15-18, 2007. This interdisciplinary Symposium has been taking place every two years since 1968 and forms a unique forum for advanced research, covering new technologies, developments, methods and theories in all areas of acoustics. In the course of the years the volumes in the Acoustical Imaging Series have developed and become well-known and appreciated reference works. Offering both a broad perspective on the state-of-the-art in the field as well as an in-depth look at its leading edge research, this Volume 29 in the Series contains again an excellent collection of seventy papers presented in nine major categories: Strain Imaging Biological and Medical Applications Acoustic Microscopy Non-Destructive Evaluation and Industrial Applications Components and Systems Geophysics and Underwater Imaging Physics and Mathematics Medical Image Analysis FDTD method and Other Numerical Simulations Audience Researcher...

  9. Room Acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuttruff, Heinrich; Mommertz, Eckard

    The traditional task of room acoustics is to create or formulate conditions which ensure the best possible propagation of sound in a room from a sound source to a listener. Thus, objects of room acoustics are in particular assembly halls of all kinds, such as auditoria and lecture halls, conference rooms, theaters, concert halls or churches. Already at this point, it has to be pointed out that these conditions essentially depend on the question if speech or music should be transmitted; in the first case, the criterion for transmission quality is good speech intelligibility, in the other case, however, the success of room-acoustical efforts depends on other factors that cannot be quantified that easily, not least it also depends on the hearing habits of the listeners. In any case, absolutely "good acoustics" of a room do not exist.

  10. Priority of areas for agricultural countermeasure assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rochedo, E.R.R.; Barboza, A.E.; Igreja, E.; Silva, D.N.G. da; Wasserman, A.E.

    2015-01-01

    Within the overall preparedness related to nuclear and/or radiological accidents that lead to the release of radionuclides to the environment with the consequent contamination of agricultural areas, the priority of research for agricultural areas should then focus on the surrounding areas of nuclear power plants that have higher probability of public exposure through the ingestion pathway. The objective of this work was to create a rank order of priority of agricultural products to be considered in assessing the effects of countermeasures, based on both economic value and doses to the public. Additionally, the study describes relevant needs of radioecological studies to improve short and long-terms dose assessments. . Sixteen municipalities surrounding the Brazilian Nuclear Power Central were analyzed for a contamination with 137 Cs, considering seasonal aspects related to agricultural practices in the Southeastern Brazil. Rank order provided by considering economical aspects shows that there is a need for radioecological research for some high value products, such as palmetto and sugar cane, and the need to include in the current model more detailed description for some food items, such as eggs. Combined rank criteria shows that main product within the considered area is milk. As so, the study of countermeasures for the ingestion of milk should be prioritized. (authors)

  11. Developing Personalized Sensorimotor Adaptability Countermeasures for Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulavara, A. P.; Seidler, R. D.; Peters, B.; Cohen, H. S.; Wood, S.; Bloomberg, J. J.

    2016-01-01

    Astronauts experience sensorimotor disturbances during their initial exposure to microgravity and during the re-adaptation phase following a return to an Earth-gravitational environment. Interestingly, astronauts who return from spaceflight show substantial differences in their abilities to readapt to a gravitational environment. The ability to predict the manner and degree to which individual astronauts would be affected would improve the effectiveness of countermeasure training programs designed to enhance sensorimotor adaptability. In this paper we will be presenting results from our ground-based study that show how behavioral, brain imaging and genomic data may be used to predict individual differences in sensorimotor adaptability to novel sensorimotor environments. This approach will allow us to better design and implement sensorimotor adaptability training countermeasures against decrements in post-mission adaptive capability that are customized for each crewmember's sensory biases, adaptive capacity, brain structure, functional capacities, and genetic predispositions. The ability to customize adaptability training will allow more efficient use of crew time during training and will optimize training prescriptions for astronauts to ensure expected outcomes.

  12. Agricultural countermeasures in the Nordic countries after a nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brink, M.; Lauritzen, B.

    2001-12-01

    This report by the NKSBOK-1.4 project group describes agricultural countermeasures after a nuclear accident, aiming at the reduction of radiation doses to man from the ingestion of foodstuffs. The intention has been to collect information based on common understanding that can be used as a Nordic handbook and in further developments of the national preparedness systems. The report covers two areas: the gathering and dissemination of information before and during a nuclear emergency, and the development of a countermeasures strategy. A number of factors are discussed, which will affect the choice of countermeasure(s), and as a case study, a technical cost-benefit assessment of a specific countermeasure is described. (au)

  13. Acoustic biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogel, Ronen; Limson, Janice; Seshia, Ashwin A

    2016-06-30

    Resonant and acoustic wave devices have been researched for several decades for application in the gravimetric sensing of a variety of biological and chemical analytes. These devices operate by coupling the measurand (e.g. analyte adsorption) as a modulation in the physical properties of the acoustic wave (e.g. resonant frequency, acoustic velocity, dissipation) that can then be correlated with the amount of adsorbed analyte. These devices can also be miniaturized with advantages in terms of cost, size and scalability, as well as potential additional features including integration with microfluidics and electronics, scaled sensitivities associated with smaller dimensions and higher operational frequencies, the ability to multiplex detection across arrays of hundreds of devices embedded in a single chip, increased throughput and the ability to interrogate a wider range of modes including within the same device. Additionally, device fabrication is often compatible with semiconductor volume batch manufacturing techniques enabling cost scalability and a high degree of precision and reproducibility in the manufacturing process. Integration with microfluidics handling also enables suitable sample pre-processing/separation/purification/amplification steps that could improve selectivity and the overall signal-to-noise ratio. Three device types are reviewed here: (i) bulk acoustic wave sensors, (ii) surface acoustic wave sensors, and (iii) micro/nano-electromechanical system (MEMS/NEMS) sensors. © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  14. Nuclear industry project audit and countermeasures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yongxin; Zhang Jian

    2012-01-01

    With China's increasing use of nuclear energy, nuclear power related construction projects related to the deepening of the audit, some of the nuclear industry in construction field of the dominant issues have been more effective containment, such as inflated workload, high-set fixed standards, to improve billing unit price, which overestimate the risk calculation tools and behavior completed audit of the accounts have been able to escape his stuff. However, some nuclear industry construction field with a hidden problem because of its hidden nature, not easily found, and some even have intensified the trend. Construction funds to the country such problems caused by the loss of waste is enormous, to the breeding of corruption provided the soil is fertile, if not promptly and effectively to stop the breeding will spread. This paper on the current construction of the nuclear industry in several major areas of the hidden problems are discussed, and the angle from the audit of appropriate countermeasures. (authors)

  15. Acoustic emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Straus, A.; Lopez Pumarega, M.I.; Di Gaetano, J.O.; D'Atellis, C.E.; Ruzzante, J.E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper is related to our activities on acoustic emission (A.E.). The work is made with different materials: metals and fibre reinforced plastics. At present, acoustic emission transducers are being developed for low and high temperature. A test to detect electrical discharges in electrical transformers was performed. Our experience in industrial tests to detect cracks or failures in tanks or tubes is also described. The use of A.E. for leak detection is considered. Works on pattern recognition of A.E. signals are also being performed. (Author)

  16. Building Acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, James

    This chapter summarizes and explains key concepts of building acoustics. These issues include the behavior of sound waves in rooms, the most commonly used rating systems for sound and sound control in buildings, the most common noise sources found in buildings, practical noise control methods for these sources, and the specific topic of office acoustics. Common noise issues for multi-dwelling units can be derived from most of the sections of this chapter. Books can be and have been written on each of these topics, so the purpose of this chapter is to summarize this information and provide appropriate resources for further exploration of each topic.

  17. Validation of a Cephalad Fluid Shift Countermeasure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macias, B.; Cole, C.; Kesari, S.; Hargens, A.; Stenger, M.; Ebert, D.; Lee, S. M. C.; Sargsyan, A.; Liu, J.

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: This project will provide critical data required to objectively determine how an optimized thigh cuff could be incorporated into the NASA integrated physiological countermeasure suite. This project will determine if thigh cuffs used during simulated spaceflight impact intracranial pressure (ICP), ocular structure and function, and intraocular pressure (IOP) using state of-the-art techniques. Additionally, some of the same methods, hardware, and protocols will be employed in the present investigation to enable direct comparisons to the International Space Station (ISS) "Fluid Shifts" experiment with Chibis-Lower Body Negative Pressure (LBNP). This study will determine the temporal physiological responses of thigh cuff application and removal on ocular and cerebral variables (including invasive ICP) in a microgravity analog. Furthermore, this proposed study will determine tissue pressure distribution applied by thigh cuffs in order to improve comfort, mobility, and efficacy of the countermeasure. Our specific aim is to determine the efficacy of a novel thigh cuff device to mitigate cephalad fluid shifts. We hypothesize that a thigh cuff countermeasure employed in a microgravity analog will temporarily reverse or attenuate ocular and cerebral-volume-pressure variables, approaching normal Earth-based seated posture, the most frequent posture assumed in daily life. In addition, we hypothesize that the magnitude of fluid and pressure redistribution using a thigh cuff countermeasure may require a longer exposure time than that of Chibis-LBNP (using ground-based data from our "Fluid Shifts" project). This project directly addresses Critical Path Roadmap Risks and Questions regarding "Risk of Spaceflight-Induced Intracranial Hypertension/Vision Alterations," and IRP Gap VIIP13: We need to identify preventative and treatment countermeasures to mitigate changes in ocular structure and function and intracranial pressure during spaceflight. METHODS: Noninvasive

  18. Physical and biomedical countermeasures for space radiation risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durante, Marco

    2008-01-01

    Radiation exposure represents a serious hindrance for long-term interplanetary missions because of the high uncertainty on risk coefficients, and to the lack of simple countermeasures. Even if uncertainties in risk assessment will he reduced in the next few years, there is little doubt that appropriate countermeasures have to be taken to reduce the exposure or the biological damage produced by cosmic radiation. In addition, it is necessary to provide effective countermeasures against solar particle events, which can produce acute effects, even life threatening, for inadequately protected crews. Strategies that may prove to he effective in reducing exposure, or the effects of the irradiation, include shielding, administration of drugs or dietary supplements to reduce the radiation effects, crew selection based on a screening of individual radiation sensitivity. It is foreseeable that research in passive and active radiation shielding, radioprotective chemicals, and individual susceptibility will boost in the next years to provide efficient countermeasures to the space radiation threat. (orig.)

  19. Variable Vector Countermeasure Suit for Space Habitation and Exploration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The "Variable Vector Countermeasure Suit (V2Suit) for Space Habitation and Exploration" is a visionary system concept that will revolutionize space missions by...

  20. Limits to radioactive effluents and countermeasures in accidental situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowotny, G.; Gonzalez, A.

    1978-01-01

    The paper discusses the criteria used by the Argentine Atomic Energy Commission, as competent authority, to set limits to radioactive effluents from nuclear installations. It also discusses the selection of action levels for carrying out countermeasures in accidental situations. (author)

  1. 77 FR 21785 - Medical Countermeasures Initiative Regulatory Science Symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-11

    ... forum for the exchange of ideas for medical countermeasure development, highlight work on regulatory... information: (1) Your name, (2) title, (3) company or organization (if applicable), (4) mailing address, (5...

  2. 78 FR 20664 - 2013 Medical Countermeasures Initiative Regulatory Science Symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-05

    ... symposium is intended to provide a forum for the exchange of ideas for medical countermeasure development...) Your name, (2) title, (3) company or organization (if applicable), (4) mailing address, (5) phone...

  3. Bluetooth security attacks comparative analysis, attacks, and countermeasures

    CERN Document Server

    Haataja, Keijo; Pasanen, Sanna; Toivanen, Pekka

    2013-01-01

    This overview of Bluetooth security examines network vulnerabilities and offers a comparative analysis of recent security attacks. It also examines related countermeasures and proposes a novel attack that works against all existing Bluetooth versions.

  4. Countermeasures for dairy products in nuclear emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinkko, K.; Ammann, M.; Kostiainen, E.; Salo, A.; Liskola, K.; Haemaelaeinen, R.P.; Mustajoki, J.

    2001-01-01

    This work was performed in order to plan countermeasures that, after an accidental release of radioactivity, could reduce the dose to the public due to the consumption of contaminated milk and milk products. The attention was focused on whether there are justified and optimised actions below the international recommended concentration levels in foodstuffs. The analysis was conducted as a case study, i.e., it was assumed that a hypothetical accident had happened in a nuclear power plant leading to a release of radionuclides which severely contaminated a wide area of Ostrobothnia, one of Finland's most important milk production areas. The dose averted by actions, the' monetary costs and the feasibility of actions were assessed. It was also studied what information is needed by decision-makers and in which form this information should be presented. Finally, it was examined how planning of countermeasures could be enhanced by applying decision analysis in establishing actions strategies and valuing attributes considered in decision making. Preparative meetings and a concluding workshop was arranged and all authorities involved in food-related emergency management were invited to jointly analyse different options. According to the query made the participants considered the decision workshop and decision analysis very practicable in exercises. The exercise as a whole was also evaluated useful or very useful. The presented techniques in a real situation were considered applicable but not as useful as in exercises. Thus it can be deduced that the concluding workshop and decision analysis interviews augment well conventional emergency exercises. Realistic dose assessments proved out to be very difficult. The software used was able to calculate the maximum radionuclide concentrations in foodstuffs processed from local raw materials. Radionuclide concentration in food or feedstuffs may, however, change quickly. Also, the production and processing of foodstuffs is a complex

  5. Countermeasure development using a formalised metric-based process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Laurence

    2008-10-01

    Guided weapons, are a potent threat to both air and surface platforms; to protect the platform, Countermeasures are often used to disrupt the operation of the tracking system. Development of effective techniques to defeat the guidance sensors is a complex activity. The countermeasure often responds to the behaviour of a responsive sensor system, creating a "closed loop" interaction. Performance assessment is difficult, and determining that enough knowledge exists to make a case that a platform is adequately protected is challenging. A set of metrics known as Countermeasure Confidence Levels (CCL) is described. These set out a measure of confidence in prediction of Countermeasure performance. The CCL scale provides, for the first time, a method to determine whether enough evidence exists to support development activity and introduction to operational service. Application of the CCL scale to development of a hypothetical countermeasure is described. This tracks how the countermeasure is matured from initial concept to in-service application. The purpose of each stage is described, together with a description of what work is likely to be needed. This will involve timely use of analysis, simulation, laboratory work and field testing. The use of the CCL scale at key decision points is described. These include procurement decision points, and entry-to-service decisions. Each stage requires collection of evidence of effectiveness. Completeness of the available evidence can be assessed, and duplication can be avoided. Read-across between concepts, weapon systems and platforms can be addressed and the impact of technology insertion can be assessed.

  6. Time to wake up: reactive countermeasures to sleep inertia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilditch, Cassie J; Dorrian, Jillian; Banks, Siobhan

    2016-12-07

    Sleep inertia is the period of impaired performance and grogginess experienced after waking. This period of impairment is of concern to workers who are on-call, or nap during work hours, and need to perform safety-critical tasks soon after waking. While several studies have investigated the best sleep timing and length to minimise sleep inertia effects, few have focused on countermeasures -especially those that can be implemented after waking (i.e. reactive countermeasures). This structured review summarises current literature on reactive countermeasures to sleep inertia such as caffeine, light, and temperature and discusses evidence for the effectiveness and operational viability of each approach. Current literature does not provide a convincing evidence-base for a reactive countermeasure. Caffeine is perhaps the best option, although it is most effective when administered prior to sleep and is therefore not strictly reactive. Investigations into light and temperature have found promising results for improving subjective alertness; further research is needed to determine whether these countermeasures can also attenuate performance impairment. Future research in this area would benefit from study design features highlighted in this review. In the meantime, it is recommended that proactive sleep inertia countermeasures are used, and that safety-critical tasks are avoided immediately after waking.

  7. Underwater Acoustic Target Tracking: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ying; Fan, Liying

    2018-01-01

    Advances in acoustic technology and instrumentation now make it possible to explore marine resources. As a significant component of ocean exploration, underwater acoustic target tracking has aroused wide attention both in military and civil fields. Due to the complexity of the marine environment, numerous techniques have been proposed to obtain better tracking performance. In this paper, we survey over 100 papers ranging from innovative papers to the state-of-the-art in this field to present underwater tracking technologies. Not only the related knowledge of acoustic tracking instrument and tracking progress is clarified in detail, but also a novel taxonomy method is proposed. In this paper, algorithms for underwater acoustic target tracking are classified based on the methods used as: (1) instrument-assisted methods; (2) mode-based methods; (3) tracking optimization methods. These algorithms are compared and analyzed in the aspect of dimensions, numbers, and maneuvering of the tracking target, which is different from other survey papers. Meanwhile, challenges, countermeasures, and lessons learned are illustrated in this paper. PMID:29301318

  8. 311 disaster and mental health countermeasures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiharu Kim

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available On 11 March 2011, a devastating earthquake struck off the coast of Japan, causing blustering tsunami that swept over the northeast coast of the country. Many struggled to evacuate from their homes, schools, and workplaces as 8- to 9-m-tall tsunami rapidly reached the coast within half an hour after the earthquake (Emergency Disaster Response Headquarters. The officials reported a record-breaking magnitude of 9.0 Mw, which made this earthquake the most devastating earthquake in the Japan's history. It had not been long since the previous massive earthquake had hit Kobe in 1995, killing 6,434 people (Japan Meteorological Agency. The author presents the outline of the initial mental-health-care responses at various levels. It has focused on the comprehensive strategies and policies that were intended to cover all the affected areas but has not described the individual countermeasures and reactions in each prefecture and city. The psychological effects of the atomic plant accident in Fukushima has not been mentioned in detail, because the scope of the physiological effect of the accident has not been settled yet and the society is not necessarily ready to deal with the accident as a psychological matter rather than a sociopolitical one. A number of psychiatric professionals are deeply concerned with the psychological and prolonged impact of the accident, including those who are in the Fukushima prefecture and conducting heroic efforts to care for the residents.

  9. Radiation. Basics, influences, contamination situation, and countermeasures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baba, Mamoru; Nomura, Kiyoshi

    2012-01-01

    Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Accident resulted in the contamination of a large area, and by now the situation of contamination and exposure has gradually clarified, and a lot of information has been being accumulated. Toward reconstruction of Fukushima prefecture from the current circumstance that the residents still live under continuing fear, this article discusses how to clarify the current situation and deal with the contamination, which the residents are concerned about. First, radiation, basic properties of radiation, and so on are introduced. Regarding the influence on human bodies, the mechanism and the degree of influence by radiation, especially on children, women, and pregnant women are explained. Next, regarding the measurements of radiation and radioactivity, the properties of measurement methods and the detectors are explained. Regarding the current situation of contamination and exposure, mainly addressing the area around Koriyama city, various topics are covered including: (1) situation of contamination and radiation monitoring, (2) countermeasures for radioactivity contamination, (3) internal exposure dose, (4) exposed dose from water and food, as well as (5) safety standards. (S.K.)

  10. Small Animal Models for Evaluating Filovirus Countermeasures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banadyga, Logan; Wong, Gary; Qiu, Xiangguo

    2018-05-11

    The development of novel therapeutics and vaccines to treat or prevent disease caused by filoviruses, such as Ebola and Marburg viruses, depends on the availability of animal models that faithfully recapitulate clinical hallmarks of disease as it is observed in humans. In particular, small animal models (such as mice and guinea pigs) are historically and frequently used for the primary evaluation of antiviral countermeasures, prior to testing in nonhuman primates, which represent the gold-standard filovirus animal model. In the past several years, however, the filovirus field has witnessed the continued refinement of the mouse and guinea pig models of disease, as well as the introduction of the hamster and ferret models. We now have small animal models for most human-pathogenic filoviruses, many of which are susceptible to wild type virus and demonstrate key features of disease, including robust virus replication, coagulopathy, and immune system dysfunction. Although none of these small animal model systems perfectly recapitulates Ebola virus disease or Marburg virus disease on its own, collectively they offer a nearly complete set of tools in which to carry out the preclinical development of novel antiviral drugs.

  11. Countermeasures to earthquakes in nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Kazuhide

    1979-01-01

    The contribution of atomic energy to mankind is unmeasured, but the danger of radioactivity is a special thing. Therefore in the design of nuclear power plants, the safety has been regarded as important, and in Japan where earthquakes occur frequently, the countermeasures to earthquakes have been incorporated in the examination of safety naturally. The radioactive substances handled in nuclear power stations and spent fuel reprocessing plants are briefly explained. The occurrence of earthquakes cannot be predicted effectively, and the disaster due to earthquakes is apt to be remarkably large. In nuclear plants, the prevention of damage in the facilities and the maintenance of the functions are required at the time of earthquakes. Regarding the location of nuclear plants, the history of earthquakes, the possible magnitude of earthquakes, the properties of ground and the position of nuclear plants should be examined. After the place of installation has been decided, the earthquake used for design is selected, evaluating live faults and determining the standard earthquakes. As the fundamentals of aseismatic design, the classification according to importance, the earthquakes for design corresponding to the classes of importance, the combination of loads and allowable stress are explained. (Kako, I.)

  12. Acoustic Territoriality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreutzfeldt, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    Under the heading of "Gang i København" a number of initiatives was presented by the Lord Mayer and the Technical and Environmental Mayer of Copenhagen in May 2006. The aim of the initiative, which roughly translates to Lively Copenhagen, was both to make Copenhagen a livelier city in terms of city...... this article outline a few approaches to a theory of acoustic territoriality....

  13. Acoustic lenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kittmer, C.A.

    1983-03-01

    Acoustic lenses focus ultrasound to produce pencil-like beams with reduced near fields. When fitted to conventional (flat-faced) transducers, such lenses greatly improve the ability to detect and size defects. This paper describes a program developed to design acoustic lenses for use in immersion or contact inspection, using normal or angle beam mode with flat or curved targets. Lens surfaces are circular in geometry to facilitate machining. For normal beam inspection of flat plate, spherical or cylindrical lenses are used. For angle beam or curved surface inspections, a compound lens is required to correct for the extra induced aberration. Such a lens is aspherical with one radius of curvature in the plane of incidence, and a different radius of curvature in the plane perpendicular to the incident plane. The resultant beam profile (i.e., location of the acoustic focus, beam diameter, 6 dB working range) depends on the degree of focusing and the transducer used. The operating frequency and bandwidth can be affected by the instrumentation used. Theoretical and measured beam profiles are in good agreement. Various applications, from zone focusing used for defect sizing in thick plate, to line focusing for pipe weld inspection, are discussed

  14. Evaluation of the effectiveness of countermeasures in contaminated forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fesenko, S.; Voigt, G.; Spiridonov, S.; Gontarenko, I.

    2004-01-01

    In many regions subjected to the contamination forest products play an important role in radiation impact on the population. The contribution of mushrooms and berries to the internal doses varies depending on the time after the accident up to 40-45%. To protect people against additional exposure associated with forest contamination an appropriate system of countermeasures should be applied. The decision making framework to optimise implementation of forest countermeasures in the long term after the ChNPP accident is described. The approach is based on the analysis of the main exposure pathways related to contaminated forest and application of different criteria (reduction of individual dose to population and members of critical groups, cost for countermeasures implementation; cost of averted dose of 1 man-Sv; secondary ecological effect and psycho-social impact) for the selection of optimal countermeasures strategies. Because of diversity of these criteria for selection of optimal countermeasures a decision support technology based on a multi-attributive analysis is applied. Results of the application of the approach proposed for the study area (Novozybkov district, Bryansk region, Russian Federation) are presented. Applicability of twelve forest countermeasure options is evaluated and their effectiveness in terms of cost and dose reduction is estimated for the current period. It has been found that limitation on mushrooms or berries collections to the species with low accumulation of radionuclides and mushrooms processing before consumption (for the population) and combined application of Prussian Blue with limitation of tree harvesting to the area with low doses to decrease exposure of the critical groups members are most justified for the long term after the accident in the most contaminated regions of Russia. The results emphasize the effectiveness of the application of a flexible technique to provide the optimization of forest countermeasures taking into

  15. Processing of foodstuffs as countermeasures following a nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coulon, R.; Despres, A.; Diaz, A.; Soulatges, D.

    1989-01-01

    The processing of foodstuffs is one of the countermeasures which may be taken following a nuclear accident in order to reduce the contamination of the foodstuffs concerned. A consideration of the transfer of radioactivity during the processing or the preparation of food makes it possible to estimate the effectiveness of the countermeasure concerned, which is one essential criterion for its selection; the other is the cost of its application. In short, consideration must be given at the same time to both of these factors if a rational choice is to be made between the various potential options on an industrial scale. In addition to the countermeasures involving processing or culinary preparation of the foodstuffs concerned, they may also be destroyed, stored, used as feedingstuffs or decontaminated, and the crops may be buried, the feedingstuffs of animals changed, farmland frozen, etc. An expert system using the GOLDWORKS software should help to select the most appropriate countermeasure on the basis of its cost and effectiveness. Such a system would evaluate: - the effectiveness of each of the countermeasures likely to be selected (to be expressed in terms of dose); - the social cost of the dose avoided by their application; - the cost of the countermeasure itself. The last is estimated as thoroughly as possible by taking into account, inter alia, food processing, compensation to the producers, the costs of transport and storage or of destruction. This is followed by a proposed classification of the countermeasures according to their cost effectiveness. 17 radionuclides and 4 foodstuffs (milk, meat, green vegetables and cereals) are considered. Depending on the date of the accident concerned, the input data for themodel are produced from the concentrations measured in the foodstuffs or in the soil. In the latter case, dynamic transfer coefficients make it possible to evaluate the contamination of future harvests [fr

  16. Integrated Locomotor Function Tests for Countermeasure Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomberg, J. J.; Mulavara, A. P.; Peters, B. T.; Cohen, H. S.; Landsness, E. C.; Black, F. O.

    2005-01-01

    Following spaceflight crewmembers experience locomotor dysfunction due to inflight adaptive alterations in sensorimotor function. Countermeasures designed to mitigate these postflight gait alterations need to be assessed with a new generation of tests that evaluate the interaction of various sensorimotor sub-systems central to locomotor control. The goal of the present study was to develop new functional tests of locomotor control that could be used to test the efficacy of countermeasures. These tests were designed to simultaneously examine the function of multiple sensorimotor systems underlying the control of locomotion and be operationally relevant to the astronaut population. Traditionally, gaze stabilization has been studied almost exclusively in seated subjects performing target acquisition tasks requiring only the involvement of coordinated eye-head movements. However, activities like walking involve full-body movement and require coordination between lower limbs and the eye-head-trunk complex to achieve stabilized gaze during locomotion. Therefore the first goal of this study was to determine how the multiple, interdependent, full-body sensorimotor gaze stabilization subsystems are functionally coordinated during locomotion. In an earlier study we investigated how alteration in gaze tasking changes full-body locomotor control strategies. Subjects walked on a treadmill and either focused on a central point target or read numeral characters. We measured: temporal parameters of gait, full body sagittal plane segmental kinematics of the head, trunk, thigh, shank and foot, accelerations along the vertical axis at the head and the shank, and the vertical forces acting on the support surface. In comparison to the point target fixation condition, the results of the number reading task showed that compensatory head pitch movements increased, peak head acceleration was reduced and knee flexion at heel-strike was increased. In a more recent study we investigated the

  17. Fire protection countermeasures for containment ventilation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvares, N.J.; Beason, D.G.; Bergman, W.; Ford, H.W.; Lipska, A.E.

    1980-01-01

    The goal of this project is to find countermeasures to protect HEPA filters in exit ventilation ducts from the heat and smoke generated by fire. Several methods for partially mitigating the smoke exposure to the HEPA filters were identified through testing and analysis. These independently involve controlling the fuel, controlling the fire, and intercepting the smoke aerosol prior to its sorption on the HEPA filter. Exit duct treatment of aerosols is not unusual in industrial applications and involves the use of scrubbers, prefilters, and inertial impaction, depending on the size, distribution, and concentration of the subject aerosol. However, when these unmodified techniques were applied to smoke aerosols from fires on materials, common to experimental laboratories of LLNL, it was found they offered minimal protection to the HEPA filters. Ultimately, a continuous, movable, high-efficiency prefilter using modified commercial equipment was designed. This technique is capable of protecting HEPA filters over the total duration of the test fires. The reason for success involved the modificaton of the prefiltration media. Commercially available filter media has a particle sorption efficiency that is inversely proportional to media strength. To achieve properties of both efficiency and strength, we laminated rolling filter media with the desired properties. It is not true that the use of rolling prefilters solely to protect HEPA filters from fire-generated smoke aerosols is cost effective in every type of containment system, especially if standard fire-protection systems are available in the space. But in areas of high fire risk, where the potential fuel load is large and ignition sources are plentiful, the complication of a rolling prefilter in exit ventilation ducts to protect HEPA filters from smoke aerosols is definitely justified

  18. Fire protection countermeasures for containment ventilation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvares, N.; Beason, D.; Bergman, V.; Creighton, J.; Ford, H.; Lipska, A.

    1980-01-01

    The goal of this project is to find countermeasures to protect High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters, in exit ventilation ducts, from the heat and smoke generated by fire. Initially, methods were developed to cool fire-heated air by fine water spray upstream of the filters. It was recognized that smoke aerosol exposure to HEPA filters could also cause disruption of the containment system. Through testing and analysis, several methods to partially mitigate the smoke exposure to the HEPA filters were identified. A continuous, movable, high-efficiency prefilter using modified commercial equipment was designed. The technique is capable of protecting HEPA filters over the total time duration of the test fires. The reason for success involved the modification of the prefiltration media. Commercially available filter media has particle sorption efficiency that is inversely proportional to media strength. To achieve properties of both efficiency and strength, rolling filter media were laminated with the desired properties. The approach was Edisonian, but truncation in short order to a combination of prefilters was effective. The application of this technique was qualified, since it is of use only to protect HEPA filters from fire-generated smoke aerosols. It is not believed that this technique is cost effective in the total spectrum of containment systems, especially if standard fire protection systems are available in the space. But in areas of high-fire risk, where the potential fuel load is large and ignition sources are plentiful, the complication of a rolling prefilter in exit ventilation ducts to protect HEPA filters from smoke aerosols is definitely justified

  19. Acoustic Neuroma Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... EVENTS DONATE NEWS Home Learn Back Learn about acoustic neuroma AN Facts What is acoustic neuroma? Diagnosing ... Brain Freeze ? READ MORE Read More What is acoustic neuroma? Identifying an AN Learn More Get Info ...

  20. Initial basis for agronomic countermeasure selection following a nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonetto, Juan P.; Kunst, Juan J.; Bruno, Hector; Jordan, Osvaldo; Hernandez, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    During the recovery stage, following a nuclear accident, application of agricultural countermeasures will be relevant to the minimization of the radiation induced detriment due to ingestion of locally produced contaminated foodstuff, as long as the magnitude of the averted dose is sufficient to justify their implementation. Nuclear emergency planning in Argentina currently holds food ban as the accepted countermeasure, at least until other measures are taken. Though it may ensure no residual collective dose, food ban may also imply very high costs, compared to other alternatives, specially due to the need of disposing off perishable food such as milk. Therefore, an exhaustive evaluation of all the alternatives, considering both quantitative and qualitative factors is still needed to identify optimal countermeasure strategies, bearing in mind also that decisions made during the early phase of an emergency will affect the fate of the measures to be taken later. As a first step in this direction, a basic quantitative decision-aiding technique, the cost-benefit analysis, is carried out for comparison of countermeasures related to Cesium contaminated cow-milk which are considered feasible for implementation in Argentina. Countermeasures total costs are estimated from various local sources, while their effectiveness are adopted from international bibliography. At this stage, a simple theoretical example considering milk contamination in the surroundings of the Embalse Nuclear Power Plant is used for a generic analysis, since actual collective doses and costs can only be calculated for a specific modelled scenario. (author)

  1. Initial Basis for Agronomic Countermeasure Selection Following a Nuclear Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonetto, J.P.; Kunst, J.J.; Bruno, H.A.; Jordan, O.D.; Hernandez, D.G.

    2011-01-01

    During the recovery stage, following a nuclear accident, application of agricultural countermeasures will be relevant to the minimization of the radiation induced detriment due to ingestion of locally produced contaminated foodstuff, as long as the magnitude of the averted dose is sufficient to justify their implementation. Nuclear emergency planning in Argentina currently holds food ban as the accepted countermeasure, at least until other measures are taken. Though it may ensure no residual collective dose, food ban may also imply very high costs, compared to other alternatives, specially due to the need of disposing off perishable food such as milk. Therefore, an exhaustive evaluation of all the alternatives, considering both quantitative and qualitative factors is still needed to identify optimal countermeasure strategies, bearing in mind also that decisions made during the early phase of an emergency will affect the fate of the measures to be taken later. As a first step in this direction, a basic quantitative decis sion-aiding technique, the cost-benefit analysis, is carried out for comparison of countermeasures related to Cesium contaminated cow-milk which are considered feasible for implementation in Argentina. Countermeasures total costs are estimated from various local sources, while their effectiveness are adopted from international bibliography. At this stage, a simple theoretical example considering milk contamination in the surroundings of the Embalse Nuclear Power Plant is used for a generic analysis, since actual collective doses and costs can only be calculated for a specific modelled scenario. (authors)

  2. Aerobic exercise deconditioning and countermeasures during bed rest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Stuart M C; Moore, Alan D; Everett, Meghan E; Stenger, Michael B; Platts, Steven H

    2010-01-01

    Bed rest is a well-accepted model for spaceflight in which the physiologic adaptations, particularly in the cardiovascular system, are studied and potential countermeasures can be tested. Bed rest without countermeasures results in reduced aerobic capacity and altered submaximal exercise responses. Aerobic endurance and factors which may impact prolonged exercise, however, have not been well studied. The initial loss of aerobic capacity is rapid, occurring in parallel with the loss of plasma volume. Thereafter, the reduction in maximal aerobic capacity proceeds more slowly and is influenced by central and peripheral adaptation. Exercise capacity can be maintained during bed rest and may be improved during recovery with appropriate countermeasures. Plasma volume restoration, resistive exercise, orthostatic stress, aerobic exercise, and aerobic exercise plus orthostatic stress all have been tested with varying levels of success. However, the optimal combination of elements-exercise modality, intensity, duration, muscle groups exercised and frequency of aerobic exercise, orthostatic stress, and supplementary resistive or anaerobic exercise training-has not been systematically evaluated. Currently, frequent (at least 3 days per week) bouts of intense exercise (interval-style and near maximal) with orthostatic stress appears to be the most efficacious method to protect aerobic capacity during bed rest. Further refinement of protocols and countermeasure hardware may be necessary to insure the success of countermeasures in the unique environment of space.

  3. Disaster countermeasures around nuclear facilities in self-governing bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunji, Yoshikiyo

    1982-01-01

    In Tokai Village, Ibaraki Prefecture, a nuclear disaster countermeasure training practice was carried out on November 5, 1981, assuming the occurrence of an abnormal state in Tokai No. 2 Nuclear Power Station of JAPC. In the morning, the prefectural and village disaster countermeasure headquarters were set up, and first environmental monitoring was conducted, and various countermeasures were determined. In the afternoon, second environmental monitoring with newly movilized personnel and instruments, and also traffic control and the evacuation of people were carried out. Sixty-eight organizations, 1530 persons, two helicopters, one patrol boat, 153 vehicles, etc. participated in the training practice. The following matters are described: purpose, scenario, the items of practice, results, future problems. (Mori, K.)

  4. Stakeholder involvement for countermeasures in the food chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carle, B.

    2005-01-01

    In the aftermath of a large scale radioactive contamination, the authorities will have to decide on protective measures for reducing the contamination of the food chain. The overall aim is to reduce the dose of the population to an acceptable level while still guaranteeing sufficient foodstuffs and feeding stuffs on the market and also to limit the social, environmental and economic impact of the countermeasures implemented. Many countermeasures have been developed over the years, but their large scale feasibility and especially their acceptability have hardly been studied. Within the context of a European research project called Farming (2000-2004). SCK-CEN has organised stakeholder meetings, leading to guidance to the authorities for improvements in the emergency organisation. To improve emergency countermeasure decisions related to the food chain, especially as regards feasibility and acceptability, taking into account stakeholder opinions. The stakeholders include scientists and representatives from both governmental and non-governmental organisations

  5. Panel acoustic contribution analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Sean F; Natarajan, Logesh Kumar

    2013-02-01

    Formulations are derived to analyze the relative panel acoustic contributions of a vibrating structure. The essence of this analysis is to correlate the acoustic power flow from each panel to the radiated acoustic pressure at any field point. The acoustic power is obtained by integrating the normal component of the surface acoustic intensity, which is the product of the surface acoustic pressure and normal surface velocity reconstructed by using the Helmholtz equation least squares based nearfield acoustical holography, over each panel. The significance of this methodology is that it enables one to analyze and rank relative acoustic contributions of individual panels of a complex vibrating structure to acoustic radiation anywhere in the field based on a single set of the acoustic pressures measured in the near field. Moreover, this approach is valid for both interior and exterior regions. Examples of using this method to analyze and rank the relative acoustic contributions of a scaled vehicle cabin are demonstrated.

  6. Radiation countermeasures from Himalayan herbs - an update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madhu Bala

    2012-01-01

    A successful radioprotector is the one, which essentially renders protection from the multi-organ dis-function syndrome (MODS) caused by the total body exposure to ionizing radiation. Our rationale is that and instead of a single molecule, a group of molecules/compounds working synergistically can combat the MODS more effectively. Plant extracts offer natural combinations of a plethora of compounds, which act through different mechanisms and are, therefore, the ideal choice. Plants of Himalayan regions have survived under extreme climatic conditions through millions of years and are expected to harbor a battery of anti-stress adaptive molecules offering survival benefits. Our group is actively engaged in developing composite herbal radioprotective preparations from Himalayan Plants. This group is working to develop radiation countermeasures by tapping the essential complex phytochemicals from the plants inhabiting extreme climatic zones of Himalayas. In our laboratory, systematic studies were undertaken to investigate some of these plants located at high altitude regions of Himalayas viz. Hippophae rhamnoides, Rhodiola imbricata and Podophylium hexandruin. The most effective preparation from each of these plants individually, could provide more than 80% survival benefit to the irradiated (10 Gy) mice population against zero per cent survival in non-drug treated irradiated (10 Gy) mice population. It was observed that whole extracts of plant provided much better protection than the partial extracts/fractions. It was also observed that some of the partial extracts/fractions although, provided much higher survival benefits, yet were found to be unsuitable for drug development due to much higher mutagenic and/or recombinogenic effects in comparison to the whole extracts, One of the preparations from leaves of Hippophae rhamnoides (drug) showed more than 90% survival benefits in the irradiated mice population. Only one time intra-peritoneal administration of the drug

  7. Bridge scour and stream instability countermeasures : experience, selection, and design guidance : third edition. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    This document identifies and provides design guidelines for bridge scour and stream instability countermeasures that have been implemented by various State departments of transportation (DOTs) in the United States. Countermeasure experience, selectio...

  8. Bridge scour and stream instability countermeasures : experience, selection, and design guidance : third edition. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    This document identifies and provides design guidelines for bridge scour and stream instability countermeasures that have been implemented by various State departments of transportation (DOTs) in the United States. Countermeasure experience, selectio...

  9. 76 FR 71982 - Advancing Regulatory Science for Highly Multiplexed Microbiology/Medical Countermeasure Devices...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-21

    ... Multiplexed Microbiology Devices: Their clinical application and public health/clinical needs; inclusion of...] Advancing Regulatory Science for Highly Multiplexed Microbiology/ Medical Countermeasure Devices; Public... Multiplexed Microbiology/ Medical Countermeasure Devices'' that published in the Federal Register of August 8...

  10. Physiological effects of weightlessness: countermeasure system development for a long-term Chinese manned spaceflight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Linjie; Li, Zhili; Tan, Cheng; Liu, Shujuan; Zhang, Jianfeng; He, Siyang; Zou, Peng; Liu, Weibo; Li, Yinghui

    2018-04-25

    The Chinese space station will be built around 2020. As a national space laboratory, it will offer unique opportunities for studying the physiological effects of weightlessness and the efficacy of the countermeasures against such effects. In this paper, we described the development of countermeasure systems in the Chinese space program. To emphasize the need of the Chinese space program to implement its own program for developing countermeasures, we reviewed the literature on the negative physiological effects of weightlessness, the challenges of completing missions, the development of countermeasure devices, the establishment of countermeasure programs, and the efficacy of the countermeasure techniques in American and Russian manned spaceflights. In addition, a brief overview was provided on the Chinese research and development on countermeasures to discuss the current status and goals of the development of countermeasures against physiological problems associated with weightlessness.

  11. 77 FR 38631 - Request for Comments on Ethical Issues Associated with the Development of Medical Countermeasures...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Request for Comments on Ethical Issues Associated with the... ethical issues associated with the development of medical countermeasures for children, including ethical... issues associated with the development of medical countermeasures for children, including ethical...

  12. Acoustic transducer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drumheller, Douglas S.

    2000-01-01

    An active acoustic transducer tool for use down-hole applications. The tool includes a single cylindrical mandrel including a shoulder defining the boundary of a narrowed portion over which is placed a sandwich-style piezoelectric tranducer assembly. The piezoelectric transducer assembly is prestressed by being placed in a thermal interference fit between the shoulder of the mandrel and the base of an anvil which is likewise positioned over the narrower portion of the mandrel. In the preferred embodiment, assembly of the tool is accomplished using a hydraulic jack to stretch the mandrel prior to emplacement of the cylindrical sandwich-style piezoelectric transducer assembly and anvil. After those elements are positioned and secured, the stretched mandrel is allowed to return substantially to its original (pre-stretch) dimensions with the result that the piezoelectric transducer elements are compressed between the anvil and the shoulder of the mandrel.

  13. Acoustic cryocooler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swift, G.W.; Martin, R.A.; Radebaugh, R.

    1990-01-01

    This patent describes an acoustic cryocooler with no moving parts is formed from a thermoacoustic driver (TAD) driving a pulse tube refrigerator (PTR) through a standing wave tube. Thermoacoustic elements in the TAD are spaced apart a distance effect to accommodate the increased thermal penetration length arising from the relatively low TAD operating frequency in the range of 15--60 Hz. At these low operating frequencies, a long tube is required to support the standing wave. The tube may be coiled to reduce the overall length of the cryocooler. One or two PTR's are located on the standing wave tube adjacent antinodes in the standing wave to be driven by the standing wave pressure oscillations. It is predicted that a heat input of 1000 W at 1000 K will maintain a cooling load of 5 W at 80 K

  14. 75 FR 63093 - Oil Pollution Prevention; Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure (SPCC) Rule-Compliance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-14

    ... Oil Pollution Prevention; Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure (SPCC) Rule--Compliance Date... certain facilities must prepare or amend their Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure (SPCC) Plans... facilities must prepare or amend their Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure (SPCC) Plans (or ``Plan...

  15. Use of acoustic vortices in acoustic levitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cutanda Henriquez, Vicente; Santillan, Arturo Orozco; Juhl, Peter Møller

    2009-01-01

    Acoustic fields are known to exert forces on the surfaces of objects. These forces are noticeable if the sound pressure is sufficiently high. Two phenomena where acoustic forces are relevant are: i) acoustic levitation, where strong standing waves can hold small objects at certain positions......, counterbalancing their weight, and ii) acoustic vortices, spinning sound fields that can impinge angular momentum and cause rotation of objects. In this contribution, both force-creating sound fields are studied by means of numerical simulations. The Boundary Element Method is employed to this end. The simulation...... of acoustical vortices uses an efficient numerical implementation based on the superposition of two orthogonal sound fields with a delay of 90° between them. It is shown that acoustic levitation and the use of acoustic vortices can be combined to manipulate objects in an efficient and controlled manner without...

  16. Interior acoustic cloak

    OpenAIRE

    Wael Akl; A. Baz

    2014-01-01

    Acoustic cloaks have traditionally been intended to externally surround critical objects to render these objects acoustically invisible. However, in this paper, the emphasis is placed on investigating the application of the acoustic cloaks to the interior walls of acoustic cavities in an attempt to minimize the noise levels inside these cavities. In this manner, the acoustic cloaks can serve as a viable and efficient alternative to the conventional passive noise attenuation treatments which a...

  17. A short history of tsunami research and countermeasures in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuto, Nobuo; Fujima, Koji

    2009-01-01

    The tsunami science and engineering began in Japan, the country the most frequently hit by local and distant tsunamis. The gate to the tsunami science was opened in 1896 by a giant local tsunami of the highest run-up height of 38 m that claimed 22,000 lives. The crucial key was a tide record to conclude that this tsunami was generated by a "tsunami earthquake". In 1933, the same area was hit again by another giant tsunami. A total system of tsunami disaster mitigation including 10 "hard" and "soft" countermeasures was proposed. Relocation of dwelling houses to high ground was the major countermeasures. The tsunami forecasting began in 1941. In 1960, the Chilean Tsunami damaged the whole Japanese Pacific coast. The height of this tsunami was 5-6 m at most. The countermeasures were the construction of structures including the tsunami breakwater which was the first one in the world. Since the late 1970s, tsunami numerical simulation was developed in Japan and refined to become the UNESCO standard scheme that was transformed to 22 different countries. In 1983, photos and videos of a tsunami in the Japan Sea revealed many faces of tsunami such as soliton fission and edge bores. The 1993 tsunami devastated a town protected by seawalls 4.5 m high. This experience introduced again the idea of comprehensive countermeasures, consisted of defense structure, tsunami-resistant town development and evacuation based on warning.

  18. Noise countermeasures for accelerator facilities as seen from earth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasumoto, Masaru [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Research Center for Nuclear Science and Technology

    1996-12-01

    As seen from the viewpoint of noise countermeasures, the earth system for various experimental facilities is generally improper, for example independent earth method. It is considered that only by changing this to the earth system which is suitable to noise countermeasures, the antinoise property can be largely heightened. Also it is important to make earth system into that, to which the countermeasure technology suitable to the features of facilities is applied. The features of large accelerators and their building structures related to noise circulation are explained. As to the basic technology of the earth system that heightens antinoise property, induction shielding, the resistance-dependent and inductance-dependent zones in its frequency characteristics, the lowering of impedance, the shielding characteristics of various cables, the method of realizing low impedance, the method of absorbing same phase noise, the characteristics of superhigh permeability materials, and the restraint of interference noise voltage by reducing common impedance and restraining circulating noise current are discussed. As the concrete countermeasures, the earth system in accelerator buildings and beam lines are shown. (K.I.)

  19. A Study of Gaps in Defensive Countermeasures for Web Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-14

    MySQL , and PHP (LAMP) system. A more recent work in this domain, Passe [4] automates most of this process by extracting data and control flow... course , require access to the source code of the web server and are, therefore, not binary compatible (C.2). 22 Moreover such countermeasures also do

  20. Behaviour of radionuclides in meadows including countermeasures application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prister, B.S.; Ivanov, Yu.A.; Perepelyatnikov, G.P.; Il'yn, M.I.; Belli, M.; Sanzharova, N.I.; Fesenko, S.V.; Alexakhin, R.M.; Bunzl, K.; Petriaev, E.P.; Sokolik, G.A.

    1996-01-01

    Main regularities of the behaviour of ChNPP release radionuclides in components of meadow ecosystems are considered. Developed mathematical model of radionuclide migration in components of meadow ecosystems is discussed. Radioecological classification of meadow ecosystems is proposed. Effectiveness of countermeasures application in meadow ecosystems is estimated

  1. Toolset for evaluating infrared countermeasures and signature reduction for ships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schleijpen, H.M.A.

    2010-01-01

    The protection of ships against infrared guided missiles is a concern for modern naval forces. The vulnerability of ships can be reduced by applying countermeasures such as infrared decoys and infrared signature reduction. This paper presents a set of simulation tools which can be used for assessing

  2. Effect of countermeasures on radionuclide uptake by green plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncharova, N.

    1999-01-01

    In the present paper results will be discussed in the field of countermeasures effectiveness on the radiocaesium and radiostrontium transfer to plants in relation to soil characteristics at the different sites investigated, as well as their influence on the crop yield. Refs. 4 (author)

  3. Analysis of the Reasons and Countermeasures for Academic Corruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xia; Bin, Feng

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a perspective of the various types of academic corruption that is currently running rife in society, a theoretical analysis of the roots of academic corruption, and proposals for a number for countermeasures to put a stop to academic corruption. (Contains 3 notes.) [This article was translated by Ted Wang.

  4. The Situation and Countermeasures of Accounting Teaching in China

    OpenAIRE

    Jinyu Yang

    2015-01-01

    The economic development proposes new issues for accounting teaching, which not only relies on educators¡¯ own perfection as well as the joint efforts of the accounting practitioners and social parties. The author briefly described the new circumstances the accounting education faces in recent years, summarized the characteristics of accounting teaching and proposed countermeasures to these accounting teaching issues.

  5. Livermore Site Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasures Plan, May 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffin, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Mertesdorf, E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-05-01

    This Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure (SPCC) Plan describes the measures that are taken at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory’s (LLNL) Livermore Site in Livermore, California, to prevent, control, and handle potential spills from aboveground containers that can contain 55 gallons or more of oil.

  6. Noise countermeasures for accelerator facilities as seen from earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasumoto, Masaru

    1996-01-01

    As seen from the viewpoint of noise countermeasures, the earth system for various experimental facilities is generally improper, for example independent earth method. It is considered that only by changing this to the earth system which is suitable to noise countermeasures, the antinoise property can be largely heightened. Also it is important to make earth system into that, to which the countermeasure technology suitable to the features of facilities is applied. The features of large accelerators and their building structures related to noise circulation are explained. As to the basic technology of the earth system that heightens antinoise property, induction shielding, the resistance-dependent and inductance-dependent zones in its frequency characteristics, the lowering of impedance, the shielding characteristics of various cables, the method of realizing low impedance, the method of absorbing same phase noise, the characteristics of superhigh permeability materials, and the restraint of interference noise voltage by reducing common impedance and restraining circulating noise current are discussed. As the concrete countermeasures, the earth system in accelerator buildings and beam lines are shown. (K.I.)

  7. Springer Handbook of Acoustics

    CERN Document Server

    Rossing, Thomas D

    2007-01-01

    Acoustics, the science of sound, has developed into a broad interdisciplinary field encompassing the academic disciplines of physics, engineering, psychology, speech, audiology, music, architecture, physiology, neuroscience, and others. The Springer Handbook of Acoustics is an unparalleled modern handbook reflecting this richly interdisciplinary nature edited by one of the acknowledged masters in the field, Thomas Rossing. Researchers and students benefit from the comprehensive contents spanning: animal acoustics including infrasound and ultrasound, environmental noise control, music and human speech and singing, physiological and psychological acoustics, architectural acoustics, physical and engineering acoustics, signal processing, medical acoustics, and ocean acoustics. This handbook reviews the most important areas of acoustics, with emphasis on current research. The authors of the various chapters are all experts in their fields. Each chapter is richly illustrated with figures and tables. The latest rese...

  8. Responsive acoustic surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Brady; Tamke, Martin; Nielsen, Stig Anton

    2011-01-01

    Acoustic performance is defined by the parameter of reverberation time; however, this does not capture the acoustic experience in some types of open plan spaces. As many working and learning activities now take place in open plan spaces, it is important to be able to understand and design...... for the acoustic conditions of these spaces. This paper describes an experimental research project that studied the design processes necessary to design for sound. A responsive acoustic surface was designed, fabricated and tested. This acoustic surface was designed to create specific sonic effects. The design...... was simulated using custom integrated acoustic software and also using Odeon acoustic analysis software. The research demonstrates a method for designing space- and sound-defining surfaces, defines the concept of acoustic subspace, and suggests some new parameters for defining acoustic subspaces....

  9. Bridge scour countermeasure assessments at select bridges in the United States, 2014–16

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudunake, Taylor J.; Huizinga, Richard J.; Fosness, Ryan L.

    2017-05-23

    In 2009, the Federal Highway Administration published Hydraulic Engineering Circular No. 23 (HEC-23) to provide specific design and implementation guidelines for bridge scour and stream instability countermeasures. However, the effectiveness of countermeasures implemented over the past decade following those guidelines has not been evaluated. Therefore, in 2013, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Federal Highway Administration, began a study to assess the current condition of bridge-scour countermeasures at selected sites to evaluate their effectiveness. Bridge-scour countermeasures were assessed during 2014-2016. Site assessments included reviewing countermeasure design plans, summarizing the peak and daily streamflow history, and assessments at each site. Each site survey included a photo log summary, field form, and topographic and bathymetric geospatial data and metadata. This report documents the study area and site-selection criteria, explains the survey methods used to evaluate the condition of countermeasures, and presents the complete documentation for each countermeasure assessment.

  10. Methodological approaches to analysis of agricultural countermeasures on radioactive contaminated areas: Estimation of effectiveness and comparison of different alternatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yatsalo, B.I.; Hedemann Jensen, P.; Alexakhin, R.M.

    1997-01-01

    Methodological aspects of countermeasure analysis in the long-term period after a nuclear accident are discussed for agriculture countermeasures for illustrative purposes. The estimates of effectiveness fbr specific countermeasures as well as methods of justified action levels assessments...... and comparison of different alternatives (countermeasures) based on the use of several criteria are considered....

  11. Acoustics an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Kuttruff, Heinrich

    2006-01-01

    This definitive textbook provides students with a comprehensive introduction to acoustics. Beginning with the basic physical ideas, Acoustics balances the fundamentals with engineering aspects, applications and electroacoustics, also covering music, speech and the properties of human hearing. The concepts of acoustics are exposed and applied in:room acousticssound insulation in buildingsnoise controlunderwater sound and ultrasoundScientifically thorough, but with mathematics kept to a minimum, Acoustics is the perfect introduction to acoustics for students at any level of mechanical, electrical or civil engineering courses and an accessible resource for architects, musicians or sound engineers requiring a technical understanding of acoustics and their applications.

  12. Acoustic source for generating an acoustic beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Cung Khac; Sinha, Dipen N.; Pantea, Cristian

    2016-05-31

    An acoustic source for generating an acoustic beam includes a housing; a plurality of spaced apart piezo-electric layers disposed within the housing; and a non-linear medium filling between the plurality of layers. Each of the plurality of piezoelectric layers is configured to generate an acoustic wave. The non-linear medium and the plurality of piezo-electric material layers have a matching impedance so as to enhance a transmission of the acoustic wave generated by each of plurality of layers through the remaining plurality of layers.

  13. Interior acoustic cloak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wael Akl

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Acoustic cloaks have traditionally been intended to externally surround critical objects to render these objects acoustically invisible. However, in this paper, the emphasis is placed on investigating the application of the acoustic cloaks to the interior walls of acoustic cavities in an attempt to minimize the noise levels inside these cavities. In this manner, the acoustic cloaks can serve as a viable and efficient alternative to the conventional passive noise attenuation treatments which are invariably heavy and bulky. The transformation acoustics relationships that govern the operation of this class of interior acoustic cloaks are presented. Physical insights are given to relate these relationships to the reasons behind the effectiveness of the proposed interior acoustic cloaks. Finite element models are presented to demonstrate the characteristics of interior acoustic cloaks used in treating the interior walls of circular and square cavities both in the time and frequency domains. The obtained results emphasize the effectiveness of the proposed interior cloaks in eliminating the reflections of the acoustic waves from the walls of the treated cavities and thereby rendering these cavities acoustically quiet. It is important to note here that the proposed interior acoustic cloaks can find applications in acoustic cavities such as aircraft cabins and auditoriums as well as many other critical applications.

  14. Acoustic Neuroma Educational Video

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Facts What is acoustic neuroma? Diagnosing Symptoms Side Effects Keywords Questions to ask Choosing a healthcare provider ... Surgery What is acoustic neuroma Diagnosing Symptoms Side effects Question To Ask Treatment Options Back Overview Observation ...

  15. Acoustic Neuroma Educational Video

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Facts What is acoustic neuroma? Diagnosing Symptoms Side Effects Keywords World Language Videos Questions to ask Choosing ... Surgery What is acoustic neuroma Diagnosing Symptoms Side effects Question To Ask Treatment Options Back Overview Observation ...

  16. Atlantic Herring Acoustic Surveys

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC Advanced Sampling Technologies Research Group conducts annual fisheries acoustic surveys using state-of-the-art acoustic, midwater trawling, and underwater...

  17. Tethys Acoustic Metadata Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Tethys database houses the metadata associated with the acoustic data collection efforts by the Passive Acoustic Group. These metadata include dates, locations...

  18. Psychosomatic problems and countermeasures in Japanese children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanaka Hidetaka

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In Japan there are a number of children and adolescents with emotion-related disorders including psychosomatic diseases (orthostatic dysregulation, anorexia nervosa, recurrent pains, behavior problems and school absenteeism. According to our previous report, the Japanese children had significantly higher score of physical symptoms and psychiatric complaints than did the Swedish children, and these were more strongly influenced by school-related stress than by home-related stress. To enforce countermeasures for psychosomatic problems in children, the Japanese Society of Psychosomatic Pediatrics (established in 1982 have started several new projects including multi-center psychosomatic researches and society-based activities. In this article, we present an outline of our study on mental health in Japanese children in comparison with Swedish children. Countermeasures including clinical guidelines for child psychosomatic diseases are reviewed and discussed.

  19. The human body and weightlessness operational effects, problems and countermeasures

    CERN Document Server

    Thornton, William

    2017-01-01

    This book focuses on all of the major problems associated with the absence of body weight in space, by analyzing effects, adaption, and re-adaptation upon returning to Earth, using sound scientific principles embedded in a historical context. Serious problems for space travelers range from Space Motion Sickness (SMS) to recently discovered ocular effects that may permanently impair vision. Fluid loss and shifts, spinal changes, and bone and muscle loss are also all results of weightlessness. Starting with a brief definition and history of weightlessness, the authors then address in detail each problem as well as the countermeasures aimed at alleviating them. In some cases, alternative hypotheses regarding what can and should be attempted are also presented. As plans for long-term missions to the Moon and Mars develop, it will be essential to find countermeasures to weightlessness that are effective for missions that could span years.

  20. Research on the Countermeasures against Electromagnetic Interface in Power Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Won Bin; Kang, Young Suk; Choi, Hyo Yul; Cha, Ok Hyun [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Gi Chul; Le, Jae Bok; Ha, Tae Hyun; Kim, Suk Joo; Na, Dae Yul; Kim, Yong Ho; Jeong, Kyo Beom [Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute, Changwon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-31

    As the results of widespread use of microelectronics in electric power system, electric environment of power operation facilities in substation has become more weak and severe for surge voltages. Electromagnetic coupled overvoltage caused by HV bus switching operating lead to the malfunction or destruction of low voltage control circuit which mostly used signal. To scope with this transients overvoltage, it is necessary to be investigated transient source and propagation path and analysed its effects to low voltage circuit such as relay. This study is to analysis source of conducted EMP(electromagnetic pulse) on the low voltage control circuit and to acquits transient voltage waveforms, and to provide countermeasures against transient voltage, and EMP filtering method according to each EMP each type. With this, gradual improvement of EMI countermeasure will be achieved. (author). 49 refs., figs.

  1. Behaviour of radionuclides in meadows and efficiency of countermeasures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanzharova, N.I.; Fesenko, S.V.; Kotik, V.A.; Spiridonov, S.I.

    1996-01-01

    The behaviour of radionuclides and the efficiency of countermeasures were dependent on meadow type. The migration of 137 Cs proceeds much more slowly in the soil profile on dry meadows than on peatlands and flooded land. The half-life of 137 Cs in the root zone changes from 10 to 25 years. The highest transfer factors in grasslands are obtained for peaty lands and flooded meadows, and minimal ones for dry meadows. The first half-life of 137 Cs transfer to plants changes from 2.0 to 2.2 years and the second (slower) half-life changes from 4.0 to 12 years for different meadow types. The countermeasure efficiency in meadows varied from 1.2 to 10.0. (Author)

  2. Improvement of practical Countermeasures: Preventive medication. Post-Chernobyl action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerber, G.

    1991-01-01

    The Chernobyl accident, which occurred on 26 April 1986, presented major challenges to the European Community with respect to the practical and regulatory aspects of radiation protection, public information, trade, particularly in food, and international politics. The Chernobyl accident was also a major challenge to the international scientific community which had to evaluate rapidly the radiological consequences of the accident and advise on the introduction of any countermeasures. Prior to the accident at Chernobyl, countermeasures to reduce the consequences of radioactive contamination had been conceived largely in the context of relatively small accidental releases and for application over relatively small areas. Less consideration had been given to the practical implications of applying such measures in case of a large source term and a spread over a very large area

  3. Research on the Countermeasures against Electromagnetic Interface in Power Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Won Bin; Kang, Young Suk; Choi, Hyo Yul; Cha, Ok Hyun [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Gi Chul; Le, Jae Bok; Ha, Tae Hyun; Kim, Suk Joo; Na, Dae Yul; Kim, Yong Ho; Jeong, Kyo Beom [Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute, Changwon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    As the results of widespread use of microelectronics in electric power system, electric environment of power operation facilities in substation has become more weak and severe for surge voltages. Electromagnetic coupled overvoltage caused by HV bus switching operating lead to the malfunction or destruction of low voltage control circuit which mostly used signal. To scope with this transients overvoltage, it is necessary to be investigated transient source and propagation path and analysed its effects to low voltage circuit such as relay. This study is to analysis source of conducted EMP(electromagnetic pulse) on the low voltage control circuit and to acquits transient voltage waveforms, and to provide countermeasures against transient voltage, and EMP filtering method according to each EMP each type. With this, gradual improvement of EMI countermeasure will be achieved. (author). 49 refs., figs.

  4. Radioactivity and countermeasures like clean feeding of sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    It's been 25 years since the nuclear accident at Chernobyl, but there is still radioactivity remaining in the Norwegian nature. The radioactive cesium-137 is taken up by plants and fungi and transferred to animals on rangelands. In the grazing season of 2010 had 20 000 sheep on Countermeasures like clean feeding to reduce radioactivity levels in the meat before slaughter. Oppland had most sheep on Countermeasures like clean feeding with almost 12 000 animals. Total was paid 2.2 million in compensation to livestock owners in 2010. In the period 1986-2010 is about 2.2 million sheep have been suspended with a charge of approximately NOK 227 million. (AG)

  5. Countermeasure technology for environmental pollution due to radioactive substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Hideki

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces the progress of challenges by Maeda Corporation toward the countermeasures for the environmental pollution caused by radioactive substances that covers the whole areas of Naraha Town in Fukushima Prefecture. It also introduces in full detail the environmental pollution countermeasure technologies against radioactive substances challenged by the said company. These technologies are as follows; (1) porous block kneaded with zeolite, (2) Aqua-filter System (technique to automatically and continuously purify construction work water to the level of tap water), (3) super vacuum press (dehydration unit to realize the dehydration, volume reduction and solidification, and insolubilization at the same time), (4) mist blender (technique to manufacture bentonite-mixed soil), (5) wet-type classification washing technique for contaminated soil, (6) soil sorting technique (continuous discrimination technique to sort soil depending on radiation level), and (7) speedy construction technique for dam body using CSG (cemented sand and gravel). (A.O.)

  6. Regional Logistics Information Resources Integration Patterns and Countermeasures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hui; Shangguan, Xu-ming

    Effective integration of regional logistics information resources can provide collaborative services in information flow, business flow and logistics for regional logistics enterprises, which also can reduce operating costs and improve market responsiveness. First, this paper analyzes the realistic significance on the integration of regional logistics information. Second, this paper brings forward three feasible patterns on the integration of regional logistics information resources, These three models have their own strengths and the scope of application and implementation, which model is selected will depend on the specific business and the regional distribution of enterprises. Last, this paper discusses the related countermeasures on the integration of regional logistics information resources, because the integration of regional logistics information is a systems engineering, when the integration is advancing, the countermeasures should pay close attention to the current needs and long-term development of regional enterprises.

  7. Risk and Business Goal Based Security Requirement and Countermeasure Prioritization

    OpenAIRE

    Herrmann, Andrea; Morali, A.; Etalle, Sandro; Wieringa, Roelf J.; Niedrite, Laila; Strazdina, Renate; Wangler, Benkt

    2012-01-01

    Companies are under pressure to be in control of their assets but at the same time they must operate as efficiently as possible. This means that they aim to implement “good-enough security‿ but need to be able to justify their security investment plans. Currently companies achieve this by means of checklist-based security assessments, but these methods are a way to achieve consensus without being able to provide justifications of countermeasures in terms of business goals. But such justificat...

  8. Questions and Countermeasures on Developing General Aviation Industry in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Yongming

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available China’s general aviation industry has exposed many problems with the low-altitude airspace expanding openness. General aviation is an important part of national economy and defence forces, the development of general aviation has a practical and far-reaching significance. By analysing the China’s current general aviation industry, combined with the importance of the development of general aviation, propose some countermeasures and suggestions for the development of China’s general aviation industry.

  9. Password Cracking and Countermeasures in Computer Security: A Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Aaron L. -F.; Wong, Derek F.; Chao, Lidia S.

    2014-01-01

    With the rapid development of internet technologies, social networks, and other related areas, user authentication becomes more and more important to protect the data of the users. Password authentication is one of the widely used methods to achieve authentication for legal users and defense against intruders. There have been many password cracking methods developed during the past years, and people have been designing the countermeasures against password cracking all the time. However, we fi...

  10. Research on Risks and Forecasting Countermeasures of Hainan Banana Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yan-qun; Zeng, Xiao-hong; Fang, Jia

    2011-01-01

    Based on the overviews of the current conditions of Hainan banana industry, the research makes an analysis of the risks faced by Hainan banana industry. They are respectively marketing risks, natural risks, information risks and production risks. In order to promote a sustainable and rapid development of Hainan banana industry, Countermeasures are proposed in the research. The first is to strengthen the leading organization of forecasting mechanisms on banana industry. The second is to establ...

  11. Fluxes of radiocesium to milk and appropriate countermeasures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, J.; Hove, K.; Prister, B.; Sobolev, A; Ratnikov, A; Travnikova, I.; Averin, V.; Tronevitch, V.; Strand, P.; Bogdanov, G.

    1996-01-01

    Radiocesium contamination of milk persists in some areas of Belarus, Ukraine and Russian Federation which received fallout from the Chernobyl accident. In general, effective countermeasures have been used which ensure that radiocesium activity concentrations in milk from collective farms does not exceed intervention limits. However, farming practices differ greatly between the large collective farms, and the small, family operated private farms which are responsible for a major part of the food consumed in many rural areas. As a result of comparative low rate of use of fertilizers and utilization of poor quality land 137 Cs activity concentrations in milk from family-owned cows continues to exceed intervention limits in some areas. It is therefore important to be able reliably to quantify the rates of transfer of 137 Cs to private milk, so that all areas where persistent problems occur are identified, and appropriate countermeasure strategies applied. Where there is considerable variation, within a few km 2 , in both soil type and deposition, the 137 Cs content of private milk is highly variable. However, combining information about soil type, transfer rates for each major soil type, deposition, pasture size and grazing strategies can be a useful method of quantifying transfer of radiocesium to milk. Geographical information systems provide a promising new tool to integrate these factors. Effective Countermeasures are available to reduce radiocesium transfer to private milk. Private farmers are more sceptical of such methods than the scientists, administrators and agriculturalists in their society, particularly those methods involving the use of chemical additives given to their animals. Increased information efforts on the local level appears to be a prerequisite for a successful implementation of necessary Countermeasures

  12. Tutorial on architectural acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Neil; Talaske, Rick; Bistafa, Sylvio

    2002-11-01

    This tutorial is intended to provide an overview of current knowledge and practice in architectural acoustics. Topics covered will include basic concepts and history, acoustics of small rooms (small rooms for speech such as classrooms and meeting rooms, music studios, small critical listening spaces such as home theatres) and the acoustics of large rooms (larger assembly halls, auditoria, and performance halls).

  13. Information Overload and Viral Marketing: Countermeasures and Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jiesi; Sun, Aaron; Zeng, Daniel

    Studying information diffusion through social networks has become an active research topic with important implications in viral marketing applications. One of the fundamental algorithmic problems related to viral marketing is the Influence Maximization (IM) problem: given an social network, which set of nodes should be considered by the viral marketer as the initial targets, in order to maximize the influence of the advertising message. In this work, we study the IM problem in an information-overloaded online social network. Information overload occurs when individuals receive more information than they can process, which can cause negative impacts on the overall marketing effectiveness. Many practical countermeasures have been proposed for alleviating the load of information on recipients. However, how these approaches can benefit viral marketers is not well understood. In our work, we have adapted the classic Information Cascade Model to incorporate information overload and study its countermeasures. Our results suggest that effective control of information overload has the potential to improve marketing effectiveness, but the targeting strategy should be re-designed in response to these countermeasures.

  14. Public acceptance and assessment of countermeasures after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komarov, E.I.; Archangelskaya, G.V.; Zykova, I.A.

    1997-01-01

    General Background. Previous studies confirmed that the main reason of the psychological stress after Chernobyl was a worry about radiation influence on personal health and health of children. This ''Chernobyl stress'' is typical ''information'' or emotional stress resulting from mass media information on radioactive contamination and exposure but not from direct personal visual or auditory and other impression for 5 million population. The population was not able to define the radiation danger by direct sensual perception without measuring equipment but was obliged to change their life-style and diet as a remedial action and to follow the radiation protection requirements and advices. Therefore the anxiety was related not only to information about the accident but also to implemental countermeasures, which changed the everyday life. The countermeasures became the first real sign of the accident. Methods. In 1988-1994 studies based on population interview of about 5 thousand residents and questionnaires were carried out on contaminated (15 - 40 Ci/km2) territories, adjacent and distant areas. The following information was used: population knowledge of protective measures; sources of information about radiation and level of trust; assessment of the effectiveness and reasons of non-satisfaction of the protection measures; compliance and involvement of population in countermeasures including effects of life-style changes and behavior; public opinion on priority for financial expenditure for mitigation of accident consequences

  15. Modeling ground vehicle acoustic signatures for analysis and synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haschke, G.; Stanfield, R.

    1995-01-01

    Security and weapon systems use acoustic sensor signals to classify and identify moving ground vehicles. Developing robust signal processing algorithms for this is expensive, particularly in presence of acoustic clutter or countermeasures. This paper proposes a parametric ground vehicle acoustic signature model to aid the system designer in understanding which signature features are important, developing corresponding feature extraction algorithms and generating low-cost, high-fidelity synthetic signatures for testing. The authors have proposed computer-generated acoustic signatures of armored, tracked ground vehicles to deceive acoustic-sensored smart munitions. They have developed quantitative measures of how accurately a synthetic acoustic signature matches those produced by actual vehicles. This paper describes parameters of the model used to generate these synthetic signatures and suggests methods for extracting these parameters from signatures of valid vehicle encounters. The model incorporates wide-bandwidth and narrow- bandwidth components that are modulated in a pseudo-random fashion to mimic the time dynamics of valid vehicle signatures. Narrow- bandwidth feature extraction techniques estimate frequency, amplitude and phase information contained in a single set of narrow frequency- band harmonics. Wide-bandwidth feature extraction techniques estimate parameters of a correlated-noise-floor model. Finally, the authors propose a method of modeling the time dynamics of the harmonic amplitudes as a means adding necessary time-varying features to the narrow-bandwidth signal components. The authors present results of applying this modeling technique to acoustic signatures recorded during encounters with one armored, tracked vehicle. Similar modeling techniques can be applied to security systems

  16. United States Department of Health and Human Services Biodosimetry and radiological/nuclear medical countermeasure programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homer, Mary J.; Raulli, Robert; Esker, John; Moyer, Brian; Wathen, Lynne; DiCarlo-Cohen, Andrea L.; Maidment, Bert W.; Rios, Carmen; Macchiarini, Francesca; Hrdina, Chad; Prasanna, Pataje G.

    2016-01-01

    The United States Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) is fully committed to the development of medical countermeasures to address national security threats from chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear agents. Through the Public Health Emergency Medical Countermeasures Enterprise, HHS has launched and managed a multi-agency, comprehensive effort to develop and operationalize medical countermeasures. Within HHS, development of medical countermeasures includes the National Institutes of Health (NIH), (led by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases), the Office of the Assistant Secretary of Preparedness and Response/Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority (BARDA); with the Division of Medical Countermeasure Strategy and Requirements, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the Food and Drug Administration as primary partners in this endeavor. This paper describes various programs and coordinating efforts of BARDA and NIH for the development of medical countermeasures for radiological and nuclear threats. (authors)

  17. Parametric Room Acoustic Workflows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parigi, Dario; Svidt, Kjeld; Molin, Erik

    2017-01-01

    The paper investigates and assesses different room acoustics software and the opportunities they offer to engage in parametric acoustics workflow and to influence architectural designs. The first step consists in the testing and benchmarking of different tools on the basis of accuracy, speed...... and interoperability with Grasshopper 3d. The focus will be placed to the benchmarking of three different acoustic analysis tools based on raytracing. To compare the accuracy and speed of the acoustic evaluation across different tools, a homogeneous set of acoustic parameters is chosen. The room acoustics parameters...... included in the set are reverberation time (EDT, RT30), clarity (C50), loudness (G), and definition (D50). Scenarios are discussed for determining at different design stages the most suitable acoustic tool. Those scenarios are characterized, by the use of less accurate but fast evaluation tools to be used...

  18. The impact of countermeasure propagation on the prevalence of computer viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li-Chiou; Carley, Kathleen M

    2004-04-01

    Countermeasures such as software patches or warnings can be effective in helping organizations avert virus infection problems. However, current strategies for disseminating such countermeasures have limited their effectiveness. We propose a new approach, called the Countermeasure Competing (CMC) strategy, and use computer simulation to formally compare its relative effectiveness with three antivirus strategies currently under consideration. CMC is based on the idea that computer viruses and countermeasures spread through two separate but interlinked complex networks-the virus-spreading network and the countermeasure-propagation network, in which a countermeasure acts as a competing species against the computer virus. Our results show that CMC is more effective than other strategies based on the empirical virus data. The proposed CMC reduces the size of virus infection significantly when the countermeasure-propagation network has properties that favor countermeasures over viruses, or when the countermeasure-propagation rate is higher than the virus-spreading rate. In addition, our work reveals that CMC can be flexibly adapted to different uncertainties in the real world, enabling it to be tuned to a greater variety of situations than other strategies.

  19. Synthesis of a Controller for Swarming Robots Performing Underwater Mine Countermeasures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tan, Yong

    2004-01-01

    This Trident Scholar project involved the synthesis of a swarm controller that is suitable for controlling movements of a group of autonomous robots performing underwater mine countermeasures (UMCM...

  20. International Short-Term Countermeasures Survey - 2012 Update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingham, Grant

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear emergency planning, preparedness, response, and management, in general, are essential elements of any country's nuclear power programme. Part of nuclear emergency planning and preparedness is the implementation of national emergency plans, including detailed procedures for the implementation of short-term countermeasures, before during, and after the release of radioactive substances. The timely and appropriate implementation of short-term countermeasures, such as sheltering, evacuation, and iodine prophylaxis, can, in case of a nuclear emergency with a release of radioactive material, considerably reduce the doses to the public in the vicinity of the nuclear installation. Although international guidelines exist, national procedures and practices may differ due to different national habits, cultural specificity, and societal needs. Different national procedures and practices may, however, in the case of a radioactive release affecting two neighbouring countries, lead to different decisions in the implementation of countermeasures. In order to better understand existing approaches and to facilitate the comparison of national practices, the NEA decided to launch a questionnaire on current practices regarding short-term countermeasures, updating a similar survey performed in 1994 and 2003, as countries' practices have since evolved and been modified. In 2012, it was decided to reevaluate the country approaches in light of the early lessons learnt from the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident. The information collected may be used to understand the basis for decisions in various countries, and, if deemed appropriate, as a basis for international harmonisation. This may also assist member countries to explain to the public affected by an emergency why the decisions in neighbouring countries may vary. This report summarises the information given by member countries and includes nine sections to explore the different aspects, covering the following topics: member

  1. Acoustic Metamaterials in Aeronautics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Palma

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Metamaterials, man-made composites that are scaled smaller than the wavelength, have demonstrated a huge potential for application in acoustics, allowing the production of sub-wavelength acoustic absorbers, acoustic invisibility, perfect acoustic mirrors and acoustic lenses for hyper focusing, and acoustic illusions and enabling new degrees of freedom in the control of the acoustic field. The zero, or even negative, refractive sound index of metamaterials offers possibilities for the control of acoustic patterns and sound at sub-wavelength scales. Despite the tremendous growth in research on acoustic metamaterials during the last decade, the potential of metamaterial-based technologies in aeronautics has still not been fully explored, and its utilization is still in its infancy. Thus, the principal concepts mentioned above could very well provide a means to develop devices that allow the mitigation of the impact of civil aviation noise on the community. This paper gives a review of the most relevant works on acoustic metamaterials, analyzing them for their potential applicability in aeronautics, and, in this process, identifying possible implementation areas and interesting metabehaviors. It also identifies some technical challenges and possible future directions for research with the goal of unveiling the potential of metamaterials technology in aeronautics.

  2. Transcranial direct current stimulation versus caffeine as a fatigue countermeasure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntire, Lindsey K; McKinley, R Andy; Nelson, Justin M; Goodyear, Chuck

    To assess the efficacy of using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to remediate the deleterious effects of fatigue induced by sleep deprivation and compare these results to caffeine, a commonly used fatigue countermeasure. Based on previous research, tDCS of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) can modulate attention and arousal. The authors hypothesize that tDCS can be an effective fatigue countermeasure. Five groups of ten participants each received either active tDCS and placebo gum at 1800, caffeine gum with sham tDCS at 1800, active tDCS and placebo gum at 0400, caffeine gum with sham tDCS at 0400, or sham tDCS with placebo gum at 1800 and 0400 during 36-h of sustained wakefulness. Participants completed a vigilance task, working memory task, psychomotor vigilance task (PVT), and a procedural game beginning at 1800 h and continued every two hours throughout the night until 1900 the next day. tDCS dosed at 1800 provided 6 h of improved attentional accuracy and reaction times compared to the control group. Caffeine did not produce an effect. Both tDCS groups also had an improved effect on mood. Participants receiving tDCS reported feeling more vigor, less fatigue, and less bored throughout the night compared to the control and caffeine groups. We believe tDCS could be a powerful fatigue countermeasure. The effects appear to be comparable or possibly more beneficial than caffeine because they are longer lasting and mood remains more positive. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Springer handbook of acoustics

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    Acoustics, the science of sound, has developed into a broad interdisciplinary field encompassing the academic disciplines of physics, engineering, psychology, speech, audiology, music, architecture, physiology, neuroscience, and electronics. The Springer Handbook of Acoustics is also in his 2nd edition an unparalleled modern handbook reflecting this richly interdisciplinary nature edited by one of the acknowledged masters in the field, Thomas Rossing. Researchers and students benefit from the comprehensive contents. This new edition of the Handbook features over 11 revised and expanded chapters, new illustrations, and 2 new chapters covering microphone arrays  and acoustic emission.  Updated chapters contain the latest research and applications in, e.g. sound propagation in the atmosphere, nonlinear acoustics in fluids, building and concert hall acoustics, signal processing, psychoacoustics, computer music, animal bioacousics, sound intensity, modal acoustics as well as new chapters on microphone arrays an...

  4. Vibro-acoustics

    CERN Document Server

    Nilsson, Anders

    2015-01-01

    This three-volume book gives a thorough and comprehensive presentation of vibration and acoustic theories. Different from traditional textbooks which typically deal with some aspects of either acoustic or vibration problems, it is unique of this book to combine those two correlated subjects together. Moreover, it provides fundamental analysis and mathematical descriptions for several crucial phenomena of Vibro-Acoustics which are quite useful in noise reduction, including how structures are excited, energy flows from an excitation point to a sound radiating surface, and finally how a structure radiates noise to a surrounding fluid. Many measurement results included in the text make the reading interesting and informative. Problems/questions are listed at the end of each chapter and the solutions are provided. This will help the readers to understand the topics of Vibro-Acoustics more deeply. The book should be of interest to anyone interested in sound and vibration, vehicle acoustics, ship acoustics and inter...

  5. Countermeasures for Developing New Energy Bus Standards in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xin

    2018-01-01

    With the rapid development of new energy vehicle technology, new energy bus has become more and more popular in China, and the relevant standards and policy are urgently needed to guide the market. According to the assessment of the development situation on new energy vehicle technology and new energy bus, combing with traffic policy guidance and the development trend of new energy vehicles, this paper aims to put forward the countermeasures of the new energy bus standard in China, including standard system, key standards and relevant recommendations. Research result is expected to provide decision support for the wide application of new energy bus in China.

  6. Problems in Food Safety of Hunan Province and Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fanfan; OUYANG; Fangming; DENG

    2014-01-01

    In recent years,serious food safety accidents are of frequent occurrence. Although government has taken many practical and feasible measures to contain food safety accidents,new food safety accidents still emerge in large numbers. In this situation,food safety control is a long-term and arduous task to be performed jointly by many government departments. Finally,it presents corresponding countermeasures and recommendations on the basis of current situations of food safety in Hunan Province,problem causes,in combination with control measures related to food safety both at home and abroad.

  7. Chemical Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasures Plan: 100 Areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chien, Y.M.

    1989-06-01

    The purpose of this Chemical Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasures (SPCC) Plan is to identify the chemical spill control practices, procedures, and containment devices Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford) employs to prevent a reportable quantity (RQ) of a hazardous substance (as defined in 40 CFR Part 302) from being released to the environment. The chemical systems and chemical storage facilities in the 100 Areas are described. This document traces the ultimate fate of accidental chemical spills at the 100 Areas. Also included in the document destinations, spill containment devices, and systems surveillance frequencies. 2 tabs.

  8. Chemical Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasures Plan: 100 Areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chien, Y.M.

    1989-06-01

    The purpose of this Chemical Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasures (SPCC) Plan is to identify the chemical spill control practices, procedures, and containment devices Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford) employs to prevent a reportable quantity (RQ) of a hazardous substance (as defined in 40 CFR Part 302) from being released to the environment. The chemical systems and chemical storage facilities in the 100 Areas are described. This document traces the ultimate fate of accidental chemical spills at the 100 Areas. Also included in the document destinations, spill containment devices, and systems surveillance frequencies. 2 tabs

  9. Autogenic-feedback training: A countermeasure for orthostatic intolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowings, Patricia S.; Toscano, William B.; Kamiya, Joe; Miller, Neal E.; Pickering, Thomas G.

    1991-01-01

    NASA has identified cardiovascular deconditioning as a serious biomedical problem associated with long-duration exposure to microgravity in space. High priority has been given to the development of countermeasures for this disorder and the resulting orthostatic intolerance experienced by crewmembers upon their return to the 1g norm of Earth. The present study was designed to examine the feasibility of training human subjects to control their own cardiovascular responses to gravitational stimulation (i.e., a tilt table). Using an operant conditioning procedure, Autogenic-Feedback Training (AFT), we would determine if subjects could learn to increase their own blood pressure voluntarily.

  10. Handbook of Engineering Acoustics

    CERN Document Server

    Möser, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This book examines the physical background of engineering acoustics, focusing on empirically obtained engineering experience as well as on measurement techniques and engineering methods for prognostics. Its goal is not only to describe the state of art of engineering acoustics but also to give practical help to engineers in order to solve acoustic problems. It deals with the origin, the transmission and the methods of the abating different kinds of air-borne and structure-borne sounds caused by various mechanisms – from traffic to machinery and flow-induced sound. In addition the modern aspects of room and building acoustics, as well as psychoacoustics and active noise control, are covered.

  11. Localized Acoustic Surface Modes

    KAUST Repository

    Farhat, Mohamed

    2015-08-04

    We introduce the concept of localized acoustic surface modes (ASMs). We demonstrate that they are induced on a two-dimensional cylindrical rigid surface with subwavelength corrugations under excitation by an incident acoustic plane wave. Our results show that the corrugated rigid surface is acoustically equivalent to a cylindrical scatterer with uniform mass density that can be represented using a Drude-like model. This, indeed, suggests that plasmonic-like acoustic materials can be engineered with potential applications in various areas including sensing, imaging, and cloaking.

  12. Acoustic Technology Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This laboratory contains an electro-magnetic worldwide data collection and field measurement capability in the area of acoustic technology. Outfitted by NASA Langley...

  13. Shallow Water Acoustic Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Supports experimental research where high-frequency acoustic scattering and surface vibration measurements of fluid-loaded and non-fluid-loaded structures...

  14. Laboratory for Structural Acoustics

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Supports experimental research where acoustic radiation, scattering, and surface vibration measurements of fluid-loaded and non-fluid-loaded structures are...

  15. Acoustic Levitation With Less Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barmatz, M. B.; Jacobi, N.

    1983-01-01

    Certain chamber shapes require fewer than three acoustic drivers. Levitation at center of spherical chamber attained using only one acoustic driver. Exitation of lowest spherical mode produces asymmetric acoustic potential well.

  16. What Is an Acoustic Neuroma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CALENDAR DONATE NEWS Home Learn Back Learn about acoustic neuroma AN Facts What is acoustic neuroma? Diagnosing ... Italian Japanese Korean Portuguese Romanian Spanish What is Acoustic Neuroma? Each heading slides to reveal information. Important ...

  17. 75 FR 45572 - Oil Pollution Prevention; Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure (SPCC) Rule-Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-03

    ... Oil Pollution Prevention; Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure (SPCC) Rule--Proposed... Federal Regulations is proposed to be amended as follows: PART 112--OIL POLLUTION PREVENTION 1. The... certain facilities must prepare or amend their Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure (SPCC) Plans...

  18. Evaluation of Ebola Virus Countermeasures in Guinea Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzi, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Ebola virus (EBOV) pathology in humans remains incompletely understood; therefore, a number of rodent and nonhuman primate (NHP) models have been established to study the disease caused by this virus. While the macaque model most accurately recapitulates human disease, rodent models, which display only certain aspects of human disease but are more cost-effective, are widely used for initial screens during EBOV countermeasure development. In particular, mice and guinea pigs were among the first species used for the efficacy testing of EBOV vaccines and therapeutics. While mice have low predictive value, guinea pigs have proven to be a more reliable predictor for the evaluation of countermeasures in NHPs. In addition, guinea pigs are larger in size compared to mice, allowing for more frequent collection of blood samples at larger volumes. However, guinea pigs have the disadvantage that there is only a limited pool of immunological tools available to characterize host responses to vaccination, treatment and infection. In this chapter, the efficacy testing of an EBOV vaccine and a therapeutic in the guinea pig model are described.

  19. Development of an in-vehicle intersection collision countermeasure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierowicz, John A.

    1997-02-01

    Intersection collisions constitute approximately twenty-six percent of all accidents in the United States. Because of their complexity, and demands on the perceptual and decision making abilities of the driver, intersections present an increased risk of collisions between automobiles. This situation provides an opportunity to apply advanced sensor and processing capabilities to prevent these collisions. A program to determine the characteristics of intersection collisions and identify potential countermeasures will be described. This program, sponsored by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, utilized accident data to develop a taxonomy of intersection crashes. This taxonomy was used to develop a concept for an intersection collision avoidance countermeasure. The concept utilizes in-vehicle position, dynamic status, and millimeter wave radar system and an in-vehicle computer system to provide inputs to an intersection collision avoidance algorithm. Detection of potential violation of traffic control device, or proceeding into the intersection with inadequate gap will lead to the presentation of a warning to the driver. These warnings are presented to the driver primarily via a head-up display and haptic feedback. Roadside to vehicle communication provides information regarding phased traffic signal information. Active control of the vehicle's brake and steering systems are described. Progress in the development of the systems will be presented along with the schedule of future activities.

  20. Application of crime countermeasures for the protection of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bean, C.H.

    1975-01-01

    Federal regulations prepared by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and published in the Federal Register require licensees to take appropriate action to protect the health and safety of the public from unauthorized use of special nuclear material (SNM), which includes plutonium, uranium-233, and highly enriched uranium. Crime countermeasures for compliance with these regulations are an important part of the guidance that is provided by the NRC's Office of Standards Development. The use of crime countermeasures and protective devices is intended to prevent the unauthorized diversion of material and to aid in the detection of diversion should it be attempted. Plant and equipment designs should incorporate both electronic and physical security measures for protection of SNM. This applies to facilities and equipment for reprocessing, fabrication, and transportation of SNM. The protection systems include physical barriers, access controls, intrusion detection devices, surveillance devices, central alarm stations, communications, and response capability. Acceptable security measures and devices applicable to protected areas, material access areas, vital areas, vital equipment, and transportation vehicles have been presented in Regulatory Guides. (U.S.)

  1. Variation in stakeholder opinion on countermeasures across Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nisbet, A.F.; Mercer, J.A.; Rantavaara, A.; Hanninen, R.; Vandecasteele, C.; Hardeman, F.; Ioannides, K.G.; Tzialla, C.; Ollagnon, H.; Pupin, V.; Jullien, T.

    2005-01-01

    A compendium of agricultural countermeasures and rural waste disposal options has been compiled as part of the EC STRATEGY (Sustainable Restoration and Long-Term Management of Contaminated Rural, Urban and Industrial Ecosystems) project. The compendium was discussed by the FARMING (Food and Agriculture Restoration Management Involving Networked Groups) network of stakeholders during meetings of national panels in the UK, Finland, Belgium, Greece and France in 2002. Their preliminary feedback has been summarised in terms of whether an option is generally acceptable, unacceptable or only acceptable under specific circumstances. A considerable divergence of opinion between national panels was apparent for many of the options considered. This could be attributed to differences in geomorphology, climate, land management, infrastructure, consumer confidence, sociopolitical context and culture. Where consensus was reached between stakeholders it was generally for those countermeasures that provide public reassurance, sustain farming practices and minimise environmental impact. Furthermore, whilst there was general agreement that contaminated food should not enter the food chain, many of the options proposed for its subsequent management were not generally acceptable to stakeholders

  2. Countermeasures against methotrexate intolerance in juvenile idiopathic arthritis instituted by parents show no effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuern, Andrea; Tyrrell, Pascal N; Haas, Johannes-Peter; Hügle, Boris

    2017-06-01

    A high proportion of children with JIA will develop intolerance to MTX with anticipatory and associative gastrointestinal adverse effects. Parents and physicians frequently try to alleviate these symptoms with a variety of countermeasures. The objective of this study was to investigate the course of MTX intolerance within a 6 month period, and the effects of countermeasures on MTX intolerance severity. We performed a prospective study of 196 consecutive JIA patients treated with MTX. Intolerance was determined using the Methotrexate Intolerance Severity Score (MISS) questionnaire. MISS and countermeasures instituted by parents or physicians were determined at four time points, each 2 months apart. Countermeasures, classified into four types (antiemetic drugs, covert dosing, taste masking and complementary medicine), were analysed using non-parametric statistics and mixed linear modelling, adjusted by propensity scoring for use of countermeasures. Ninety patients (46%) showed MTX intolerance, with 58 (64%) using countermeasures at time of inclusion. Median MISS at inclusion was 11 (interquartile range = 8.0-14.25), and did not change significantly over time. No significant difference in MISS score was observed between patients receiving countermeasures and those who did not. For specific countermeasures, MISS did not change significantly after introduction. Sensitivity analysis adjusting for propensity score indicated no significant association of MISS severity on parents' decision to implement any countermeasures. MTX intolerance was present in many children with JIA and symptoms decreased little in the short term. Various modalities used as countermeasures against nausea by parents showed no discernible effect. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  3. Acoustic Neuroma Educational Video

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 30041 770-205-8211 info@ANAUSA.org The world’s #1 acoustic neuroma resource Click to learn more... ... is acoustic neuroma? Diagnosing Symptoms Side Effects Keywords World Language Videos Questions to ask Choosing a healthcare ...

  4. Acoustics Critical Readiness Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Kenny

    2010-01-01

    This presentation reviews the status of the acoustic equipment from the medical operations perspective. Included is information about the acoustic dosimeters, sound level meter, and headphones that are planned for use while on orbit. Finally there is information about on-orbit hearing assessments.

  5. Acoustic Signals and Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    The Handbook of Signal Processing in Acoustics will compile the techniques and applications of signal processing as they are used in the many varied areas of Acoustics. The Handbook will emphasize the interdisciplinary nature of signal processing in acoustics. Each Section of the Handbook...... will present topics on signal processing which are important in a specific area of acoustics. These will be of interest to specialists in these areas because they will be presented from their technical perspective, rather than a generic engineering approach to signal processing. Non-specialists, or specialists...... from different areas, will find the self-contained chapters accessible and will be interested in the similarities and differences between the approaches and techniques used in different areas of acoustics....

  6. Computational Ocean Acoustics

    CERN Document Server

    Jensen, Finn B; Porter, Michael B; Schmidt, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Since the mid-1970s, the computer has played an increasingly pivotal role in the field of ocean acoustics. Faster and less expensive than actual ocean experiments, and capable of accommodating the full complexity of the acoustic problem, numerical models are now standard research tools in ocean laboratories. The progress made in computational ocean acoustics over the last thirty years is summed up in this authoritative and innovatively illustrated new text. Written by some of the field's pioneers, all Fellows of the Acoustical Society of America, Computational Ocean Acoustics presents the latest numerical techniques for solving the wave equation in heterogeneous fluid–solid media. The authors discuss various computational schemes in detail, emphasizing the importance of theoretical foundations that lead directly to numerical implementations for real ocean environments. To further clarify the presentation, the fundamental propagation features of the techniques are illustrated in color. Computational Ocean A...

  7. Calibration of acoustic emission transducers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leschek, W.C.

    1976-01-01

    A method is described for calibrating an acoustic emission transducer to be used in a pre-set frequency range. The absolute reception sensitivity of a reference transducer is determined at frequencies selected within the frequency range. The reference transducer and the acoustic emission transducer are put into acoustic communication with the surface of a limited acoustic medium representing an equivalent acoustic load appreciably identical to that of the medium in which the use of the acoustic emission transducer is intended. A blank random acoustic noise is emitted in the acoustic medium in order to establish a diffuse and reverberating sound field, after which the output responses of the reference transducer and of the acoustic emission transducer are obtained with respect to the diffuse and reverberating field, for selected frequencies. The output response of the acoustic emission transducer is compared with that of the reference transducer for the selected frequencies, so as to determine the reception sensitivity of the acoustic emission transducer [fr

  8. Customizing Countermeasure Prescriptions using Predictive Measures of Sensorimotor Adaptability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomberg, J. J.; Peters, B. T.; Mulavara, A. P.; Miller, C. A.; Batson, C. D.; Wood, S. J.; Guined, J. R.; Cohen, H. S.; Buccello-Stout, R.; DeDios, Y. E.; hide

    2014-01-01

    Astronauts experience sensorimotor disturbances during the initial exposure to microgravity and during the readapation phase following a return to a gravitational environment. These alterations may lead to disruption in the ability to perform mission critical functional tasks during and after these gravitational transitions. Astronauts show significant inter-subject variation in adaptive capability following gravitational transitions. The ability to predict the manner and degree to which each individual astronaut will be affected would improve the effectiveness of a countermeasure comprised of a training program designed to enhance sensorimotor adaptability. Due to this inherent individual variability we need to develop predictive measures of sensorimotor adaptability that will allow us to predict, before actual space flight, which crewmember will experience challenges in adaptive capacity. Thus, obtaining this information will allow us to design and implement better sensorimotor adaptability training countermeasures that will be customized for each crewmember's unique adaptive capabilities. Therefore the goals of this project are to: 1) develop a set of predictive measures capable of identifying individual differences in sensorimotor adaptability, and 2) use this information to design sensorimotor adaptability training countermeasures that are customized for each crewmember's individual sensorimotor adaptive characteristics. To achieve these goals we are currently pursuing the following specific aims: Aim 1: Determine whether behavioral metrics of individual sensory bias predict sensorimotor adaptability. For this aim, subjects perform tests that delineate individual sensory biases in tests of visual, vestibular, and proprioceptive function. Aim 2: Determine if individual capability for strategic and plastic-adaptive responses predicts sensorimotor adaptability. For this aim, each subject's strategic and plastic-adaptive motor learning abilities are assessed using

  9. The research reactor radiation emergency countermeasure system in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hee Reyoung; Choi, Geun-Sik; Lee, Wanno; Chung, Kun Ho; Kang, Mun Ja; Lee, Chang-Woo

    2010-01-01

    A disaster prevention system was established for a radiation emergency from an operation of a research reactor with a thermal power of 30 MW th in Korea. A national radiation disaster countermeasure organization was set up to cope with the radiation emergency classified into three cases whose effective doses were more than 1 mSv/h inside the nuclear facility, inside the site boundary and outside the site boundary. Its role consists of the proclamation and consequent withdrawal of a disaster, a general assessment, an emergency medical service, a field control, radiation protection, resident protection implement, an accident analysis, a security plan, a radiation environmental investigation plan and probe, a radiation environmental effect assessment, and others. The emergency planning zone (EPZ) was settled to be within a radius of 800 m, the average distance between the site boundary and the center of a research reactor in operation, as a quick and effective early countermeasure from the result of the radiation environmental effect assessment. The environmental probing zone was chosen to extend to a radius of 2 km from a research reactor according to the moving path of the radioactive cloud so that a densely populated area could be considered and would be extended to 10 km according to the radiation level of the research reactor and atmospheric diffusion. Practically, the environmental probing is implemented at 22 points inside the site and eight points outside the site considering the geography, population and the wind direction. The gamma radiation dose and atmospheric radioactivity are analyzed during an effluence, and the radioactivity of a ground surface deposit and an environmental sample are analyzed after an effluence. The environmental laboratory covers the analysis of the gamma radioisotopes, tritium, strontium, uranium, gross alpha and beta. It is estimated that the habitability can be recovered when the radiation dose rate is less than 1 mSv/h inside the

  10. Parametric Room Acoustic workflows with real-time acoustic simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parigi, Dario

    2017-01-01

    The paper investigates and assesses the opportunities that real-time acoustic simulation offer to engage in parametric acoustics workflow and to influence architectural designs from early design stages......The paper investigates and assesses the opportunities that real-time acoustic simulation offer to engage in parametric acoustics workflow and to influence architectural designs from early design stages...

  11. Augmented Reality as a Countermeasure for Sleep Deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumeister, James; Dorrlan, Jillian; Banks, Siobhan; Chatburn, Alex; Smith, Ross T; Carskadon, Mary A; Lushington, Kurt; Thomas, Bruce H

    2016-04-01

    Sleep deprivation is known to have serious deleterious effects on executive functioning and job performance. Augmented reality has an ability to place pertinent information at the fore, guiding visual focus and reducing instructional complexity. This paper presents a study to explore how spatial augmented reality instructions impact procedural task performance on sleep deprived users. The user study was conducted to examine performance on a procedural task at six time points over the course of a night of total sleep deprivation. Tasks were provided either by spatial augmented reality-based projections or on an adjacent monitor. The results indicate that participant errors significantly increased with the monitor condition when sleep deprived. The augmented reality condition exhibited a positive influence with participant errors and completion time having no significant increase when sleep deprived. The results of our study show that spatial augmented reality is an effective sleep deprivation countermeasure under laboratory conditions.

  12. [Current status and sustainable development countermeasures of Anoectochilus roxburghii].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Lin; Shao, Qing-Song; Zhou, Ai-Cun; Wang, Hong-Zhen; Zhang, Ai-Lian; Xu, Jian-Wei; Huang, Yu-Qiu

    2016-02-01

    The current status of the domestic manufacturing and sales markets of Anoectochilus roxburghii were investigated and analyzed in the study. Some problems in the A. roxburghii industry were revealed and a variety of sustainable development countermeasures were also proposed. The main problems of A. roxburghii industry are the lack of protection for wild resources, the lag in the speed of variety breeding, the insufficient research on the quality systems, the low level of industry and product innovation capability, as well as the relatively low market cognition and brand competence. Therefore, strengthening the protection for breeding resources, establishing a dynamic monitoring system, promoting the variety breeding, constructing a propagation system for improved varieties, enhancing the quality of medicinal herbs, accelerating the adjustment of product structure, upgrading the industry technology, strengthening brand competence and expanding the market, will be the effective methods to realize the sustainable development of A. roxburghii industry. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  13. Combining Technical and Financial Impacts for Countermeasure Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Gonzalez-Granadillo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Research in information security has generally focused on providing a comprehensive interpretation of threats, vulnerabilities, and attacks, in particular to evaluate their danger and prioritize responses accordingly. Most of the current approaches propose advanced techniques to detect intrusions and complex attacks but few of these approaches propose well defined methodologies to react against a given attack. In this paper, we propose a novel and systematic method to select security countermeasures from a pool of candidates, by ranking them based on the technical and financial impact associated to each alternative. The method includes industrial evaluation and simulations of the impact associated to a given security measure which allows to compute the return on response investment for different candidates. A simple case study is proposed at the end of the paper to show the applicability of the model.

  14. On the Effectiveness of Security Countermeasures for Critical Infrastructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausken, Kjell; He, Fei

    2016-04-01

    A game-theoretic model is developed where an infrastructure of N targets is protected against terrorism threats. An original threat score is determined by the terrorist's threat against each target and the government's inherent protection level and original protection. The final threat score is impacted by the government's additional protection. We investigate and verify the effectiveness of countermeasures using empirical data and two methods. The first is to estimate the model's parameter values to minimize the sum of the squared differences between the government's additional resource investment predicted by the model and the empirical data. The second is to develop a multivariate regression model where the final threat score varies approximately linearly relative to the original threat score, sectors, and threat scenarios, and depends nonlinearly on the additional resource investment. The model and method are offered as tools, and as a way of thinking, to determine optimal resource investments across vulnerable targets subject to terrorism threats. © 2014 Society for Risk Analysis.

  15. Analysis and Countermeasures of PPP Project Implementation Difficulties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Yifeng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the beginning of 1995, the model of PPP project construction was introduced in China. It has been widely used in many fields such as energy, municipal, and so on. It has accumulated a lot of experience in improving the investment system structure and guiding the social capital into the infrastructure field. But the mode of PPP project construction in the implementing process in different environment often encounters a lot of problems. Based on a large amount of analysis on the existing literature, this paper resorts out the PPP project model combining the problems occurred in the implementation process of PPP project, and summarizes corresponding countermeasures aiming at the problems in order to provide help for PPP project implementation in the future.

  16. Planning countermeasures on pasture-milk pathway in nuclear emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eged, K.; Kanyar, B.; Kis, Z.

    1998-01-01

    The pasture → milk → human exposure pathway was modelled with respect to the countermeasures in a nuclear emergency situation. The measures included feed and milk substitution by non-contaminated material, and cost-benefit analysis and uncertainty analysis was performed. Comparison of the maximum benefit of the two kinds of intervention suggests that feed substitution is superior to milk substitution. The duration of the pasture substitution depends strongly on the initial concentration of iodine-131 in the pasture. For relatively low values of activity concentration, the optimum date of withdrawing the intervention increases linearly with the logarithm of the initial radionuclide concentration in the pasture, the maximum value, however, takes nearly 40 days. For milk or feed substitution, the effect of the excess cost of early intervention reduces the maximum value of the cost-benefit function. (P.A.)

  17. Classification,Hazards and Countermeasures of Agricultural Environmental Pollution Emergencies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoming; CHUAI; Haixia; ZHOU; Jianping; ZHAO; Shubo; CHENG; Jiang; YU

    2013-01-01

    Agricultural environmental pollution emergencies have become a hot research topic because of the high incidence and influence depth.This paper introduces classification and features of agricultural environmental pollution emergencies:by pollutant type,it falls into organic pollution emergencies and inorganic pollution emergencies;by the approach of entering agricultural environment,it falls into water resource agricultural environmental pollution emergencies and non-water resource agricultural environmental pollution emergencies.Hazards of agricultural environmental pollution emergencies are analyzed from 4 perspectives:personal security,indirect loss,ecological environment and social stability.In view of the hazards,countermeasures are given to deal with the pollution emergencies as(i)establishing a risk evaluation mechanism for agricultural environment;(ii)enhancing the capacity of handling agricultural environmental pollution emergencies;(iii)introducing new management concepts for environmental emergencies,and cultivating keen emergency management consciousness.

  18. Preventive maintenance-A countermeasure to plant aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hlubek, W.

    1985-01-01

    The aging of power plants is caused by manifold and different influences. For instance, mechanical and thermal stress, radiation exposure, denting or wastage can considerably affect the aging of plant components and thus cause premature failures of components. In this presentation, the term 'Plant Aging' in nuclear power plants is to be understood more comprehensively than wear on components and material fatigue. In addition, nuclear power plants are to be adjusted to the advancing state of the science and technology (state-of-the-art) in order to guarantee safe operation at all times. The preventive maintenance - as a countermeasure to plant aging - comprises the systematic checks and servicing of the plant systems in operation and follows aging by inspection and tests. Experience with Rheinisch-Westfaelisches Elektrizitaetswerk AG (RWE) preventive maintenance program at the Biblis NNP (1300 MW, PWR) is discussed. The concept of an 'Integrated Maintenance System' as a means to avoid 'Plant Aging' is presented

  19. Countermeasures Against Blinding Attack on Superconducting Nanowire Detectors for QKD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elezov M.S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the superconducting single-photon detectors (SSPDs are used in Quantum Key Distribution (QKD instead of single-photon avalanche photodiodes. Recently bright-light control of the SSPD has been demonstrated. This attack employed a “backdoor” in the detector biasing technique. We developed the autoreset system which returns the SSPD to superconducting state when it is latched. We investigate latched state of the SSPD and define limit conditions for effective blinding attack. Peculiarity of the blinding attack is a long nonsingle photon response of the SSPD. It is much longer than usual single photon response. Besides, we need follow up response duration of the SSPD. These countermeasures allow us to prevent blind attack on SSPDs for Quantum Key Distribution.

  20. Transmission acoustic microscopy investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maev, Roman; Kolosov, Oleg; Levin, Vadim; Lobkis, Oleg

    The nature of acoustic contrast, i.e. the connection of the amplitude and phase of the output signal of the acoustic microscope with the local values of the acoustic parameters of the sample (density, elasticity, viscosity) is a central problem of acoustic microscopy. A considerable number of studies have been devoted to the formation of the output signal of the reflection scanning acoustic microscope. For the transmission acoustic microscope (TAM) this problem has remained almost unstudied. Experimental investigation of the confocal system of the TAM was carried out on an independently manufactured laboratory mockup of the TAM with the working frequency of the 420 MHz. Acoustic lenses with the radius of curvature of about 500 microns and aperture angle of 45 deg were polished out in the end faces of two cylindrical sound conductors made from Al2O3 single crystals with an axis parallel to the axis C of the crystal (the length of the sound conductor is 20 mm; diameter, 6 mm). At the end faces of the sound conductor, opposite to the lenses, CdS transducers with a diameter of 2 mm were disposed. The electric channel of the TAM provided a possibility for registering the amplitude of the microscope output signal in the case of the dynamic range of the 50 dB.

  1. The accidental (acoustical) tourist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Kirk, Wayne

    2002-11-01

    The acoustical phenomenon observed at an ancient temple in the Great Ball Court at Chichen Itza was described as ''little short of amazing--an ancient whispering gallery'' by Silvanus G. Morley, leader of the Carnegie Institute's archaeological team that excavated and restored these structures in the 1920s. Since then, many others have experienced the extraordinary acoustics at Chichen Itza and other Maya sites. Despite these reports, archaeologists and acousticians have until recently shown little interest in understanding these phenomena. After experiencing Chichen Itza's remarkable acoustics as a tourist in 1994, the author commenced collecting and disseminating information about acoustical phenomena there and at other Mayan sites, hoping to stimulate interest among archaeologists and acousticians. Were these designs accidental or intentional? If intentional, how was the knowledge obtained? How were acoustical features used? This paper highlights the author's collection of anecdotal reports of mysterious Mayan acoustics (http://http://www.ianlawton.com/pa1.htm), recommended reading for scientists and engineers who wish to pursue this fascinating study. Also recounted are some of the reactions of archaeologists-ranging from curious, helpful, and insightful to humorous and appalling--to outsiders' efforts to bring serious scientific attention to the new field of acoustical archaeology.

  2. Translational illusion of acoustic sources by transformation acoustics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Fei; Li, Shichao; He, Sailing

    2017-09-01

    An acoustic illusion of creating a translated acoustic source is designed by utilizing transformation acoustics. An acoustic source shifter (ASS) composed of layered acoustic metamaterials is designed to achieve such an illusion. A practical example where the ASS is made with naturally available materials is also given. Numerical simulations verify the performance of the proposed device. The designed ASS may have some applications in, e.g., anti-sonar detection.

  3. A methodology for optimisation of countermeasures for animal products after a nuclear accident and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Won Tae; Cho, Gyuseong; Han, Moon Hee

    1999-01-01

    A methodology for the optimisation of the countermeasures associated with the contamination of animal products was designed based on cost-benefit analysis. Results are discussed for the hypothetical deposition of radionuclides on 15 August, when pastures are fully developed in Korean agricultural conditions. A dynamic food chain model, DYNACON, was used to evaluate the effectiveness of the countermeasures for reducing the ingestion dose. The countermeasures considered were: (1) a ban on food consumption; and (2) the substitution of clean fodder. These are effective in reducing the ingestion dose as well as simple and easy to carry out in the first year after deposition. The net benefit of the countermeasures was quantitatively estimated in terms of avertable doses and monetary costs. The benefit depends on a variety of factors, such as radionuclide concentrations on the ground, starting time and duration of the countermeasures. It is obvious that a fast reaction after deposition is important in maximising the cost effectiveness of the countermeasures. In most cases, the substitution of clean fodder is more cost effective than a ban on food consumption. The methodology used in this study may serve as a basis for rapid decision-making on the introduction of countermeasures relating to the contamination of animal products after a nuclear accident

  4. Plan of disaster prevention in district of Shizuoka Prefecture countermeasures to nuclear power. 1984 ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    Based on the basic act for disaster countermeasures, this plan aimes at establishing the necessary system concerning the countermeasures for preventing the disaster due to the release of a large quantity of radioactive substances from the Hamaoka Nuclear Power Station, Chubu Electric Power Co., Inc., determining the measures to be taken for disaster prevention, and striving for the safety of inhabitants by executing the deskworks and services of the disaster prevention related to nuclear power synthetically and purposefully. The general matters concerning the disaster prevention in the district of Shizuoka Prefecture are determined in the ''Plan of disaster prevention in the district of Shizuoka Prefecture (General countermeasures)'', but in view of the peculiarity of nuclear power disaster, the peculiar matters are to be determined in this plan. The general rules on the works of respective disaster prevention organizations, the countermeasures for preventing nuclear power disaster, the emergency countermeasures to nuclear power disaster, the countermeasures to Tokai earthquakes and the countermeasures for restoration after nuclear power disaster are stipulated. (Kako, I.)

  5. Acoustic building infiltration measurement system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muehleisen, Ralph T.; Raman, Ganesh

    2018-04-10

    Systems and methods of detecting and identifying a leak from a container or building. Acoustic pressure and velocity are measured. Acoustic properties are acquired from the measured values. The acoustic properties are converted to infiltration/leakage information. Nearfield Acoustic Holography (NAH) may be one method to detect the leakages from a container by locating the noise sources.

  6. Countermeasures for siting and environment of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawakami, Koichi

    1976-01-01

    Though the requests to urge the construction of nuclear power plants increased since the oil crisis, it is clear that it is necessary to take some countermeasures without delay at present because the location problems are in deadlock. Drastic change of the way of thinking should be made first if the social and political extensions of the problem are considered. It must require the persevering effort based on long-range outlook. Accordingly, emphasis is put on the introduction of the environmental administration in U.S. which seems to have many respects to be referred to in the following description. Then National Environmental Policy Act and the permission and approval procedures for nuclear power stations in U.S. are described, and the details of environmental disputes are listed. It reveals the discrepancy of the actual circumstances in Japan and the United States, and that the important portion of the U.S. experience and concept is not learned by Japanese. The Government lacks the recognition that the public acceptance of safety is not obtained till the report of safety investigation and environmental assessment by the governmental organizations are entrusted to people's judgement. That is, the procedures to win the public acceptance are omitted in Japan. The thoroughness of environmental protection is first of all necessary for achieving the target of nuclear power development. Since it seems to be nothing but the countermeasures for the public acceptance of nuclear power generation to cope with ''60 mens' testimony'', the main points of the ''Sixty mens' testimony'' in Fukushima public hearing are cited at the end, which is supposed to include almost all opposite opinions. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  7. Countermeasures for unintentional and intentional video watermarking attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deguillaume, Frederic; Csurka, Gabriela; Pun, Thierry

    2000-05-01

    These last years, the rapidly growing digital multimedia market has revealed an urgent need for effective copyright protection mechanisms. Therefore, digital audio, image and video watermarking has recently become a very active area of research, as a solution to this problem. Many important issues have been pointed out, one of them being the robustness to non-intentional and intentional attacks. This paper studies some attacks and proposes countermeasures applied to videos. General attacks are lossy copying/transcoding such as MPEG compression and digital/analog (D/A) conversion, changes of frame-rate, changes of display format, and geometrical distortions. More specific attacks are sequence edition, and statistical attacks such as averaging or collusion. Averaging attack consists of averaging locally consecutive frames to cancel the watermark. This attack works well for schemes which embed random independent marks into frames. In the collusion attack the watermark is estimated from single frames (based on image denoising), and averaged over different scenes for better accuracy. The estimated watermark is then subtracted from each frame. Collusion requires that the same mark is embedded into all frames. The proposed countermeasures first ensures robustness to general attacks by spread spectrum encoding in the frequency domain and by the use of an additional template. Secondly, a Bayesian criterion, evaluating the probability of a correctly decoded watermark, is used for rejection of outliers, and to implement an algorithm against statistical attacks. The idea is to embed randomly chosen marks among a finite set of marks, into subsequences of videos which are long enough to resist averaging attacks, but short enough to avoid collusion attacks. The Bayesian criterion is needed to select the correct mark at the decoding step. Finally, the paper presents experimental results showing the robustness of the proposed method.

  8. Genomics in development of radiation countermeasure from Hippophae rhamnoides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madhu Bala

    2013-01-01

    Development of an effective and non-toxic radiation countermeasure has been a global challenge, till date. On one hand single molecules have failed due to unacceptable toxicity and on the other hand herbal drugs, though non-toxic, are generally neglected because of issues such as incomplete understanding on mechanisms of actions, efficacy and quality control. In the conventional drug discovery process, a single active constituent is isolated, purified, and standardized, but herbal drugs have complex composition and multiple targeted actions. The assessment of efficacy and toxicity of herbal drugs is, therefore, not as straight forward as in case of single active compound. The completion of genome projects of human, mouse and many other simpler experimental models has opened multiple newer avenues for evaluating the metabolism, safety and efficacy of herbal drugs. The radioprotective properties of leaves of Hippophae rhamnoides L. (common name Seabuckthorn, family Eleagnaceae) were reported (Bala et al., 2009, J Herbs and Med Plants). Administration of SBL-1 (a coded herbal preparation from Seabuckthorn leaves), before whole body exposure to lethal dose of 60 Co-gamma-rays (10 Gy), rendered >90% survivors in mice population, while 100% mortality was observed in non-SBL-1 treated, 60 Co-gamma- irradiated (10 Gy) controls. Though, plant H. rhamnoides is popular for its medicinal and neutraceutical values and finds place is in many traditional medicinal systems world over, its prophylactic use as a radiation countermeasure is novel and needed thorough evaluation. To gain in depth understanding on metabolism and safety of SBL-1, the experimental animals were treated with radioprotective concentration of SBL-1. The genome evaluation was performed at different time intervals after the treatment. This talk highlights some of the prominent molecular pathways and genes affected by SBL-1 treatment in experimental animals. Our study suggested that application of genomics

  9. Orthostatic Intolerance in Older Persons: Etiology and Countermeasures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandu Goswami

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Orthostatic challenge produced by upright posture may lead to syncope if the cardiovascular system is unable to maintain adequate brain perfusion. This review outlines orthostatic intolerance related to the aging process, long-term bedrest confinement, drugs, and disease. Aging-associated illness or injury due to falls often leads to hospitalization. Older patients spend up to 83% of hospital admission lying in bed and thus the consequences of bedrest confinement such as physiological deconditioning, functional decline, and orthostatic intolerance represent a central challenge in the care of the vulnerable older population. This review examines current scientific knowledge regarding orthostatic intolerance and how it comes about and provides a framework for understanding of (patho- physiological concepts of cardiovascular (in- stability in ambulatory and bedrest confined senior citizens as well as in individuals with disease conditions [e.g., orthostatic intolerance in patients with diabetes mellitus, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's, spinal cord injury (SCI] or those on multiple medications (polypharmacy. Understanding these aspects, along with cardio-postural interactions, is particularly important as blood pressure destabilization leading to orthostatic intolerance affects 3–4% of the general population, and in 4 out of 10 cases the exact cause remains elusive. Reviewed also are countermeasures to orthostatic intolerance such as exercise, water drinking, mental arithmetic, cognitive training, and respiration training in SCI patients. We speculate that optimally applied countermeasures such as mental challenge maintain sympathetic activity, and improve venous return, stroke volume, and consequently, blood pressure during upright standing. Finally, this paper emphasizes the importance of an active life style in old age and why early re-mobilization following bedrest confinement or bedrest is crucial in preventing orthostatic intolerance, falls

  10. Acoustical heat pumping engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheatley, J.C.; Swift, G.W.; Migliori, A.

    1983-08-16

    The disclosure is directed to an acoustical heat pumping engine without moving seals. A tubular housing holds a compressible fluid capable of supporting an acoustical standing wave. An acoustical driver is disposed at one end of the housing and the other end is capped. A second thermodynamic medium is disposed in the housing near to but spaced from the capped end. Heat is pumped along the second thermodynamic medium toward the capped end as a consequence both of the pressure oscillation due to the driver and imperfect thermal contact between the fluid and the second thermodynamic medium. 2 figs.

  11. Deep Water Acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-28

    the Deep Water project and participate in the NPAL Workshops, including Art Baggeroer (MIT), J. Beron- Vera (UMiami), M. Brown (UMiami), T...Kathleen E . Wage. The North Pacific Acoustic Laboratory deep-water acoustic propagation experiments in the Philippine Sea. J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 134(4...estimate of the angle α during PhilSea09, made from ADCP measurements at the site of the DVLA. Sim. A B1 B2 B3 C D E F Prof. # 0 4 4 4 5 10 16 20 α

  12. Radiation acoustics and its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyamshev, L.M.

    1992-01-01

    Radiation acoustics is a new branch of acoustics, developing on the boundary of acoustics, nuclear physics, elementary particles and high-energy physics. Its fundamentals are laying in the research of acoustical effects due to the interaction of penetrating radiation with matter. The study of radiation-acoustical effects leads to the new opportunities in the penetration radiation research (acoustical detection, radiation-acoustical dosimetry), study of the physical parameters of matter, in a solution of some applied problems of nondestructive testing, and also for the radiation-acoustical influence on physical and chemical structure of the matter. Results of theoretical and experimental investigations are given. Different mechanisms of the sound generation by penetrating radiation of liquids and solids are considered. Some applications - the radiation acoustical microscopy and visualisation, the acoustical detection of high energy X-ray particles and possibility of using of high energy neutrino beams in geoacoustics - are discussed

  13. Risk assessment model for nuclear accident emergency protection countermeasure based on fuzzy matter-element analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xin Jing; Tang Huaqing; Zhang Yinghua; Zhang Limin

    2009-01-01

    A risk assessment model of nuclear accident emergency protection countermeasure based on fuzzy matter-element analysis and Euclid approach degree is proposed in the paper. The weight of assessed index is determined by information entropy and the scoring by experts, which could not only make full use of the inherent information of the indexes adequately, but reduce subjective assumption in the course of assessment effectively. The applied result shows that it is reasonable that the model is adopted to make risk assessment for nuclear accident emergency protective countermeasure,and it could be a kind of effective analytical method and decision making basis to choose the optimum protection countermeasure. (authors)

  14. The dynamics of radionuclide behaviour in soil solution with special reference to the application of countermeasures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nisbet, A.F.; Lembrechts, J.F.

    1990-01-01

    Any investigations into the effect of countermeasures on radionuclide transfer to plants should include a comprehensive chemical analysis of soil solution. This is because of the disturbances that soil-based countermeasures cause on soil:solution equilibria and radionuclide distribution between solid and liquid phases. As it is difficult to determine directly the effects of countermeasures under field conditions, it is recommended that laboratory-based studies be done first. These should include batch equilibrium experiments for soil:solution interactions, and hydroponic studies for solution:plant relationships. Speciation of radionuclides should form a fundamental part of both studies. (author)

  15. Acoustic Neuroma Educational Video

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a healthcare provider Request a patient kit Treatment Options Overview Observation Radiation Surgery What is acoustic neuroma Diagnosing Symptoms Side effects Question To Ask Treatment Options Back Overview Observation Radiation Surgery Choosing a healthcare ...

  16. Acoustic-Levitation Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barmatz, M. B.; Granett, D.; Lee, M. C.

    1984-01-01

    Uncontaminated environments for highly-pure material processing provided within completely sealed levitation chamber that suspends particles by acoustic excitation. Technique ideally suited for material processing in low gravity environment of space.

  17. Acoustic Casimir Effect

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Homes, Christopher

    1997-01-01

    ...). When the indirect manifestations of the ZPF are interpreted as due to radiation pressure, acoustic noise can provide an excellent analog to investigate the Casimir effect as well as other effects due to the ZPF...

  18. Acoustic Neuroma Educational Video

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a patient kit Treatment Options Overview Observation Radiation Surgery What is acoustic neuroma Diagnosing Symptoms Side effects ... To Ask Treatment Options Back Overview Observation Radiation Surgery Choosing a healthcare provider Request a patient kit ...

  19. Acoustic Neuroma Educational Video

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Choosing a healthcare provider Request a patient kit Treatment Options Overview Observation Radiation Surgery What is acoustic neuroma Diagnosing Symptoms Side effects Question To Ask Treatment Options Back Overview Observation Radiation Surgery Choosing a ...

  20. Acoustic ambient noise recorder

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Saran, A.K.; Navelkar, G.S.; Almeida, A.M.; More, S.R.; Chodankar, P.V.; Murty, C.S.

    with a robust outfit that can withstand high pressures and chemically corrosion resistant materials. Keeping these considerations in view, a CMOS micro-controller-based marine acoustic ambient noise recorder has been developed with a real time clock...

  1. Acoustic Neuroma Educational Video

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Learn more about ANA About ANA Mission, Vision & Values Shop ANA Leadership & Staff Annual Reports Acoustic Neuroma ... 8211 info@ANAUSA.org About ANA Mission, Vision & Values Leadership & Staff Annual Reports Shop ANA Home Learn ...

  2. Acoustic Neuroma Educational Video

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ANA About ANA Mission, Vision & Values Shop ANA Leadership & Staff Annual Reports Acoustic Neuroma Association 600 Peachtree ... info@ANAUSA.org About ANA Mission, Vision & Values Leadership & Staff Annual Reports Shop ANA Home Learn Educational ...

  3. Electrostatic ion acoustic waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, A.

    1983-01-01

    In this paper, certain aspects of plasma physics are illustrated through a study of electrostatic ion acoustic waves. The paper consists of three Sections. Section II deals with linear properties of the ion acoustic wave including derivation of the dispersions relation with the effect of Landau damping and of an ambient magnetic field. The section also introduces the excitation processes of the ion acoustic wave due to an electron drift or to a stimulated Brillouin scattering. The nonlinear properties are introduced in Section III and IV. In Section III, incoherent nonlinear effects such as quasilinear and mode-coupling saturations of the instability are discussed. The coherent nonlinear effects such as the generation of ion acoustic solitons, shocks and weak double layers are presented in Section IV. (Auth.)

  4. Acoustic Neuroma Educational Video

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... patient kit Treatment Options Overview Observation Radiation Surgery What is acoustic neuroma Diagnosing ... Back Community Patient Stories Share Your Story Video Stories Caregivers Milestones Gallery Submit Your Milestone Team ANA Volunteer ...

  5. Acoustic Neuroma Educational Video

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Connections Overview Find a Meeting Host a Meeting Volunteer Become a Volunteer Opportunities Support Overview Patient Events ... ANA About ANA Mission, Vision & Values Shop ANA Leadership & Staff Annual Reports Acoustic Neuroma Association 600 Peachtree ...

  6. Autonomous Acoustic Receiver System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Collects underwater acoustic data and oceanographic data. Data are recorded onboard an ocean buoy and can be telemetered to a remote ship or shore station...

  7. Acoustic MIMO signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Yiteng; Chen, Jingdong

    2006-01-01

    A timely and important book addressing a variety of acoustic signal processing problems under multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) scenarios. It uniquely investigates these problems within a unified framework offering a novel and penetrating analysis.

  8. Acoustic Neuroma Educational Video

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Back Learn more about ANA About ANA Mission, Vision & Values Shop ANA Leadership & Staff Annual Reports Acoustic ... 205-8211 info@ANAUSA.org About ANA Mission, Vision & Values Leadership & Staff Annual Reports Shop ANA Home ...

  9. Thermal Acoustic Fatigue Apparatus

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Thermal Acoustic Fatigue Apparatus (TAFA) is a progressive wave tube test facility that is used to test structures for dynamic response and sonic fatigue due to...

  10. Acoustic Neuroma Educational Video

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Spanish Washington Support Group Leslie of Stone Mountain, ... Providers Acoustic Neuroma Association Donate Now Newly Diagnosed What is AN? Request a Patient Kit Treatment Options Get Support Find a Provider Discussion Forum ...

  11. Acoustic Neuroma Educational Video

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Mission, Vision & Values Shop ANA Leadership & Staff Annual Reports Acoustic Neuroma Association 600 Peachtree Parkway Suite 108 ... About ANA Mission, Vision & Values Leadership & Staff Annual Reports Shop ANA Home Learn Educational Video English English ...

  12. Acoustic Igniter, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An acoustic igniter eliminates the need to use electrical energy to drive spark systems to initiate combustion in liquid-propellant rockets. It does not involve the...

  13. Department of Cybernetic Acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    The development of the theory, instrumentation and applications of methods and systems for the measurement, analysis, processing and synthesis of acoustic signals within the audio frequency range, particularly of the speech signal and the vibro-acoustic signal emitted by technical and industrial equipments treated as noise and vibration sources was discussed. The research work, both theoretical and experimental, aims at applications in various branches of science, and medicine, such as: acoustical diagnostics and phoniatric rehabilitation of pathological and postoperative states of the speech organ; bilateral ""man-machine'' speech communication based on the analysis, recognition and synthesis of the speech signal; vibro-acoustical diagnostics and continuous monitoring of the state of machines, technical equipments and technological processes.

  14. Acoustic Neuroma Educational Video

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 1 acoustic neuroma resource Click to learn more... LOGIN CALENDAR DONATE NEWS Home Learn Back Learn about ... Webinar Library Newsletter Library Patient Info Booklets Member Login Research ANA Survey/Registry AN Research Patient Registry ...

  15. Acoustic Neuroma Educational Video

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... About ANA Mission, Vision & Values Shop ANA Leadership & Staff Annual Reports Acoustic Neuroma Association 600 Peachtree Parkway ... ANAUSA.org About ANA Mission, Vision & Values Leadership & Staff Annual Reports Shop ANA Home Learn Educational Video ...

  16. Acoustic Neuroma Educational Video

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Click to learn more... LOGIN CALENDAR DONATE NEWS Home Learn Back Learn about acoustic neuroma AN Facts ... Vision & Values Leadership & Staff Annual Reports Shop ANA Home Learn Educational Video English English Arabic Catalan Chinese ( ...

  17. Acoustic imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Richard W.

    1979-01-01

    An acoustic imaging system for displaying an object viewed by a moving array of transducers as the array is pivoted about a fixed point within a given plane. A plurality of transducers are fixedly positioned and equally spaced within a laterally extending array and operatively directed to transmit and receive acoustic signals along substantially parallel transmission paths. The transducers are sequentially activated along the array to transmit and receive acoustic signals according to a preestablished sequence. Means are provided for generating output voltages for each reception of an acoustic signal, corresponding to the coordinate position of the object viewed as the array is pivoted. Receptions from each of the transducers are presented on the same display at coordinates corresponding to the actual position of the object viewed to form a plane view of the object scanned.

  18. Principles of musical acoustics

    CERN Document Server

    Hartmann, William M

    2013-01-01

    Principles of Musical Acoustics focuses on the basic principles in the science and technology of music. Musical examples and specific musical instruments demonstrate the principles. The book begins with a study of vibrations and waves, in that order. These topics constitute the basic physical properties of sound, one of two pillars supporting the science of musical acoustics. The second pillar is the human element, the physiological and psychological aspects of acoustical science. The perceptual topics include loudness, pitch, tone color, and localization of sound. With these two pillars in place, it is possible to go in a variety of directions. The book treats in turn, the topics of room acoustics, audio both analog and digital, broadcasting, and speech. It ends with chapters on the traditional musical instruments, organized by family. The mathematical level of this book assumes that the reader is familiar with elementary algebra. Trigonometric functions, logarithms and powers also appear in the book, but co...

  19. Anal acoustic reflectometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitchell, Peter J; Klarskov, Niels; Telford, Karen J

    2011-01-01

    Anal acoustic reflectometry is a new technique of assessing anal sphincter function. Five new variables reflecting anal canal function are measured: the opening and closing pressure, the opening and closing elastance, and hysteresis.......Anal acoustic reflectometry is a new technique of assessing anal sphincter function. Five new variables reflecting anal canal function are measured: the opening and closing pressure, the opening and closing elastance, and hysteresis....

  20. Acoustic calibration apparatus for calibrating plethysmographic acoustic pressure sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerwar, Allan J. (Inventor); Davis, David C. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    An apparatus for calibrating an acoustic sensor is described. The apparatus includes a transmission material having an acoustic impedance approximately matching the acoustic impedance of the actual acoustic medium existing when the acoustic sensor is applied in actual in-service conditions. An elastic container holds the transmission material. A first sensor is coupled to the container at a first location on the container and a second sensor coupled to the container at a second location on the container, the second location being different from the first location. A sound producing device is coupled to the container and transmits acoustic signals inside the container.

  1. On-Command Exoskeleton for Countermeasure Microgravity Effects on Muscles and Bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Cohen, Y.; Bao, X.; Badescu, M.; Sherrit, S.; Mavroidis, C.; Unluhisarcikh, O.; Pietrusinski, M.; Rajulu, S.; Berka, R.; Cowley, M.

    2012-06-01

    On-command exoskeleton with impeding and augmenting elements would support the operation of astronauts traveling to Mars. Thus, countermeasure deleterious effects on the muscles and bones during travel and assist their physical activity on Mars.

  2. Supporting role of ontology in a simulation system for countermeasure evaluation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lombard, N

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Military aircraft in the battlefield are under constant threat from missile attacks. Technology such as infra-red countermeasures are used to protect against these threats. Measurements, modelling and simulation are used by the military to develop...

  3. The Combined Mine Countermeasures Force: A Unified Commander-in-Chief's Answer to the Mine Threat

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gilbert, Jason

    2001-01-01

    .... History demonstrates that the U.S. Navy's inability to maintain a mine countermeasures (MCM) force sufficiently large enough and technologically advanced enough has been nominally off-set by the strengths of a combined MCM force...

  4. A Framework for Evaluating Advanced Search Concepts for Multiple Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) Mine Countermeasures (MCM)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gooding, Trent

    2001-01-01

    .... In recent years, autonomous underwater vehicles (AUV) have emerged as a viable technology for conducting underwater search, survey, and clearance operations in support of the mine countermeasures (MCM) mission...

  5. Stream instability countermeasures applied at Kansas Department of Transportation highway structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-01

    This project considered stream instability countermeasures used by the Kansas Department of Transportation (KDOT) to protect the highway infrastructure at stream crossings from changes due to the dynamic nature of streams. Site visits were made to 13...

  6. Biomechanics for Enhancement & Verification of Countermeasure Analysis Tools for Human Exploration Missions

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Digital Astronaut Simulator (DAS) is a low Technology Readiness Level (TRL) NASA project with promising benefits to Human Health Countermeasures. In providing...

  7. A study on the analysis and countermeasures of domestic and foreign factors for technical indigenization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Byung Ryung

    1998-12-01

    This report is focused on the following two views : First view is the issues that the domestic nuclear industry is presently facing are diagnosis of the actuality and survey of the countermeasure for the domestic market opening due to UR agreement and advance to foreign market. Second view is diagnosis of the outside status and grouping of the countermeasure. For the second view, internal restraints of public research institute are studied by dividing it into research and industry. As a short-term countermeasure, effective results can be expected by considering th e collaborating countermeasure which the domestic nuclear industry can oppose, with positive and negative views for the change of local and international nuclear circumstances

  8. Changing the Scale and Efficiency of Chemical Warfare Countermeasure Discovery Using the Zebrafish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Randall T.; MacRae, Calum A.

    2013-01-01

    As the scope of potential chemical warfare agents grows rapidly and as the diversity of potential threat scenarios expands with non-state actors, so a need for innovative approaches to countermeasure development has emerged. In the last few years, the utility of the zebrafish as a model organism that is amenable to high-throughput screening has become apparent and this system has been applied to the unbiased discovery of chemical warfare countermeasures. This review summarizes the in vivo screening approach that has been pioneered in the countermeasure discovery arena, and highlights the successes to date as well as the potential challenges in moving the field forward. Importantly, the establishment of a zebrafish platform for countermeasure discovery would offer a rapid response system for the development of antidotes to the continuous stream of new potential chemical warfare agents. PMID:24273586

  9. A study on the analysis and countermeasures of domestic and foreign factors for technical indigenization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byung Ryung

    1998-12-01

    This report is focused on the following two views : First view is the issues that the domestic nuclear industry is presently facing are diagnosis of the actuality and survey of the countermeasure for the domestic market opening due to UR agreement and advance to foreign market. Second view is diagnosis of the outside status and grouping of the countermeasure. For the second view, internal restraints of public research institute are studied by dividing it into research and industry. As a short-term countermeasure, effective results can be expected by considering th e collaborating countermeasure which the domestic nuclear industry can oppose, with positive and negative views for the change of local and international nuclear circumstances.

  10. International harmonization of countermeasures - needed, but still far away

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuur, C.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: After the Chernobyl accident (European) countries have developed and some are still developing a system of intervention in the case of a nuclear or radiological accident, including the establishment of intervention levels (ILs) for short-term measurements such as sheltering, iodine prophylaxis and evacuation. Most countries have based these ILs an international recommendations from ICRP, IAEA, European Commission, WHO, OECD etc. combined with there own political, social or scientific views. All these recommendations have as a common factor that they are all very theoretical, which is probably satisfactory for the preparation phase, but not in the case of a real accident or an exercise. Besides that, all approaches differ, e.g.: averted dose versus projected dose, ranges of ILs or fixed values; also the assumptions for basic scenarios and parameter values for dose calculations vary wildly. Consequently all countries have different levels or at least, different ways of applying these: e.g. an IL for a dose integrated over one day, one week or one year; for children or for adults; including some effect of other countermeasures or not; etc. These different approaches cause problems because most nuclear power plants are located at frontier sites. One could negotiate bilaterally with the relevant neighbouring country to get harmonization, but most countries have more neighbours. Moreover, even if the ILs are harmonized, the different dispersion models, parameter (values) etc cause differences in doses calculated. Therefore, at least within Europe, not only harmonized levels but also harmonised approaches, dose calculation models etc should be set. Because of the problems recognized the expert group ex article 31 EURATOM has established a Working Group for Harmonization of Intervention Levels (WP HIL). The work of this WP HIL is divided in three phases: the short-term aims are the identification of the differences between governmental and non

  11. Physical countermeasures to sustain acceptable living and working conditions in radioactively contaminated residential areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Kasper Grann; Roed, Jørn; Eged, K.

    2003-01-01

    The Chernobyl accident highlighted the need in nuclear preparedness for robust, effective and sustainable countermeasure strategies for restoration of radioactively contaminated residential areas. Under the EC-supported STRATEGY project a series ofinvestigations were made of countermeasures...... that were deemed potentially applicable for implementation in such events in European Member States. The findings are presented in this report, in a standardised datasheet format to clarify the features of theindividual methods and facilitate intercomparison. The aspects of averted doses and management...

  12. Benefits, Consequences, and Uncertainties of Conventional (Exercise) Countermeasure Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploutz-Snyder, Lori

    2013-01-01

    This presentation will review the pros, cons, and uncertainties of using exercise countermeasures in hypothetical long duration exploration missions. The use of artificial gravity and exercise will be briefly discussed. One benefit to continued use of exercise is related to our extensive experience with spaceflight exercise hardware and programming. Exercise has been a part of each space mission dating back to the 1960's when simple isometric and bungee exercises were performed in the Gemini capsule. Over the next 50 years, exercise hardware improved cumulating in today's ISS suite of exercise equipment: Cycle Ergometer with Vibration Isolation and Stabilization System (CEVIS), Treadmill (T2) and Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED). Today's exercise equipment is the most robust ever to be flown in space and allows the variety and intensity of exercise that might reasonably be expected to maintain muscle mass and function, bone density and cardiovascular fitness. A second benefit is related to the large body of research literature on exercise training. There is a considerable body of supporting research literature including >40,000 peer reviewed research articles on exercise training in humans. A third benefit of exercise is its effectiveness. With the addition of T2 and ARED to our ISS exercise suite, crew member outcomes on standard medical tests have improved. Additionally exercise has other positive side effects such as stress relief, possible improvement of immune function, improved sleep, etc. Exercise is not without its consequences. The major cons to performance of in-flight exercise are the time and equipment required. Currently crew are scheduled 2.5 hrs/day for exercise and there is considerable cost to develop, fly and maintain exercise hardware. While no major injuries have been reported on ISS, there is always some risk of injury with any form of exercise There are several uncertainties going forward; these relate mostly to the development of

  13. Acoustic comfort in eating establishments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, David; Jeong, Cheol-Ho; Brunskog, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    The subjective concept of acoustic comfort in eating establishments has been investigated in this study. The goal was to develop a predictive model for the acoustic comfort, by means of simple objective parameters, while also examining which other subjective acoustic parameters could help explain...... the feeling of acoustic comfort. Through several layers of anal ysis, acoustic comfort was found to be rather complex, and could not be explained entirely by common subjective parameters such as annoyance, intelligibility or privacy. A predictive model for the mean acoustic comfort for an eating establishment...

  14. Research on the development and countermeasures for circular economy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Ecological economics and sustainable development economics are the basic theories to research on circular economy. Through the systemically research on the relationship of the three above, this paper thinks that the reuse and recycle of circular economy ts a way that the stall is mended after a sheep is lost. Although the reduction technically controls the production process, it cannot solve the waste caused by blind production and excess competition. We have experienced variety obstacles when implementing the circular economy, whose main reason ts the conflict between the individual ration and the social ration. Therefore, only when the individual ration and social ration incline to conformity,the cooperating Nash equilibrium will be appeared. In order to realize the harmony of ecology, economy and society, we have to explore effective evaluation theory. This paper cites the "five flows of wealth operation theory"from professor Ma Chuandong to search operation mechanism of circular economy, makes clear the developing thoughts of circular economy based on the realities, and brings forward some countermeasures to develop circular economy based on the above theoretical analysis.

  15. Fatal injection: a survey of modern code injection attack countermeasures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitris Mitropoulos

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available With a code injection attack (CIA an attacker can introduce malicious code into a computer program or system that fails to properly encode data that comes from an untrusted source. A CIA can have different forms depending on the execution context of the application and the location of the programming flaw that leads to the attack. Currently, CIAs are considered one of the most damaging classes of application attacks since they can severely affect an organisation’s infrastructure and cause financial and reputational damage to it. In this paper we examine and categorize the countermeasures developed to detect the various attack forms. In particular, we identify two distinct categories. The first incorporates static program analysis tools used to eliminate flaws that can lead to such attacks during the development of the system. The second involves the use of dynamic detection safeguards that prevent code injection attacks while the system is in production mode. Our analysis is based on nonfunctional characteristics that are considered critical when creating security mechanisms. Such characteristics involve usability, overhead, implementation dependencies, false positives and false negatives. Our categorization and analysis can help both researchers and practitioners either to develop novel approaches, or use the appropriate mechanisms according to their needs.

  16. Livermore Site Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasures (SPCC) Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellah, W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Griffin, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Mertesdorf, E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-09-21

    This Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure (SPCC) Plan describes the measures that are taken at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory’s (LLNL) Livermore Site in Livermore, California, to prevent, control, and handle potential spills from aboveground containers that can contain 55 gallons or more of oil. This SPCC Plan complies with the Oil Pollution Prevention regulation in Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations (40 CFR), Part 112 (40 CFR 112) and with 40 CFR 761.65(b) and (c), which regulates the temporary storage of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). This Plan has also been prepared in accordance with Division 20, Chapter 6.67 of the California Health and Safety Code (HSC 6.67) requirements for oil pollution prevention (referred to as the Aboveground Petroleum Storage Act [APSA]), and the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Order No. 436.1. This SPCC Plan establishes procedures, methods, equipment, and other requirements to prevent the discharge of oil into or upon the navigable waters of the United States or adjoining shorelines for aboveground oil storage and use at the Livermore Site.

  17. Game Analysis and Countermeasures Discussion on Green Marketing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of making certain assumption on the game situation of carrying out green marketing, this paper conducts game analysis on the green marketing choice among enterprises, the green marketing choice between enterprises and consumers, and the green marketing choice of consumers. Then this paper expounds the necessity of implementing green marketing as follows: the green marketing is the inevitable requirements of sustainable development of economy; the green marketing is the inevitable choice of green consumption mode; the green marketing is the inevitable results of legalization of environmental problems. The problems faced by the implementation of green marketing are analyzed as follows: first, the concept of green marketing has not yet been established; second, the sociality of green demand has not yet taken shape; third, production characteristic of green products has not yet formed. The countermeasures of implementing green marketing as follows: pay attention to the propaganda and education of modern marketing concept; regulate the competition in the market of green products; strengthen transparency of green market information; reinforce the legislation work of food safety.

  18. Smart grid data integrity attacks: characterizations and countermeasuresπ

    KAUST Repository

    Giani, Annarita

    2011-10-01

    Coordinated cyberattacks of power meter readings can be arranged to be undetectable by any bad data detection algorithm in the power system state estimation process. These unobservable attacks present a potentially serious threat to grid operations. Of particular interest are sparse attacks that involve the compromise of a modest number of meter readings. An efficient algorithm to find all unobservable attacks [under standard DC load flow approximations] involving the compromise of exactly two power injection meters and an arbitrary number of line power meters is presented. This requires O(n 2m) flops for a power system with n buses and m line meters. If all lines are metered, there exist canonical forms that characterize all 3, 4, and 5-sparse unobservable attacks. These can be quickly detected in power systems using standard graph algorithms. Known-secure phasor measurement units [PMUs] can be used as countermeasures against an arbitrary collection of cyberattacks. Finding the minimum number of necessary PMUs is NP-hard. It is shown that p + 1 PMUs at carefully chosen buses are sufficient to neutralize a collection of p cyberattacks. © 2011 IEEE.

  19. Countermeasure technologies against materials deterioration of nuclear power plant components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-09-01

    This report was tentative safety standard on countermeasure technologies against materials deterioration of nuclear power plant components issued in 2004 on the base of the testing data obtained until March 2004, which was to be applied for technical evaluation for lifetime management of aged plants and preventive maintenance or repair of neutron irradiated components such as core shrouds and jet pumps. In order to prevent stress corrosion cracks (SCCs) of austenitic stainless steel welds of reactor components, thermal surface modification using laser beams was used on neutron irradiated materials with laser cladding or surface melting process methods by limiting heat input according to amount of accumulated helium so as to prevent crack initiation caused by helium bubble growth and coalescence. Laser cladding method of laser welding using molten sleeve set inside pipe surface to prevent SCCs of nickel-chromium-iron alloy welds, alloy 690 cladding method using tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding to prevent SCCs of nickel-chromium-iron alloy welds for dissimilar joints of pipes, and laser surface solid solution heat treatment method of laser irradiation on surfaces to prevent SCCs of austenitic stainless steel welds were also included as repair technologies. (T. Tanaka)

  20. An Interagency Collaboration to Facilitate Development of Filovirus Medical Countermeasures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin O. Nuzum

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The Filovirus Animal Non-Clinical Group (FANG is a US interdepartmental and interagency group established to support and facilitate the advanced development of filovirus Medical Countermeasures (MCM, both vaccines and therapeutics. It is co-led by one representative from the Department of Defense (DoD, the first author, and one from the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS, the second author. The FANG membership includes operational level program staff and Subject Matter Experts (SME from performing organizations as well as scientific staff and program managers from DoD and HHS funding and regulatory agencies. Focus areas include animal models, assays, reagents, product manufacture and characterization, and other interagency product development issues that will support Food and Drug Administration (FDA licensure of safe and effective filovirus MCMs. The FANG continues to develop strategies to address broadly applicable and interagency product development challenges relevant to filovirus MCM development. This paper summarizes FANG structure and accomplishments and is meant to heighten community awareness of this government-led collaborative effort.

  1. Preliminary studies on the optimization of countermeasures for agricultural areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rochedo, Elaine R.R.; Igreja, Eduardo; Barboza, Adriana E.; Silva, Diogo N.G. da; Guimaraes, Jean R.D.; Perez, Daniel V.

    2015-01-01

    The assessment of remediation measures for rural areas is more complex than that for urban ones, due to the influence of large number of variables associated with climate, diet, farming practices and the type of soil. Thus, it is not possible to perform generic studies applicable to all types of area. Specific studies and surveys should be made in the areas most likely to contamination from a nuclear accident. Preliminary studies demonstrated that the different soil types in Brazil is more relevant to the ingestion dose than the regional differences in diets. Other studies have described the prioritization of areas and products for detailed survey on soil types and remediation procedures, for an accident at the NPP in Angra dos Reis, based on radiological and economic aspects. The most relevant product was milk, due to both its relevance to the intake and the loss of income for the counties. The contribution of milk to dose depends on the season of the year when the accident occurs, mainly due to the relative contribution of other items of the diet. The timing of the application of the countermeasure has an important effect on the dose reduction that can be achieved. For I-131, protective measures must be considered within the emergency phase in order to be effective. The main action on reducing ingestion doses is the removal of food items from diet, while providing clean food to the population. (author)

  2. Pleasant music as a countermeasure against visually induced motion sickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshavarz, Behrang; Hecht, Heiko

    2014-05-01

    Visually induced motion sickness (VIMS) is a well-known side-effect in virtual environments or simulators. However, effective behavioral countermeasures against VIMS are still sparse. In this study, we tested whether music can reduce the severity of VIMS. Ninety-three volunteers were immersed in an approximately 14-minute-long video taken during a bicycle ride. Participants were randomly assigned to one of four experimental groups, either including relaxing music, neutral music, stressful music, or no music. Sickness scores were collected using the Fast Motion Sickness Scale and the Simulator Sickness Questionnaire. Results showed an overall trend for relaxing music to reduce the severity of VIMS. When factoring in the subjective pleasantness of the music, a significant reduction of VIMS occurred only when the presented music was perceived as pleasant, regardless of the music type. In addition, we found a gender effect with women reporting more sickness than men. We assume that the presentation of pleasant music can be an effective, low-cost, and easy-to-administer method to reduce VIMS. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  3. Preliminary studies on the optimization of countermeasures for agricultural areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rochedo, Elaine R.R.; Igreja, Eduardo; Barboza, Adriana E., E-mail: elainerochedo@gmail.com, E-mail: eduigreja@gmail.com, E-mail: adrianaebarboza@gmail.com [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Silva, Diogo N.G. da; Guimaraes, Jean R.D., E-mail: diogons@gmail.com, E-mail: jeanrdg@biof.ufrj.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho; Wasserman, Maria Angelica V., E-mail: mwasserman@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Perez, Daniel V. [Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Solos (EMBRAPA), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The assessment of remediation measures for rural areas is more complex than that for urban ones, due to the influence of large number of variables associated with climate, diet, farming practices and the type of soil. Thus, it is not possible to perform generic studies applicable to all types of area. Specific studies and surveys should be made in the areas most likely to contamination from a nuclear accident. Preliminary studies demonstrated that the different soil types in Brazil is more relevant to the ingestion dose than the regional differences in diets. Other studies have described the prioritization of areas and products for detailed survey on soil types and remediation procedures, for an accident at the NPP in Angra dos Reis, based on radiological and economic aspects. The most relevant product was milk, due to both its relevance to the intake and the loss of income for the counties. The contribution of milk to dose depends on the season of the year when the accident occurs, mainly due to the relative contribution of other items of the diet. The timing of the application of the countermeasure has an important effect on the dose reduction that can be achieved. For I-131, protective measures must be considered within the emergency phase in order to be effective. The main action on reducing ingestion doses is the removal of food items from diet, while providing clean food to the population. (author)

  4. Treatment countermeasures for common problems in dacryocystorhinostomy under nasal endoscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong-Ling Luo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To discuss the common problems and treatment countermeasures in dacryocystorhinostomy under nasal endoscope.METHODS: The clinical data of 37 cases(43 eyesof postoperative dacryocystorhinostomy under nasal endoscope, by using high-frequency electric knife to open the nasal mucosa, hemostasis in surgery, burning fixed lacrimal sac mucosal flap and nasal mucosal flap, methylene blue staining of the lacrimal sac, lacrimal drainage tube implanted and expansion foam support fixed anastomotic methods were reviewed in our hospital from Mar. 2011 to June. 2013. The effects of surgery were observed, and the intraoperative common questions and the treatments were discussed.RESULTS: In the 37 cases(43 eyes, 42 eyes(97.7%were cured, and 1 eye was improved, and the total efficiency was 100%. All operations were successfully completed without any serious complications during surgery.CONCLUSION: The common complication in dacryocystorhinostomy under nasal endoscope are effectively treated and the success rates of surgery are improved, by using high-frequency electric knife to open the nasal mucosa, hemostasis in surgery, burning fixed lacrimal sac mucosal flap and nasal mucosal flap, methylene blue staining of the lacrimal sac, lacrimal drainage tube implanted and expansion foam support fixed anastomotic methods. These methods are worthy of application and promotion.

  5. Site 300 Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasures (SPCC) Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffin, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Mertesdorf, E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-12-01

    This Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure (SPCC) Plan describes the measures that are taken at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory’s (LLNL) Experimental Test Site (Site 300) near Tracy, California, to prevent, control, and handle potential spills from aboveground containers that can contain 55 gallons or more of oil. This SPCC Plan complies with the Oil Pollution Prevention regulation in Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 112 (40 CFR 112) and with 40 CFR 761.65(b) and (c), which regulates the temporary storage of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). This Plan has also been prepared in accordance with Division 20, Chapter 6.67 of the California Health and Safety Code (HSC 6.67) requirements for oil pollution prevention (referred to as the Aboveground Petroleum Storage Act [APSA]), and the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Order No. 436.1. This SPCC Plan establishes procedures, methods, equipment, and other requirements to prevent the discharge of oil into or upon the navigable waters of the United States or adjoining shorelines for aboveground oil storage and use at Site 300. This SPCC Plan has been prepared for the entire Site 300 facility and replaces the three previous plans prepared for Site 300: LLNL SPCC for Electrical Substations Near Buildings 846 and 865 (LLNL 2015), LLNL SPCC for Building 883 (LLNL 2015), and LLNL SPCC for Building 801 (LLNL 2014).

  6. Magnetoactive Acoustic Metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Kunhao; Fang, Nicholas X; Huang, Guoliang; Wang, Qiming

    2018-04-11

    Acoustic metamaterials with negative constitutive parameters (modulus and/or mass density) have shown great potential in diverse applications ranging from sonic cloaking, abnormal refraction and superlensing, to noise canceling. In conventional acoustic metamaterials, the negative constitutive parameters are engineered via tailored structures with fixed geometries; therefore, the relationships between constitutive parameters and acoustic frequencies are typically fixed to form a 2D phase space once the structures are fabricated. Here, by means of a model system of magnetoactive lattice structures, stimuli-responsive acoustic metamaterials are demonstrated to be able to extend the 2D phase space to 3D through rapidly and repeatedly switching signs of constitutive parameters with remote magnetic fields. It is shown for the first time that effective modulus can be reversibly switched between positive and negative within controlled frequency regimes through lattice buckling modulated by theoretically predicted magnetic fields. The magnetically triggered negative-modulus and cavity-induced negative density are integrated to achieve flexible switching between single-negative and double-negative. This strategy opens promising avenues for remote, rapid, and reversible modulation of acoustic transportation, refraction, imaging, and focusing in subwavelength regimes. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Application of the selected countermeasures for animal products to a dynamic food chain model in a nuclear emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Won Tae; Suh, Kyung Suk; Kim, Eun Han; Choi, Young Gil; Han, Moon Hee; Cho, Gyu Seong

    1998-01-01

    The methodology for the application of the principles of radiation protection on the selected countermeasures in linking with a dynamic food chain model DYNACON was studied using the cost and benefit analysis and its application results were analyzed in terms of net benefit. The considerations focus on the simple and easy countermeasures to carry out in the first harvest after the deposition for animal products, such as the ban of food consumption and the substitution of clean fodder. The net benefit of the selected countermeasures depended on a variety of factors such as foodstuffs, radionuclides, starting time and performing duration of countermeasures. The methodology used in this study may serve as a basis for the planning and preparedness of long-term countermeasures as well as the rapid decision of countermeasures against the contamination of agricultural ecosystems in a nuclear emergency

  8. Advanced Active Acoustics Lab (AAAL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Advanced Active Acoustics Lab (AAAL) is a state-of-the-art Undersea Warfare (USW) acoustic data analysis facility capable of both active and passive underwater...

  9. Sea Turtle Acoustic Telemetry Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Acoustic transmitters attached to sea turtles captured in various fishing gear enable the animals to be passively tracked. Acoustic receivers set up in an array...

  10. Perspective: Acoustic metamaterials in transition

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Ying; Yang, Min; Sheng, Ping

    2017-01-01

    Acoustic metamaterials derive their novel characteristics from the interaction between acoustic waves with designed structures. Since its inception seventeen years ago, the field has been driven by fundamental geometric and physical principles

  11. A Century of Acoustic Metrology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Knud

    1998-01-01

    The development in acoustic measurement technique over the last century is reviewed with special emphasis on the metrological aspect.......The development in acoustic measurement technique over the last century is reviewed with special emphasis on the metrological aspect....

  12. Acoustic Levitation Containerless Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whymark, R. R.; Rey, C. A.

    1985-01-01

    This research program consists of the development of acoustic containerless processing systems with applications in the areas of research in material sciences, as well as the production of new materials, solid forms with novel and unusual microstructures, fusion target spheres, and improved optical fibers. Efforts have been focused on the containerless processing at high temperatures for producing new kinds of glasses. Also, some development has occurred in the areas of containerlessly supporting liquids at room temperature, with applications in studies of fluid dynamics, potential undercooling of liquids, etc. The high temperature area holds the greatest promise for producing new kinds of glasses and ceramics, new alloys, and possibly unusual structural shapes, such as very uniform hollow glass shells for fusion target applications. High temperature acoustic levitation required for containerless processing has been demonstrated in low-g environments as well as in ground-based experiments. Future activities include continued development of the signals axis acoustic levitator.

  13. Practical acoustic emission testing

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This book is intended for non-destructive testing (NDT) technicians who want to learn practical acoustic emission testing based on level 1 of ISO 9712 (Non-destructive testing – Qualification and certification of personnel) criteria. The essential aspects of ISO/DIS 18436-6 (Condition monitoring and diagnostics of machines – Requirements for training and certification of personnel, Part 6: Acoustic Emission) are explained, and readers can deepen their understanding with the help of practice exercises. This work presents the guiding principles of acoustic emission measurement, signal processing, algorithms for source location, measurement devices, applicability of testing methods, and measurement cases to support not only researchers in this field but also and especially NDT technicians.

  14. Topological Acoustic Delay Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiwang; Tian, Ye; Cheng, Ying; Wei, Qi; Liu, Xiaojun; Christensen, Johan

    2018-03-01

    Topological protected wave engineering in artificially structured media is at the frontier of ongoing metamaterials research that is inspired by quantum mechanics. Acoustic analogues of electronic topological insulators have recently led to a wealth of new opportunities in manipulating sound propagation with strikingly unconventional acoustic edge modes immune to backscattering. Earlier fabrications of topological insulators are characterized by an unreconfigurable geometry and a very narrow frequency response, which severely hinders the exploration and design of useful devices. Here we establish topologically protected sound in reconfigurable phononic crystals that can be switched on and off simply by rotating its three-legged "atoms" without altering the lattice structure. In particular, we engineer robust phase delay defects that take advantage of the ultrabroadband reflection-free sound propagation. Such topological delay lines serve as a paradigm in compact acoustic devices, interconnects, and electroacoustic integrated circuits.

  15. Acoustic detection of pneumothorax

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansy, Hansen A.; Royston, Thomas J.; Balk, Robert A.; Sandler, Richard H.

    2003-04-01

    This study aims at investigating the feasibility of using low-frequency (pneumothorax detection were tested in dogs. In the first approach, broadband acoustic signals were introduced into the trachea during end-expiration and transmitted waves were measured at the chest surface. Pneumothorax was found to consistently decrease pulmonary acoustic transmission in the 200-1200-Hz frequency band, while less change was observed at lower frequencies (ppneumothorax states (pPneumothorax was found to be associated with a preferential reduction of sound amplitude in the 200- to 700-Hz range, and a decrease of sound amplitude variation (in the 300 to 600-Hz band) during the respiration cycle (pPneumothorax changed the frequency and decay rate of percussive sounds. These results imply that certain medical conditions may be reliably detected using appropriate acoustic measurements and analysis. [Work supported by NIH/NHLBI #R44HL61108.

  16. Acoustics waves and oscillations

    CERN Document Server

    Sen, S.N.

    2013-01-01

    Parameters of acoustics presented in a logical and lucid style Physical principles discussed with mathematical formulations Importance of ultrasonic waves highlighted Dispersion of ultrasonic waves in viscous liquids explained This book presents the theory of waves and oscillations and various applications of acoustics in a logical and simple form. The physical principles have been explained with necessary mathematical formulation and supported by experimental layout wherever possible. Incorporating the classical view point all aspects of acoustic waves and oscillations have been discussed together with detailed elaboration of modern technological applications of sound. A separate chapter on ultrasonics emphasizes the importance of this branch of science in fundamental and applied research. In this edition a new chapter ''Hypersonic Velocity in Viscous Liquids as revealed from Brillouin Spectra'' has been added. The book is expected to present to its readers a comprehensive presentation of the subject matter...

  17. Acoustic Liners for Turbine Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Michael G (Inventor); Grady, Joseph E (Inventor); Kiser, James D. (Inventor); Miller, Christopher (Inventor); Heidmann, James D. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    An improved acoustic liner for turbine engines is disclosed. The acoustic liner may include a straight cell section including a plurality of cells with straight chambers. The acoustic liner may also include a bent cell section including one or more cells that are bent to extend chamber length without increasing the overall height of the acoustic liner by the entire chamber length. In some cases, holes are placed between cell chambers in addition to bending the cells, or instead of bending the cells.

  18. Densitometry By Acoustic Levitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, Eugene H.

    1989-01-01

    "Static" and "dynamic" methods developed for measuring mass density of acoustically levitated solid particle or liquid drop. "Static" method, unknown density of sample found by comparison with another sample of known density. "Dynamic" method practiced with or without gravitational field. Advantages over conventional density-measuring techniques: sample does not have to make contact with container or other solid surface, size and shape of samples do not affect measurement significantly, sound field does not have to be know in detail, and sample can be smaller than microliter. Detailed knowledge of acoustic field not necessary.

  19. Acoustic integrated extinction

    OpenAIRE

    Norris, Andrew N.

    2015-01-01

    The integrated extinction (IE) is defined as the integral of the scattering cross section as a function of wavelength. Sohl et al. (2007 J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 122, 3206–3210. (doi:10.1121/1.2801546)) derived an IE expression for acoustic scattering that is causal, i.e. the scattered wavefront in the forward direction arrives later than the incident plane wave in the background medium. The IE formula was based on electromagnetic results, for which scattering is causal by default. Here, we der...

  20. Acoustic phenomena during boiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorofeev, B.M.

    1985-01-01

    Applied and theoretical significance of investigation into acoustic phenomena on boiling is discussed. Effect of spatial and time conditions on pressure vapour bubble has been elucidated. Collective effects were considered: acoustic interaction of bubbles, noise formation ion developed boiling, resonance and hydrodynamic autooscillations. Different methods for predicting heat transfer crisis using changes of accompanying noise characteristics were analysed. Principle peculiarities of generation mechanism of thermoacoustic autooscillations were analysed as well: formation of standing waves; change of two-phase medium contraction in a channel; relation of alternating pressure with boiling process as well as with instantaneous and local temperatures of heat transfer surface and liquid in a boundary layer

  1. Shallow Water Acoustics Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-19

    LE O CEAN RAPHIC I TITUTI Appli d Oc:ean Physics and E11gi1i,ering Depar1111,11t vember 9, 2017 Dr. Robert Headrick ffice of Naval Resear h, ode...UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT Applied Ocean Physics and Engineering Department...2015). [3] J.F. Lynch and A.E. Newhall, "Shallow water acoustics", book chapter in "Practical Underwater Acoustics," L. Bjorno, T. Neighbors, and D

  2. Acoustic emission intrusion detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carver, D.W.; Whittaker, J.W.

    1980-01-01

    An intrusion detector is provided for detecting a forcible entry into a secured structure while minimizing false alarms. The detector uses a piezoelectric crystal transducer to sense acoustic emissions. The transducer output is amplified by a selectable gain amplifier to control the sensitivity. The rectified output of the amplifier is applied to a Schmitt trigger circuit having a preselected threshold level to provide amplitude discrimination. Timing circuitry is provided which is activated by successive pulses from the Schmitt trigger which lie within a selected time frame for frequency discrimination. Detected signals having proper amplitude and frequency trigger an alarm within the first complete cycle time of a detected acoustical disturbance signal

  3. Acoustic emission intrusion detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carver, D.W.

    1978-01-01

    In order to improve the security of handling special nuclear materials at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, a sensitive acoustic emission detector has been developed that will detect forcible entry through block or tile walls, concrete floors, or concrete/steel vault walls. A small, low-powered processor was designed to convert the output from a sensitive, crystal-type acoustic transducer to an alarm relay signal for use with a supervised alarm loop. The unit may be used to detect forcible entry through concrete, steel, block, tile, and/or glass

  4. Room Acoustical Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Mechel, Fridolin

    2013-01-01

    This book presents the theory of room acoustical fields and revises the Mirror Source Methods for practical computational use, emphasizing the wave character of acoustical fields.  The presented higher methods include the concepts of “Mirror Point Sources” and “Corner sources which allow for an excellent approximation of complex room geometries and even equipped rooms. In contrast to classical description, this book extends the theory of sound fields describing them by their complex sound pressure and the particle velocity. This approach enables accurate descriptions of interference and absorption phenomena.

  5. Acoustically Induced Vibration of Structures: Reverberant Vs. Direct Acoustic Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolaini, Ali R.; O'Connell, Michael R.; Tsoi, Wan B.

    2009-01-01

    Large reverberant chambers have been used for several decades in the aerospace industry to test larger structures such as solar arrays and reflectors to qualify and to detect faults in the design and fabrication of spacecraft and satellites. In the past decade some companies have begun using direct near field acoustic testing, employing speakers, for qualifying larger structures. A limited test data set obtained from recent acoustic tests of the same hardware exposed to both direct and reverberant acoustic field testing has indicated some differences in the resulting structural responses. In reverberant acoustic testing, higher vibration responses were observed at lower frequencies when compared with the direct acoustic testing. In the case of direct near field acoustic testing higher vibration responses appeared to occur at higher frequencies as well. In reverberant chamber testing and direct acoustic testing, standing acoustic modes of the reverberant chamber or the speakers and spacecraft parallel surfaces can strongly couple with the fundamental structural modes of the test hardware. In this paper data from recent acoustic testing of flight hardware, that yielded evidence of acoustic standing wave coupling with structural responses, are discussed in some detail. Convincing evidence of the acoustic standing wave/structural coupling phenomenon will be discussed, citing observations from acoustic testing of a simple aluminum plate. The implications of such acoustic coupling to testing of sensitive flight hardware will be discussed. The results discussed in this paper reveal issues with over or under testing of flight hardware that could pose unanticipated structural and flight qualification issues. Therefore, it is of paramount importance to understand the structural modal coupling with standing acoustic waves that has been observed in both methods of acoustic testing. This study will assist the community to choose an appropriate testing method and test setup in

  6. Variable-Position Acoustic Levitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barmatz, M. B.; Stoneburner, J. D.; Jacobi, N.; Wang, T. G.

    1983-01-01

    Method of acoustic levitation supports objects at positions other than acoustic nodes. Acoustic force is varied so it balances gravitational (or other) force, thereby maintaining object at any position within equilibrium range. Levitation method applicable to containerless processing. Such objects as table-tennis balls, hollow plastic spheres, and balsa-wood spheres levitated in laboratory by new method.

  7. Risk Assessment and Control through Countermeasure System Iplementation for Long-term Crew Exposure to Microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gernand, Jeremy M.

    2004-01-01

    Experience with the International Space Station (ISS) program demonstrates the degree to which engineering design and operational solutions must protect crewmembers from health risks due to long-term exposure to the microgravity environment. Risks to safety and health due to degradation in the microgravity environment include crew inability to complete emergency or nominal activities, increased risk of injury, and inability to complete safe return to the ground due to reduced strength or embrittled bones. These risks without controls slowly increase in probability for the length of the mission and become more significant for increasing mission durations. Countermeasures to microgravity include hardware systems that place a crewmember s body under elevated stress to produce an effect similar to daily exposure to gravity. The ISS countermeasure system is predominately composed of customized exercise machines. Historical treatment of microgravity countermeasure systems as medical research experiments unintentionally reduced the foreseen importance and therefore the capability of the systems to function in a long-term operational role. Long-term hazardous effects and steadily increasing operational risks due to non-functional countermeasure equipment require a more rigorous design approach and incorporation of redundancy into seemingly non- mission-critical hardware systems. Variations in the rate of health degradation and responsiveness to countermeasures among the crew population drastically increase the challenge for design requirements development and verification of the appropriate risk control strategy. The long-term nature of the hazards and severe limits on logistical re-supply mass, volume and frequency complicates assessment of hardware availability and verification of an adequate maintenance and sparing plan. Design achievement of medically defined performance requirements by microgravity countermeasure systems and incorporation of adequate failure tolerance

  8. The Role of Countermeasures in Mitigating the Radiological Consequences of Nuclear Power Plant Accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tawfik, F. S.; Abdel-Aal, M.M., E-mail: basant572000@yahoo.com [Siting & Environmental Department, Nuclear and Radiological Regulatory Authority, Cairo (Egypt)

    2014-10-15

    During the Fukushima accident the mitigation actions played an important role to decrease the consequences of the accident. The countermeasures are the actions that should be taken after the occurrence of a nuclear accident to protect the public against the associated risk. The actions may be represented by sheltering, evacuation, distribution of stable iodine tablets and/or relocation. This study represents a comprehensive probabilistic study to investigate the role of the adoption of the countermeasures in case of a hypothetical accident of type LOCA for a nuclear power plant of PWR (1000 Mw) type. This work was achieved through running of the PC COSYMA{sup (1)} code. The effective doses in different organs, short and long term health effects, and the associated risks were calculated with and without countermeasures. In addition, the overall costs of the accident and the costs of countermeasures are estimated which represent our first trials to know how much the postulated accident costs. The source term of a hypothetical accident is determined by knowing the activity of the core inventory. The meteorological conditions around the site in addition to the population distribution were utilized as input parameters. The stability conditions and the height of atmospheric boundary layers ABL of the concerned site were determined by developing a computer program utilizing Pasquill-Gifford atmospheric stability conditions. The results showed that, the area around the site requires early and late countermeasures actions after the accident especially in the downwind sectors. For late countermeasures, the duration of relocation ranged from about two to 10 years. The adoption of the countermeasures increases the costs of emergency planning by 40% but reduces the risk associated with the accident. (author)

  9. Fundamentals of Acoustics. Psychoacoustics and Hearing. Acoustical Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begault, Durand R.; Ahumada, Al (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    These are 3 chapters that will appear in a book titled "Building Acoustical Design", edited by Charles Salter. They are designed to introduce the reader to fundamental concepts of acoustics, particularly as they relate to the built environment. "Fundamentals of Acoustics" reviews basic concepts of sound waveform frequency, pressure, and phase. "Psychoacoustics and Hearing" discusses the human interpretation sound pressure as loudness, particularly as a function of frequency. "Acoustic Measurements" gives a simple overview of the time and frequency weightings for sound pressure measurements that are used in acoustical work.

  10. Predicted effects of countermeasures on radiation doses from contaminated food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Hideaki; Nielsen, S.P.; Nielsen, F.

    1993-02-01

    Quantitative assessments of the effects on radiation-dose reductions from nine typical countermeasures against accidental fod contamination have been carried out with dynamic radioecological models. The foodstuffs are assumed to be contaminated with iodine-131, caesium-134 and caesium-137 after a release of radioactive materials from the Ringhals nuclear power station in Sweden resulting from a hypothetical core melt accident. The release of activity of these radionuclides is assumed at 0.07% of the core inventory of the unit 1 reactor (1600 TBq of I-131, 220 TBq of Cs-134 and 190 TBq of Cs-137). Radiation doses are estimated for the 55,000 affected inhabitants along the south-eastern coast of Sweden eating locally produced foodstuffs. The average effective dose equivalent to an individual in the critical group is predicted to be 2.9 mSv from food consumption contaminated with I-131. An accident occurring during winter is estimated to cause average individual doses of 0.32 mSv from Cs-134 and 0.47 mSv from Cs-137, and 9.4 mSv and 6.8 mSv from Cs-134 and Cs-137, respectively, for an accident occurring during summer. Doses from the intake of radioiodine may be reduced by up to a factor of 60 by rejecting contaminated food for 30 days. For the doses from radiocaesium, the largest effect is found form deep ploughing which may reduce the dose by up to a factor of 80. (au) (12 tabs., 6 ills., 19 refs.)

  11. Stabilized NADH as a Countermeasure for Jet Lag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Gary G.; Viirre, Erik; Clark, Jonathan

    2001-01-01

    Current remedies for jet lag (phototherapy, melatonin, stimulant, and sedative medications) are limited in efficacy and practicality. The efficacy of a stabilized, sublingual form of reduced nicotin amide adenine dinucleotide (NADH, ENADAlert, Menuco Corp.) as a countermeasure for jet lag was examined. Because NADH increases cellular production of ATP and facilitates dopamine synthesis, it may counteract the effects of jet lag on cognitive functioning and sleepiness. Thirty-five healthy, employed subjects participated in this double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Training and baseline testing were conducted on the West Coast before subjects flew overnight to the East Coast, where they would experience a 3-hour time difference. Upon arrival, individuals were randomly assigned to receive either 20 mg of sublingual stabilized ADH (n=18) or identical placebo tablets (n=17). All participants completed computer-administered tests (including CogScreen7) to assess changes in cognitive functioning, mood, and sleepiness in the morning and afternoon. Jet lag resulted in increased sleepiness for over half the participants and deterioration of cognitive functioning for approximately one third. The morning following the flight, subjects experienced lapses of attention in addition to disruptions in working memory, divided attention, and visual perceptual speed. Individuals who received NADH performed significantly better on 5 of 8 cognitive and psychomotor test measures (P less than or equal to 0.5) and showed a trend for better performance on the other three measures (P less than or equal to .l0). Subjects also reported less sleepiness compared with those who received placebo. No adverse effects were observed with NADH treatment. Stabilized NADH significantly reduced jet lag-induced disruptions of cognitive functioning, was easily administered, and was found to have no adverse side effects.

  12. Improved acoustic levitation apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, L. H.; Johnson, J. L.; Oran, W. A.; Reiss, D. A.

    1980-01-01

    Concave driver and reflector enhance and shape levitation forces in acoustic resonance system. Single-mode standing-wave pattern is focused by ring element situated between driver and reflector. Concave surfaces increase levitating forces up to factor of 6 as opposed to conventional flat surfaces, making it possible to suspend heavier objects.

  13. Acoustic cavitation studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crum, L. A.

    1981-09-01

    The primary thrust of this study was toward a more complete understanding of general aspects of acoustic cavitation. The effect of long-chain polymer additives on the cavitation threshold was investigated to determine if they reduced the acoustic cavitation threshold in a similar manner to the observed reduction in the cavitation index in hydrodynamic cavitation. Measurements were made of the acoustic cavitation threshold as a function of polymer concentration for additives such as guar gum and polyethelene oxide. The measurements were also made as a function of dissolved gas concentration, surface tension and viscosity. It was determined that there was a significant increase in the acoustic cavitation threshold for increased concentrations of the polymer additives (measurable effects could be obtained for concentrations as low as a few parts per million). One would normally expect that an additive that reduces surface tension to decrease the pressure required to cause a cavity to grow and thus these additives, at first thought, should reduce the threshold. However, even in the hydrodynamic case, the threshold was increased. In both of the hydrodynamic cases considered, the explanation for the increased threshold was given in terms of changed fluid dynamics rather than changed physical properties of the fluid.

  14. Acoustic Neuroma Educational Video

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cumming, GA 30041 770-205-8211 info@ANAUSA.org The world’s #1 acoustic neuroma resource Click to ... Cumming, GA 30041 770-205-8211 info@ANAUSA.org About ANA Mission, Vision & Values Leadership & Staff Annual ...

  15. Evoked acoustic emission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elberling, C; Parbo, J; Johnsen, N J

    1985-01-01

    Stimulated acoustic emissions were recorded in response to tonal stimuli at 60 dB p.e. SPL in a small group of normal-hearing adults. Power spectral analysis reveals that the evoked activity from each ear contains energy in preferential frequency bands and the change of stimulus frequency has only...

  16. Portable acoustic myography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, Adrian Paul; Danneskiold-Samsøe, Bente; Bartels, Else Marie

    2013-01-01

    Muscle sound gives a local picture of muscles involved in a particular movement and is independent of electrical signals between nerve and muscle. Sound recording (acoustic myography) is a well-known noninvasive technique that has suffered from not being easily applicable, as well as not being able...

  17. Surface Acoustic Wave Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dühring, Maria Bayard

    The work of this project is concerned with the simulation of surface acoustic waves (SAW) and topology optimization of SAW devices. SAWs are elastic vibrations that propagate along a material surface and are extensively used in electromechanical filters and resonators in telecommunication. A new...

  18. Acoustic force spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sitters, G.; Kamsma, D.; Thalhammer, G.; Ritsch-Marte, M.; Peterman, E.J.G.; Wuite, G.J.L.

    2015-01-01

    Force spectroscopy has become an indispensable tool to unravel the structural and mechanochemical properties of biomolecules. Here we extend the force spectroscopy toolbox with an acoustic manipulation device that can exert forces from subpiconewtons to hundreds of piconewtons on thousands of

  19. Underwater Acoustic Networking Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Otnes, Roald; Casari, Paolo; Goetz, Michael; Husøy, Thor; Nissen, Ivor; Rimstad, Knut; van Walree, Paul; Zorzi, Michele

    2012-01-01

    This literature study presents an overview of underwater acoustic networking. It provides a background and describes the state of the art of all networking facets that are relevant for underwater applications. This report serves both as an introduction to the subject and as a summary of existing protocols, providing support and inspiration for the development of network architectures.

  20. Acoustic Surface Cavitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlstra, A.G.

    2011-01-01

    Merely the presence of compressible entities, known as bubbles, greatly enriches the physical phenomena encountered when introducing ultrasound in a liquid. Mediated by the response of these bubbles, the otherwise diffuse and relatively low energy density of the acoustic field can induce strong,

  1. Select Internet Resources on Acoustics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela R. Davis

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Merriam-Webster (2016 defines acoustics as, “a science that deals with the production, control, transmission, reception, and effects of sounds.” According to Rossing (2014, the study of acoustics began in ancient Greece with Pythagoras’ study of vibrating strings on musical instruments. Since those early beginnings, famous scientists including Rayleigh, Alexander Graham Bell, and Thomas Edison, have helped expand the field of acoustics to include architectural, physical, engineering, structural, underwater, physiological and psychological, musical acoustics, and speech. Acoustics is a highly interdisciplinary field and researchers may need resources from physics, medicine, and engineering to understand all aspects of their research.

  2. Holograms for acoustics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melde, Kai; Mark, Andrew G; Qiu, Tian; Fischer, Peer

    2016-09-22

    Holographic techniques are fundamental to applications such as volumetric displays, high-density data storage and optical tweezers that require spatial control of intricate optical or acoustic fields within a three-dimensional volume. The basis of holography is spatial storage of the phase and/or amplitude profile of the desired wavefront in a manner that allows that wavefront to be reconstructed by interference when the hologram is illuminated with a suitable coherent source. Modern computer-generated holography skips the process of recording a hologram from a physical scene, and instead calculates the required phase profile before rendering it for reconstruction. In ultrasound applications, the phase profile is typically generated by discrete and independently driven ultrasound sources; however, these can only be used in small numbers, which limits the complexity or degrees of freedom that can be attained in the wavefront. Here we introduce monolithic acoustic holograms, which can reconstruct diffraction-limited acoustic pressure fields and thus arbitrary ultrasound beams. We use rapid fabrication to craft the holograms and achieve reconstruction degrees of freedom two orders of magnitude higher than commercial phased array sources. The technique is inexpensive, appropriate for both transmission and reflection elements, and scales well to higher information content, larger aperture size and higher power. The complex three-dimensional pressure and phase distributions produced by these acoustic holograms allow us to demonstrate new approaches to controlled ultrasonic manipulation of solids in water, and of liquids and solids in air. We expect that acoustic holograms will enable new capabilities in beam-steering and the contactless transfer of power, improve medical imaging, and drive new applications of ultrasound.

  3. Acoustic field modulation in regenerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, J. Y.; Wang, W.; Luo, E. C.; Chen, Y. Y.

    2016-12-01

    The regenerator is a key component that transfers energy between heat and work. The conversion efficiency is significantly influenced by the acoustic field in the regenerator. Much effort has been spent to quantitatively determine this influence, but few comprehensive experimental verifications have been performed because of difficulties in modulating and measuring the acoustic field. In this paper, a method requiring two compressors is introduced and theoretically investigated that achieves acoustic field modulation in the regenerator. One compressor outputs the acoustic power for the regenerator; the other acts as a phase shifter. A RC load dissipates the acoustic power out of both the regenerator and the latter compressor. The acoustic field can be modulated by adjusting the current in the two compressors and opening the RC load. The acoustic field is measured with pressure sensors instead of flow-field imaging equipment, thereby greatly simplifying the experiment.

  4. Controlling sound with acoustic metamaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cummer, Steven A. ; Christensen, Johan; Alù, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Acoustic metamaterials can manipulate and control sound waves in ways that are not possible in conventional materials. Metamaterials with zero, or even negative, refractive index for sound offer new possibilities for acoustic imaging and for the control of sound at subwavelength scales....... The combination of transformation acoustics theory and highly anisotropic acoustic metamaterials enables precise control over the deformation of sound fields, which can be used, for example, to hide or cloak objects from incident acoustic energy. Active acoustic metamaterials use external control to create......-scale metamaterial structures and converting laboratory experiments into useful devices. In this Review, we outline the designs and properties of materials with unusual acoustic parameters (for example, negative refractive index), discuss examples of extreme manipulation of sound and, finally, provide an overview...

  5. A methodology for assessing the effect of countermeasures against a nuclear accident using fuzzy set theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, M.H.; Hwang, W.T.; Kim, E.H.; Suh, K.S.; Choi, Y.G.

    2000-01-01

    A methodology for assessing the effectiveness of countermeasures against a nuclear accident has been designed by means of the concept of fuzzy set theory. In most of the existing countermeasure models in actions under radiological emergencies, the large variety of possible features is simplified by a number of rough assumptions. During this simplification procedure, a lot of information is lost which results in much uncertainty concerning the output of the countermeasure model. Furthermore, different assumptions should be used for different sites to consider the site specific conditions. In this study, the diversity of each variable related to protective action has been modelled by the linguistic variable. The effectiveness of sheltering and evacuation has been estimated using the proposed method. The potential advantage of the proposed method is in reducing the loss of information by incorporating the opinions of experts and by introducing the linguistic variables which represent the site specific conditions. (author)

  6. The Cyber Defense (CyDef) Model for Assessing Countermeasure Capabilities.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, Margot [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); DeVries, Troy Robert [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gordon, Susanna P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Cybersecurity is essential to maintaining operations, and is now a de facto cost of business. Despite this, there is little consensus on how to systematically make decisions about cyber countermeasures investments. Identifying gaps and determining the expected return on investment (ROI) of adding a new cybersecurity countermeasure is frequently a hand-waving exercise at best. Worse, cybersecurity nomenclature is murky and frequently over-loaded, which further complicates issues by inhibiting clear communication. This paper presents a series of foundational models and nomenclature for discussing cybersecurity countermeasures, and then introduces the Cyber Defense (CyDef) model, which provides a systematic and intuitive way for decision-makers to effectively communicate with operations and device experts.

  7. Physical countermeasures to sustain acceptable living and working conditions in radioactively contaminated residential areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, K G; Roed, J; Eged, K [and others

    2003-02-01

    The Chernobyl accident highlighted the need in nuclear preparedness for robust, effective and sustainable countermeasure strategies for restoration of radioactively contaminated residential areas. Under the EC-supporter STRATEGY project a series of investigations were made of countermeasures that were deemed potentially applicable for implementation in such events in European Member States. The findings are presented in this report, in a standardised data sheet format to clarify the features of the individual methods and facilitate intercomparison. The aspects of averted doses and management of wastes generated by countermeasures had to be described separately to provide room for the required level of detail. The information is mainly intended as a tool for decision makers and planners and constitutes of basis for the STRATEGY decision framework for remediation of contaminated urban areas. (au)

  8. Physical countermeasures to sustain acceptable living and working conditions in radioactively contaminated residential areas

    CERN Document Server

    Andersson, K G; Roed, J

    2003-01-01

    The Chernobyl accident highlighted the need in nuclear preparedness for robust, effective and sustainable countermeasure strategies for restoration of radioactively contaminated residential areas. Under the EC-supporter STRATEGY project a series of investigations were made of countermeasures that were deemed potentially applicable for implementation in such events in European Member States. The findings are presented in this report, in a standardised data sheet format to clarify the features of the individual methods and facilitate intercomparison. The aspects of averted doses and management of wastes generated by countermeasures had to be described separately to provide room for the required level of detail. The information is mainly intended as a tool for decision makers and planners and constitutes of basis for the STRATEGY decision framework for remediation of contaminated urban areas. (au)

  9. Countermeasure against probabilistic blinding attack in practical quantum key distribution systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian Yong-Jun; Li Hong-Wei; He De-Yong; Yin Zhen-Qiang; Zhang Chun-Mei; Chen Wei; Wang Shuang; Han Zheng-Fu

    2015-01-01

    In a practical quantum key distribution (QKD) system, imperfect equipment, especially the single-photon detector, can be eavesdropped on by a blinding attack. However, the original blinding attack may be discovered by directly detecting the current. In this paper, we propose a probabilistic blinding attack model, where Eve probabilistically applies a blinding attack without being caught by using only an existing intuitive countermeasure. More precisely, our countermeasure solves the problem of how to define the bound in the limitation of precision of current detection, and then we prove security of the practical system by considering the current parameter. Meanwhile, we discuss the bound of the quantum bit error rate (QBER) introduced by Eve, by which Eve can acquire information without the countermeasure. (paper)

  10. Countermeasures for reduction of radioactive contamination of farm animals and animal products in agricultural ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poeschl, M.

    2006-01-01

    Contamination of food products reaching the consumer may be a serious problem following radioactive contamination deposited in the agricultural environment. A wide variety of measures is available to reduce or prevent the transfer of radionuclides through the food-chain and hence reduce the radiation dose to the consumer. This paper reviews both literature sources and practice of applying agricultural countermeasures: Interventions at the soil-plant step, at the plant-animal step, and at the foodstuff-man step. In practice, the most effective countermeasures which can be used to reduce radionuclide contamination of animals in agricultural ecosystems will be obtained by a combination of both management changes and the use of chemical binders to prevent gut absorption. Social, economic, and practical considerations of the countermeasures such as availability, technical feasibility, acceptability and side-effects need to be also taken into account. (authors)

  11. Outline of Fukushima nuclear accident and future action. Lessons learned from accident and countermeasure plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuda, Toshihiko

    2012-01-01

    Fukushima nuclear accident was caused by loss of all AC power sources (SBO) and loss of ultimate heat sink (LUHS) at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) hit by the Great East Japan Earthquake. This article reviewed outline of Fukushima nuclear accident progression when on year had passed since and referred to lessons learned from accident and countermeasure plan to prevent severe accident in SBO and LUHS events by earthquake and tsunami as future action. This countermeasure would be taken to (1) prevent serious flooding in case a tsunami overwhelms the breakwater, with improving water tightness of rooms for emergency diesel generator, batteries and power centers, (2) enhance emergency power supply and cooling function with mobile electricity generator, high pressure fire pump car and alternate water supply source, (3) mitigate environmental effects caused by core damage with installing containment filtered venting, and (4) enforce emergency preparedness in case of severe accident. Definite countermeasure plan for Kashiwazaki-Kariwa NPPs was enumerated. (T. Tanaka)

  12. Identifying optimal agricultural countermeasure strategies for a hypothetical contamination scenario using the strategy model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, G.; Beresford, N.A.; Alvarez-Farizo, B.; Oughton, D.; Kis, Z.; Eged, K.; Thorring, H.; Hunt, J.; Wright, S.; Barnett, C.L.; Gil, J.M.; Howard, B.J.; Crout, N.M.J.

    2005-01-01

    A spatially implemented model designed to assist the identification of optimal countermeasure strategies for radioactively contaminated regions is described. Collective and individual ingestion doses for people within the affected area are estimated together with collective exported ingestion dose. A range of countermeasures are incorporated within the model, and environmental restrictions have been included as appropriate. The model evaluates the effectiveness of a given combination of countermeasures through a cost function which balances the benefit obtained through the reduction in dose with the cost of implementation. The optimal countermeasure strategy is the combination of individual countermeasures (and when and where they are implemented) which gives the lowest value of the cost function. The model outputs should not be considered as definitive solutions, rather as interactive inputs to the decision making process. As a demonstration the model has been applied to a hypothetical scenario in Cumbria (UK). This scenario considered a published nuclear power plant accident scenario with a total deposition of 1.7 x 10 14 , 1.2 x 10 13 , 2.8 x 10 10 and 5.3 x 10 9 Bq for Cs-137, Sr-90, Pu-239/240 and Am-241, respectively. The model predicts that if no remediation measures were implemented the resulting collective dose would be approximately 36 000 person-Sv (predominantly from 137 Cs) over a 10-year period post-deposition. The optimal countermeasure strategy is predicted to avert approximately 33 000 person-Sv at a cost of approximately pound 160 million. The optimal strategy comprises a mixture of ploughing, AFCF (ammonium-ferric hexacyano-ferrate) administration, potassium fertiliser application, clean feeding of livestock and food restrictions. The model recommends specific areas within the contaminated area and time periods where these measures should be implemented

  13. Education in acoustics in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyara, Federico

    2002-11-01

    Over the last decades, education in acoustics (EA) in Argentina has experienced ups and downs due to economic and political issues interfering with long term projects. Unlike other countries, like Chile, where EA has reached maturity in spite of the acoustical industry having shown little development, Argentina has several well-established manufacturers of acoustic materials and equipment but no specific career with a major in acoustics. At the university level, acoustics is taught as a complementary--often elective--course for careers such as architecture, communication engineering, or music. In spite of this there are several research centers with programs covering environmental and community noise, effects of noise on man, acoustic signal processing, musical acoustics and acoustic emission, and several national and international meetings are held each year in which results are communicated and discussed. Several books on a variety of topics such as sound system, architectural acoustics, and noise control have been published as well. Another chapter in EA is technical and vocational education, ranging between secondary and postsecondary levels, with technical training on sound system operation or design. Over the last years there have been several attempts to implement master degrees in acoustics or audio engineering, with little or no success.

  14. A Comparative Analysis of State Traffic Safety Countermeasures and Implications for Progress “Toward Zero Deaths” in the United States : Traffic Safety Facts - Research Note

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    States use a variety of countermeasures to reduce traffic crashes, injuries, and fatalities within their jurisdictions. These countermeasures focus primarily on engineering, law enforcement, and public education (NHTSA, 2006). NHTSA's bi-annual publi...

  15. Acoustic energy harvesting based on a planar acoustic metamaterial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Shuibao; Oudich, Mourad; Li, Yong; Assouar, Badreddine

    2016-06-01

    We theoretically report on an innovative and practical acoustic energy harvester based on a defected acoustic metamaterial (AMM) with piezoelectric material. The idea is to create suitable resonant defects in an AMM to confine the strain energy originating from an acoustic incidence. This scavenged energy is converted into electrical energy by attaching a structured piezoelectric material into the defect area of the AMM. We show an acoustic energy harvester based on a meta-structure capable of producing electrical power from an acoustic pressure. Numerical simulations are provided to analyze and elucidate the principles and the performances of the proposed system. A maximum output voltage of 1.3 V and a power density of 0.54 μW/cm3 are obtained at a frequency of 2257.5 Hz. The proposed concept should have broad applications on energy harvesting as well as on low-frequency sound isolation, since this system acts as both acoustic insulator and energy harvester.

  16. Flat acoustic lens by acoustic grating with curled slits

    KAUST Repository

    Peng, Pai

    2014-10-01

    We design a flat sub-wavelength lens that can focus acoustic wave. We analytically study the transmission through an acoustic grating with curled slits, which can serve as a material with tunable impedance and refractive index for acoustic waves. The effective parameters rely on the geometry of the slits and are independent of frequency. A flat acoustic focusing lens by such acoustic grating with gradient effective refractive index is designed. The focusing effect is clearly observed in simulations and well predicted by the theory. We demonstrate that despite the large impedance mismatch between the acoustic lens and the matrix, the intensity at the focal point is still high due to Fabry-Perot resonance.

  17. A study on the application of countermeasure for the reduction of the ingestion dose after nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Won Tae; Suh, Kyung Suk; Kim, Eun Han; Choi, Young Gil; Han, Moon Hee; Cho, Gyu Seong

    1998-01-01

    The effectiveness of dose reduction resulting from the application of countermeasures for ingestion pathways after nuclear accidents was investigated together with the derivation of optimized intervention levels for Korean foodstuffs. The radioactivity in foodstuffs was predicted from a dynamic food chain model DYNACON for the date which the deposition occurs. The effectiveness of countermeasures strongly depended on radionuclides, foodstuffs and date of deposition

  18. Seminar on countermeasures for pipe cracking in BWRs. Volume 4 of 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-05-01

    Intergranular stress corrosion cracking of welded type 304 stainless steel in the recirculation piping of boiling water reactors has had an impact on plant availability and reliability since the fall of 1974. Investigations of this problem have resulted in significant progress in understanding the phenomenon and providing an engineering resolution by developing and qualifying countermeasures. A number of these countermeasures including solution heat treatment, corrosion resistant clad, alternate pipe materials, induction heating stress improvement and heat sink welding have been implemented. Separate abstracts are included for each of the papers presented.

  19. Twenty years' application of agricultural countermeasures following the Chernobyl accident: lessons learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fesenko, S V [International Atomic Energy Agency, 1400 Vienna (Austria); Alexakhin, R M [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, 249020 Obninsk (Russian Federation); Balonov, M I [International Atomic Energy Agency, 1400 Vienna (Austria); Bogdevich, I M [Research Institute for Soil Science and Agrochemistry, Minsk (Belarus); Howard, B J [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster LAI 4AP (United Kingdom); Kashparov, V A [Ukrainian Institute of Agricultural Radiology (UIAR), Mashinostroiteley Street 7, Chabany, Kiev Region 08162 (Ukraine); Sanzharova, N I [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, 249020 Obninsk (Russian Federation); Panov, A V [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, 249020 Obninsk (Russian Federation); Voigt, G [International Atomic Energy Agency, 1400 Vienna (Austria); Zhuchenka, Yu M [Research Institute of Radiology, 246000 Gomel (Belarus)

    2006-12-15

    The accident at the Chernobyl NPP (nuclear power plant) was the most serious ever to have occurred in the history of nuclear energy. The consumption of contaminated foodstuffs in affected areas was a significant source of irradiation for the population. A wide range of different countermeasures have been used to reduce exposure of people and to mitigate the consequences of the Chernobyl accident for agriculture in affected regions in Belarus, Russia and Ukraine. This paper for the first time summarises key data on countermeasure application over twenty years for all three countries and describes key lessons learnt from this experience. (review)

  20. Twenty years' application of agricultural countermeasures following the Chernobyl accident: lessons learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fesenko, S V; Alexakhin, R M; Balonov, M I; Bogdevich, I M; Howard, B J; Kashparov, V A; Sanzharova, N I; Panov, A V; Voigt, G; Zhuchenka, Yu M

    2006-01-01

    The accident at the Chernobyl NPP (nuclear power plant) was the most serious ever to have occurred in the history of nuclear energy. The consumption of contaminated foodstuffs in affected areas was a significant source of irradiation for the population. A wide range of different countermeasures have been used to reduce exposure of people and to mitigate the consequences of the Chernobyl accident for agriculture in affected regions in Belarus, Russia and Ukraine. This paper for the first time summarises key data on countermeasure application over twenty years for all three countries and describes key lessons learnt from this experience. (review)

  1. Seminar on countermeasures for pipe cracking in BWRs. Volume 2 of 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-05-01

    Intergranular stress corrosion cracking of welded type 304 stainless steel in the recirculation piping of boiling water reactors has had an impact on plant availability and reliability since the fall of 1974. Investigtions of this problem have resulted in significant progress in understanding the phenomenon and providing an engineering resolution by developing and qualifying countermeasures. A number of these countermeasures including solution heat treatment, corrosion resistant clad, alternate pipe materials, induction heating stress improvement and heat sink welding have been implemented. Separate abstracts are included for each of the papers presented.

  2. Public-relation and countermeasure in crisis in the area of nuclear and radiation safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ruiping

    2009-01-01

    We are living in the world filling crises, with information transparency and economy globalization. The public-relation is one of important measures against those crises, whose achievements have been proved in our past practices. The countermeasure is a complementarity with propaganda and crises preparation for crises. It is a new field, needing new ideas and technology to fit developing situations, and new conceptions and countermeasures to set it up. In the article, the author is trying to explain why to apply the measure to answer crises in the nuclear and radiation safety management. (author)

  3. An acoustic prion assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon Hayward

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available An acoustic prion assay has been demonstrated for sheep brain samples. Only five false positives and no false negatives were observed in a test of 45 positive and 45 negative samples. The acoustic prion sensor was constructed using a thickness shear mode quartz resonator coated with a covalently bound recombinant prion protein. The characteristic indicator of a scrapie infected sheep brain sample was an observed shoulder in the frequency decrease in response to a sample.The response of the sensor aligns with a conformational shift in the surface protein and with the propagation mechanism of the disease. This alignment is evident in the response timing and shape, dependence on concentration, cross species behaviour and impact of blood plasma. This alignment is far from sufficient to prove the mechanism of the sensor but it does offer the possibility of a rapid and inexpensive additional tool to explore prion disease. Keywords: Prions, Thickness shear mode quartz sensor

  4. The acoustics of snoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pevernagie, Dirk; Aarts, Ronald M; De Meyer, Micheline

    2010-04-01

    Snoring is a prevalent disorder affecting 20-40% of the general population. The mechanism of snoring is vibration of anatomical structures in the pharyngeal airway. Flutter of the soft palate accounts for the harsh aspect of the snoring sound. Natural or drug-induced sleep is required for its appearance. Snoring is subject to many influences such as body position, sleep stage, route of breathing and the presence or absence of sleep-disordered breathing. Its presentation may be variable within or between nights. While snoring is generally perceived as a social nuisance, rating of its noisiness is subjective and, therefore, inconsistent. Objective assessment of snoring is important to evaluate the effect of treatment interventions. Moreover, snoring carries information relating to the site and degree of obstruction of the upper airway. If evidence for monolevel snoring at the site of the soft palate is provided, the patient may benefit from palatal surgery. These considerations have inspired researchers to scrutinize the acoustic characteristics of snoring events. Similarly to speech, snoring is produced in the vocal tract. Because of this analogy, existing techniques for speech analysis have been applied to evaluate snoring sounds. It appears that the pitch of the snoring sound is in the low-frequency range (noise-like', and has scattered energy content in the higher spectral sub-bands (>500 Hz). To evaluate acoustic properties of snoring, sleep nasendoscopy is often performed. Recent evidence suggests that the acoustic quality of snoring is markedly different in drug-induced sleep as compared with natural sleep. Most often, palatal surgery alters sound characteristics of snoring, but is no cure for this disorder. It is uncertain whether the perceived improvement after palatal surgery, as judged by the bed partner, is due to an altered sound spectrum. Whether some acoustic aspects of snoring, such as changes in pitch, have predictive value for the presence of

  5. Osmotic Acoustic Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-25

    Technology Transfer at (401) 832-1511. DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT Approved for Public Release Distribution is unlimited Attorney Docket No...in the enclosure through osmosis. Valves open at a specified time after the liquid injection to free flood between the enclosure and the...the timing of the salt jets and the free-flooding valves enables a repeatable Attorney Docket No. 300070 4 of 14 acoustic pulse at low

  6. Ocean acoustic tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornuelle, Bruce D; Worcester, Peter F; Dzieciuch, Matthew A

    2008-01-01

    Ocean acoustic tomography (OAT) was proposed in 1979 by Walter Munk and Carl Wunsch as an analogue to x-ray computed axial tomography for the oceans. The oceans are opaque to most electromagnetic radiation, but there is a strong acoustic waveguide, and sound can propagate for 10 Mm and more with distinct multiply-refracted ray paths. Transmitting broadband pulses in the ocean leads to a set of impulsive arrivals at the receiver which characterize the impulse response of the sound channel. The peaks observed at the receiver are assumed to represent the arrival of energy traveling along geometric ray paths. These paths can be distinguished by arrival time, and by arrival angle when a vertical array of receivers is available. Changes in ray arrival time can be used to infer changes in ocean structure. Ray travel time measurements have been a mainstay of long-range acoustic measurements, but the strong sensitivity of ray paths to range-dependent sound speed perturbations makes the ray sampling functions uncertain in real cases. In the ray approximation travel times are sensitive to medium changes only along the corresponding eigenrays. Ray theory is an infinite-frequency approximation, and its eikonal equation has nonlinearities not found in the acoustic wave equation. We build on recent seismology results (kernels for body wave arrivals in the earth) to characterize the kernel for converting sound speed change in the ocean to travel time changes using more complete propagation physics. Wave-theoretic finite frequency kernels may show less sensitivity to small-scale sound speed structure.

  7. Anisotropy of acoustic properties in paratellurite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parygin, Vladimir N.

    1996-01-01

    One of the peculiarities of the TeO 2 crystal consists of its strong acoustic anisotropy. This anisotropy demonstrates itself by acoustic energy walk-off and anisotropic distortion of an acoustic beam. Four constants completely characterise the acoustic anisotropy of the medium. In this paper these constants are calculated for various directions of the acoustic beam in crystal. (authors)

  8. Canada Basin Acoustic Propagation Experiment (CANAPE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    acoustic communications, acoustic navigation, or acoustic remote sensing of the ocean interior . RELATED PROJECTS The 2015 CANAPE pilot study was a...1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Canada Basin Acoustic Propagation Experiment (CANAPE...ocean structure. Changes in sea ice and the water column affect both acoustic propagation and ambient noise. This implies that what was learned

  9. Acoustically enhanced heat transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ang, Kar M.; Hung, Yew Mun; Tan, Ming K., E-mail: tan.ming.kwang@monash.edu [School of Engineering, Monash University Malaysia, 47500 Bandar Sunway, Selangor (Malaysia); Yeo, Leslie Y. [Micro/Nanophysics Research Laboratory, RMIT University, Melbourne, VIC 3001 (Australia); Friend, James R. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, San Diego, California 92093 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    We investigate the enhancement of heat transfer in the nucleate boiling regime by inducing high frequency acoustic waves (f ∼ 10{sup 6} Hz) on the heated surface. In the experiments, liquid droplets (deionized water) are dispensed directly onto a heated, vibrating substrate. At lower vibration amplitudes (ξ{sub s} ∼ 10{sup −9} m), the improved heat transfer is mainly due to the detachment of vapor bubbles from the heated surface and the induced thermal mixing. Upon increasing the vibration amplitude (ξ{sub s} ∼ 10{sup −8} m), the heat transfer becomes more substantial due to the rapid bursting of vapor bubbles happening at the liquid-air interface as a consequence of capillary waves travelling in the thin liquid film between the vapor bubble and the air. Further increases then lead to rapid atomization that continues to enhance the heat transfer. An acoustic wave displacement amplitude on the order of 10{sup −8} m with 10{sup 6} Hz order frequencies is observed to produce an improvement of up to 50% reduction in the surface temperature over the case without acoustic excitation.

  10. Bilateral acoustic neuromas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, V T; Byrnes, D P; Walby, A P; Kerr, A G

    1993-10-01

    This article reviews 12 patients with bilateral acoustic neuromas. The sex incidence was equal and the mean age at diagnosis was 26.2 years. The family history was positive in nine of the patients. Five patients have had incomplete surgical removal of acoustic neuromas on both sides. Two of them are completely deaf and the other three have severe sensorineural hearing loss in one ear and no hearing in the other ear. In five patients the tumour on one side has been operated on and the other side is being observed with at least short-term preservation of good hearing. The remaining two patients died of intra-cranial complications, one of them post-operatively. Four patients developed facial palsy immediately following surgery and one developed facial weakness 6 months after surgery. Guidelines are discussed for the care of these patients including the timing of surgery and alternative treatment options (observation, radio-surgery and chemotherapy). This is essentially a group of young individuals who have had multiple operations for bilateral acoustic tumours and associated manifestations and for whom the disease and the sequelae of treatment can be tragic.

  11. High-Frequency Seafloor Acoustics

    CERN Document Server

    Jackson, Darrell R

    2007-01-01

    High-Frequency Seafloor Acoustics is the first book in a new series sponsored by the Office of Naval Research on the latest research in underwater acoustics. This exciting new title provides ready access to experimental data, theory, and models relevant to high-frequency seafloor acoustics and will be of interest to sonar engineers and researchers working in underwater acoustics. The physical characteristics of the seafloor affecting acoustic propagation and scattering are covered, including physical and geoacoustic properties and surface roughness. Current theories for acoustic propagation in sediments are presented along with corresponding models for reflection, scattering, and seafloor penetration. The main text is backed up by an extensive bibliography and technical appendices.

  12. Fundamentals of Shallow Water Acoustics

    CERN Document Server

    Katsnelson, Boris; Lynch, James

    2012-01-01

    Shallow water acoustics (SWA), the study of how low and medium frequency sound propagates and scatters on the continental shelves of the world's oceans, has both technical interest and a large number of practical applications. Technically, shallow water poses an interesting medium for the study of acoustic scattering, inverse theory, and propagation physics in a complicated oceanic waveguide. Practically, shallow water acoustics has interest for geophysical exploration, marine mammal studies, and naval applications. Additionally, one notes the very interdisciplinary nature of shallow water acoustics, including acoustical physics, physical oceanography, marine geology, and marine biology. In this specialized volume, the authors, all of whom have extensive at-sea experience in U.S. and Russian research efforts, have tried to summarize the main experimental, theoretical, and computational results in shallow water acoustics, with an emphasis on providing physical insight into the topics presented.

  13. Shallow-Water Mud Acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Shallow-Water Mud Acoustics William L. Siegmann...models and methods that explain observed material and acoustic properties of different physical types of shallow-ocean mud sediments. Other goals...are to assess prior data relating to the acoustic properties of mud and to provide guidance in the development and interpretation of experiments. A

  14. Coupled Acoustic-Mechanical Bandgaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard; Kook, Junghwan

    2016-01-01

    medium and the presence of acoustic resonances. It is demonstrated that corrugation of the plate structure can introduce bending wave bandgaps and bandgaps in the acoustic domain in overlapping and audible frequency ranges. This effect is preserved also when taking the physical coupling between the two...... domains into account. Additionally, the coupling is shown to introduce extra gaps in the band structure due to modal interaction and the appearance of a cut-on frequency for the fundamental acoustic mode....

  15. Acoustic Communications Measurement Systems (ACOMMS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Design and develop adaptive signal processing techniques to improve underwater acoustic communications and networking. Phase coherent and incoherent signal...

  16. Sinusoidal Representation of Acoustic Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Masaaki

    Sinusoidal representation of acoustic signals has been an important tool in speech and music processing like signal analysis, synthesis and time scale or pitch modifications. It can be applicable to arbitrary signals, which is an important advantage over other signal representations like physical modeling of acoustic signals. In sinusoidal representation, acoustic signals are composed as sums of sinusoid (sine wave) with different amplitudes, frequencies and phases, which is based on the timedependent short-time Fourier transform (STFT). This article describes the principles of acoustic signal analysis/synthesis based on a sinusoid representation with focus on sine waves with rapidly varying frequency.

  17. Guided acoustic wave inspection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinn, Diane J.

    2004-10-05

    A system for inspecting a conduit for undesirable characteristics. A transducer system induces guided acoustic waves onto said conduit. The transducer system detects the undesirable characteristics of the conduit by receiving guided acoustic waves that contain information about the undesirable characteristics. The conduit has at least two sides and the transducer system utilizes flexural modes of propagation to provide inspection using access from only the one side of the conduit. Cracking is detected with pulse-echo testing using one transducer to both send and receive the guided acoustic waves. Thinning is detected in through-transmission testing where one transducer sends and another transducer receives the guided acoustic waves.

  18. Tunable coupled surface acoustic cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima, M. M.; Santos, P. V.; Kosevich, Yu. A.; Cantarero, A.

    2012-06-01

    We demonstrate the electric tuning of the acoustic field in acoustic microcavities (MCs) defined by a periodic arrangement of metal stripes within a surface acoustic delay line on LiNbO3 substrate. Interferometric measurements show the enhancement of the acoustic field distribution within a single MC, the presence of a "bonding" and "anti-bonding" modes for two strongly coupled MCs, as well as the positive dispersion of the "mini-bands" formed by five coupled MCs. The frequency and amplitude of the resonances can be controlled by the potential applied to the metal stripes.

  19. Transition section for acoustic waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karplus, H.H.B.

    1975-01-01

    A means of facilitating the transmission of acoustic waves with minimal reflection between two regions having different specific acoustic impedances is described comprising a region exhibiting a constant product of cross-sectional area and specific acoustic impedance at each cross-sectional plane along the axis of the transition region. A variety of structures that exhibit this feature is disclosed, the preferred embodiment comprising a nested structure of doubly reentrant cones. This structure is useful for monitoring the operation of nuclear reactors in which random acoustic signals are generated in the course of operation

  20. Combined Environment Acoustic Chamber (CEAC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose: The CEAC imposes combined acoustic, thermal and mechanical loads on aerospace structures. The CEAC is employed to measure structural response and determine...

  1. NDE Acoustic Microscopy Research Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The purpose is to develop advanced, more effective high-resolution micro-NDE materials characterization methods using scanning acoustic microscopy. The laboratory's...

  2. Ion-acoustic plasma turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bychenkov, V.Y.; Silin, V.P.

    1982-01-01

    A theory is developed of the nonlinear state that is established in a plasma as a result of development of ion-acoustic instability. Account is taken simultaneously of the linear induced scattering of the waves by the ions and of the quasilinear relaxation of the electrons by the ion-acoustic pulsations. The distribution of the ion-acoustic turbulence in frequency and in angle is obtained. An Ohm's law is established and expressions are obtained for the electronic heat flux and for the relaxation time of the electron temperature in a turbulent plasma. Anomalously large absorption and scattering of the electromagnetic waves by the ion-acoustic pulsations is predicted

  3. Impact of bed rest on conduit artery remodeling: effect of exercise countermeasures.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijnhoven, N.T.L. van; Green, D.J.; Felsenberg, D.; Belavy, D.L.; Hopman, M.T.E.; Thijssen, D.H.J.

    2010-01-01

    Physical inactivity is a potent stimulus for vascular remodeling, leading to a marked decrease in conduit artery diameter. However, little is known about the impact of physical inactivity on artery wall thickness or wall:lumen ratio or the potential of exercise countermeasures to modify artery wall

  4. Data sheet based countermeasure evaluation for radioactively contaminated Nordic food-producing areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, K.G.; Roed, J.; Rantavaara, A.; Rosen, K.; Salbu, B.; Skipperud, L.

    2002-01-01

    A Nordic expert group has identified and critically evaluated the countermeasures that may potentially be implemented in connection with major nuclear accident situations contaminating Nordic food-producing areas. This paper demonstrates how the derived technical information can be applied by decision-makers to identify practicable and cost-effective means for mitigation of the impact of contamination. (au)

  5. Several problems and their countermeasures of recent developments in nuclear techniques in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Yuanfu

    1993-01-01

    The nuclear technique that is developing at top speed in China is introduced. Several characteristics of recent international developments in nuclear techniques are discussed and a precise classification is suggested. Particularly the present problems and their countermeasures of recent developments in nuclear techniques in China are explored

  6. Countermeasure to plant life management of the nuclear power plants out of Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Some investigations on countermeasure to plant life management of the nuclear power plants were begun since beginning of 1990s under cooperation with Ministry of International Trade and Industry and all electric power companies under consideration of recent state on abroad and at concept of preventive conservation implementation against the plant life management. As a result, the Tokyo Electric Power Company, the Kansai Electric Power Company and the Japan Atomic Power Company settled each program on countermeasure to plant life management of the Fukushima-1 Power Plant, the Mihama-1 Power Plant and the Tsuruga-1 Power Plant, respectively, which were reported to the Atomic Energy Safety Commission to issue on February, 1999, after deliberation in the Adviser Group of Ministry of International Trade and Industry. Such investigations on countermeasure to the plant life management are also conducted out of Japan in parallel to those in Japan, which contain programs reflecting states of operation and maintenance of nuclear power plants and atmosphere around atomic energy in each country. Here were described on some present states of the countermeasures to plant life management in U.S.A., France, Germany, Sweden, England and so forth. (G.K.)

  7. 77 FR 2556 - Ethical and Regulatory Challenges in the Development of Pediatric Medical Countermeasures; Public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-18

    ...] Ethical and Regulatory Challenges in the Development of Pediatric Medical Countermeasures; Public Workshop... Administration (FDA), Office of Pediatric Therapeutics, is announcing a public workshop entitled ``Ethical and... provide a forum for careful consideration of scientific, ethical, and regulatory issues confronting FDA...

  8. Present condition and countermeasures for nuclear application environmental impact assessment in Jiangsu province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai Xia; Huang Xin

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, with the deepening of nuclear and radiation safety supervision, great advances have been made in nuclear application environmental impact assessment in Jiangsu province. But some problems and deficiencies still exist in management. This paper describes the present management situation of nuclear application environmental impact assessment, analysis and discusses the existing problems as well as their countermeasures. (authors)

  9. Data sheet based countermeasure evaluation for radioactively contaminated Nordic food-producing areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, K.G.; Roed, J. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark); Rantavaara, A. [STUK, Helsinki (Finland); Rosen, K. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden); Salbu, B.; Skipperud, L. [Agricultural Univ. of Norway, Aas (Norway)

    2002-04-01

    A Nordic expert group has identified and critically evaluated the countermeasures that may potentially be implemented in connection with major nuclear accident situations contaminating Nordic food-producing areas. This paper demonstrates how the derived technical information can be applied by decision-makers to identify practicable and cost-effective means for mitigation of the impact of contamination. (au)

  10. ECONO-MARC: A method for assessing the cost of emergency countermeasures after an accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, M.J.; Dionian, J.

    1982-12-01

    A method is proposed for assessing the cost of emergency countermeasures taken to reduce radiation exposures after an accidental release of radionuclides into the environment. The cost is estimated as the potential loss of goods and services due to the imposition of countermeasures, measured by a lost contribution to the nation's Gross Domestic Product (GDP). A primary aim in developing such a method is to provide the basis for clear quantitative inputs to difficult decisions in emergency planning; decisions on whether to apply countermeasures, and on the extent to which they should be applied. The method should also provide useful inputs to nuclear siting policy and to safety design assessments. While the method should aid decision-making, it does not measure all the costs; other major costs of nuclear accidents, such as the loss of nuclear plant capacity and the social disruption caused by countermeasures require separate additional assessment. The models in the MARC procedure for accident assessment are under continuing review. This memorandum records the method currently included in ECONO-MARC; additional models and improved procedures will be incorporated, as appropriate, in the future. (author)

  11. Assessment of agricultural countermeasures and the development of the decision support system 'FORCON'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fesenko, S.V.; Sanzharova, N.I.; Perepelyatnikova, L.V.; Prister, B.S.; Wilkins, B.T.; Bouzdalkin, C.N.

    1996-01-01

    A large amount of data on agricultural countermeasures has been complied and assessed within an EC-sponsored collaborative project. The results of the work are summarized, and the development of a predictive tool to aid decisions at the local level is briefly described

  12. Assessing potential secondary effects of countermeasures in agricultural systems: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salt, C.A.; Rafferty, B.

    2001-01-01

    Secondary effects are defined as any positive or negative impacts resulting from the application of countermeasures other than radiological benefits or direct costs. They are categorised into environmental, radioecological, economic and social effects. Impacts on the environment may include changes in water, air and soil pollution or in the conservation and amenity value of an area. Radioecological effects occur when the countermeasure unintentionally alters the behaviour of the target radionuclide or any other radionuclide present. Economic effects may range from changes in agricultural income to environmental costs (e.g. impact of soil erosion on fisheries). Social effects relate to the acceptability of countermeasures, for example in terms of consumer confidence and animal welfare. Recent research into the identification and assessment of secondary effects is summarised. Non-quantitative and quantitative approaches are explained and formal evaluation procedures involving decision matrices and decision support systems are introduced. Examples of recent experimental and modelling work focusing on radiocaesium are given for the following countermeasures: soil application of potassium, administration of AFCF to livestock and ploughing techniques

  13. Design and Implementation of a New Real-Time Frequency Sensor Used as Hardware Countermeasure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Pedro-Carrasco

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A new digital countermeasure against attacks related to the clock frequency is presented. This countermeasure, known as frequency sensor, consists of a local oscillator, a transition detector, a measurement element and an output block. The countermeasure has been designed using a full-custom technique implemented in an Application-Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC, and the implementation has been verified and characterized with an integrated design using a 0.35 mm standard Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS technology (Very Large Scale Implementation—VLSI implementation. The proposed solution is configurable in resolution time and allowed range of period, achieving a minimum resolution time of only 1.91 ns and an initialization time of 5.84 ns. The proposed VLSI implementation shows better results than other solutions, such as digital ones based on semi-custom techniques and analog ones based on band pass filters, all design parameters considered. Finally, a counter has been used to verify the good performance of the countermeasure in avoiding the success of an attack.

  14. Influence of spatial variation on countermeasures with special regards to animal food products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voigt, G.; Kiefer, P.

    2000-07-01

    In the context of SAVE, soil and animal based countermeasures have been considered as well as human based ones: In this technical deliverable we have considered the following countermeasures: - Soil-plant transfer: The effectiveness of Ca, K, fertilisers and substances with a high cation exchange capacity on the transfer of radiocaesium from soil to plant for different soil types within Europe have been considered. In addition, the fertility status of soils will give an indication of the potential effectiveness of fertilisation. In this report the effect of K application in a specified area and a given contamination scenario is evaluated and demonstrated. - Plant-animal transfer: A wide range of countermeasures is available to directly reduce transfer of radionuclides to animals, and thereby animal products. The preferred option will always be the most cost effective and practically acceptable one, for both producers and consumers. In this report collection of animal based countermeasures for Cs, Sr and I with special respect to their acceptability, effectiveness and spatial variation is presented. The contribution and importance of countries in import and export of feedstuff used for animals is estimated based on trading information. (orig.)

  15. Pollution Status of Dioxins Persistent Organic Pollutants in Guangxi and Control Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Hua; Fan Yongji; Feng Bo; Chen Zhiming; Mo Zhaoyu

    2017-01-01

    Production and pollution control situations of dioxins persistent organic pollutants in Guangxi were introduced.Pollution status of dioxins persistent organic pollutants in Guangxi was understood,and the existing problems in pollution control were analyzed,and finally pollution control countermeasures and suggestions were proposed.

  16. Improving the Effectiveness of Countermeasures to Prevent Motor Vehicle Crashes among Young Drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons-Morton, Bruce G.; Hartos, Jessica L.

    2003-01-01

    Motor vehicle crashes (MVCs) are the leading cause of injury and death among adolescents 16 to 19 years of age. Three areas of countermeasures for decreasing young driver risk are driver education, licensing policies, and parental management. Driver education is an essential part of teaching adolescents the rules of the road and operating a…

  17. 76 FR 72120 - Oil Pollution Prevention; Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure (SPCC) Rule-Compliance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-22

    ... Oil Pollution Prevention; Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure (SPCC) Rule--Compliance Date... rule will be effective November 22, 2011. List of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 112 Oil pollution prevention... Regulations is amended as follows: PART 112--OIL POLLUTION PREVENTION 0 1. The authority citation for part 112...

  18. 76 FR 64296 - Oil Pollution Prevention; Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure (SPCC) Rule-Compliance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-18

    ... Oil Pollution Prevention; Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure (SPCC) Rule--Compliance Date... Federal Register. List of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 112 Oil pollution prevention, Farms, Compliance date... proposing to amend the date by which farms must prepare or amend, and implement their Spill Prevention...

  19. 76 FR 64245 - Oil Pollution Prevention; Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure (SPCC) Rule-Compliance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-18

    ... Oil Pollution Prevention; Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure (SPCC) Rule--Compliance Date... burden to comply with the regulations contained in 40 CFR part 112--Oil Pollution Prevention. However, in... rule will be effective November 7, 2011. List of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 112 Oil pollution prevention...

  20. Current Situations and Countermeasures of Development of Kiwifruit Industry in Guizhou Province

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Wei; Wan, Ming-chang; Yang, Sheng-jun; Zhang, Xue; Qiao, Rong

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of current development situations of planting, scientific research and processing of kiwifruit industry in Guizhou Province, the paper analyzes main factors restricting development of kiwifruit industry, including lack of unified planning, standardized planting specifications, and backward management of kiwifruit orchard. In accordance with current development situations and restricting factors, the paper presents some countermeasures for development of kiwifruit industry in Guiz...

  1. Acoustic transparency and slow sound using detuned acoustic resonators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santillan, Arturo Orozco; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate that the phenomenon of acoustic transparency and slowsound propagation can be realized with detuned acoustic resonators (DAR), mimicking thereby the effect of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in atomic physics. Sound propagation in a pipe with a series of side...

  2. Evaluation of countermeasures for red light running by traffic simulator-based surrogate safety measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Changju; So, Jaehyun Jason; Ma, Jiaqi

    2018-01-02

    The conflicts among motorists entering a signalized intersection with the red light indication have become a national safety issue. Because of its sensitivity, efforts have been made to investigate the possible causes and effectiveness of countermeasures using comparison sites and/or before-and-after studies. Nevertheless, these approaches are ineffective when comparison sites cannot be found, or crash data sets are not readily available or not reliable for statistical analysis. Considering the random nature of red light running (RLR) crashes, an inventive approach regardless of data availability is necessary to evaluate the effectiveness of each countermeasure face to face. The aims of this research are to (1) review erstwhile literature related to red light running and traffic safety models; (2) propose a practical methodology for evaluation of RLR countermeasures with a microscopic traffic simulation model and surrogate safety assessment model (SSAM); (3) apply the proposed methodology to actual signalized intersection in Virginia, with the most prevalent scenarios-increasing the yellow signal interval duration, installing an advance warning sign, and an RLR camera; and (4) analyze the relative effectiveness by RLR frequency and the number of conflicts (rear-end and crossing). All scenarios show a reduction in RLR frequency (-7.8, -45.5, and -52.4%, respectively), but only increasing the yellow signal interval duration results in a reduced total number of conflicts (-11.3%; a surrogate safety measure of possible RLR-related crashes). An RLR camera makes the greatest reduction (-60.9%) in crossing conflicts (a surrogate safety measure of possible angle crashes), whereas increasing the yellow signal interval duration results in only a 12.8% reduction of rear-end conflicts (a surrogate safety measure of possible rear-end crash). Although increasing the yellow signal interval duration is advantageous because this reduces the total conflicts (a possibility of total

  3. The weeping cow: impact of countermeasures on daily life in Chernobyl contaminated regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mays, C.; Avetova, E.; Murphy, M.; Allen, P.

    1998-01-01

    Twelve years after the Chernobyl catastrophe, what is the daily life of rural dwellers in contaminated regions of Belarus and the Ukraine? Over the years, protective countermeasures have been applied or withdrawn, and radiation protection advice is still in effect concerning e.g. the consumption of milk or of forest food products. How is that advice regarded by villagers? To what extent do they comply or not comply, and what is their reasoning? How are countermeasures woven into the fabric of social life? In the goal of optimisation, radiation protection countermeasures may be evaluated as the sum of individual dose averted, cost, and distress. A detailed formula exists for calculating dose, but social and economic costs, and individual distress, are in need of modelling.. Twelve focus groups (10 in Belarus, 2 in Ukraine; six groups each of men or of women) were consulted in an effort to develop a convincing and workable definition of distress experienced by members of the rural communities affected by Chernobyl. Stresses introduced by countermeasures, or linked to other aspects of the post-accidental situation, were identified. A systematic content analysis was carried out, bearing on the benefits or satisfactions linked to focus behaviours (e.g, milk consumption, forest visits...), distress experienced, attitudes towards countermeasures, impacts and management of information, etc. The focus group transcripts contain telling, humorous or poignant representations of how people carry on living in the face of threat, uncertainty, and absurdity. This presentation explores social representations of milk, and some of the reported impacts in the Belarus settlements of the post-accident restrictions on milk production and consumption. SPARPA or Social psychological aspects of radiation protection after accidents, is a European Commission part-funded project (F14C-CT96-0010) involving U. Surrey European Institute of Health an Medical Science, Symlog, and UK National

  4. Acoustic Mechanical Feedthroughs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Walkemeyer, Phillip; Bao, Xiaoqi; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Badescu, Mircea

    2013-01-01

    Electromagnetic motors can have problems when operating in extreme environments. In addition, if one needs to do mechanical work outside a structure, electrical feedthroughs are required to transport the electric power to drive the motor. In this paper, we present designs for driving rotary and linear motors by pumping stress waves across a structure or barrier. We accomplish this by designing a piezoelectric actuator on one side of the structure and a resonance structure that is matched to the piezoelectric resonance of the actuator on the other side. Typically, piezoelectric motors can be designed with high torques and lower speeds without the need for gears. One can also use other actuation materials such as electrostrictive, or magnetostrictive materials in a benign environment and transmit the power in acoustic form as a stress wave and actuate mechanisms that are external to the benign environment. This technology removes the need to perforate a structure and allows work to be done directly on the other side of a structure without the use of electrical feedthroughs, which can weaken the structure, pipe, or vessel. Acoustic energy is pumped as a stress wave at a set frequency or range of frequencies to produce rotary or linear motion in a structure. This method of transferring useful mechanical work across solid barriers by pumping acoustic energy through a resonant structure features the ability to transfer work (rotary or linear motion) across pressure or thermal barriers, or in a sterile environment, without generating contaminants. Reflectors in the wall of barriers can be designed to enhance the efficiency of the energy/power transmission. The method features the ability to produce a bi-directional driving mechanism using higher-mode resonances. There are a variety of applications where the presence of a motor is complicated by thermal or chemical environments that would be hostile to the motor components and reduce life and, in some instances, not be

  5. Development of an Integrated Countermeasure Device for Long Duration Space Flight and Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S. M. C.; Streeper, T.; Spiering, B. A.; Loehr, J. A.; Guilliams, M. E.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Mulavara, A. P.; Cavanagh, P. R.; Lang, T.

    2010-01-01

    Musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, and sensorimotor deconditioning have been observed consistently in astronauts and cosmonauts following long-duration spaceflight. Studies in bed rest, a spaceflight analog, have shown that high intensity resistive or aerobic exercise attenuates or prevents musculoskeletal and cardiovascular deconditioning, respectively, but complete protection has not been achieved during spaceflight. Exercise countermeasure hardware used during earlier International Space Station (ISS) missions included a cycle ergometer, a treadmill, and the interim resistive exercise device (iRED). Effectiveness of the countermeasures may have been diminished by limited loading characteristics of the iRED as well as speed restrictions and subject harness discomfort during treadmill exercise. The Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED) and the second generation treadmill were designed to address many of the limitations of their predecessors, and anecdotal reports from ISS crews suggest that their conditioning is better preserved since the new hardware was delivered in 2009. However, several countermeasure devices to protect different physiologic systems will not be practical during exploration missions when the available volume and mass will be severely restricted. The combined countermeasure device (CCD) integrates a suite of hardware into one device intended to prevent spaceflight-induced musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, and sensorimotor deconditioning. The CCD includes pneumatic loading devices with attached cables for resistive exercise, a cycle for aerobic exercise, and a 6 degree of freedom motion platform for balance training. In a proof of concept test, ambulatory untrained subjects increased muscle strength (58%) as well as aerobic capacity (26%) after 12-weeks of exercise training with the CCD (without balance training), improvements comparable to those observed with traditional exercise training. These preliminary results suggest that this CCD can

  6. Modeling the benefits of an artificial gravity countermeasure coupled with exercise and vibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Rahul; Kaderka, Justin; Newman, Dava

    2012-01-01

    The current, system-specific countermeasures to space deconditioning have limited success with the musculoskeletal system in long duration missions. Artificial gravity (AG) that is produced by short radius centrifugation has been hypothesized as an effective countermeasure because it reintroduces an acceleration field in space; however, AG alone might not be enough stimuli to preserve the musculoskeletal system. A novel combination of AG coupled with one-legged squats on a vibrating platform may preserve muscle and bone in the lower limbs to a greater extent than the current exercise paradigm. The benefits of the proposed countermeasure have been analyzed through the development of a simulation platform. Ground reaction force data and motion data were collected using a motion capture system while performing one-legged and two-legged squats in 1-G. The motion was modeled in OpenSim, an open-source software, and inverse dynamics were applied in order to determine the muscle and reaction forces of lower limb joints. Vibration stimulus was modeled by adding a 20 Hz sinusoidal force of 0.5 body weight to the force plate data. From the numerical model in a 1-G acceleration field, muscle forces for quadriceps femoris, plantar flexors and glutei increased substantially for one-legged squats with vibration compared to one- or two-legged squats without vibration. Additionally, joint reaction forces for one-legged squats with vibration also increased significantly compared to two-legged squats with or without vibration. Higher muscle forces and joint reaction forces might help to stimulate muscle activation and bone modeling and thus might reduce musculoskeletal deconditioning. These results indicate that the proposed countermeasure might surpass the performance of the current space countermeasures and should be further studied as a method of mitigating musculoskeletal deconditioning.

  7. The Variable Vector Countermeasure Suit (V2Suit for Space Habitation and Exploration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin R Duda

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Variable Vector Countermeasure Suit (V2Suit for Space Habitation and Exploration is a novel system concept that provides a platform for integrating sensors and actuators with daily astronaut intravehicular activities to improve health and performance, while reducing the mass and volume of the physiologic adaptation countermeasure systems, as well as the required exercise time during long-duration space exploration missions. The V2Suit system leverages wearable kinematic monitoring technology and uses inertial measurement units (IMUs and control moment gyroscopes (CMGs within miniaturized modules placed on body segments to provide a viscous resistance during movements against a specified direction of down – initially as a countermeasure to the sensorimotor adaptation performance decrements that manifest themselves while living and working in microgravity and during gravitational transitions during long-duration spaceflight, including post-flight recovery and rehabilitation. Several aspects of the V2Suit system concept were explored and simulated prior to developing a brassboard prototype for technology demonstration. This included a system architecture for identifying the key components and their interconnects, initial identification of key human-system integration challenges, development of a simulation architecture for CMG selection and parameter sizing, and the detailed mechanical design and fabrication of a module. The brassboard prototype demonstrates closed-loop control from down initialization through CMG actuation, and provides a research platform for human performance evaluations to mitigate sensorimotor adaptation, as well as a tool for determining the performance requirements when used as a musculoskeletal deconditioning countermeasure. This type of countermeasure system also has Earth benefits, particularly in gait or movement stabilization and rehabilitation.

  8. Bed Rest is an Analog to Study the Physiological Changes of Spaceflight and to Evaluate Countermeasures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfannenstiel, P.; Ottenbacher, M.; Inniss, A.; Ware, D.; Anderson, K.; Stranges, S.; Keith, K.; Cromwell, R.; Neigut. J.; Powell, D.

    2012-01-01

    The UTMB/NASA Flight Analog Research Unit is an inpatient unit with a bionutrition kitchen and unique testing areas for studying subjects subjected to 6 degree head-down complete bed rest for prolonged periods as an analog for zero gravity. Bed rest allows study of physiological changes and performance of functional tasks representative of critical interplanetary mission operations and measures of the efficacy of countermeasures designed to protect against the resulting deleterious effects. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Subjects are healthy adults 24-55 years old; 60 75 in tall; body mass index 18.5-30; and bone mineral density normal by DXA scan. Over 100 subjects have been studied in 7 campaigns since 2004. The iRAT countermeasure combines high intensity interval aerobic exercises on alternating days with continuous aerobic exercise. Resistance exercise is performed 3 days per week. Subjects are tested on an integrated suite of functional and interdisciplinary physiological tests before and after 70 days of total bed rest. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: It is anticipated that post-bed rest functional performance will be predicted by a weighted combination of sensorimotor, cardiovascular and muscle physiological factors. Control subjects who do not participate in the exercise countermeasure will have significantly greater decreases in these parameters. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Astronauts experience alterations in multiple physiological systems due to exposure to the microgravity, leading to disruption in the ability to perform functional tasks after reintroduction to a gravitational environment. Current flight exercise countermeasures are not fully protective of cardiovascular, muscle and bone health. There is a need to refine and optimize countermeasures to mitigate health risks associated with long-term space missions.

  9. Decision analysis of countermeasures for the milk pathway after an accidental release of radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ammann, M.; Sinkko, K.; Kostiainen, E.; Salo, E.; Liskola, K.; Haemaelaeinen, R.P.; Mustajoki, J

    2001-12-01

    A facilitated workshop was arranged to plan countermeasures that could reduce the dose arising from the consumption of radionuclide-contaminated milk products. It was assumed that a hypothetical accident in a nuclear facility had led to the release of considerable amounts of radionuclides, which subsequently spread across one of Finland's most important agricultural regions and contaminated the milk produced there. The participants in the workshop, interest groups on food issues, considered all the factors influencing the countermeasure decision, not only radiological or monetary ones but less tangible psychosocial effects as well. The participants preferred the countermeasures provision of uncontaminated fodder and production control to banning and disposal. The analysis showed that these countermeasures could be implemented even if the radionuclide concentrations in foodstuffs were below internationally recommended intervention levels. Banning and withdrawal of milk products from sale was not a favourable option, because of the high costs and disadvantages to producers and the industry, and because the disposal of enormous amounts of milk causes a considerable environmental problem. The study revealed the need to further develop methods to realistically assess the radiological and cost implications of food countermeasures. The feasibility and constraints of actions also need further investigation. The experience gained strongly supports the format of a facilitated workshop to tackle a decision problem that concerns different stakeholders. The participants considered the workshop and the decision analysis very useful in exercises. They also expected a similar approach to be applicable in a real situation, although the suitability was not rated as high as for exercises. It is concluded that a facilitated workshop is a valuable instrument for emergency management and in exercises, when revising emergency plans or in order to identify issues that need to be

  10. MRI of acoustic neurinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Kunihiko; Niitsu, Mamoru; Yoshioka, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Yumiko; Anno, Izumi; Kuramoto, Kenmei; Itai, Yuji

    1994-01-01

    Thirty six patients were studied with a 1.5 T superconductive magnetic resonance imager. Small neurinomas appeared as homogenous intensities, large neurinomas as heterogenous intensities in T 1 and T 2 weighted images. Dural tail representing reactive change of the meninges was seen in our three acoustic neurinomas. High resolution, thin slice, MR imaging was particularly useful for intracanalicular tumor to see the relationship between the tumor and facial nerve. Total or near-total removal of tumor was performed in thirteen cases, in which functional preservation of the cochlear nerve was achieved in only three cases. (author)

  11. Lecture Notes On Acoustics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yang Han

    2005-09-01

    This book mentions string vibration and wave, one-dimension wave and wave equation, characteristic impedance, governing equation of string, and wave energy from string, wave equation of wave and basic physical quantity like one-dimension wave equation, sound unit, sound intensity and energy, sound movement in a surface of discontinuity with transmission loss of sound by partition, and Snell's law, radiation, scatter and diffraction and sound in closed space with Sabine's theory, sound characteristic of closed space and duct acoustics.

  12. Oscillating acoustic streaming jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moudjed, Brahim; Botton, Valery; Henry, Daniel; Millet, Severine; Ben Hadid, Hamda; Garandet, Jean-Paul

    2014-01-01

    The present paper provides the first experimental investigation of an oscillating acoustic streaming jet. The observations are performed in the far field of a 2 MHz circular plane ultrasound transducer introduced in a rectangular cavity filled with water. Measurements are made by Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) in horizontal and vertical planes near the end of the cavity. Oscillations of the jet appear in this zone, for a sufficiently high Reynolds number, as an intermittent phenomenon on an otherwise straight jet fluctuating in intensity. The observed perturbation pattern is similar to that of former theoretical studies. This intermittently oscillatory behavior is the first step to the transition to turbulence. (authors)

  13. Acoustic classification of dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berardi, Umberto; Rasmussen, Birgit

    2014-01-01

    insulation performance, national schemes for sound classification of dwellings have been developed in several European countries. These schemes define acoustic classes according to different levels of sound insulation. Due to the lack of coordination among countries, a significant diversity in terms...... exchanging experiences about constructions fulfilling different classes, reducing trade barriers, and finally increasing the sound insulation of dwellings.......Schemes for the classification of dwellings according to different building performances have been proposed in the last years worldwide. The general idea behind these schemes relates to the positive impact a higher label, and thus a better performance, should have. In particular, focusing on sound...

  14. A methodology for justification and optimization of countermeasures for milk after a nuclear accident and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Won Tae; Han, Moon Hee; Kim, Eun Han; Cho, Gyu Seong

    1998-01-01

    The methodology for justification and optimization of the countermeasures related with contamination management of milk was designed based on the cost and benefit analysis. The application results were discussed for the deposition on August 15, when pasture is fully developed in Korean agricultural conditions. A dynamic food chain model DYNACON was used to estimate the time-dependent radioactivity of milk after the deposition. The considered countermeasures are (1) the ban of milk consumption (2) the substitution of clean fodder, which are effective in reducing the ingestion dose as well as simple and easy to carry out in the first year after the deposition. The total costs of the countermeasures were quantitatively estimated in terms of cost equivalent of doses and monetary costs. It is obvious that a fast reaction after the deposition is an important factor in cost effectiveness of the countermeasures. In most cases, the substitution of clean fodder was more effectiveness of the countermeasures. In most cases, the substitution of clean fodder was more effective countermeasure than the ban of consumption. A fast reaction after the deposition made longer justifiable/optimal duration of the countermeasure

  15. A numerical study on acoustic behavior in gas turbine combustor with acoustic resonator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, I Sun; Sohn, Chae Hoon

    2005-01-01

    Acoustic behavior in gas turbine combustor with acoustic resonator is investigated numerically by adopting linear acoustic analysis. Helmholtz-type resonator is employed as acoustic resonator to suppress acoustic instability passively. The tuning frequency of acoustic resonator is adjusted by varying its length. Through harmonic analysis, acoustic-pressure responses of chamber to acoustic excitation are obtained and the resonant acoustic modes are identified. Acoustic damping effect of acoustic resonator is quantified by damping factor. As the tuning frequency of acoustic resonator approaches the target frequency of the resonant mode to be suppressed, mode split from the original resonant mode to lower and upper modes appears and thereby complex patterns of acoustic responses show up. Considering mode split and damping effect as a function of tuning frequency, it is desirable to make acoustic resonator tuned to broad-band frequencies near the maximum frequency of those of the possible upper modes

  16. Acoustic Levitation With One Driver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, T. G.; Rudnick, I.; Elleman, D. D.; Stoneburner, J. D.

    1985-01-01

    Report discusses acoustic levitation in rectangular chamber using one driver mounted at corner. Placement of driver at corner enables it to couple effectively to acoustic modes along all three axes. Use of single driver reduces cost, complexity and weight of levitation system below those of three driver system.

  17. Acoustic Levitation With One Transducer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barmatz, Martin B.

    1987-01-01

    Higher resonator modes enables simplification of equipment. Experimental acoustic levitator for high-temperature containerless processing has round cylindrical levitation chamber and only one acoustic transducer. Stable levitation of solid particle or liquid drop achieved by exciting sound in chamber to higher-order resonant mode that makes potential well for levitated particle or drop at some point within chamber.

  18. Digital Controller For Acoustic Levitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarver, D. Kent

    1989-01-01

    Acoustic driver digitally controls sound fields along three axes. Allows computerized acoustic levitation and manipulation of small objects for such purposes as containerless processing and nuclear-fusion power experiments. Also used for controlling motion of vibration-testing tables in three dimensions.

  19. Acoustic engineering and technology '90

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    Acoustic monitoring, testing and diagnosis in machines, production processes and products enhance the uptimes and profitability of machinery and plants. 18 papers discuss the current state of the art of acoustic monitoring systems including integrated factory planning as well as industrial health, and noise protection. (DG) [de

  20. Scattering Of Nonplanar Acoustic Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillman, Judith M.; Farassat, F.; Myers, M. K.

    1995-01-01

    Report presents theoretical study of scattering of nonplanar acoustic waves by rigid bodies. Study performed as part of effort to develop means of predicting scattering, from aircraft fuselages, of noise made by rotating blades. Basic approach was to model acoustic scattering by use of boundary integral equation to solve equation by the Galerkin method.

  1. Acoustical Properties of Contemporary Mosques

    OpenAIRE

    Karaman Özgül Yılmaz; Güzel Neslihan Onat

    2017-01-01

    Religious buildings are important for many communities because of their representation of different beliefs. In such structures, the sense of individuality or unity & togetherness are created according to variable worship activities; these different uses have also different acoustical requirements. In order to create the desired feeling in the space at the required time, rooms should be evaluated in terms of acoustical conditions.

  2. Acoustic Center or Time Origin?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staffeldt, Henrik

    1999-01-01

    The paper discusses the acoustic center in relation to measurements of loudspeaker polar data. Also, it presents the related concept time origin and discusses the deviation that appears between positions of the acoustic center found by wavefront based and time based measuring methods....

  3. Propagation of Ion Acoustic Perturbations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pécseli, Hans

    1975-01-01

    Equations describing the propagation of ion acoustic perturbations are considered, using the assumption that the electrons are Boltzman distributed and isothermal at all times. Quasi-neutrality is also considered.......Equations describing the propagation of ion acoustic perturbations are considered, using the assumption that the electrons are Boltzman distributed and isothermal at all times. Quasi-neutrality is also considered....

  4. Acoustic Emission Technology and Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joo, Y. S.; Lim, S. H.; Eom, H. S.; Kim, J. H.; Jung, H. K.

    2003-10-01

    Acoustic emission is the elastic wave that is generated by the rapid release of energy from the localized sources within a material. After the observation of acoustic emission phenomenon in 1950, the research and further investigation had been performed. Acoustic emission examination becomes a rapidly matured nondestructive testing method with demonstrated capabilities for characterizing material behavior and for detecting the defect. It is of interest as a possible passive monitoring technique for detecting, locating and characterizing the defects in component and structure. Acoustic emission technology has recently strengthened the on-line monitoring application for the detection of incipient failures and the assurance of structural integrity. The field of acoustic emission testing is still growing vigorously and presents many challenges. Especially, acoustic emission has been successfully applied in the leak detection of primary pressure boundary of nuclear power plants. In this state-of-art report, the principle, measurement and field applications of acoustic emission technique is reviewed and summarized. Acoustic emission technology will contribute to the assurance of nuclear safety as the on-line monitoring technique of structural integrity of NSSS components and structures

  5. Electron/electron acoustic instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gary, S.P.

    1987-01-01

    The electron acoustic wave becomes a normal mode of an unmagnetized collisionless plasma in the presence of two electron components with similar densities, but strongly disparate temperatures. The characteristic frequency of this mode is the plasma frequency of the cooler electron component. If these two electron components have a relative drift speed several times the thermal speed of the cooler component, the electron/electron acoustic instability may arise. This paper describes the parametric dependences of the threshold drift speed and maximum growth rate of this instability, and compares these with the same properties of the electron/ion acoustic instability. Under the condition of zero current, the electron/ion acoustic instability typically has the lower threshold drift speed, so that observation of the electron/electron acoustic instability is a strong indication of the presence of an electrical current in the plasma

  6. Acoustic emission linear pulse holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, H.D.; Busse, L.J.; Lemon, D.K.

    1983-10-25

    This device relates to the concept of and means for performing Acoustic Emission Linear Pulse Holography, which combines the advantages of linear holographic imaging and Acoustic Emission into a single non-destructive inspection system. This unique system produces a chronological, linear holographic image of a flaw by utilizing the acoustic energy emitted during crack growth. The innovation is the concept of utilizing the crack-generated acoustic emission energy to generate a chronological series of images of a growing crack by applying linear, pulse holographic processing to the acoustic emission data. The process is implemented by placing on a structure an array of piezoelectric sensors (typically 16 or 32 of them) near the defect location. A reference sensor is placed between the defect and the array.

  7. Methodology for assessing the effectiveness of countermeasures in rural settlements in the long term after the Chernobyl accident on the multi-attribute analysis basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panov, A.V.; Alexakhin, R.M.; Fesenko, S.V.

    2006-01-01

    A methodology has been developed for the assessment of the effectiveness of countermeasures in agriculture based on a multi-attribute analysis of quantitative (radiological, economic, regulatory) and qualitative (social, psychological, technological) indicators characterizing their application. The method makes use of weight coefficients established for the countermeasures parameters with their subsequent comparison adjusted to a single scale. The method is realized with the P.R.I.M.E. Decision support system adapted for the task of countermeasures planning. The multi-attribute analysis of countermeasures effectiveness was made depending on the aspect of rehabilitation works considered: dose, financial or social. Presented are results from the analysis of effectiveness of individual countermeasures and most effective countermeasures and their combinations. Based on the multi attribute analysis data, rating of the most effective countermeasures and their combinations was performed. (authors)

  8. Methodology for assessing the effectiveness of countermeasures in rural settlements in the long term after the Chernobyl accident on the multi-attribute analysis basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panov, A.V.; Alexakhin, R.M. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, Obninsk (Russian Federation); Fesenko, S.V. [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Lab. (Austria)

    2006-07-01

    A methodology has been developed for the assessment of the effectiveness of countermeasures in agriculture based on a multi-attribute analysis of quantitative (radiological, economic, regulatory) and qualitative (social, psychological, technological) indicators characterizing their application. The method makes use of weight coefficients established for the countermeasures parameters with their subsequent comparison adjusted to a single scale. The method is realized with the P.R.I.M.E. Decision support system adapted for the task of countermeasures planning. The multi-attribute analysis of countermeasures effectiveness was made depending on the aspect of rehabilitation works considered: dose, financial or social. Presented are results from the analysis of effectiveness of individual countermeasures and most effective countermeasures and their combinations. Based on the multi attribute analysis data, rating of the most effective countermeasures and their combinations was performed. (authors)

  9. Countermeasures for Space Radiation Induced Malignancies and Acute Biological Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Ann

    , oral supplementation with antioxidants appears to be an effective approach for the radioprotection of hematopoietic cells against the cell killing effects of radiation, and for improving survival in irradiated animals. Preliminary data suggest similar antioxidant protective effects for animals exposed to potentially lethal doses of proton radiation. Studies were also performed to determine whether dietary antioxidants could affect the incidence rates of malignancies in CBA mice exposed to 300 cGy proton (1 GeV/n) radiation or 50 cGy iron ion (1 GeV/n) radiation [9]. Two antioxidant formulations were utilized in these studies; an AOX formulation containing the mixture of antioxidant agents developed from our previous studies and an antioxidant dietary formulation containing the soybean-derived protease inhibitor known as the Bowman-Birk inhibitor (BBI). BBI was evaluated in the form of BBI Concentrate (BBIC), which is the form of BBI utilized in human trials. BBIC has been utilized in human trials since 1992, as described [10]. The major finding in the long-term animal studies was that there was a reduced risk of malignant lymphoma in mice exposed to space radiations and maintained on diets containing the antioxidant formulations. In addition, the two different dietary countermeasures also reduced the yields of a variety of different rare tumor types, arising from both epithelial and connective tissue cells, observed in the animals exposed to space radiation. REFERENCES [1] Guan J. et al (2004) Radiation Research 162, 572-579. [2] Wan X.S. et al (2005) Radiation Research 163, 364-368. [3] Wan X.S. et al (2005) Radiation Research 163, 232-240. [4] Guan J. et al (2006) Radiation Research 165, 373-378. [5] Wan X.S. et al (2006) International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics 64, 1475-1481. [6] Kennedy A.R. et al (2006) Radiation Research 166, 327-332. [7] Kennedy A.R. et al (2007) Radiation & Environmental Biophysics 46(2), 201-3. [8]Wambi, C., Sanzari, J

  10. Acoustics and Hearing

    CERN Document Server

    Damaske, Peter

    2008-01-01

    When one listens to music at home, one would like to have an acoustic impression close to that of being in the concert hall. Until recently this meant elaborate multi-channelled sound systems with 5 or more speakers. But head-related stereophony achieves the surround-sound effect in living rooms with only two loudspeakers. By virtue of their slight directivity as well as an electronic filter the limitations previously common to two-speaker systems can be overcome and this holds for any arbitrary two-channel recording. The book also investigates the question of how a wide and diffuse sound image can arise in concert halls and shows that the quality of concert halls decisively depends on diffuse sound images arising in the onset of reverberation. For this purpose a strong onset of reverberation is modified in an anechoic chamber by electroacoustic means. Acoustics and Hearing proposes ideas concerning signal processing in the auditory system that explain the measured results and the resultant sound effects plea...

  11. Omnidirectional ventilated acoustic barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hai-long; Zhu, Yi-fan; Liang, Bin; Yang, Jing; Yang, Jun; Cheng, Jian-chun

    2017-11-01

    As an important problem in acoustics, sound insulation finds applications in a great variety of situations. In the existing schemes, however, there has always been a trade-off between the thinness of sound-insulating devices and their ventilating capabilities, limiting their potentials in the control of low-frequency sound in high ventilation environments. Here, we design and experimentally implement an omnidirectional acoustic barrier with a planar profile, subwavelength thickness ( 0.18 λ ), yet high ventilation. The proposed mechanism is based on the interference between the resonant scattering of discrete states and the background scattering of continuous states which induces a Fano-like asymmetric transmission profile. Benefitting from the binary-structured design of the coiled unit and hollow pipe, it maximally simplifies the design and fabrication while ensuring the ventilation for all the non-resonant units with open tubes. The simulated and measured results agree well, showing the effectiveness of our proposed mechanism to block low frequency sound coming from various directions while allowing 63% of the air flow to pass. We anticipate our design to open routes to design sound insulators and to enable applications in traditionally unattainable cases such as those calling for noise reduction and cooling simultaneously.

  12. [Acoustical parameters of toys].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harazin, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Toys play an important role in the development of the sight and hearing concentration in children. They also support the development of manipulation, gently influence a child and excite its emotional activities. A lot of toys emit various sounds. The aim of the study was to assess sound levels produced by sound-emitting toys used by young children. Acoustical parameters of noise were evaluated for 16 sound-emitting plastic toys in laboratory conditions. The noise level was recorded at four different distances, 10, 20, 25 and 30 cm, from the toy. Measurements of A-weighted sound pressure levels and noise levels in octave band in the frequency range from 31.5 Hz to 16 kHz were performed at each distance. Taking into consideration the highest equivalent A-weighted sound levels produced by tested toys, they can be divided into four groups: below 70 dB (6 toys), from 70 to 74 dB (4 toys), from 75 to 84 dB (3 toys) and from 85 to 94 dB (3 toys). The majority of toys (81%) emitted dominant sound levels in octave band at the frequency range from 2 kHz to 4 kHz. Sound-emitting toys produce the highest acoustic energy at the frequency range of the highest susceptibility of the auditory system. Noise levels produced by some toys can be dangerous to children's hearing.

  13. Review of Progress in Acoustic Levitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Marco A. B.; Pérez, Nicolás; Adamowski, Julio C.

    2018-04-01

    Acoustic levitation uses acoustic radiation forces to counteract gravity and suspend objects in mid-air. Although acoustic levitation was first demonstrated almost a century ago, for a long time, it was limited to objects much smaller than the acoustic wavelength levitating at fixed positions in space. Recent advances in acoustic levitation now allow not only suspending but also rotating and translating objects in three dimensions. Acoustic levitation is also no longer restricted to small objects and can now be employed to levitate objects larger than the acoustic wavelength. This article reviews the progress of acoustic levitation, focusing on the working mechanism of different types of acoustic levitation devices developed to date. We start with a brief review of the theory. Then, we review the acoustic levitation methods to suspend objects at fixed positions, followed by the techniques that allow the manipulation of objects. Finally, we present a brief summary and offer some future perspectives for acoustic levitation.

  14. Comparison of proposed countermeasures for dilemma zone at signalized intersections based on cellular automata simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yina; Abdel-Aty, Mohamed; Ding, Yaoxian; Jia, Bin; Shi, Qi; Yan, Xuedong

    2018-07-01

    The Type II dilemma zone describes the road segment to a signalized intersection where drivers have difficulties to decide either stop or go at the onset of yellow signal. Such phenomenon can result in an increased crash risk at signalized intersections. Different types of warning systems have been proposed to help drivers make decisions. Although the warning systems help to improve drivers' behavior, they also have several disadvantages such as increasing rear-end crashes or red-light running (RLR) violations. In this study, a new warning system called pavement marking with auxiliary countermeasure (PMAIC) is proposed to reduce the dilemma zone and enhance the traffic safety at signalized intersections. The proposed warning system integrates the pavement marking and flashing yellow system which can provide drivers with better suggestions about stop/go decisions based on their arriving time and speed. In order to evaluate the performance of the proposed warning system, this paper presents a cellular automata (CA) simulation study. The CA simulations are conducted for four different scenarios in total, including the typical intersection without warning system, the intersection with flashing green countermeasure, the intersection with pavement marking, and the intersection with the PMAIC warning system. Before the specific CA simulation analysis, a logistic regression model is calibrated based on field video data to predict drivers' general stop/go decisions. Also, the rules of vehicle movements in the CA models under the influence by different warning systems are proposed. The proxy indicators of rear-end crash and potential RLR violations were estimated and used to evaluate safety levels for the different scenarios. The simulation results showed that the PMAIC countermeasure consistently offered best performance to reduce rear-end crash and RLR violation. Meanwhile, the results indicate that the flashing-green countermeasure could not effectively reduce either rear

  15. Relaxation time of acoustically disturbed plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mkrtchyan, K.S.; Abrahamyan, A.S.

    2005-01-01

    The conservation time of an acoustic structure in plasma after relieving of external acoustic influence is investigated. Dependences of the conservation time on discharge parameters are presented. It is asserted that the plasma becomes an anisotropic uniaxial medium with an acoustic superlattice under the acoustic influence

  16. MR of acoustic neuromas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Masayuki; Takashima, Tsutomu; Kadoya, Masumi; Takahashi, Shiroh; Miyayama, Shiroh; Taira, Sakae; Kashihara, Kengo; Yamashima, Tetsumori; Itoh, Haruhide

    1989-01-01

    In this report, the relationship of acoustic neuromas to the adjacent cranial nerves is discussed. On T 1 -weighted images, the trigeminal nerve was detected in all 13 cases. Mild to marked compression of these nerves by the tumors was observed in eight cases. The extent of compression did not always correspond to the clinical symptoms. In four cases with a maximum tumor diameter of 2 cm or less, the 7th and 8th cranial nerves were identified. There was no facial palsy in these patients. Two patients with a tumor diameter of more than 2 cm also had no facial palsy. All patients, including those with small tumors, complained of hearing loss and/or tinnitus. While MR imaging has some limitations, it is an effective imaging modality for showing the relationship between tumors and nerves. (author)

  17. Impact of Perceptual Speed Calming Curve Countermeasures on Drivers’ Anticipation and Mitigation Ability : A Driving Simulator Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-01

    Horizontal curves are unavoidable in rural roads and are a serious crash risk to vehicle occupants. This study investigates the impact and effectiveness of three curve-based perceptual speed-calming countermeasures (advance curve warning signs, chevr...

  18. Quieter Cars and the Safety of Blind Pedestrians, Phase 2 : Development of Potential Specifications for Vehicle Countermeasure Sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    This project performed research to support the development of potential specifications for vehicle : sounds, (i.e., audible countermeasures) to be used in vehicles while operating in electric mode in specific low speed : conditions. The purpose of th...

  19. Situational Awareness, Crew Resource Management and Operational Performance in Fatigued Two-Man Crews Using Three Stimulant Countermeasures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Darlington, K; Palacio, L. V; Dowler, T; LeDuc, P

    2006-01-01

    .... Army researchers have done a thorough job in the pursuit of countermeasures to Soldier fatigue that do not interfere with soldier performance, when that issue is couched in terms of individual...

  20. Personal use of countermeasures seen in a coping perspective. Could the development of expedient countermeasures as a repertoire in the population, optimise coping and promote positive outcome expectancies, when exposed to a contamination threat?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toennessen, A.; Skuterud, L.; Strand, P.; Panova, J.; Travnikova, I.G.; Balonov, M.I.

    1996-01-01

    The appraisal and use of countermeasures in a rural district of Russia with quite high deposition after the Chernobyl accident is studied from a coping perspective. The field work was done during the summer of 1994, in the Bryansk region. There are important methodological shortages in the study, the sample of respondents is not a random sample and therefore not necessarily representative for the villages covered, and in some parts of the questionnaire the frequency of 'don't know/missing' responses is too high. With these limitations in mind the current study tries to expand the knowledge about reactions to diffuse environmental threats by studying populations as they continue their daily lives living in a contaminated area. The data from interviews with the final net sample of 163 respondents shows that about one in four were users of countermeasures such as, refraining from consumption of natural foods, or radiometric inspection of the food. Of the different countermeasures that were included in the questionnaire, the renunciation of natural products was most frequently employed. Findings indicate that the respondents who used countermeasures had lower levels of radiocaesium content in their bodies, they felt more able to influence possible health effects of the accident, and at the same time answered that they were more afraid of possible health effects than the non-users of countermeasures. This higher emotional concern is seen in a perspective of 'realistic anxiety', and the use of countermeasures is related to perceived control and outcome expectancies. (author)

  1. Acoustics of friction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akay, Adnan

    2002-04-01

    This article presents an overview of the acoustics of friction by covering friction sounds, friction-induced vibrations and waves in solids, and descriptions of other frictional phenomena related to acoustics. Friction, resulting from the sliding contact of solids, often gives rise to diverse forms of waves and oscillations within solids which frequently lead to radiation of sound to the surrounding media. Among the many everyday examples of friction sounds, violin music and brake noise in automobiles represent the two extremes in terms of the sounds they produce and the mechanisms by which they are generated. Of the multiple examples of friction sounds in nature, insect sounds are prominent. Friction also provides a means by which energy dissipation takes place at the interface of solids. Friction damping that develops between surfaces, such as joints and connections, in some cases requires only microscopic motion to dissipate energy. Modeling of friction-induced vibrations and friction damping in mechanical systems requires an accurate description of friction for which only approximations exist. While many of the components that contribute to friction can be modeled, computational requirements become prohibitive for their contemporaneous calculation. Furthermore, quantification of friction at the atomic scale still remains elusive. At the atomic scale, friction becomes a mechanism that converts the kinetic energy associated with the relative motion of surfaces to thermal energy. However, the description of the conversion to thermal energy represented by a disordered state of oscillations of atoms in a solid is still not well understood. At the macroscopic level, friction interacts with the vibrations and waves that it causes. Such interaction sets up a feedback between the friction force and waves at the surfaces, thereby making friction and surface motion interdependent. Such interdependence forms the basis for friction-induced motion as in the case of

  2. Anti-sound and Acoustical Cloaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veturia CHIROIU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The principles by which the acoustics can be mimicked in order to reduce or cancel the vibrational field are based on anti-sound concept which can be materialized by acoustic cloaks. Geometric transformations open an elegant way towards the unconstrained control of sound through acoustic metamaterials. Acoustic cloaks can be achieved through geometric transformations which bring exotic metamaterial properties into the acoustic equations. Our paper brings new ideas concerning the technological keys for manufacturing of novel metamaterials based on the spatial compression of Cantor structures, and the architecture of 3D acoustic cloaks in a given frequency band, with application to architectural acoustics.

  3. Acoustic of monolithic dome structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Refat Ismail

    2018-03-01

    The interior of monolithic domes have perfect, concave shapes to ensure that sound travels through the dome and perfectly collected at different vocal points. These dome structures are utilized for domestic use because the scale allows the focal points to be positioned across daily life activities, thereby affecting the sonic comfort of the internal space. This study examines the various acoustic treatments and parametric configurations of monolithic dome sizes. A geometric relationship of acoustic treatment and dome radius is established to provide architects guidelines on the correct selection of absorption needed to maintain the acoustic comfort of these special spaces.

  4. Perspective: Acoustic metamaterials in transition

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Ying

    2017-12-15

    Acoustic metamaterials derive their novel characteristics from the interaction between acoustic waves with designed structures. Since its inception seventeen years ago, the field has been driven by fundamental geometric and physical principles that guide the structure design rules as well as provide the basis for wave functionalities. Recent examples include resonance-based acoustic metasurfaces that offer flexible control of acoustic wave propagation such as focusing and re-direction; parity-time (PT)-symmetric acoustics that utilizes the general concept of pairing loss and gain to achieve perfect absorption at a single frequency; and topological phononics that can provide one-way edge state propagation. However, such novel functionalities are not without constraints. Metasurface elements rely on resonances to enhance their coupling to the incident wave; hence, its functionality is limited to a narrow frequency band. Topological phononics is the result of the special lattice symmetry that must be fixed at the fabrication stage. Overcoming such constraints naturally forms the basis for further developments. We identify two emergent directions: Integration of acoustic metamaterial elements for achieving broadband characteristics as well as acoustic wave manipulation tasks more complex than the single demonstrative functionality; and active acoustic metamaterials that can adapt to environment as well as to go beyond the constraints on the passive acoustic metamaterials. Examples of a successful recent integration of multi-resonators in achieving broadband sound absorption can be found in optimal sound-absorbing structures, which utilize causality constraint as a design tool in realizing the target-set absorption spectrum with a minimal sample thickness. Active acoustic metamaterials have also demonstrated the capability to tune bandgaps as well as to alter property of resonances in real time through stiffening of the spring constants, in addition to the PT symmetric

  5. Industrial installation surveillance acoustic device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marini, Jean; Audenard, Bernard.

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of this invention is the detection of possible impacts of bodies migrating inside the installation, using acoustic sensors of the waves emitted at the time of impact of the migrating bodies. This device makes it possible to take into account only those acoustic signals relating to the impacts of bodies migrating in the area under surveillance, to the exclusion of any other acoustic or electric perturbing phenomenon. The invention has a preferential use in the case of a linear shape installation in which a fluid flows at high rate, such as a section of the primary system of a pressurized water nuclear reactor [fr

  6. Flat acoustic lens by acoustic grating with curled slits

    KAUST Repository

    Peng, Pai; Xiao, Bingmu; Wu, Ying

    2014-01-01

    and well predicted by the theory. We demonstrate that despite the large impedance mismatch between the acoustic lens and the matrix, the intensity at the focal point is still high due to Fabry-Perot resonance.

  7. Focusing of Acoustic Waves through Acoustic Materials with Subwavelength Structures

    KAUST Repository

    Xiao, Bingmu

    2013-01-01

    -domain (FDTD) method for the two-dimensional acoustic wave equation. The theory provides the effective impedance and refractive index functions for the equivalent medium, which can reproduce the transmission and reflection spectral responses of the original

  8. Biological Defense: DOD Has Strengthened Coordination on Medical Countermeasures but Can Improve Its Process for Threat Prioritization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    diseases such as equine encephalitis and Ebola have contributed to concerns about the nation’s vulnerability to biological attacks and naturally occurring...private sector and incorporates the cost associated with failed attempts to develop a medical countermeasure. DOD officials told us they face similar...biodefense medical countermeasure innovators (including those from the private sector ) that can use emerging platform technologies to enhance the

  9. FORECO. Countermeasures applied in forest ecosystems and their secondary effects. A review of literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafferty, B.; Synnot, H.

    1998-01-01

    The present document reports a literature review of the countermeasures applied in forest ecosystems and their secondary effects. The review has been prepared as a deliverable for the FORECO research Project. FORECO (Forest Ecosystems: Classification of Restoration Options, Considering Dose Reduction, Long-Term Ecological Quality and Economic Factors) is a project funded by the European Commission (Research Contract n. ERBIC-CT96-0202) in the frame of the Cooperation with third countries and international organizations (INCO-COPERNICUS) and coordinated by the National Environmental Protection Agency of Italy. The main aim of FORECO activities with respect to forest ecosystems is the classification of countermeasure options in different forest types, considering the balance between dose reduction, long-term ecological quality and economical factors

  10. Cost-effectiveness analysis of countermeasures using accident consequence assessment models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, A.; Gallego, E.

    1987-01-01

    In the event of a large release of radionuclides from a nuclear power plant, protective actions for the population potentially affected must be implemented. Cost-effectiveness analysis will be useful to define the countermeasures and the criteria needed to implement them. This paper shows the application of Accident Consequence Assessment (ACA) models to cost-effectiveness analysis of emergency and long-term countermeasures, making use of the different relationships between dose, contamination levels, affected areas and population distribution, included in such a model. The procedure is illustrated with the new Melcor Accident Consequence Code System (MACCS 1.3), developed at Sandia National Laboratories (USA), for a fixed accident scenario. Different alternative actions are evaluated with regard to their radiological and economical impact, searching for an 'optimum' strategy. (author)

  11. COUNTERMEASURE FOR MINIMIZE UNWANTED ALARM OF AUTOMATIC FIRE NOTIFICATION SYSTEM IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasung Kong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article investigated the cause of error through survey to building officials for minimizing the unwanted alarm of automatic fire notification and suggested countermeasure for minimizing the unwanted alarm. The main cause of the unwanted alarm is defective fire detector, interlocking with automatic fire detection system, lack in fire safety warden’s ability, worn-out fire detect receiving system. The countermeasure for minimizing unwanted alarm is firstly, tightening up the standard of model approval, Secondly, interlocking with cross-section circuit method fire extinguishing system or realizing automatic fire notification system interlocking with home network, thirdly, tightening up licensing examination of fire safety warden, lastly, it suggested term of use rule of fire detect receiving system. 

  12. COUNTERMEASURE FOR MINIMIZE UNWANTED ALARM OF AUTOMATIC FIRE NOTIFICATION SYSTEM IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasung Kong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article investigated the cause of error through survey to building officials for minimizing the unwanted alarm of automatic fire notification and suggested countermeasure for minimizing the unwanted alarm. The main cause of the unwanted alarm is defective fire detector, interlocking with automatic fire detection system, lack in fire safety warden’s ability, worn-out fire detect receiving system. The countermeasure for minimizing unwanted alarm is firstly, tightening up the standard of model approval, Secondly, interlocking with cross-section circuit method fire extinguishing system or realizing automatic fire notification system interlocking with home network, thirdly, tightening up licensing examination of fire safety warden, lastly, it suggested term of use rule of fire detect receiving system.

  13. A media information analysis for implementing effective countermeasure against harmful rumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagao, Mitsuyoshi; Suto, Kazuhiro; Ohuchi, Azuma

    2010-04-01

    When large scale earthquake occurred, the word of "harmful rumor" came to be frequently heard. The harmful rumor means an economic damage which is caused by the action that people regard actually safe foods or areas as dangerous and then abort consumption or sightseeing. In the case of harmful rumor caused by earthquake, especially, tourism industry receives massive economic damage. Currently, harmful rumor which gives substantial economic damage have become serious social issue which must be solved. In this paper, we propose a countermeasure method for harmful rumor on the basis of media trend in order to implement speedy recovery from harmful rumor. Here, we investigate the amount and content of information which is transmitted to the general public by the media when an earthquake occurred. In addition, the media information in three earthquakes is treated as instance. Finally, we discuss an effective countermeasure method for dispeling harmful rumor through these analysis results.

  14. FORECO. Countermeasures applied in forest ecosystems and their secondary effects: a review of literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafferty, B.; Synnot, H. [Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland, (Ireland)

    1998-12-31

    The present document reports a literature review of the countermeasures applied in forest ecosystems and their secondary effects. The review has been prepared as a deliverable for the FORECO research Project. FORECO (Forest Ecosystems: Classification of Restoration Options, Considering Dose Reduction, Long-Term Ecological Quality and Economic Factors) is a project funded by the European Commission (Research Contract n. ERBIC-CT96-0202) in the frame of the Cooperation with third countries and international organizations (INCO-COPERNICUS) and coordinated by the National Environmental Protection Agency of Italy. The main aim of FORECO activities with respect to forest ecosystems is the classification of countermeasure options in different forest types, considering the balance between dose reduction, long-term ecological quality and economical factors.

  15. Countermeasures for electrolytic corrosion - Part II: Implementation of a rapid potential-controlled rectifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Tae-Hyun; Kim, Dae-Kyeong; Lee, Hyun-Goo; Ha, Yoon-Cheol; Bae, Jeong-Hyo [Underground Systems Group, Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute, 28-1 Sungju-dong, Changwon, 641-120 (Korea)

    2004-07-01

    In electrolytic interference circumstances such as underground pipelines in the vicinity of DC electrified railroads, drainage method or impressed current cathodic protection method has been widely used as a countermeasure for the electrolytic corrosion. In the former method, forced or polarized drainage is commonly adopted and in the latter, the phase-controlled rectifier with thyristor is in common use. Both methods, however, does not show as the optimal measure for the integrity of the pipeline, since the pipe-to-soil potential fluctuates highly positive to the cathodic protection criterion. In particular, as the potential of the pipeline near the railroad varies rapidly, a new rapidly responding countermeasure is necessary. In this paper, we introduce a new rapid potential controlled rectifier and report the result in field tests. Comparison with the existing forced drainage method is also made. The pipe-to-soil potential data show the effectiveness of the rapid potential-controlled rectifier. (authors)

  16. [Risk of thyroid cancer occurrence by nuclear disasters and its countermeasures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumagai, Atsushi; Yamashita, Shunichi

    2012-11-01

    Looking back at the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011, besides further studying the appropriateness of the initial response and post-countermeasures against the severe Fukushima nuclear accident, the importance of the epidemiological study in human health risk management and the comprehensive radiation protection standard need to be emphasized; lessons learnt from the Chernobyl accident should be also implemented. Therefore, since May 2011, Fukushima Prefecture has started the "Health Care Project (Fukushima Health Management Survey Project)" for the purpose of long-term health care administration and medical diagnosis/treatment for the prefectural residents. In this issue, risk and countermeasures of thyroid cancer occurrence by nuclear disasters, especially due to radioactive iodine will be discussed despite the difficult challenge of accurate estimation of low dose and low-dose rate radiation exposures.

  17. Proposed Pharmacological Countermeasures Against Apoptotic Cell Death in Experimental Models Mimicking Space Environment Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lulli, Matteo; Papucci, Laura; Witort, Ewa; Donnini, Martino; Lapucci, Andrea; Lazzarano, Stefano; Mazzoni, Tiziano; Simoncini, Madine; Falciani, Piergiuseppe; Capaccioli, Sergio

    2008-06-01

    Several damaging agents have been suggested to affect human vision during long term space travels. Recently, apoptosis induced by DNA-damaging agents has emerged as frequent pathogenetic mechanism of ophthalmologic pathologies. Here, we propose two countermeasures: coenzyme Q10 and bcl-2 downregulation preventing antisense oligoribonucleotides (ORNs), aimed to inhibit cellular apoptotic death. Our studies have been carried out on retina and neuronal cultured cells treated with the following apoptotic stimuli mimicking space environment: a several-day exposure to either 3H-labeled tymidine or to the genotoxic drug doxorubicin, UV irradiation, hypoxia and glucose/growth factor starvation (Locke medium). The preliminary results clearly indicate that CoQ10, as well as bcl-2 down-regulation preventing ORNs, significantly counteract apoptosis in response to different DNA damaging agents in cultured eye and in neuronal cells. This supports the possibility that both could be optimal countermeasures against ophthalmologic lesions during space explorations.

  18. Moth tails divert bat attack: evolution of acoustic deflection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Jesse R; Leavell, Brian C; Keener, Adam L; Breinholt, Jesse W; Chadwell, Brad A; McClure, Christopher J W; Hill, Geena M; Kawahara, Akito Y

    2015-03-03

    Adaptations to divert the attacks of visually guided predators have evolved repeatedly in animals. Using high-speed infrared videography, we show that luna moths (Actias luna) generate an acoustic diversion with spinning hindwing tails to deflect echolocating bat attacks away from their body and toward these nonessential appendages. We pit luna moths against big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) and demonstrate a survival advantage of ∼ 47% for moths with tails versus those that had their tails removed. The benefit of hindwing tails is equivalent to the advantage conferred to moths by bat-detecting ears. Moth tails lured bat attacks to these wing regions during 55% of interactions between bats and intact luna moths. We analyzed flight kinematics of moths with and without hindwing tails and suggest that tails have a minimal role in flight performance. Using a robust phylogeny, we find that long spatulate tails have independently evolved four times in saturniid moths, further supporting the selective advantage of this anti-bat strategy. Diversionary tactics are perhaps more common than appreciated in predator-prey interactions. Our finding suggests that focusing on the sensory ecologies of key predators will reveal such countermeasures in prey.

  19. Effects of subsampling of passive acoustic recordings on acoustic metrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomisch, Karolin; Boebel, Olaf; Zitterbart, Daniel P; Samaran, Flore; Van Parijs, Sofie; Van Opzeeland, Ilse

    2015-07-01

    Passive acoustic monitoring is an important tool in marine mammal studies. However, logistics and finances frequently constrain the number and servicing schedules of acoustic recorders, requiring a trade-off between deployment periods and sampling continuity, i.e., the implementation of a subsampling scheme. Optimizing such schemes to each project's specific research questions is desirable. This study investigates the impact of subsampling on the accuracy of two common metrics, acoustic presence and call rate, for different vocalization patterns (regimes) of baleen whales: (1) variable vocal activity, (2) vocalizations organized in song bouts, and (3) vocal activity with diel patterns. To this end, above metrics are compared for continuous and subsampled data subject to different sampling strategies, covering duty cycles between 50% and 2%. The results show that a reduction of the duty cycle impacts negatively on the accuracy of both acoustic presence and call rate estimates. For a given duty cycle, frequent short listening periods improve accuracy of daily acoustic presence estimates over few long listening periods. Overall, subsampling effects are most pronounced for low and/or temporally clustered vocal activity. These findings illustrate the importance of informed decisions when applying subsampling strategies to passive acoustic recordings or analyses for a given target species.

  20. Countermeasures for Intensive Use of Land from the Perspective of Urban-Rural Integration

    OpenAIRE

    Jia, Li-bin

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes problems of excessive emphasis on expansion of urban land, improper village and town construction, and low land utilization efficiency in urban-rural integration construction. In line with characteristics and principle of intensive land use of urban-rural integration, it puts forward integration of urban-rural land layout, practically exploring connotation, and improving land intensification in many ways. Based on these, it presents countermeasures for intensive use of lan...

  1. Economic Development Mode and Countermeasure Research on the Nansi Lake Drainage Area Based on Circular Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Jia, Yong-fei; Peng, Li-min

    2011-01-01

    Firstly, it is pointed out that circular economy should be vigorously developed in the Nansi Lake Drainage Area, and the connotation of circular economy is expounded. Then, problems in developing circular economy in Nansi Lake Drainage Area are analyzed from the aspects of agriculture, industrial enterprises, and waste utilization. Finally, combining with the four modes of peasant household, enterprise, region and society in the development of circular economy, corresponding countermeasures a...

  2. In-duct countermeasures for reducing fire-generated-smoke-aerosol exposure to HEPA filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvares, N.J.; Beason, D.G.; Ford, H.W.

    1978-01-01

    An experimental program was conducted to assess the endurance and lifetime of HEPA filters exposed to fire-generated aerosols, and to reduce the aerosol exposure by installing engineering countermeasures in the duct between the fire source and HEPA filters. Large cribs of wood and other potential fuels of interest were ''forcefully burned'' in a partially ventilated enclosure. In a ''forceful burn'' the crib of fuel is continuously exposed to an energetic premixed methane flame during the entire experimental period. This tactic serves two purposes: it optimizes the production of smoke rich in unburned pyrolyzates which provides severe exposure to the filters, and it facilitates the ignition and enhances the combustion of cribs formed with synthetic polymers. The experiments were conducted in an enclosure specifically designed and instrumented for fire tests. The test cell has a volume of 100 m 3 and includes instrumentation to measure the internal temperature distribution, pressure, thermal radiation field, flow fields, gas concentration, particulate size distribution and mass, fuel weight loss, inlet and exit air velocities, and smoke optical density. The countermeasure techniques include the use of passively operated sprinkler systems in the fire test cell, of fine and dense water scrubbing sprays, and of rolling prefiltration systems in the exit duct of the fire test cell. Of the countermeasures surveyed, the rolling prefilter system showed the most promise. This paper concentrates on the effect of control variables; i.e., enclosure air supply, fuel composition and crib porosity on the combustion response; i.e., crib burning rate, enclosure temperature rise, oxygen consumption, and CO, CO 2 and total hydrocarbon production. A discussion of the attempts to rationalize smoke aerosol properties will be included along with results from the effect of countermeasure application on HEPA filter lifetimes

  3. Study on Status, Problems and Countermeasures of Developing Popular Science Tourism of Geoparks in Yunnan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Wufu; Cheng, Xianfeng; Huang, Qianrui

    2017-12-01

    Tourism development of Yunnan geoparks keeps in the stage of “sightseeing tour” and the real “popular science tourism” keeps in the explorative stage, thus it has a series of problems, such as uncorrelation between tourist attractions and geology, uncorrelation between geologic observation spot and tourism, and insufficient scientificity of commentary, etc. By aiming at these problems, corresponding countermeasures and suggestion were proposed.

  4. The Challenges and Countermeasures of Human Resources on Nuclear Power in the 21st Century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Mingguang; Ye Cheng; Han Xu

    2011-01-01

    The paper addresses the situations of nuclear power development and nuclear industry human resources and points out that the development and supply of human resources are becoming the big challenges in the effective and sustainable development of nuclear power. At the same time, the paper analyzes the root causes of human resources shortage and recommends several countermeasures to confront human resources problems. At last, the paper introduces what SNPTC and SNERDI do to overcome the human resources problem and give conclusions. (author)

  5. Analysis on Present Situation and Countermeasures of Rural Ecotourism in Jiangsu Province

    OpenAIRE

    WANG, Haiqin; GUAN, Yongxiang; WANG, Zichen

    2013-01-01

    This article briefly outlines the concept, present situation and form of rural ecotourism. It also preliminarily analyses the existing problems of rural ecotourism. Then countermeasures and suggestions related to the further development of rural ecotourism and the promotion of new countryside construction are put forward, which can be summarized as follows: carrying out multichannel financing, in order to strengthen the development dynamics of rural ecotourism; focusing on cultivation of ecol...

  6. An Objective Approach for Burkholderia pseudomallei Strain Selection as Challenge Material for Medical Countermeasures Efficacy Testing

    OpenAIRE

    Van Zandt, Kristopher E.; Tuanyok, Apichai; Keim, Paul S.; Warren, Richard L.; Gelhaus, H. Carl

    2012-01-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei is the causative agent of melioidosis, a rare disease of biodefense concern with high mortality and extreme difficulty in treatment. No human vaccines are available that protect against B. pseudomallei infection, and with the current limitations of antibiotic treatment, the development of new preventative and therapeutic interventions is crucial. Although clinical trials could be used to test the efficacy of new medical countermeasures (MCMs), the high mortality rate...

  7. Radon in the life environment and its countermeasures of prevention and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zhenyuan; Zhang Shucheng

    2004-01-01

    Radon and its daughters are a primary component for human body received total natural radiation. They will hurt human body, even fall ill when human body is over-received radiation permitted in the life environment, especially indoors. The paper introduces mainly production mechanism of the radon and its daughters at indoor environment, the live environment investigation and monitoring technology, and effect factors on the radon concentration and distribution, as well as protection and control countermeasures for radon. (authors)

  8. Medical countermeasures for national security: a new government role in the pharmaceuticalization of society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbe, Stefan; Roemer-Mahler, Anne; Long, Christopher

    2015-04-01

    How do governments contribute to the pharmaceuticalization of society? Whilst the pivotal role of industry is extensively documented, this article shows that governments too are accelerating, intensifying and opening up new trajectories of pharmaceuticalization in society. Governments are becoming more deeply invested in pharmaceuticals because their national security strategies now aspire to defend populations against health-based threats like bioterrorism and pandemics. To counter those threats, governments are acquiring and stockpiling a panoply of 'medical countermeasures' such as antivirals, next-generation vaccines, antibiotics and anti-toxins. More than that, governments are actively incentivizing the development of many new medical countermeasures--principally by marshaling the state's unique powers to introduce exceptional measures in the name of protecting national security. At least five extraordinary policy interventions have been introduced by governments with the aim of stimulating the commercial development of novel medical countermeasures: (1) allocating earmarked public funds, (2) granting comprehensive legal protections to pharmaceutical companies against injury compensation claims, (3) introducing bespoke pathways for regulatory approval, (4) instantiating extraordinary emergency use procedures allowing for the use of unapproved medicines, and (5) designing innovative logistical distribution systems for mass drug administration outside of clinical settings. Those combined efforts, the article argues, are spawning a new, government-led and quite exceptional medical countermeasure regime operating beyond the conventional boundaries of pharmaceutical development and regulation. In the first comprehensive analysis of the pharmaceuticalization dynamics at play in national security policy, this article unearths the detailed array of policy interventions through which governments too are becoming more deeply imbricated in the pharmaceuticalization of

  9. Countermeasures for reduction of radioactive contamination of farm animals and animal products in agricultural ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poeschl, M.

    2006-01-01

    A wide variety of measures is available to reduce or prevent the transfer of radionuclides through the food-chain and hence reduce the radiation dose to the consumer. In this mini-review, both literature sources and the practice of applying agricultural countermeasures are summarized very shortly: Interventions at the soil-plant step, at the plant-animal step, and at the foodstuff-man step. (authors)

  10. Present situation and countermeasures for managing expenses of safety in production in enterprise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pang Liefen

    2012-01-01

    The paper introduces the evolutions concerning accountant accounting for the capital of safety in production over the recent years, and analyses the present situation and reasons for the problems existed in enterprise as for gathering expenses of safety in production, and propose the countermeasures to reinforce the management of enterprise expenses of safety in production, in order to improve the management of enterprise expenses of safety in production and to enhance the level of the management in safety for the enterprise. (author)

  11. Molecular events underlying skeletal muscle atrophy and the development of effective countermeasures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, F. W.; Criswell, D. S.

    1997-01-01

    Skeletal muscle adapts to loading; atrophying when exposed to unloading on Earth or in spaceflight. Significant atrophy (decreases in muscle fiber cross-section of 11-24%) in humans has been noted after only 5 days in space. Since muscle strength is determined both by muscle cross-section and synchronization of motor unit recruitment, a loss in muscle size weakens astronauts, which would increase risks to their safety if an emergency required maximal muscle force. Numerous countermeasures have been tested to prevent atrophy. Resistant exercise together with growth hormone and IGF-I are effective countermeasures to unloading as most atrophy is prevented in animal models. The loss of muscle protein is due to an early decrease in protein synthesis rate and a later increase in protein degradation. The initial decrease in protein synthesis is a result of decreased protein translation, caused by a prolongation in the elongation rate. A decrease in HSP70 by a sight increase in ATP may be the factors prolonging elongation rate. Increases in the activities of proteolytic enzymes and in ubiquitin contribute to the increased protein degradation rate in unloaded muscle. Numerous mRNA concentrations have been shown to be altered in unloaded muscles. Decreases in mRNAs for contractile proteins usually occur after the initial fall in protein synthesis rates. Much additional research is needed to determine the mechanism by which muscle senses the absence of gravity with an adaptive atrophy. The development of effective countermeasures to unloading atrophy will require more research.

  12. Herbal radiation countermeasure agents: promising role in the management of radiological/nuclear exigencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arora, Rajesh; Sharma, A.; Kumar, R.; Tripathi, R.P.

    2008-01-01

    In the future, there is a need to substantially boost biomass production and employ elicitors/precursors for improving the production of radioprotective compounds from such alternative sources for ensuring a sustainable supply of the high-value, low volume radioprotective molecules. Chemical fingerprinting, identification and characterization of bioactive constituents using modem analytical techniques and evaluation of their multifaceted mode of action at genomic/proteomic level is also the need of the hour. Such data will help in the development of novel, safe and effective radiation countermeasure agents for human use. Herbal radiation countermeasure agents, including several dietary agents, are likely to find large-scale acceptance in most countries in view of their widespread acceptance, holistic mode of action, less toxicity and economical nature. Endeavours made at INMAS in this direction are likely to fructify in coming years and radiation countermeasure agents from several of these herbal sources would become available, possibly several would be obtainable over-the-counter, for use by civilians, military personnel, first emergency responders and other rescue and recovery personnel. (author)

  13. Application of fuzzy decision making to countermeasure strategies after a nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, X.; Ruan, D.

    1996-01-01

    In the event of a nuclear accident, any decision on countermeasures to protect the public should be made based upon the basic principles recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. The application of these principles requires that there is a balance between the cost and the averted radiation dose, taking into account many subjective factors such as social/political acceptability, psychological stress, and the confidence of the population in the authorities etc. In the framework of classical methods, it is difficult to quantify human subjective judgements and the uncertainties of data efficiently. Hence, any attempt to find the optimal solution for countermeasure strategies without deliberative sensitivity analysis can be misleading. However, fuzzy sets, with linguistic terms to describe the human subjective judgement and with fuzzy numbers to model the uncertainties of the parameters, can be introduced to eliminate these difficulties. With fuzzy rating, a fuzzy multiple attribute decision making method can rank the possible countermeasure strategies. This paper will describe the procedure of the method and present an illustrative example

  14. Human Health Countermeasures (HHC) Element Management Plan: Human Research Program. Revision B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norsk, Peter; Baumann, David

    2012-01-01

    NASA s Human Research Program (HRP) is an applied research and technology program within the Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate (HEOMD) that addresses human health and performance risk mitigation strategies in support of exploration missions. The HRP research and technology development is focused on the highest priority risks to crew health and safety with the goal of ensuring mission success and maintaining long-term crew health. Crew health and performance standards, defined by the NASA Chief Health and Medical Officer (CHMO), set the acceptable risk level for exploration missions. The HRP conducts research to inform these standards as well as provide deliverables, such as countermeasures, that ensure standards can be met to maximize human performance and mission success. The Human Health Countermeasures (HHC) Element was formed as part of the HRP to develop a scientifically-based, integrated approach to understanding and mitigating the health risks associated with human spaceflight. These health risks have been organized into four research portfolios that group similar or related risks. A fifth portfolio exists for managing technology developments and infrastructure projects. The HHC Element portfolios consist of: a) Vision and Cardiovascular; b) Exercise and Performance; c) Multisystem; d) Bone; and e) Technology and Infrastructure. The HHC identifies gaps associated with the health risks and plans human physiology research that will result in knowledge required to more fully understand risks and will result in validated countermeasures to mitigate risks.

  15. Urbapat: External exposure and countermeasures after a radiological accident in the urban environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.E.; Gallego, E.

    1992-01-01

    URBAPAT (URBAN PATHWAY) is a computer model, written in FORTRAN 77, for the evaluation of the gamma external exposure, and the adequate countermeasures, after a radiological accident involving dispersion and deposition of radioactive material on different urban surfaces. The code estimates the evolution of radioactive material in the urban environment using a dynamic model consisting on 21 compartments, that simulate five different urban surfaces with their particular retention properties. For the assessment of the gamma external exposure in urban areas, one of then main contributors to the long-term individual dose, the model considers the contribution of each surface to the dose rate delivered by five radionuclides (Cs-137, Cs-134, I-131, Te-132, Ba-140) in different locations outside and inside three types of buildings (semi-detached houses, terrace houses and multi-stored buildings). The population is classified in various groups, attending to their stay time in each location. The model can evaluate the dose avoided by the introduction of countermeasures like decontamination of the urban surfaces or relocation. An assessment of their associated costs will permit to perform the needed cost-benefit analysis of the different countermeasures and alternatives, following IAEA and ICRP recommendations. The capability to perform sensitivity and uncertainty assessment of the more important parameters affecting the results obtained will also be included in the model. (Author)

  16. Study to Improve Security for IoT Smart Device Controller: Drawbacks and Countermeasures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Su

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Including mobile environment, conventional security mechanisms have been adapted to satisfy the needs of users. However, the device environment-IoT-based number of connected devices is quite different to the previous traditional desktop PC- or mobile-based environment. Based on the IoT, different kinds of smart and mobile devices are fully connected automatically via device controller, such as smartphone. Therefore, controller must be secure compared to conventional security mechanism. According to the existing security threats, these are quite different from the previous ones. Thus, the countermeasures applied should be changed. However, the smart device-based authentication techniques that have been proposed to date are not adequate in terms of usability and security. From the viewpoint of usability, the environment is based on mobility, and thus devices are designed and developed to enhance their owners’ efficiency. Thus, in all applications, there is a need to consider usability, even when the application is a security mechanism. Typically, mobility is emphasized over security. However, considering that the major characteristic of a device controller is deeply related to its owner’s private information, a security technique that is robust to all kinds of attacks is mandatory. In this paper, we focus on security. First, in terms of security achievement, we investigate and categorize conventional attacks and emerging issues and then analyze conventional and existing countermeasures, respectively. Finally, as countermeasure concepts, we propose several representative methods.

  17. Exercise Countermeasures Demonstration Project During the Lunar-Mars Life Support Test Project Phase 2A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Stuart M. C.; Guilliams, Mark E.; Moore, Alan D., Jr.; Williams, W. Jon; Greenisen, M. C.; Fortney, S. M.

    1998-01-01

    This demonstration project assessed the crew members' compliance to a portion of the exercise countermeasures planned for use onboard the International Space Station (ISS) and the outcomes of their performing these countermeasures. Although these countermeasures have been used separately in other projects and investigations, this was the first time they'd been used together for an extended period (60 days) in an investigation of this nature. Crew members exercised every day for six days, alternating every other day between aerobic and resistive exercise, and rested on the seventh day. On the aerobic exercise days, subjects exercised on an electronically braked cycle ergometer using a protocol that has been previously shown to maintain aerobic capacity in subjects exposed to a space flight analogue. On the resistive exercise days, crew members performed five major multijoint resistive exercises in a concentric mode, targeting those muscle groups and bones we believe are most severely affected by space flight. The subjects favorably tolerated both exercise protocols, with a 98% compliance to aerobic exercise prescription and a 91% adherence to the resistive exercise protocol. After 60 days, the crew members improved their peak aerobic capacity by an average 7%, and strength gains were noted in all subjects. These results suggest that these exercise protocols can be performed during ISS, lunar, and Mars missions, although we anticipate more frequent bouts with both protocols for long-duration spaceflight. Future projects should investigate the impact of increased exercise duration and frequency on subject compliance, and the efficacy of such exercise prescriptions.

  18. A review of countermeasures to reduce radioiodine in milk of dairy animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, B.J.; Voigt, G.; Segal, M.G.

    1996-01-01

    The most effective countermeasure for radioiodine contamination of milk is to provide dairy animals with uncontaminated feed, with the added advantage that it will be effective for other radionuclides in the fallout. Another effective response is to process the milk into storable dairy products for an appropriate length of time to allow for physical decay. The use of additives given to ruminants to reduce radioiodine in milk is an alternative countermeasure which could be effective. Stable iodine administration is a practically feasible option which has the potential to reduce radioiodine levels in milk by at most a factor of three. Stable iodine supplementation should be at sufficiently high rates to be effective (and at least 1 g d -1 for dairy cows), particularly for ruminants already receiving high amounts of iodine in the diet. Currently available data are inadequate to recommend a suitable stable iodine administration rate for different species of ruminants. Other compounds, such as perchlorate and thiocyanate, also reduce the transfer to radioiodine to milk (and thyroid). Some of these compounds seem to be potentially equally as effective as stable iodine. However, currently there is inadequate information on their effectiveness and possible toxicity to both ruminants and humans for these compounds to be considered as suitable countermeasure additives. 85 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  19. Study on countermeasures for effective assessment of domestic system of physical protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong Uk; An, J. S.; Min, G. S.; Yoon, W. K.; Kim, K. J.; Kim, J. K.; Lim, J. H.; Choe, K. K.; Park, S. G.

    2004-04-01

    Since the threat for nuclear facilities has increased due to the collapse of the Soviet Union and the allegations of Iraq and North Korean nuclear programmes, the concern for international regime of physical protection has been a hot issue worldwide. In addition, as the international strengthening trend of physical protection had been speeded up since the September 11th terror, Member States including the IAEA had agreed to revise the CPPNM(INFCIRC/274/rev.1) and prepared a draft amendment of CPPNM to establish their systems of physical protection based on threat assessment. However, Korean government has not yet established the domestic regime of threat assessment as well as national DBT for nuclear facilities, so it is very urgent to prepare the measures for them. As a domestic countermeasure for the international trend, Korean government promulgated a new 'Law for Physical Protection and Radiological Emergency'(LPPRE) on May 2003, which was based on establishing the regime of threat assessment, but it is necessary for us to construct the substantial countermeasures for its implementation as well as to legislate the following regulations of the LPPRE. Therefore, this study suggests the measures for constructing domestic regime of threat assessment in order to establish the legal and institutional framework and provides the efficient countermeasures for its implementation

  20. An Experimental Introduction to Acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Andy Nicholas; Magruder, Robert H.

    2017-11-01

    Learning and understanding physics requires more than studying physics texts. It requires doing physics. Doing research is a key opportunity for students to connect physical principles with their everyday experience. A powerful way to introduce students to research and technique is through subjects in which they might find interest. Presented is an experiment that serves to introduce an advanced undergraduate or high school student to conducting research in acoustics via an experiment involving a standard dreadnought acoustic guitar, recording industry-related equipment, and relevant industrial analysis software. This experimental process is applicable to a wide range of acoustical topics including both acoustic and electric instruments. Also, the student has a hands-on experience with relevant audio engineering technology to study physical principles.

  1. Reverberant Acoustic Test Facility (RATF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The very large Reverberant Acoustic Test Facility (RATF) at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), Plum Brook Station, is currently under construction and is due to...

  2. Physical acoustics principles and methods

    CERN Document Server

    Mason, Warren P

    2012-01-01

    Physical Acoustics: Principles and Methods, Volume IV, Part B: Applications to Quantum and Solid State Physics provides an introduction to the various applications of quantum mechanics to acoustics by describing several processes for which such considerations are essential. This book discusses the transmission of sound waves in molten metals. Comprised of seven chapters, this volume starts with an overview of the interactions that can happen between electrons and acoustic waves when magnetic fields are present. This text then describes acoustic and plasma waves in ionized gases wherein oscillations are subject to hydrodynamic as well as electromagnetic forces. Other chapters examine the resonances and relaxations that can take place in polymer systems. This book discusses as well the general theory of the interaction of a weak sinusoidal field with matter. The final chapter describes the sound velocities in the rocks composing the Earth. This book is a valuable resource for physicists and engineers.

  3. Acoustic holograms of active regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, Dean-Yi

    2008-01-01

    We propose a method to study solar magnetic regions in the solar interior with the principle of optical holography. A magnetic region in the solar interior scatters the solar background acoustic waves. The scattered waves and background waves could form an interference pattern on the solar surface. We investigate the feasibility of detecting this interference pattern on the solar surface, and using it to construct the three-dimensional scattered wave from the magnetic region with the principle of optical holography. In solar acoustic holography, the background acoustic waves play the role of reference wave; the magnetic region plays the role of the target object; the interference pattern, acoustic power map, on the solar surface plays the role of the hologram.

  4. PVT Degradation Studies: Acoustic Diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dib, Gerges [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Tucker, Brian J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kouzes, Richard T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Smith, Philip J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-04-01

    Under certain environmental conditions, polyvinyl toluene (PVT) plastic scintillator has been observed to undergo internal fogging. This document reports on a study of acoustic techniques to determine whether they can provide a diagnostic for the fogging of PVT. Different ultrasound techniques were employed for detecting the level of internal fogging in PVT, including wave velocity measurements, attenuation, nonlinear acoustics, and acoustic microscopy. The results indicate that there are linear relations between the wave velocity and wave attenuation with the level of internal fogging. The effects of fogging on ultrasound wave attenuation is further verified by acoustic microscopy imaging, where regions with fog in the specimen demonstration higher levels of attenuation compared to clear regions. Results from the nonlinear ultrasound measurements were inconclusive due to high sensitivities to transducer coupling and fixture variabilities.

  5. Acoustic holograms of active regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, Dean-Yi [Physics Department, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, 30013, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: chou@phys.nthu.edu.tw

    2008-10-15

    We propose a method to study solar magnetic regions in the solar interior with the principle of optical holography. A magnetic region in the solar interior scatters the solar background acoustic waves. The scattered waves and background waves could form an interference pattern on the solar surface. We investigate the feasibility of detecting this interference pattern on the solar surface, and using it to construct the three-dimensional scattered wave from the magnetic region with the principle of optical holography. In solar acoustic holography, the background acoustic waves play the role of reference wave; the magnetic region plays the role of the target object; the interference pattern, acoustic power map, on the solar surface plays the role of the hologram.

  6. Acoustic Characterization of Mesoscale Objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chinn, D; Huber, R; Chambers, D; Cole, G; Balogun, O; Spicer, J; Murray, T

    2007-03-13

    This report describes the science and engineering performed to provide state-of-the-art acoustic capabilities for nondestructively characterizing mesoscale (millimeter-sized) objects--allowing micrometer resolution over the objects entire volume. Materials and structures used in mesoscale objects necessitate the use of (1) GHz acoustic frequencies and (2) non-contacting laser generation and detection of acoustic waves. This effort demonstrated that acoustic methods at gigahertz frequencies have the necessary penetration depth and spatial resolution to effectively detect density discontinuities, gaps, and delaminations. A prototype laser-based ultrasonic system was designed and built. The system uses a micro-chip laser for excitation of broadband ultrasonic waves with frequency components reaching 1.0 GHz, and a path-stabilized Michelson interferometer for detection. The proof-of-concept for mesoscale characterization is demonstrated by imaging a micro-fabricated etched pattern in a 70 {micro}m thick silicon wafer.

  7. Acoustic agglomeration methods and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barmatz, M. B. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    Methods are described for using acoustic energy to agglomerate fine particles on the order of one micron diameter that are suspended in gas, to provide agglomerates large enough for efficient removal by other techniques. The gas with suspended particles, is passed through the length of a chamber while acoustic energy at a resonant chamber mode is applied to set up one or more acoustic standing wave patterns that vibrate the suspended particles to bring them together so they agglomerate. Several widely different frequencies can be applied to efficiently vibrate particles of widely differing sizes. The standing wave pattern can be applied along directions transversed to the flow of the gas. The particles can be made to move in circles by applying acoustic energy in perpendicular directions with the energy in both directions being of the same wavelength but 90 deg out of phase.

  8. A programmable nonlinear acoustic metamaterial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianzhi Yang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Acoustic metamaterials with specifically designed lattices can manipulate acoustic/elastic waves in unprecedented ways. Whereas there are many studies that focus on passive linear lattice, with non-reconfigurable structures. In this letter, we present the design, theory and experimental demonstration of an active nonlinear acoustic metamaterial, the dynamic properties of which can be modified instantaneously with reversibility. By incorporating active and nonlinear elements in a single unit cell, a real-time tunability and switchability of the band gap is achieved. In addition, we demonstrate a dynamic “editing” capability for shaping transmission spectra, which can be used to create the desired band gap and resonance. This feature is impossible to achieve in passive metamaterials. These advantages demonstrate the versatility of the proposed device, paving the way toward smart acoustic devices, such as logic elements, diode and transistor.

  9. Stable And Oscillating Acoustic Levitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barmatz, Martin B.; Garrett, Steven L.

    1988-01-01

    Sample stability or instability determined by levitating frequency. Degree of oscillation of acoustically levitated object along axis of levitation chamber controlled by varying frequency of acoustic driver for axis above or below frequency of corresponding chamber resonance. Stabilization/oscillation technique applied in normal Earth gravity, or in absence of gravity to bring object quickly to rest at nominal levitation position or make object oscillate in desired range about that position.

  10. Simplified Rotation In Acoustic Levitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barmatz, M. B.; Gaspar, M. S.; Trinh, E. H.

    1989-01-01

    New technique based on old discovery used to control orientation of object levitated acoustically in axisymmetric chamber. Method does not require expensive equipment like additional acoustic drivers of precisely adjustable amplitude, phase, and frequency. Reflecting object acts as second source of sound. If reflecting object large enough, close enough to levitated object, or focuses reflected sound sufficiently, Rayleigh torque exerted on levitated object by reflected sound controls orientation of object.

  11. Acoustical Properties of Contemporary Mosques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karaman Özgül Yılmaz

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Religious buildings are important for many communities because of their representation of different beliefs. In such structures, the sense of individuality or unity & togetherness are created according to variable worship activities; these different uses have also different acoustical requirements. In order to create the desired feeling in the space at the required time, rooms should be evaluated in terms of acoustical conditions.

  12. Acoustic techniques in nuclear safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olinger, C.T.; Sinha, D.N.

    1995-01-01

    Acoustic techniques can be employed to address many questions relevant to current nuclear technology needs. These include establishing and monitoring intrinsic tags and seals, locating holdup in areas where conventional radiation-based measurements have limited capability, process monitoring, monitoring containers for corrosion or changes in pressure, and facility design verification. These acoustics applications are in their infancy with respect to safeguards and nuclear material management, but proof-of-principle has been demonstrated in many of the areas listed

  13. Acoustic Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccus, Shelley

    2015-01-01

    The Logistics Reduction (LR) project within the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) program is tasked with reducing logistical mass and repurposing logistical items. Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bags (MCTB) are designed to be the same external volume as a regular cargo transfer bag, the common logistics carrier for the International Space Station. After use as a cargo bag, the MCTB can be unzipped and unfolded to be reused. This Acoustic MCTBs transform into acoustic blankets after the initial logistics carrying objective is complete.

  14. Development of acoustic particle detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuyama, Tadayoshi; Hinode, Fujio; Konno, Osamu

    1999-01-01

    To detect acoustic sign from electron, determination of acoustic radiation from high energy electron and detector were studied. When charge particles pass through medium, energy loss generates local expansion and contraction of medium and pressure compression wave. We need caustic element with 10 -5 Pa the minimum acoustic receive sensitivity and from 10 to 100 kHz frequency sensitivity characteristic. Elements were made by Low-Q materials, piezoelectric materials (PZT). Various sharp of elements were constructed and measured. 50 mm spherical element showed 38 m V/Pa, the best sensitivity. Our developed acoustic element could detect acoustic radiation generated by electron beam from accelerator. The wave sharp detected proved the same as bipolar wave, which was given theoretically. The pressure generated by beam was proportional to the energy loss E. 200 MeV electron beam existed about 95% particles on the incident axis. So that acoustic detector on the axis proved to detect sound wave generated on the beam axis. (S.Y.)

  15. The Project for Developing Countermeasures against Landslides in the Abay River Gorge, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guta, H. E.

    2016-12-01

    The Blue Nile Gorge of Ethiopia is characterized by high relief landscape. The stretch of major arterial road that connects Ethiopia to Sudan passes through the Gorge. The Gorge is plagued by swarms of landslides which makes it a tremendous obstacle for travel and communication. Therefore, landside study was carried out from 2010 to 2012 by JICA and Geological survey of Ethiopia to figure out the mechanisms that trigger the swarms of landslides that occur in the area and identify appropriate countermeasures that would be best implemented. The study included geomorphologic and geologic survey, drilling survey, displacement monitoring, ground water and precipitation monitoring, geophysical exploration, and stability analysis. About 42 landslide monitoring instruments namely extensometers (both surface and borehole), inclinometers and ground water level meters were installed in four highly landslide prone areas to detect slip surface, and determine amount and direction of movement. The amount of landslide movement at the four zones is 42.4, 57.6, 294.9 and 136mm during rainy season. Ground water level rising, nature of material and intense rainfall are found to be among the major triggering factors. Stability analysis using Simple Jambu and modified Fellenus methods was conducted resulting in safety factor Fs less than one and reasonably 0.98 by adopting shear parameters of soils by back analysis. By assuming cohesion (c') to be very close to 0 due to landslide blocks active movement when ground water rises during rainy season, Shear resistance angle, ɸ, was obtained to be 10.80, 26.30, 10.20 and 16.30 in the four areas using Modified Fellenius method and 10.70, 26.60, 10.00 and 16.10 using Simple Janbu method. Effect of countermeasures was checked by trial calculation. Accordingly the factory of safety increased from 0.98 to 1.2 when ɸ=60, ground water is lowered by 6m, and steel pipe pile of ɸ500mm x t40mm at an interval of 1.9m are implemented. consequently

  16. Acoustics of the Intonarumori

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafin, Stefania

    2005-04-01

    The Intonarumori were a family of musical instruments invented by the Italian futurist composer and painter Luigi Russolo. Each Intonarumori was made of a wooden parallelepiped sound box, inside which a wheel of different sizes and materials was setting into vibration a catgut or metal string. The pitch of the string was varied by using a lever, while the speed of the wheel was controlled by the performer using a crank. At one end of the string there was a drumhead that transmitted vibrations to the speaker. Unfortunately, all the original Intonarumori were destroyed after a fire during World War II. Since then, researchers have tried to understand the sound production mechanism of such instruments, especially by consulting the patents compiled by Russolo or by reading his book ``The art of noise.'' In this paper we describe the acoustics of the Intonarumori. Based on such description, we propose physical models that simulate such instruments. The intonarumori's string is modeled using a one dimensional waveguide, which is excited either by an impact or a friction model. The body of the instrument is modeled using a 3-D rectangular mesh, while the horn is considered as an omnidirectional radiator.

  17. Introduction to nonlinear acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørnø, Leif

    2010-01-01

    A brief review of the basic principles of fluid mechanics needed for development of linear and nonlinear ultrasonic concepts will be given. The fundamental equations of nonlinear ultrasonics will be derived and their physical properties explained. It will be shown how an originally monochromatic finite-amplitude ultrasonic wave, due to nonlinear effects, will distort during its propagation in time and space to form higher harmonics to its fundamental frequency. The concepts of shock formation will be presented. The material nonlinearity, described by the nonlinearity parameter B/A of the material, and the convective nonlinearity, described by the ultrasonic Mach Number, will be explained. Two procedures for determination of B/A will briefly be described and some B/A-values characterizing biological materials will be presented. Shock formation, described by use of the Goldberg Number,and Ultrasonic Saturation will be discussed.. An introduction to focused ultrasonic fields will be given and it will be shown how the ultrasonic intensity will vary axially and laterally in and near the focal region and how the field parameters of interest to biomedical applications may be described by use of the KZK-Model. Finally, an introduction will be given to the parametric acoustic array formed by mixing and interaction of two monochromatic, finite-amplitude ultrasonic waves in a liquid and the potentials of this mixing process in biomedical ultrasound will briefly be mentioned.

  18. Focusing of Acoustic Waves through Acoustic Materials with Subwavelength Structures

    KAUST Repository

    Xiao, Bingmu

    2013-05-01

    In this thesis, wave propagation through acoustic materials with subwavelength slits structures is studied. Guided by the findings, acoustic wave focusing is achieved with a specific material design. By using a parameter retrieving method, an effective medium theory for a slab with periodic subwavelength cut-through slits is successfully derived. The theory is based on eigenfunction solutions to the acoustic wave equation. Numerical simulations are implemented by the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method for the two-dimensional acoustic wave equation. The theory provides the effective impedance and refractive index functions for the equivalent medium, which can reproduce the transmission and reflection spectral responses of the original structure. I analytically and numerically investigate both the validity and limitations of the theory, and the influences of material and geometry on the effective spectral responses are studied. Results show that large contrasts in impedance and density are conditions that validate the effective medium theory, and this approximation displays a better accuracy for a thick slab with narrow slits in it. Based on the effective medium theory developed, a design of a at slab with a snake shaped" subwavelength structure is proposed as a means of achieving acoustic focusing. The property of focusing is demonstrated by FDTD simulations. Good agreement is observed between the proposed structure and the equivalent lens pre- dicted by the theory, which leads to robust broadband focusing by a thin at slab.

  19. PORTABLE ACOUSTIC MONITORING PACKAGE (PAMP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John l. Loth; Gary J. Morris; George M. Palmer; Richard Guiler; Deepak Mehra

    2003-07-01

    The 1st generation acoustic monitoring package was designed to detect and analyze weak acoustic signals inside natural gas transmission lines. Besides a microphone it housed a three-inch diameter aerodynamic acoustic signal amplifier to maximize sensitivity to leak induced {Delta}p type signals. The theory and test results of this aerodynamic signal amplifier was described in the master's degree thesis of our Research Assistant Deepak Mehra who is about to graduate. To house such a large three-inch diameter sensor required the use of a steel 300-psi rated 4 inch weld neck flange, which itself weighed already 29 pounds. The completed 1st generation Acoustic Monitoring Package weighed almost 100 pounds. This was too cumbersome to mount in the field, on an access port at a pipeline shut-off valve. Therefore a 2nd generation and truly Portable Acoustic Monitor was built. It incorporated a fully self-contained {Delta}p type signal sensor, rated for line pressures up to 1000 psi with a base weight of only 6 pounds. This is the Rosemont Inc. Model 3051CD-Range 0, software driven sensor, which is believed to have industries best total performance. Its most sensitive unit was purchased with a {Delta}p range from 0 to 3 inch water. This resulted in the herein described 2nd generation: Portable Acoustic Monitoring Package (PAMP) for pipelines up to 1000 psi. Its 32-pound total weight includes an 18-volt battery. Together with a 3 pound laptop with its 4-channel data acquisition card, completes the equipment needed for field acoustic monitoring of natural gas transmission pipelines.

  20. Acoustic loading effects on oscillating rod bundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, W.H.

    1980-01-01

    An analytical study of the interaction between an infinite acoustic medium and a cluster of circular rods is described. The acoustic field due to oscillating rods and the acoustic loading on the rods are first solved in a closed form. The acoustic loading is then used as a forcing function for rod responses, and the acousto-elastic couplings are solved simultaneously. Numerical examples are presented for several cases to illustrate the effects of various system parameters on the acoustic reaction force coefficients. The effect of the acoustic loading on the coupled eigenfrequencies are discussed

  1. High-rate wireless data communications: An underwater acoustic communications framework at the physical layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bessios Anthony G.

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available A variety of signal processing functions are performed by Underwater Acoustic Systems. These include: 1 detection to determine presence or absence of information signals in the presence of noise, or an attempt to describe which of a predetermined finite set of possible messages { m i , i , ... , M } the signal represents; 2 estimation of some parameter θ ˆ associated with the received signal (i.e. range, depth, bearing angle, etc.; 3 classification and source identification; 4 dynamics tracking; 5 navigation (collision avoidance and terminal guidance; 6 countermeasures; and 7 communications. The focus of this paper is acoustic communications. There is a global current need to develop reliable wireless digital communications for the underwater environment, with sufficient performance and efficiency to substitute for costly wired systems. One possible goal is a wireless system implementation that insures underwater terminal mobility. There is also a vital need to improve the performance of the existing systems in terms of data-rate, noise immunity, operational range, and power consumption, since, in practice, portable high-speed, long range, compact, low-power systems are desired. We concede the difficulties associated with acoustic systems and concentrate on the development of robust data transmission methods anticipating the eventual need for real time or near real time video transmission. An overview of the various detection techniques and the general statistical digital communication problem is given based on a statistical decision theory framework. The theoretical formulation of the underwater acoustic data communications problem includes modeling of the stochastic channel to incorporate a variety of impairments and environmental uncertainties, and proposal of new compensation strategies for an efficient and robust receiver design.

  2. Acoustic constituents of prosodic typology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Masahiko

    Different languages sound different, and considerable part of it derives from the typological difference of prosody. Although such difference is often referred to as lexical accent types (stress accent, pitch accent, and tone; e.g. English, Japanese, and Chinese respectively) and rhythm types (stress-, syllable-, and mora-timed rhythms; e.g. English, Spanish, and Japanese respectively), it is unclear whether these types are determined in terms of acoustic properties, The thesis intends to provide a potential basis for the description of prosody in terms of acoustics. It argues for the hypothesis that the source component of the source-filter model (acoustic features) approximately corresponds to prosody (linguistic features) through several experimental-phonetic studies. The study consists of four parts. (1) Preliminary experiment: Perceptual language identification tests were performed using English and Japanese speech samples whose frequency spectral information (i.e. non-source component) is heavily reduced. The results indicated that humans can discriminate languages with such signals. (2) Discussion on the linguistic information that the source component contains: This part constitutes the foundation of the argument of the thesis. Perception tests of consonants with the source signal indicated that the source component carries the information on broad categories of phonemes that contributes to the creation of rhythm. (3) Acoustic analysis: The speech samples of Chinese, English, Japanese, and Spanish, differing in prosodic types, were analyzed. These languages showed difference in acoustic characteristics of the source component. (4) Perceptual experiment: A language identification test for the above four languages was performed using the source signal with its acoustic features parameterized. It revealed that humans can discriminate prosodic types solely with the source features and that the discrimination is easier as acoustic information increases. The

  3. Radiological evaluation of acoustic neurinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jong Tae; Park, Chang Yun; Choi, Byung So [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1974-04-15

    All 25 patients surgically proven acoustic neurinoma was analysed clinically, radiographically at Severance Hospital of Yonsei Univ. The patients not proved surgically in spite of clinical diagnosis of acoustic neurinoma was excluded from this study. The results are summarized as follows; The clinical findings are; 1. The incidence of tumor in female was twice more frequent than in male and the range of age was 20-50 years peak of age at onset of symptom. 2. The clinical symptoms were variable from unilateral hearing impairment or less (100%), headache (84%) to tinnitus (60%) in order of frequency. 3. The tumor growth in the left cerebellopontine angle was twice more than in the right side with the radio of 16:8. However, in one case bilateral simultaneous growth of acoustic neurinoma was noted. The radiological findings are: The best radiographic method to study the shape and size of internal acoustic canal to demonstrate erosion or destruction of petrous pyramida was considered to be straight frontal view and tomography of the skull in our series. 1. The shape of internal acoustic canal in tumors were straight (in 2 cases), bulbous (in 12 cases), and flared (in 11 cases). Particularly there was erosion or destruction of petrous bone in all of the flared cases of canal. 2. The acoustic meatal erosion was mainly suprameatal in 14 cases of 17 which was noted definite erosion radiographically. 3. The difference of height (vertical diameter) of both side of acoustic canal were follows; 6 cases among 25 was in the range of 0-2 mm measurement, remainder was more than 2 mm. Hence the variation in greater than 1 mm in between both sides of canal in same patient should be regard as abnormal as of acoustic neurinoma. 4. The carotid angiogram shows hydrocephalic pattern in 12 cases among 17. 5. In the vertebral angiogram of 8 cases, anterolateral displacement of basilar artery (in 6 caes), the upward displacement of superior cerebellar artery (in 4 cases) was common findings

  4. Radiological evaluation of acoustic neurinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong Tae; Park, Chang Yun; Choi, Byung So

    1974-01-01

    All 25 patients surgically proven acoustic neurinoma was analysed clinically, radiographically at Severance Hospital of Yonsei Univ. The patients not proved surgically in spite of clinical diagnosis of acoustic neurinoma was excluded from this study. The results are summarized as follows; The clinical findings are; 1. The incidence of tumor in female was twice more frequent than in male and the range of age was 20-50 years peak of age at onset of symptom. 2. The clinical symptoms were variable from unilateral hearing impairment or less (100%), headache (84%) to tinnitus (60%) in order of frequency. 3. The tumor growth in the left cerebellopontine angle was twice more than in the right side with the radio of 16:8. However, in one case bilateral simultaneous growth of acoustic neurinoma was noted. The radiological findings are: The best radiographic method to study the shape and size of internal acoustic canal to demonstrate erosion or destruction of petrous pyramida was considered to be straight frontal view and tomography of the skull in our series. 1. The shape of internal acoustic canal in tumors were straight (in 2 cases), bulbous (in 12 cases), and flared (in 11 cases). Particularly there was erosion or destruction of petrous bone in all of the flared cases of canal. 2. The acoustic meatal erosion was mainly suprameatal in 14 cases of 17 which was noted definite erosion radiographically. 3. The difference of height (vertical diameter) of both side of acoustic canal were follows; 6 cases among 25 was in the range of 0-2 mm measurement, remainder was more than 2 mm. Hence the variation in greater than 1 mm in between both sides of canal in same patient should be regard as abnormal as of acoustic neurinoma. 4. The carotid angiogram shows hydrocephalic pattern in 12 cases among 17. 5. In the vertebral angiogram of 8 cases, anterolateral displacement of basilar artery (in 6 caes), the upward displacement of superior cerebellar artery (in 4 cases) was common findings

  5. Acoustic Radiation Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantrell, John H.

    2018-01-01

    The theoretical foundation of acoustic radiation pressure in plane wave beams is reexamined. It is shown from finite deformation theory and the Boltzmann-Ehrenfest Adiabatic Principle that the Brillouin stress tensor (BST) is the radiation stress in Lagrangian coordinates (not Eulerian coordinates) and that the terms in the BST are not the momentum flux density and mean excess Eulerian stress but are simply contributions to the variation in the wave oscillation period resulting from changes in path length and true wave velocity, respectively, from virtual variations in the strain. It is shown that the radiation stress in Eulerian coordinates is the mean Cauchy stress (not the momentum flux density, as commonly assumed) and that Langevin's second relation does not yield an assessment of the mean Eulerian pressure, since the enthalpy used in the traditional derivations is a function of the thermodynamic tensions - not the Eulerian pressure. It is shown that the transformation between Lagrangian and Eulerian quantities cannot be obtained from the commonly-used expansion of one of the quantities in terms of the particle displacement, since the expansion provides only the difference between the value of the quantity at two different points in Cartesian space separated by the displacement. The proper transformation is obtained only by employing the transformation coefficients of finite deformation theory, which are defined in terms of the displacement gradients. Finite deformation theory leads to the result that for laterally unconfined, plane waves the Lagrangian and Eulerian radiation pressures are equal with the value (1/4)(2K) along the direction of wave propagation, where (K) is the mean kinetic energy density, and zero in directions normal to the propagation direction. This is contrary to the Langevin result that the Lagrangian radiation pressure in the propagation direction is equal to (2K) and the BST result that the Eulerian radiation pressure in that direction

  6. CALCULATION OF ACOUSTIC EFFICIENCY OF PORTABLE ACOUSTIC SCREEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Skvortsov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The research of influence of life environment adverse factors on physical development and health of population is an actual problem of ecology. The aspects of the most actual problems of the modern world, namely environmental industrial noise pollution are considered in the article. Industrial facilities everywhere have noisy equipment. Noise is a significant factors of negative influenceon people and environment. Combined effects of noise and of other physical pollutions on people may cause amplification of their negative impact. If the noise pollution level from the object in a residential area exceeds the permissible levels (MPL, noise protection measures can be initiated. Today, the most common design decisions for noise protection are sound absorbing construction, noise screens and barriers, acousting housings, soundproff cabins. Many of them are popular, others are less known. The article deals with one of the most wide spread means of noise protection – a portable acoustic screen. The aim of the research is to determine the efficiency of portable acoustic screens. It is shown that the installation of such structures can reduce the average value of the sound level. The authors analyzed acoustic screens as device to reduce noise pollution. The authors offer a potable acoustic screen differing from the used easyness, mobility, minimum price and good sound protective properties. Effectiveness, a sound absorption coefficient and sound conductivity coefficient of a portable acoustic screen are evaluated. The descriptions of the algorithm calculations and the combination of technical solutions have practical originality. The results of the research demonstrate the advantages of the proposed solutions for reducing noise levels in the agro-industrial complex.

  7. Acoustic emission from polycrystalline graphites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ioka, I.; Yoda, S.; Oku, T.; Miyamoto, Y.

    1987-01-01

    Acoustic emission was monitored from polycrystalline graphites with different microstructure (pore size and pore volume) subjected to compressive loading. The graphites used in this study comprised five brands, that is, PGX, ISEM-1, IG-11, IG-15, and ISO-88. A root mean square (RMS) voltage and event counts of acoustic emission for graphites were measured during compressive loading. The acoustic emission was measured using a computed-based data acquisition and analysis system. The graphites were first deformed up to 80 % of the average fracture stress, then unloaded and reloaded again until the fracture occured. During the first loading, the change in RMS voltage for acoustic emission was detected from the initial stage. During the unloading, the RMS voltage became zero level as soon as the applied stress was released and then gradually rose to a peak and declined. The behavior indicated that the reversed plastic deformation occured in graphites. During the second loading, the RMS voltage gently increased until the applied stress exceeded the maximum stress of the first loading; there is no Kaiser effect in the graphites. A bicrystal model could give a reasonable explanation of this results. The empirical equation between the ratio of σ AE to σ f and σ f was obtained. It is considered that the detection of microfracture by the acoustic emission technique is effective in macrofracture prediction of polycrystalline graphites. (author)

  8. A Treatise on Acoustic Radiation. Volume 2. Acoustic Transducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Newton) V (meter/sec) acoustical p (Newton/meter2 ) U (meter 3/sec) To display Eq. 1.53.1 in simple form we take time to be given by exp(- iot ) and choose...if all the C-component edges and e-drivers are in the tree, all the L-component "A edges and idrivers are in the cotree, all the algebraic equations...momentum and mass of the elastic field then become, (a) Al - V -T + F 278 W-4. ,-,- * * * 4 % • *.• Design of Acoustic Transducers IOT (b) I + VV-s

  9. Matching Impedances and Modes in Acoustic Levitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barmatz, M. B.

    1985-01-01

    Temperature differences accommodated with tunable coupler. Report discusses schemes for coupling sound efficiently from cool outside atmosphere into hot acoustic-levitation chamber. Theoretical studies have practical implications for material-processing systems that employ acoustic levitation.

  10. Interaction of langmuir and ion acoustic waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hee Jae

    1991-01-01

    Interaction of Langmuir and ion acoustic waves in a plasma is described by Landau-Ginzburg type of equation when the group velocity of the Langmuir wave is equal to the wave velocity of ion acoustic wave. (Author)

  11. Acoustic remote sensing of ocean flows

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Joseph, A.; Desa, E.

    Acoustic techniques have become powerful tools for measurement of ocean circulation mainly because of the ability of acoustic signals to travel long distances in water, and the inherently non-invasive nature of measurement. The satellite remote...

  12. Subwoofer and nanotube butterfly acoustic flame extinction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aliev, Ali E.; Mayo, Nathanael K.; Baughman, Ray H.; Mills, Brent T.; Habtour, Ed

    2017-01-01

    Nonchemical flame control using acoustic waves from a subwoofer and a lightweight carbon nanotube thermoacoustic projector was demonstrated. The intent was to manipulate flame intensity, direction and propagation. The mechanisms of flame suppression using low frequency acoustic waves were discussed.

  13. Golden Gate and Pt. Reyes Acoustic Detections

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains detections of acoustic tagged fish from two general locations: Golden Gate (east and west line) and Pt. Reyes. Several Vemco 69khz acoustic...

  14. Prototype acoustic resonance spectroscopy monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, D.N.; Olinger, C.T.

    1996-03-01

    This report reports on work performed for the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) through the Program Office for Technical Assistance (POTAS). In this work, we investigate possible applications of nondestructive acoustics measurements to facilitate IAEA safeguards at bulk processing facilities. Two different acoustic techniques for verifying the internal structure of a processing tank were investigated. During this effort we also examined two acoustic techniques for assessing the fill level within a processing tank. The fill-level measurements could be made highly portable and have an added safeguards advantage that they can also detect stratification of fill material. This later application may be particularly useful in confirming the absence of stratification in plutonium processing tanks before accountability samples are withdrawn

  15. Acoustic energy propagation around railways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cizkova, Petra

    2017-09-01

    The article deals with the issues of acoustic energy propagation around railways. The research subject was noise emission spreading into the surroundings during the passage of trains over a directly travelled steel bridge construction. Noise emissions were measured using direct measurements in the field. The measurements were performed in two measurement profiles. The noise exposures A LAE measured near the steel bridge construction were compared against the noise exposures A LAE captured on an open track. From the difference of these data, the noise level of the steel bridge structure was determined. Part of the research was to evaluate the effect of the reconstruction of the railway track superstructure on the acoustic situation in the given section of the railway track. The article describes the methodology of measurements, including the processing and evaluation of measured data. The article points out the noise levels of the steel bridge construction and assesses changes in the acoustic situation after the reconstruction.

  16. Software-based acoustical measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Miyara, Federico

    2017-01-01

    This textbook provides a detailed introduction to the use of software in combination with simple and economical hardware (a sound level meter with calibrated AC output and a digital recording system) to obtain sophisticated measurements usually requiring expensive equipment. It emphasizes the use of free, open source, and multiplatform software. Many commercial acoustical measurement systems use software algorithms as an integral component; however the methods are not disclosed. This book enables the reader to develop useful algorithms and provides insight into the use of digital audio editing tools to document features in the signal. Topics covered include acoustical measurement principles, in-depth critical study of uncertainty applied to acoustical measurements, digital signal processing from the basics, and metrologically-oriented spectral and statistical analysis of signals. The student will gain a deep understanding of the use of software for measurement purposes; the ability to implement software-based...

  17. Oscillating nonlinear acoustic shock waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaididei, Yuri; Rasmussen, Anders Rønne; Christiansen, Peter Leth

    2016-01-01

    We investigate oscillating shock waves in a tube using a higher order weakly nonlinear acoustic model. The model includes thermoviscous effects and is non isentropic. The oscillating shock waves are generated at one end of the tube by a sinusoidal driver. Numerical simulations show that at resona......We investigate oscillating shock waves in a tube using a higher order weakly nonlinear acoustic model. The model includes thermoviscous effects and is non isentropic. The oscillating shock waves are generated at one end of the tube by a sinusoidal driver. Numerical simulations show...... polynomial in the space and time variables, we find analytical approximations to the observed single shock waves in an infinitely long tube. Using perturbation theory for the driven acoustic system approximative analytical solutions for the off resonant case are determined....

  18. Acoustic multivariate condition monitoring - AMCM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenhave, P E [Vestfold College, Maritime Dept., Toensberg (Norway)

    1998-12-31

    In Norway, Vestfold College, Maritime Department presents new opportunities for non-invasive, on- or off-line acoustic monitoring of rotating machinery such as off-shore pumps and diesel engines. New developments within acoustic sensor technology coupled with chemometric data analysis of complex signals now allow condition monitoring of hitherto unavailable flexibility and diagnostic specificity. Chemometrics paired with existing knowledge yields a new and powerful tool for condition monitoring. By the use of multivariate techniques and acoustics it is possible to quantify wear and tear as well as predict the performance of working components in complex machinery. This presentation describes the AMCM method and one result of a feasibility study conducted onboard the LPG/C `Norgas Mariner` owned by Norwegian Gas Carriers as (NGC), Oslo. (orig.) 6 refs.

  19. Acoustic multivariate condition monitoring - AMCM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenhave, P.E. [Vestfold College, Maritime Dept., Toensberg (Norway)

    1997-12-31

    In Norway, Vestfold College, Maritime Department presents new opportunities for non-invasive, on- or off-line acoustic monitoring of rotating machinery such as off-shore pumps and diesel engines. New developments within acoustic sensor technology coupled with chemometric data analysis of complex signals now allow condition monitoring of hitherto unavailable flexibility and diagnostic specificity. Chemometrics paired with existing knowledge yields a new and powerful tool for condition monitoring. By the use of multivariate techniques and acoustics it is possible to quantify wear and tear as well as predict the performance of working components in complex machinery. This presentation describes the AMCM method and one result of a feasibility study conducted onboard the LPG/C `Norgas Mariner` owned by Norwegian Gas Carriers as (NGC), Oslo. (orig.) 6 refs.

  20. Acoustic Localization with Infrasonic Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Threatt, Arnesha; Elbing, Brian

    2015-11-01

    Numerous geophysical and anthropogenic events emit infrasonic frequencies (<20 Hz), including volcanoes, hurricanes, wind turbines and tornadoes. These sounds, which cannot be heard by the human ear, can be detected from large distances (in excess of 100 miles) due to low frequency acoustic signals having a very low decay rate in the atmosphere. Thus infrasound could be used for long-range, passive monitoring and detection of these events. An array of microphones separated by known distances can be used to locate a given source, which is known as acoustic localization. However, acoustic localization with infrasound is particularly challenging due to contamination from other signals, sensitivity to wind noise and producing a trusted source for system development. The objective of the current work is to create an infrasonic source using a propane torch wand or a subwoofer and locate the source using multiple infrasonic microphones. This presentation will present preliminary results from various microphone configurations used to locate the source.

  1. Acoustic evaluation of wood quality in standing trees. Part I, Acoustic wave behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiping Wang; Robert J. Ross; Peter Carter

    2007-01-01

    Acoustic wave velocities in standing trees or live softwood species were measured by the time-of-flight (TOF) method. Tree velocities were compared with acoustic velocities measured in corresponding butt logs through a resonance acoustic method. The experimental data showed a skewed relationship between tree and log acoustic measurements. For most trees tested,...

  2. Rade-aid a decision support system to evaluate countermeasures after a radiological accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagenaar, G.; Van Den Bosch, C.J.H.; Weger, D. de.

    1990-01-01

    After Chernobyl the authorities in many countries were overwhelmed by the enormous amount of information that was being generated by measuring and monitoring programs. In making decisions, this information had to be combined with the results of specific countermeasures, in order to determine the optimal strategy with respect to a large number of consequences. The development of RADE-AID, the Radiological Accident Decision AIDing system, is aimed at providing a powerful tool in the decision-making process. RADE-AID is developed by TNO (The Netherlands) in a joint contract with KfK (FRG) and NRPB (UK). In the first phase a demonstration system will be built, called RADE-AID/D. RADE-AID/D will be used as a decision support system in the intermediate and late phase after a radiological accident. RADE-AID/D will consider countermeasures with respect to external exposure and internal exposure by food ingestion. Countermeasures are evaluated considering reduction in doses and in numbers of health effects, costs, and social effects. The paper covers the structure of the program, presentation of data and results, and the decision analysis technique that is being used. This decision analysis part is an important feature of the system; an advanced decision analysis technique is used, that is able to compare data of varying nature. Furthermore the place of RADE-AID in the decision-making process will be treated. RADE-AID/D is an interactive computer program, that offers the user the possibility to enter relevant data and to have data and results displayed in a variety of ways. Furthermore the system contains an advanced decision analysis technique, that is able to compare data of varying nature. Input data for the decision analysis calculations are provided by models from UFOMOD and MARC-codes

  3. Review on recent progress in observations, source identifications and countermeasures of PM2.5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Chun-Sheng; Duan, Feng-Kui; He, Ke-Bin; Ma, Yong-Liang

    2016-01-01

    Recently, PM2.5 (atmospheric fine particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 μm) have received so much attention that the observations, source appointment and countermeasures of it have been widely studied due to its harmful impacts on visibility, mood (mental health), physical health, traffic safety, construction, economy and nature, as well as its complex interaction with climate. A review on the PM2.5 related research is necessary. We start with summary of chemical composition and characteristics of PM2.5 that contains both macro and micro observation results and analysis, wherein the temporal variability of concentrations of PM2.5 and major components in many recent reports is embraced. This is closely followed by an overview of source appointment, including the composition and sources of PM2.5 in different countries in the six inhabitable continents based on the best available results. Besides summarizing PM2.5 pollution countermeasures by policy, planning, technology and ideology, the World Air Day is proposed to be established to inspire and promote the crucial social action in energy-saving and emission-reduction. Some updated knowledge of the important topics (such as formation and evolution mechanisms of hazes, secondary aerosols, aerosol mass spectrometer, organic tracers, radiocarbon, emissions, solutions for air pollution problems, etc.) is also included in the present review by logically synthesizing the studies. In addition, the key research challenges and future directions are put forward. Despite our efforts, our understanding of the recent reported observations, source identifications and countermeasures of PM2.5 is limited, and subsequent efforts both of the authors and readers are needed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Nitrosative stress in human skeletal muscle attenuated by exercise countermeasure after chronic disuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salanova, Michele; Schiffl, Gudrun; Gutsmann, Martina; Felsenberg, Dieter; Furlan, Sandra; Volpe, Pompeo; Clarke, Andrew; Blottner, Dieter

    2013-01-01

    Activity-induced nitric oxide (NO) imbalance and "nitrosative stress" are proposed mechanisms of disrupted Ca(2+) homeostasis in atrophic skeletal muscle. We thus mapped S-nitrosylated (SNO) functional muscle proteins in healthy male subjects in a long-term bed rest study (BBR2-2 Study) without and with exercise as countermeasure in order to assess (i) the negative effects of chronic muscle disuse by nitrosative stress, (ii) to test for possible attenuation by exercise countermeasure in bed rest and (iii) to identify new NO target proteins. Muscle biopsies from calf soleus and hip vastus lateralis were harvested at start (Pre) and at end (End) from a bed rest disuse control group (CTR, n=9) and two bed rest resistive exercise groups either without (RE, n=7) or with superimposed vibration stimuli (RVE, n=7). At subcellular compartments, strong anti-SNO-Cys immunofluorescence patterns in control muscle fibers after bed rest returned to baseline following vibration exercise. Total SNO-protein levels, Nrf-2 gene expression and nucleocytoplasmic shuttling were changed to varying degrees in all groups. Excess SNO-protein levels of specific calcium release/uptake proteins (SNO-RyR1, -SERCA1 and -PMCA) and of contractile myosin heavy chains seen in biopsy samples of chronically disused skeletal muscle were largely reduced by vibration exercise. We also identified NOS1 as a novel NO target in human skeletal muscle controlled by activity driven auto-nitrosylation mechanisms. Our findings suggest that aberrant levels of functional SNO-proteins represent signatures of uncontrolled nitrosative stress management in disused human skeletal muscle that can be offset by exercise as countermeasure.

  5. Nitrosative stress in human skeletal muscle attenuated by exercise countermeasure after chronic disuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Salanova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Activity-induced nitric oxide (NO imbalance and “nitrosative stress” are proposed mechanisms of disrupted Ca2+ homeostasis in atrophic skeletal muscle. We thus mapped S-nitrosylated (SNO functional muscle proteins in healthy male subjects in a long-term bed rest study (BBR2-2 Study without and with exercise as countermeasure in order to assess (i the negative effects of chronic muscle disuse by nitrosative stress, (ii to test for possible attenuation by exercise countermeasure in bed rest and (iii to identify new NO target proteins. Muscle biopsies from calf soleus and hip vastus lateralis were harvested at start (Pre and at end (End from a bed rest disuse control group (CTR, n=9 and two bed rest resistive exercise groups either without (RE, n=7 or with superimposed vibration stimuli (RVE, n=7. At subcellular compartments, strong anti-SNO-Cys immunofluorescence patterns in control muscle fibers after bed rest returned to baseline following vibration exercise. Total SNO-protein levels, Nrf-2 gene expression and nucleocytoplasmic shuttling were changed to varying degrees in all groups. Excess SNO-protein levels of specific calcium release/uptake proteins (SNO-RyR1, –SERCA1 and –PMCA and of contractile myosin heavy chains seen in biopsy samples of chronically disused skeletal muscle were largely reduced by vibration exercise. We also identified NOS1 as a novel NO target in human skeletal muscle controlled by activity driven auto-nitrosylation mechanisms. Our findings suggest that aberrant levels of functional SNO-proteins represent signatures of uncontrolled nitrosative stress management in disused human skeletal muscle that can be offset by exercise as countermeasure.

  6. [Treatment of giant acoustic neuromas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samprón, Nicolás; Altuna, Xabier; Armendáriz, Mikel; Urculo, Enrique

    2014-01-01

    To analyze the treatment modality and outcome of a series of patients with giant acoustic neuromas, a particular type of tumour characterised by their size (extracanalicular diameter of 4cm or more) and high morbidity and mortality. This was a retrospective unicentre study of patients with acoustic neuromas treated in a period of 12 years. In our institutional series of 108 acoustic neuromas operated on during that period, we found 13 (12%) cases of giant acoustic neuromas. We reviewed the available data of these cases, including presentation and several clinical, anatomical, and microsurgical aspects. All patients were operated on by the same neurosurgeon and senior author (EU) using the suboccipital retrosigmoid approach and complete microsurgical removal was achieved in 10 cases. In one case, near total removal was deliberately performed, in another case a CSF shunt was placed as the sole treatment measure, and in the remaining case no direct treatment was given. One patient died in the immediate postoperative period. One year after surgery, 4 patients showed facial nerve function of iii or more in the House-Brackman scale. The 4 most important prognostic characteristics of giant acoustic neuromas are size, adhesion to surrounding structures, consistency and vascularity. Only the first of these is evident in neuroimaging. Giant acoustic neuromas are characterised by high morbidity at presentation as well as after treatment. Nevertheless, the objective of complete microsurgical removal with preservation of cranial nerve function is attainable in some cases through the suboccipital retrosigmoid approach. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Neurocirugía. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  7. Controlling Sample Rotation in Acoustic Levitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barmatz, M. B.; Stoneburner, J. D.

    1985-01-01

    Rotation of acoustically levitated object stopped or controlled according to phase-shift monitoring and control concept. Principle applies to square-cross-section levitation chamber with two perpendicular acoustic drivers operating at same frequency. Phase difference between X and Y acoustic excitation measured at one corner by measuring variation of acoustic amplitude sensed by microphone. Phase of driver adjusted to value that produces no rotation or controlled rotation of levitated object.

  8. Improvement of practical countermeasures: the agricultural environment post-Chernobyl action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desmet, G.

    1991-01-01

    The contamination of the rural areas near the site of the accident at Chernobyl has posed problems of reclamation from which the Community could learn. The objective of the project has been to assess the usefulness of applied and existing techniques and to develop new procedures of decontamination. To reduce transfer of radioactivity, the main classes of countermeasures envisaged are: - treatment of vegetative cover present at the time of the accident; - chemical treatment of soil; - mechanical treatment of soil; - alternatives to in situ vegetation and soil treatment: - change of crops; - crop management; - food processing

  9. Numerical simulation of aerobic exercise as a countermeasure in human spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Poch, Antoni

    The objective of this work is to analyse the efficacy of long-term regular exercise on relevant cardiovascular parameters when the human body is also exposed to microgravity. Computer simulations are an important tool which may be used to predict and analyse these possible effects, and compare them with in-flight experiments. We based our study on a electrical-like computer model (NELME: Numerical Evaluation of Long-term Microgravity Effects) which was developed in our laboratory and validated with the available data, focusing on the cardiovascu-lar parameters affected by changes in gravity exposure. NELME is based on an electrical-like control system model of the physiological changes, that are known to take place when grav-ity changes are applied. The computer implementation has a modular architecture. Hence, different output parameters, potential effects, organs and countermeasures can be easily imple-mented and evaluated. We added to the previous cardiovascular system module a perturbation module to evaluate the effect of regular exercise on the output parameters previously studied. Therefore, we simulated a well-known countermeasure with different protocols of exercising, as a pattern of input electric-like perturbations on the basic module. Different scenarios have been numerically simulated for both men and women, in different patterns of microgravity, reduced gravity and time exposure. Also EVAs were simulated as perturbations to the system. Results show slight differences in gender, with more risk reduction for women than for men after following an aerobic exercise pattern during a simulated mission. Also, risk reduction of a cardiovascular malfunction is evaluated, with a ceiling effect found in all scenarios. A turning point in vascular resistance for a long-term exposure of microgravity below 0.4g has been found of particular interest. In conclusion, we show that computer simulations are a valuable tool to analyse different effects of long

  10. Report of the International conference on low-level radiation injury and medical countermeasures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allenet-Le-Page, B.; Voisin, P.

    2000-01-01

    The conference has been separated in six sessions: the first one treats the biological dosimetry and the research of new indicators for low doses; the second one is about the physical dosimetry and the development of new dosemeters for low dose rates; the third one is relative to the prevention and treatment; the fourth part is devoted to the nuclear, biological and chemical interactions; the fifth part studies the physiological and psychological impact; finally, the last part exposes the different points of view about doses evaluation and the countermeasures. (N.C.)

  11. Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident: facts, environmental contamination, possible biological effects, and countermeasures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzai, Kazunori; Ban, Nobuhiko; Ozawa, Toshihiko; Tokonami, Shinji

    2012-01-01

    On March 11, 2011, an earthquake led to major problems at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. A 14-m high tsunami triggered by the earthquake disabled all AC power to Units 1, 2, and 3 of the Power Plant, and carried off fuel tanks for emergency diesel generators. Despite many efforts, cooling systems did not work and hydrogen explosions damaged the facilities, releasing a large amount of radioactive material into the environment. In this review, we describe the environmental impact of the nuclear accident, and the fundamental biological effects, acute and late, of the radiation. Possible medical countermeasures to radiation exposure are also discussed.

  12. Present status and legal countermeasures of electromagnetic radiation pollution in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu Qiu

    2007-01-01

    With the wide utilization of electronic technology, electromagnetic radiation has rapidly been one of the most serious pollution sources, causing corresponding disputes of pollution on the rise and the contradictions sharp increasingly because of the limited supply and research of law. The article analyses the characters and present status of electromagnetic radiation pollution, points out the inadequacy supply of relevant law and its reasons and presents legal countermeasures, that is: complying with present laws, establishing national standard systems, strengthening local legislation. The paper also presents the basic idea and principle of making 'Prevention Electromagnetic Radiation Pollution'. (authors)

  13. [Study on restriction factors and countermeasures of influence of China medical devices competitiveness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhijun

    2012-07-01

    Recent years, China medical devices industry has been a sunrise industry with widely-ranged products, high-tech innovation, and booming market demands. But with the globalization of market economy, China industry is still in the inferior position of competition. How to promote the industrial structure transition, increase scientific and technological level, speed up the updating of products, enhance the international competitiveness is one of the major tasks to maintain the healthy development of industry. This article makes a study on current situation of China medical devices industry, analyses the new opportunities, challenges and restriction factors, provides the countermeasures of strengthening industry competitiveness as well.

  14. Development of Vestibular Stochastic Resonance as a Sensorimotor Countermeasure: Improving Otolith Ocular and Motor Task Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulavara, Ajitkumar; Fiedler, Matthew; DeDios,Yiri E.; Galvan, Raquel; Bloomberg, Jacob; Wood, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Astronauts experience disturbances in sensorimotor function after spaceflight during the initial introduction to a gravitational environment, especially after long-duration missions. Stochastic resonance (SR) is a mechanism by which noise can assist and enhance the response of neural systems to relevant, imperceptible sensory signals. We have previously shown that imperceptible electrical stimulation of the vestibular system enhances balance performance while standing on an unstable surface. The goal of our present study is to develop a countermeasure based on vestibular SR that could improve central interpretation of vestibular input and improve motor task responses to mitigate associated risks.

  15. Seismic-load-induced human errors and countermeasures using computer graphics in plant-operator communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hara, Fumio

    1988-01-01

    This paper remarks the importance of seismic load-induced human errors in plant operation by delineating the characteristics of the task performance of human beings under seismic loads. It focuses on man-machine communication via multidimensional data like that conventionally displayed on large panels in a plant control room. It demonstrates a countermeasure to human errors using a computer graphics technique that conveys the global state of the plant operation to operators through cartoon-like, colored graphs in the form of faces that, with different facial expressions, show the plant safety status. (orig.)

  16. Countermeasure development for Rift Valley fever: deletion, modification or targeting of major virulence factor NSs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lihoradova, Olga; Ikegami, Tetsuro

    2014-01-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a mosquito-borne zoonotic disease characterized by a high rate of abortion in ruminants, and febrile illness, hemorrhagic fever, retinitis and encephalitis in humans. RVF is caused by the RVF virus (RVFV), belonging to the genus Phlebovirus of the family Bunyaviridae . RVFV encodes a major virulence factor, NSs , which is dispensable for viral replication, yet required for evasion of host innate immune responses. RVFV NSs inhibits host gene upregulation at the transcriptional level, while promoting viral translation in the cytoplasm. In this article, we summarize the virology and pathology of RVF, and countermeasure development for RVF, with emphasis on NSs function and applications.

  17. Exercise countermeasures for long-duration spaceflight: muscle- and intensity-specific considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trappe, Todd

    2012-07-01

    On-orbit and ground-based microgravity simulation studies have provided a wealth of information regarding the efficacy of exercise countermeasures for protecting skeletal muscle and cardiovascular function during long-duration spaceflights. While it appears that exercise will be the central component to maintaining skeletal muscle and cardiovascular health of astronauts, the current exercise prescription is not completely effective and is time consuming. This lecture will focus on recent exercise physiology studies examining high intensity, low volume exercise in relation to muscle specific and cardiovascular health. These studies provide the basis of the next generation exercise prescription currently being implemented during long-duration space missions on the International Space Station.

  18. Preventive radioecological assessment of territory for optimization of monitoring and countermeasures after radiation accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prister, B S; Vinogradskaya, V D; Lev, T D; Talerko, M M; Garger, E K; Onishi, Y; Tischenko, O G

    2018-04-01

    A methodology of a preventive radioecological assessment of the territory has been developed for optimizing post-emergency monitoring and countermeasure implementation in an event of a severe radiation accident. Approaches and main stages of integrated radioecological zoning of the territory are described. An algorithm for the assessment of the potential radioecological criticality (sensitivity) of the area is presented. The proposed approach is validated using data of the dosimetric passportization in Ukraine after the Chernobyl accident for the test site settlements. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The long-term problems of contaminated land: Sources, impacts and countermeasures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baes, C.F. III

    1986-11-01

    This report examines the various sources of radiological land contamination; its extent; its impacts on man, agriculture, and the environment; countermeasures for mitigating exposures; radiological standards; alternatives for achieving land decontamination and cleanup; and possible alternatives for utilizing the land. The major potential sources of extensive long-term land contamination with radionuclides, in order of decreasing extent, are nuclear war, detonation of a single nuclear weapon (e.g., a terrorist act), serious reactor accidents, and nonfission nuclear weapons accidents that disperse the nuclear fuels (termed ''broken arrows'').

  20. The long-term problems of contaminated land: Sources, impacts and countermeasures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baes, C.F. III.

    1986-11-01

    This report examines the various sources of radiological land contamination; its extent; its impacts on man, agriculture, and the environment; countermeasures for mitigating exposures; radiological standards; alternatives for achieving land decontamination and cleanup; and possible alternatives for utilizing the land. The major potential sources of extensive long-term land contamination with radionuclides, in order of decreasing extent, are nuclear war, detonation of a single nuclear weapon (e.g., a terrorist act), serious reactor accidents, and nonfission nuclear weapons accidents that disperse the nuclear fuels (termed ''broken arrows'')

  1. [Current quality management situation and administration countermeasure study of enterprises marketing corneal contact lens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yungui; Yao, Ying; Shangguan, Shihao; Gu, Qun; Gao, Wuming; Chen, Yaoshui

    2014-05-01

    Study the current quality management situation of enterprises marketing corneal contact lens via systemic investigations and explore effective administration countermeasures in the future. The quality management indicators of sixty-two corneal contact lens marketing enterprises in Xuhui district of Shanghai were systematically investigated and enterprises of different operation models was compared and analyzed. Wholesale enterprises and retail chain enterprises are apparently better than independent enterprises almost in all facets. Facilitate market accession of corneal contact lens marketing enterprises, encourage the business model of retail chain, enhance supervision of corneal contact lens marketing enterprises, especially independent franchisors.

  2. Current status of countermeasures for ageing of nuclear power plants in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyama, M.; Ishikawa, M.; Tajima, K.

    2002-01-01

    This paper summarizes ageing coutermeasure program of the nuclear power plants performed by the Japanese Government and industries and related activities, and describes current research program and utilization of the research results for the aged nuclear power plants. Regulatory bodies (NISA of METI: Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency of the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry) reviewed the ageing issues of nuclear power plants to enhance countermeasures for the aged plants. Nuclear Power Plant Life Engineering Center (PLEC) entrusted by NISA is carrying out the task relating to the aged plants. (orig.)

  3. Status and countermeasures for localization of safety class emergency diesel generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Banghua

    2014-01-01

    After analysis of various issues and root causes during domestic manufacture of emergency diesel generator, this paper brought forward a series of countermeasures. This paper points out that great efforts shall be made to establish perfect quality assurance system, ensure the effective operation of quality assurance system, reinforce design control, prevent problem arising from design, perfect and enhance manufacture process, ensure equipment manufacture quality, reinforce quality inspection for outsourcing, ensure the quality of outsourcing, attach importance to personnel training, enhance absorption of import technology, reduce human error, attach importance to technology management, ensure design and manufacture in compliance with code and process, etc. so as to achieve localization. (author)

  4. High Intensity Exercise Countermeasures does not Prevent Orthostatic Intolerance Following Prolonged Bed Rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platts, Steven H.; Stenger, Michael B.; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori L.; Lee, Stuart M. C.

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 20% of Space Shuttle astronauts became presyncopal during operational stand and 80deg head-up tilt tests, and the prevalence of orthostatic intolerance increases after longer missions. Greater than 60% of the US astronauts participating in Mir and early International Space Station missions experienced presyncope during post-flight tilt tests, perhaps related to limitations of the exercise hardware that prevented high intensity exercise training until later ISS missions. The objective of this study was to determine whether an intense resistive and aerobic exercise countermeasure program designed to prevent cardiovascular and musculoskeletal deconditioning during 70 d of bed rest (BR), a space flight analog, would protect against post-BR orthostatic intolerance. METHODS Twenty-six subjects were randomly assigned to one of three groups: non-exercise controls (n=11) or one of two exercise groups (ExA, n=8; ExB, n=7). Both ExA and ExB groups performed the same resistive and aerobic exercise countermeasures during BR, but one exercise group received testosterone supplementation while the other received a placebo during BR in a double-blinded fashion. On 3 d/wk, subjects performed lower body resistive exercise and 30 min of continuous aerobic exercise (=75% max heart rate). On the other 3 d/wk, subjects performed only highintensity, interval-style aerobic exercise. Orthostatic intolerance was assessed using a 15-min 80? head-up tilt test performed 2 d (BR-2) before and on the last day of BR (BR70). Plasma volume was measured using carbon monoxide rebreathing on BR-3 and before rising on the first recovery day (BR+0). The code for the exercise groups has not been broken, and results are reported here without group identification. RESULTS Only one subject became presyncopal during tilt testing on BR-2, but 7 of 11 (63%) controls, 3 of 8 (38%) ExA, and 4 of 7 (57%) ExB subjects were presyncopal on BR70. Survival analysis of post-BR tilt tests revealed no

  5. Acoustic-gravity nonlinear structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Jovanović

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A catalogue of nonlinear vortex structures associated with acoustic-gravity perturbations in the Earth's atmosphere is presented. Besides the previously known Kelvin-Stewart cat's eyes, dipolar and tripolar structures, new solutions having the form of a row of counter-rotating vortices, and several weakly two-dimensional vortex chains are given. The existence conditions for these nonlinear structures are discussed with respect to the presence of inhomogeneities of the shear flows. The mode-coupling mechanism for the nonlinear generation of shear flows in the presence of linearly unstable acoustic-gravity waves, possibly also leading to intermittency and chaos, is presented.

  6. Physical foundations of technical acoustics

    CERN Document Server

    Malecki, I

    1969-01-01

    Physical Foundations of Technical Acoustics discusses theoretical foundations of acoustical engineering. It is not so much a technical compendium as a systematic statement of physical laws so conceived that technologists might find in it all the information they need to become acquainted with the physical meaning and mathematical expression of phenomena they encounter in their work. To facilitate the acquirement of notions, which lie beyond a layman's grasp, the plan of narration adopted consists in beginning with the simplest idealized cases and then gradually moving on to the truest possibl

  7. Acoustic design by topology optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dühring, Maria Bayard; Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard; Sigmund, Ole

    2008-01-01

    To bring down noise levels in human surroundings is an important issue and a method to reduce noise by means of topology optimization is presented here. The acoustic field is modeled by Helmholtz equation and the topology optimization method is based on continuous material interpolation functions...... in the density and bulk modulus. The objective function is the squared sound pressure amplitude. First, room acoustic problems are considered and it is shown that the sound level can be reduced in a certain part of the room by an optimized distribution of reflecting material in a design domain along the ceiling...

  8. Reciprocity principle in duct acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Y.-C.

    1979-01-01

    Various reciprocity relations in duct acoustics have been derived on the basis of the spatial reciprocity principle implied in Green's functions for linear waves. The derivation includes the reciprocity relations between mode conversion coefficients for reflection and transmission in nonuniform ducts, and the relation between the radiation of a mode from an arbitrarily terminated duct and the absorption of an externally incident plane wave by the duct. Such relations are well defined as long as the systems remain linear, regardless of acoustic properties of duct nonuniformities which cause the mode conversions.

  9. Justification of strategies for agricultural countermeasures in the long term after the Chernobyl accident based on a cost-benefit analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panov, A.V.; Fesenko, S.V.; Pakhomov, A.Y.; Alexakhin, R.M.

    2004-01-01

    In the long term after the Chernobyl accident the introduction of systems of countermeasures in agriculture must be based on the optimization principle. To implement this principle, a concept was used of evaluation of the effectiveness of countermeasures based on a cost-benefit analysis. Countermeasure options were developed separately for collective and private sectors of rural settlements. For each type of farming a range of countermeasures were defined and the optimal ones were identified. The effectiveness of countermeasures was estimated on the basis of integral criteria: cost of averted collective dose (1 man-Sv), overall costs needed for countermeasures introduction and time for fulfilling legal regulations. Based on the most effective countermeasures, optimal combinations (strategies) were developed. An assessment was given of the effectiveness of countermeasures aimed at reducing the radionuclide content in animal products from collective farms and lowering doses to rural residents affected by the Chernobyl accident, based on a comparative cost benefit analysis. A study into the dynamics of 1 man-Sv cost when applying different countermeasures in the collective and private sectors allowed an identification of the most optimal measures for various time periods after the accident. The situation in the private sector is more critical than in the collective one. This is demonstrated by higher costs of countermeasures and costs of potential averted doses in the course of their application, as well as difference in times of legal regulations fulfillment. To optimize costs of the rehabilitation of agricultural lands, the most optimal in terms of meeting the standards strategy was determined, which is an address application of countermeasures. (author)

  10. Aero-acoustic Computations of Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Wen Zhong; Michelsen, Jess; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær

    2002-01-01

    A numerical algorithm for acoustic noise generation is extended to 3D flows. The approach involves two parts comprising a viscous incompressible flow part and an inviscid acoustic part. In order to simulate noise generated from a wind turbine, the incompressible and acoustic equations are written...

  11. The Acoustical Apparatus of Rudolph Koenig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the history of Rudolph Koenig's contribution to the development of acoustical apparatus. Contributions include the clock fork to determine absolute acoustic frequencies, a forerunner of the oscilloscope called the manometric flame, and an acoustic interference apparatus used in the Fourier synthesis of musical sounds. (MDH)

  12. Predicting and auralizing acoustics in classrooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Claus Lynge

    2005-01-01

    Although classrooms have fairly simple geometries, this type of room is known to cause problems when trying to predict their acoustics using room acoustics computer modeling. Some typical features from a room acoustics point of view are: Parallel walls, low ceilings (the rooms are flat), uneven...

  13. Design of acoustic devices by topology optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigmund, Ole; Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard

    2003-01-01

    The goal of this study is to design and optimize structures and devices that are subjected to acoustic waves. Examples are acoustic lenses, sound walls, waveguides and loud speakers. We formulate the design problem as a topology optimization problem, i.e. distribute material in a design domain...... such that the acoustic response is optimized....

  14. Multiscale modeling of acoustic shielding materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, K.; Dommelen, van J.A.W.; Geers, M.G.D.

    2012-01-01

    It is very important to protect high-tech systems from acoustic excitation when operating in a noisy environment. Some passive absorbing materials such as acoustic foams can improve the performance which depends on the interaction of the acoustic wave and the microstructure of the foam.

  15. Acoustic communication in plant–animal interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schöner, M.G.; Simon, R.; Schöner, C.R.

    2016-01-01

    Acoustic communication is widespread and well-studied in animals but has been neglected in other organisms such as plants. However, there is growing evidence for acoustic communication in plant–animal interactions. While knowledge about active acoustic signalling in plants (i.e. active sound

  16. Optical measurement of acoustic radiation pressure of the near-field acoustic levitation through transparent object

    OpenAIRE

    Nakamura, Satoshi; Furusawa, Toshiaki; Sasao, Yasuhiro; Katsura, Kogure; Naoki, Kondo

    2013-01-01

    It is known that macroscopic objects can be levitated for few to several hundred micrometers by near-field acoustic field and this phenomenon is called near-field acoustic levitation (NFAL). Although there are various experiments conducted to measure integrated acoustic pressure on the object surface, up to now there was no direct method to measure pressure distribution. In this study we measured the acoustic radiation pressure of the near-field acoustic levitation via pressure-sensitive paint.

  17. In-car countermeasures open window and music revisited on the real road: popular but hardly effective against driver sleepiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Johanna F A; Ingre, Michael; Fors, Carina; Anund, Anna; Kecklund, Göran; Taillard, Jacques; Philip, Pierre; Åkerstedt, Torbjörn

    2012-10-01

    This study investigated the effects of two very commonly used countermeasures against driver sleepiness, opening the window and listening to music, on subjective and physiological sleepiness measures during real road driving. In total, 24 individuals participated in the study. Sixteen participants received intermittent 10-min intervals of: (i) open window (2 cm opened); and (ii) listening to music, during both day and night driving on an open motorway. Both subjective sleepiness and physiological sleepiness (blink duration) was estimated to be significantly reduced when subjects listened to music, but the effect was only minor compared with the pronounced effects of night driving and driving duration. Open window had no attenuating effect on either sleepiness measure. No significant long-term effects beyond the actual countermeasure application intervals occurred, as shown by comparison to the control group (n = 8). Thus, despite their popularity, opening the window and listening to music cannot be recommended as sole countermeasures against driver sleepiness. © 2012 European Sleep Research Society.

  18. Carbon Nanotube Underwater Acoustic Thermophone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-23

    nanotubes (unless encapsulated or housed) are quite fragile and are susceptible to disintegration especially if the nanotubes are touched or moved too...The acoustic impedance (defined as the product of material density and sound speed) of the top shell 12 should match the Attorney Docket No. 300009

  19. Acoustic Holography With Incoherent Sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Druyvesteyn, W.F.; Raangs, R.

    2005-01-01

    In near field acoustic holography the sound field is scanned near the surface of the vibrating object; from these measurements the vibration of the structure can be calculated. In the case of correlated sources one reference signal is sufficient. When incoherent sources are present the separation of

  20. Wind Turbine Acoustic Day 2018

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Jesper; Søndergaard, Bo; Hünerbein, Sabine Von

    The bi-annual event entitled Wind Turbine Acoustic Day dealing with wind turbine noise issues organized by DTU Wind Energy took place on May, 17th 2018 as its third edition. The abstracts and slides for the presentations are reported....