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Sample records for acos api 5l

  1. Study of API 5L X70 steel corrosion processes when in contact with some Brazilian soils; Estudo dos processos de corrosao de acos API 5L X70 em contato com alguns dos solos do Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jesus, Sergio Luis de

    2007-07-01

    Pipelines, fuel storage tanks and other metallic structures are in permanent contact and exposed to different types of soils, of horizons or layers, or of soil aggressiveness. This interaction may cause expressive damages to the environment and to the planned work. Contamination may occur due to leakage of stored products, splitting during transportation, accidents caused by pipelines without extensive maintenance. The result of these accidents could be, among others, some financial losses. In order to recognize the dynamic interactions between metallic surfaces and the environment it is crucial to have preventive actions and to develop better-applied materials. API steel 5L X70 has been used in structures of low and high pressure with high mechanical strength and corrosion and, even so, it is susceptible to etching corrosion since it is in contact with different environments from mangrove regions to industrial environments. The present case evaluated the role of 5L X70 API steel in contact with different soil horizons representative of the Brazilian soil. This investigation correlated chemical species with solute ions in soil solution, secondary and primary phase minerals besides physical and chemical characteristics as pH, electric conductivity, total dissolved solids, among others, to the results of corrosion resistance and ways of corrosion. The evaluation was carried out using x-ray diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy, total reflection x-ray fluorescence, fuel injection flow besides texture and gravimetric analyses to soil characterization and mineralogy, identification of corrosion products, soil solution analyses, evaluation of tested materials and classification of ways and types of corrosion. This was an attempt to integrate the data to a better understanding of the process involving reagents and products. The results showed that different soil horizons such as different types of analyzed soils produce specific etching in metallic structures

  2. Hardness and microstructural characterization of API 5L X70 steel pipes welded by HF/ERW process; Caracterizacao microestrutural e de dureza em tubos de aco API 5L X70 soldados pelo processo HF/ERW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calcada, Mauricio Vieira; Voorwald, Herman Jacobus Cornelis; Nascimento, Marcelino Pereira do [UNESP, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia

    2010-07-01

    The materials that stand in the manufacture of steel pipes are called API, that should have, high mechanical resistance, high corrosion resistance, high fatigue resistance, good weldability, and other properties. Thus, the purpose of this project was to evaluate the microstructure and hardness of welded joints by the HF/ERW process of API 5L X70 steel pipes. The microstructural analysis was performed using a surface finish with grit sizes from 220 to 25 {mu}m e polishing with diamond paste from 9 {mu}m to 0.05 {mu}m; the revelation was made with 3% Nital attack. The Vickers hardness was performed across the welded joint by 33 points to indentation. The results were: 80.5 {+-} 3.4% of ferrite and 19.5 {+-} 3.4% of perlite for microanalysis. As for hardness, the values were: 215.69 HV10 for weld line, 218.65 HV10 for ZTA and 218.95 HV10 for base metal. (author)

  3. Obtaining and analysis of results of fatigue and corrosion-fatigue in steel API 5L X60; Obtencao e analise de resultados de fadiga e corrosao-fadiga em aco API 5L X60

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Bruno Allison [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencia e Engenharia de Materiais; Silva, Antonio Almeida; Santos, Fabio Gualberto Chagas [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The corrosion process allied to the fatigue, due to repetitive efforts of several natures, is the main responsible for the damages in pipeline and offshore structures that results in the appears of located faults, and by the way can results in leaks and financial and environmental loss. This phenomenon calls corrosion-fatigue, however, it is very complex, and mainly, in what it concerns the form as this it develops in the structure. The objective of this work is to present some results of experimental fatigue tests and corrosion-fatigue accomplished with specimen that the material originated a pipeline steel API 5L X60. The tests developed in a machine which could test until 12 specimens per time. For test of corrosion-fatigue was used a cell-of-corrosion especially projected, in this way simulated an aggressive environmental condition in a corrosion conditions. With the results of tests, was possible estimate the fatigue limits of the specimen when submitted to the repeated flexing, and compare it with evaluate corrosion-fatigue graphs, that as the literature comes moved down of the curve, in relation to the fatigue curve. (author)

  4. Effect of the welding process on the microstructure and microhardness of API 5L X80 steel welded joint used for oil transportation pipeline; Efeito do processo de soldagem sobre a microestrutura e a microdureza de juntas soldadas de aco API 5L X80 usado em tubulacoes para transporte de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, R.T.P.; Albuquerque, S.F. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil); Maciel, T.M.; Almeida, D.M.; Santos, M.A.

    2008-07-01

    This study had as objective to evaluate the microstructure and microhardness of API 5L X80 steel welded joints, used for pipelines to transport oil and gas, using the Shield Metal Arc Welding process with pre- heating temperature of 200 deg C and 400 deg C and the AWS E8010G electrode as filler metal. For this, besides the microhardness of the welded joint, the weld metals percentiles of micro-constituents and of columnar and regenerated grains and the medium size and extension of the heat affected zone were evaluated. The percentage of acicular ferrite in weld metal ranged from 13% to 33% which generated values of microhardness from 114 HV to 309 HV. (author)

  5. Induction bending of API 5L X80 pipes; Curvamento a quente de tubos API 5L X80

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batista, Gilmar Z. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: g.zacca@petrobras.com.br; Naschpitz, Leonardo [Primus Processamento de Tubos S.A. - PROTUBO, Campo Grande, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: naschpitz@protubo.com.br

    2005-07-01

    The present work is a part of an extensive program to make possible the application of API 5L X80 in pipeline construction in Brazil. At this stage, the effect of the induction bending process on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the pipe is presented. For this study an API 5L X80 pipe, made by the UOE process, is used. The pipe was manufactured from a plate produced by thermo-mechanically controlled rolling without accelerated cooling. The pipe bending was carried out applying a local induction heating following by water quenching. The bend section, outer and inner curvature regions, of the pipe bend were evaluated and compared with the original pipe. The longitudinal weld and transition zones were not evaluated at this stage. Dimensional analyses, microstructural evaluation, Charpy-V impact tests, and tensile tests were performed. A significant microstructural change was verified in the bend area. The yield strength of the pipe bend was found to be lower than original pipe and standard requirements. Other tensile properties and impact properties are compatible with API 5L X80 requirements. (author)

  6. BEHAVIOUR CORROSION OF API 5L X70 AND API 5L X80 STEELS IN A CO2 MEDIUM BY SURFACE ANALYSIS AND ELECTROCHEMICAL TECHNIQUES

    OpenAIRE

    MILAGROS MABEL GUILLEN NUNEZ

    2006-01-01

    A seleção de materiais para o transporte de óleo e gás não é feita pela sua resistência à corrosão, mas sim pelas suas boas propriedades mecânicas, facilidade de fabricação e baixos custos. Devido às taxas de perda de material, causado pela corrosão interna, existe necessidade em se conhecer o comportamento dos aços de mais alta resistência, utilizados especialmente em gasodutos e oleodutos tais como API 5L X70 e API 5L X80. Um dos elementos responsáveis ...

  7. Effects of Pre-Strains on Failure Assessment Analysis to API 5L X65 Pipeline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baek, Jong Hyun; Kim, Young Pyo; Kim, Woo Sik; Seok, Chang Sung

    2009-01-01

    This paper prescribed the structural integrity of the API 5 L X6 5 pipeline subjected to tensile pre-strain. The effects of pre-strain on the mechanical properties of API 5 L X6 5 pipe were substantially investigated through a variety of the experimental procedures. Axial tensile pre-strain of 1.5, 5 and 10% was applied to plate-type tensile specimens cut from the pipe body prior to mechanical testing. Tensile test revealed that yield strength and tensile strength were increased with increasing tensile pre-strain. The increasing rate of the yield strength owing to the pre-strain is greater than that of the tensile strength. However, the pre-strain up to 5% had a little effect on the decreasing of the fracture toughness. The structural integrity of the API 5 L X6 5 pipeline subjected to large plastic deformation was evaluated through the fitness-for service code.

  8. EBSD study of hydrogen-induced cracking in API-5 L-X46 pipeline steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venegas, V.; Caleyo, F.; Gonzalez, J.L.; Baudin, T.; Hallen, J.M.; Penelle, R.

    2005-01-01

    The spatial distribution of plastic deformation and grain orientation surrounding hydrogen-induced cracks (HIC) is investigated in samples of API-5L-X46 pipeline steel using scanning electron microscopy and electron backscattering diffraction (EBSD). This work shows direct experimental evidence of the influence of microstructure, microtexture and mesotexture on HIC crack path

  9. Circumferential welding of API X80 steel pipes; Soldagem circunferencial em tubos de aco da classe API X80

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castello Branco, J.F.; Bott, Ivani de S. [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencia dos Materiais e Metalurgia]. E-mails: joaofcb@uol.com.br; bott@dcmm.puc-rio.br; Fedele, R.A. [Boehler Thyssen Welding, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: engenharia@btwbr.com.br; Souza, Luis Felipe G. de [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica Celso Suckow da Fonseca (CEFET-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Industrial Mecanica]. E-mail: lfelipe@cefet-rj.br

    2003-07-01

    The present work is a part of an extensive program for the development of API 5L Gr.X80 grade steel , produced by the well-known UOE production process, for pipeline fabrication. The current stage of this program involves the characterization and performance evaluation/qualification of girth welds produced by Shield Metal Arc Weld (SMAW) under simulated field conditions, with tubes fixed in the horizontal position. Three types of electrodes were utilized for the basic tasks; the root pass, the hot pass and fill and cap passes. The root pass was carried out with an E-6010 electrode to avoid incomplete joint penetration. The hot pass, applied over the root pass, was performed with an E-9010-G electrode. The fill and cap passes were executed with E-10018-G electrodes. The welded joints produced were evaluated according to the API 1104 specification, which requires: side bend, nick- break and tensile tests. Additionally, non-destructive tests, Charpy-V impact tests and metallographic characterization were undertaken. It was verified that this welding procedure, based on three types of electrodes, could produce welded joints in accordance to the API 1104 specification. These results ensure the applicability of the API 5L Gr. X80 steel developed in this research project for use in pipeline construction. (author)

  10. Construction and assembly of pipelines using API 5L grade X80 tubes - considerations to be observed with high-strength steels; Construcao e montagem de dutos terrestres utilizando tubos API 5L Gr. X80

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Ailton C. de; Rabello, Jose Mauricio B. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    The use of line pipes API 5L Grade X80, at the point of view of designer allows: reduction of wall thickness and pipe weight or increase of design pressure. In the pipeline construction point of view, the use of line pipes API 5L Grade X80 provide some advantages, however some difficulties must be expected in several stages of the construction and assembly. The implications in cost, productivity, inspection and integrity, with the application of these high resistance steels, complying with PETROBRAS Standard N - 464 Construcao, Montagem e Condicionamento de Dutos Terrestres (Rev. H - 2004 Dec) and the experience consolidated in pipelines construction abroad were presented. At the design stage, a comparison between pipelines designed using API 5L-X70 and API 5L-X80 was carried out approaching the aspects of variation of thickness, pressure design and design factor. An evaluation of the expected gains when choosing API 5L Grade X80 steels were done, regarding reduction of costs and pipe weight. Regarding API 5L-X80 pipe fabrication, the obtained results were reported, proving that this aspect was already overcome, showing the viability of its production in Brazil. Difficulties were detected regarding construction and assembly stage and showing the need of revision of PETROBRAS standard N-464. (author)

  11. Corrosion of API 5L B and X52 in crude oil/water/gas mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perdomo, J J; Gonzalez, J J; Viloria, A; De Veer, H; De Abreu, Y

    2000-02-01

    Laboratory and field tests were conducted to evaluate the corrosion behavior of API 5L grade B and X52 steels using Furrial's crude oil in the presence of water and gas containing carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S). The results suggest that the corrosiveness of this crude oil/water/gas mixture is not detrimental to either steel. However, pitting corrosion was observed. The low general corrosion rates measured were attributed to the natural inhibiting properties of the crude oil.

  12. Corrosion of API 5L B and X52 in crude oil/water/gas mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perdomo, J.J.; Gonzalez, J.J.; Viloria, A.; De Veer, H.; De Abreu, Y.

    2000-02-01

    Laboratory and field tests were conducted to evaluate the corrosion behavior of API 5L grade B and X52 steels using Furrial's crude oil in the presence of water and gas containing carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S). The results suggest that the corrosiveness of this crude oil/water/gas mixture is not detrimental to either steel. However, pitting corrosion was observed. The low general corrosion rates measured were attributed to the natural inhibiting properties of the crude oil.

  13. Determination of acoustoelastic constant in API-5L-X70 welded pipes; Determinacao da constante acustoelastica de tubos API-5L-X70 com solda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bittencourt, Marcelo de Siqueira Queiroz; Fonseca, Manoel Antonio da Costa [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Oliveira, Carlos Henrique Francisco de [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    To preserve the environment and avoid financial losses resulting from leaks in the transport of natural oil and gas the industry is particularly concerned to ensure the structural integrity of their pipelines. Grounded pipes may be exposed to damages due to unstable soil movement, and in extreme cases, to failure. Then, techniques to assess stress in pipelines are of central importance. The ultrasonic birefringence technique is an efficient method to measure residual stress. It is based on the changing velocity of the shear wave when it crosses a material under stress; this phenomenon is known as acoustoelasticity. The knowledge of the parameter called acoustoelastic constant is necessary to measure stress using this technique. By the mechanical conformation in the manufacture of welded tubes, from rolled plates, different anisotropy degrees are showed around the cross section of these tubes. In this paper it was studied the acoustoelastic constant for the API-5L-X70 steel pipes, with different thicknesses, diameters and manufacturing processes so as to be able to use this technique to stress measurement in pipelines. (author)

  14. Development of an API 5 L X 70 coil for the production of API pipes continuously welded by electric resistance; Desenvolvimento de bobina API 5 L X 70 para producao de tubos API soldados continuamente por resistencia eletrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Alexandre R; Cavalheiro, Benedito C [CONFAB Tubos S.A., Sao Caetano do Sul, SP (Brazil)

    1998-07-01

    The manufacturing of high strength ERW pipe, which applies the continuous forming process, is known to lead to a relevant economy in a productivity basis. The past few years shown a trend of changing on grade range, from the past X52 to the present X70. The manufacturing of the latter grades for coils are somehow difficult due to the high Bauschinger effect observed on ERW pipes with ferritic-perlitic microstructure, that results in pipes with yield strength much lower than in coils, as on limitations on rolling, where controlled rolling is not applied. In this work, acicular dispersed bainite was searched, in a way to reduce this effect after pipe forming. API 5L X70 coils, from USIMINAS, were processed including an intentional addition of Molybdenum in the range of 0.20%, together with Columbium and Vanadium (added as 0.050% average). (author)

  15. Estudo do efeito da tensão sobre a permeação por Hidrogênio em Aços API 5L X60 e API 5L X65

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Araújo Araújo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Under operating conditions, the oil and gas transmission pipelines can be subjected to high pressures and, at the same time, suffer the effect of acidic substances in the transported hydrocarbons such as H2S, whose action alone or combined with stresses acting in the structure can cause degradation processes of the mechanical properties of the material. Given the importance of the phenomenon, this work has as main objective the realization of hydrogen electrochemical permeation tests in API 5L X60 and API 5L X65 steels under mechanical loading conditions. A device for performing electrochemical permeation tests of hydrogen in the specimens subjected to stress was used for the tests. Thus, it was possible to observe experimentally the influence of stress on the diffusion properties during the experiment. By applying stress on the order of 20% of the yield strength, it was possible to verify the increase of diffusivity of API 5L X60 steel. Furthermore, there was a strong influence of the stress level of permeability, because a large increase of permeability of API 5L X65 steel. The results indicate that the lattice deformation due to imposed mechanical stress has a great influence on the diffusion properties of materials

  16. Characterization of Mechanical Properties and Residual Stress in API 5L X80 Steel Welded Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa Lins, Amilton; de Souza, Luís Felipe Guimarães; Fonseca, Maria Cindra

    2018-01-01

    The use of high-strength and low-alloy steels, high design factors and increasingly stringent safety requirements have increased the operating pressure levels and, consequently, the need for further studies to avoid and prevent premature pipe failure. To evaluate the possibility of improving productivity in manual arc welding of this type of steel, this work characterizes the mechanical properties and residual stresses in API 5L X80 steel welded joints using the SMAW and FCAW processes. The residual stresses were analyzed using x-ray diffraction with the sin2 ψ method at the top and root of the welded joints in the longitudinal and transverse directions of the weld bead. The mechanical properties of the welded joints by both processes were characterized in terms of tensile strength, impact toughness and Vickers microhardness in the welded and shot peening conditions. A predominantly compressive residual stress was found, and shot peening increased the tensile strength and impact toughness in both welded joints.

  17. Numerical evaluation of multipass welding temperature field in API 5L X80 steel welded joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Nóbrega

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Many are the metallurgical changes suffered by materials when subjected to welding thermal cycle, promoting a considerable influence on the welded structures thermo mechanical properties. In project phase, one alternative for evaluating the welding cycle variable, would be the employment of computational methods through simulation. So, this paper presents an evaluation of the temperature field in a multipass welding of API 5L X80 steel used for oil and gas transportation, using the ABAQUS ® software, based on Finite Elements Method (FEM. During the simulation complex phenomena are considerable including: Variation in physical and mechanical properties of materials as a function of temperature, welding speed and the different mechanisms of heat exchange with the environment (convection and radiation were used. These considerations allow a more robust mathematical modeling for the welding process. An analytical heat source proposed by Goldak, to model the heat input in order to characterize the multipass welding through the GTAW (Gas Tungsten Arc Welding process on root and the SMAW (Shielded Metal Arc Welding process for the filling passes were used. So, it was possible to evaluate the effect of each welding pass on the welded joint temperature field, through the temperature peaks and cooling rates values during the welding process.

  18. Influence of preheating on API 5L-X80 pipeline joint welding with self shielded flux-cored wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, R.; Silva, J. H. F.; Trevisan, R. E.

    2004-01-01

    The present work refers to the characterization of API 5L-X80 pipeline joints welded with self-shielded flux cored wire. This process was evaluated under preheating conditions, with an uniform and steady heat input. All joints were welded in flat position (1G), with the pipe turning and the torch still. Tube dimensions were 762 mm in external diameter and 16 mm in thickness. Welds were applied on single V-groove, with six weld beads, along with three levels of preheating temperatures (room temperature, 100 degree centigree, 160 degree centigree). These temperatures were maintained as inter pass temperature. The filler metal E71T8-K6 with mechanical properties different from parent metal was used in under matched conditions. The weld characterization is presented according to the mechanical test results of tensile strength, hardness and impact test. The mechanical tests were conducted according to API 1104, AWS and ASTM standards. API 1104 and API 51 were used as screening criteria. According to the results obtained, it was possible to remark that it is appropriate to weld API 5L-X80 steel ducts with Self-shielded Flux Cored wires, in conformance to the API standards and no preheat temperature is necessary. (Author) 22 refs

  19. Microbial Corrosion of API 5L X-70 Carbon Steel by ATCC 7757 and Consortium of Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullah, Arman; Yahaya, Nordin; Md Noor, Norhazilan; Mohd Rasol, Rosilawati

    2014-01-01

    Various cases of accidents involving microbiology influenced corrosion (MIC) were reported by the oil and gas industry. Sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) have always been linked to MIC mechanisms as one of the major causes of localized corrosion problems. In this study, SRB colonies were isolated from the soil in suspected areas near the natural gas transmission pipeline in Malaysia. The effects of ATCC 7757 and consortium of isolated SRB upon corrosion on API 5L X-70 carbon steel coupon were i...

  20. Effect of non-metallic inclusions on hydrogen-induced cracking of API5L X100 steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, T.Y.; Liu, Z.Y.; Cheng, Y.F. [Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada)

    2010-08-15

    In this work, the type, composition and distribution of inclusions contained in an API5L X100 steel were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive x-ray analysis. A hydrogen-charging at various current densities was used to introduce hydrogen into the steel, and the correlation between HIC and the inclusions was established. The microstructure of the steel consists of a leather-like bainitic ferrite matrix, with martensite/austenite as the second phase particles. At least four types of inclusions are contained in API5L X100 steel, elongated MnS inclusions and spherical Al-, Si- and Ca-Al-O-S-enriched inclusions. In particular, the majority of inclusions in the steel are Al-enriched. Upon hydrogen-charging, hydrogen blisters and HIC could be caused in the steel in the absence of external stress. The cracks are primarily associated with the Al- and Si-enriched inclusions, rather than the elongated MnS inclusion. The critical amount of hydrogen resulting in HIC of the tested API5L X100 steel is determined to be 3.24 ppm under condition in this work. (author)

  1. Estudo do comportamento do aço API 5L X80 quando submetido à soldagem por processo automatizado Study on the behavior of API 5L X80 steel when subjected to automated welding process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siderley Fernandes Albuquerque

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available No Brasil, a soldagem de tubulações tem sido praticamente de forma manual, entretanto, a utilização de processos de soldagem automatizados têm crescido muito nos últimos anos, contribuindo para o maior controle dos parâmetros de soldagem, e conseqüentemente, a possibilidade de obtenção de juntas soldadas com melhores propriedades mecânicas. A soldagem de tubulações com aço API 5L X80 ainda vem sendo avaliada no Brasil no que diz respeito aos melhores procedimentos, parâmetros e processos de soldagem; a aplicação de processos automatizados nas condições específicas de campo constitui em uma opção ainda incipiente no país por se discutir ainda a relação custo/benefício com a sua implantação. Logo, o objetivo deste trabalho é avaliar o comportamento na ZTA de juntas soldadas do aço API 5L X80 utilizados para transporte de petróleo e gás quando submetidos à soldagem com diferentes parâmetros, procedimentos e processos de soldagem, incluindo o processo automatizado; os resultados indicam além da redução da extensão e do tamanho de grão da ZTA a preservação da estrutura bainítica do metal de base nesta região nas soldagem executadas com processos automatizados.The welding of pipes has been largely manual in Brazil, however, the use of automated welding processes have greatly increased in recent years, contributing to greater control of welding parameters, and consequently, the possibility of obtaining welded joints with better mechanical properties. The welding of pipes of API 5L X80 steel has been evaluated in Brazil considering to best practices, parameters and welding processes; the implementation of automated processes in the specific field conditions is relevant project and innovative design in this area. Therefore, the objective is to evaluate the behavior in the HAZ of the API 5L X80 steel used for transporting oil and gas when subjected to automated welding processes; the results indicated besides the

  2. Effect of Different Thermomechanical Processes on the Microstructure, Texture, and Mechanical Properties of API 5L X70 Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoumi, Mohammad; Echeverri, Edwan Anderson Ariza; Silva, Cleiton Carvalho; Béreš, Miloslav; de Abreu, Hamilton Ferreira Gomes

    2018-03-01

    A commercial API 5L X70 steel plate was subjected to different thermomechanical processes to propose a novel thermomechanical rolling path to achieve improved mechanical properties. Scanning electron microscopy, electron backscatter diffraction, and x-ray texture analysis were employed for microstructural characterization. The results showed that strain-free recrystallized {001} ferrite grains that developed at higher rolling temperature could not meet the American Petroleum Institute (API) requirements. Also, refined and work-hardened grains that have formed in the intercritical region with high stored energy do not provide suitable tensile properties. However, fine martensite-austenite constituents dispersed in ferrite matrix with grains having predominantly {111} and {110} orientations parallel to the normal direction that developed under isothermal rolling at 850 °C provided an outstanding combination of tensile strength and ductility.

  3. API 5L X80 PSL2 pipes manufactured by ERW process: TenarisConfab and USIMINAS development; Tubos API 5L X80 PSL2 processados por ERW: desenvolvimento TenarisConfab-Usiminas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Ronaldo C.; Roza, Juliana E.; Kojima, Sergio S. [TenarisConfab, Pindamonhangaba, SP (Brazil); Miranda, Lucio S.; Turani, Leonardo O. [USIMINAS, Ipatinga, MG (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    The utilization of high strength steels can decrease, both, installation and operation costs of a new pipeline, since the increase of mechanical resistance can reduce the pipe wall thickness and, consequently, the weight of the pipe. For this purpose, the manufacture of electric resistance welding (ERW) pipes is recent, and it comes as an opportunity for gas pipelines, mainly onshore projects. As a function of their larger productivity, ERW pipes are more economically attractive than those produced by seamless and SAW processes. TenarisConfab and USIMINAS, through studies and investments in manufacturing processes, have been working to increase their skills, in order to supply ERW pipes in API 5L X80 PSL2 steel. The steel elaborated by USIMINAS is low C, high Mn, Nb, V and Ti microalloyed, and with additions of Cr and Mo, aiming to produce hot rolled coils with acicular microstructure, achieved as a combination between its chemical composition and higher cooling rates after hot rolling. The results in {phi}18''(457 mm) x 0,469''(11,91 mm) pipes are presented in this article. High toughness values reached at very low temperatures suggest that ERW API 5L X80 PSL2 pipes developed by TenarisConfab and USIMINAS may be an excellent option of choice for onshore projects that request pipes in diameters up to 20''(508 mm) and thickness up to 0,500'' (12,7 mm). (author)

  4. Corrosion resistance of ERW (Electric Resistance Welded) seam welds as compared to metal base in API 5L steel pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Velasquez, Jorge L.; Godinez Salcedo, Jesus G.; Lopez Fajardo, Pedro [Instituto Politecnico Nacional (IPN), Mexico D.F. (Mexico). Escuela Superior de Ingenieria Quimica e Industrias Extractivas (ESIQIE). Dept. de Ingenieria Metalurgica

    2009-07-01

    The corrosion resistance of ERW seam welds and the base metal in API 5L X70 steel pipes was evaluated by Tafel tests. The procedure was according to ASTM G3 standard. The study was completed with metallographic and chemical characterization of the tested zones, that is, the welded zone and the base metal away of the weld. All tests were made on the internal surface of the pipe in order to assess the internal corrosion of an in-service pipeline made of the API 5L X70 steel. The test solution was acid brine prepared according to NACE Publications 1D182 and 1D196. The results showed that the ERW seam weld corrodes as much as three times faster than the base material. This behavior is attributed to a more heterogeneous microstructure with higher internal energy in the ERW seam weld zone, as compared to the base metal, which is basically a ferrite pearlite microstructure in a normalized condition. This result also indicates that pipeline segments made of ERW steel pipe where the seam weld is located near or at the bottom of the pipe are prone to a highly localized attack that may form channels of metal loss if there is water accumulation at the bottom of the pipeline. (author)

  5. Corrosive effect of oil's accompanying water polluted with H2S over steel (API 5L X-52)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cueli Corugedo, Alexander; Adames Montero, Yosmari; Rivera Beltran, Yischy; Davis Harriet, Juan

    2013-01-01

    The corrosion from the steel to the carbon in the sale oil pipage conduction, is a serious problem, due to the material and economical looses they cause, damaging even in some cases the productive field. The purpose of this study is to determine the aggressiveness of the oil's water layer, polluted with H 2 S ( g) , over the steel of pipelines' construction (API 5L X-52), taking into account the temperature variations which take place during the transportation of the oil, using the electrochemical techniques of polarisation resistance (LPR) and electrochemical noise. It is pretended to determine the velocity of steel corrosion in the oil's water layer polluted with H 2 S through electrochemical techniques. It was shown that the temperature increases and the concentration of H 2 S to 500 ppm in the oil's accompanying water emphasizes the corrosion phenomenon experienced by the steel (9, 188 0 mm/year to 70℃).The results of the electrochemical noise spectrums and the values of the localisation ?s index calculated, shown the presence of corrosion on the steel surface (API 5L X-52).This result was complemented through optic Microscopy which permits to corroborate the poor adherence of the sulphur layers deposited on the metal that increase the appearance of events found with the temperature increase and the concentration of H 2 S in the environment studied

  6. Influence of the maximum applied magnetic field on the angular dependence of Magnetic Barkhausen Noise in API5L steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martínez-Ortiz, P. [Laboratorio de Evaluación No Destructiva Electromagnética (LENDE), ESIME-SEPI, Edif. Z-4, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Zacatenco, México D.F. (Mexico); Pérez-Benítez, J.A., E-mail: japerezb@ipn.mx [Laboratorio de Evaluación No Destructiva Electromagnética (LENDE), ESIME-SEPI, Edif. Z-4, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Zacatenco, México D.F. (Mexico); Espina-Hernández, J.H. [Laboratorio de Evaluación No Destructiva Electromagnética (LENDE), ESIME-SEPI, Edif. Z-4, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Zacatenco, México D.F. (Mexico); Caleyo, F. [Departamento de Ingeniería Metalúrgica, ESIQIE, UPALM Edif. 7, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Zacatenco, C.P. 07738 México D.F. (Mexico); Mehboob, N.; Grössinger, R. [Institute of Solid State Physics, Vienna University of Technology, Vienna A-1040 (Austria); Hallen, J.M. [Departamento de Ingeniería Metalúrgica, ESIQIE, UPALM Edif. 7, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Zacatenco, C.P. 07738 México D.F. (Mexico)

    2016-03-01

    This work studies the influence of the maximum applied magnetic field on the angular dependence of the energy of the Magnetic Barkhausen Noise signal in three different API5L pipeline steels. The results show that the shape of the angular dependence of the Magnetic Barkhausen Noise energy changes with the increase of the amplitude of the applied magnetic field. This phenomenon is a consequence of the presence of unlike magnetization processes at different magnitudes of the applied magnetic field. The outcomes reveal the importance of controlling the value of the maximum applied field as parameter for the improvement of the MBN angular dependence measurements. - Highlights: • Study the angular dependence of MBN with applied field in three pipeline steels. • Reveals the change of this angular dependence with the increase applied field. • Explains this dependence based on the domain wall dynamics theory.

  7. Influence of the maximum applied magnetic field on the angular dependence of Magnetic Barkhausen Noise in API5L steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martínez-Ortiz, P.; Pérez-Benítez, J.A.; Espina-Hernández, J.H.; Caleyo, F.; Mehboob, N.; Grössinger, R.; Hallen, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    This work studies the influence of the maximum applied magnetic field on the angular dependence of the energy of the Magnetic Barkhausen Noise signal in three different API5L pipeline steels. The results show that the shape of the angular dependence of the Magnetic Barkhausen Noise energy changes with the increase of the amplitude of the applied magnetic field. This phenomenon is a consequence of the presence of unlike magnetization processes at different magnitudes of the applied magnetic field. The outcomes reveal the importance of controlling the value of the maximum applied field as parameter for the improvement of the MBN angular dependence measurements. - Highlights: • Study the angular dependence of MBN with applied field in three pipeline steels. • Reveals the change of this angular dependence with the increase applied field. • Explains this dependence based on the domain wall dynamics theory.

  8. Comparison of angular dependence of magnetic Barkhausen noise of hysteresis and initial magnetization curve in API5L steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez-Gonzalez, A. F.; Martínez-Ortiz, P.; Pérez-Benítez, J. A.; Espina-Hernández, J. H.; Caleyo, F.

    2018-01-01

    This work analyzes the differences between the magnetic Barkhausen noise corresponding to the initial magnetization curve and Barkhausen noise corresponding to one branch of the hysteresis loop in API-5L steel. The outcomes show that the Barkhausen noise signal corresponding to the initial magnetization curve and that corresponding to the hysteresis are significantly different. This difference is due to the presence of different processes of the domain wall dynamics in both phenomena. To study the processes present in magnetization dynamics for an applied field of H > 0, research into the angular dependence of a Barkhausen signal using applied field bands has revealed that a Barkhausen signal corresponding to the initial magnetization curve is more suitable than a Barkhausen signal corresponding to the hysteresis loop.

  9. Study of API 5L X70 steel corrosion processes when in contact with some Brazilian soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jesus, Sergio Luis de

    2007-01-01

    Pipelines, fuel storage tanks and other metallic structures are in permanent contact and exposed to different types of soils, of horizons or layers, or of soil aggressiveness. This interaction may cause expressive damages to the environment and to the planned work. Contamination may occur due to leakage of stored products, splitting during transportation, accidents caused by pipelines without extensive maintenance. The result of these accidents could be, among others, some financial losses. In order to recognize the dynamic interactions between metallic surfaces and the environment it is crucial to have preventive actions and to develop better-applied materials. API steel 5L X70 has been used in structures of low and high pressure with high mechanical strength and corrosion and, even so, it is susceptible to etching corrosion since it is in contact with different environments from mangrove regions to industrial environments. The present case evaluated the role of 5L X70 API steel in contact with different soil horizons representative of the Brazilian soil. This investigation correlated chemical species with solute ions in soil solution, secondary and primary phase minerals besides physical and chemical characteristics as pH, electric conductivity, total dissolved solids, among others, to the results of corrosion resistance and ways of corrosion. The evaluation was carried out using x-ray diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy, total reflection x-ray fluorescence, fuel injection flow besides texture and gravimetric analyses to soil characterization and mineralogy, identification of corrosion products, soil solution analyses, evaluation of tested materials and classification of ways and types of corrosion. This was an attempt to integrate the data to a better understanding of the process involving reagents and products. The results showed that different soil horizons such as different types of analyzed soils produce specific etching in metallic structures

  10. The influence of surface roughness on the hydrogen permeation of type API 5L-X52 steel; Influencia del acabado superficial en la permeacion de hidrogeno del acero API 5L-X52 steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Requiz, R; Vera, N; Camero, S

    2004-07-01

    The influence of surface reoughness on the corrosion and hydrogen permeation behaviour was evaluated on a type API 5L-52 steel in dearated 0.1M NaSO{sub 4} at pH=2. Potentiodynamic polarization curves were emplyed to determine the electrochemical behaviour of the steel, while the Devanathan-Stachurski technique was used to estimate the hydrogen permeation rate. Additionally, the surface roughness profiles were obtained in order to correlate the changes in the hydrogen perkeation rate with different metal surface finishings. The obtained results clearly demonstrate that when the roughness parameters have larger values, the cathodic current of hydrogen evolution increases while the hydrogen entry rate decreases. This effect can be attributed to the microstructural defects induced at the steel surface, such as dislocations, which increase the catalytic activity of the atomic hydrogen favouring its recombination. Also, these defects could allow the atomic hydrogen to remain adsorbed on the steel surface. Both effects could hinder the hydrogen diffusion into the metal since the possibility for this atom of becoming absorbed has been reduced. (Author) 16 refs.

  11. The influence of surface roughness on the hydrogen permeation of type API 5L-X52 steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Requiz, R.; Vera, N.; Camero, S.

    2004-01-01

    The influence of surface roughness on the corrosion and hydrogen permeation behaviour was evaluated on a type API 5L-52 steel in dearated 0.1M NaSO 4 at pH=2. Potentiodynamic polarization curves were employed to determine the electrochemical behaviour of the steel, while the Devanathan-Stachurski technique was used to estimate the hydrogen permeation rate. Additionally, the surface roughness profiles were obtained in order to correlate the changes in the hydrogen perkeation rate with different metal surface finishings. The obtained results clearly demonstrate that when the roughness parameters have larger values, the cathodic current of hydrogen evolution increases while the hydrogen entry rate decreases. This effect can be attributed to the microstructural defects induced at the steel surface, such as dislocations, which increase the catalytic activity of the atomic hydrogen favouring its recombination. Also, these defects could allow the atomic hydrogen to remain adsorbed on the steel surface. Both effects could hinder the hydrogen diffusion into the metal since the possibility for this atom of becoming absorbed has been reduced. (Author) 16 refs

  12. Microbial Corrosion of API 5L X-70 Carbon Steel by ATCC 7757 and Consortium of Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arman Abdullah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Various cases of accidents involving microbiology influenced corrosion (MIC were reported by the oil and gas industry. Sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB have always been linked to MIC mechanisms as one of the major causes of localized corrosion problems. In this study, SRB colonies were isolated from the soil in suspected areas near the natural gas transmission pipeline in Malaysia. The effects of ATCC 7757 and consortium of isolated SRB upon corrosion on API 5L X-70 carbon steel coupon were investigated using a weight loss method, an open circuit potential method (OCP, and a potentiodynamic polarization curves method in anaerobic conditions. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS were then used to determine the corrosion morphology in verifying the SRB activity and corrosion products formation. Results from the study show that the corrosion rate (CR of weight loss method for the isolated SRB is recorded as 0.2017 mm/yr compared to 0.2530 mm/yr for ATCC 7757. The Tafel plot recorded the corrosion rate of 0.3290 mm/yr for Sg. Ular SRB and 0.2500 mm/yr for Desulfovibrio vulgaris. The results showed that the consortia of isolated SRB were of comparable effects and features with the single ATCC 7757 strain.

  13. Effect of artificial aging on the microstructure of weldment on API 5L X-52 steel pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargas-Arista, B.; Hallen, J.M.; Albiter, A.

    2007-01-01

    The effects of artificial aging on the microstructure in the weldment of an API 5L X-52 steel pipe were studied. Aging was performed at 250 deg. C over a period of 1000 h and values were recorded at every 100 h intervals. Transmission electron microscopy observations showed precipitation strengthening from nearly circular Nb-C containing nanoparticles for the base metal and heat affected zone, and cementite for the weld metal. The largest amount of precipitation in the weldment zone was obtained at 500 h, due to peak-aging, which showed the highest particle density. The weld metal was more susceptible to aging, exhibiting the highest increase in precipitation at 500 h, followed by the heat affected zone. After 500 h, the deterioration in the microstructure was caused by the coarsening of particles due to over-aging. The base metal showed the larger increment in particle size after 900 h of aging accompanied by a bigger decrease in fine particles than in the weld metal

  14. Corrosion rate of API 5L Gr. X60 multipurpose steel pipeline under combined effect of water and crude oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Jian; Wang, Qiang

    2016-09-01

    Multipurpose pipeline is often seriously corroded during its service life, and the phenomenon is more prominent once the transportation medium is changed. Electrochemical polarization curves and impedance spectroscopy of the API 5L Gr. X60 steel pipeline's corrosion process in sedimentary water with different ion types and their concentrations have been studied in this work. The results showed that the corrosion rates were found to be 0.00418 and 0.00232 mm/a for pure water and crude oil, respectively. However, for the mixtures of water and crude oil (with water content increased from 0.2 vol% to 10 vol%), the corrosion rate increased consistently and reached a maximum value of 0.15557 mm/a for 10 vol% water in crude oil. The effect of the concentration of various ions, namely, chloride, bicarbonate and sulfate in (oil/water) mixtures on the corrosion rate was characterized by weight-loss method. The results showed that with increasing the ions' concentrations, the corresponding exchange current density increased significantly. The results were further supported by the observations of corrosion morphology using scanning electron microscopy and are helpful in devising guidelines which would help in reducing corrosion in multipurpose transport pipelines involving a change of transported medium during their service life.

  15. Study of texture and microstructure evaluation of steel API 5L X70 under various thermomechanical cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masoumi, Mohammad, E-mail: Mohammad@alu.ufc.br; Herculano, Luis Flavio Gaspar; Ferreira Gomes de Abreu, Hamilton

    2015-07-15

    This work studies the influence of different thermomechanical paths on the microstructure and crystallographic texture across the thickness of API 5L X70 pipeline steel manufactured via hot rolling using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD). The starting materials were controlled hot-rolled at 1000 °C to 44% and 67% reductions and subsequently heat treated with such processes as annealing, water quenching and quench tempering at three different temperatures to evaluate the microstructure and crystallographic texture changes across the thickness. The banded ferrite-pearlite microstructure of the initial material was changed to acicular ferrite, quasi-polygonal ferrite, granular bainite, martensite and retained austenite via different heat treatments. Moreover, different thermomechanical paths induced crystallographic texture variations across the thickness, e.g., {112}//ND, {111}//ND (γ fibre), and {011}//ND fibres dominated on the surface plane in contact with the rolls, whereas {001}//ND and particularly the (001)[1 1 0] texture component developed in the centre plane on which shear deformation has a zero value in this region. In this study, a simple interpretation of texture evolution was analyzed by comparison with the orientation changes that occurred during different rolling schedules and post-treatment processes.

  16. Influencia del precalentamiento en las propiedades de uniones soldadas de acero API 5L-X80 soldadas con alambre tubular autoprotegido

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cooper, R.

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available The present work refers to the characterization of API 5L-X80 pipeline joints welded with self-shielded flux cored wire. This process was evaluated under preheating conditions, with an uniform and steady heat input. All joints were welded in flat position (IG, with the pipe turning and the torch still. Tube dimensions were 762 mm in external diameter and 16 mm in thickness. Welds were applied on single V-groove, with six weld beads, along with three levels of preheating temperatures (room temperature, 100 °C, 160 °C. These temperatures were maintained as interpass temperature. The filler metal E71T8-K6 with mechanical properties different from parent metal was used in undermatched conditions. The weld characterization is presented according to the mechanical test results of tensile strength, hardness and impact test. The mechanical tests were conducted according to API 1104, AWS and ASTM standards. API 1104 and API 51 were used as screening criteria. According to the results obtained, it was possible to remark that it is appropriate to weld API 5L-X80 steel ducts with Self-shielded Flux Cored wires, in conformance to the API standards and no preheat temperature is necessary.

    Este trabajo presenta un estudio sobre la caracterización de las propiedades mecánicas de uniones soldadas con alambre tubular autoprotegido, de acero API 5L-X80. En este sentido, se evalúa la influencia de la temperatura de precalentamiento, manteniendo el aporte de calor uniforme. Todas las uniones soldadas se realizaron en la posición plana (IG, con la antorcha fíja y la tubería girando. Se utilizó un tubo de 762 mm de diámetro exterior y 16 mm de espesor. Las soldaduras se aplicaron sobre una unión de tope con bisel en V simple, utilizando 6 pasadas, con tres niveles de temperatura de precalentamiento (ambiente, 100 °C y 160 °C. Estas temperaturas se mantuvieron como temperatura entre pasadas. El metal de aporte, del tipo E71T8-K6, se utilizó en la

  17. Study of verification and validation of standard welding procedure specifications guidelines for API 5L X-70 grade line pipe welding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qazi H. A. A.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Verification and validation of welding procedure specifications for X-70 grade line pipe welding was performed as per clause 8.2, Annexure B and D of API 5L, 45th Edition to check weld integrity in its future application conditions. Hot rolled coils were imported from China, de-coiling, strip edge milling, three roller bending to from pipe, inside and outside submerged arc welding of pipe, online ultrasonic testing of weld, HAZ and pipe body, cutting at fixed random length of pipe, visual inspection of pipe, Fluoroscopic inspection of pipe, welding procedure qualification test pieces marking at weld portion of the pipe, tensile testing, guided bend testing, CVN Impact testing were performed. Detailed study was conducted to explore possible explanations and variation in mechanical properties, WPS is examined and qualified as per API 5L 45th Edition.

  18. Influence of preheating on API 5L-X80 pipeline joint welding with self shielded flux-cored wire; Influencia del precalentamiento en las propiedades de uniones soldadas de acero API 5L-X80 soldadas con alambre tubular autoprotegido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, R.; Silva, J. H. F.; Trevisan, R. E.

    2004-07-01

    The present work refers to the characterization of API 5L-X80 pipeline joints welded with self-shielded flux cored wire. This process was evaluated under preheating conditions, with an uniform and steady heat input. All joints were welded in flat position (1G), with the pipe turning and the torch still. Tube dimensions were 762 mm in external diameter and 16 mm in thickness. Welds were applied on single V-groove, with six weld beads, along with three levels of preheating temperatures (room temperature, 100 degree centigree, 160 degree centigree). These temperatures were maintained as inter pass temperature. The filler metal E71T8-K6 with mechanical properties different from parent metal was used in under matched conditions. The weld characterization is presented according to the mechanical test results of tensile strength, hardness and impact test. The mechanical tests were conducted according to API 1104, AWS and ASTM standards. API 1104 and API 51 were used as screening criteria. According to the results obtained, it was possible to remark that it is appropriate to weld API 5L-X80 steel ducts with Self-shielded Flux Cored wires, in conformance to the API standards and no preheat temperature is necessary. (Author) 22 refs.

  19. Efecto de la imidazolina [IM-NH17] en el proceso de corrosión del acero api5l-x52 en salmueras acidificadas

    OpenAIRE

    Reynaud-Morales, A.G.; Casales-Díaz, M.; Chacón-Nava, J.G.; Martínez-Gómez, L.; Martínez-Villafañe, A.; González-Rodríguez, J.G.

    2009-01-01

    Se estudia la eficiencia de inhibición del compuesto Imidazolina Aminoetil Oleica [IM-NH17]) en la corrosión de un acero API5L-X52 en tres soluciones de salmuera acidificada a pH 3 a una temperatura de 50°C, empleando pruebas de polarización potenciodinámica y mediciones de resistencia de polarización. Bajo las condiciones de prueba, los resultados de curvas de polarización indicaron que el inhibidor se comporta como un inhibidor de tipo mixto. Los resultados de resistencia de polarización li...

  20. CORROSION LOCALISEE DES ACIERS API 5L-X52 DE LA LIGNE ASR/MP SOLLICITE EN SOL ALGERIEN

    OpenAIRE

    BENDJEBBOUR, Amina

    2011-01-01

    L'étude porte sur les défaillances par corrosion localisée dans les aciers API de grade X52 de la ligne de pipelines ASR/MP acheminant les produits pétroliers sollicités en sol corrosif après échec des systèmes de protection anticorrosion (AC) à base de liants hydrocarbonés ou encore à base d'un système en multicouche complétée par une protection cathodique.

  1. Residual stress evaluation by X-Ray diffraction and hole-drilling in an API 5L X70 steel pipe bent by hot induction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceglias, Rodrigo Braga; Alves, Juciane Maria; Botelho, Ramon Alves; Baeta Junior, Eustaquio de Souza; Santos, Igor Cuzzuol dos; Moraes, Nicki Robbers Darciano Cajueiro de; Oliveira, Rebeca Vieira de; Diniz, Saulo Brinco; Brandao, Luiz Paulo

    2016-01-01

    The API 5L X70 steel is used in high-pressure gas transmission pipelines. Because of this, knowledge of presence of residual stress and their magnitude is important to assess the material integrity in service. For the pipeline manufacturing, tubes need to be curved which is often made using the hot induction bending process. This process can introduce different residual stress depending of tube position. For this research, in order to evaluate the residual stress, was used an API 5L X70 tube that was previously curved by hot induction process. Samples were taken from the extrados, intrados, neutral line and straight section of the curved tube. Residual stresses were studied by two conventional methods: X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Hole-Drilling, which are destructive and non-destructive methods, respectively, in order to assess their qualitative responses. Each of these methods presents particular methodologies in sample preparation and material analysis, but also they differ in factors such time consumption and cost of the analysis. The qualitative responses obtained by the two different methods were comparable and satisfactory and pointed out the existence of a compressive residual stress state in steel pipe. (author)

  2. Analysis of 3D Planar Laminations in a Welded Section of API 5L X52 Applying the Finite Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin. J. Fernández-Cueto

    Full Text Available Abstract The mechanical behavior of API 5L X52 steel with planar type laminations was studied in the present work. Planar laminations were proposed in the base metal (BM, heat affected zone (HAZ and welding bead (WB. Three-dimensional finite element (FE models, kinematic hardening and mechanical properties for BM, HAZ, and WB were activated in the finite element program. The results showed that crack propagation corresponds to the direction of the main stress. For a crack length (2a of 10.01 mm, crack propagation may occur at the right crack tip towards the outer wall of the BM. For 2a of 15.12 mm, crack propagation was located on the right crack tip and propagates to the inner wall. For 2a of 17.12 mm, crack propagation was observed at the left crack tip and propagates to the outer wall in the BM. The results achieved by FEM agree when compared with real laminations in API 5L pipelines.

  3. Residual stress evaluation by X-Ray diffraction and hole-drilling in an API 5L X70 steel pipe bent by hot induction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceglias, Rodrigo Braga; Alves, Juciane Maria; Botelho, Ramon Alves; Baeta Junior, Eustaquio de Souza; Santos, Igor Cuzzuol dos; Moraes, Nicki Robbers Darciano Cajueiro de; Oliveira, Rebeca Vieira de; Diniz, Saulo Brinco; Brandao, Luiz Paulo, E-mail: brandao@ime.eb.br [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Secao de Engenharia Mecanica e de Materiais

    2016-09-15

    The API 5L X70 steel is used in high-pressure gas transmission pipelines. Because of this, knowledge of presence of residual stress and their magnitude is important to assess the material integrity in service. For the pipeline manufacturing, tubes need to be curved which is often made using the hot induction bending process. This process can introduce different residual stress depending of tube position. For this research, in order to evaluate the residual stress, was used an API 5L X70 tube that was previously curved by hot induction process. Samples were taken from the extrados, intrados, neutral line and straight section of the curved tube. Residual stresses were studied by two conventional methods: X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Hole-Drilling, which are destructive and non-destructive methods, respectively, in order to assess their qualitative responses. Each of these methods presents particular methodologies in sample preparation and material analysis, but also they differ in factors such time consumption and cost of the analysis. The qualitative responses obtained by the two different methods were comparable and satisfactory and pointed out the existence of a compressive residual stress state in steel pipe. (author)

  4. Analisa Pengaruh Jenis Elektroda terhadap Laju Korosi pada Pengelasan Pipa API 5L Grade X65 dengan Media Korosi FeCl3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gita Anggaretno

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Submarine pipelines (pipa bawah laut di desain untuk transportasi minyak, gas atau air dari lepas pantai menuju receiving point. Baja API 5L Grade X65 merupakan jenis pipa baja yang banyak digunakan pada pipa penyalur gas, air, dan minyak pada pipa bawah laut. Sistem perpipaan ini tidak mungkin terbentuk tanpa adanya proses las. Pengelasan Flux Cored Arc Welding (FCAW  merupakan las yang umum digunakan dalam struktur anjungan lepas pantai. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh dari variasi elektroda pengelasan terhadap laju korosi pada pipa API 5L Grade X65. Variasi elektroda yang digunakan adalah elektroda spesifikasi AWS yaitu E7018, E6010 dan E6013. Metode pengujian korosi ini menggunakan bantuan sel tiga elektroda dengan media korosi FeCl3 yang mengacu pada ASTM G48. Dari pengujian ini didapatkan hasil laju korosi pada pengelasan pipa dengan elektroda E7018 adalah 0,53 mmpy, untuk elektroda E6013 adalah 0,69 mmpy, dan untuk E6010 adalah 0,62 mmpy. Perbedaan laju korosi tersebut dipengaruhi oleh tensile strength pada elektroda dan baja yang di las. Selisih kandungan unsur Mangan (Mn pada pipa dan elektroda las juga mempengaruhi perbedaan laju korosi pada pipa. Berdasarkan hasil foto SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope, secara morfologi permukaan weldmetal dengan nilai laju korosi paling tinggi, permukaanya terlihat lebih kasar. Akan tetapi laju korosi hasil las dengan elektroda-elektroda trsebut masih berada pada level yang diijinkan.

  5. Comparative Study of API 5L X60 and ASTM 572 Gr50 Steel Exposed to Crude Oil and Seawater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcy Viviana Chiquillo Márquez

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In the petroleum industry, the biphasic conditions in storage and separation tanks allow that the material to remain exposed to two different environments, causing its deterioration. In this article, an evaluation is made of the corrosive behavior and Vickers microhardness (HV of two high strength low alloy (HSLA steels and how their surfaces are characterized. The ASTM 572 Gr50 steel showed a lower corrosion rate in all systems after being immersed for 720 and 1440 hours. Characterizing the surface by means of Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM showed uniform and localized corrosion for the both steels, and revealed that the ASTM 572 Gr50 steel shows pitting corrosion in crude oil systems. The electrochemical results revealed that the corrosion potential of API X60 steel was more negative; however the ASTM 572 Gr50 steel had a higher current density and a lower polarization resistance when immersed in an oil/seawater mixture. It also observed that, after being immersed in the corrosive fluids, the microstructures of the steels were not modified and variations in their microhardness (HV were minute.

  6. Effect of Normalizing and Solution Heat Treatments in the Microstructure of a Dissimilar Joint Welded Between an API 5L X-52 Steel Pipe and Inconel 625

    OpenAIRE

    Soares, Jefferson Pinto; Terrones, Luis Augusto Hernandez; Paranhos, Ronaldo

    2017-01-01

    Resumo O propósito deste trabalho é comparar as mudanças na microestrutura e na dureza de um tubo de aço API 5L X-52, revestido internamente por soldagem com Inconel 625, após a execução dos tratamentos térmicos de normalização a 1100 °C por 60 min. e resfriamento ao ar, e de solubilização a 1030 °C com aquecimento por indução eletromagnética por 30 s. e resfriamento em água. Foram utilizadas técnicas de microscopia ótica (MO) e eletrônica de varredura (MEV), análise por espectroscopia de ene...

  7. Efficiency and corrosion rate analysis of organic inhibitor utilization from bawang dayak leaves (EleutherineamericanaMerr.) on API 5L steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, Shaimah Rinda; Sari, Eli Novita; Rizky, Yoel; Sulistijono, Triana, Yunita

    2018-05-01

    This research studied the inhibition of corrosion by bawang dayak leaves extract (EleutherineamericanaMerr.) on API 5L steel in brine water environment (3.5% NaCl). The inhibitor was extracted using maceration process from bawang dayak leaves that was cultivated in Paser District, East Kalimantan. The test of antioxidant activity showed that bawang dayak leaves extract is a very powerful antioxidant with IC50 value of 27.30204. The results from FTIR test show the presence of electronegative atoms and double bonds of the alkenes groups that provide the potential of the extract as a corrosion inhibitor. Efficiency of inhibition reached up to 93.158% for the addition of inhibitor with 300 ppm concentration and 20 days of immersion time. This inhibitory behavior is also supported by polarization measurements where the lowest corrosion rate of 0.00128 mm/year is obtained at the same concentration and immersion time.

  8. Efecto de la corrosión por h 2 so 4 en la difusividad térmica de acero api5l-x52.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Peña-Rodríguez

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work present a study of the effect of the H2SO4 corrosion to constant pH of 1.4 in the thermal diffusivity of API5L-X52 pipeline steel. The samples were exposed by 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15 days to the corrosive solution, in an atmosphere with relative average humidity of 57.16% and temperature of 23.6°C. The thermal diffusivity measure was carried out using the photoacoustic technique in a heat transmission configuration. Our results show a decrease of the thermal diffusivity ( a with the corrosion time, presenting a behavior that is adjusted to a logistical curve of type decreasing with a saturation limit of 52% of a initial value.

  9. The Effect of Impingement Velocity and Angle Variation on the Erosion Corrosion Performance of API 5L-X65 Carbon Steel in a Flow Loop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ihsan UlHaq Toor

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Erosion corrosion performance of API 5L-X65 carbon steel was investigated at three different impingement velocities (3, 6 & 12 m/s, five different angles (15, 30, 45, 60, & 90°, and with/without solid particles (average particle size of 314 µm. The experiments were conducted in 0.2 M NaCl solution at room temperature for a duration of 24 h and the results showed that the maximum erosion corrosion rate was observed at 45° irrespective of the velocity. The highest erosion corrosion rate at 45° was due to the balance between the shear and normal impact stress at this angle. Ploughing, deep craters, and micro-forging/plastic deformation were found to be the main erosion corrosion mechanisms. The maximum wear scar depth measured using optical profilometery was found to be 51 µm (average at an impingement angle of 45°.

  10. APIs

    CERN Document Server

    Jacobson, Daniel; Woods, Dan

    2011-01-01

    Programmers used to be the only people excited about APIs, but now a growing number of companies see them as a hot new product channel. This concise guide describes the tremendous business potential of APIs, and demonstrates how you can use them to provide valuable services to clients, partners, or the public via the Internet. You'll learn all the steps necessary for building a cohesive API business strategy from experts in the trenches. Facebook and Twitter APIs continue to be extremely successful, and many other companies find that API demand greatly exceeds website traffic. This book offe

  11. Evaluation of the susceptibility to pitting corrosion of steel api 5L x42 exposed to solutions containing chloride ions and CO{sub 2} by electrochemical noise measurements; Evaluacion de la susceptibilidad a la corrosion por picado del acero api 5l x42 expuesto a un ambiente con cloruros y CO{sub 2} mediante la tecnica de ruido electroquimico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pena-Ballesteros, D.; Rodriguez-Vanegas, N.; Anteliz, C.; Sarmiento Klapper, H.

    2011-07-01

    The concentration of chloride ions and the partial pressure of CO{sub 2} play an important role in the degradation of low-carbon steels used for the construction of pipelines in oil and gas industry. In order to evaluate the susceptibility of carbon steel API 5L X42 to pitting corrosion electrochemical noise and linear polarization resistance measurements were carried out in aqueous solutions containing chloride ions and CO{sub 2}. The concentration of chloride ions was varied between, 10000 and 18000 ppm, and the CO{sub 2} partial pressure between 10 psi and 18 psi. Experimental results pointed out that the formation of protective layer, consisting mainly of FeCO{sub 3}, depends on the partial pressure of CO{sub 2} in the system. Nevertheless, the stability of this layer was considerably affected by increasing the concentration of chloride ions causing that localized corrosion has taken place in some areas of the surface of API 5L X42, which were detected by electrochemical noise technique. (Author) 10 refs.

  12. Estudio del daño por hidrógeno en uniones soldadas de un acero API 5L X52

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Réquiz, R.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the present investigation was to study the susceptibility to hydrogen damage on a type API 5L X52 steel welded by electrical resistance. Several techniques, such as hydrogen permeation and cathodic charging were used. The metallic material was characterized using SEM and TEM. The base metal microstructure was very similar to that one corresponding to the welded area. This microstructure was mainly comprised by ferrite and perlite, differing only in the grain size. Therefore, the susceptibility to hydrogen damage was similar in both cases. It is worth mentioning that the welded area has very small dimensions. Indeed, the fusion zone is only 5 mm wide while the heat affected zone is 1 mm wide. The hydrogen damage observed was mainly in the form of blisters, which were associated to the presence of aluminum rich inclusions. Also, it was noticed partial inclusion dissolution and some matrix attack adjacent to the inclusions.

    En la presente investigación se estudió la susceptibilidad al daño por hidrógeno en un acero API 5L X52 soldado por resistencia eléctrica. Para ello, se emplearon técnicas de permeación y de carga catódica de hidrógeno. El material fue caracterizado mediante microscopía electrónica de barrido y de transmisión. La susceptibilidad al daño por hidrógeno fue similar tanto en el metal base como en el cordón de soldadura. Este comportamiento se vincula a la microestructura homogénea constituida por perlita y ferrita, que presentan ambos, aun cuando existen diferencias en el tamaño de grano. El cordón de soldadura tenía dimensiones muy pequeñas, donde la zona de fusión y la afectada por el calor poseen espesores de 5 mm y 1 mm, respectivamente. El daño inducido por hidrógeno se presentó en forma de ampollas en la superficie del material, asociado, principalmente, a la presencia de inclusiones globulares y semiglobulares ricas en aluminio. Además, se manifestó una disoluci

  13. Corrosion study of API 5L x-series pipeline steels in 3.5% NaCl solution under varying conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahid, M.; Qureshi, M.I.; Farooq, M.U.; Khan, M.I.

    2003-01-01

    Pipelines provide convenient and efficient means for mass transportation of variety of fluids, such as oil and gas, over varying distances. In the last two decades or so, pipeline designers focused mainly on the usage of larger sizes and higher operating pressures for achieving higher transportation efficiency. This has been accomplished through the provision of steels with progressive increase in yield strength coupled with good weldability and sufficient toughness to restrict crack propagation. In addition to higher strength and toughness, developing pipeline technologies have required improved resistance to corrosion, which has been tried with specific alloy additions and special control over non-metallic inclusions. Corrosion investigations were carried out on various grades of pipeline steels (API 5L X-46, X-52, X-56, X-60 and X- 70) under varying environmental conditions. This paper describes the results pertaining to corrosion behavior of the steels in 3.5% NaCl solutions in stagnant, turbulent and deaerated conditions. It was found that all grades corrode in this solution and their corrosion potentials and corrosion currents are in close vicinity of each other. Turbulent solutions, however, have shown an increase in corrosion rates whereas deaeration has revealed a relative decrease in aggressivity of the electrolyte. (author)

  14. Corrosion resistance of API 5L grade B steel with taro leaf (Colocasia esculenta) addition as corrosion inhibitor in HCl 0.1 M

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lestari, Yulinda; Priyotomo, Gadang

    2018-05-01

    Taro leaf (Colocasia esculenta) has the potential to be used as a corrosion inhibitor because it has a substance called polyphenol that binds to the hydroxyl group and essential amino acids. Taro leaf extract is taken by maceration method. In this study, the specimen was steel API 5L grade B that would measured the corosivity in 0.1 M HCl solution + taro leaf extract with a specific concentration (in ppm). Tests conducted by FTIR method taro leaves, potentiodynamic polarization (Tafel) and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS). Based on the results revealed that there is a phenolic group in taro leaves, which has polyphenol content 0.053 % (mg/100 mg). The optimum composition of taro leaf extract is 4000 ppm which generate corrosion rate value of 30.22 mpy and efficiency inhibitor performance of 72.7 %. In this study, the Kads value of taro leaf extract ranged from 0.885 to greater than Kads value of ginger extract in hydrochloric acid solution. The high Kads values indicate a more efficient process of adsorption and better value of inhibition efficiency.

  15. Influencia del acabado superficial en la permeación de hidrógeno del acero API 5L-X52

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Réquiz, R.

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available The influence of surface roughness on the corrosion and hydrogen permeation behaviour was evaluated on a type API 5L-X52 steel in deaerated 0.1 M Na2SO4 at pH=2. Potentiodynamic polarization curves were employed to determine the electrochemical behaviour of the steel, while the Devanathan-Stachurski technique was used to estimate the hydrogen permeation rate. Additionally, the surface roughness profiles were obtained in order to correlate the changes in the hydrogen permeation rate with different metal surface finishings. The obtained results clearly demonstrate that when the roughness parameters have larger values, the cathodic current of hydrogen evolution increases while the hydrogen entry rate decreases. This effect can be attributed to the microstructural defects induced at the steel surface, such as dislocations, which increase the catalytic activity of the atomic hydrogen favouring its recombination. Also, these defects could allow the atomic hydrogen to remain adsorbed on the steel surface. Both effects could hinder the hydrogen diffusion into the metal since the possibility for this atom of becoming absorbed has been reduced

    En el presente trabajo de investigación se evalúa la influencia del acabado superficial, tanto en la corrosión generalizada como en la permeación de hidrógeno del acero API 5L-X52 en solución de Na2SO4 0,1M, a pH=2. El comportamiento electroquímico del acero se estudió mediante las curvas de polarización potenciodinámicas, mientras que la susceptibilidad al daño por hidrógeno se evaluó mediante la técnica de permeación de Devanathan- Stachurski. Además, se determinaron los parámetros de rugosidad a las muestras de acero con diferentes acabados superficiales, para luego correlacionarlos con los cambios en las corrientes de permeación de hidrógeno. Los resultados obtenidos demuestran, claramente, que, cuando la rugosidad superficial del acero

  16. Technological impact in steels degree API 5L X-70 for the manufacture of resistant ducts of 36 inches of diameter to the bitter gas; Impacto tecnologico de aceros grado API 5L X-70 para la fabricacion de ductos de 36 pulgadas de diametro resistentes al gas amargo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aramburo Perez, G.; Garcia Galan, S.; Perez Campos, R.; Juarez Islas, J.A. [Facultad de Quimica, UNAM, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2004-03-01

    , cumplen con las propiedades del acero grado API 5L X-70, las cuales son requeridas en los tubos de acero por la industria petrolera.

  17. Análisis del proceso de corrosión producida en la junta de soldadura de tubería API 5L X70, por el transporte de crudo.

    OpenAIRE

    Cahueñas Cotacachi, Luis Guillermo; Ballesteros Medina, Adolfo Luis

    2012-01-01

    177 hojas : ilustraciones, 29 x 21 cm + CD-ROM 4132 En el presente tema de tesis se analiza la velocidad de corrosión producida por el agua sedimentada de crudo en la zona interna del cordón de soldadura de una tubería API 5L X70 con electrodos E6010 y E7018. Se utiliza el método experimental mediante una cámara de niebla salina desarrollada para simular el medio corrosivo sobre los que se encuentra trabajando la tubería de oleoducto y soldadura, según los estándares internacionales para l...

  18. Fatigue crack growth behaviour of semi-elliptical surface cracks for an API 5L X65 gas pipeline under tension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaari, M. S.; Akramin, M. R. M.; Ariffin, A. K.; Abdullah, S.; Kikuchi, M.

    2018-02-01

    The paper is presenting the fatigue crack growth (FCG) behavior of semi-elliptical surface cracks for API X65 gas pipeline using S-version FEM. A method known as global-local overlay technique was used in this study to predict the fatigue behavior that involve of two separate meshes each specifically for global (geometry) and local (crack). The pre-post program was used to model the global geometry (coarser mesh) known as FAST including the material and boundary conditions. Hence, the local crack (finer mesh) will be defined the exact location and the mesh control accordingly. The local mesh was overlaid along with the global before the numerical computation taken place to solve the engineering problem. The stress intensity factors were computed using the virtual crack closure-integral method (VCCM). The most important results is the behavior of the fatigue crack growth, which contains the crack depth (a), crack length (c) and stress intensity factors (SIF). The correlation between the fatigue crack growth and the SIF shows a good growth for the crack depth (a) and dissimilar for the crack length (c) where stunned behavior was resulted. The S-version FEM will benefiting the user due to the overlay technique where it will shorten the computation process.

  19. Susceptibility to hydrogen-induced cracking in H2S corrosion environment of API 5L-X80 weld metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilton, J.; Fals, H. C.; Trevisan, R. E.

    2009-01-01

    The susceptibility to hydrogen-induced cracking in H 2 S environment of welded API X80 steel was studied. The flux cored arc welding (FCAW) process was employed with E71-T1 and E71-T8K6 wires. The welding parameters were kept constant, but the samples were welded using different preheat temperatures (room temperature and 100 degree centigrade). The gapped bead-on-plate (G-BOP) test was used. The specimens of modified G-BOP tests were exposed to an environment saturated in H 2 S, as recommended by the NACE TM0284 standard. The weld beads were characterized by optical microscopy and the level of residual hydrogen in the samples was measured. The fracture surface areas of hydrogen-induced cracking were calculated and the fracture mode was discussed. It was found that the preheating temperature of 100 degree centigrade was enough to avoid cracking, even in the presence of H 2 S. It was also found that the E71- T8K6 wire was more susceptible to cracking, and the typical mixed-mode fracture was predominant in all samples. (Author) 15 refs

  20. Mechanical properties of API X80 steel pipe joints welded by Flux Core Arc Weld Process; Propriedades mecanicas de juntas de tubos de aco API X80 soldadas com arame tubulares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ordonez, Robert E. Cooper; Silva, Jose Hilton F.; Trevisan, Roseana E. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Engenharia de Fabricacao

    2003-07-01

    Flux Core Arc Welding processes (FCAW) are beginning to be applied in pipeline welds, however, very limited experimental data regarding mechanical properties of pipeline weld joints with these processes are available in the literature. In this paper, the effects of preheat temperature and type of FCAW on mechanical properties (microhardness and tensile strength) of API X80 weld joint steel are presented. FCAW processes with gas protection and self-shielded were used. Multipasses welding were applied in 30'' diameter and 0,625'' thickness tubes. Influence factors were: FCAW type and preheat temperature. Acceptance criteria of welded joints were evaluated by API 1104 standard for tensile strength test and ASTM E384-99 for microhardness test. The results obtained showed that FCAW type and preheat temperature have no influence on mechanical properties of API X80 joint steel. (author)

  1. Fissuração pelo Hidrogênio em um Aço API 5L X70 Soldado com Eletrodos Celulósicos de Diferentes Níveis de Resistência

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Goes Mattioli

    Full Text Available Resumo Aços classificados segundo a norma do American Petroleum Institute (API enfrentam o problema de trincamento a frio decorrente da soldagem. Neste trabalho foi estudado, por meio do ensaio de implante, o efeito da resistência mecânica do metal de solda sobre a susceptibilidade de um aço API-5L-X70 ao trincamento pelo hidrogênio. As soldas foram realizadas com dispositivo de soldagem por gravidade, usando-se dois eletrodos celulósicos, AWS-E6010 e AWS-E8010. O hidrogênio difusível dos eletrodos foi determinado por cromatografia gasosa. Como resultado do ensaio de implante, observou-se uma tendência maior à fissuração quando foi utilizado o eletrodo AWS-E6010. Isso pode ser relacionado à menor resistência mecânica apresentada pela solda resultante do mesmo e ao fato de o eletrodo ser menos ligado. Assim, o metal de solda pode ter se transformado a temperaturas mais elevadas, o que levou a uma maior migração do hidrogênio para a ZTA. Observou-se, ainda, que mesmo as soldas que não falharam no ensaio apresentaram trincas. Isso pode ser devido às condições de resfriamento do cordão que levaram ao aparecimento ilhas com estruturas frágeis e susceptíveis ao trincamento. Para as menores cargas usadas (0,8.σe, contudo, estas trincas não atingiram um tamanho crítico para a ruptura final do pino sendo ensaiado.

  2. Avaliação da microestrutura e propriedades mecânicas de metais de solda obtidos por processos de soldagem manual e automatizado utilizado na soldagem de aço API 5L X80 Evaluation of microstructure and mechanical properties of weld metals obtained by manual and automated welding process used in the welding of API 5L X80 steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siderley Fernandes Albuquerque

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar as características da zona termicamente afetada (ZTA e a microestrutura e propriedades mecânicas de metais de solda de juntas soldadas do aço API 5L X80, obtidos para quatro diferentes procedimentos de soldagem utilizando processos manuais e automatizados. Para isto, chapas do referido aço foram soldadas por processo manual ao Arco Elétrico com Eletrodo Revestido (SMAW, utilizando 473 e 673 K como temperaturas de interpasses e o eletrodo celulósico AWS E8010-G como consumível; por processo ao Arco Elétrico com Arame Tubular (FCAW robotizado, utilizando o arame AWS E71T- 1C como metal de adição e argônio com 25%CO2 como gás de proteção; por processo a Arco Elétrico com Eletrodo de Tungstênio (GTAW mecanizado na raiz da solda, usando o arame ER70S-3 e argônio como gás de proteção. As análises microestruturais foram relacionadas com os resultados de ensaios de impacto Charpy nos metais de solda e com os perfis de microdureza Vickers ao longo da junta soldada. Os resultados indicaram maiores percentuais de Ferrita Acicular e maiores valores de resistência ao impacto nos metais de solda e uma menor extensão e granulometria da ZTA, associado ao procedimento de soldagem utilizando processo automatizado com maior velocidade de soldagem.The objective of this work was to evaluate the heat affected zone characteristics and weld metals microstructure and mechanical properties of API 5L X80 steel welded joints, obtained for four different welding procedures using manual and automated processes. For this, plates of this steel were welded by manual Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW process with interpasses temperatures of 473 e 673 K, and using AWS E8010-G electrode as filler metals; robotized Flux Cored Arc Welding (FCAW process, using AWS E71T-1C wire and Ar25%CO2 as consumable and mechanized Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW process, for the root pass using AWS ER70S-3 and Ar as consumable .The

  3. DESGASTE POR ABRASIÓN DEL ACERO API 5L X65 REVESTIDO CON NIOBIO POR ASPERSIÓN TÉRMICA A PLASMA Y CON INCONEL 625 POR SOLDADURA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSE MATOS

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar y caracterizar el comportamiento mecánico en desgaste del acero API 5L X65, revestido con niobio en comparación al desempeño del revestimiento de la aleación de inconel 625 empleados en la industria de petróleo y gas. El revestimiento de niobio fue obtenido por el proceso de aspersión térmica a plasma de arco no transferido y el revestimiento inconel 625 por soldadura con electrodo revestido. La resistencia al desgaste por abrasión fue evaluada según la norma Petrobras N-2568, en un tribómetro CTER, la rugosidad y el volumen de material desgastado se determinó a través de perfilometría y la dureza de los revestimientos por microscopia Vickers. Los revestimientos obtenidos fueron caracterizados respecto a su morfología por microscopia electrónica de barrido (MEB y microscopía óptica (MO. La mayor dureza del revestimiento con niobio obtenido puede haber contribuido a reducir la tasa de desgaste en comparación con el revestimiento de inconel 625.

  4. Pioneer ACO PUF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Pioneer ACO PUF - To address the increasing number of requests for Pioneer ACO data, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) has created a standard...

  5. Validation of methods for WDXRF and OES-spark techniques in steel analysis. Determination of the uncertainty of measurements for API steel plant sample; Validacao de metodos para as tecnicas de WDXRF e OES-spark na analise de acos. Calculo de incerteza de medicao para amostras de processo, aco classe API

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Carlos Eduardo da

    2009-07-01

    The increase of gas and petroleum demanding in the national and international markets, the specification and certification of the chemical analysis results of gas and oil pipe-line have became more and more challenging. A continuous development has been outlined to improve API grade alloy steels (American Petroleum Institute). The steel properties depend on the chemical composition control and process parameters during its manufacturing. In this work, a comparison of the measurement uncertainty between X-ray fluorescence (WD system) and Optical Emission (OES-spark) spectrometry, for API grade steel plant samples analysis, was outlined. Usually, this kind of analyze requires less than 40 seconds for full chemical characterization for adjustment in the process parameters production. The main influence source in the chemical analysis was evaluated for design of experiments. The constituents and trace elements such as Al, Si, P, S, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, As, Nb, Mo and Sn were determined using the ASTM E-322, E-415, E-1009 and E-1085 standard methodologies. The 185A and 187A certified reference materials from CMI (Czech Metrology Institute) were used for evaluation of the methods. The uncertainty of the measurement, precision, accuracy, repeatability and reproducibility of the measurements were obtained applying statistic tests, recommended by ISO/IEC 17025. The uncertainty of measurement for each element is discussed for both techniques. (author)

  6. Evaluación de la susceptibilidad a la corrosión por picado del acero API 5L x42 expuesto a un ambiente con cloruros y CO2 mediante la técnica de ruido electroquímico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez-Vanegas, N.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The concentration of chloride ions and the partial pressure of CO2 play an important role in the degradation of low-carbon steels used for the construction of pipelines in oil and gas industry. In order to evaluate the susceptibility of carbon steel API 5L X42 to pitting corrosion electrochemical noise and linear polarization resistance measurements were carried out in aqueous solutions containing chloride ions and CO2. The concentration of chloride ions was varied between, 10000 and 18000 ppm, and the CO2 partial pressure between 10 psi and 18 psi. Experimental results pointed out that the formation of protective layer, consisting mainly of FeCO 3, depends on the partial pressure of CO2 in the system. Nevertheless, the stability of this layer was considerably affected by increasing the concentration of chloride ions causing that localized corrosion has taken place in some areas of the surface of API 5L X42, which were detected by electrochemical noise echnique.La concentración de iones cloruro y la presión parcial de CO2, tienen un papel importante en el proceso de degradación de los aceros de bajo carbono empleados en la construcción de líneas de transporte en industrias petroleras. Con el fin de evaluar la susceptibilidad del acero al carbono API 5L X42 a la corrosión por picado, se realizaron medidas de ruido electroquímico y resistencia a la polarización lineal en soluciones acuosas de iones cloruro con concentraciones entre 10.000 y 18.000 ppm, variando la presión parcial de CO2 entre 10 psi y 18 psi. Los resultados indican que la formación de una capa protectora, constituida principalmente por FeCO3, depende de la presión parcial de CO2 del sistema. No obstante, la estabilidad de dicha capa es afectada significativamente por el aumento de la concentración de iones cloruro, que producen fenómenos de corrosión localizada en algunas áreas de la superficie del acero API 5L X42, los cuales fueron detectados por la técnica de

  7. Pioneer ACO Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Pioneer ACO Model is designed for health care organizations and providers that are already experienced in coordinating care for patients across care settings. It...

  8. “Corrosión Inducida por Bacterias Sulfato Reductoras Termófilas de 60°C en la Unión Soldada del Acero API 5L- X60.”

    OpenAIRE

    Romero Romero, Justo Román

    2012-01-01

    En esta investigación se estudio el efecto de la corrosión inducida por Bacterias Sulfato Reductoras (BSR) termófilas a 60oC en el metal base (MB) y la unión soldada (US) del acero API X-60. Las bacterias sulfato reductoras fueron aisladas en el medio sólido postgate con la técnica de estriado, y fueron resembradas hasta obtener la misma morfología. El medio postgate fue seleccionado entre otros medios de cultivo, por el óptimo crecimiento que presento la BSR. Se preparar...

  9. Efeito dos Tratamentos Térmicos de Normalização e de Solubilização na Microestrutura de uma Junta Dissimilar Soldada entre um Tubo de Aço API 5L X-52 e o Inconel 625

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson Pinto Soares

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumo O propósito deste trabalho é comparar as mudanças na microestrutura e na dureza de um tubo de aço API 5L X-52, revestido internamente por soldagem com Inconel 625, após a execução dos tratamentos térmicos de normalização a 1100 °C por 60 min. e resfriamento ao ar, e de solubilização a 1030 °C com aquecimento por indução eletromagnética por 30 s. e resfriamento em água. Foram utilizadas técnicas de microscopia ótica (MO e eletrônica de varredura (MEV, análise por espectroscopia de energia dispersiva (EDS e dureza Vickers. Na condição como soldada, o metal de base (MB teve na zona termicamente afetada (ZTA a formação de zona de grãos grosseiros (ZGG com dureza média de 234 HV. A zona parcialmente diluída (ZPD se apresentou clara, sem contornos de grãos, com alto teor de ferro e dureza média de 370 HV, indicando ser constituída de martensita. No revestimento, a microestrutura é austenítica dendrítica com formação de carbetos de Nb e indícios da presença da fase Laves, com dureza média de 287 HV em suas camadas. Na condição após normalização, a ZTA foi suprimida e houve refino na microestrutura do MB; a ZPD foi mantida com sua morfologia original, porém com redução de cerca de 15% em sua dureza; no revestimento, a microestrutura tornou-se granular, com indício da dissolução da fase Laves e redução de sua dureza de cerca de 26%. Na condição após solubilização, a ZTA do MB foi eliminada, a ZPD manteve sua morfologia e microestrutura original, mas reduziu sua dureza em cerca de 30%; no revestimento, a microestrutura e precipitados foram mantidos, mas houve uma redução da dureza em cerca de 20%. Por fim, este trabalho conclui que ambos os tratamentos térmicos foram considerados benéficos às propriedades do tubo de aço API 5L X-52 revestido internamente com Inconel 625. Promoveram a homogeneização da microestrutura e a redução de dureza na ZTA do MB, significativa redução da

  10. Financial Performance of Rural Medicare ACOs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nattinger, Matthew C; Mueller, Keith; Ullrich, Fred; Zhu, Xi

    2018-12-01

    The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) has facilitated the development of Medicare accountable care organizations (ACOs), mostly through the Medicare Shared Savings Program (MSSP). To inform the operation of the Center for Medicare & Medicaid Innovation's (CMMI) ACO programs, we assess the financial performance of rural ACOs based on different levels of rural presence. We used the 2014 performance data for Medicare ACOs to examine the financial performance of rural ACOs with different levels of rural presence: exclusively rural, mostly rural, and mixed rural/metropolitan. Of the ACOs reporting performance data, we identified 97 ACOs with a measurable rural presence. We found that successful rural ACO financial performance is associated with the ACO's organizational type (eg, physician-based) and that 8 of the 11 rural ACOs participating in the Advanced Payment Program (APP) garnered savings for Medicare. Unlike previous work, we did not find an association between ACO size or experience and rural ACO financial performance. Our findings suggest that rural ACO financial success is likely associated with factors unique to rural environments. Given the emphasis CMS has placed on rural ACO development, further research to identify these factors is warranted. © 2016 National Rural Health Association.

  11. Recalls API

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — This Recalls API allows you to tap into a list of (1) drug and food safety recalls from the Food and Drug Administration, Food Safety and Inspection Service, and...

  12. Jobs API

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — This Jobs API returns job openings across the federal government and includes all current openings posted on USAJobs.gov that are open to the public and located in...

  13. Feocromocitoma cardíaco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo L. Knop

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Los feocromocitomas cardíacos primarios (FCP son sumamente infrecuentes. Hasta el presente son menos de 50 los casos comunicados en el mundo. Presentamos el caso de un tumor intrapericárdico, que resultó ser un feocromocitoma primario, en una mujer de mediana edad, cuyo signo principal fue hipertensión arterial severa (HTAs. Los estudios diagnósticos por imágenes corroboraron la presencia de un tumor intrapericárdico como único hallazgo y los estudios bioquímicos de catecolaminas y sus metabolitos excretados por orina reafirmaron el diagnóstico etiológico. El tumor fue resecado quirúrgicamente sin complicaciones mediante cirugía cardíaca convencional con circulación extracorpórea (CEC y paro cardíaco con cardioplejía. Siete meses después de la operación, la paciente se encuentra asintomática y normotensa.

  14. “Efecto de la Inducción de un Campo Magnético Axial en el Refinamiento de la Microestructura de la Soldadura del Acero para Tubería API-5L-X60 Soldado por Arco Sumergido (AS)”

    OpenAIRE

    López Melgarejo, Alejandro Ulises

    2012-01-01

    En el presente trabajo de tesis, se describe el efecto que tiene la agitación electromagnética producida por un campo magnético externo, debido a la aplicación de una bobina de alambre de cobre de 35.56 cm de diámetro, durante la soldadura de un acero API 5LX60 soldado por arco sumergido. Esta agitación, conlleva al refinamiento de grano de la microestructura columnar del cordón de soldadura, la cual es producida por el alto aporte térmico del mismo proceso. Durante la exper...

  15. ACO model should encourage efficient care delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toussaint, John; Krueger, David; Shortell, Stephen M; Milstein, Arnold; Cutler, David M

    2015-09-01

    The independent Office of the Actuary for CMS certified that the Pioneer ACO model has met the stringent criteria for expansion to a larger population. Significant savings have accrued and quality targets have been met, so the program as a whole appears to be working. Ironically, 13 of the initial 32 enrollees have left. We attribute this to the design of the ACO models which inadequately support efficient care delivery. Using Bellin-ThedaCare Healthcare Partners as an example, we will focus on correctible flaws in four core elements of the ACO payment model: finance spending and targets, attribution, and quality performance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Drug Interaction API

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Interaction API is a web service for accessing drug-drug interactions. No license is needed to use the Interaction API. Currently, the API uses DrugBank for its...

  17. Study of an API migration for two XML APIs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.T. Bartholomei; K. Czarnecki; R. Lämmel (Ralf); T. van der Storm (Tijs); M.G.J. van den Brand (Mark); D. Gasevic; J. Gray

    2010-01-01

    htmlabstractAPI migration refers to adapting an application such that its dependence on a given API (the source API) is eliminated in favor of depending on an alternative API (the target API) with the source and target APIs serving the same domain. One may attempt to automate API migration by code

  18. Super ACO FEL oscillation at 300 nm

    CERN Document Server

    Nutarelli, D; Renault, E; Nahon, L; Couprie, Marie Emmanuelle

    2000-01-01

    Some recent improvements, involving both the optical cavity mirrors and the positron beam dynamics in the storage ring, have allowed us to achieve a laser oscillation at 300 nm on the Super ACO Storage Ring FEL. The Super ACO storage ring is operated at 800 MeV which is the nominal energy for the usual synchrotron radiation users, and the highest energy for a storage ring FEL. The lasing at 300 nm could be kept during 2 h per injection, with a stored current ranging between 30 and 60 mA. The FEL characteristics are presented here. The longitudinal stability and the FEL optics behaviour are also discussed.

  19. Tumores cardíacos primarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Eugenia Díaz Garriga

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: los tumores cardíacos primarios son aquellos que se originan en Miocardio o Pericardio. El 90% son benignos, no son invasivos, pero debido a su localización pueden provocar alteraciones hemodinámicas graves y arrítmias. Presentación del caso: dos casos portadores de tumores cardíacos diagnosticados en la etapa prenatal, una gestante de 32 años, portadora de una Neurofribromatosis que en la ecocardiografía fetal de su hijo, se identifican dos tipos de tumores cardíacos, un mixoma auricular y un fibroma, y un niño que desde la etapa prenatal se diagnosticó un rabdomioma, lo cual se confirmó al nacimiento y que regresó espontáneamente. Conclusiones: a ecocardiografía fetal permite cada vez con más frecuencia, el diagnóstico intraútero de tumores cardíacos. Los rabdomiomas regresan en más del 50% de los casos, pero pueden ser un marcador de Esclerosis Tuberosa. Los tumores cardiacos se asocian a otras afecciones congénitas y requieren de tratamiento quirúrgico. Aspectos todos a tener en consideración para realizar el asesoramiento genético a la familia.

  20. Healthcare Finder API

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — All of the data used on the Finder.HealthCare.gov web application is available through this API. There are multiple collections of data available through the API. 1....

  1. Android quick APIs reference

    CERN Document Server

    Cinar, Onur

    2015-01-01

    The Android Quick APIs Reference is a condensed code and APIs reference for the new Google Android 5.0 SDK. It presents the essential Android APIs in a well-organized format that can be used as a handy reference. You won't find any technical jargon, bloated samples, drawn out history lessons, or witty stories in this book. What you will find is a software development kit and APIs reference that is concise, to the point and highly accessible. The book is packed with useful information and is a must-have for any mobile or Android app developer or programmer. In the Android Quick APIs Refe

  2. Organizational Attributes Associated With Medicare ACO Quality Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xi; Mueller, Keith; Huang, Huang; Ullrich, Fred; Vaughn, Thomas; MacKinney, A Clinton

    2018-05-08

    To evaluate associations between geographic, structural, and service-provision attributes of Accountable Care Organizations (ACOs) participating in the Medicare Shared Savings Program (MSSP) and the ACOs' quality performance. We conducted cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses of ACO quality performance using data from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services and additional sources. The sample included 322 and 385 MSSP ACOs that had successfully reported quality measures in 2014 and 2015, respectively. Results show that after adjusting for other organizational factors, rural ACOs' average quality score was comparable to that of ACOs serving other geographic categories. ACOs with hospital-system sponsorship, larger beneficiary panels, and higher posthospitalization follow-up rates achieved better quality performance. There is no significant difference in average quality performance between rural ACOs and other ACOs after adjusting for structural and service-provision factors. MSSP ACO quality performance is positively associated with hospital-system sponsorship, beneficiary panel size, and posthospitalization follow-up rate. © 2018 National Rural Health Association.

  3. Corrosion behavior of API 5L-X80 Pipeline steel for natural gas pipeline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Asyadi Azam Mohd Abid; Imai, Hachiro

    2007-01-01

    Natural energy problem, including the environmental aspects had changes into certain circumstances in recent years and natural gas has been a focus of constant attention from the viewpoint of energy efficiency and pollution free. From that kind of background, pipeline construction for petroleum and natural gas were considerate as energy infrastructure maintenance plan. Based on the clarification of Asian Pipeline Project (1997-2007) centered in Japan, international pipeline is needed as the natural gas is mainly transported from gas field in Russia and Middle East to consumer country such as Japan etc. It used in severe condition such as cold district and sea. In the meantime, pipeline steel is not just received damages by earth crust fluctuation and corrosion, but also suffered from the corrosion caused by anions that were dissolved in sea and groundwater. The diversification of dispersion and consumption structure of natural gas supply acceptance base are seen regarding, that made the needs of the storing are rising and dealt with the quantitative spatial expansion of the demand. By that, corrosion resistance, not only the hardness, tough, weldability, corrosiveness gas environment is extremely required. (author)

  4. The Dutch xAPI Experience: xAPI Recipes

    OpenAIRE

    Berg, Alan; Scheffel, Maren; Drachsler, Hendrik; Ternier, Stefaan; Specht, Marcus

    2017-01-01

    We present the collected experiences since 2012 of the Dutch Special Interest Group (SIG) for Learning Analytics in the application of the xAPI standard and best practices around the application of xAPI in various contexts. We present three projects that apply xAPI in very different ways and publish a consistent set of xAPI recipes.

  5. Unveiling the unicorn: a leader's guide to ACO preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslin, Paul

    2011-01-01

    The great uncertainty surrounding healthcare reform provides little incentive for action. However, as healthcare leaders wait for final rules and clarity about accountable care organizations (ACOs), inaction is the inappropriate response. Several central themes emerge from research about beginning the ACO process. Leaders should be able to understand and articulate ACO concepts. They should champion embracing cultural change while partnering with physicians. Inventory of skills and capabilities should take place to understand any deficiencies required to implement an ACO. Finally, a plan should be formed by asking strategic questions on each platform needed to ensure performance and strategic goals are at the forefront of decisions regarding structure and function of an ACO. It takes a visionary leader to accept these challenges.

  6. DIRAC RESTful API

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casajus Ramo, A; Graciani Diaz, R; Tsaregorodtsev, A

    2012-01-01

    The DIRAC framework for distributed computing has been designed as a flexible and modular solution that can be adapted to the requirements of any community. Users interact with DIRAC via command line, using the web portal or accessing resources via the DIRAC python API. The current DIRAC API requires users to use a python version valid for DIRAC. Some communities have developed their own software solutions for handling their specific workload, and would like to use DIRAC as their back-end to access distributed computing resources easily. Many of these solutions are not coded in python or depend on a specific python version. To solve this gap DIRAC provides a new language agnostic API that any software solution can use. This new API has been designed following the RESTful principles. Any language with libraries to issue standard HTTP queries may use it. GSI proxies can still be used to authenticate against the API services. However GSI proxies are not a widely adopted standard. The new DIRAC API also allows clients to use OAuth for delegating the user credentials to a third party solution. These delegated credentials allow the third party software to query to DIRAC on behalf of the users. This new API will further expand the possibilities communities have to integrate DIRAC into their distributed computing models.

  7. GIBS API for Developers

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — API using Global Imagery Browse Services (GIBS) designed to deliver global, full-resolution satellite imagery to users in a highly responsive manner, enabling...

  8. ALOHA Cabled Observatory (ACO): Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP): Velocity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The University of Hawaii's ALOHA ("A Long-term Oligotrophic Habitat Assessment") Cabled Observatory (ACO) is located 100 km north of the island of Oahu, Hawaii (22...

  9. Mars Atmospheric Aggregation System API

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The {MAAS} API is an open source REST API built to help make it easier and more efficient to build interactive applications that want to utilize the wealth of...

  10. Data.gov CKAN API

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — The data.gov catalog is powered by CKAN, a powerful open source data platform that includes a robust API. Please be aware that data.gov and the data.gov CKAN API...

  11. The API petroassist network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boortz, M.J.; Jardim, G.M.; Horn, S.A.; Disbennett, D.B.

    1993-01-01

    Past spill responses, such as those in the Exxon Valdez and American Trader incidents, demonstrated the value of companies volunteering their in-house experts and local knowledge to help other companies in spill response. The American Petroleum Institute (API) formed the PetroAssist Network to provide a means for oil companies to readily gain access to the expertise and communications equipment of other oil companies when needed for spill responses. An API work group developed the PetroAssist Network legal agreement and management and activation procedures. To minimize red tape and reduce the burden on members, existing systems were used whenever possible. The network became operational on January 1, 1992, with more than 40 members

  12. Paro Cardíaco en el Embarazo

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel Eduardo Sáenz Madrigal; Carlos Adrián Vindas Morera

    2013-01-01

    El paro cardíaco en el embarazo presenta un escenario único en el que están incluidos dos pacientes: la madre y el feto. El manejo de este escenario requiere de un equipo multidisciplinario incluyendo especialistas en anestesia, obstetricia, neonatología, cardiología y en ocasiones cirugía cardíaca. Los protocolos de soporte vital básico y soporte cardíaco avanzado deben ser implementados, sin embargo, dados los cambios anatómicos y fisiológicos que ocurren en el embarazo, algunas modificacio...

  13. Associated particle imaging (API)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-05-01

    Associated Particle Imaging (API) is an active neutron probe technique that provides a 3-D image with elemental composition of the material under interrogation, and so occupies a unique niche in the interrogation of unknown objects. The highly penetrating nature of neutrons enables API to provide detailed information about targets of interest that are hidden from view. Due to the isotropic nature of the induced reactions, radiation detectors can be set on the same side of the object as the neutron source, so that the object can be interrogated from a single side. At the heat of the system is a small generator that produces a continuous, monoenergetic flux of neutrons. By measuring the trajectory of coincident alpha particles that are produced as part of the process, the trajectory of the neutron can be inferred. Interactions between a neutron and the material in its path often produce a gamma ray whose energy is characteristic of that material. When the gamma ray is detected, its energy is measured and combined with the trajectory information to produce a 3-D image of the composition of the object being interrogated. During the course of API development, a number of improvements have been made. A new, more rugged sealed Tube Neutron Generator (STNG) has been designed and fabricated that is less susceptible to radiation damage and better able to withstand the rigors of fielding than earlier designs. A specialized high-voltage power supply for the STNG has also been designed and built. A complete package of software has been written for the tasks of system calibration, diagnostics and data acquisition and analysis. A portable system has been built and field tested, proving that API can be taken out of the lab and into real-world situations, and that its performance in the field is equal to that in the lab

  14. Web API Fragility : How Robust is Your Web API Client

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Espinha, T.; Zaidman, A.; Gross, H.G.

    2014-01-01

    Web APIs provide a systematic and extensible approach for application-to-application interaction. A large number of mobile applications makes use of web APIs to integrate services into apps. Each Web API’s evolution pace is determined by their respective developer and mobile application developers

  15. Learning Bing maps API

    CERN Document Server

    Sinani, Artan

    2013-01-01

    This is a practical, hands-on guide with illustrative examples, which will help you explore the vast universe of Bing maps.If you are a developer who wants to learn how to exploit the numerous features of Bing Maps then this book is ideal for you. It can also be useful for more experienced developers who wish to explore other areas of the APIs. It is assumed that you have some knowledge of JavaScript, HTML, and CSS. For some chapters a working knowledge of .Net and Visual Studio is also needed.

  16. Open Astronomy Catalogs API

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillochon, James; Cowperthwaite, Philip S.

    2018-05-01

    We announce the public release of the application program interface (API) for the Open Astronomy Catalogs (OACs), the OACAPI. The OACs serve near-complete collections of supernova, tidal disruption, kilonova, and fast stars data (including photometry, spectra, radio, and X-ray observations) via a user-friendly web interface that displays the data interactively and offers full data downloads. The OACAPI, by contrast, enables users to specifically download particular pieces of the OAC dataset via a flexible programmatic syntax, either via URL GET requests, or via a module within the astroquery Python package.

  17. Comportamiento de Laminaciones Coplanares y No Coplanares en Acero API5L X52 Simuladas mediante Elementos Finitos Behavior of Coplanar and Non-Coplanar Laminations in API5L X52 Steel Simulated by Finite Elements

    OpenAIRE

    Alberto Servin; Jorge L González; Alfredo Morales

    2009-01-01

    Se determina el comportamiento mecánico de laminaciones simples y escalonadas modeladas por elementos finitos en condiciones no lineales de esfuerzo-deformación, para comprender la secuencia de la interacción de los campos de esfuerzos en los extremos de la grietas. Se estableció una matriz de simulación variando la extensión circunferencial de las laminaciones, con espesor del tubo de 610mm de diámetro, con separación vertical y horizontal para el caso de laminaciones escalonadas. Se determi...

  18. Cold bending of 34'' OD API 5L X80 pipes; Curvamento a frio de tubos API 5L X80 de 34'' de diametro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Ronaldo; Moreira, Fabio A.; Chad, Luis; Fritz, Marcelo C. [TenarisConfab, Pindamonhangaba, SP (Brazil); Batista, Gilmar Z.; Hippert, Eduardo [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    A key factor that demands special attention in the pipeline construction is the cold bending process, since 30 to 40% of the pipes use this process in the field. This study aimed to evaluate the X80 cold bending operational parameters, in order make viable the use of this process in the installation of future onshore pipelines. Three 34''OD x 0,750'' pipes were bended. The bending was conducted using a hydraulic equipment with application of equally spaced punches, recording the correspondent angles related to the elastic and plastic deformations in order to assess the spring-back effect and performing dimensional inspection. Samples from pipe and the weld were subjected to mechanical and metallographic tests. It was possible to obtain a 19 deg curve and 27D radius without presenting any evidence of wrinkles, out of roundness or any type of mechanical damage. After analysis, all criteria established from project specifications were complied, the mechanical tests performed allowed comparing pipe mechanical properties of straight and bended regions. The results of this study provide technical know how for future X80 onshore pipelines applications. (author)

  19. Effect of Thermomechanical Processing and Crystallographic Orientation on the Corrosion Behavior of API 5L X70 Pipeline Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohaeri, Enyinnaya; Omale, Joseph; Eduok, Ubong; Szpunar, Jerzy

    2018-04-01

    This work presents the electrochemical response of X70 pipeline steel substrates thermomechanically processed at different conditions. The WE sample was hot rolled at a temperature range of 850 °C to 805 °C and cooled at a rate of 42.75 °C/s. Another sample WD was hot rolled from 880 °C to 815 °C and cooled at a faster rate of 51.5 °C/s. Corrosion tests were conducted electrochemically by potentiodynamic polarization in hydrogen-charged and non-hydrogen-charged environments. A lower corrosion rate was measured with hydrogen charging due to the rapid formation of corrosion product film on pipeline substrate, but WE specimen emerged as the most susceptible to corrosion with and without hydrogen charging. Variations in thermomechanical rolling conditions influenced grain orientation, protective film properties, corrosion, and cracking behavior on both specimens. Cracks were seen in both specimens after hydrogen charging, but specimen WE experienced a more intense deterioration of protective corrosion product film and subsequent cracking. A large part of specimen WD retained its protective corrosion product film after the polarization test, and sites where spalling occurred resulted in pitting with less cracking. Despite weak crystallographic texture noticed in both specimens, WD showed a higher intensity of corrosion-resistant 111||ND-oriented grains, while WE showed a more random distribution of 111||ND-, 011||ND-, and 001||ND-oriented grains with a lower intensity.

  20. Microstructural Evolution of HSLA ISO 3183 X80M (API 5L X80) Friction Stir Welded Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermenegildo, Tahiana F. C.; Santos, Tiago F. A.; Torres, Edwar A.; Afonso, Conrado R. M.; Ramirez, Antonio J.

    2018-03-01

    Evaluation was made of friction stir welded joints, identifying conditions that resulted in satisfactory welded joints free from defects and with microstructural characteristics that provided good mechanical properties. Microstructural characterization and cooling curve analysis of the joints with lower and higher heat inputs evidenced deformation below and above the non-recrystallization temperature (Tnr) and dynamic recrystallization during microstructural evolution. Microscopy analyses showed acicular ferrite, bainitic ferrite, and coalesced bainite microstructures in the stir zone of the cold weld (lower heat input), while the stir zone of the hot weld (higher heat input) contained bainitic ferrite, acicular ferrite, coalesced bainite, martensite, and dispersed carbides. Granular bainite and dispersed carbides were observed in all the heat affected zones. Analysis of the microstructural transformations, together with the thermal history of the joints, showed that the variable that had the greatest influence on the morphology of the bainite (granular bainite/bainitic ferrite) was the deformation temperature.

  1. Effect of Thermomechanical Processing and Crystallographic Orientation on the Corrosion Behavior of API 5L X70 Pipeline Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohaeri, Enyinnaya; Omale, Joseph; Eduok, Ubong; Szpunar, Jerzy

    2018-06-01

    This work presents the electrochemical response of X70 pipeline steel substrates thermomechanically processed at different conditions. The WE sample was hot rolled at a temperature range of 850 °C to 805 °C and cooled at a rate of 42.75 °C/s. Another sample WD was hot rolled from 880 °C to 815 °C and cooled at a faster rate of 51.5 °C/s. Corrosion tests were conducted electrochemically by potentiodynamic polarization in hydrogen-charged and non-hydrogen-charged environments. A lower corrosion rate was measured with hydrogen charging due to the rapid formation of corrosion product film on pipeline substrate, but WE specimen emerged as the most susceptible to corrosion with and without hydrogen charging. Variations in thermomechanical rolling conditions influenced grain orientation, protective film properties, corrosion, and cracking behavior on both specimens. Cracks were seen in both specimens after hydrogen charging, but specimen WE experienced a more intense deterioration of protective corrosion product film and subsequent cracking. A large part of specimen WD retained its protective corrosion product film after the polarization test, and sites where spalling occurred resulted in pitting with less cracking. Despite weak crystallographic texture noticed in both specimens, WD showed a higher intensity of corrosion-resistant 111|| ND-oriented grains, while WE showed a more random distribution of 111|| ND-, 011|| ND-, and 001|| ND-oriented grains with a lower intensity.

  2. Utilization of Tahongai stem bark (Kleinhovia hospita Linn.) extract as corrosion inhibitor on API 5L steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizky, Yoel; Novita, Eli; Rinda, Shaimah; Sulistijono, Triana, Yunita

    2018-04-01

    Tahongai (Kleinhovia hospita Linn.) is one of herbal plant cultivated in Kalimantan. Tahongai stem bark extract (Kleinhovia hospita Linn.) is known containing antioxidant to prevent cancer cell growing, therefore it is expected to become a good organic corrosion inhibitor. Tests conducted in this study were: DPPH to prove the content of antioxidant compounds in Tahongai woods (Kleinhovia hospita Linn.) from which IC50 number is found to be 153.78 µg/mL, indicating intermediate power, Fourier Transform Infrared Specroscopy (FTIR) to determine the functional groups and compounds in Tahongai stem bark extract (Kleinhovia hospita Linn.) and suspected that flavonoid compound contained in extract, Open Circuit Potential (OCP) to obtain corrosion rate data and found that the slowest corrosion occurred on 400 ppm (30 days) with corrosion rate 8,74 × 10-4 mm/year. The most efficient inhibitor found in 400 ppm (30 days) with 92,063%.

  3. German Value Set for the EQ-5D-5L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Kristina; Graf von der Schulenburg, J-Matthias; Greiner, Wolfgang

    2018-06-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a value set for EQ-5D-5L based on the societal preferences of the German population. As the first country to do so, the study design used the improved EQ-5D-5L valuation protocol 2.0 developed by the EuroQol Group, including a feedback module as internal validation and a quality control process that was missing in the first wave of EQ-5D-5L valuation studies. A representative sample of the general German population (n = 1158) was interviewed using a composite time trade-off and a discrete choice experiment under close quality control. Econometric modeling was used to estimate values for all 3125 possible health states described by EQ-5D-5L. The value set was based on a hybrid model including all available information from the composite time trade-off and discrete choice experiment valuations without any exclusions due to data issues. The final German value set was constructed from a combination of a conditional logit model for the discrete choice experiment data and a censored at -1 Tobit model for the composite time trade-off data, correcting for heteroskedasticity. The value set had logically consistent parameter estimates (p German version of EQ-5D-5L representing the preferences of the German population. The study successfully employed for the first time worldwide the improved protocol 2.0. The value set enables the use of the EQ-5D-5L instrument in economic evaluations and in clinical studies.

  4. 178. Linfoma cardíaco. Una neoplasia infrecuente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Sandoval

    2010-01-01

    Conclusiones: Los linfomas cardíacos son de alto grado de agresividad. La localización principal es la aurícula derecha, con clínica inespecífica y variable. No existe claro consenso sobre el tratamiento de elección, pero parece haber mayor supervivencia con tratamiento combinado con quimioterapia con antraciclínicos y radioterapia.

  5. Intro to the Zotero API

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Morton

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this lesson, you’ll learn how to use python with the Zotero API to interact with your Zotero library. The Zotero API is a powerful interface that would allow you to build a complete Zotero client from scratch if you so desired. But like most APIs, it works in small, discrete steps, so we have to build our way up to the complicated requests we might want to use to access our Zotero libraries. But this incremental building gives us plenty of time to learn as we go along.

  6. Bluetooth API Implementation into Android

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konev Sergey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Bluetooth is a popular method of communication between devices. Many smartphones today have the capability to communicate using Bluetooth. Android developers sometimes need to use Bluetooth in their projects. Android OS provides a powerful API for Bluetooth that allows to simplify scanning the environment for devices, pairing and connecting, data transfer between devices and more. However, utilizing the Bluetooth API can be difficult for first-time users. The objective of this article is to demonstrate the key points of implementing Bluetooth API in the Android application.

  7. Determinants of success in Shared Savings Programs: An analysis of ACO and market characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouayogodé, Mariétou H; Colla, Carrie H; Lewis, Valerie A

    2017-03-01

    Medicare's Accountable Care Organization (ACO) programs introduced shared savings to traditional Medicare, which allow providers who reduce health care costs for their patients to retain a percentage of the savings they generate. To examine ACO and market factors associated with superior financial performance in Medicare ACO programs. We obtained financial performance data from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS); we derived market-level characteristics from Medicare claims; and we collected ACO characteristics from the National Survey of ACOs for 215 ACOs. We examined the association between ACO financial performance and ACO provider composition, leadership structure, beneficiary characteristics, risk bearing experience, quality and process improvement capabilities, physician performance management, market competition, CMS-assigned financial benchmark, and ACO contract start date. We examined two outcomes from Medicare ACOs' first performance year: savings per Medicare beneficiary and earning shared savings payments (a dichotomous variable). When modeling the ACO ability to save and earn shared savings payments, we estimated positive regression coefficients for a greater proportion of primary care providers in the ACO, more practicing physicians on the governing board, physician leadership, active engagement in reducing hospital re-admissions, a greater proportion of disabled Medicare beneficiaries assigned to the ACO, financial incentives offered to physicians, a larger financial benchmark, and greater ACO market penetration. No characteristic of organizational structure was significantly associated with both outcomes of savings per beneficiary and likelihood of achieving shared savings. ACO prior experience with risk-bearing contracts was positively correlated with savings and significantly increased the likelihood of receiving shared savings payments. In the first year, performance is quite heterogeneous, yet organizational structure does not

  8. The 5L Instructional Design For Exploring Legacies through Biography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulware, Beverly J.; Monroe, Eula E.; Wilcox, Bradley Ray

    2013-01-01

    People who have impacted generations have left legacies we can explore today through biographies. The 5L instructional design introduced in this article includes five components: Listen, Learn, Locate, Link, and Legacy. In the "Listen" section, teachers use storytelling and read-alouds to introduce individuals who shaped history. During…

  9. Free electron laser on the ACO storage ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elleaume, P.

    1984-06-01

    This dissertation presents the design and characteristics of a Free Electron Laser built on the electron storage ring ACO at Orsay. The weak optical gain available (approximately 0.1% per pass) necessitated the use of an optical klystron instead of an undulator and the use of mirror with extremely high reflectivity. The laser characteristics: spectra, micro and macro-temporal structures, transverse structure and power are presented. They are in very good agreement with a classical theory based on the Lorentz force and Maxwell equations [fr

  10. MODELO ACO PARA LA RECOLECCIÓN DE RESIDUOS POR CONTENEDORES ACO MODEL APPLIED TO THE WASTE COLLECTION BY CONTAINERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Salazar Hornig

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available ACO es una metaheurística inspirada en el comportamiento de las colonias de hormigas para solucionar problemas de optimización combinatoria, por medio de la utilización de agentes computacionales simples que trabajan de manera cooperativa y se comunican mediante rastros de feromona artificiales. En este trabajo se presenta un modelo para resolver el Problema de Recolección de Residuos Domiciliarios por Contenedores, el que aplica un concepto de secuencias parciales de recolección que deben ser unidas para minimizar la distancia total de recolección. El problema de unir las secuencias parciales se representa como un TSP, el que es resuelto mediante un algoritmo ACO. En base a recomendaciones de la literatura, se calibran experimentalmente los parámetros del algoritmo y se recomiendan rangos de valores que representan buenos rendimientos promedio. El modelo se aplica a un sector de recolección de la comuna de San Pedro de la Paz, Chile, obteniéndose rutas de recolección que reducen la distancia total recorrida respecto de la actual ruta utilizada y de la solución obtenida con otro modelo desarrollado previamente.ACO is a metaheuristic inspired in the behavior of natural ant colonies to solve combinatorial optimization problems, based on simple agents that work cooperatively communicating by artificial pheromone trails. In this paper a model to solve the municipal waste collection problem by containers is presented, which applies a concept of partial collection sequences that must be joined to minimize the total collection distance. The problem to join the partial collection sequences is represented as a TSP, which is solved by an ACO algorithm. Based on the literature, algorithm parameters are experimentally calibrated and range of variations that represents good average solutions are recommended. The model is applied to a waste collection sector of the San Pedro de la Paz commune in Chile, obtaining recollection routes with less total

  11. ENHANCED HYBRID PSO – ACO ALGORITHM FOR GRID SCHEDULING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Mathiyalagan

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Grid computing is a high performance computing environment to solve larger scale computational demands. Grid computing contains resource management, task scheduling, security problems, information management and so on. Task scheduling is a fundamental issue in achieving high performance in grid computing systems. A computational GRID is typically heterogeneous in the sense that it combines clusters of varying sizes, and different clusters typically contains processing elements with different level of performance. In this, heuristic approaches based on particle swarm optimization and ant colony optimization algorithms are adopted for solving task scheduling problems in grid environment. Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO is one of the latest evolutionary optimization techniques by nature. It has the better ability of global searching and has been successfully applied to many areas such as, neural network training etc. Due to the linear decreasing of inertia weight in PSO the convergence rate becomes faster, which leads to the minimal makespan time when used for scheduling. To make the convergence rate faster, the PSO algorithm is improved by modifying the inertia parameter, such that it produces better performance and gives an optimized result. The ACO algorithm is improved by modifying the pheromone updating rule. ACO algorithm is hybridized with PSO algorithm for efficient result and better convergence in PSO algorithm.

  12. Substantial Physician Turnover And Beneficiary 'Churn' In A Large Medicare Pioneer ACO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, John; Vogeli, Christine; Price, Mary; Brand, Richard; Chernew, Michael E; Mohta, Namita; Chaguturu, Sreekanth K; Weil, Eric; Ferris, Timothy G

    2017-04-01

    Alternative payment models, such as accountable care organizations (ACOs), attempt to stimulate improvements in care delivery by better alignment of payer and provider incentives. However, limited attention has been paid to the physicians who actually deliver the care. In a large Medicare Pioneer ACO, we found that the number of beneficiaries per physician was low (median of seventy beneficiaries per physician, or less than 5 percent of a typical panel). We also found substantial physician turnover: More than half of physicians either joined (41 percent) or left (18 percent) the ACO during the 2012-14 contract period studied. When physicians left the ACO, most of their attributed beneficiaries also left the ACO. Conversely, about half of the growth in the beneficiary population was because of new physicians affiliating with the ACO; the remainder joined after switching physicians. These findings may help explain the muted financial impact ACOs have had overall, and they raise the possibility of future gaming on the part of ACOs to artificially control spending. Policy refinements include coordinated and standardized risk-sharing parameters across payers to prevent any dilution of the payment incentives or confusion from a cacophony of incentives across payers. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  13. The asthma-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease overlap syndrome (ACOS): opportunities and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrecheguren, Miriam; Esquinas, Cristina; Miravitlles, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Some individuals share characteristics of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The asthma-COPD overlap syndrome (ACOS) has been defined as symptoms of increased variability of airflow in association with an incompletely reversible airflow obstruction. In this review, we present the latest findings in the diagnosis, characterization and management of ACOS. Around 15-20% of COPD patients may have an ACOS. Patients with ACOS are characterized by increased reversibility of airflow obstruction, eosinophilic bronchial and systemic inflammation, and increased response to inhaled corticosteroids, compared with the remaining patients with COPD. Patients with ACOS have more frequent exacerbations, more wheezing and dyspnoea, but similar cough and sputum production compared with COPD. The relevance of the ACOS is to identify patients with COPD who may have underlying eosinophilic inflammation that responds to inhaled corticosteroids. So far, the previous diagnosis of asthma in a patient with COPD is the more reliable criterion for ACOS. Ongoing studies will clarify if concentrations of blood eosinophils may be useful to identify this subgroup of patients with COPD. If this is the case, the interest of ACOS may shift to that of eosinophilic COPD, which is easier to diagnose and has clear therapeutic implications.

  14. USAJOBS Job Opportunity Announcements (JOA) REST API

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — This REST-based API is designed to support lightweight Federal Job Opportunity Announcement (JOA) content consumption by consumers. It is anticipated that this API...

  15. USAJOBS Job Opportunity Announcements (JOA) SOAP API

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — The purpose of the SOAP based API is to provide the full Federal Job Opportunity Announcement (JOA) content to the consumer. It is anticipated that this API will be...

  16. The Web as an API.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roman, J. H. (Jorge H.)

    2001-01-01

    As programmers we have worked with many Application Development Interface API development kits. They are well suited for interaction with a particular system. A vast source of information can be made accessible by using the http protocol through the web as an API. This setup has many advantages including the vast knowledge available on setting web servers and services. Also, these tools are available on most hardware and operating system combinations. In this paper I will cover the various types of systems that can be developed this way, their advantages and some drawbacks of this approach. Index Terms--Application Programmer Interface, Distributed applications, Hyper Text Transfer Protocol, Web.

  17. Restful API Architecture Based on Laravel Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xianjun; Ji, Zhoupeng; Fan, Yu; Zhan, Yongsong

    2017-10-01

    Web service has been an industry standard tech for message communication and integration between heterogeneous systems. RESTFUL API has become mainstream web service development paradigm after SOAP, how to effectively construct RESTFUL API remains a research hotspots. This paper presents a development model of RESTFUL API construction based on PHP language and LARAVEL framework. The key technical problems that need to be solved during the construction of RESTFUL API are discussed, and implementation details based on LARAVEL are given.

  18. Mechanical Characteristics of Submerged Arc Weldment in API Gas Pipeline Steel of Grade X65

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashemi, S. H.; Mohammadyani, D.

    2011-01-01

    The mechanical properties of submerged arc weldment (SAW) in gas transportation pipeline steel of grade API X65 (65 ksi yield strength) were investigated. This steel is produced by thermo mechanical control rolled (TMC), and is largely used in Iran gas piping systems and networks. The results from laboratory study on three different regions; i.e. base metal (BM), fusion zone (FZ) and heat affected zone (HAZ) were used to compare weldment mechanical characteristics with those specified by API 5L (revision 2004) standard code. Different laboratory experiments were conducted on test specimens taken from 48 inch outside diameter and 14.3 mm wall thickness gas pipeline. The test results showed a gradient of microstructure and Vickers hardness data from the centerline of FZ towards the unaffected MB. Similarly, lower Charpy absorbed energy (compared to BM) was observed in the FZ impact specimens. Despite this, the API specifications were fulfilled in three tested zones, ensuring pipeline structural integrity under working conditions.

  19. 5l/h pump for dosing corrosion radioactive liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Przybylovich, S.; Shraer, V.; Chermak, R.

    1977-01-01

    The technical requirements, design and main technical characteristics of the pump for dosing corrosion and radioactive liquids with capacity up to 5 l/h are described. The design is based on the popular sixvertical split casing pump. The pump has four separate pump membrane type blocks with nonstraight hydraulic membrane control. The membranes are made of the cold worked CrNi(18/10)type stainless steel with thickness up to 0.1 mm and have the lifetime up to 3000 hours. The remote pump heads are used for pumping radioactive fluids when the pumping goes behind the safe wall, separating the pump from a hot lab. The tests showed that the pump secures the satisfactory accuracy of dozing and uniformity of pumping and that it is really possible to achieve the required life time of 10000 hours by this pump

  20. Hospitals Participating In ACOs Tend To Be Large And Urban, Allowing Access To Capital And Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colla, Carrie H; Lewis, Valerie A; Tierney, Emily; Muhlestein, David B

    2016-03-01

    Relationships between physicians and hospitals have changed considerably over the past decade, as hospitals and physician groups have integrated and new public and private payment policies have created financial interdependence. The extent to which accountable care organizations (ACOs) involve hospitals in their operations may prove to be vitally important, because managing hospital care is a key part of improving health care quality and lowering cost growth. Using primary data on ACO composition and capabilities paired with hospital characteristics, we found that 20 percent of US hospitals were part of an ACO in 2014. Hospitals that were in urban areas, were nonprofit, or had a smaller share of Medicare patients were more likely to participate in ACOs, compared to hospitals that were in more rural areas, were for-profit or government owned, or had a larger share of Medicare patients, respectively. Qualitative data identified the following advantages of including a hospital in an ACO: the availability of start-up capital, advanced data sharing, and engagement of providers across the care continuum. Although the 63 percent of ACOs that included hospitals offered more comprehensive services compared to ACOs without hospitals, we found no differences between the two groups in their ability to manage hospital-related aspects of patient care. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  1. Layered ACO-OFDM for intensity-modulated direct-detection optical wireless transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi; Qian, Chen; Guo, Xuhan; Wang, Zhaocheng; Cunningham, David G; White, Ian H

    2015-05-04

    Layered asymmetrically clipped optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (ACO-OFDM) with high spectral efficiency is proposed in this paper for optical wireless transmission employing intensity modulation with direct detection. In contrast to the conventional ACO-OFDM, which only utilizes odd subcarriers for modulation, leading to an obvious spectral efficiency loss, in layered ACO-OFDM, the subcarriers are divided into different layers and modulated by different kinds of ACO-OFDM, which are combined for simultaneous transmission. In this way, more subcarriers are used for data transmission and the spectral efficiency is improved. An iterative receiver is also proposed for layered ACO-OFDM, where the negative clipping distortion of each layer is subtracted once it is detected so that the signals from different layers can be recovered. Theoretical analysis shows that the proposed scheme can improve the spectral efficiency by up to 2 times compared with conventional ACO-OFDM approaches with the same modulation order. Meanwhile, simulation results confirm a considerable signal-to-noise ratio gain over ACO-OFDM at the same spectral efficiency.

  2. ACO-Initialized Wavelet Neural Network for Vibration Fault Diagnosis of Hydroturbine Generating Unit

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao, Zhihuai; He, Xinying; Fu, Xiangqian; Malik, O. P.

    2015-01-01

    Considering the drawbacks of traditional wavelet neural network, such as low convergence speed and high sensitivity to initial parameters, an ant colony optimization- (ACO-) initialized wavelet neural network is proposed in this paper for vibration fault diagnosis of a hydroturbine generating unit. In this method, parameters of the wavelet neural network are initialized by the ACO algorithm, and then the wavelet neural network is trained by the gradient descent algorithm. Amplitudes of the fr...

  3. Recent advances in the API quality program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gollhofer, F.R.

    1991-01-01

    The API now has more than 3 years' operating experience in licensing manufacturers under the API Quality Program. The API evaluation procedures, described in this paper, provide consistency in evaluation and should allow full participation of petroleum equipment suppliers in the worldwide market during the 1990's and into the 21st century. The program's flexibility will allow it to cope with significant changes resulting from the planned European Common Market's Global Approach to Certification and Testing scheduled to occur in 1992

  4. RNA Interference of 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic Acid Oxidase (ACO1 and ACO2 Genes Expression Prolongs the Shelf Life of Eksotika (Carica papaya L. Papaya Fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogayah Sekeli

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of using RNA interference in down regulating the expression of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase gene in Eksotika papaya. One-month old embryogenic calli were separately transformed with Agrobacterium strain LBA 4404 harbouring the three different RNAi pOpOff2 constructs bearing the 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase gene. A total of 176 putative transformed lines were produced from 15,000 calli transformed, selected, then regenerated on medium supplemented with kanamycin. Integration and expression of the targeted gene in putatively transformed lines were verified by PCR and real-time RT-PCR. Confined field evaluation of a total of 31 putative transgenic lines planted showed a knockdown expression of the targeted ACO1 and ACO2 genes in 13 lines, which required more than 8 days to achieve the full yellow colour (Index 6. Fruits harvested from lines pRNAiACO2 L2-9 and pRNAiACO1 L2 exhibited about 20 and 14 days extended post-harvest shelf life to reach Index 6, respectively. The total soluble solids contents of the fruits ranged from 11 to 14° Brix, a range similar to fruits from non-transformed, wild type seed-derived plants.

  5. [ACOS: Clinical and functional features The Russian formulation mesalazine (kansalazine) in the therapy of ulcerative colitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobko, E A; Chubarova, S V; Demko, I V; Loktionova, M M; Ishchenko, O P; Solovyeva, I A; Kraposhina, A Yu; Gordeeva, N V

    To investigate the clinical and functional parameters in patients with asthma-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease overlap syndrome (ACOS) versus those with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma. A total of 129 people were examined. 51 patients with ACOS were followed up in Group 1; Group 2 included 38 patients with severe asthma; Group 3 consisted of 40 patients with severe COPD. All the patients underwent clinical examination: history data collection, physical examination, evaluation of disease symptoms, and study of respiratory function (spirometry, body plethysmography). ACOS is clinically characterized by considerable demands for emergency drugs and by more frequent asthmatic fits and exacerbations, which require hospitalization. The parameters of bronchial resistance in ACOS were established to be increased throughout the follow-up period and to be comparable with those in patients with COPD. In the patients with ACOS, the severity of pulmonary hyperinflation was associated with increased demands for emergency drugs (r=0.59; p=0.015). Fixed bronchial obstruction in ACOS can be caused by smoking intensity and duration associated with increased bronchial resistance in expiration (r=0.51; p=0.003) and intrathoracic volume (r=0.71; p=0.0001); as well as increased body mass index (p<0.001) and disease duration, which were interrelated with a reduction in the forced expiratory volume in one second/forced vital capacity ratio (r=-0.63; p=0.001 and r=-0.71; p=0.0034, respectively). Patients with ACOS show more severe clinical manifestations and a substantial increase in functional residual capacity and intrathoracic volume throughout the follow-up period, suggesting that the distal bronchi are impaired and pulmonary hyperinflation develops.

  6. Validation of the Parlay API through prototyping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellenthal, J.W.; Planken, F.J.M.; Wegdam, M.

    2001-01-01

    The desire within the telecommunications world for new and faster business growth has been a major drive towards the development of open network API. Over the past 7 years several (semi) standardization groups have announced work on network API, including TINA-C, JAIN, IEEE P1520, INforum, 3GPP,

  7. MGA trajectory planning with an ACO-inspired algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceriotti, Matteo; Vasile, Massimiliano

    2010-11-01

    Given a set of celestial bodies, the problem of finding an optimal sequence of swing-bys, deep space manoeuvres (DSM) and transfer arcs connecting the elements of the set is combinatorial in nature. The number of possible paths grows exponentially with the number of celestial bodies. Therefore, the design of an optimal multiple gravity assist (MGA) trajectory is a NP-hard mixed combinatorial-continuous problem. Its automated solution would greatly improve the design of future space missions, allowing the assessment of a large number of alternative mission options in a short time. This work proposes to formulate the complete automated design of a multiple gravity assist trajectory as an autonomous planning and scheduling problem. The resulting scheduled plan will provide the optimal planetary sequence and a good estimation of the set of associated optimal trajectories. The trajectory model consists of a sequence of celestial bodies connected by two-dimensional transfer arcs containing one DSM. For each transfer arc, the position of the planet and the spacecraft, at the time of arrival, are matched by varying the pericentre of the preceding swing-by, or the magnitude of the launch excess velocity, for the first arc. For each departure date, this model generates a full tree of possible transfers from the departure to the destination planet. Each leaf of the tree represents a planetary encounter and a possible way to reach that planet. An algorithm inspired by ant colony optimization (ACO) is devised to explore the space of possible plans. The ants explore the tree from departure to destination adding one node at the time: every time an ant is at a node, a probability function is used to select a feasible direction. This approach to automatic trajectory planning is applied to the design of optimal transfers to Saturn and among the Galilean moons of Jupiter. Solutions are compared to those found through more traditional genetic-algorithm techniques.

  8. Resolution and sensitivity of the eyes of the Asian honeybees Apis florea, Apis cerana and Apis dorsata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somanathan, Hema; Warrant, Eric J; Borges, Renee M; Wallén, Rita; Kelber, Almut

    2009-08-01

    Bees of the genus Apis are important foragers of nectar and pollen resources. Although the European honeybee, Apis mellifera, has been well studied with respect to its sensory abilities, learning behaviour and role as pollinators, much less is known about the other Apis species. We studied the anatomical spatial resolution and absolute sensitivity of the eyes of three sympatric species of Asian honeybees, Apis cerana, Apis florea and Apis dorsata and compared them with the eyes of A. mellifera. Of these four species, the giant honeybee A. dorsata (which forages during moonlit nights) has the lowest spatial resolution and the most sensitive eyes, followed by A. mellifera, A. cerana and the dwarf honeybee, A. florea (which has the smallest acceptance angles and the least sensitive eyes). Moreover, unlike the strictly diurnal A. cerana and A. florea, A. dorsata possess large ocelli, a feature that it shares with all dim-light bees. However, the eyes of the facultatively nocturnal A. dorsata are much less sensitive than those of known obligately nocturnal bees such as Megalopta genalis in Panama and Xylocopa tranquebarica in India. The differences in sensitivity between the eyes of A. dorsata and other strictly diurnal Apis species cannot alone explain why the former is able to fly, orient and forage at half-moon light levels. We assume that additional neuronal adaptations, as has been proposed for A. mellifera, M. genalis and X. tranquebarica, might exist in A. dorsata.

  9. Evidence of Apis cerana Sacbrood virus Infection in Apis mellifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Hong-Ri; Chen, Xiu-Xian; Chen, Yan Ping; Hu, Fu-Liang; Zhang, Jiang-Lin; Lin, Zhe-Guang; Yu, Ji-Wei; Zheng, Huo-Qing

    2016-04-01

    Sacbrood virus(SBV) is one of the most destructive viruses in the Asian honeybee Apis cerana but is much less destructive in Apis mellifera In previous studies, SBV isolates infecting A. cerana(AcSBV) and SBV isolates infecting A. mellifera(AmSBV) were identified as different serotypes, suggesting a species barrier in SBV infection. In order to investigate this species isolation, we examined the presence of SBV infection in 318A. mellifera colonies and 64A. cerana colonies, and we identified the genotypes of SBV isolates. We also performed artificial infection experiments under both laboratory and field conditions. The results showed that 38A. mellifera colonies and 37A. cerana colonies were positive for SBV infection. Phylogenetic analysis based on RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) gene sequences indicated that A. cerana isolates and most A. mellifera isolates formed two distinct clades but two strains isolated fromA. mellifera were clustered with theA. cerana isolates. In the artificial-infection experiments, AcSBV negative-strand RNA could be detected in both adult bees and larvae ofA. mellifera, although there were no obvious signs of the disease, demonstrating the replication of AcSBV inA. mellifera Our results suggest that AcSBV is able to infectA. melliferacolonies with low prevalence (0.63% in this study) and pathogenicity. This work will help explain the different susceptibilities ofA. cerana and A. melliferato sacbrood disease and is potentially useful for guiding beekeeping practices. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  10. ACO-Initialized Wavelet Neural Network for Vibration Fault Diagnosis of Hydroturbine Generating Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihuai Xiao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the drawbacks of traditional wavelet neural network, such as low convergence speed and high sensitivity to initial parameters, an ant colony optimization- (ACO- initialized wavelet neural network is proposed in this paper for vibration fault diagnosis of a hydroturbine generating unit. In this method, parameters of the wavelet neural network are initialized by the ACO algorithm, and then the wavelet neural network is trained by the gradient descent algorithm. Amplitudes of the frequency components of the hydroturbine generating unit vibration signals are used as feature vectors for wavelet neural network training to realize mapping relationship from vibration features to fault types. A real vibration fault diagnosis case result of a hydroturbine generating unit shows that the proposed method has faster convergence speed and stronger generalization ability than the traditional wavelet neural network and ACO wavelet neural network. Thus it can provide an effective solution for online vibration fault diagnosis of a hydroturbine generating unit.

  11. Susceptibility to false memories in patients with ACoA aneurysm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsutzky, Sabine; Fujiwara, Esther; Brand, Matthias; Markowitsch, Hans J

    2010-08-01

    We examined ACoA patients regarding their susceptibility to a range of false memory phenomena. We targeted provoked confabulation, false recall and false recognition in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott-paradigm (DRM-paradigm) as well as false recognition in a mirror reading task. ACoA patients produced more provoked confabulations and more false recognition in mirror reading than comparison subjects. Conversely, false recall/false recognition in the DRM-paradigm were similar in patients and controls. Whereas the former two indices of false memories were correlated, no relationship was revealed with the DRM-paradigm. Our results suggest that rupture of ACoA aneurysm leads to an increased susceptibility to a subset of false memories types. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Web API Growing Pains : Loosely Coupled yet Strongly Tied

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Espinha, T.; Zaidman, A.; Gross, H.G.

    2014-01-01

    Web APIs provide a systematic and extensible approach for application-toapplication interaction. Developers using web APIs are forced to accompany the API providers in their software evolution tasks. In order to understand the distress caused by this imposition on web API client developers we

  13. The JANA calibrations and conditions database API

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, David

    2010-01-01

    Calibrations and conditions databases can be accessed from within the JANA Event Processing framework through the API defined in its JCalibration base class. The API is designed to support everything from databases, to web services to flat files for the backend. A Web Service backend using the gSOAP toolkit has been implemented which is particularly interesting since it addresses many modern cybersecurity issues including support for SSL. The API allows constants to be retrieved through a single line of C++ code with most of the context, including the transport mechanism, being implied by the run currently being analyzed and the environment relieving developers from implementing such details.

  14. The JANA calibrations and conditions database API

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence, David, E-mail: davidl@jlab.or [12000 Jefferson Ave., Suite 8, Newport News, VA 23601 (United States)

    2010-04-01

    Calibrations and conditions databases can be accessed from within the JANA Event Processing framework through the API defined in its JCalibration base class. The API is designed to support everything from databases, to web services to flat files for the backend. A Web Service backend using the gSOAP toolkit has been implemented which is particularly interesting since it addresses many modern cybersecurity issues including support for SSL. The API allows constants to be retrieved through a single line of C++ code with most of the context, including the transport mechanism, being implied by the run currently being analyzed and the environment relieving developers from implementing such details.

  15. DySectAPI: Scalable Prescriptive Debugging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Nicklas Bo; Karlsson, Sven; Quarfot Nielsen, Niklas

    We present the DySectAPI, a tool that allow users to construct probe trees for automatic, event-driven debugging at scale. The traditional, interactive debugging model, whereby users manually step through and inspect their application, does not scale well even for current supercomputers. While...... lightweight debugging models scale well, they can currently only debug a subset of bug classes. DySectAPI fills the gap between these two approaches with a novel user-guided approach. Using both experimental results and analytical modeling we show how DySectAPI scales and can run with a low overhead...

  16. Transcriptome differences in the hypopharyngeal gland between Western Honeybees (Apis mellifera) and Eastern Honeybees (Apis cerana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hao; Wang, Zi-Long; Tian, Liu-Qing; Qin, Qiu-Hong; Wu, Xiao-Bo; Yan, Wei-Yu; Zeng, Zhi-Jiang

    2014-08-30

    Apis mellifera and Apis cerana are two sibling species of Apidae. Apis cerana is adept at collecting sporadic nectar in mountain and forest region and exhibits stiffer hardiness and acarid resistance as a result of natural selection, whereas Apis mellifera has the advantage of producing royal jelly. To identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) that affect the development of hypopharyngeal gland (HG) and/or the secretion of royal jelly between these two honeybee species, we performed a digital gene expression (DGE) analysis of the HGs of these two species at three developmental stages (newly emerged worker, nurse and forager). Twelve DGE-tag libraries were constructed and sequenced using the total RNA extracted from the HGs of newly emerged workers, nurses, and foragers of Apis mellifera and Apis cerana. Finally, a total of 1482 genes in Apis mellifera and 1313 in Apis cerana were found to exhibit an expression difference among the three developmental stages. A total of 1417 DEGs were identified between these two species. Of these, 623, 1072, and 462 genes showed an expression difference at the newly emerged worker, nurse, and forager stages, respectively. The nurse stage exhibited the highest number of DEGs between these two species and most of these were found to be up-regulated in Apis mellifera. These results suggest that the higher yield of royal jelly in Apis mellifera may be due to the higher expression level of these DEGs. In this study, we investigated the DEGs between the HGs of two sibling honeybee species (Apis mellifera and Apis cerana). Our results indicated that the gene expression difference was associated with the difference in the royal jelly yield between these two species. These results provide an important clue for clarifying the mechanisms underlying hypopharyngeal gland development and the production of royal jelly.

  17. ChemSpell Web Service API

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The ChemSpell Web Service API provides chemical name spell checking and chemical name synonym look-up. ChemSpell contains more than 1.3 million chemical names...

  18. Online maps with APIs and webservices

    CERN Document Server

    Peterson, Michael P

    2014-01-01

    With the Internet now the primary method of accessing maps, this volume examines developments in the world of online map delivery, focusing in particular on application programmer interfaces such as the Google Maps API, and their utility in thematic mapping.

  19. System for Award Management (SAM) API

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — The SAM API is a RESTful method of retrieving public information about the businesses, organizations, or individuals (referred to as entities) within the SAM entity...

  20. Real World Uses For Nagios APIs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Janice

    2014-01-01

    This presentation describes the Nagios 4 APIs and how the NASA Advanced Supercomputing at Ames Research Center is employing them to upgrade its graphical status display (the HUD) and explain why it's worth trying to use them yourselves.

  1. Why and How Java Developers Break APIs

    OpenAIRE

    Brito, Aline; Xavier, Laerte; Hora, Andre; Valente, Marco Tulio

    2018-01-01

    Modern software development depends on APIs to reuse code and increase productivity. As most software systems, these libraries and frameworks also evolve, which may break existing clients. However, the main reasons to introduce breaking changes in APIs are unclear. Therefore, in this paper, we report the results of an almost 4-month long field study with the developers of 400 popular Java libraries and frameworks. We configured an infrastructure to observe all changes in these libraries and t...

  2. Building API manufacturing in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Loots, Glaudina

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available projects) Challenges • Lack of relevant skills – process chemistry, process engineering (cGMP standards), project engineering, project management, process operations, maintenance and process quality control and assurance. – platform for skills... development - to enable a sustained pipeline of multidisciplinary skills for the envisaged API industry expansion. – entrepreneurial thinking – attract young talent in establishing niche businesses within the API manufacturing sector. • Small local...

  3. CD5L Promotes M2 Macrophage Polarization through Autophagy-Mediated Upregulation of ID3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía Sanjurjo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available CD5L (CD5 molecule-like is a secreted glycoprotein that controls key mechanisms in inflammatory responses, with involvement in processes such as infection, atherosclerosis, and cancer. In macrophages, CD5L promotes an anti-inflammatory cytokine profile in response to TLR activation. In the present study, we questioned whether CD5L is able to influence human macrophage plasticity, and drive its polarization toward any specific phenotype. We compared CD5L-induced phenotypic and functional changes to those caused by IFN/LPS, IL4, and IL10 in human monocytes. Phenotypic markers were quantified by RT-qPCR and flow cytometry, and a mathematical algorithm was built for their analysis. Moreover, we compared ROS production, phagocytic capacity, and inflammatory responses to LPS. CD5L drove cells toward a polarization similar to that induced by IL10. Furthermore, IL10- and CD5L-treated macrophages showed increased LC3-II content and colocalization with acidic compartments, thereby pointing to the enhancement of autophagy-dependent processes. Accordingly, siRNA targeting ATG7 in THP1 cells blocked CD5L-induced CD163 and Mer tyrosine kinase mRNA and efferocytosis. In these cells, gene expression profiling and validation indicated the upregulation of the transcription factor ID3 by CD5L through ATG7. In agreement, ID3 silencing reversed polarization by CD5L. Our data point to a significant contribution of CD5L-mediated autophagy to the induction of ID3 and provide the first evidence that CD5L drives macrophage polarization.

  4. Deficiency of C5L2 increases macrophage infiltration and alters adipose tissue function in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny Gauvreau

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity is considered as a systemic chronic low grade inflammation characterized by increased serum pro-inflammatory proteins and accumulation of macrophages within white adipose tissue (WAT of obese patients. C5L2, a 7-transmembrane receptor, serves a dual function, binding the lipogenic hormone acylation stimulating protein (ASP, and C5a, involved in innate immunity. AIM: We evaluated the impact of C5L2 on macrophage infiltration in WAT of wildtype (Ctl and C5L2 knock-out (C5L2(-/- mice over 6, 12 and 24 weeks on a chow diet and moderate diet-induced obesity (DIO conditions. RESULTS: In Ctl mice, WAT C5L2 and C5a receptor mRNA increased (up to 10-fold both over time and with DIO. By contrast, in C5L2(-/-, there was no change in C5aR in WAT. C5L2(-/- mice displayed higher macrophage content in WAT, varying by time, fat depot and diet, associated with altered systemic and WAT cytokine patterns compared to Ctl mice. However, in all cases, the M1 (pro- vs M2 (anti-inflammatory macrophage proportion was unchanged but C5L2(-/- adipose tissue secretome appeared to be more chemoattractant. Moreover, C5L2(-/- mice have increased food intake, increased WAT, and altered WAT lipid gene expression, which is reflected systemically. Furthermore, C5L2(-/- mice have altered glucose/insulin metabolism, adiponectin and insulin signalling gene expression in WAT, which could contribute to development of insulin resistance. CONCLUSION: Disruption of C5L2 increases macrophage presence in WAT, contributing to obesity-associated pathologies, and further supports a dual role of complement in WAT. Understanding this effect of the complement system pathway could contribute to targeting treatment of obesity and its comorbidities.

  5. Trasplante cardíaco pediátrico: pasado, presente y futuro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María-Teresa González-López

    2017-01-01

    Conclusión: El trasplante cardíaco pediátrico presenta óptimos resultados en nuestro medio, superponibles a series mundiales. Aunque el perfil de riesgo está incrementándose, los resultados actuales reflejan los avances en el manejo de estos pacientes.

  6. Tests were inconclusive: California's experiment with ACOs raises questions about whether they'll save money.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesely, Rebecca

    2010-11-01

    In California, many providers have been working in accountable care organizations for decades, and they say they can work well. "It's not the type of organization that defines the success of an ACO, it's the leadership," said Tom Williams, executive director of the Oakland, Calif.-based Integrated Healthcare Association. "For success, there needs to be alignment between hospitals and physicians."

  7. Towards the Fourier limit on the super-ACO Storage Ring FEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Couprie, M.E.; De Ninno, G.; Moneron, G.; Nutarelli, D.; Hirsch, M.; Garzella, D.; Renault, E.; Roux, R.; Thomas, C.

    2001-01-01

    Systematic studies on the Free Electron Laser (FEL) line and micropulse have been performed on the Super-ACO storage ring FEL with a monochromator and a double-sweep streak camera under various conditions of operation (detuning, 'CW' and Q-switched mode). From these data, it appears that the FEL is usually operated very close to the Fourier limit

  8. Towards the Fourier limit on the super-ACO Storage Ring FEL

    CERN Document Server

    Couprie, Marie Emmanuelle; Garzella, D; Hirsch, M; Moneron, G; Nutarelli, D; Renault, E; Roux, R; Thomas, C

    2001-01-01

    Systematic studies on the Free Electron Laser (FEL) line and micropulse have been performed on the Super-ACO storage ring FEL with a monochromator and a double-sweep streak camera under various conditions of operation (detuning, 'CW' and Q-switched mode). From these data, it appears that the FEL is usually operated very close to the Fourier limit.

  9. 288. Feocromocitoma Cardíaco a Nivel Del Surco Interauricular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Iglesias Gil

    2012-04-01

    La localización extraadrenal de los feocromocitomas es infrecuente, siendo la torácica inferior al 2% y la intrapericárdica excepcional. Dado que son escasos los reportes de tumores secretores de catecolaminas a nivel cardíaco, presentamos este caso.

  10. Optimization of reload of nuclear power plants using ACO together with the GENES reactor physics code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Alan M.M. de; Freire, Fernando S.; Nicolau, Andressa S.; Schirru, Roberto, E-mail: alan@lmp.ufrj.br, E-mail: andressa@lmp.ufrj.br, E-mail: schirru@lmp.ufrj.br, E-mail: ffreire@eletronuclear.gov.br [Coordenacao de Pos-Graduacao e Pesquisa de Engenharia (PEN/COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Eletrobras Termonuclear S.A. (ELETRONUCLEAR), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-11-01

    The Nuclear reload of a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) occurs whenever the burning of the fuel elements can no longer maintain the criticality of the reactor, that is, it cannot maintain the Nuclear power plant operates within its nominal power. Nuclear reactor reload optimization problem consists of finding a loading pattern of fuel assemblies in the reactor core in order to minimize the cost/benefit ratio, trying to obtain maximum power generation with a minimum of cost, since in all reloads an average of one third of the new fuel elements are purchased. This loading pattern must also satisfy constraints of symmetry and security. In practice, it consists of the placing 121 fuel elements in 121 core positions, in the case of the Angra 1 Brazilian Nuclear Power Plant (NPP), making this new arrangement provide the best cost/benefit ratio. It is an extremely complex problem, since it has around 1% of great places. A core of 121 fuel elements has approximately 10{sup 13} combinations and 10{sup 11} great locations. With this number of possible combinations it is impossible to test all, in order to choose the best. In this work a system called ACO-GENES is proposed in order to optimization the Nuclear Reactor Reload Problem. ACO is successfully used in combination problems, and it is expected that ACO-GENES will show a robust optimization system, since in addition to optimizing ACO, it allows important prior knowledge such as K infinite, burn, etc. After optimization by ACO-GENES, the best results will be validated by a licensed reactor physics code and will be compared with the actual results of the cycle. (author)

  11. Optimization of reload of nuclear power plants using ACO together with the GENES reactor physics code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Alan M.M. de; Freire, Fernando S.; Nicolau, Andressa S.; Schirru, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    The Nuclear reload of a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) occurs whenever the burning of the fuel elements can no longer maintain the criticality of the reactor, that is, it cannot maintain the Nuclear power plant operates within its nominal power. Nuclear reactor reload optimization problem consists of finding a loading pattern of fuel assemblies in the reactor core in order to minimize the cost/benefit ratio, trying to obtain maximum power generation with a minimum of cost, since in all reloads an average of one third of the new fuel elements are purchased. This loading pattern must also satisfy constraints of symmetry and security. In practice, it consists of the placing 121 fuel elements in 121 core positions, in the case of the Angra 1 Brazilian Nuclear Power Plant (NPP), making this new arrangement provide the best cost/benefit ratio. It is an extremely complex problem, since it has around 1% of great places. A core of 121 fuel elements has approximately 10"1"3 combinations and 10"1"1 great locations. With this number of possible combinations it is impossible to test all, in order to choose the best. In this work a system called ACO-GENES is proposed in order to optimization the Nuclear Reactor Reload Problem. ACO is successfully used in combination problems, and it is expected that ACO-GENES will show a robust optimization system, since in addition to optimizing ACO, it allows important prior knowledge such as K infinite, burn, etc. After optimization by ACO-GENES, the best results will be validated by a licensed reactor physics code and will be compared with the actual results of the cycle. (author)

  12. APIs and Researchers: The Emperor's New Clothes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Edmond

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available As part of the Europeana Cloud (eCloud project, Trinity College Dublin investigated best practice in the use of web services, such as APIs, for accessing large data sets from cultural heritage collections. This research looked into the provision and use of APIs, and moreover, whether or not more customised programmatic access to datasets is what researchers want or need. In order to understand whether current patterns of API usage reflect a skills gap on the part of researchers or a mismatch of tool to purpose, we looked not only at the creators and developer/users of APIs, but also at humanists already re-using big data; approaches in cultural heritage institutions and other research infrastructures to bring API use to non-technical audiences; and the kinds of training and other support services available or emerging within the data-intensive humanities research lifecycle. We conducted both desk research and a series of 11 interviews with figures working as researchers, developers or data providers, including figures from both the API development and the data usage communities. This research, conducted under the eCloud project and supported by the European Commission’s ICT Policy and Support Programme (Grant number 325091, was begun in March 2014 and is now in its concluding validation stage. The results of the research are not yet finalised, but the contribution is already emerging of this work to the debate about APIs being either the way forward for digital cultural heritage collections, or the Emperor’s New Clothes (or maybe a bit of both.

  13. The putative serine protease inhibitor Api m 6 from Apis mellifera venom: recombinant and structural evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Y; McIntyre, M; Ginglinger, H; Ollert, M; Cifuentes, L; Blank, S; Spillner, E

    2012-01-01

    Immunoglobulin (Ig) E-mediated reactions to honeybee venom can cause severe anaphylaxis, sometimes with fatal consequences. Detailed knowledge of the allergic potential of all venom components is necessary to ensure proper diagnosis and treatment of allergy and to gain a better understanding of the allergological mechanisms of insect venoms. Our objective was to undertake an immunochemical and structural evaluation of the putative low-molecular-weight serine protease inhibitor Api m 6, a component of honeybee venom. We recombinantly produced Api m 6 as a soluble protein in Escherichia coli and in Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) insect cells.We also assessed specific IgE reactivity of venom-sensitized patients with 2 prokaryotically produced Api m 6 variants using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Moreover, we built a structural model ofApi m 6 and compared it with other protease inhibitor structures to gain insights into the function of Api m 6. In a population of 31 honeybee venom-allergic patients, 26% showed specific IgE reactivity with prokaryotically produced Api m 6, showing it to be a minor but relevant allergen. Molecular modeling of Api m 6 revealed a typical fold of canonical protease inhibitors, supporting the putative function of this venom allergen. Although Api m 6 has a highly variant surface charge, its epitope distribution appears to be similar to that of related proteins. Api m 6 is a honeybee venom component with IgE-sensitizing potential in a fraction of venom-allergic patients. Recombinant Api m 6 can help elucidate individual component-resolved reactivity profiles and increase our understanding of immune responses to low-molecular-weight allergens

  14. Effect of natural aging on the microstructural regions, mechanical properties, corrosion resistance and fracture in welded joints on API5L X52 steel pipeline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vargas-Arista, Benjamín

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A characterization study was done to analyze how microstructural regions affect the mechanical properties, corrosion and fractography of the Heat Affected Zone (HAZ, weld bead and base metal for pipe naturally aged for 21 years at 30 °C. Results showed that microstructures exhibited damage and consequently decrease in properties, resulting in over-aged due to service. SEM analysis showed that base metal presented coarse ferrite grain. Tensile test indicated that microstructures showed discontinuous yield. Higher tensile strength was obtained for weld bead, which exhibited a lower impact energy in comparison to that of HAZ and base metal associated with brittle fracture by trans-granular cleavage. The degradation of properties was associated with the coarsening of nano-carbides observed through TEM images analysis, which was confirmed by SEM fractography of tensile and impact fracture surfaces. The weld bead reached the largest void density and highest susceptibility to corrosion in H2S media when compared to those of the HAZ and base metal.Se realizó un estudio de caracterización para analizar cómo la microestructura afecta a las propiedades mecánicas, corrosión y fractura de la zona afectada por calor (ZAC, soldadura y metal base para tubería envejecida naturalmente durante 21 años a 30 °C. Los resultados indicaron que las microestructuras presentaron daño y consecuentemente reducción en propiedades mecánicas, como consecuencia del envejecimiento por servicio. El estudio mediante MEB mostró que el metal base presenta grano ferrítico grueso. La prueba de tensión indicó que las microestructuras mostraron fluencia discontinua. La mayor resistencia a la tracción se presentó en la soldadura, la cual alcanzó menor energía de impacto en comparación con la ZAC y metal base asociado con fractura frágil por clivaje transgranular. La degradación de las propriedades está en relación con el engrosamiento de nanocarburos observados a través del análisis de imágenes por MET, lo que se confirmó mediante fractografía por MEB de superfícies de fractura bajo tensión e impacto. La soldadura alcanzó la mayor densidad de microhuecos y la mayor susceptibilidad a la corrosión en un medio conteniendo H2S que cuando se compara con la ZAC y metal base.

  15. CALIBRATION, OPTIMIZATION, AND SENSITIVITY AND UNCERTAINTY ALGORITHMS APPLICATION PROGRAMMING INTERFACE (COSU-API)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Application Programming Interface (API) for Uncertainty Analysis, Sensitivity Analysis, and Parameter Estimation (UA/SA/PE API) tool development, here fore referred to as the Calibration, Optimization, and Sensitivity and Uncertainty Algorithms API (COSU-API), was initially d...

  16. Advanced API security securing APIs with OAuth 2.0, OpenID Connect, JWS, and JWE

    CERN Document Server

    Siriwardena, Prabath

    2014-01-01

    Advanced API Security is a complete reference to the next wave of challenges in enterprise security--securing public and private APIs. API adoption in both consumer and enterprises has gone beyond predictions. It has become the 'coolest' way of exposing business functionalities to the outside world. Both your public and private APIs, need to be protected, monitored and managed. Security is not an afterthought, but API security has evolved a lot in last five years. The growth of standards, out there, has been exponential. That's where AdvancedAPI Security comes in--to wade through the weeds

  17. Characterisation of weldment hardness, impact energy and microstructure in API X65 steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashemi, S.H.; Mohammadyani, D.

    2012-01-01

    The variation of microstructure and mechanical properties in various sub-zones of double submerged arc welded line pipe steel of grade API X65 was investigated. Instrumented Charpy V-notch tests and Vickers hardness experiments were conducted on the fusion zone, base metal and heat affected zone of the weld joint in 14.3 mm thick, 1219 mm outside diameter spiral pipeline. The lowest impact energy and the highest hardness level (160J and 218 HV, respectively) were recorded in the fusion zone. The low energy and high hardness characteristics of the seam weld can be attributed to its cast microstructure and the presence of grain boundary phases (such as proeutectoid ferrite), confirmed by standard metallographic observation. Despite this, service requirements set by the API 5L industry code (minimum impact energy of 73J, maximum hard spots of 350 HV) were fulfilled by the tested steel. Highlights: ► Experimental study of API X65 steel microstructure. ► Analysis of the relationship between X65 steel microstructure and hardness. ► Analysis of the relationship between X65 steel microstructure and impact energy. ► Presentation of detailed technical information on DSA welding in spiral pipes.

  18. A framework for API solubility modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conte, Elisa; Gani, Rafiqul; Crafts, Peter

    . In addition, most of the models are not predictive and requires experimental data for the calculation of the needed parameters. This work aims at developing an efficient framework for the solubility modelling of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (API) in water and organic solvents. With this framework......-SAFT) are used for solubility calculations when the needed interaction parameters or experimental data are available. The CI-UNIFAC is instead used when the previous models lack interaction parameters or when solubility data are not available. A new GC+ model for APIs solvent selection based...... on the hydrophobicity, hydrophilicity and polarity information of the API and solvent is also developed, for performing fast solvent selection and screening. Eventually, all the previous developments are integrated in a framework for their efficient and integrated use. Two case studies are presented: the first...

  19. Comparative virulence and competition between Nosema apis and Nosema ceranae in honey bees (Apis mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milbrath, Meghan O; van Tran, Toan; Huang, Wei-Fong; Solter, Leellen F; Tarpy, David R; Lawrence, Frank; Huang, Zachary Y

    2015-02-01

    Honey bees (Apis mellifera) are infected by two species of microsporidia: Nosema apis and Nosemaceranae. Epidemiological evidence indicates that N. ceranae may be replacing N. apis globally in A. mellifera populations, suggesting a potential competitive advantage of N. ceranae. Mixed infections of the two species occur, and little is known about the interactions among the host and the two pathogens that have allowed N. ceranae to become dominant in most geographical areas. We demonstrated that mixed Nosema species infections negatively affected honey bee survival (median survival=15-17days) more than single species infections (median survival=21days and 20days for N. apis and N. ceranae, respectively), with median survival of control bees of 27days. We found similar rates of infection (percentage of bees with active infections after inoculation) for both species in mixed infections, with N. apis having a slightly higher rate (91% compared to 86% for N. ceranae). We observed slightly higher spore counts in bees infected with N. ceranae than in bees infected with N. apis in single microsporidia infections, especially at the midpoint of infection (day 10). Bees with mixed infections of both species had higher spore counts than bees with single infections, but spore counts in mixed infections were highly variable. We did not see a competitive advantage for N. ceranae in mixed infections; N. apis spore counts were either higher or counts were similar for both species and more N. apis spores were produced in 62% of bees inoculated with equal dosages of the two microsporidian species. N. ceranae does not, therefore, appear to have a strong within-host advantage for either infectivity or spore growth, suggesting that direct competition in these worker bee mid-guts is not responsible for its apparent replacement of N. apis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Automated Ply Inspection (API) for AFP, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Automated Ply Inspection (API) system autonomously inspects layups created by high speed automated fiber placement (AFP) machines. API comprises a high accuracy...

  1. Unified Medical Language System Terminology Services (UTS) API

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The UTS API is intended for application developers to perform Web service calls and retrieve UMLS data within their own applications. The UTS API provides the...

  2. Pro REST API development with nodejs

    CERN Document Server

    Doglio, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Pro REST API Development with Node.js is your guide to managing and understanding the full capabilities of successful REST development. API design is a hot topic in the programming world, but not many resources exist for developers to really understand how you can leverage the advantages. This book will provide a brief background on REST and the tools it provides (well known and not so well known). Understand how there is more to REST than just JSON and URLs. You will then cover and compare the maintained modules currently available in the npm community, including Express, Restify, Vatican,

  3. Upon a Message-Oriented Trading API

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu VINTE

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce the premises for a trading system application-programming interface (API based on a message-oriented middleware (MOM, and present the results of our research regarding the design and the implementation of a simulation-trading system employing a service-oriented architecture (SOA and messaging. Our research has been conducted with the aim of creating a simulation-trading platform, within the academic environment, that will provide both the foundation for future experiments with trading systems architectures, components, APIs, and the framework for research on trading strategies, trading algorithm design, and equity markets analysis tools. Mathematics Subject Classification: 68M14 (distributed systems.

  4. 47 CFR 61.46 - Adjustments to the API.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Adjustments to the API. 61.46 Section 61.46... Rules for Dominant Carriers § 61.46 Adjustments to the API. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (d) and... carrier must calculate an API for each affected basket pursuant to the following methodology: APIt = APIt...

  5. Topology in two dimensions. II - The Abell and ACO cluster catalogues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plionis, Manolis; Valdarnini, Riccardo; Coles, Peter

    1992-09-01

    We apply a method for quantifying the topology of projected galaxy clustering to the Abell and ACO catalogues of rich clusters. We use numerical simulations to quantify the statistical bias involved in using high peaks to define the large-scale structure, and we use the results obtained to correct our observational determinations for this known selection effect and also for possible errors introduced by boundary effects. We find that the Abell cluster sample is consistent with clusters being identified with high peaks of a Gaussian random field, but that the ACO shows a slight meatball shift away from the Gaussian behavior over and above that expected purely from the high-peak selection. The most conservative explanation of this effect is that it is caused by some artefact of the procedure used to select the clusters in the two samples.

  6. Protocolo del manejo y selección del donante cardíaco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Elizalde

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El trasplante cardíaco es una terapia aceptada en grupos de pacientes afectos de insuficiencia cardíaca terminal. El envejecimiento progresivo de los donantes y la reducción del número de traumatismos craneoencefálicos mortales obliga a una valoración exhaustiva en cada caso. La ecocardiografía es, hoy en día, una exploración obligada en la valoración del donante. La Organización Nacional de Trasplantes ha elaborado un protocolo de manejo del donante torácico para optimizar su aprovechamiento. Se revisan los criterios de selección del donante cardíaco insistiendo en las contraindicaciones, en el despistaje de enfermedad coronaria y el mantenimiento durante el proceso de selección.

  7. Applications of UV-storage ring free electron lasers: the case of super-ACO

    CERN Document Server

    Nahon, L; Couprie, Marie Emmanuelle; Merola, F; Dumas, P; Marsi, M; Taleb-Ibrahimi, A; Nutarelli, D; Roux, R; Billardon, M

    1999-01-01

    The potential of UV-storage ring free electron lasers (SRFELs) for the performance of original application experiments is shown with a special emphasis concerning their combination with the naturally synchronized synchrotron radiation (SR). The first two-color FEL+SR experiment, performed in surface science at Super-ACO is reported. The experimental parameters found to be the most important as gathered from the acquired experience, are underlined and discussed. Finally, future prospects for the scientific program of the Super-ACO FEL are presented with two-color experiments combining the FEL with SR undulator-based XUV and VUV beamlines as well as with a SR white light bending magnet beamline emiting in the IR-UV (20 mu m-0.25 mu m).

  8. Do accountable care organizations (ACOs) help or hinder primary care physicians' ability to deliver high-quality care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenson, Robert A; Burton, Rachel A; McGrath, Megan

    2016-09-01

    Many view advanced primary care models such as the patient-centered medical home as foundational for accountable care organizations (ACOs), but it remains unclear how these two delivery reforms are complementary and how they may produce conflict. The objective of this study was to identify how joining an ACO could help or hinder a primary care practice's efforts to deliver high-quality care. This qualitative study involved interviews with a purposive sample of 32 early adopters of advanced primary care and/or ACO models, drawn from across the U.S. and conducted in mid-2014. Interview notes were coded using qualitative data analysis software, permitting topic-specific queries which were then summarized. Respondents perceived many potential benefits of joining an ACO, including care coordination staff, data analytics, and improved communication with other providers. However, respondents were also concerned about added "bureaucratic" requirements, referral restrictions, and a potential inability to recoup investments in practice improvements. Interviewees generally thought joining an ACO could complement a practice's efforts to deliver high-quality care, yet noted some concerns that could undermine these synergies. Both the advantages and disadvantages of joining an ACO seemed exacerbated for small practices, since they are most likely to benefit from additional resources yet are most likely to chafe under added bureaucratic requirements. Our identification of the potential pros and cons of joining an ACO may help providers identify areas to examine when weighing whether to enter into such an arrangement, and may help ACOs identify potential areas for improvement. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Betting on change: Tenet deal with Vanguard shows it's primed to try ACO effort, new payment model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutscher, Beth

    2013-07-01

    Tenet Healthcare Corp.'s acquisition of Vanguard Health Systems is a sign the investor-owned chain is willing to take a chance on alternative payment models such as accountable care organizations. There's no certainty that ACOs will deliver the improvements on quality or cost savings, but Vanguard Vice Chairman Keith Pitts, left, says his system's Pioneer ACO in Detroit has already achieved some cost savings.

  10. BER Performance of Stratified ACO-OFDM for Optical Wireless Communications over Multipath Channel

    OpenAIRE

    Gebeyehu, Zelalem Hailu; Langat, Philip Kibet; Maina, Ciira Wa

    2018-01-01

    In intensity modulation/direct detection- (IM/DD-) based optical OFDM systems, the requirement of the input signal to be real and positive unipolar imposes a reduction of system performances. Among previously proposed unipolar optical OFDM schemes for optical wireless communications (OWC), asymmetrically clipped optical OFDM (ACO-OFDM) and direct current biased optical OFDM (DCO-OFDM) are the most accepted ones. But those proposed schemes experience either spectral efficiency loss or energy e...

  11. Doctors on deck. ACOs led by doctors seek to manage costs, quality and hospital relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Melanie

    2012-04-16

    Most of the first crop of ACOs in the Medicare Shared Savings Program are owned and operated by physicians without formal participation of a hospital in the efforts to improve quality and curb costs. "There were some people who feared that the only entities that would participate would be hospital-dominated systems," says Jonathan Blum, director of the Center for Medicare Management at the CMS, left. "That has not happened".

  12. Impact of Provider Participation in ACO Programs on Preventive Care Services, Patient Experiences, and Health Care Expenditures in US Adults Aged 18-64.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Young-Rock; Sonawane, Kalyani; Larson, Samantha; Mainous, Arch G; Marlow, Nicole M

    2018-05-15

    Little is known about the impact of accountable care organization (ACO) on US adults aged 18-64. To examine whether having a usual source of care (USC) provider participating in an ACO affects receipt of preventive care services, patient experiences, and health care expenditures among nonelderly Americans. A cross-sectional analysis of the 2015 Medical Organizations Survey linked with the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. Survey respondents aged 18-64 with an identified USC and continuous health insurance coverage during 2015. Preventative care services (routine checkup, flu vaccination, and cancer screening), patient experiences with health care (access to care, interaction quality with providers, and global satisfaction), and health care expenditures (total and out-of-pocket expenditures) for respondents with USC by ACO and non-ACO provider groups. Among 1563, nonelderly Americans having a USC, we found that nearly 62.7% [95% confidence interval (CI), 58.6%-66.7%; representing 15,722,208 Americans] were cared for by ACO providers. Our analysis showed no significant differences in preventive care services or patient experiences between ACO and non-ACO groups. Adjusted mean total health expenditures were slightly higher for the ACO than non-ACO group [$7016 (95% CI, $4949-$9914) vs. $6796 (95% CI, $4724-$9892)]; however, this difference was not statistically significant (P=0.250). Our findings suggest that having a USC provider participating in an ACO is not associated with preventive care services use, patient experiences, or health care expenditures among a nonelderly population.

  13. Tailoring Systems Engineering Processes in a Conceptual Design Environment: A Case Study at NASA Marshall Spaceflight Center's ACO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulqueen, John; Maples, C. Dauphne; Fabisinski, Leo, III

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of Systems Engineering as it is applied in a conceptual design space systems department at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Marshall Spaceflight Center (MSFC) Advanced Concepts Office (ACO). Engineering work performed in the NASA MFSC's ACO is targeted toward the Exploratory Research and Concepts Development life cycle stages, as defined in the International Council on Systems Engineering (INCOSE) System Engineering Handbook. This paper addresses three ACO Systems Engineering tools that correspond to three INCOSE Technical Processes: Stakeholder Requirements Definition, Requirements Analysis, and Integration, as well as one Project Process Risk Management. These processes are used to facilitate, streamline, and manage systems engineering processes tailored for the earliest two life cycle stages, which is the environment in which ACO engineers work. The role of systems engineers and systems engineering as performed in ACO is explored in this paper. The need for tailoring Systems Engineering processes, tools, and products in the ever-changing engineering services ACO provides to its customers is addressed.

  14. Housing, Transportation, And Food: How ACOs Seek To Improve Population Health By Addressing Nonmedical Needs Of Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraze, Taressa; Lewis, Valerie A; Rodriguez, Hector P; Fisher, Elliott S

    2016-11-01

    Addressing nonmedical needs-such as the need for housing-is critical to advancing population health, improving the quality of care, and lowering the costs of care. Accountable care organizations (ACOs) are well positioned to address these needs. We used qualitative interviews with ACO leaders and site visits to examine how these organizations addressed the nonmedical needs of their patients, and the extent to which they did so. We developed a typology of medical and social services integration among ACOs that disentangles service and organizational integration. We found that the nonmedical needs most commonly addressed by ACOs were the need for transportation and housing and food insecurity. ACOs identified nonmedical needs through processes that were part of the primary care visit or care transformation programs. Approaches to meeting patients' nonmedical needs were either individualized solutions (developed patient by patient) or targeted approaches (programs developed to address specific needs). As policy makers continue to provide incentives for health care organizations to meet a broader spectrum of patients' needs, these findings offer insights into how health care organizations such as ACOs integrate themselves with nonmedical organizations. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  15. A performance improvement and cost-efficient ACO-OFDM scheme for visible light communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tiantian; Zhou, Ji; Zhang, Zhenshan; Qiao, Yaojun; Su, Fei; Yang, Aiying

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, we propose a performance improvement and cost-efficient discrete Hartley transform (DHT)-based asymmetrically clipped optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (ACO-OFDM) scheme for visible light communications (VLC). The simple one-dimensional modulation constellation and simplified encoding structure reduce the complexity of system considerably. The DHT-spreading technique is employed to reduce peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) of ACO-OFDM signals. Moreover, the intra-symbol frequency-domain averaging (ISFA) technique is used to increase the accuracy of channel estimation by removing the effect of ambient noise in the VLC channel effectively. To verify the feasibility of the proposed scheme, we study its performance via simulation. This scheme reduces the requirement to the resolution of DAC and increases the tolerance to the nonlinear characteristics of LED, both of which are cost-efficient. At forward error correction (FEC) limit (BER = 1 × 10-3), simulation results illustrate that compared with DHT-based ACO-OFDM without the ISFA technique, our scheme has 3.2 dB and 2.7 dB improvement of the required Eb /N0 when BPSK and 4-PAM are modulated, respectively.

  16. Solving optimum operation of single pump unit problem with ant colony optimization (ACO) algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Y; Liu, C

    2012-01-01

    For pumping stations, the effective scheduling of daily pump operations from solutions to the optimum design operation problem is one of the greatest potential areas for energy cost-savings, there are some difficulties in solving this problem with traditional optimization methods due to the multimodality of the solution region. In this case, an ACO model for optimum operation of pumping unit is proposed and the solution method by ants searching is presented by rationally setting the object function and constrained conditions. A weighted directed graph was constructed and feasible solutions may be found by iteratively searching of artificial ants, and then the optimal solution can be obtained by applying the rule of state transition and the pheromone updating. An example calculation was conducted and the minimum cost was found as 4.9979. The result of ant colony algorithm was compared with the result from dynamic programming or evolutionary solving method in commercial software under the same discrete condition. The result of ACO is better and the computing time is shorter which indicates that ACO algorithm can provide a high application value to the field of optimal operation of pumping stations and related fields.

  17. Processing time tolerance-based ACO algorithm for solving job-shop scheduling problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yabo; Waden, Yongo P.

    2017-06-01

    Ordinarily, Job Shop Scheduling Problem (JSSP) is known as NP-hard problem which has uncertainty and complexity that cannot be handled by a linear method. Thus, currently studies on JSSP are concentrated mainly on applying different methods of improving the heuristics for optimizing the JSSP. However, there still exist many problems for efficient optimization in the JSSP, namely, low efficiency and poor reliability, which can easily trap the optimization process of JSSP into local optima. Therefore, to solve this problem, a study on Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) algorithm combined with constraint handling tactics is carried out in this paper. Further, the problem is subdivided into three parts: (1) Analysis of processing time tolerance-based constraint features in the JSSP which is performed by the constraint satisfying model; (2) Satisfying the constraints by considering the consistency technology and the constraint spreading algorithm in order to improve the performance of ACO algorithm. Hence, the JSSP model based on the improved ACO algorithm is constructed; (3) The effectiveness of the proposed method based on reliability and efficiency is shown through comparative experiments which are performed on benchmark problems. Consequently, the results obtained by the proposed method are better, and the applied technique can be used in optimizing JSSP.

  18. Trasplante cardíaco: organización e indicaciones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M. Revuelta

    2008-01-01

    La experiencia clínica está demostrando que las indicaciones y las contraindicaciones del trasplante cardíaco están en constante cambio, debido principalmente a los avances en los cuidados pre, per y postoperatorios, a los nuevos fármacos y otras novedosas alternativas terapéuticas. La clase funcional (NY HA del paciente es poco precisa para indicar el trasplante cardíaco, por lo que se precisa de otras determinaciones, como el consumo máximo de oxígeno: VO2 máx < 10 ml/kg/min conlleva un mortalidad hospitalaria elevada. Asimismo, la fracción de eyección ventricular izquierda disminuida (FEVI < 20% no debe considerarse como el indicador principal para establecer la indicación de trasplante, siendo necesario valorar otros factores de riesgo preoperatorios. En la última década, la experiencia ha puesto de manifiesto que algunas de las contraindicaciones absolutas, antes vigentes, no siempre deben desaconsejar el trasplante cardíaco.

  19. API and ISO standards can be combined

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weightman, R.T.; Warnack, M.F.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that oil field equipment and product manufacturers can maintain a competitive advantage and minimize costs by integrating American Petroleum Institute (API) licensing programs with International Standards Organization (ISO) 9001 standards under one quality system. A combined quality system approach can position a company for quality system certification under ISO 9001 while maintaining API specifications. Furthermore, only one quality system manual is needed for API licensing and ISO certification, avoiding duplication of effort. The benefits of a documented quality program include the flowing: Job descriptions and personnel qualification requirements are documented; The improved documentation allows direct tracing of specific production activities; Laboratory test methods and calibration of test equipment follow accepted standards for more reliable and reproducible test data; Quality control becomes proactive, not reactive, through internal process controls previously not implemented; Employee attitudes improve through appreciation for the overall goals of the company; Ambiguous quality issues, such as documenting special customer requirements, are easily resolved; and The company image improves with customers, particularly for those that require API Specification Q1 or ISO 9001 compliance or those having their own quality performance standards

  20. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF APIS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF APIS. MELLIFERA BEE POLLEN FROM NORTHWEST ALGERIA. A. Rebiai* and T.Lanez. University of El Oued, VTRS Laboratory, P.O. Box 789, 39000, El Oued, Algeria. Received: 08 November 2012 / Accepted: 23 December 2012 / Published online: 31 ...

  1. Standard methods for Apis mellifera propolis research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Propolis is one of the most fascinating honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) products. It is a plant derived product that bees produce from resins that they collect from different plant organs and with which they mix beeswax. Propolis is a building material and a protective agent in the beehive. It also pl...

  2. Integrated platform and API for electrophysiological data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobolev, Andrey; Stoewer, Adrian; Leonhardt, Aljoscha; Rautenberg, Philipp L; Kellner, Christian J; Garbers, Christian; Wachtler, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Recent advancements in technology and methodology have led to growing amounts of increasingly complex neuroscience data recorded from various species, modalities, and levels of study. The rapid data growth has made efficient data access and flexible, machine-readable data annotation a crucial requisite for neuroscientists. Clear and consistent annotation and organization of data is not only an important ingredient for reproducibility of results and re-use of data, but also essential for collaborative research and data sharing. In particular, efficient data management and interoperability requires a unified approach that integrates data and metadata and provides a common way of accessing this information. In this paper we describe GNData, a data management platform for neurophysiological data. GNData provides a storage system based on a data representation that is suitable to organize data and metadata from any electrophysiological experiment, with a functionality exposed via a common application programming interface (API). Data representation and API structure are compatible with existing approaches for data and metadata representation in neurophysiology. The API implementation is based on the Representational State Transfer (REST) pattern, which enables data access integration in software applications and facilitates the development of tools that communicate with the service. Client libraries that interact with the API provide direct data access from computing environments like Matlab or Python, enabling integration of data management into the scientist's experimental or analysis routines.

  3. HEURISTIC EVALUATION FOR MOBILE APPLICATION (STUDI KASUS: APLIKASI DEPO AUTO 2000 TANJUNG API API PALEMBANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usman Ependi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Heuristic evaluation merupakan salah satu bentuk usability testing perangkat lunak yang dinilai oleh pengguna (evaluator. Dalam melakukan heuristic evaluation instrumen penilaian terdiri dari sepuluh (10 pernyataan dengan lima pilihan jawaban dalam skala severity ratings. Dalam penelitian ini heuristic evaluation terhadap aplikasi Depo Auto 2000 Tanjung Api-Api Palembang yang dilakukan oleh 4 evaluator.  Hasil dari heuristic evaluation dikelompokkan kedalam  masing-masing instrumen yaitu visibility of system status dengan nilai 0,75, match between system and the real world dengan nilai 0,25, user control and freedom dengan nilai 0,25, consistency and standards dengan nilai 0,75, error prevention dengan nilai 1, recognition rather than recall dengan nilai 1,25, flexibility and efficiency of use dengan nilai 0,25, Aesthetic and minimalist design dengan nilai 0,25, help users recognize, diagnose, and recover from errors dengan nilai 1 dan Help and documentation dengan nilai 0. Dari hasil heuristic evaluation yang dilakukan menunjukkan bahwa evaluator memberikan nilai 0 dan 1 aplikasi Depo Atuo 2000 Tanjung Api-Api Palembang. Hasil penilaian tersebut menunjukkan bahwa aplikasi yang buat tidak ada masalah usability dan hanya memiliki cosmetic problem sehingga aplikasi Depo Auto 2000 Tanjung Api Api Palembang  dapat dinyatakan layak untuk didistribusikan kepada pengguna akhir (end user.

  4. Impact of Nosema ceranae and Nosema apis on individual worker bees of the two host species (Apis cerana and Apis mellifera) and regulation of host immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinpoo, Chainarong; Paxton, Robert J; Disayathanoowat, Terd; Krongdang, Sasiprapa; Chantawannakul, Panuwan

    Nosema apis and Nosema ceranae are obligate intracellular microsporidian parasites infecting midgut epithelial cells of host adult honey bees, originally Apis mellifera and Apis cerana respectively. Each microsporidia cross-infects the other host and both microsporidia nowadays have a worldwide distribution. In this study, cross-infection experiments using both N. apis and N. ceranae in both A. mellifera and A. cerana were carried out to compare pathogen proliferation and impact on hosts, including host immune response. Infection by N. ceranae led to higher spore loads than by N. apis in both host species, and there was greater proliferation of microsporidia in A. mellifera compared to A. cerana. Both N. apis and N. ceranae were pathogenic in both host Apis species. N. ceranae induced subtly, though not significantly, higher mortality than N. apis in both host species, yet survival of A. cerana was no different to that of A. mellifera in response to N. apis or N. ceranae. Infections of both host species with N. apis and N. ceranae caused significant up-regulation of AMP genes and cellular mediated immune genes but did not greatly alter apoptosis-related gene expression. In this study, A. cerana enlisted a higher immune response and displayed lower loads of N. apis and N. ceranae spores than A. mellifera, suggesting it may be better able to defend itself against microsporidia infection. We caution against over-interpretation of our results, though, because differences between host and parasite species in survival were insignificant and because size differences between microsporidia species and between host Apis species may alternatively explain the differential proliferation of N. ceranae in A. mellifera. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Hydrogen sulfide corrosion of weld regions in API X52 steel; Corrosion por acido sulfhidrico de las regiones de soldadura en acero API X52

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arenas-Martinez, L.F [Universidad Autonoma de Coahuila, Coahuila (Mexico)]. E-mail: fernando.arenas@uadec.edu.mx; Garcia-Cerecero, G. [Corporacion Mexicana de Investigacion en Materiales S.A. de C.V., Saltillo, Coahuila (Mexico)

    2012-10-15

    The corrosion behavior of gas metal arc welding (GMAW) regions has been studied using potentiodynamic polarization and polarization resistance (LPR) techniques. Experiments were conducted in hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S)-containing brine and in H{sub 2}S-free brine. Welds were made on API 5L X52 steel. Due to differences in their microstructure, chemical composition and residual stress level, weld regions exhibited different responses under H{sub 2}S corrosion. Base metal exhibited the highest corrosion rate (CR) and the most cathodic corrosion potential. [Spanish] Se estudio el comportamiento ante la corrosion de las regiones de soldadura de un cordon realizado por arco metalico con gas (GMAW) sobre un acero grado API X52 mediante las tecnicas de polarizacion potencio dinamica y resistencia a la polarizacion (LPR). Los experimentos se realizaron utilizando salmuera con 300 ppm de acido sulfhidrico (H{sub 2}S) y salmuera libre de H{sub 2}S como electrolitos. Debido a las diferencias en su microestructura, composicion quimica y el nivel de esfuerzos residuales, las regiones de soldadura mostraron diferentes respuestas a la corrosion por H{sub 2}S. El metal base exhibio la velocidad de corrosion (VC) mas alta y el potencial de corrosion mas catodico.

  6. Large scale validation of the M5L lung CAD on heterogeneous CT datasets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez Torres, E., E-mail: Ernesto.Lopez.Torres@cern.ch, E-mail: cerello@to.infn.it [CEADEN, Havana 11300, Cuba and INFN, Sezione di Torino, Torino 10125 (Italy); Fiorina, E.; Pennazio, F.; Peroni, C. [Department of Physics, University of Torino, Torino 10125, Italy and INFN, Sezione di Torino, Torino 10125 (Italy); Saletta, M.; Cerello, P., E-mail: Ernesto.Lopez.Torres@cern.ch, E-mail: cerello@to.infn.it [INFN, Sezione di Torino, Torino 10125 (Italy); Camarlinghi, N.; Fantacci, M. E. [Department of Physics, University of Pisa, Pisa 56127, Italy and INFN, Sezione di Pisa, Pisa 56127 (Italy)

    2015-04-15

    Purpose: M5L, a fully automated computer-aided detection (CAD) system for the detection and segmentation of lung nodules in thoracic computed tomography (CT), is presented and validated on several image datasets. Methods: M5L is the combination of two independent subsystems, based on the Channeler Ant Model as a segmentation tool [lung channeler ant model (lungCAM)] and on the voxel-based neural approach. The lungCAM was upgraded with a scan equalization module and a new procedure to recover the nodules connected to other lung structures; its classification module, which makes use of a feed-forward neural network, is based of a small number of features (13), so as to minimize the risk of lacking generalization, which could be possible given the large difference between the size of the training and testing datasets, which contain 94 and 1019 CTs, respectively. The lungCAM (standalone) and M5L (combined) performance was extensively tested on 1043 CT scans from three independent datasets, including a detailed analysis of the full Lung Image Database Consortium/Image Database Resource Initiative database, which is not yet found in literature. Results: The lungCAM and M5L performance is consistent across the databases, with a sensitivity of about 70% and 80%, respectively, at eight false positive findings per scan, despite the variable annotation criteria and acquisition and reconstruction conditions. A reduced sensitivity is found for subtle nodules and ground glass opacities (GGO) structures. A comparison with other CAD systems is also presented. Conclusions: The M5L performance on a large and heterogeneous dataset is stable and satisfactory, although the development of a dedicated module for GGOs detection could further improve it, as well as an iterative optimization of the training procedure. The main aim of the present study was accomplished: M5L results do not deteriorate when increasing the dataset size, making it a candidate for supporting radiologists on large

  7. Population Genetics of Nosema apis and Nosema ceranae: One Host (Apis mellifera) and Two Different Histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maside, Xulio; Gómez-Moracho, Tamara; Jara, Laura; Martín-Hernández, Raquel; De la Rúa, Pilar; Higes, Mariano; Bartolomé, Carolina

    2015-01-01

    Two microsporidians are known to infect honey bees: Nosema apis and Nosema ceranae. Whereas population genetics data for the latter have been released in the last few years, such information is still missing for N. apis. Here we analyze the patterns of nucleotide polymorphism at three single-copy loci (PTP2, PTP3 and RPB1) in a collection of Apis mellifera isolates from all over the world, naturally infected either with N. apis (N = 22) or N. ceranae (N = 23), to provide new insights into the genetic diversity, demography and evolution of N. apis, as well as to compare them with evidence from N. ceranae. Neutral variation in N. apis and N. ceranae is of the order of 1%. This amount of diversity suggests that there is no substantial differentiation between the genetic content of the two nuclei present in these parasites, and evidence for genetic recombination provides a putative mechanism for the flow of genetic information between chromosomes. The analysis of the frequency spectrum of neutral variants reveals a significant surplus of low frequency variants, particularly in N. ceranae, and suggests that the populations of the two pathogens are not in mutation-drift equilibrium and that they have experienced a population expansion. Most of the variation in both species occurs within honey bee colonies (between 62%-90% of the total genetic variance), although in N. apis there is evidence for differentiation between parasites isolated from distinct A. mellifera lineages (20%-34% of the total variance), specifically between those collected from lineages A and C (or M). This scenario is consistent with a long-term host-parasite relationship and contrasts with the lack of differentiation observed among host-lineages in N. ceranae (mellifera worldwide population is a recent event. PMID:26720131

  8. Search without Boundaries Using Simple APIs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Qi

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Library, where the author serves as the digital services librarian, is increasingly challenged to make it easier for users to find information from many heterogeneous information sources. Information is scattered throughout different software applications (i.e., library catalog, federated search engine, link resolver, and vendor websites), and each specializes in one thing. How could the library integrate the functionalities of one application with another and provide a single point of entry for users to search across? To improve the user experience, the library launched an effort to integrate the federated search engine into the library's intranet website. The result is a simple search box that leverages the federated search engine's built-in application programming interfaces (APIs). In this article, the author describes how this project demonstrated the power of APIs and their potential to be used by other enterprise search portals inside or outside of the library.

  9. Yoink: An interaction-based partitioning API.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Min; Waller, Mark P

    2018-05-15

    Herein, we describe the implementation details of our interaction-based partitioning API (application programming interface) called Yoink for QM/MM modeling and fragment-based quantum chemistry studies. Interactions are detected by computing density descriptors such as reduced density gradient, density overlap regions indicator, and single exponential decay detector. Only molecules having an interaction with a user-definable QM core are added to the QM region of a hybrid QM/MM calculation. Moreover, a set of molecule pairs having density-based interactions within a molecular system can be computed in Yoink, and an interaction graph can then be constructed. Standard graph clustering methods can then be applied to construct fragments for further quantum chemical calculations. The Yoink API is licensed under Apache 2.0 and can be accessed via yoink.wallerlab.org. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Study of the failure in service of a linepipe, helicoidally welded, quality API SL GrB wich conveyed natural gas. Estudio del fallo en servicio de una tuberia soldada helicoidalmente de calidad API SL SrB que transportaba gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez de Saiz-Solabarria, S.; Elices, M.A. (Departamento de Ciencias de los Materiales e Ingenieria Metalurgica, Universidad del Pais Vasco, Bilbao (Spain))

    1994-01-01

    The possible causes are studied which have incidentally provoked a failure in service on a natural gas linepipe run. This pipe has been manufactured with 6 mm-thick-plate-coil helicoidally welded to 273 mm external diameter. The quality of the material is up to standard API 5L for Grade B and an automatic-helicoidally welding procedure has been with simultaneous inflow at both internal and and external surfaces. The failure appears together with deformations and fracture. (Author)

  11. Effects of Nosema apis, N. ceranae, and coinfections on honey bee (Apis mellifera) learning and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charbonneau, Lise R; Hillier, Neil Kirk; Rogers, Richard E L; Williams, Geoffrey R; Shutler, Dave

    2016-03-10

    Western honey bees (Apis mellifera) face an increasing number of challenges that in recent years have led to significant economic effects on apiculture, with attendant consequences for agriculture. Nosemosis is a fungal infection of honey bees caused by either Nosema apis or N. ceranae. The putative greater virulence of N. ceranae has spurred interest in understanding how it differs from N. apis. Little is known of effects of N. apis or N. ceranae on honey bee learning and memory. Following a Pavlovian model that relies on the proboscis extension reflex, we compared acquisition learning and long-term memory recall of uninfected (control) honey bees versus those inoculated with N. apis, N. ceranae, or both. We also tested whether spore intensity was associated with variation in learning and memory. Neither learning nor memory differed among treatments. There was no evidence of a relationship between spore intensity and learning, and only limited evidence of a negative effect on memory; this occurred only in the co-inoculation treatment. Our results suggest that if Nosema spp. are contributing to unusually high colony losses in recent years, the mechanism by which they may affect honey bees is probably not related to effects on learning or memory, at least as assessed by the proboscis extension reflex.

  12. Hybrid origins of Australian honeybees (Apis mellifera)

    OpenAIRE

    Chapman , Nadine C.; Harpur , Brock A.; Lim , Julianne; Rinderer , Thomas E.; Allsopp , Michael H.; Zayed , Amro; Oldroyd , Benjamin P.

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Abstract With increased globalisation and homogenisation, the maintenance of genetic integrity in local populations of agriculturally important species is of increasing concern. The western honeybee (Apis mellifera) provides an interesting perspective as it is both managed and wild, with a large native range and much larger introduced range. We employed a newly created 95 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) test to characterise the genetic ancestry of the Australian c...

  13. Bending The Spending Curve By Altering Care Delivery Patterns: The Role Of Care Management Within A Pioneer ACO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, John; Price, Mary; Vogeli, Christine; Brand, Richard; Chernew, Michael E; Chaguturu, Sreekanth K; Weil, Eric; Ferris, Timothy G

    2017-05-01

    Accountable care organizations (ACOs) appear to lower medical spending, but there is little information on how they do so. We examined the impact of patient participation in a Pioneer ACO and its care management program on rates of emergency department (ED) visits and hospitalizations and on Medicare spending. We used data for the period 2009-14, exploiting naturally staggered program entry to create concurrent controls to help isolate the program effects. The care management program (the ACO's primary intervention) targeted beneficiaries with elevated but modifiable risks for future spending. ACO participation had a modest effect on spending, in line with previous estimates. Participation in the care management program was associated with substantial reductions in rates for hospitalizations and both all and nonemergency ED visits, as well as Medicare spending, when compared to preparticipation levels and to rates and spending for a concurrent sample of beneficiaries who were eligible for but had not yet started the program. Rates of ED visits and hospitalizations were reduced by 6 percent and 8 percent, respectively, and Medicare spending was reduced by 6 percent. Targeting beneficiaries with modifiable high risks and shifting care away from the ED represent viable mechanisms for altering spending within ACOs. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  14. Hardware-efficient signal generation of layered/enhanced ACO-OFDM for short-haul fiber-optic links.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qibing; Song, Binhuang; Corcoran, Bill; Boland, David; Zhu, Chen; Zhuang, Leimeng; Lowery, Arthur J

    2017-06-12

    Layered/enhanced ACO-OFDM is a promising candidate for intensity modulation and direct-detection based short-haul fiber-optic links due to its both power and spectral efficiency. In this paper, we firstly demonstrate a hardware-efficient real-time 9.375 Gb/s QPSK-encoded layered/enhanced asymmetrical clipped optical OFDM (L/E-ACO-OFDM) transmitter using a Virtex-6 FPGA. This L/E-ACO-OFDM signal is successfully transmitted over 20-km uncompensated standard single-mode fiber (S-SMF) using a directly modulated laser. Several methods are explored to reduce the FPGA's logic resource utilization by taking advantage of the L/E-ACO-OFDM's signal characteristics. We show that the logic resource occupation of L/E-ACO-OFDM transmitter is almost the same as that of DC-biased OFDM transmitter when they achieve the same spectral efficiency, proving its great potential to be used in a real-time short-haul optical transmission link.

  15. BEE VENOM TRAP DESIGN OF APIS MELLIFERA L. AND APIS CERANA F. HONEY BEES

    OpenAIRE

    Budiaman

    2015-01-01

    The nectar and pollen of flowers which are abundance have not been taken into account for any purpose in forest, agriculture and plantation area. Honey bees such as Apis mellifera L. and Apis cerana F. had known as biological pollinators which could converted the flower components to be high economy products in the forms of honey, royal jelly, propolis, bee wax and bee venom. Among the products, bee venom has the best selling value, but the method of it???s optimal production has not been ext...

  16. Domainwise Web Page Optimization Based On Clustered Query Sessions Using Hybrid Of Trust And ACO For Effective Information Retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Suruchi Chawla

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper hybrid of Ant Colony OptimizationACO and trust has been used for domainwise web page optimization in clustered query sessions for effective Information retrieval. The trust of the web page identifies its degree of relevance in satisfying specific information need of the user. The trusted web pages when optimized using pheromone updates in ACO will identify the trusted colonies of web pages which will be relevant to users information need in a given domain. Hence in this paper the hybrid of Trust and ACO has been used on clustered query sessions for identifying more and more relevant number of documents in a given domain in order to better satisfy the information need of the user. Experiment was conducted on the data set of web query sessions to test the effectiveness of the proposed approach in selected three domains Academics Entertainment and Sports and the results confirm the improvement in the precision of search results.

  17. The development and psychometric validation of an instrument to evaluate nurses' attitudes towards communication with the patient (ACO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giménez-Espert, María Del Carmen; Prado-Gascó, Vicente Javier

    2018-05-01

    Patient communication is a key skill for nurses involved in clinical care. Its measurement is a complex phenomenon that can be addressed through attitude evaluation. To develop and psychometrically test a measure of nurses' attitudes towards communication with patients (ACO), to study the relationship between these dimensions, and to analyse nursing attitudes. To develop and psychometrically test the ACO questionnaire. All hospitals in the province of Valencia were invited by e-mail to distribute the ACO instrument. Ten hospitals took part in the study. The study population was composed of a convenience sample of 400 hospital nurses on general or special services. The inclusion criteria were nurses at the selected centres who had previously provided an informed consent to participate. A literature review and expert consultation (N = 10) was used to develop the content of the questionnaire. The 62-item version of the instrument was applied to a convenience sample of 400 nurses between May 2015 and March 2016. Factor structure was evaluated with exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis (EFA, CFA), and reliability was evaluated with Cronbach's alpha, composite reliability (CR), and average variance extracted (AVE). The final instrument (ACO), composed of 25 items grouped into three attitude dimensions (cognitive, affective and behavioural), had good psychometric properties. In the study sample, nurses had a favourable attitude towards communication. The cognitive and affective dimensions of the ACO should be able to predict the behaviour dimension. The ACO is useful for evaluating current clinical practices, identifying educational needs and assessing the effectiveness of communication training or other interventions intended to improve communication. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of Celluclast 1.5L on the Physicochemical Characterization of Gold Kiwifruit Pectin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A. Mawson

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The effects of Celluclast 1.5L concentration on the physicochemical characterization of gold kiwifruit pectin was evaluated. Varying the enzyme concentration affected the pectin yield and pectin physicochemical properties. The viscosity of extracted pectin was largely dependent on the enzyme concentration. Celluclast 1.5L with medium concentration exhibited the highest viscosity. Varying the enzyme concentration also influenced the molecular weight distribution. High molecular weight (Mw pectin (1.65 × 106 g/mol was obtained when the medium concentration was used. Overall, the study clearly reflects the importance of taking into consideration the amount of cellulytic enzyme added in order to determine the final quality of pectin.

  19. Anchoring Vignettes in EQ-5D-5L Questionnaire: Validation of a New Instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzolina, Danila; Minto, Clara; Boschetto, Stefania; Martinato, Matteo; Bauce, Barbara; Iliceto, Sabino; Gregori, Dario

    2017-01-01

    Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) is an indicator of patient's physical, psychological and social life. HRQoL is influenced by experience, beliefs, perceptions and expectations, and measures subjective perspective of the patient himself. EQ-5D-5L and SF-12 questionnaires are validated instruments useful to measure HRQoL, increasingly administered in electronic formats. The main purpose is to evaluate the feasibility of anchoring vignettes for the EQ-5D-5L questionnaire, with the aim to improve intergroup comparability of responses among different subjects. A comparison with SF-12 questionnaire is carried out. This is a cross-sectional study conducted at the ambulatories of cardiology of the University Hospital of Padova, in Italy. Thirty-eight subjects with a diagnosis of cardiovascular disease or at risk of cardiovascular disease were enrolled. A factorial analysis has been performed to assess the convergent validity of EQ-5D-5L questionnaire compared to Sf-12. Moreover, a compound Hierarchical Ordered Probit (Chopit) model has been estimated to evaluate if the questionnaire form affects the subjective evaluation process in order to compare EQ-5D-5L with and without vignettes. Correlation and factor analysis demonstrate that EQ_5D questionnaire is coherent with SF-12 in paper format. Chopit model estimation shows that questionnaire format does not affect the subjective question interpretation. Moreover, in a parametric model including vignettes, education attainment, disease severity, and gender are predictors of HRQoL status. The EQ-5D including vignettes in electronic format seems to be a valid tool to measure HRQoL as compared to EQ-5D without vignettes in paper format and to SF-12 questionnaire.

  20. An EQ-5D-5L value set based on Uruguayan population preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustovski, Federico; Rey-Ares, Lucila; Irazola, Vilma; Garay, Osvaldo Ulises; Gianneo, Oscar; Fernández, Graciela; Morales, Marcelo; Gibbons, Luz; Ramos-Goñi, Juan Manuel

    2016-02-01

    To derive a value set from Uruguayan general population using the EQ-5D-5L questionnaire and report population norms. General population individuals were randomly assigned to value 10 health states using composite time trade off and 7 pairs of health states through discrete choice experiments. A stratified sampling with quotas by location, gender, age and socio-economic status was used to respect the Uruguayan population structure. Trained interviewers conducted face-to-face interviews. The EuroQol valuation technology was used to administer the protocol as well as to collect the data. OLS and maximum likelihood robust regression models with or without interactions were tested. We included 794 respondents between 20 and 83 years. Their characteristics were broadly similar to the Uruguayan population. The main effects robust model was chosen to derive social values. Values ranged from -0.264 to 1. States with a misery index = 6 had a mean predicted value of 0.965. When comparing the Uruguayan population with the Argentinian EQ-5D-5L crosswalk value set, the prediction for states which differed from full health only in having one of the dimensions at level 2 were about 0.05 higher in Uruguay. The mean index value, using the selected Uruguayan EQ-5D-5L value set, for the general population in Uruguay was 0.895. In general, older people had worse values and males had slightly better values than females. We derived the EQ-5D-5L Uruguayan value set, the first in Latin America. These results will help inform decision-making using economic evaluations for resource allocation decisions.

  1. A Family of ACO Routing Protocols for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupérez Cañas, Delfín; Sandoval Orozco, Ana Lucila; García Villalba, Luis Javier; Kim, Tai-hoon

    2017-01-01

    In this work, an ACO routing protocol for mobile ad hoc networks based on AntHocNet is specified. As its predecessor, this new protocol, called AntOR, is hybrid in the sense that it contains elements from both reactive and proactive routing. Specifically, it combines a reactive route setup process with a proactive route maintenance and improvement process. Key aspects of the AntOR protocol are the disjoint-link and disjoint-node routes, separation between the regular pheromone and the virtual pheromone in the diffusion process and the exploration of routes, taking into consideration the number of hops in the best routes. In this work, a family of ACO routing protocols based on AntOR is also specified. These protocols are based on protocol successive refinements. In this work, we also present a parallelized version of AntOR that we call PAntOR. Using programming multiprocessor architectures based on the shared memory protocol, PAntOR allows running tasks in parallel using threads. This parallelization is applicable in the route setup phase, route local repair process and link failure notification. In addition, a variant of PAntOR that consists of having more than one interface, which we call PAntOR-MI (PAntOR-Multiple Interface), is specified. This approach parallelizes the sending of broadcast messages by interface through threads. PMID:28531159

  2. A Family of ACO Routing Protocols for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupérez Cañas, Delfín; Sandoval Orozco, Ana Lucila; García Villalba, Luis Javier; Kim, Tai-Hoon

    2017-05-22

    In this work, an ACO routing protocol for mobile ad hoc networks based on AntHocNet is specified. As its predecessor, this new protocol, called AntOR, is hybrid in the sense that it contains elements from both reactive and proactive routing. Specifically, it combines a reactive route setup process with a proactive route maintenance and improvement process. Key aspects of the AntOR protocol are the disjoint-link and disjoint-node routes, separation between the regular pheromone and the virtual pheromone in the diffusion process and the exploration of routes, taking into consideration the number of hops in the best routes. In this work, a family of ACO routing protocols based on AntOR is also specified. These protocols are based on protocol successive refinements. In this work, we also present a parallelized version of AntOR that we call PAntOR. Using programming multiprocessor architectures based on the shared memory protocol, PAntOR allows running tasks in parallel using threads. This parallelization is applicable in the route setup phase, route local repair process and link failure notification. In addition, a variant of PAntOR that consists of having more than one interface, which we call PAntOR-MI (PAntOR-Multiple Interface), is specified. This approach parallelizes the sending of broadcast messages by interface through threads.

  3. Updated API document 6A will close API-ISO 9000 gap. [Oil and gas wellhead standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, S.

    1993-10-01

    The 17th edition of the American Petroleum Institute's (API) document 6A, covering wellheads and their components, is due early next year. As the API vs. International Standards Organization (ISO) 9000 struggle continues, this edition of 6A eliminates some unnecessary specifications, clarifies others, and includes metric specifications accepted by the ISO. The 17th edition will clarify some of the interpretations from earlier editions and further advise users how to acquire the API monogram. The goal of this edition is to make 6A acceptable to ISO as an international document so API can maintain control over petroleum equipment specifications and provide input and guidance in future regulations.

  4. Beebread from Apis mellifera and Apis dorsata. Comparative Chemical Composition and Bioactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otilia BOBIS

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Beebread is a valuable bee product, both for bee nutrition and for humans. The high nutritional and bioactive properties of beebread were evaluated by chemical composition analysis of beebread from Apis mellifera and Apis dorsata. Bee bread harvested from Romania and India, coming from Apis mellifera and Apis dorsata bees, were evaluated for their chemical composition. Analyses were made in APHIS Laboratory from USAMV Cluj, using validated methods for bee products. Lipids were determined by the Soxhlet extraction method, total protein content was determined by Kjehldahl method, sugar spectrum was determined by high performance liquid chromatography with refractive index detection (HPLC-IR. Water content of beebread samples were situated between 11.45 and 16.46%, total protein content between 16.84 and 19.19% and total lipids between 6.36 and 13.47%.  Beebread has high bioactive properties which can be expressed as antioxidant and/or antibacterial activity. Chemical composition and bioactive properties of beebread is influenced by floral origin of the pollen which the bees collect and place in combs for fermentation. Also the climatic conditions have an important role in developing different fermentation compounds, that may act as antioxidants or antibacterial agents.

  5. Rare royal families in honeybees, Apis mellifera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritz, Robin F. A.; Lattorff, H. Michael G.; Neumann, Peter; Kraus, F. Bernhard; Radloff, Sarah E.; Hepburn, H. Randall

    2005-10-01

    The queen is the dominant female in the honeybee colony, Apis mellifera, and controls reproduction. Queen larvae are selected by the workers and are fed a special diet (royal jelly), which determines caste. Because queens mate with many males a large number of subfamilies coexist in the colony. As a consequence, there is a considerable potential for conflict among the subfamilies over queen rearing. Here we show that honeybee queens are not reared at random but are preferentially reared from rare “royal” subfamilies, which have extremely low frequencies in the colony's worker force but a high frequency in the queens reared.

  6. Adaptive runtime for a multiprocessing API

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antao, Samuel F.; Bertolli, Carlo; Eichenberger, Alexandre E.; O'Brien, John K.

    2016-11-15

    A computer-implemented method includes selecting a runtime for executing a program. The runtime includes a first combination of feature implementations, where each feature implementation implements a feature of an application programming interface (API). Execution of the program is monitored, and the execution uses the runtime. Monitor data is generated based on the monitoring. A second combination of feature implementations are selected, by a computer processor, where the selection is based at least in part on the monitor data. The runtime is modified by activating the second combination of feature implementations to replace the first combination of feature implementations.

  7. Caterpillar C7 and GEP 6.5L (T) Fuel System Durability Using 25% ATJ Fuel Blend

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    6.5L(T) diesel engines. With the technical issues presented in this report related to the CAT C7 evaluation and the desert operating condition GEP 6.5L...General Engine Products (GEP) 6.5L(T) diesel engines. These engines are representative of high density vehicles fielded by the U.S. Army tactical...Southwest Research Institute T - turbo TARDEC – Tank Automotive Research, Development, and Engineering Center TFLRF – TARDEC Fuels and Lubricants

  8. grlc Makes GitHub Taste Like Linked Data APIs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meroño-Peñuela, A.; Hoekstra, Rinke; Sack, H; Rizzo, G; Steinmetz, N; Mladenić, D; Auer, S; Lange, C

    2016-01-01

    Building Web APIs on top of SPARQL endpoints is becoming a common practice to enable universal access to the integration favorable dataspace of Linked Data. However, the Linked Data community cannot expect users to learn SPARQL to query this dataspace, and Web APIs are the most extended way of

  9. grlc Makes GitHub Taste Like Linked Data APIs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merono Penuela, A.; Hoekstra, R.J.

    2016-01-01

    Building Web APIs on top of SPARQL endpoints is becoming common practice. It enables universal access to the integration favorable data space of Linked Data. In the majority of use cases, users cannot be expected to learn SPARQL to query this data space. Web APIs are the most common way to enable

  10. grlc Makes GitHub Taste Like Linked Data APIs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meroño-Peñuela, A.; Hoekstra, R.

    2016-01-01

    Building Web APIs on top of SPARQL endpoints is becoming a common practice to enable universal access to the integration favorable dataspace of Linked Data. However, the Linked Data community cannot expect users to learn SPARQL to query this dataspace, and Web APIs are the most common way of

  11. Experience API: Flexible, Decentralized and Activity-Centric Data Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevan, Jonathan M.; Ryan, Paul R.

    2016-01-01

    This emerging technology report describes the Experience API (xAPI), a new e-learning specification designed to support the learning community in standardizing and collecting both formal and informal distributed learning activities. Informed by Activity Theory, a framework aligned with constructivism, data is collected in the form of activity…

  12. A Web API ecosystem through feature-based reuse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verborgh, Ruben; Dumontier, Michel

    2016-01-01

    The current Web API landscape does not scale well: every API requires its own hardcoded clients in an unusually short-lived, tightly coupled relationship of highly subjective quality. This directly leads to inflated development costs, and prevents the design of a more intelligent generation of

  13. Hymenoptera venom review focusing on Apis mellifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. R. de Lima

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Hymenoptera venoms are complex mixtures containing simple organic molecules, proteins, peptides, and other bioactive elements. Several of these components have been isolated and characterized, and their primary structures determined by biochemical techniques. These compounds are responsible for many toxic or allergic reactions in different organisms, such as local pain, inflammation, itching, irritation, and moderate or severe allergic reactions. The most extensively characterized Hymenoptera venoms are bee venoms, mainly from the Apis genus and also from social wasps and ant species. However, there is little information about other Hymenoptera groups. The Apis venom presents high molecular weight molecules - enzymes with a molecular weight higher than 10.0 kDa - and peptides. The best studied enzymes are phospholipase A2, responsible for cleaving the membrane phospholipids, hyaluronidase, which degrades the matrix component hyaluronic acid into non-viscous segments and acid phosphatase acting on organic phosphates. The main peptide compounds of bee venom are lytic peptide melittin, apamin (neurotoxic, and mastocyte degranulating peptide (MCD.

  14. Investigating an API for resilient exascale computing.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stearley, Jon R.; Tomkins, James; VanDyke, John P.; Ferreira, Kurt Brian; Laros, James H.,; Bridges, Patrick

    2013-05-01

    Increased HPC capability comes with increased complexity, part counts, and fault occurrences. In- creasing the resilience of systems and applications to faults is a critical requirement facing the viability of exascale systems, as the overhead of traditional checkpoint/restart is projected to outweigh its bene ts due to fault rates outpacing I/O bandwidths. As faults occur and propagate throughout hardware and software layers, pervasive noti cation and handling mechanisms are necessary. This report describes an initial investigation of fault types and programming interfaces to mitigate them. Proof-of-concept APIs are presented for the frequent and important cases of memory errors and node failures, and a strategy proposed for lesystem failures. These involve changes to the operating system, runtime, I/O library, and application layers. While a single API for fault handling among hardware and OS and application system-wide remains elusive, the e ort increased our understanding of both the mountainous challenges and the promising trailheads. 3

  15. NHETS - Estudo de Necrópsias de Pacientes Submetidos a Transplante Cardíaco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Ninck Valette

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: Discordâncias entre diagnóstico pre e post-mortem são relatadas na literatura, podendo variar de 4,1 a 49,8% dentre os casos encaminhados para exame necroscópico, com importante repercussão no tratamento dos pacientes. Objetivo: Analisar pacientes com óbito após o transplante cardíaco e confrontar os diagnósticos pre e post-mortem. Métodos: Por meio da revisão de prontuários, foram analisados dados clínicos, presença de comorbidades, esquema de imunossupressão, exames laboratoriais, causa clínica do óbito e causa do óbito à necrópsia. Foram confrontadas, então, a causa clínica e a causa necroscópica do óbito de cada paciente. Resultados: Foram analisados 48 óbitos submetidos à necrópsia no período de 2000 a 2010; 29 (60,4% tiveram diagnósticos clínico e necroscópico concordantes, 16 (33,3% tiveram diagnósticos discordantes e três (6,3% tiveram diagnóstico não esclarecido. Entre os discordantes, 15 (31,3% apresentaram possível impacto na sobrevida e um (2,1% não apresentou impacto na sobrevida. O principal diagnóstico clínico feito equivocadamente foi o de infecção, com cinco casos (26,7% dos discordantes, seguido por rejeição hiperaguda, com quatro casos (20% dos discordantes, e tromboembolismo pulmonar, com três casos (13,3% dos discordantes. Conclusão: Discordâncias entre o diagnóstico clínico e achados da necrópsia são comumente encontradas no transplante cardíaco. Novas estratégias no aperfeiçoamento do diagnóstico clínico devem ser introduzidas, considerando-se os resultados da necrópsia para melhoria do tratamento da insuficiência cardíaca por meio do transplante cardíaco.

  16. The geospatial data quality REST API for primary biodiversity data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otegui, Javier; Guralnick, Robert P

    2016-06-01

    We present a REST web service to assess the geospatial quality of primary biodiversity data. It enables access to basic and advanced functions to detect completeness and consistency issues as well as general errors in the provided record or set of records. The API uses JSON for data interchange and efficient parallelization techniques for fast assessments of large datasets. The Geospatial Data Quality API is part of the VertNet set of APIs. It can be accessed at http://api-geospatial.vertnet-portal.appspot.com/geospatial and is already implemented in the VertNet data portal for quality reporting. Source code is freely available under GPL license from http://www.github.com/vertnet/api-geospatial javier.otegui@gmail.com or rguralnick@flmnh.ufl.edu Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  17. Dynamic Fuzzy Logic Parameter Tuning for ACO and Its Application in the Fuzzy Logic Control of an Autonomous Mobile Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Castillo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ant Colony Optimization (ACO is a population-based constructive meta-heuristic that exploits a form of past performance memory inspired by the foraging behaviour of real ants. The behaviour of the ACO algorithm is highly dependent on the values defined for its parameters. Adaptation and parameter control are recurring themes in the field of bio-inspired algorithms. The present paper explores a new approach to diversity control in ACO. The central idea is to avoid or slow down full convergence through the dynamic variation of certain parameters. The performance of different variants of the ACO algorithm was observed to choose one as the basis for the proposed approach. A convergence fuzzy logic controller with the objective of maintaining diversity at some level to avoid premature convergence was created. Encouraging results have been obtained on its application to the design of fuzzy controllers. In particular, the optimization of membership functions for a unicycle mobile robot trajectory control is presented with the proposed method.

  18. Integrating Medication Therapy Management (MTM Services Provided by Community Pharmacists into a Community-Based Accountable Care Organization (ACO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Isetts

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available (1 Background: As the U.S. healthcare system evolves from fee-for-service financing to global population-based payments designed to be accountable for both quality and total cost of care, the effective and safe use of medications is gaining increased importance. The purpose of this project was to determine the feasibility of integrating medication therapy management (MTM services provided by community pharmacists into the clinical care teams and the health information technology (HIT infrastructure for Minnesota Medicaid recipients of a 12-county community-based accountable care organization (ACO. (2 Methods: The continuous quality improvement evaluation methodology employed in this project was the context + mechanism = outcome (CMO model to account for the fact that programs only work insofar as they introduce promising ideas, solutions and opportunities in the appropriate social and cultural contexts. Collaborations between a 12-county ACO and 15 community pharmacies in Southwest Minnesota served as the social context for this feasibility study of MTM referrals to community pharmacists. (3 Results: All 15 community pharmacy sites were integrated into the HIT infrastructure through Direct Secure Messaging, and there were 32 recipients who received MTM services subsequent to referrals from the ACO at 5 of the 15 community pharmacies over a 1-year implementation phase. (4 Conclusion: At the conclusion of this project, an effective electronic communication and MTM referral system was activated, and consideration was given to community pharmacists providing MTM in future ACO shared savings agreements.

  19. Coming 5th Edition of the API Standard 618: major changes compared to the API 618, 4th edition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pyle, A.; Eijk, A.; Elferink, H.

    2003-01-01

    This paper will present the highlights of changes that will be found in the 5th Edition of API 618, which is expected to be published in late 2003 or early 2004. Approximately every 5 years the API Standards are revised in such a way that the latest field experiences and proven designs are included

  20. fine-GRAPE : Fine-grained APi usage extractor – an approach and dataset to investigate API usage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sawant, A.A.; Bacchelli, A.

    An Application Programming Interface (API) provides a set of functionalities to a developer with the aim of enabling reuse. APIs have been investigated from different angles such as popularity usage and evolution to get a better understanding of their various characteristics. For such studies,

  1. Trasplante cardíaco en pacientes con enfermedad de Chagas. Experiencia de un único centro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Inácio Fiorelli

    2011-07-01

    Conclusiones: El trasplante cardíaco es el único tratamiento actual eficaz de tratamiento de la enfermedad de Chagas en fase terminal. La reactivación de la enfermedad es un problema real que es fácilmente revertido con la introducción de la terapéutica farmacológica específica, restaurando los padrones histológicos del miocardio sin dejar secuelas. La inmunosupresión, en especial los corticoides, predisponen al desarrollo de neoplasias y a la reactivación de la enfermedad, exigiendo una atención especial su interrupción o reducción precoz.

  2. Transfer function fitting using a continuous Ant Colony Optimization (ACO algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Reineix

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available An original approach is proposed in order to achieve the  fitting of ultra-wideband complex frequency functions, such  as the complex impedances, by using the so-called ACO  (Ant Colony Optimization methods. First, we present the  optimization principle of ACO, which originally was  dedicated to the combinatorial problems. Further on, the  extension to the continuous and mixed problems is  explained in more details. The interest in this approach is  proved by its ability to define practical constraints and  objectives, such as minimizing the number of filters used in  the model with respect to a fixed relative error. Finally, the  establishment of the model for the first and second order  filter types illustrates the power of the method and its  interest for the time-domain electromagnetic computation.

  3. Multi-criteria ACO-based Algorithm for Ship’s Trajectory Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Lazarowska

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a new approach for solving a path planning problem for ships in the environment with static and dynamic obstacles. The algorithm utilizes a heuristic method, classified to the group of Swarm Intelligence approaches, called the Ant Colony Optimization. The method is inspired by a collective behaviour of ant colonies. A group of agents - artificial ants searches through the solution space in order to find a safe, optimal trajectory for a ship. The problem is considered as a multi-criteria optimization task. The criteria taken into account during problem solving are: path safety, path length, the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea (COLREGs compliance and path smoothness. The paper includes the description of the new multi-criteria ACO-based algorithm along with the presentation and discussion of simulation tests results.

  4. Controlling‏ ‏the Balance of Exploration and ‎Exploitation in ACO Algorithm ‎

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayad ‎ Mohammed Jabbar

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Ant colony optimization is a meta-heuristic algorithm inspired by the foraging behavior of real ant colony. The algorithm is a population-based solution employed in different optimization problems such as classification, image processing, clustering, and so on. This paper sheds the light on the side of improving the results of traveling salesman problem produced by the algorithm. The key success that produces the valuable results is due to the two important components of exploration and exploitation. Balancing both components is the foundation of controlling search within the ACO. This paper proposes to modify the main probabilistic method to overcome the drawbacks of the exploration problem and produces global optimal results in high dimensional space. Experiments on six variant of ant colony optimization indicate that the proposed work produces high-quality results in terms of shortest route

  5. Changes in health care spending and quality for Medicare beneficiaries associated with a commercial ACO contract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWilliams, J Michael; Landon, Bruce E; Chernew, Michael E

    2013-08-28

    In a multipayer system, new payment incentives implemented by one insurer for an accountable care organization (ACO) may also affect spending and quality of care for another insurer's enrollees served by the ACO. Such spillover effects reflect the extent of organizational efforts to reform care delivery and can contribute to the net impact of ACOs. We examined whether the Blue Cross Blue Shield (BCBS) of Massachusetts' Alternative Quality Contract (AQC), an early commercial ACO initiative associated with reduced spending and improved quality for BCBS enrollees, was also associated with changes in spending and quality for Medicare beneficiaries, who were not covered by the AQC. Quasi-experimental comparisons from 2007-2010 of elderly fee-for-service Medicare beneficiaries in Massachusetts (1,761,325 person-years) served by 11 provider organizations entering the AQC in 2009 or 2010 (intervention group) vs beneficiaries served by other providers (control group). Using a difference-in-differences approach, we estimated changes in spending and quality for the intervention group in the first and second years of exposure to the AQC relative to concurrent changes for the control group. Regression and propensity score methods were used to adjust for differences in sociodemographic and clinical characteristics. The primary outcome was total quarterly medical spending per beneficiary. Secondary outcomes included spending by setting and type of service, 5 process measures of quality, potentially avoidable hospitalizations, and 30-day readmissions. Before entering the AQC, total quarterly spending per beneficiary for the intervention group was $150 (95% CI, $25-$274) higher than for the control group and increased at a similar rate. In year 2 of the intervention group's exposure to the AQC, this difference was reduced to $51 (95% CI, -$109 to $210; P = .53), constituting a significant differential change of -$99 (95% CI, -$183 to -$16; P = .02) or a 3.4% savings

  6. STAT5A-mediated NOX5-L expression promotes the proliferation and metastasis of breast cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dho, So Hee [Aging Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of); Radioisotope Research Division, Department of Research Reactor Utilization, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ji Young; Lee, Kwang-Pyo; Kwon, Eun-Soo [Aging Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Jae Cheong [Radioisotope Research Division, Department of Research Reactor Utilization, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chang-Jin [Department of Pathology, Soonchunhyang Medical Science Research Institute, Chonan 330-090 (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Dongjun, E-mail: juny1024@sch.ac.kr [Department of Pathology, Soonchunhyang Medical Science Research Institute, Chonan 330-090 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Ki-Sun, E-mail: kwonks@kribb.re.kr [Aging Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Functional Genomics, Korea University of Science and Technology (UST), Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-01

    NADPH oxidase (NOX) generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) and has been suggested to mediate cell proliferation in some cancers. Here, we show that an increase in the expression of NOX5 long form (NOX5-L) is critical for tumor progression in breast tumor tissues. Immunostaining of clinical samples indicated that NOX5 was overexpressed in 41.1% of breast ductal carcinoma samples. NOX5-L depletion consistently suppressed cell proliferation, invasion, and migration in vitro. Antibody-mediated neutralization of NOX5-L attenuated tumor progression in a mouse xenograft model. Promoter analysis revealed that NOX5-L expression is regulated by STAT5A in breast cancer cells. Based on our novel findings, we suggest that inhibition of NOX5-L may be a promising therapeutic strategy that exerts anti-cancer effects via the modulation of ROS-mediated cell signaling. - Highlights: • The ROS-generating protein, NOX5-L, determines cellular proliferation and metastasis in subset of breast tumor. • Tumor growth was attenuated by the treatment of anti-NOX5-L antibody in a xenograft model. • NOX5-L expression is transcriptionally regulated by STAT5A in breast cancer cells.

  7. EKSPLORASI AKTINOMISET SEBAGAI PENGHASIL ANTIBIOTIKA DARI TANAH MANGROVE Sonneratia caseolaris DI TANJUNG API API

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awalul Fatiqin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Actinomycetes are soil organisms that have traits that are common to bacteria and fungi but also have quite different characteristics that limit into one group which is distinctly different. Study aimed to explore the mangrove actinomycetes from soil and tested the antibacterial potency. Soil samples taken from the mangrove land at Tanjung Api-api mangrove species Sonneratia caseolaris. Activity test antibacterial using a method modified disk a test bacterium Escherichia coli. Identification isolates of actinomycetes by observing the character of macroscopic colonies, microscopic conidia. The results showed that the obtained three different actinomycetes isolates, 1 isolate has the most potential ability to inhibit bacterial growth test with an average value of 1:13 cm in inhibiting the bacteria Escherichia coli.

  8. Analysing PKCS#11 Key Management APIs with Unbounded Fresh Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fröschle, Sibylle; Steel, Graham

    We extend Delaune, Kremer and Steel’s framework for analysis of PKCS#11-based APIs from bounded to unbounded fresh data. We achieve this by: formally defining the notion of an attribute policy; showing that a well-designed API should have a certain class of policy we call complete; showing that APIs with complete policies may be safely abstracted to APIs where the attributes are fixed; and proving that these static APIs can be analysed in a small bounded model such that security properties will hold for the unbounded case. We automate analysis in our framework using the SAT-based security protocol model checker SATMC. We show that a symmetric key management subset of the Eracom PKCS#11 API, used in their ProtectServer product, preserves the secrecy of sensitive keys for unbounded numbers of fresh keys and handles, i.e. pointers to keys. We also show that this API is not robust: if an encryption key is lost to the intruder, SATMC finds an attack whereby all the keys may be compromised.

  9. Compositional mining of multiple object API protocols through state abstraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Ziying; Mao, Xiaoguang; Lei, Yan; Qi, Yuhua; Wang, Rui; Gu, Bin

    2013-01-01

    API protocols specify correct sequences of method invocations. Despite their usefulness, API protocols are often unavailable in practice because writing them is cumbersome and error prone. Multiple object API protocols are more expressive than single object API protocols. However, the huge number of objects of typical object-oriented programs poses a major challenge to the automatic mining of multiple object API protocols: besides maintaining scalability, it is important to capture various object interactions. Current approaches utilize various heuristics to focus on small sets of methods. In this paper, we present a general, scalable, multiple object API protocols mining approach that can capture all object interactions. Our approach uses abstract field values to label object states during the mining process. We first mine single object typestates as finite state automata whose transitions are annotated with states of interacting objects before and after the execution of the corresponding method and then construct multiple object API protocols by composing these annotated single object typestates. We implement our approach for Java and evaluate it through a series of experiments.

  10. Aggressiveness index of Apis Mellifera (Hymenoptera: Aapidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennyfer Insuasty Torres

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available An index measuring the aggressiveness among ten colonies of Apis mellifera was elaborated based on the third generation synthetic indices by Charum et al. (1999. The index values are subject to a fixed parameter used as the beginning or standard value, and correspond to the aggressive features of some Africans colonies studied by Rothenbuler et al. (1968. In the ten colonies the index values are notably smaller than those of African colonies and are biased to the lowest values. This indicates, that neither of the colonies presents an extreme aggressive behavior and it is possible that they have not Africans genotypes. These results are an indirect proof of the index. Nevertheless, it could be improved by the introduction of other factors such as, climate and colony management.

  11. Interdisciplinariedade: entre o desejo e a prática dos profissionais do transplante cardíaco no Instituto Dante Pazzanese de Cardiologia

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Nadja Maria Codá dos

    2005-01-01

    Esta dissertação tem o objetivo geral de: analisar a prática interdisciplinar nos 13 anos de transplante cardíaco no Instituto Dante Pazzanese de Cardiologia IDPC. Buscou como objetivos específicos: resgatar a história do transplante cardíaco no IDPC; analisar as perspectivas dos profissionais sobre a contribuição de sua profissão e das demais para o trabalho interdisciplinar; estudar contribuição do Serviço Social para a prática interdisciplinar. Na prática do transplante cardíaco, inserid...

  12. Relationship between a novel polymorphism of the C5L2 gene and coronary artery disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Ying Zheng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: C5L2 has been demonstrated to be a functional receptor of acylation-stimulating protein (ASP, which is a stimulator of triglyceride synthesis or glucose transport. However, little is known about the variations in the coding region of the C5L2 gene and their association with coronary artery disease (CAD. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We identified a novel single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP, 698C>T (P233L, in exon 2 using a polymerase chain reaction direct-sequencing method. This nucleotide change causes the amino-acid order from proline to leucine at codon 233. We examined the role of this SNP for CAD using two independent case-control studies: one was in the Han population (492 CAD patients and 577 control subjects and the other was in the Uygur population (319 CAD patients and 554 control subjects. Heterozygote carriers of the 698CT genotype were more frequent among CAD patients than among controls not only in the Han population (7.3% versus 1.7% but also in the Uygur population (4.7% versus 1.6%. The odds ratio (OR for carriers of the 698CT genotype for CAD was 4.484 (95% confidence interval (CI: 2.197-9.174 in the Han group and 2.989 (95% CI: 1.292-6.909 in the Uygur population. After adjustment of confounding factors such as sex, age, smoking, alcohol consumption, hypertension, diabetes, as well as serum levels of triglyceride, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, the difference remained significant in the Han group (P<0.001, OR = 6.604, 95% CI: 2.776-15.711 and in the Uygur group (P = 0.047, OR = 2.602, 95% CI: 1.015-6.671. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The 698CT genotype of C5L2 may be a genetic maker of CAD in the Han and Uygur population in western China.

  13. The IRMIS object model and services API

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saunders, C.; Dohan, D.A.; Arnold, N.D.

    2005-01-01

    The relational model developed for the Integrated Relational Model of Installed Systems (IRMIS) toolkit has been successfully used to capture the Advanced Photon Source (APS) control system software (EPICS process variables and their definitions). The relational tables are populated by a crawler script that parses each Input/Output Controller (IOC) start-up file when an IOC reboot is detected. User interaction is provided by a Java Swing application that acts as a desktop for viewing the process variable information. Mapping between the display objects and the relational tables was carried out with the Hibernate Object Relational Modeling (ORM) framework. Work is well underway at the APS to extend the relational modeling to include control system hardware. For this work, due in part to the complex user interaction required, the primary application development environment has shifted from the relational database view to the object oriented (Java) perspective. With this approach, the business logic is executed in Java rather than in SQL stored procedures. This paper describes the object model used to represent control system software, hardware, and interconnects in IRMIS. We also describe the services API used to encapsulate the required behaviors for creating and maintaining the complex data. In addition to the core schema and object model, many important concepts in IRMIS are captured by the services API. IRMIS is an ambitious collaborative effort for defining and developing a relational database and associated applications to comprehensively document the large and complex EPICS-based control systems of today's accelerators. The documentation effort includes process variables, control system hardware, and interconnections. The approach could also be used to document all components of the accelerator, including mechanical, vacuum, power supplies, etc. One key aspect of IRMIS is that it is a documentation framework, not a design and development tool. We do not

  14. Building Hypermedia APIs with HTML5 and Node

    CERN Document Server

    Amundsen, Mike

    2011-01-01

    With this concise book, you'll learn the art of building hypermedia APIs that don't simply run on the Web, but that actually exist in the Web. You'll start with the general principles and technologies behind this architectural approach, and then dive hands-on into three fully-functional API examples. Too many APIs rely on concepts rooted in desktop and local area network patterns that don't scale well-costly solutions that are difficult to maintain over time. This book shows system architects and web developers how to design and implement human- and machine-readable web services that remain

  15. Privacy Issues of the W3C Geolocation API

    OpenAIRE

    Doty, Nick; Mulligan, Deirdre K.; Wilde, Erik

    2010-01-01

    The W3C's Geolocation API may rapidly standardize the transmission of location information on the Web, but, in dealing with such sensitive information, it also raises serious privacy concerns. We analyze the manner and extent to which the current W3C Geolocation API provides mechanisms to support privacy. We propose a privacy framework for the consideration of location information and use it to evaluate the W3C Geolocation API, both the specification and its use in the wild, and recommend s...

  16. Assessment of nutritional resources quality from honeybees (Apis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Several environments were selected, namely a rainforest in. Kisangani ... Keywords: Apis mellifera adansonii, honey, bee bread, quality, nutrition, bee ecology, DRC. INTRODUCTION. Various ...... BKN, Co-Proponent of this work, contributed.

  17. Challenges associated with the honey bee ( Apis Mellifera Adansonii )

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Challenges associated with the honey bee ( Apis Mellifera Adansonii ) colonies ... Diseases like American and European foulbrood were absent while ... African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development, Volume 13 No. 2 April ...

  18. Practical Implementation of 10 Rules for Writing REST APIs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiri Hradil

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows a practical implementation of “10 Rules for Writing REST APIs introduced in the article” (Hradil, 2016. The application is done in Invoice Home (Wikilane, 2016, an invoicing web application for small business and entrepreneurs available world-wide. The API is implemented in JSON hypermedia format (ECMA International, 2016 and with Ruby on Rails framework (Hansson, 2016. The main purpose of the API is to allow connection of Invoice Home with external systems and offer Invoice Home data in simpler format compared to the current HTML format of the full-stack web application. The paper could be also used as a basic template or pattern for any other implementation of the JSON API in any web-based application.

  19. Construction of the Orsay ACO storage ring, 1: progress report. 2: detecting systems; La construction de l'anneau de stockage ACO d'Orsay, 1: etat des travaux. 2: systemes de detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanc-Lapierre, A; Arzelier, G; Beck, R A; Belbeoch, R; Boutouyrie, B; Bruck, H; Burnod, L; Gendreau, G; Gratreau, P; Haissinski, J; Jolivot, R; Laborde, J; Le Duff, J; Leleux, G; Marin, P C; Milman, B; Sommer, E; Zyngier, H [Laboratoire de l' Accelerateur Lineaire, 91 - Orsay (France); [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Augustin, J E; Rumpf, F; Silva, E

    1966-07-01

    1. - A brief progress report is given, with mention of the difficulties solved since the 1963 Dubna Conference and the extra facilities which will be available on the ring (beam observation and measurements); 2. - Typical large solid angle detecting systems and equipment for accurate monitoring under construction at Orsay are also presented. Emphasis is put on some peculiar features at ACO as a tool for physics: long experimental straight section and short length of the bunches. (authors) [French] 1. - Un bref rapport est presente sur l'etat d'avancement du projet ACO en precisant les difficultes resolues depuis la Conference de Dubna en 1963, et les moyens nouveaux mis en place sur l'anneau pour les observations et mesures sur les faisceaux; 2. - Des systemes de detection a grand angle solide et de monitorage precis, en construction a Orsay, sont egalement presentes. On insiste sur quelques traits particuliers d'ACO en tant qu'outil de travail de physique: section droite experimentale longue et paquets courts. (auteurs)

  20. Pemanfaatan Google Maps Api Untuk Visualisasi Data Base Transceiver Station

    OpenAIRE

    Rani, Septia

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of the Google Maps API to perform data visualization for Base Transceiver Station (BTS) data. BTS are typically used by telecommunications companies to facilitate wireless communication between communication devices with the network operator. Each BTS has important information such as it’s location, it’s transaction traffic, as well as information about revenue. With the implementation of BTS data visualization using the Google Maps API, key information owned by e...

  1. Safe "cloudification" of large images through picker APIs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremer, Erich; Kurc, Tahsin; Gao, Yi; Saltz, Joel; Almeida, Jonas S

    2016-01-01

    The "Box model" allows users with no particular training in informatics, or access to specialized infrastructure, operate generic cloud computing resources through a temporary URI dereferencing mechanism known as "drop-file-picker API" ("picker API" for sort). This application programming interface (API) was popularized in the web app development community by DropBox, and is now a consumer-facing feature of all major cloud computing platforms such as Box.com, Google Drive and Amazon S3. This reports describes a prototype web service application that uses picker APIs to expose a new, "cloudified", API tailored for image analysis, without compromising the private governance of the data exposed. In order to better understand this cross-platform cloud computing landscape, we first measured the time for both transfer and traversing of large image files generated by whole slide imaging (WSI) in Digital Pathology. The verification that there is extensive interconnectivity between cloud resources let to the development of a prototype software application that exposes an image-traversing REST API to image files stored in any of the consumer-facing "boxes". In summary, an image file can be upload/synchronized into a any cloud resource with a file picker API and the prototype service described here will expose an HTTP REST API that remains within the safety of the user's own governance. The open source prototype is publicly available at sbu-bmi.github.io/imagebox. Availability The accompanying prototype application is made publicly available, fully functional, with open source, at http://sbu-bmi.github.io/imagebox://sbu-bmi.github.io/imagebox. An illustrative webcasted use of this Web App is included with the project codebase at https://github.com/SBU-BMI/imageboxs://github.com/SBU-BMI/imagebox.

  2. Pemanfaatan Google Maps Api Untuk Visualisasi Data Base Transceiver Station

    OpenAIRE

    Rani, Septia

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of the Google Maps API to perform data visualization for Base Transceiver Station (BTS) data. BTS are typically used by telecommunications companies to facilitate wireless communication between communication devices with the network operator. Each BTS has important information such as it's location, it's transaction traffic, as well as information about revenue. With the implementation of BTS data visualization using the Google Maps API, key information owned by e...

  3. PEMANFAATAN GOOGLE MAPS API UNTUK VISUALISASI DATA BASE TRANSCEIVER STATION

    OpenAIRE

    Rani, Septia

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of the Google Maps API to perform data visualization for Base Transceiver Station (BTS) data. BTS are typically used by telecommunications companies to facilitate wireless communication between communication devices with the network operator. Each BTS has important information such as it’s location, it’s transaction traffic, as well as information about revenue. With the implementation of BTS data visualization using the Google Maps API, key information owned by e...

  4. DIGITAL TRANSFORMATION : HOW APIS DRIVE BUSINESS MODEL CHANGE AND INNOVATION

    OpenAIRE

    Hellbe, Simon; Leung, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Over the years, information technology has created opportunities to improve and extend businesses and to start conducting business in new ways. With the evolution of IT, all businesses and industries are becoming increasingly digitized. This process, or coevolution, of IT and business coming together is called digital transformation. One of the recent trends in this digital transformation is the use of application programmable interfaces (APIs). APIs are standardized digital communication int...

  5. Ultrasound stress measurements for API X65 pipes; Avaliacao por ultra-som das tensoes impostas em tubo API X-65

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medeiros, Raimundo C.; Santos, Ramon Loback Medeiros [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Bittencourt, Marcelo S.Q.; Lamy, Carlos A. [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Donato, Guilherme V.P. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    Risks of damages or even premature collapse of buried pipelines caused by their interaction with geologically unstable soils are well-established phenomena. Therefore, both monitoring and measurements of the actual loads transmitted by the soil to the pipeline are mandatory requirements, and define the necessity of developing new nondestructive techniques capable to carry out through evaluations of these loads in field. The aim of this paper has been placed on the presentation of a cutting-edge ultrasonic technology applied to stress measurements. To accomplish this purpose a series of ultrasonic tests were conducted on tensile specimens extracted from API 5L Grade X-65 steel pipe to determine its acoustic birefringence. The results have evidenced the acoustic birefringence to be a technique sufficiently consistent and, consequently, it shall be considered as a promising tool for the evaluation of the structural integrity of metallic structures in the near future. In addition, it was also observed that the use of this technique allows measuring the residual stress resulting from the pipe manufacturing process. (author)

  6. Taponamiento cardíaco secundario a carcinoma papilar esclerosante difuso de tiroides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Riva

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El carcinoma papilar, variante esclerosante difusa, corresponde al 2% de todos los carcinomas papilares de la tiroides. Se caracteriza por comprometer de manera difusa y bilateral a la glándula tiroides. Clínicamente se manifiesta con metástasis ganglionares y pulmonares, afectando predominantemente a mujeres jóvenes. Se describe un caso de taponamiento cardíaco como presentación inicial de un carcinoma papilar de tiroides variante esclerosante difusa. Una mujer de 32 años concurrió al servicio de emergencias médicas refiriendo epigastralgia y tos seca. Durante el examen físico se constató hipotensión arterial, taquicardia y ruidos cardíacos disminuidos. Se realizó un ecocardiograma, observándose derrame pericárdico. Por medio de una pericardiocentesis se obtuvo líquido pericárdico, cuyo análisis mostró células neoplásicas. Durante la evolución la paciente presentó recurrencia del derrame pericárdico por lo que se realizó una ventana pleuropericárdica, detectándose durante la cirugía una lesión nodular subpleural, la cual fue biopsiada e informada posteriormente como una metástasis de carcinoma papilar vinculable a origen tiroideo. Se realizó una tiroidectomía total con linfadenectomía cervical bilateral. El diagnóstico final fue carcinoma papilar, variante esclerosante difusa. Esta variante infiltra el tejido conectivo de los espacios interfoliculares, simulando una tiroiditis y se caracteriza por una permeación vascular temprana. En oposición a la variante clásica, la esclerosante difusa presenta mayor agresividad y mayor tasa de recurrencia. El carcinoma papilar de tiroides debe tenerse presente como diagnóstico diferencial en nuestro medio, en todas aquellas lesiones neoplásicas papilares metastásicas, más aún si se trata de mujeres jóvenes.

  7. Measurement properties of the EQ-5D-5L compared to the EQ-5D-3L in psoriasis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poór, Adrienn Katalin; Rencz, Fanni; Brodszky, Valentin; Gulácsi, László; Beretzky, Zsuzsanna; Hidvégi, Bernadett; Holló, Péter; Kárpáti, Sarolta; Péntek, Márta

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the measurement properties of EQ-5D-5L compared to EQ-5D-3L in psoriasis patients. A cross-sectional survey was carried out at an academic dermatology clinic in Hungary. Psoriasis patients completed the EQ-5D-3L, EQ-5D-5L and Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) questionnaires, and Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) was assessed. The UK value sets were used to calculate the 3L and 5L index scores. We tested the feasibility, ceiling effect, redistribution properties, the level of inconsistency and informativity (Shannon and Shannon Evenness indices). Spearman's rank-order correlations were performed between EQ-5D, EQ VAS, DLQI and PASI scores. Known-groups validity was evaluated by comparing age groups, clinical subtypes and treatment groups. Mean age of the 238 patients was 47 years, and 36.6% of them received biological therapy. Mean EQ-5D index score was 0.77 (SD: 0.26) with the 3L and 0.84 (SD: 0.19) with the 5L. The overall ceiling effect decreased from 37.1 (3L) to 32.9% (5L). Shannon index improved significantly for most dimensions, but Shannon Evenness index improved only in three dimensions. Compared to the 3L, the 5L version confirmed a better convergent validity with PASI, but not with the DLQI. Known-groups validity was equally demonstrated both for the 5L and 3L. The EQ-5D-5L seems to improve measurement properties by reducing ceiling effects, strengthening correlations with PASI and improving informativity. Follow-up studies are needed to test responsiveness and reliability in psoriasis.

  8. GIANT API: an application programming interface for functional genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Andrew M; Wong, Aaron K; Fisk, Ian; Troyanskaya, Olga G

    2016-07-08

    GIANT API provides biomedical researchers programmatic access to tissue-specific and global networks in humans and model organisms, and associated tools, which includes functional re-prioritization of existing genome-wide association study (GWAS) data. Using tissue-specific interaction networks, researchers are able to predict relationships between genes specific to a tissue or cell lineage, identify the changing roles of genes across tissues and uncover disease-gene associations. Additionally, GIANT API enables computational tools like NetWAS, which leverages tissue-specific networks for re-prioritization of GWAS results. The web services covered by the API include 144 tissue-specific functional gene networks in human, global functional networks for human and six common model organisms and the NetWAS method. GIANT API conforms to the REST architecture, which makes it stateless, cacheable and highly scalable. It can be used by a diverse range of clients including web browsers, command terminals, programming languages and standalone apps for data analysis and visualization. The API is freely available for use at http://giant-api.princeton.edu. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  9. Quality of life profile of general Vietnamese population using EQ-5D-5L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Long Hoang; Tran, Bach Xuan; Hoang Le, Quynh Ngoc; Tran, Tung Thanh; Latkin, Carl A

    2017-10-11

    Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is a vital benchmark to assess the effects of health interventions and policies. Measuring HRQOL of the general population is essential to establish a reference for health outcomes evaluations. However, evidence on HRQOL of general populations in low and middle income countries is very limited. This study aimed to measure HRQOL of the Vietnamese population by using the EuroQol-5 dimensions-5 levels (EQ-5D-5L) instrument and determine its associated factors. A cross-sectional study was performed in Hanoi with 1571 residences in Hanoi, the capital city of Vietnam. EQ-5D-5L and EQ- visual analogue scale (EQ-VAS) were used to assess HRQOL. Potential covariates included socio-demographic characteristics, having acute symptoms in the last four weeks, chronic diseases in the last three months, having multiple health issues, and health service utilisation in the last twelve months. A generalized linear model was employed to identify the association between HRQOL and covariates. Overall, the mean EQ-5D utility index was 0.91 (SD = 0.15), and the mean EQ-VAS score was 87.4 (SD = 14.3). The highest proportion of respondents reporting any problems was in Usual activities (24.3%), followed by Anxiety/Depression (15.2%) and Pain/Discomfort (10.0%), while the lowest percentage was in Self-care (2.5%). Lower HRQOL composite scores were related to unemployment, lower income, higher education, living in urban areas, having chronic diseases, having multiple health issues and using health service. For any health problem self-reported by respondents, the health utility reduced by 0.02 (respiratory diseases) to 0.15 (musculoskeletal diseases). Health utility of the general population and reductions for self-reported health problems in this study are useful for future population health evaluations and comparisons. It also informs the development of interventions to reduce health problems of the general population.

  10. Implementation of a Pilot ACO Payment Model and the Use of Discretionary and Non-Discretionary Cardiovascular Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colla, Carrie. H.; Goodney, Philip P.; Lewis, Valerie A.; Nallamothu, Brahmajee K.; Gottlieb, Daniel J.; Meara, Ellen R.

    2014-01-01

    Background Accountable care organizations (ACOs) seek to reduce growth in healthcare spending while ensuring high-quality care. We hypothesized that ACO implementation would selectively limit utilization of discretionary cardiovascular care (defined as care occurring in the absence of indications such as myocardial infarction or stroke), while maintaining high-quality care such as non-discretionary cardiovascular imaging and procedures. Methods and Results The intervention group was composed of fee-for-service Medicare patients (n=819,779) from 10 groups participating in a Medicare pilot ACO, the Physician Group Practice Demonstration (PGPD). Matched controls were patients (n=934,621) from non-participating groups in the same regions. We compared utilization of cardiovascular care before (2002-2004) and after (2005-2009) PGPD implementation, studying both discretionary and non-discretionary carotid and coronary imaging and procedures. Our main outcome measure was the difference in the proportion of patients treated with imaging and procedures, among patients of PGPD practices compared to patients in control practices, before and after PGPD implementation (difference-in-difference). For discretionary imaging, the difference-in-difference between PGPD practices and controls was not statistically significant for discretionary carotid imaging (0.17%; 95% CI -0.51% to 0.85%, p=0.595) or discretionary coronary imaging (-0.19%; 95% CI -0.73% to 0.35%, p=0.468). Similarly, the difference-in-difference was also minimal for discretionary carotid revascularization (0.003%; 95% CI -0.008% to 0.002%, p=0.705) and coronary revascularization (-0.02%, 95% CI -0.11% to 0.07%, p=0.06). The difference-in-difference associated with PGPD implementation was also essentially zero for non-discretionary cardiovascular imaging or procedures. Conclusions Implementation of a pilot ACO did not limit the utilization of discretionary or non-discretionary cardiovascular care in ten large health

  11. Identification of Complete Repertoire of Apis florea Odorant Receptors Reveals Complex Orthologous Relationships with Apis mellifera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpe, Snehal D.; Jain, Rikesh; Brockmann, Axel; Sowdhamini, Ramanathan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We developed a computational pipeline for homology based identification of the complete repertoire of olfactory receptor (OR) genes in the Asian honey bee species, Apis florea. Apis florea is phylogenetically the most basal honey bee species and also the most distant sister species to the Western honey bee Apis mellifera, for which all OR genes had been identified before. Using our pipeline, we identified 180 OR genes in A. florea, which is very similar to the number of ORs identified in A. mellifera (177 ORs). Many characteristics of the ORs including gene structure, synteny of tandemly repeated ORs and basic phylogenetic clustering are highly conserved. The composite phylogenetic tree of A. florea and A. mellifera ORs could be divided into 21 clades which are in harmony with the existing Hymenopteran tree. However, we found a few nonorthologous OR relationships between both species as well as independent pseudogenization of ORs suggesting separate evolutionary changes. Particularly, a subgroup of the OR gene clade XI, which had been hypothesized to code cuticular hydrocarbon receptors showed a high number of species-specific ORs. RNAseq analysis detected a total number of 145 OR transcripts in male and 162 in female antennae. Most of the OR genes were highly expressed on the female antennae. However, we detected five distinct male-biased OR genes, out of which three genes (AfOr11, AfOr18, AfOr170P) were shown to be male-biased in A. mellifera, too, thus corroborating a behavioral function in sex-pheromone communication. PMID:27540087

  12. Silencing of ACO decreases reproduction and energy metabolism in triazophos-treated female brown plant hoppers, Nilaparvata lugens Stål (Hemiptera: Delphacidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zong-Yu; Jiang, Yi-Ping; Li, Lei; You, Lin-Lin; Wu, You; Xu, Bin; Ge, Lin-Quan; Wu, Jin-Cai

    2016-03-01

    The brown plant hopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens Stål (Hemiptera: Delphacidae), is a major pest affecting rice in Asia, and outbreaks of this pest are closely linked to pesticide-induced stimulation of reproduction. Therefore, the BPH is a classic example of a resurgent pest. However, the effects of different genes on the regulation of pesticide-induced reproductive stimulation in the BPH are unclear. In this study, the regulatory effects of acyl-coenzyme A oxidase (ACO) on the reproduction and biochemistry of the BPH were investigated with gene silencing. The number of eggs laid per female by triazophos (TZP)+dsACO BPH females was significantly lower than those of TZP-treated (without ACO silencing) or TZP+GFP females (negative control), with the number of eggs decreasing by 30.8% (from 529.5 to 366.3) and 32.0% (from 540.5 to 366.3), respectively. The preoviposition period, oviposition period, and longevity of the TZP-treated females were also influenced by dsACO treatment. Additionally, the amounts of crude fat, protein, and some fatty acids (oleic acid, palmitic acid, linoleic acid, stearic acid, and myristoleic acid) in TZP+dsACO females were significantly lower than in TZP-treated females. Thus, ACO is one of the key genes regulating the TZP-induced stimulation of reproduction in BPH females. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Eight reasons payer interoperability and data sharing are essential in ACOs. Interoperability standards could be a prerequisite to measuring care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mookencherry, Shefali

    2012-01-01

    It makes strategic and business sense for payers and providers to collaborate on how to take substantial cost out of the healthcare delivery system. Acting independently, neither medical groups, hospitals nor health plans have the optimal mix of resources and incentives to significantly reduce costs. Payers have core assets such as marketing, claims data, claims processing, reimbursement systems and capital. It would be cost prohibitive for all but the largest providers to develop these capabilities in order to compete directly with insurers. Likewise, medical groups and hospitals are positioned to foster financial interdependence among providers and coordinate the continuum of patient illnesses and care settings. Payers and providers should commit to reasonable clinical and cost goals, and share resources to minimize expenses and financial risks. It is in the interest of payers to work closely with providers on risk-management strategies because insurers need synergy with ACOs to remain cost competitive. It is in the interest of ACOs to work collaboratively with payers early on to develop reasonable and effective performance benchmarks. Hence, it is essential to have payer interoperability and data sharing integrated in an ACO model.

  14. Honeybee (Apis mellifera ligustica) drone embryo proteomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianke; Fang, Yu; Zhang, Lan; Begna, Desalegn

    2011-03-01

    Little attention has been paid to the drone honeybee (Apis mellifera ligustica) which is a haploid individual carrying only the set of alleles that it inherits from its mother. Molecular mechanisms underlying drone embryogenesis are poorly understood. This study evaluated protein expression profiles of drone embryogenesis at embryonic ages of 24, 48 and 72h. More than 100 reproducible proteins were analyzed by mass spectrometry on 2D electrophoresis gels. Sixty-two proteins were significantly changed at the selected three experimental age points. Expression of the metabolic energy requirement-related protein peaked at the embryonic age of 48h, whereas development and metabolizing amino acid-related proteins expressed optimally at 72h. Cytoskeleton, protein folding and antioxidant-related proteins were highly expressed at 48 and 72h. Protein networks of the identified proteins were constructed and protein expressions were validated at the transcription level. This first proteomic study of drone embryogenesis in the honeybee may provide geneticists an exact timetable and candidate protein outline for further manipulations of drone stem cells. Crown Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Ant Colony Optimization ACO For The Traveling Salesman Problem TSP Using Partitioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alok Bajpai

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract An ant colony optimization is a technique which was introduced in 1990s and which can be applied to a variety of discrete combinatorial optimization problem and to continuous optimization. The ACO algorithm is simulated with the foraging behavior of the real ants to find the incremental solution constructions and to realize a pheromone laying-and-following mechanism. This pheromone is the indirect communication among the ants. In this paper we introduces the partitioning technique based on the divide and conquer strategy for the traveling salesman problem which is one of the most important combinatorial problem in which the original problem is partitioned into the group of sub problems. And then we apply the ant colony algorithm using candidate list strategy for each smaller sub problems. After that by applying the local optimization and combining the sub problems to find the good solution for the original problem by improving the exploration efficiency of the ants. At the end of this paper we have also be presented the comparison of result with the normal ant colony system for finding the optimal solution to the traveling salesman problem.

  16. Inhibiting DNA methylation alters olfactory extinction but not acquisition learning in Apis cerana and Apis mellifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Zhiwen; Wang, Chao; Nieh, James C; Tan, Ken

    2016-07-01

    DNA methylation plays a key role in invertebrate acquisition and extinction memory. Honey bees have excellent olfactory learning, but the role of DNA methylation in memory formation has, to date, only been studied in Apis mellifera. We inhibited DNA methylation by inhibiting DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) with zebularine (zeb) and studied the resulting effects upon olfactory acquisition and extinction memory in two honey bee species, Apis cerana and A. mellifera. We used the proboscis extension reflex (PER) assay to measure memory. We provide the first demonstration that DNA methylation is also important in the olfactory extinction learning of A. cerana. DNMT did not reduce acquisition learning in either species. However, zeb bidirectionally and differentially altered extinction learning in both species. In particular, zeb provided 1h before acquisition learning improved extinction memory retention in A. mellifera, but reduced extinction memory retention in A. cerana. The reasons for these differences are unclear, but provide a basis for future studies to explore species-specific differences in the effects of methylation on memory formation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Novel diagnostic tools for Asian (Apis cerana) and European (Apis mellifera) honey authentication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Sónia; Grazina, Liliana; Mafra, Isabel; Costa, Joana; Pinto, M Alice; Duc, Hanh Pham; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P; Amaral, Joana S

    2018-03-01

    Honey can be produced by different species of honeybees, with two being of economic importance due to their use in apiculture, namely Apis mellifera (known as European honeybee) and Apis cerana (known as Asian honeybee). Due to the decline of the wild populations of the Asian honeybee, this honey generally attains much higher market value, being prone to adulteration. This work aims at proposing new tools, based on the use of molecular markers, for the entomological authentication of honey. To this end, new species-specific primers were designed targeting the tRNA leu -cox2 intergenic region and allowing the detection of A. cerana DNA by qualitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Additionally, a novel real-time PCR method with high resolution melting analysis was developed to target the 16S rRNA gene of both bee species, allowing their discrimination in different clusters. The proposed methodologies were further applied with success in the authentication of Asian and European honey samples by the identification of honeybee DNA, demonstrating the usefulness of these simple and cost-effective new approaches. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A quick guide to API 510 certified pressure vessel inspector syllabus example questions and worked answers

    CERN Document Server

    Matthews, Clifford

    2010-01-01

    The API Individual Certification Programs (ICPs) are well established worldwide in the oil, gas, and petroleum industries. This Quick Guide is unique in providing simple, accessible and well-structured guidance for anyone studying the API 510 Certified Pressure Vessel Inspector syllabus by summarizing and helping them through the syllabus and providing multiple example questions and worked answers.Technical standards are referenced from the API 'body of knowledge' for the examination, i.e. API 510 Pressure vessel inspection, alteration, rerating; API 572 Pressure vessel inspection; API

  19. Association of Immune and Metabolic Receptors C5aR and C5L2 with Adiposity in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezvani, Reza; Gupta, Abhishek; Marceau, Picard; Tchernof, André

    2014-01-01

    Adipose tissue receptors C5aR and C5L2 and their heterodimerization/functionality and interaction with ligands C5a and acylation stimulating protein (ASP) have been evaluated in cell and rodent studies. Their contribution to obesity factors in humans remains unclear. We hypothesized that C5a receptors, classically required for host defense, are also associated with adiposity. Anthropometry and fasting blood parameters were measured in 136 women divided by body mass index (BMI): normal/overweight (≤30 kg/m2; n = 34), obese I (≤45 kg/m2; n = 33), obese II (≤51 kg/m2; n = 33), and obese III (≤80 kg/m2; n = 36). Subcutaneous and omental adipose tissue C5aR and C5L2 expression were analysed. C5L2 expression was comparable between subcutaneous and omental across all BMI groups. Plasma ASP and ASP/omental C5L2 expression increased with BMI (P correlations between C5L2/C5aR and waist circumference, HDL-C, and adiponectin. Tissue and BMI differences in receptors and ligands, particularly in omental, suggest relationship to metabolic disturbances and highlight adipose-immune interactions. PMID:24523571

  20. Thermodynamic phase behavior of API/polymer solid dispersions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prudic, Anke; Ji, Yuanhui; Sadowski, Gabriele

    2014-07-07

    To improve the bioavailability of poorly soluble active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs), these materials are often integrated into a polymer matrix that acts as a carrier. The resulting mixture is called a solid dispersion. In this work, the phase behaviors of solid dispersions were investigated as a function of the API as well as of the type and molecular weight of the carrier polymer. Specifically, the solubility of artemisinin and indomethacin was measured in different poly(ethylene glycol)s (PEG 400, PEG 6000, and PEG 35000). The measured solubility data and the solubility of sulfonamides in poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) K10 and PEG 35000 were modeled using the perturbed-chain statistical associating fluid theory (PC-SAFT). The results show that PC-SAFT predictions are in a good accordance with the experimental data, and PC-SAFT can be used to predict the whole phase diagram of an API/polymer solid dispersion as a function of the kind of API and polymer and of the polymer's molecular weight. This remarkably simplifies the screening process for suitable API/polymer combinations.

  1. A knowledge discovery object model API for Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Steven JM

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biological data resources have become heterogeneous and derive from multiple sources. This introduces challenges in the management and utilization of this data in software development. Although efforts are underway to create a standard format for the transmission and storage of biological data, this objective has yet to be fully realized. Results This work describes an application programming interface (API that provides a framework for developing an effective biological knowledge ontology for Java-based software projects. The API provides a robust framework for the data acquisition and management needs of an ontology implementation. In addition, the API contains classes to assist in creating GUIs to represent this data visually. Conclusions The Knowledge Discovery Object Model (KDOM API is particularly useful for medium to large applications, or for a number of smaller software projects with common characteristics or objectives. KDOM can be coupled effectively with other biologically relevant APIs and classes. Source code, libraries, documentation and examples are available at http://www.bcgsc.ca/bioinfo/software.

  2. Tumores cardíacos: 10 anos de experiência

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Augusto MIANA

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Avaliar a experiência cirúrgica do grupo no tratamento dos tumores cardíacos durante o período de janeiro de 1985 a dezembro de 1994. Casuística e Métodos: De um total de 2268 cirurgias cardíacas com circulação extracorpórea realizadas neste período de 10 anos, 6 foram para extirpação de tumores intracavitários, perfazendo 0,26% dos casos. Destes, 3 eram mixomas de átrio esquerdo, 1 fibroelastoma papilar de valva mitral, 1 rabdomioma de ventrículo esquerdo e 1 fibroma de ventrículo esquerdo. A forma clínica de apresentação foi embolia sistêmica (3 casos ou insuficiência cardíaca (3 casos. O diagnóstico foi ecocardiográfico (5 casos e angiográfico (6 casos. Resultados: Todos os pacientes tiveram evolução imediata favorável, exceto 1 deles, com mixoma de átrio equerdo, que evoluiu com mediastinite e septicemia, vindo a falecer e constituindo o único óbito hospitalar. O seguimento pós-operatório tardio, obtido em 4 pacientes (15 a 111 meses - média 49 ± 36,8 meses, não detectou qualquer recidiva, encontrando-se todos em classe funcional I (NYHA. Conclusões: Os autores concluem que os tumores cardíacos são bastante raros, de fácil diagnóstico desde que considerados, na grande maioria benignos e que cursam favoravelmente com a extirpação cirúrgica.Purpose: To review the surgical experience of our group in the treatment of primary cardiac tumors, during a 10 year period beginning January 1985 till December 1994. Material and Methods: From a total of 2268 cardiac surgeries with the aid of extracorporeal circulation performed during this 10 year period, there were 6 cases of intracavitary tumor resection, an incidence of 0.26%. Three were myxomas of the left atrium, 1 papillary fibroelastoma of the mitral valve, 1 rhabdomyoma of the left ventricule and 1 fibroma of the left ventricle. Three patients presented systemic embolism and the other three congestive heart failure. The diagnosis was confirmed

  3. Transplante cardíaco humano: experiência inicial Human cardiac transplant: initial experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noedir A. G Stolf

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available No Instituto do Coração, de março de 1985 a fevereiro de 1986,11 pacientes foram submetidos a transplante cardíaco ortotópico. Eram todos do sexo masculino, com idade variando de 39 a 54 anos; 6 com cardiopatia isquémica, 4 com cardiomiopatia dilatada e um com cardiomiopatia chagásica. Foi realizado estudo hemodinâmico através de catéter de Swan-Ganz, no pré-operatório, no pós-operatório, após estabilização na unidade de recuperação, e trinta ou mais dias após o transplante. Os dados mostram melhora progressiva em relação ao índice cardíaco, pressão em artéria pulmonar, pressão de capilar pulmonar, resistência vascular pulmonar e resistência vascular sistêmica. Três dos 11 pacientes apresentaram disfunção renal transitória no pós-operatório imediato e que regrediram até o 15º dia, enquanto que 2 pacientes apresentaram aumento moderado da creatinina plasmática. Apenas 3 pacientes não apresentaram qualquer episódio de rejeição; nos demais, esses episódios foram um diagnóstico histológico sem repercussões clínicas. Complicações infecciosas ocorreram em 9 pacientes e foram de fácil controle clínico. No pós-operatório tardio, a hipertensão esteve presente em 8 pacientes, sendo mais acentuada em 2 deles. Não houve óbitos, nesta série de pacientes; todos estão assintomáticos e os 6 primeiros estão trabalhando.At the Instituto do Cora��ão, University of São Paulo Medical School, 11 patients were submitted to heart transplantation from march 1985 up to february 1986. All were male, with ages of 39-59 years, 6 with coronary heart disease, 4 with dilated cardiomyopathy and 1 with Chagas cardiomyopathy. The patients were studied hemodynamically with a Swan-Ganz catheter pre-operatively, at the arrival in the intensive care unit, in the first postoperative day and 30 or more days after the transplant. The data showed that there was a progressive increase of cardiac index and decreases of

  4. Changes in oxidative stress in transgenic RNAi ACO1 tomato fruit during ripening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eglous, Najat Mohamed; Ali, Zainon Mohd; Hassan, Maizom; Zainal, Zamri

    2013-11-01

    Tomato (Solanum Lycopersicum L.) is the second most cultivated vegetable in the world and widely used as a system for studying the role of ethylene during fruit ripening. Our objective was to study the oxidative stress and antioxidative metabolism during ripening of non transgenic tomato and transgenic line-21 tomato which reduced ethylene. The line-21 of transgenic tomato plants (RNAi ACO1) had lower ethylene production and longer shelf-life more than 32 days as compared to the wild-type fruits which have very short shelf-life. In this study, tomato fruit were divided into five different stages (MG: mature green 5%, B: breaker 25%, T: turning 50%, O: orange75%, RR: red ripe100%). The activity of lipoxygenase (LOX) and lipid peroxidation (MDA) were measured to assess changes in oxidative stress. The LOX activity and MDA content decreased significantly obtaining 2.6-fold and 1.2-fold, respectively, as compared to the wild type fruit. However, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities were increased to 1.9 and 1.2 folds from the mature green to the fully ripe stage in transgenic tomatoes. Furthermore, the wild type tomato increases 1.3 in SOD and 1.6 in CAT activities. The overall results indicate that the wild type tomato fruit showed a faster rate of ripening, parallel to decline in the rate of enzymatic antioxidative systems as compared to the transgenic line-21 tomato fruit. In addition, the results show that the antioxidant capacity is improved during the ripening process and is accompanied by an increase in the oxidative stress.

  5. 2-Butyne-1,4-diol as a novel corrosion inhibitor for API X65 steel pipeline in carbonate/bicarbonate solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadeghi Meresht, E. [Materials Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, 1411713114, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shahrabi Farahani, T., E-mail: tshahrabi34@modares.ac.ir [Materials Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, 1411713114, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Neshati, J. [Research Institute of Petroleum Industry, RIPI, 1485733111, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Corrosion of API 5L X65 is effectively reduced by the addition of the inhibitor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The techniques include weight loss, potentiodynamic polarization, EIS and AFM. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 2-Butyne-1,4-diol acts as a mixed-type inhibitor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The adsorption of 2-butyne-1,4-diol obeys Langmuir adsorption isotherm. - Abstract: The inhibition effects of 2-butyne-1,4-diol on the corrosion susceptibility of grade API 5L X65 steel pipeline in 2 M Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}/1 M NaHCO{sub 3} solution were studied by electrochemical techniques and weight loss measurements. The results indicated that this inhibitor was a mixed-type inhibitor, with a maximum percentage inhibition efficiency of approximately 92% in the presence of 5 mM inhibitor. Atomic force microscopy revealed that a protective film was formed on the surface of the inhibited sample. The adsorption of the inhibitor was found to conform to the Langmuir isotherm with the standard adsorption free energy of -21.08 kJ mol{sup -1}.

  6. 2-Butyne-1,4-diol as a novel corrosion inhibitor for API X65 steel pipeline in carbonate/bicarbonate solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadeghi Meresht, E.; Shahrabi Farahani, T.; Neshati, J.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Corrosion of API 5L X65 is effectively reduced by the addition of the inhibitor. ► The techniques include weight loss, potentiodynamic polarization, EIS and AFM. ► 2-Butyne-1,4-diol acts as a mixed-type inhibitor. ► The adsorption of 2-butyne-1,4-diol obeys Langmuir adsorption isotherm. - Abstract: The inhibition effects of 2-butyne-1,4-diol on the corrosion susceptibility of grade API 5L X65 steel pipeline in 2 M Na 2 CO 3 /1 M NaHCO 3 solution were studied by electrochemical techniques and weight loss measurements. The results indicated that this inhibitor was a mixed-type inhibitor, with a maximum percentage inhibition efficiency of approximately 92% in the presence of 5 mM inhibitor. Atomic force microscopy revealed that a protective film was formed on the surface of the inhibited sample. The adsorption of the inhibitor was found to conform to the Langmuir isotherm with the standard adsorption free energy of −21.08 kJ mol −1 .

  7. Quality of life profile and psychometric properties of the EQ-5D-5L in HIV/AIDS patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran Bach

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives We assessed health-related quality of life (HRQOL, its associated factors, and examined measurement properties of the EuroQol - 5 Dimensions - 5 Levels (EQ-5D-5L in HIV/AIDS patients. Methods A cross-sectional multi-site survey was conducted in 1016 patients (age: 35.4 ± 7.0 years; 63.8% male in three epicenters of Vietnam. Internal consistency reliability, convergent validity, and discriminative validity of the EQ-5D-5L and a visual analogue scale (VAS were evaluated. Tobit censored regression models were used to identify predictors of HRQOL in HIV/AIDS patients. Results The mean EQ-5D-5L single index and VAS were 0.65 (95% Confidence Interval (CI = 0.63; 0.67 and 70.3 (95% CI = 69.2; 71.5. Cronbach’s alpha of five dimensions was 0.85. EQ-5D-5L has a good convergent validity with VAS (0.73. It discriminated patients at different HIV/AIDS stages, duration of ART, and CD4 cell count. Predictors of poorer HRQOL included being female, lower education level, unemployment, alcohol and drug use, CD4 Conclusion The EQ-5D-5L has good measurement properties in HIV/AIDS patients and holds potentials for monitoring ART outcomes. Integration of HRQOL measurement using EQ-5D-5L in HIV/AIDS clinical practice could be helpful for economic evaluation of HIV/AIDS interventions.

  8. Cross-cultural measurement equivalence of the EQ-5D-5L items for English-speaking Asians in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, N; Wang, Y; How, C H; Wong, K Y; Shen, L; Tay, E G; Thumboo, J; Herdman, M

    2015-06-01

    To investigate how the response labels of the 5-level EQ-5D (EQ-5D-5L) items are interpreted and used by English-speaking Chinese and non-Chinese Singaporeans, as a means to assessing whether those items are cross-culturally equivalent health-status measures in this Asian population. In face-to-face interviews, Chinese, Malay and Indian visitors to a primary care institution in Singapore were asked to rate the relative severity conveyed by EQ-5D-5L response labels, each containing the keyword of 'no(t),' 'slight(ly),' 'moderate(ly),' 'severe(ly),' or 'unable'/'extreme(ly),' using a 0-100 numerical rating scale. Participants were also asked to describe 25 hypothetical health states using the EQ-5D-5L response labels. Differences between Chinese and Malay/Indian participants in label interpretation and selection were examined using multivariate regression analysis to adjust for participant characteristics. The differences in adjusted mean severity scores for individual EQ-5D-5L labels between Chinese (n = 148) and non-Chinese (Malay: n = 53; Indian: n = 56) participants ranged from 0.0 to 9.0. The relative severity of the labels to the participants supported the ordinality of the EQ-5D-5L response labels and was similar across ethnic groups. Chinese and non-Chinese participants selected similar response labels to describe each hypothetical health state, with the adjusted odds ratios of selecting any type of the five response labels for non-Chinese versus Chinese participants ranging from 0.92 to 1.15 (p > 0.05 for all). The EQ-5D-5L items are likely to generate equivalent health outcomes between English-speaking Chinese and non-Chinese Singaporeans.

  9. Comparing the UK EQ-5D-3L and English EQ-5D-5L Value Sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulhern, Brendan; Feng, Yan; Shah, Koonal; Janssen, Mathieu F; Herdman, Michael; van Hout, Ben; Devlin, Nancy

    2018-06-01

    Three EQ-5D value sets (EQ-5D-3L, crosswalk, and EQ-5D-5L) are now available for cost-utility analysis in the UK and/or England. The value sets' characteristics differ, and it is important to assess the implications of these differences. The aim of this paper is to compare the three value sets. We carried out analysis comparing the predicted values from each value set, and investigated how differences in health on the descriptive system is reflected in the utility score by assessing the value of adjacent states. We also assessed differences in values using data from patients who completed both EQ-5D-3L and EQ-5D-5L. The distribution of the value sets systematically differed. EQ-5D-5L values were higher than EQ-5D-3L/crosswalk values. The overall range and difference between adjacent states was smaller. In the patient data, the EQ-5D-5L produced higher values across all conditions and there was some evidence that the value sets rank different health conditions in a similar severity order. There are important differences between the value sets. Due to the smaller range of EQ-5D-5L values, the possible change in quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) might be reduced, but they will apply to both control and intervention groups, and will depend on whether the gain is in quality of life, survival, or both. The increased sensitivity of EQ-5D-5L may also favour QALY gains even if the changes in utility are smaller. Further work should assess the impact of the different value sets on cost effectiveness by repeating the analysis on clinical trial data.

  10. APIs for QoS configuration in Software Defined Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caba, Cosmin Marius; Soler, José

    2015-01-01

    The OpenFlow (OF) protocol is widely used in Software Defined Networking (SDN) to realize the communication between the controller and forwarding devices. OF allows great flexibility in managing traffic flows. However, OF alone is not enough to build more complex SDN services that require complete...... such as configuration of devices, ports, queues, etc. An Application Programming Interface (API) for dynamic configuration of QoS resources in the network devices is implemented herein, by using the capabilities of OVSDB. Further, the paper demonstrates the possibility to create network services with coarse granularity...... on top of the fine granular services exposed by the QoS configuration API at the SDNC. A series of tests emphasize the capabilities and the performance of the implemented QoS configuration API....

  11. Safe “cloudification” of large images through picker APIs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremer, Erich; Kurc, Tahsin; Gao, Yi; Saltz, Joel; Almeida, Jonas S

    2016-01-01

    The “Box model” allows users with no particular training in informatics, or access to specialized infrastructure, operate generic cloud computing resources through a temporary URI dereferencing mechanism known as “drop-file-picker API” (“picker API” for sort). This application programming interface (API) was popularized in the web app development community by DropBox, and is now a consumer-facing feature of all major cloud computing platforms such as Box.com, Google Drive and Amazon S3. This reports describes a prototype web service application that uses picker APIs to expose a new, “cloudified”, API tailored for image analysis, without compromising the private governance of the data exposed. In order to better understand this cross-platform cloud computing landscape, we first measured the time for both transfer and traversing of large image files generated by whole slide imaging (WSI) in Digital Pathology. The verification that there is extensive interconnectivity between cloud resources let to the development of a prototype software application that exposes an image-traversing REST API to image files stored in any of the consumer-facing “boxes”. In summary, an image file can be upload/synchronized into a any cloud resource with a file picker API and the prototype service described here will expose an HTTP REST API that remains within the safety of the user’s own governance. The open source prototype is publicly available at sbu-bmi.github.io/imagebox. Availability The accompanying prototype application is made publicly available, fully functional, with open source, at http://sbu-bmi.github.io/imagebox://sbu-bmi.github.io/imagebox. An illustrative webcasted use of this Web App is included with the project codebase at https://github.com/SBU-BMI/imageboxs://github.com/SBU-BMI/imagebox. PMID:28269829

  12. Application of Skype API to Control Working Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Vasilev

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to present an innovative approach to monitor and control working time. A special software program is developed by Delphi implementing Skype API functions. This article shows three different approaches to control working time using the Skype_API program. It automatically detects when an employee goes to his working place and when he leaves work. Moreover it can check periodically weather an employee is at work. The proposed ideas are written for the first time. They may be applied easily in many enterprises with very low costs.

  13. Sedação com sufentanil e clonidina em pacientes submetidos a cateterismo cardíaco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Perpetua Carvalho Rocha

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: A sedação para a realização de cateterismo cardíaco tem sido alvo de preocupação. Benzodiazepínicos, agonistas alfa-2 adrenérgicos e opioides são utilizados para esse fim, entretanto, cada um destes medicamentos possui vantagens e desvantagens. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a eficácia do sufentanil e da clonidina como sedativos em pacientes submetidos a cateterismo cardíaco, observando o impacto dos mesmos sobre os parâmetros hemodinâmicos e respiratórios, a presença de efeitos colaterais, além da satisfação do paciente e do hemodinamicista com o exame. MÉTODOS: Trata-se de um ensaio clínico prospectivo, duplo-cego, randomizado e controlado, que envolveu 60 pacientes que receberam 0,1 µg/kg de sufentanil ou 0,5 µg/kg de clonidina antes da realização do cateterismo cardíaco. O escore de sedação segundo a escala de Ramsay, a necessidade de utilização de midazolam, os efeitos colaterais, os parâmetros hemodinâmicos e respiratórios foram registrados, sendo os dados analisados em 06 diferentes momentos. RESULTADOS: O comportamento da pressão arterial, da frequência cardíaca e da frequência respiratória foi semelhante nos dois grupos, entretanto, no momento 2, os pacientes do grupo sufentanil (Grupo S apresentaram menor escore de sedação segundo a escala de Ramsay, e a saturação periférica da oxihemoglobina foi menor que o grupo clonidina (Grupo C no momento 6. Os pacientes do Grupo S apresentaram maior incidência de náusea e vômito pós-operatório que os pacientes do Grupo C. A satisfação dos pacientes foi maior no grupo clonidina. Os hemodinamicistas mostraram-se satisfeitos nos dois grupos. CONCLUSÃO: O sufentanil e a clonidina foram efetivos como sedativos em pacientes submetidos a cateterismo cardíaco.

  14. Manejo de las dislipidemias en pacientes cardíacos trasplantados. Hallazgos sobre nuevos factores de riesgo

    OpenAIRE

    Walter Masson; Norberto Vulcano; Sandra Fernández; Alberto Domenech; Ricardo Marenchino; Daniel Bracco; César Belziti

    2008-01-01

    En pacientes cardíacos trasplantados, el desarrollo de enfermedad vascular coronaria es una complicación frecuente y la dislipidemia es uno de los predictores más importantes. Los inmunosupresores predisponen a las dislipidemias y dificultan la utilización de hipolipemiantes. En este grupo particular de pacientes se recomienda alcanzar las metas terapéuticas de prevención secundaria. Las estatinas son los hipolipemiantes de elección. No existen recomendaciones claras sobre nuevos factores de ...

  15. Manejo de las dislipidemias en pacientes cardíacos trasplantados: Hallazgos sobre nuevos factores de riesgo

    OpenAIRE

    Masson, Walter; Vulcano, Norberto; Fernández, Sandra; Domenech, Alberto; Marenchino, Ricardo; Braccomtsac, Daniel; Belziti, César

    2008-01-01

    En pacientes cardíacos trasplantados, el desarrollo de enfermedad vascular coronaria es una complicación frecuente y la dislipidemia es uno de los predictores más importantes. Los inmunosupresores predisponen a las dislipidemias y dificultan la utilización de hipolipemiantes. En este grupo particular de pacientes se recomienda alcanzar las metas terapéuticas de prevención secundaria. Las estatinas son los hipolipemiantes de elección. No existen recomendaciones claras sobre nuevos factores de ...

  16. CO2 Measurements from Space: Lessons Learned from the Collaboration between the ACOS/OCO-2 and GOSAT Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisp, D.; Eldering, A.; Gunson, M. R.

    2012-12-01

    The NASA Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) and the Japanese Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) were the first two missions designed to collect space-based observations of the column-averaged CO2 dry air mole fraction, XCO2, with the sensitivity, coverage, and resolution needed to quantify CO2 fluxes on regional scales over the globe. The OCO and GOSAT teams formed a close collaboration during the development phases of these missions. After the loss of OCO, the GOSAT project team invited the OCO team to contribute to the analysis of measurements collected by the GOSAT Thermal And Near infrared Sensor for carbon Observations-Fourier Transform Spectrometer (TANSO-FTS). NASA responded by reformulating the OCO science team under the Atmospheric CO2 Observations from Space (ACOS) task to exploit this opportunity. This collaboration is providing an independent GOSAT XCO2 product, and valuable insights into the retrieval algorithms, calibration methods, and validation techniques that are being developed to analyze data anticipated the NASA Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2). The ACOS/OCO-2 and GOSAT teams have conducted four, joint, vicarious calibration campaigns at Railroad Valley, Nevada to track the long-term radiometric performance of the TANSO-FTS instrument. The methods used in these campaigns evolved from those used to characterize the radiometric performance of high spatial resolution, imaging spectroradiometers. For TANSO-FTS, the conventional, surface based radiometric measurements have been augmented with surface and aircraft measurements of atmospheric temperature and trace gas profiles, as well as surface observations from MODIS and ASTER to characterize spatial variations of the surface reflectance within the (relatively large) sounding footprints. Similar methods will be needed for OCO-2. The ACOS/OCO-2 retrieval algorithm and associated data screening methods have been modified to estimate XCO2 from TANSO-FTS observations. Comparisons of TANSO

  17. Correction to: Comparing the UK EQ-5D-3L and English EQ-5D-5L Value Sets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Mulhern (Brendan); Feng, Y. (Yan); K.K. Shah (Koonal); M.F. Janssen (Bas); M. Herdman (Michael); van Hout, B. (Ben); N. Devlin (Nancy)

    2018-01-01

    textabstractThe article Comparing the UK EQ-5D-3L and English EQ-5D-5L Value Sets, written by Brendan Mulhern, Yan Feng, Koonal Shah, Mathieu F. Janssen, Michael Herdman, Ben van Hout, Nancy Devlin was originally published electronically on the publisher’s internet portal (currently SpringerLink) on

  18. Light-induced translocation of RGS9-1 and Gβ5L in mouse rod photoreceptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Tian

    Full Text Available The transducin GTPase-accelerating protein complex, which determines the photoresponse duration of photoreceptors, is composed of RGS9-1, Gβ5L and R9AP. Here we report that RGS9-1 and Gβ5L change their distribution in rods during light/dark adaptation. Upon prolonged dark adaptation, RGS9-1 and Gβ5L are primarily located in rod inner segments. But very dim-light exposure quickly translocates them to the outer segments. In contrast, their anchor protein R9AP remains in the outer segment at all times. In the dark, Gβ5L's interaction with R9AP decreases significantly and RGS9-1 is phosphorylated at S(475 to a significant degree. Dim light exposure leads to quick de-phosphorylation of RGS9-1. Furthermore, after prolonged dark adaptation, RGS9-1 and transducin Gα are located in different cellular compartments. These results suggest a previously unappreciated mechanism by which prolonged dark adaptation leads to increased light sensitivity in rods by dissociating RGS9-1 from R9AP and redistributing it to rod inner segments.

  19. a five year review of api20e bacteria identification system's

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The API20E system (API; bioMérieux, France) is a plastic strip with microtubes containing dehydrated substrates, originally designed for the identification of Enterobacteriaceae so that identification of fermenters with the system would be straightforward. The API20E system was extended to include non- fermenters by the ...

  20. A method for designing fiberglass sucker-rod strings with API RP 11L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jennings, J.W.; Laine, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents a method for using the API recommended practice for the design of sucker-rod pumping systems with fiberglass composite rod strings. The API method is useful for obtaining quick, approximate, preliminary design calculations. Equations for calculating all the composite material factors needed in the API calculations are given

  1. Predominant Api m 10 sensitization as risk factor for treatment failure in honey bee venom immunotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frick, Marcel; Fischer, Jörg; Helbing, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Component resolution recently identified distinct sensitization profiles in honey bee venom (HBV) allergy, some of which were dominated by specific IgE to Api m 3 and/or Api m 10, which have been reported to be underrepresented in therapeutic HBV preparations. OBJECTIVE: We performed...... responders and nonresponders regarding levels of IgE sensitization to Api m 1, Api m 2, Api m 3, and Api m 5. In contrast, Api m 10 specific IgE was moderately but significantly increased in nonresponders. Predominant Api m 10 sensitization (>50% of specific IgE to HBV) was the best discriminator...... (specificity, 95%; sensitivity, 25%) with an odds ratio of 8.444 (2.127-33.53; P = .0013) for treatment failure. Some but not all therapeutic HBV preparations displayed a lack of Api m 10, whereas Api m 1 and Api m 3 immunoreactivity was comparable to that of crude HBV. In line with this, significant Api m 10...

  2. On the reaction to deprecation of clients of 4 + 1 popular Java APIs and the JDK

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sawant, A.A.; Robbes, Romain; Bacchelli, A.

    2017-01-01

    Application Programming Interfaces (APIs) are a tremendous resource—that is, when they are stable. Several studies have shown that this is unfortunately not the case. Of those, a large-scale study of API changes in the Pharo Smalltalk ecosystem documented several findings about API deprecations

  3. Resisting majesty: Apis cerana, has lower antennal sensitivity and decreased attraction to queen mandibular pheromone than Apis mellifera

    OpenAIRE

    Shihao Dong; Ping Wen; Qi Zhang; Xinyu Li; Ken Tan; James Nieh

    2017-01-01

    In highly social bees, queen mandibular pheromone (QMP) is vital for colony life. Both Apis cerana (Ac) and Apis mellifera (Am) share an evolutionarily conserved set of QMP compounds: (E)-9-oxodec-2-enoic acid (9-ODA), (E)-9-hydroxydec-2-enoic acid (9-HDA), (E)-10-hydroxy-dec-2-enoic acid (10-HDA), 10-hydroxy-decanoic acid (10-HDAA), and methyl p?hydroxybenzoate (HOB) found at similar levels. However, evidence suggests there may be species-specific sensitivity differences to QMP compounds bec...

  4. Impacto del riesgo cardíaco sobre la Aneurismectomía

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orestes Díaz Hernández

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Se realiza un análisis cardiológico a 100 pacientes a los cuales se les efectuó cirugía electiva por aneurisma de la aorta abdominal infrarrenal; para esto se emplearon 5 métodos: el índice de riesgo cardíaco de Goldman original y modificado, los marcadores coronarios de Eagle, las indicaciones por niveles recomendadas por Hollier y la ecuación de Cooperman. La cardiopatía isquémica se detectó en el 59 % del total de los pacientes. De ellos, el 43 % tenía antecedentes de infarto del miocardio, el 33 % angina estable bajo tratamiento medicamentoso, el 6 % insuficiencia cardíaca congestiva con tratamiento digitálico y el 11 % un ritmo no sinusal detectado en el electrocardiograma. La supervivencia a largo plazo en la cardiopatía isquémica se comportó al año y 2 años en el 80 %, a los 5 años en el 72 % y a los 10 y 13 años en el 35 %. Se propone un algoritmo simple y modificado de valoración cardiológica en los pacientes que muestran aneurisma de la aorta abdominalA cardiological analysis of 100 patients whe underwent elective surgery due to infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm was made. 5 methods were used to this end: the original and modified Goldman´s cardiac resk index, Eagle´s coronary markers, the indications by levels recommended by Hollier and Cooperman´s equation. Ischaemic heart disease was detected in 59 % of the patients. 43 % of them had history of myocardial infarction, 33 % of stable angina under drug treatment, 6 % of congestive heart failure with digitalis treatment and 11 % had a nonsinusal rate detected in the EKG. Among those suffering from schemic heart disease there was a long term survival of 80 % at the lst and 2nd year, 72 % at the 5 th year, and 35 % at the 10th and 13th year. A simple and modified algorithm of cardiological assessment was proposed for patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm

  5. Transplante cardíaco ortotópico pela técnica bicaval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHACCUR Paulo

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Há trinta anos tem sido empregada a técnica descrita por Lower e Shumway para o transplante cardíaco ortotópico, com bons resultados. Complicações, como estase venosa, formação de trombos, arritmias atriais e insuficiência das valvas tricúspide e mitral, estão presentes no pós-operatório tardio. A partir de 1995, passamos a utilizar a técnica bicaval em todos os casos (6 pacientes. Cinco eram do sexo masculino e a média de idades dos receptores era de 50,6 anos. A cardiomiopatia era dilatada e isquêmica em 2 casos cada, e chagásica e reumática nos demais. Três pacientes apresentavam operações prévias, sendo que um deles havia sido submetido a três operações de prótese valvar aórtica, o segundo a implante de marcapasso epimiocárdico definitivo, e o último a duas operações de revascularização do miocárdio associada a aneurismectomia de ventrículo esquerdo. A técnica cirúrgica consistiu, na maioria dos casos, na anastomose das veias pulmonares, em conjunto com o átrio esquerdo do coração a ser implantado e, a seguir, a da cava superior, inferior, do tronco pulmonar e aorta. Todos os doadores estavam em hospitais da cidade e com retirada múltipla de órgãos. Não tivemos óbito hospitalar e todos os pacientes estão vivos para um período de um a quinze meses de pós-operatório. Não houve diferença significativa quando se comparou as duas técnicas para o tempo de anóxia, tempo de C E C, tempo de implante, presença de taquiarritmias atriais, sangramento e permanência hospitalar. Houve diferença significativa (p<0,05 para a utilização de marcapasso temporário e presença de insuficiência tricúspide. Acreditamos que a técnica bicaval, além de reduzir o tamanho das cavidades atriais, é uma técnica simples, com índice menor de complicações e que poderá ser empregada com mais freqüência.

  6. A survey of the ethnozoological knowledge of honey bees Apis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey of the ethnozoological knowledge of honey bee Apis mellifera in Ijebu division of South western Nigeria was carried out to examine the pattern of invasion, control methods of their invasion and their effects in life and economy of the people which also include the medicinal and traditional utilization. The Survey was ...

  7. Effects of honeybee ( Apis mellifera ) pollination on seed set in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to determine the efficiency of pollination with honeybee (Apis mellifera) on sunflower hybrid seed production under different types of pollination during 2005 and 2006 in Mustafakemalpasa-Bursa, Turkey. Three pollination types (1) in cages with honeybees, (2) hand pollination (in cages) and (3) in ...

  8. Improving honey production in worker bees (Apis mellifera adansoni ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Modification of feeding activity, nursing care and undertaker behaviour were carried out among some colonies of honey bees Apis mellifera adansoni L to know the effect on honey production. Apiaries Numbers 1, 2 and 3 contain three replicates of experimental hives while apiary Number 4 contains control hives. All the ...

  9. JASPAR RESTful API: accessing JASPAR data from any programming language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Aziz; Mathelier, Anthony

    2018-05-01

    JASPAR is a widely used open-access database of curated, non-redundant transcription factor binding profiles. Currently, data from JASPAR can be retrieved as flat files or by using programming language-specific interfaces. Here, we present a programming language-independent application programming interface (API) to access JASPAR data using the Representational State Transfer (REST) architecture. The REST API enables programmatic access to JASPAR by most programming languages and returns data in eight widely used formats. Several endpoints are available to access the data and an endpoint is available to infer the TF binding profile(s) likely bound by a given DNA binding domain protein sequence. Additionally, it provides an interactive browsable interface for bioinformatics tool developers. This REST API is implemented in Python using the Django REST Framework. It is accessible at http://jaspar.genereg.net/api/ and the source code is freely available at https://bitbucket.org/CBGR/jaspar under GPL v3 license. aziz.khan@ncmm.uio.no or anthony.mathelier@ncmm.uio.no. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  10. Silk formation mechanisms in the larval salivary glands of Apis ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    The mechanism of silk formation in Apis mellifera salivary glands, during the 5th instar, was studied. Larval salivary glands were dissected and prepared for light and polarized light microscopy, as well as for scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The results showed that silk formation starts at the middle of the 5th ...

  11. ANALISA PEREKAMAN DATA SUARA DARI SISTEM BLACKBOX PADA KERETA API

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emy Setyaningsih

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available             Makalah ini akan membahas tentang penerapan black box pada kereta api yang diadopsi pertama kali pada pesawat, dengan parameter perekam suara hingga waktu simpan kurang dari 1 hari 8 jam pada media penyimpanan SD Card. Tujuan dari pengujian pada makalah ini adalah membandingkan sumber suara terhadap jarak penerima, sebagai parameter perubahan tingkat suara “dB”. Sistem perekaman suara yang akan ditempatkan pada kereta api ini menggunakan modul rangkaian terintregasi WTR010. Voice record WTR010 merupakan modul rangkaian terintegrasi untuk merekam suara sendiri atau pun suara dari file music / video pada komputer dengan sangat mudah. Modul ini bisa merekam suara sendiri dan langsung di simpan ke dalam format audio. Format audio yang disediakan oleh modul voice record adalah format AD4 dan wav. Hasil pengujian modul black box yang diletakkan pada kereta api, dengan mencoba mengucapkan kata  “SAYA”,  suara dapat terekam pada modul perekam suara yang selanjutnya diolah menggunakan ”software sound editor” yang disimpan pada SD Card ber-ekstensi “wav”. Perbandingan sumber suara terhadap jarak penerima dari pengujian didapatkan sebuah persamaan regresi linier  y = -( 31x – 11  dan R² = 0.972.  Pengujian ini menghasilkan penekanan suara dB dan frekuensi sample Hz yang berbeda.  Kata kunci: black box kereta api, perekaman suara, WTR010

  12. Foraging and pollination behaviour of the African Honey bee ( Apis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Foraging and pollination behaviour of the African Honey bee (Apis mellifera adansonii) on Callistemon rigidus flowers in Ngaoundere (Cameroon). F-N Tchuenguem Fohouo, J Messi, D Brüchner, B Bouba, G Mbofung, J Hentchoya Hemo. Abstract. No Abstract Available Journal of the Cameroon Academy of Sciences ...

  13. Effects of Apis mellifera adansonii, L. 1758 (Apidae: Hymenoptera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of Apis mellifera adansonii, L. 1758 (Apidae: Hymenoptera) pollination on yields of Cucumeropsis mannii (Naudin) in Kisangani, Democratic Republic of Congo. Boniface Posho Ndola, Yves Brostaux, Guillaume Le Goff, Marie-Lucie Susini, Eric Haubruge, Frederic Francis, Bach Kim Nguyen ...

  14. Standard methods for research on apis mellifera gut symbionts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gut microbes can play an important role in digestion, disease resistance, and the general health of animals, but little is known about the biology of gut symbionts in Apis mellifera. This paper is part of a series on honey bee research methods, providing protocols for studying gut symbionts. We desc...

  15. Studies on the life cycle and morphometrics of honeybees, Apis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The life cycle of the honeybee, Apis mellifera adansonii, was studied in mangrove area by monitoring the developmental stages and morphology of the castes. It was observed that the fate of the eggs were predetermined at the onset leading to drones, queens or workers. It was also established that the three different castes ...

  16. The MPO API: A tool for recording scientific workflows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, John C., E-mail: jcwright@mit.edu [MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Cambridge, MA (United States); Greenwald, Martin; Stillerman, Joshua [MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Cambridge, MA (United States); Abla, Gheni; Chanthavong, Bobby; Flanagan, Sean; Schissel, David; Lee, Xia [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Romosan, Alex; Shoshani, Arie [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-05-15

    Highlights: • A description of a new framework and tool for recording scientific workflows, especially those resulting from simulation and analysis. • An explanation of the underlying technologies used to implement this web based tool. • Several examples of using the tool. - Abstract: Data from large-scale experiments and extreme-scale computing is expensive to produce and may be used for high-consequence applications. The Metadata, Provenance and Ontology (MPO) project builds on previous work [M. Greenwald, Fusion Eng. Des. 87 (2012) 2205–2208] and is focused on providing documentation of workflows, data provenance and the ability to data-mine large sets of results. While there are important design and development aspects to the data structures and user interfaces, we concern ourselves in this paper with the application programming interface (API) – the set of functions that interface with the data server. Our approach for the data server is to follow the Representational State Transfer (RESTful) software architecture style for client–server communication. At its core, the API uses the POST and GET methods of the HTTP protocol to transfer workflow information in message bodies to targets specified in the URL to and from the database via a web server. Higher level API calls are built upon this core API. This design facilitates implementation on different platforms and in different languages and is robust to changes in the underlying technologies used. The command line client implementation can communicate with the data server from any machine with HTTP access.

  17. Physical stability of API/polymer-blend amorphous solid dispersions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmkemper, Kristin; Kyeremateng, Samuel O; Bartels, Mareike; Degenhardt, Matthias; Sadowski, Gabriele

    2018-03-01

    The preparation of amorphous solid dispersions (ASDs) is a well-established strategy for formulating active pharmaceutical ingredients by embedding them in excipients, usually amorphous polymers. Different polymers can be combined for designing ASDs with desired properties like an optimized dissolution behavior. One important criterion for the development of ASD compositions is the physical stability. In this work, the physical stability of API/polymer-blend ASDs was investigated by thermodynamic modeling and stability studies. Amorphous naproxen (NAP) and acetaminophen (APAP) were embedded in blends of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose acetate succinate (HPMCAS) and either poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) or poly(vinylpyrrolidone-co-vinyl acetate) (PVPVA64). Parameters for modeling the API solubility in the blends and the glass-transition temperature curves of the water-free systems with Perturbed-Chain Statistical Associating Fluid Theory and Kwei equation, respectively, were correlated to experimental data. The phase behavior for standardized storage conditions (0%, 60% and 75% relative humidity (RH)) was predicted and compared to six months-long stability studies. According to modeling and experimental results, the physical stability was reduced with increasing HPMCAS content and increasing RH. This trend was observed for all investigated systems, with both APIs (NAP and APAP) and both polymer blends (PVP/HPMCAS and PVPVA64/HPMCAS). PC-SAFT and the Kwei equation turned out to be suitable tools for modeling and predicting the physical stability of the investigated API/polymer-blends ASDs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Sperm use economy of honeybee (Apis mellifera) queens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baer, Boris; Collins, Jason; Maalaps, Kristiina

    2016-01-01

    the fecundity and longevity of queens and therefore colony fitness. We quantified the number of sperm that honeybee (Apis mellifera) queens use to fertilize eggs. We examined sperm use in naturally mated queens of different ages and in queens artificially inseminated with different volumes of semen. We found...

  19. Modelling the subgenual organ of the honeybee, Apis mellifera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storm, Jesper; Kilpinen, Ole

    1998-01-01

    In a recent study on the honeybee (Apis mellifera), the subgenual organ was observed moving inside the leg during sinusoidal vibrations of the leg (Kilpinen and Storm 1997). The subgenual organ of the honeybee is suspended in a haemolymph channel in the tibia of each leg. When the leg accelerates...

  20. Biophysics of the subgenual organ of the honeybee, Apis mellifera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilpinen, Ole; Storm, Jesper

    1997-01-01

    The subgenual organ of the honeybee (Apis mellifera) is suspended in a haemolymph channel in the tibia of each leg. When the leg is accelerated, inertia causes the haemolymph (and the subgenual organ) to lag behind the movement of the rest of the leg. The magnitude of this phase lag determines...

  1. API manager implementation and its use for Indus accelerator control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merh, B.N.; Agrawal, R.K.; Barpande, K.; Fatnani, P.; Navathe, C.P.

    2012-01-01

    The control system software needed for operation of Indus accelerators is coupled to the underlying firmware and hardware of the control system by the Application Programming Interface (API) manager. In the three layered architecture of Indus control system, PVSS-II SCADA is being used at the layer-1(L1) for control and monitoring of various sub-systems. The layer-2(L2) consists of VME bus based system. The API manager plays a crucial role in interfacing the L1 and L2 of the control system. It has to interact with both the PVSS database and the L2. In order to access the PVSS database it uses the PVSS API, a C++ class library, whereas in order to access the L2 custom functions have been built. Several other custom functionalities have also been implemented. The paper presents the important aspects of the API manager like its implementation, its interface mechanism to the lower layer and features like configurability, reusable classes, multithreading capability etc. (author)

  2. Nosema Tolerant Honeybees (Apis mellifera) Escape Parasitic Manipulation of Apoptosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurze, Christoph; Le Conte, Yves; Dussaubat, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    conducted three inoculation experiments to investigate in the apoptotic respond during infection with the intracellular gut pathogen Nosema ceranae, which is considered as potential global threat to the honeybee (Apis mellifera) and other bee pollinators, in sensitive and tolerant honeybees. To explore...

  3. The Proteins API: accessing key integrated protein and genome information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nightingale, Andrew; Antunes, Ricardo; Alpi, Emanuele; Bursteinas, Borisas; Gonzales, Leonardo; Liu, Wudong; Luo, Jie; Qi, Guoying; Turner, Edd; Martin, Maria

    2017-07-03

    The Proteins API provides searching and programmatic access to protein and associated genomics data such as curated protein sequence positional annotations from UniProtKB, as well as mapped variation and proteomics data from large scale data sources (LSS). Using the coordinates service, researchers are able to retrieve the genomic sequence coordinates for proteins in UniProtKB. This, the LSS genomics and proteomics data for UniProt proteins is programmatically only available through this service. A Swagger UI has been implemented to provide documentation, an interface for users, with little or no programming experience, to 'talk' to the services to quickly and easily formulate queries with the services and obtain dynamically generated source code for popular programming languages, such as Java, Perl, Python and Ruby. Search results are returned as standard JSON, XML or GFF data objects. The Proteins API is a scalable, reliable, fast, easy to use RESTful services that provides a broad protein information resource for users to ask questions based upon their field of expertise and allowing them to gain an integrated overview of protein annotations available to aid their knowledge gain on proteins in biological processes. The Proteins API is available at (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/proteins/api/doc). © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  4. The MPO API: A tool for recording scientific workflows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, John C.; Greenwald, Martin; Stillerman, Joshua; Abla, Gheni; Chanthavong, Bobby; Flanagan, Sean; Schissel, David; Lee, Xia; Romosan, Alex; Shoshani, Arie

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A description of a new framework and tool for recording scientific workflows, especially those resulting from simulation and analysis. • An explanation of the underlying technologies used to implement this web based tool. • Several examples of using the tool. - Abstract: Data from large-scale experiments and extreme-scale computing is expensive to produce and may be used for high-consequence applications. The Metadata, Provenance and Ontology (MPO) project builds on previous work [M. Greenwald, Fusion Eng. Des. 87 (2012) 2205–2208] and is focused on providing documentation of workflows, data provenance and the ability to data-mine large sets of results. While there are important design and development aspects to the data structures and user interfaces, we concern ourselves in this paper with the application programming interface (API) – the set of functions that interface with the data server. Our approach for the data server is to follow the Representational State Transfer (RESTful) software architecture style for client–server communication. At its core, the API uses the POST and GET methods of the HTTP protocol to transfer workflow information in message bodies to targets specified in the URL to and from the database via a web server. Higher level API calls are built upon this core API. This design facilitates implementation on different platforms and in different languages and is robust to changes in the underlying technologies used. The command line client implementation can communicate with the data server from any machine with HTTP access

  5. Pathogen detection and gut bacteria identification in Apis cerana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acer

    other lactic acid bacteria, were isolated from larvae and adult workers, but gave conflicting preliminary identities based on their biochemistry-morphology versus sequence analysis of a partial fragment (1.4 kb) of their 16S rRNA. Key words: Apis cerana indica, bee pathogens, gut bacteria, multiplex polymerase chain ...

  6. Effects of Apis mellifera adansonii, L. 1758 (Apidae: Hymenoptera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pollination on yields of Cucumeropsis mannii (Naudin) in Kisangani, ... 1Unit of Functional and Evolutionary Entomology, University of Liège, ... number of fruits per plant, average weight of seeds extracted per fruit, ... enhance symbiotic interactions Apis mellifera with C. mannii in DRC. ..... Trends in Ecology and Evolution,.

  7. Silk formation mechanisms in the larval salivary glands of Apis ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    The mechanism of silk formation in Apis mellifera salivary glands, during the 5th instar, was studied. Larval salivary glands .... be used in the silk-manufacture industry. This paper analyses .... (figure 3C); and are highly birefringent (figure 3D).

  8. Pathogen detection and gut bacteria identification in Apis cerana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 50 colonies of Apis cerana were sampled in Samut Songkhram (five colonies) and Chumphon (45 colonies) provinces in the central and the south of Thailand, respectively. Diagnostic multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) revealed that 20, 6, 4, 20 and 0% of the samples were infected by Paenibacillus larvae, ...

  9. Interacciones entre dispositivos cardíacos implantables y modalidades fisioterapéuticas: ¿Mito o realidad?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genevieve C. Digby

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available La fisioterapia se ha transformado en una especialidad que claramente incide en la calidad de vida de nuestros pacientes. En poblaciones añosas, el uso de fisioterapia incluye múltiples modalidades para un alto número de distintas enfermedades. Varios informes sobre posibles interacciones negativas entre las distintas modalidades de fisioterapia y los dispositivos cardíacos implantables (marcapasos y cardiodesfibriladores han sido publicados en los últimos aňos. A pesar de ello, existe muy poca evidencia y guías precisas para identificar cuáles son las modalidades de fisioterapia seguras a utilizar en esta población de pacientes. En la siguiente revisión, nos propusimos resumir las interacciones documentadas entre fisioterapia y dispositivos cardíacos implantables (DCI, discutir el estándar actual de estas prácticas e identificar las principales consideraciones que existen desde la perspectiva de un servicio de electrofisiología cardíaca, para el tratamiento adecuado en estos pacientes. Finalmente, abogamos por fortalecer la colaboración entre fisioterapeutas y electrofisiólogos, con el fin de asegurar una óptima y segura atención de este grupo de pacientes.

  10. Quantifying Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Solar Radiation over the Northeast China Based on ACO-BPNN Model and Intensity Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangqian Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Reliable information on the spatiotemporal dynamics of solar radiation plays a crucial role in studies relating to global climate change. In this study, a new backpropagation neural network (BPNN model optimized with an Ant Colony Optimization (ACO algorithm was developed to generate the ACO-BPNN model, which had demonstrated superior performance for simulating solar radiation compared to traditional BPNN modelling, for Northeast China. On this basis, we applied an intensity analysis to investigate the spatiotemporal variation of solar radiation from 1982 to 2010 over the study region at three levels: interval, category, and conversion. Research findings revealed that (1 the solar radiation resource in the study region increased from the 1980s to the 2000s and the average annual rate of variation from the 1980s to the 1990s was lower than that from the 1990s to the 2000s and (2 the gains and losses of solar radiation at each level were in different conditions. The poor, normal, and comparatively abundant levels were transferred to higher levels, whereas the abundant level was transferred to lower levels. We believe our findings contribute to implementing ad hoc energy management strategies to optimize the use of solar radiation resources and provide scientific suggestions for policy planning.

  11. Manejo de las dislipidemias en pacientes cardíacos trasplantados. Hallazgos sobre nuevos factores de riesgo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Masson

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available En pacientes cardíacos trasplantados, el desarrollo de enfermedad vascular coronaria es una complicación frecuente y la dislipidemia es uno de los predictores más importantes. Los inmunosupresores predisponen a las dislipidemias y dificultan la utilización de hipolipemiantes. En este grupo particular de pacientes se recomienda alcanzar las metas terapéuticas de prevención secundaria. Las estatinas son los hipolipemiantes de elección. No existen recomendaciones claras sobre nuevos factores de riesgo, como la homocisteína y la lipoproteína (a [Lp(a].Con el objetivo de conocer el perfil lipídico, la prevalencia de homocisteinemia y de Lp(a elevadas, el cumplimiento de las metas terapéuticas y la tolerancia a la medicación, se incluyeron en el estudio 23 pacientes cardíacos trasplantados. Los resultados mostraron que el cumplimiento de las metas lipídicas fue aceptable y que el 65% recibía tratamiento hipolipemiante. El uso de estatinas fue seguro. Se encontró una prevalencia alta de homocisteína y Lp(a elevadas. Su implicación en la modificación del tratamiento se desconoce.

  12. Transient absorption spectroscopy in biology using the Super-ACO storage ring FEL and the synchrotron radiation combination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renault, Eric; Nahon, Laurent; Garzella, David; Nutarelli, Daniele; De Ninno, Giovanni; Hirsch, Matthias; Couprie, Marie Emmanuelle

    2001-01-01

    The Super-ACO storage ring FEL, covering the UV range down to 300 nm with a high average power (300 mW at 350 nm) together with a high stability and long lifetime, is a unique tool for the performance of users applications. We present here the first pump-probe two color experiments on biological species using a storage ring FEL coupled to the synchrotron radiation. The intense UV pulse of the Super-ACO FEL is used to prepare a high initial concentration of chromophores in their first singlet electronic excited state. The nearby bending magnet synchrotron radiation provides, on the other hand a pulsed, white light continuum (UV-IR), naturally synchronized with the FEL pulses and used to probe the photochemical subsequent events and the associated transient species. We have demonstrated the feasibility with a dye molecule (POPOP) observing a two-color effect, signature of excited state absorption and a temporal signature with Acridine. Applications on various chromophores of biological interest are carried out, such as the time-resolved absorption study of the first excited state of Acridine

  13. Transient absorption spectroscopy in biology using the Super-ACO storage ring FEL and the synchrotron radiation combination

    CERN Document Server

    Renault, E; De Ninno, G; Garzella, D; Hirsch, M; Nahon, L; Nutarelli, D

    2001-01-01

    The Super-ACO storage ring FEL, covering the UV range down to 300 nm with a high average power (300 mW at 350 nm) together with a high stability and long lifetime, is a unique tool for the performance of users applications. We present here the first pump-probe two color experiments on biological species using a storage ring FEL coupled to the synchrotron radiation. The intense UV pulse of the Super-ACO FEL is used to prepare a high initial concentration of chromophores in their first singlet electronic excited state. The nearby bending magnet synchrotron radiation provides, on the other hand a pulsed, white light continuum (UV-IR), naturally synchronized with the FEL pulses and used to probe the photochemical subsequent events and the associated transient species. We have demonstrated the feasibility with a dye molecule (POPOP) observing a two-color effect, signature of excited state absorption and a temporal signature with Acridine. Applications on various chromophores of biological interest are carried out,...

  14. Mensuração do tamanho cardíaco em radiografias de gatos com hipertireoidismo experimental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro José Lahm Cardoso

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available O hipertireoidismo felino ou tireotoxicose é a doença endócrina mais freqüente em gatos domésticos. O hipertireoidismo felino é uma desordem multissistêmica associada com aumento das concentrações dos hormônios tireoidianos circulantes, triidotironina (T3 e tiroxina (T4. Anormalidades cardiovasculares em gatos com hipertireoidismo espontâneo já foram bem descritas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar a mensuração cardíaca em 19 gatos submetidos a tireotoxicose experimental, utilizando o "vertebral heart size" (VHS. A mensuração utilizando o VHS foi realizada a partir de radiografias torácicas lateral, dorsoventral e ventrodorsal. As radiografias torácicas laterais foram mais eficazes do que as ventrodorsal e dorsoventral em ilustrar o aumento progressivo do coração. O VHS é um método fácil de ser usado, permitindo a avaliação do tamanho cardíaco em gatos hipertireóideos, e facilita a identificação de cardiomegalia e progressão do tamanho cardíaco.

  15. Comparison of API 510 pressure vessels inspection planning with API 581 risk-based inspection planning approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shishesaz, Mohammad Reza; Nazarnezhad Bajestani, Mohammad; Hashemi, Seyed Javad; Shekari, Elahe

    2013-01-01

    To ensure mechanical integrity, all pressure vessels shall be inspected at the intervals provided in inspection codes or based on a risk-based inspection (RBI) assessment. The RBI assessment may allow previously established inspection intervals to be extended. This paper describes the methodology, analysis and results of two RBI studies conducted on 293 pressure vessel components in two crude oil distillation units. Based on API RBI methodology in API 581 (2008), risk target concept was used for determining inspection dates. It was shown that when thinning is the major active damage, the RBI recommended intervals are as long as twice the API 510 intervals. This paper summarizes that, as a fundamental step in the risk calculation, RBI has a more defined methodology for evaluating equipment for multiple damage mechanisms and a more defined approach to specify the use of other inspection technologies beyond the traditional visual, ultrasonic, and radiography tests. -- Highlights: • RBI calculated inspection intervals are as long as twice of API 510 inspection code. • Two case studies verified the advantage of RBI in inspection planning. • RBI is a more reliable methodology when evaluating multiple damage mechanisms. • Damage factor calculations can be used for determining RSFa value in FFS assessments

  16. Cross-linking BioThings APIs through JSON-LD to facilitate knowledge exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Jiwen; Afrasiabi, Cyrus; Lelong, Sebastien; Adesara, Julee; Tsueng, Ginger; Su, Andrew I; Wu, Chunlei

    2018-02-01

    Application Programming Interfaces (APIs) are now widely used to distribute biological data. And many popular biological APIs developed by many different research teams have adopted Javascript Object Notation (JSON) as their primary data format. While usage of a common data format offers significant advantages, that alone is not sufficient for rich integrative queries across APIs. Here, we have implemented JSON for Linking Data (JSON-LD) technology on the BioThings APIs that we have developed, MyGene.info , MyVariant.info and MyChem.info . JSON-LD provides a standard way to add semantic context to the existing JSON data structure, for the purpose of enhancing the interoperability between APIs. We demonstrated several use cases that were facilitated by semantic annotations using JSON-LD, including simpler and more precise query capabilities as well as API cross-linking. We believe that this pattern offers a generalizable solution for interoperability of APIs in the life sciences.

  17. Host Specificity in the Honeybee Parasitic Mite, Varroa spp. in Apis mellifera and Apis cerana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis L Beaurepaire

    Full Text Available The ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor is a major global threat to the Western honeybee Apis mellifera. This mite was originally a parasite of A. cerana in Asia but managed to spill over into colonies of A. mellifera which had been introduced to this continent for honey production. To date, only two almost clonal types of V. destructor from Korea and Japan have been detected in A. mellifera colonies. However, since both A. mellifera and A. cerana colonies are kept in close proximity throughout Asia, not only new spill overs but also spill backs of highly virulent types may be possible, with unpredictable consequences for both honeybee species. We studied the dispersal and hybridisation potential of Varroa from sympatric colonies of the two hosts in Northern Vietnam and the Philippines using mitochondrial and microsatellite DNA markers. We found a very distinct mtDNA haplotype equally invading both A. mellifera and A. cerana in the Philippines. In contrast, we observed a complete reproductive isolation of various Vietnamese Varroa populations in A. mellifera and A. cerana colonies even if kept in the same apiaries. In light of this variance in host specificity, the adaptation of the mite to its hosts seems to have generated much more genetic diversity than previously recognised and the Varroa species complex may include substantial cryptic speciation.

  18. Changes in Alternative Splicing in Apis Mellifera Bees Fed Apis Cerana Royal Jelly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Yuan Yuan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Western honey bee (Apis mellifera is a social insect characterized by caste differentiation in which the queen bee and worker bees display marked differences in morphology, behavior, reproduction, and longevity despite their identical genomes. The main causative factor in caste differentiation is the food fed to queen larvae, termed royal jelly (RJ. Alternative splicing (AS is an important RNA-mediated post-transcriptional process in eukaryotes. Here we report AS changes in A. mellifera after being fed either A. mellifera RJ or A. cerana RJ. The results demonstrated that the RJ type affected 4 types of AS in adult A. mellifera: exon skipping, intron retention, alternative 5’ splice sites, and alternative 3’splice sites. After feeding with A. cerana RJ, AS occurred in many genes in adult A. mellifera that encode proteins involved in development, growth, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and substance metabolism. This study provides the first evidence that heterospecific RJ can influence the AS of many genes related to honey bee development and growth.

  19. A qualitative examination of the content validity of the EQ-5D-5L in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matza, Louis S; Boye, Kristina S; Stewart, Katie D; Curtis, Bradley H; Reaney, Matthew; Landrian, Amanda S

    2015-12-01

    The EQ-5D is frequently used to derive utilities for patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Despite widely available quantitative psychometric data on the EQ-5D, little is known about content validity in this population. Thus, the purpose of this qualitative study was to examine content validity of the EQ-5D in patients with T2D. Patients with T2D in the UK completed concept elicitation interviews, followed by administration of the EQ-5D-5L and cognitive interviewing focused on the instrument's relevance, clarity, and comprehensiveness. A total of 25 participants completed interviews (52.0 % male; mean age = 53.5 years). Approximately half (52 %) reported that the EQ-5D-5L was relevant to their experience with T2D. When asked if each individual item was relevant to their experience with T2D, responses varied widely (24.0 % said the self-care item was relevant; 68.0 % said the anxiety/depression item was relevant). Participants frequently said items were not relevant to themselves, but could be relevant to patients with more severe diabetes. Most participants (92.0 %) reported that T2D and/or its treatment/monitoring requirements had an impact on their quality of life that was not captured by the EQ-5D-5L. Common missing concepts included food awareness/restriction (n = 13, 52.0 %); activities (n = 11, 44.0 %); emotional functioning other than depression/anxiety (n = 8, 32.0 %); and social/relationship functioning (n = 8, 32.0 %). The results highlight strengths and potential limitations of the EQ-5D-5L, including missing content that could be important for some patients with T2D. Suggestions for addressing limitations are provided.

  20. Avaliação da eficiência de um inibidor comercial livre e dissolvido em microemulsão na corrosão do aço API 5L A210

    OpenAIRE

    Pinheiro, Gleidson Lima

    2014-01-01

    Oleodutos sofrem corrosão do tipo química, devido a tensão, entre outros mecanismos, e eletroquímica devido a grande quantidade de salmoura (água e cloretos), presentes nos fluidos produzidos na formação. Este trabalho tem como objetivo estudar a eficiência de um inibidor de corrosão comercial, usado na indústria do petróleo, na inibição de corrosão agindo isoladamente e em mistura com microemulsão (ME) na proporção [1:1]. A ME foi obtida a partir dos seguintes constituintes: água de torneira...

  1. Experiencia con hipotermia terapéutica en el paro cardíaco extrahospitalario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Levin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: El paro cardíaco extrahospitalario (PCEH, una de las principales causas de mortalidad en el mundo occidental, se asocia con una muy baja sobrevida hospitalaria y con un número elevado de secuelas neurológicas entre los sobrevivientes, sin modificaciones significativas en el pronóstico en las últimas tres décadas. Estudios clínicos más recientes plantearon la utilidad de la hipotermia terapéutica en la reducción de la mortalidad y el grado de deterioro neurológico en sobrevivientes de un PCEH. Objetivos: Evaluar la mortalidad y el resultado neurológico de pacientes comatosos resucitados de un PCEH tratados con hipotermia terapéutica. Considerar las indicaciones y los hallazgos de la cinecoronariografía y detectar complicaciones asociadas con la hipotermia. Material y métodos: Se incluyeron pacientes resucitados de un PCEH tratados bajo hipotermia terapéutica, que consistió en una fase de enfriamiento a 33 °C, un mantenimiento durante 24 horas y recalentamiento a 0,25 °C/hora. Se analizaron las indicaciones y los hallazgos de la cinecoronariografía. Se evaluaron complicaciones metabólicas, arrítmicas, infecciosas y hemorrágicas. Se consideró significativo valor de p menor de 0,05. Resultados: De los 213 pacientes incluidos, la sobrevida hospitalaria fue de 109 pacientes (51,2%, de los que 96 (46,1% presentaron al egreso buena recuperación neurológica. Se observó mayor sobrevida en pacientes con ritmos pasibles de desfibrilación respecto de aquellos con ritmos no pasibles de desfibrilación (58,2% vs. 37,7%; p = 0,007. Se derivaron (3,5 horas en promedio a cinecoronariografía 147 (69% pacientes, de los cuales 121 (82,3% mostraron enfermedad significativa, observándose en 69 (57% oclusión coronaria completa. Ciento siete pacientes fueron sometidos a angioplastia; 43 (40,2% de ellos fallecieron durante la internación frente a 61 (58,6% óbitos entre los no intervenidos o no estudiados (p = 0,005. Entre

  2. Intelligent Search Method Based ACO Techniques for a Multistage Decision Problem EDP/LFP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostefa RAHLI

    2006-07-01

    the algorithm getting to him a rate preferably more or less justifiable. In operational research, this subject is known under the name of CPO [14] (combinatory problem optimization.The choice of a numerical method to use for a merged case study and calculation of the LFP/Fitting/EDP what is [7, 8, 9, 10, 18, 19, 20] (in theoretical form of a problem compensates the final decision to adopt and a strategy of optimal production (which is a practical problem form and the final task most wanted.Each method is imposed by:· The algorithm complexity.· In an application gathering all calculations, the number of uses of method compared to the total number of later issues.· The maximum number of iterations for a given use.· The maximum iterations count allowed for this algorithm kind.· The limitations of the algorithm such as: applicability of a method (algorithm adapted or not to the problem; does the problem constrained or not; problem dimension or order N (N ≤ Nmax; the algorithm stability.It's well-known that for an approached calculation method, the propagation of errors strongly conditions the need of making its adequate choice and if it can be adopted compared to others for the same area.More is the number of the elementary operations is large more the final result misses precision and especially if the finality of the study is a responsible decision to make and a satisfaction of constraints and multiple conditions. Our study proposes an inference based solution (AI with the use of ACO technique (Ant colony Optimization2.

  3. Health-related quality of life measured using the EQ-5D-5L: South Australian population norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaffrey, Nikki; Kaambwa, Billingsley; Currow, David C; Ratcliffe, Julie

    2016-09-20

    Although a five level version of the widely-used EuroQol 5 dimensions (EQ-5D) instrument has been developed, population norms are not yet available for Australia to inform the future valuation of health in economic evaluations. The aim of this study was to estimate HrQOL normative values for the EQ-5D-5L preference-based measure in a large, randomly selected, community sample in South Australia. The EQ-5D-5L instrument was included in the 2013 South Australian Health Omnibus Survey, an interviewer-administered, face-to-face, cross-sectional survey. Respondents rated their level of impairment across dimensions (mobility, self-care, usual activities, pain/discomfort, and anxiety/depression) and global health rating on a visual analogue scale (EQ-VAS). Utility scores were derived using the newly-developed UK general population-based algorithm and relationships between utility and EQ-VAS scores and socio-demographic factors were also explored using multivariate regression analyses. Ultimately, 2,908 adults participated in the survey (63.4 % participation rate). The mean utility and EQ-VAS scores were 0.91 (95 CI 0.90, 0.91) and 78.55 (95 % CI 77.95, 79.15), respectively. Almost half of respondents reported no problems across all dimensions (42.8 %), whereas only 7.2 % rated their health >90 on the EQ-VAS (100 = the best health you can imagine). Younger age, male gender, longer duration of education, higher annual household income, employment and marriage/de facto relationships were all independent, statistically significant predictors of better health status (p measured with the EQ-VAS. Only age and employment status were associated with higher utility scores, indicating fundamental differences between these measures of health status. This is the first Australian study to apply the EQ-5D-5L in a large, community sample. Overall, findings are consistent with EQ-5D-5L utility and VAS scores reported for other countries and indicate that the majority of South

  4. Antioxidant, antihyperglycemic, and antidiabetic activity of Apis mellifera bee tea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janielle da Silva Melo da Cunha

    Full Text Available Diabetes has emerged as one of the largest global epidemics; it is estimated that by 2035, there will be 592 million diabetic people in the world. Brazilian biodiversity and the knowledge of traditional peoples have contributed to the treatment of several diseases, including diabetes. Apis mellifera bee tea is used by indigenous Brazilians to treat diabetes, and this traditional knowledge needs to be recorded and studied.The objective of this study was to record the use and to evaluate the antioxidant, antihyperglycemic, and antidiabetic activity of Apis mellifera bee tea, which is used by the Guarani and Kaiowá indigenous people for the treatment of diabetes. Semi-structured interviews were performed with Guarani and Kaiowá ethnic indigenous people from the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, seeking to identify the animal species used for medicinal purposes. For the experimental procedures, tea prepared with macerated Apis mellifera bees was used. In vitro assays were performed to evaluate antioxidant activity; direct free radical scavenging, protection against oxidative hemolysis, lipid peroxidation were evaluated in human erythrocytes and potential in inhibiting the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs. In vivo, normoglycemic Swiss male mice treated with Apis mellifera tea (AmT were subjected to the oral glucose tolerance test and compared with control and metformin-treated groups. Diet-induced diabetic mice were treated for 21 days with AmT and evaluated for glycemia and malondialdehyde levels in the blood, liver, nervous system, and eyes. During interviews, the indigenous people described the use of Apis mellifera bee tea for the treatment of diabetes. In in vitro assays, AmT showed direct antioxidant activity and reduced oxidative hemolysis and malondialdehyde generation in human erythrocytes. The AmT inhibited the formation of AGEs by albumin-fructose pathways and methylglyoxal products. In vivo, after oral glucose

  5. Antioxidant activity and irritation property of venoms from Apis species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somwongin, Suvimol; Chantawannakul, Panuwan; Chaiyana, Wantida

    2018-04-01

    Pharmacological effects of bee venom has been reported, however, it has been restricted to the bee venom collected from European honey bee (Apis mellifera). The aim of the present study was to compare the antioxidant activities and irritation properties of venoms collected from four different Apis species in Thailand, which includes Apis cerena (Asian cavity nesting honeybee), Apis florea (dwarf honeybee), Apis dorsata (giant honeybee), and A. mellifera. Melittin content of each bee venom extracts was investigated by using high-performance liquid chromatography. Ferric reducing antioxidant power, 2, 2'-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid), and 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl assay were used to determine the antioxidant activity, whereas, hen's egg test chorioallantoic membrane assay was used to determine the irritation property of each bee venom extracts. Melittin was the major constituent in all bee venom extracts. The melittin content in A. dorsata, A. mellifera, A. florea, and A. cerena were 95.8 ± 3.2%, 76.5 ± 1.9%, 66.3 ± 8.6%, and 56.8 ± 1.8%, respectively. Bee venom extract from A. dorsata possessed the highest antioxidant activity with the inhibition of 41.1 ± 2.2% against DPPH, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity of 10.21 ± 0.74 mM Trolox/mg and equivalent concentration (EC 1 ) of 0.35 ± 0.02 mM FeSO 4 /mg. Bee venom extract from A. mellifera exhibited the highest irritation, followed by A. cerena, A. dorsata, and A. florea, respectively. Melittin was the compound responsible for the irritation property of bee venom extracts since it could induce severe irritation (irritation score was 13.7 ± 0.5, at the concentration of 2 mg/ml). The extract from A. dorsata which possessed the highest antioxidant activity showed no irritation up to the concentration of 0.1 mg/ml. Therefore, bee venom extract from A. dorsata at the concentration not more than 0.1 mg/ml would be suggested for using

  6. Antioxidant, antihyperglycemic, and antidiabetic activity of Apis mellifera bee tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo da Cunha, Janielle da Silva; Alfredo, Tamaeh Monteiro; Dos Santos, Jéssica Maurino; Alves Junior, Valter Vieira; Rabelo, Luiza Antas; Lima, Emerson Silva; Boleti, Ana Paula de Araújo; Carollo, Carlos Alexandre; Dos Santos, Edson Lucas; de Picoli Souza, Kely

    2018-01-01

    Diabetes has emerged as one of the largest global epidemics; it is estimated that by 2035, there will be 592 million diabetic people in the world. Brazilian biodiversity and the knowledge of traditional peoples have contributed to the treatment of several diseases, including diabetes. Apis mellifera bee tea is used by indigenous Brazilians to treat diabetes, and this traditional knowledge needs to be recorded and studied.The objective of this study was to record the use and to evaluate the antioxidant, antihyperglycemic, and antidiabetic activity of Apis mellifera bee tea, which is used by the Guarani and Kaiowá indigenous people for the treatment of diabetes. Semi-structured interviews were performed with Guarani and Kaiowá ethnic indigenous people from the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, seeking to identify the animal species used for medicinal purposes. For the experimental procedures, tea prepared with macerated Apis mellifera bees was used. In vitro assays were performed to evaluate antioxidant activity; direct free radical scavenging, protection against oxidative hemolysis, lipid peroxidation were evaluated in human erythrocytes and potential in inhibiting the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). In vivo, normoglycemic Swiss male mice treated with Apis mellifera tea (AmT) were subjected to the oral glucose tolerance test and compared with control and metformin-treated groups. Diet-induced diabetic mice were treated for 21 days with AmT and evaluated for glycemia and malondialdehyde levels in the blood, liver, nervous system, and eyes. During interviews, the indigenous people described the use of Apis mellifera bee tea for the treatment of diabetes. In in vitro assays, AmT showed direct antioxidant activity and reduced oxidative hemolysis and malondialdehyde generation in human erythrocytes. The AmT inhibited the formation of AGEs by albumin-fructose pathways and methylglyoxal products. In vivo, after oral glucose overload, normoglycemic

  7. Expression Study of LeGAPDH, LeACO1, LeACS1A, and LeACS2 in Tomato Fruit (Solanum lycopersicum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pijar Riza Anugerah

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Tomato is a climacteric fruit, which is characterized by ripening-related increase of respiration and elevated ethylene synthesis. Ethylene is the key hormone in ripening process of climacteric fruits. The objective of this research is to study the expression of three ethylene synthesis genes: LeACO1, LeACS1A, LeACS2, and a housekeeping gene LeGAPDH in ripening tomato fruit. Specific primers have been designed to amplify complementary DNA fragment of LeGAPDH (143 bp, LeACO1 (240 bp, LeACS1A (169 bp, and LeACS2 (148 bp using polymerase chain reaction. Nucleotide BLAST results of the complementary DNA fragments show high similarity with LeGAPDH (NM_001247874.1, LeACO1 (NM_001247095.1, LeACS1A (NM_001246993.1, LeACS2 (NM_001247249.1, respectively. Expression study showed that LeACO1, LeACS1A, LeACS2, and LeGAPDH genes were expressed in ripening tomato fruit. Isolation methods, reference sequences, and primers used in this study can be used in future experiments to study expression of genes responsible for ethylene synthesis using quantitative polymerase chain reaction and to design better strategy for controlling fruit ripening in agroindustry.

  8. Infra-Population and -Community Dynamics of the Parasites Nosema apis and Nosema ceranae, and Consequences for Honey Bee (Apis mellifera) Hosts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Geoffrey R.; Shutler, Dave; Burgher-MacLellan, Karen L.; Rogers, Richard E. L.

    2014-01-01

    Nosema spp. fungal gut parasites are among myriad possible explanations for contemporary increased mortality of western honey bees (Apis mellifera, hereafter honey bee) in many regions of the world. Invasive Nosema ceranae is particularly worrisome because some evidence suggests it has greater virulence than its congener N. apis. N. ceranae appears to have recently switched hosts from Asian honey bees (Apis cerana) and now has a nearly global distribution in honey bees, apparently displacing N. apis. We examined parasite reproduction and effects of N. apis, N. ceranae, and mixed Nosema infections on honey bee hosts in laboratory experiments. Both infection intensity and honey bee mortality were significantly greater for N. ceranae than for N. apis or mixed infections; mixed infection resulted in mortality similar to N. apis parasitism and reduced spore intensity, possibly due to inter-specific competition. This is the first long-term laboratory study to demonstrate lethal consequences of N. apis and N. ceranae and mixed Nosema parasitism in honey bees, and suggests that differences in reproduction and intra-host competition may explain apparent heterogeneous exclusion of the historic parasite by the invasive species. PMID:24987989

  9. Infra-population and -community dynamics of the parasites Nosema apis and Nosema ceranae, and consequences for honey bee (Apis mellifera) hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Geoffrey R; Shutler, Dave; Burgher-MacLellan, Karen L; Rogers, Richard E L

    2014-01-01

    Nosema spp. fungal gut parasites are among myriad possible explanations for contemporary increased mortality of western honey bees (Apis mellifera, hereafter honey bee) in many regions of the world. Invasive Nosema ceranae is particularly worrisome because some evidence suggests it has greater virulence than its congener N. apis. N. ceranae appears to have recently switched hosts from Asian honey bees (Apis cerana) and now has a nearly global distribution in honey bees, apparently displacing N. apis. We examined parasite reproduction and effects of N. apis, N. ceranae, and mixed Nosema infections on honey bee hosts in laboratory experiments. Both infection intensity and honey bee mortality were significantly greater for N. ceranae than for N. apis or mixed infections; mixed infection resulted in mortality similar to N. apis parasitism and reduced spore intensity, possibly due to inter-specific competition. This is the first long-term laboratory study to demonstrate lethal consequences of N. apis and N. ceranae and mixed Nosema parasitism in honey bees, and suggests that differences in reproduction and intra-host competition may explain apparent heterogeneous exclusion of the historic parasite by the invasive species.

  10. Draft genome sequence of the Algerian bee Apis mellifera intermissa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nizar Jamal Haddad

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Apis mellifera intermissa is the native honeybee subspecies of Algeria. A. m. intermissa occurs in Tunisia, Algeria and Morocco, between the Atlas and the Mediterranean and Atlantic coasts. This bee is very important due to its high ability to adapt to great variations in climatic conditions and due to its preferable cleaning behavior. Here we report the draft genome sequence of this honey bee, its Whole Genome Shotgun project has been deposited at DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank under the accession JSUV00000000. The 240-Mb genome is being annotated and analyzed. Comparison with the genome of other Apis mellifera sub-species promises to yield insights into the evolution of adaptations to high temperature and resistance to Varroa parasite infestation.

  11. “Wrapping” X3DOM around Web Audio API

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Stamoulias

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Spatial sound has a conceptual role in the Web3D environments, due to highly realism scenes that can provide. Lately the efforts are concentrated on the extension of the X3D/ X3DOM through spatial sound attributes. This paper presents a novel method for the introduction of spatial sound components in the X3DOM framework, based on X3D specification and Web Audio API. The proposed method incorporates the introduction of enhanced sound nodes for X3DOM which are derived by the implementation of the X3D standard components, enriched with accessional features of Web Audio API. Moreover, several examples-scenarios developed for the evaluation of our approach. The implemented examples established the achievability of new registered nodes in X3DOM, for spatial sound characteristics in Web3D virtual worlds.

  12. The simulation of CAMAC system based on Windows API

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Lei; Song Yushou; Xi Yinyin; Yan Qiang; Liu Huilan; Li Taosheng

    2012-01-01

    Based on Windows API, a kind of design method to simulate the CAMAC System, which is commonly used in nuclear physics experiments, is developed. Using C++ object-oriented programming, the simulation is carried out in the environment of Visual Studio 2010 and the interfaces, the data-way, the control commands and the modules are simulated with the functions either user-defined or from Windows API. Applying this method, the amplifier plug AMP575A produced by ORTEC is simulated and performance experiments are studied for this simulation module. The results indicate that the simulation module can fulfill the function of pole-zero adjustment, which means this method is competent for the simulation of CAMAC System. Compared with the simulation based on LabVIEW, this way is more flexible and closer to the bottom of the system. All the works above have found a path to making the virtual instrument platform based on CAMAC system. (authors)

  13. Pertukaran Data Antar Database Dengan Menggunakan Teknologi API

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Hanafi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Electronically data interchange between institutions or companies must be supported with appropriate data storage media capacity. MySQL is a database engine that is used to perform data storage in the form of information, where the data can be utilized as needed. MYSQL has the advantage of which is to provide convenience in terms of usage, and able to work on different platforms. System requirements that must be reliable and multitasking capable of making the database not only as a data storage medium, but can also be utilized as a means of data exchange. Dropbox API is the best solution that can be utilized as a technology that supports the database to be able to Exchange data. The combination of the Dropbox API and database can be used as a very cheap solution for small companies to implement data exchange, because it only requires a relatively small Internet connection.

  14. QSPIN: A High Level Java API for Quantum Computing Experimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Tim

    2017-01-01

    QSPIN is a high level Java language API for experimentation in QC models used in the calculation of Ising spin glass ground states and related quadratic unconstrained binary optimization (QUBO) problems. The Java API is intended to facilitate research in advanced QC algorithms such as hybrid quantum-classical solvers, automatic selection of constraint and optimization parameters, and techniques for the correction and mitigation of model and solution errors. QSPIN includes high level solver objects tailored to the D-Wave quantum annealing architecture that implement hybrid quantum-classical algorithms [Booth et al.] for solving large problems on small quantum devices, elimination of variables via roof duality, and classical computing optimization methods such as GPU accelerated simulated annealing and tabu search for comparison. A test suite of documented NP-complete applications ranging from graph coloring, covering, and partitioning to integer programming and scheduling are provided to demonstrate current capabilities.

  15. Uncovering the immune responses of Apis mellifera ligustica larval gut to Ascosphaera apis infection utilizing transcriptome sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dafu; Guo, Rui; Xu, Xijian; Xiong, Cuiling; Liang, Qin; Zheng, Yanzhen; Luo, Qun; Zhang, Zhaonan; Huang, Zhijian; Kumar, Dhiraj; Xi, Weijun; Zou, Xuan; Liu, Min

    2017-07-20

    Honeybees are susceptible to a variety of diseases, including chalkbrood, which is capable of causing huge losses of both the number of bees and colony productivity. This research is designed to characterize the transcriptome profiles of Ascosphaera apis-treated and un-treated larval guts of Apis mellifera ligustica in an attempt to unravel the molecular mechanism underlying the immune responses of western honeybee larval guts to mycosis. In this study, 24, 296 and 2157 genes were observed to be differentially expressed in A. apis-treated Apis mellifera (4-, 5- and 6-day-old) compared with un-treated larval guts. Moreover, the expression patterns of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were examined via trend analysis, and subsequently, gene ontology analysis and KEGG pathway enrichment analysis were conducted for DEGs involved in up- and down-regulated profiles. Immunity-related pathways were selected for further analysis, and our results demonstrated that a total of 13 and 50 DEGs were annotated in the humoral immune-related and cellular immune-related pathways, respectively. Additionally, we observed that many DEGs up-regulated in treated guts were part of cellular immune pathways, such as the lysosome, ubiquitin mediated proteolysis, and insect hormone biosynthesis pathways and were induced by A. apis invasion. However, more down-regulated DEGs were restrained. Surprisingly, a majority of DEGs within the Toll-like receptor signaling pathway, and the MAPK signaling pathway were up-regulated in treated guts, while all but two genes involved in the NF-κB signaling pathway were down-regulated, which suggested that most genes involved in humoral immune-related pathways were activated in response to the invasive fungal pathogen. This study's findings provide valuable information regarding the investigation of the molecular mechanism of immunity defenses of A. m. ligustica larval guts to infection with A. apis. Furthermore, these studies lay the groundwork for

  16. W3C Geolocation API ur ett utvecklarperspektiv

    OpenAIRE

    Jönsson, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this thesis is to investigate the W3C Geolocation API from a developer’s perspective, focused on whether it makes development of location-based applications more accessible to developers. This has been investigated by looking at available ways to locate, possible uses, the functionality offered, the necessary level of prior knowledge needed for a developer and requirements on developer tools. This has been achieved through studies in relevant areas, a thorough introduction to W3C ...

  17. Hacia una descripción del cuento policíaco español contemporáneo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Valverde Velasco

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Desde su recepción en España, ya en el siglo XIX, el cuento policíaco nunca había experimentado un auge en su cultivo y aceptación como el acaecido a partir de los años setenta. Desde entonces, el cuento literario, como forma narrativa susceptible de desarrollar tramas de muy distinta índole, entre ellas la del hecho criminal, ha experimentado un período de reconocimiento paulatino por parte de los autores, las editoriales, el público y la crítica, por lo que no es de extrañar que los escritores del llamado “género criminal” se atreviesen a explorar las posibilidades del relato breve con mayor fortuna que durante las décadas precedentes.

  18. Citrus CitNAC62 cooperates with CitWRKY1 to participate in citric acid degradation via up-regulation of CitAco3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shao-Jia; Yin, Xue-Ren; Wang, Wen-Li; Liu, Xiao-Fen; Zhang, Bo; Chen, Kun-Song

    2017-06-15

    Citric acid is the predominant organic acid of citrus fruit. Degradation of citric acid occurs during fruit development, influencing fruit acidity. Associations of CitAco3 transcripts and citric acid degradation have been reported for citrus fruit. Here, transient overexpression of CitAco3 significantly reduced the citric acid content of citrus leaves and fruits. Using dual luciferase assays, it was shown that CitNAC62 and CitWRKY1 could transactivate the promoter of CitAco3. Subcellular localization results showed that CitWRKY1 was located in the nucleus and CitNAC62 was not. Yeast two-hybrid analysis and bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) assays indicated that the two differently located transcription factors could interact with each other. Furthermore, BiFC showed that the protein-protein interaction occurred only in the nucleus, indicating the potential mobility of CitNAC62 in plant cells. A synergistic effect on citrate content was observed between CitNAC62 and CitWRKY1. Transient overexpression of CitNAC62 or CitWRKY1 led to significantly lower citrate content in citrus fruit. The combined expression of CitNAC62 and CitWRKY1 resulted in lower citrate content compared with the expression of CitNAC62 or CitWRKY1 alone. The transcript abundance of CitAco3 was consistent with the citrate content. Thus, we propose that a complex of CitWRKY1 and CitNAC62 contributes to citric acid degradation in citrus fruit, potentially via modulation of CitAco3. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  19. Certeza diagnóstica en la mortalidad de una población de pacientes con trasplante cardíaco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Amuchástegui

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMENIntroducciónA pesar de que la morbimortalidad en el trasplante cardíaco ha sido motivo de extensoanálisis, la mayoría de los estudios y registros de mortalidad en pacientes trasplantados sebasan sobre datos clínicos. En la bibliografía existen comunicaciones aisladas de autopsiasen pacientes con trasplante cardíaco.ObjetivoDeterminar la importancia de la realización de estudios anatomopatológicos para el diagnósticode causa de muerte en un programa de trasplante cardíaco.Material y métodosSe incluyeron todos los pacientes con trasplante cardíaco fallecidos entre enero 1990 y enero2005. El diagnóstico definitivo de la causa de muerte fue corroborado por autopsia obiopsia de órgano sólido. Las causas de muerte evaluadas fueron falla precoz del injerto,rechazo celular, infección, enfermedad vascular del injerto, neoplasia y otros.ResultadosDurante el período en estudio 73 pacientes fueron sometidos a trasplante cardíaco; de ellos,fallecieron 31. Se obtuvieron 12 autopsias y 7 biopsias de órgano sólido que certificaron lacausa de muerte (61%. La causa de muerte más frecuente fue el rechazo celular mayor degrado III. En el 12,9%, la anatomía patológica difirió de la sospecha clínica de la causa demuerte.ConclusiónLa información clinicopatológica derivada de estudios post mortem es un indicador de nuestrarealidad asistencial y se constituye en un pilar fundamental para el conocimiento y elmanejo futuro de los pacientes trasplantados, por lo que consideramos que la realización deautopsias en estos pacientes es de vital importancia.REV ARGENT CARDIOL 2008;76:292-294.

  20. Variation morphogeometrics of Africanized honey bees (Apis mellifera in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena A. Nunes

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The morphometrics of the honey bee Apis mellifera L., 1758 has been widely studied mainly because this species has great ecological importance, high adaptation capacity, wide distribution and capacity to effectively adapt to different regions. The current study aimed to investigate the morphometric variations of wings and pollen baskets of honey bees Apis mellifera scutellata Lepeletier, 1836 from the five regions in Brazil. We used geometric morphometrics to identify the existence of patterns of variations of shape and size in Africanized honey bees in Brazil 16 years after the classic study with this species, allowing a temporal and spatial comparative analysis using new technological resources to assess morphometrical data. Samples were collected in 14 locations in Brazil, covering the five geographical regions of the country. The shape analysis and multivariate analyses of the wing allowed to observe that there is a geographical pattern among the population of Apis mellifera in Brazil. The geographical variations may be attributed to the large territorial extension of the country in addition to the differences between the bioregions.

  1. Carbonic anhydrase from Apis mellifera: purification and inhibition by pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soydan, Ercan; Güler, Ahmet; Bıyık, Selim; Şentürk, Murat; Supuran, Claudiu T; Ekinci, Deniz

    2017-12-01

    Carbonic anhydrase (CA) enzymes have been shown to play an important role in ion transport and in pH regulation in several organisms. Despite this information and the wealth of knowledge regarding the significance of CA enzymes, few studies have been reported about bee CA enzymes and the hazardous effects of chemicals. Using Apis mellifera as a model, this study aimed to determine the risk of pesticides on Apis mellifera Carbonic anhydrase enzyme (Am CA). CA was initially purified from Apis mellifera spermatheca for the first time in the literature. The enzyme was purified with an overall purification of ∼35-fold with a molecular weight of ∼32 kDa. The enzyme was then exposed to pesticides, including tebuconazole, propoxur, carbaryl, carbofuran, simazine and atrazine. The six pesticides dose-dependently inhibited in vitro AmCA activity at low micromolar concentrations. IC 50 values for the pesticides were 0.0030, 0.0321, 0.0031, 0.0087, 0.0273 and 0.0165 μM, respectively. The AmCA inhibition mechanism of these compounds is unknown at this moment.

  2. ADS 2.0: New Architecture, API and Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chyla, R.; Accomazzi, A.; Holachek, A.; Grant, C. S.; Elliott, J.; Henneken, E. A.; Thompson, D. M.; Kurtz, M. J.; Murray, S. S.; Sudilovsky, V.

    2015-09-01

    The ADS platform is undergoing the biggest rewrite of its 20-year history. While several components have been added to its architecture over the past couple of years, this talk will concentrate on the underpinnings of ADS's search layer and its API. To illustrate the design of the components in the new system, we will show how the new ADS user interface is built exclusively on top of the API using RESTful web services. Taking one step further, we will discuss how we plan to expose the treasure trove of information hosted by ADS (10 million records and fulltext for much of the Astronomy and Physics refereed literature) to partners interested in using this API. This will provide you (and your intelligent applications) with access to ADS's underlying data to enable the extraction of new knowledge and the ingestion of these results back into the ADS. Using this framework, researchers could run controlled experiments with content extraction, machine learning, natural language processing, etc. In this talk, we will discuss what is already implemented, what will be available soon, and where we are going next.

  3. Improving the API dissolution rate during pharmaceutical hot-melt extrusion I: Effect of the API particle size, and the co-rotating, twin-screw extruder screw configuration on the API dissolution rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meng; Gogos, Costas G; Ioannidis, Nicolas

    2015-01-15

    The dissolution rate of the active pharmaceutical ingredients in pharmaceutical hot-melt extrusion is the most critical elementary step during the extrusion of amorphous solid solutions - total dissolution has to be achieved within the short residence time in the extruder. Dissolution and dissolution rates are affected by process, material and equipment variables. In this work, we examine the effect of one of the material variables and one of the equipment variables, namely, the API particle size and extruder screw configuration on the API dissolution rate, in a co-rotating, twin-screw extruder. By rapidly removing the extruder screws from the barrel after achieving a steady state, we collected samples along the length of the extruder screws that were characterized by polarized optical microscopy (POM) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to determine the amount of undissolved API. Analyses of samples indicate that reduction of particle size of the API and appropriate selection of screw design can markedly improve the dissolution rate of the API during extrusion. In addition, angle of repose measurements and light microscopy images show that the reduction of particle size of the API can improve the flowability of the physical mixture feed and the adhesiveness between its components, respectively, through dry coating of the polymer particles by the API particles. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Laser beam absorption study of a 238U(5L60) vapor obtained with a hollow cathode lamp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagne, J.M.; Leblanc, B.; Mongeau, B.; Carleer, M.; Bertrand, L.

    1979-01-01

    The density of U atoms in the 5 L 0 6 ground state present in a vapor of this element from a hollow cathode lamp has been measured using laser absorption spectroscopy. The influence of the carrier gases (Ar, Kr, Xe) on the density, the absorption coefficient profiles, and on the ratio of U atoms to the dissipated electrical power has been investigated. It has been found that, in our range of operating conditions, the xenon gas is the most efficient. With xenon, a density of 2.2 x 10 12 cm -3 ground-state U atoms is obtained when the lamp dissipates 40 W of electrical power

  5. The end of polling: why and how to transform a REST API into a Data Streaming API?

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    We know interactivity is the key to keep our user’s interest alive but we can’t reduce animation to UI anymore. Twitter, Waze, Slack… users are used to have real-time data in applications they love. But how can you turn your static API into a stream of data? By pulling? Pushing? Webhook-ing? When talking about data streaming, we often think about WebSockets. But have you ever heard of Server-Sent Events? In this tools-in-action we will compare those technologies to understand which one you should opt for depending on your usecase, and I’ll show you how we have been reducing the amount of data to transfer even further with JSON-Patch. And because real-time data is not only needed by web (and because it’s much more fun), I’ll show you how we can make a drone dance on streamed APIs.

  6. Transplante cardíaco e infecção Cardiac transplantation and infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson José COUTO

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: O presente estudo visa avaliar a incidência de infecções, os agentes etiológicos, e a apresentação clínica e a morbi-mortalidade operatória nos pacientes submetidos a transplante cardíaco na Universidade Federal de São Paulo. Casuística e Métodos: No período de novembro de 1996 a junho de 1998, 97 pacientes transplantados pela equipe de Cirurgia Cardiovascular da UNIFESP sobreviveram por período superior a uma semana após o transplante e foram analisados, retrospectivamente, quanto aos processos infecciosos diagnosticados. A idade dos pacientes variou de 3 a 63 anos (média de 44,4 ± 13,0 anos, sendo que a maioria apresentava miocardiopatia dilatada (46, seguida de chagásica (24 e isquêmica (23. O tempo de seguimento variou de 0,33 a 119 meses (36 ± 30,7 meses. Resultados: Dos 97 pacientes estudados, 16 (16,4% morreram, sendo infecção a principal causa, seguido pela rejeição em 10 (10,30%. As causas de óbito por infecção foram: sepse bacteriana em 6 pacientes, pneumonia em outros 6, infecção intra-abdominal em 2, toxoplasmose disseminada em 1 e infecção pelo citomegalovírus em 1. Ocorreram 142 episódios infecciosos diagnosticados distribuídos da seguinte forma: bacterianos 76 (52,5%; virais 34 (28,8%; fúngicos 20 (17,5% e protozoários 12 (12,4%. Houve 8 episódios de reativação da doença de Chagas (média 4,9 meses após o transplante diagnosticados principalmente através do aparecimento de nódulos subcutâneos. Todos os casos de reativação foram tratados com alopurinol e evoluíram bem. Conclusão: Os dados apresentados mostraram o predomínio de infecções bacterianas que causaram maior mortalidade. Nos transplantados por doença de Chagas a reativação da doença pode ser controlada adequadamente com uso de alopurinol. Os dados são importantes para orientação em nossa comunidade dos programas de transplantes, uma vez que traz à tona particularidades do nosso meio.Objective: To evaluate

  7. A SNP based high-density linkage map of Apis cerana reveals a high recombination rate similar to Apis mellifera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Yuan Shi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Eastern honey bee, Apis cerana Fabricius, is distributed in southern and eastern Asia, from India and China to Korea and Japan and southeast to the Moluccas. This species is also widely kept for honey production besides Apis mellifera. Apis cerana is also a model organism for studying social behavior, caste determination, mating biology, sexual selection, and host-parasite interactions. Few resources are available for molecular research in this species, and a linkage map was never constructed. A linkage map is a prerequisite for quantitative trait loci mapping and for analyzing genome structure. We used the Chinese honey bee, Apis cerana cerana to construct the first linkage map in the Eastern honey bee. RESULTS: F2 workers (N = 103 were genotyped for 126,990 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. After filtering low quality and those not passing the Mendel test, we obtained 3,000 SNPs, 1,535 of these were informative and used to construct a linkage map. The preliminary map contains 19 linkage groups, we then mapped the 19 linkage groups to 16 chromosomes by comparing the markers to the genome of A. mellfiera. The final map contains 16 linkage groups with a total of 1,535 markers. The total genetic distance is 3,942.7 centimorgans (cM with the largest linkage group (180 loci measuring 574.5 cM. Average marker interval for all markers across the 16 linkage groups is 2.6 cM. CONCLUSION: We constructed a high density linkage map for A. c. cerana with 1,535 markers. Because the map is based on SNP markers, it will enable easier and faster genotyping assays than randomly amplified polymorphic DNA or microsatellite based maps used in A. mellifera.

  8. A Ruby API to query the Ensembl database for genomic features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strozzi, Francesco; Aerts, Jan

    2011-04-01

    The Ensembl database makes genomic features available via its Genome Browser. It is also possible to access the underlying data through a Perl API for advanced querying. We have developed a full-featured Ruby API to the Ensembl databases, providing the same functionality as the Perl interface with additional features. A single Ruby API is used to access different releases of the Ensembl databases and is also able to query multi-species databases. Most functionality of the API is provided using the ActiveRecord pattern. The library depends on introspection to make it release independent. The API is available through the Rubygem system and can be installed with the command gem install ruby-ensembl-api.

  9. A Monte Carlo modeling alternative for the API Gamma Ray Calibration Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galford, J.E.

    2017-01-01

    The gamma ray pit at the API Calibration Facility, located on the University of Houston campus, defines the API unit for natural gamma ray logs used throughout the petroleum logging industry. Future use of the facility is uncertain. An alternative method is proposed to preserve the gamma ray API unit definition as an industry standard by using Monte Carlo modeling to obtain accurate counting rate-to-API unit conversion factors for gross-counting and spectral gamma ray tool designs. - Highlights: • A Monte Carlo alternative is proposed to replace empirical calibration procedures. • The proposed Monte Carlo alternative preserves the original API unit definition. • MCNP source and materials descriptions are provided for the API gamma ray pit. • Simulated results are presented for several wireline logging tool designs. • The proposed method can be adapted for use with logging-while-drilling tools.

  10. First Identification of Nosema Ceranae (Microsporidia Infecting Apis Mellifera in Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Porrini Leonardo P.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Nosema ceranae is a pathogen of Apis mellifera, which seems to have jumped from its original host Asiatic honey bee Apis ceranae. Nosemosis which affects the honey bee Apis mellifera is caused by two parasitic fungi described as etiologic agents of the disease. Nosema apis was the only microsporidian infection identified in A. mellifera until N. ceranae in Taiwan and Europe. Nosema spp. positive samples of adult worker bees from the Venezuelean state of Lara were determined through light microscopy of spores. Samples were then tested to determine Nosema species (N.apis/N.ceranae using previously reported PCR primers for the 16S rRNA gene. A multiplex PCR assay was used to differentiate both N. apis and N. ceranae species. Only N. ceranae was found in the analyzed samples and the percentage of infected foragers fluctuated between 18% and 60%.

  11. The new Nissan FF Hybrid + new 4-cylinder 2.5L supercharged engine. A new approach to powersource evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minakawa, Shunichi; Onoyama, Taiichi; Ishizuka, Takashi [Nissan Motor Co., Ltd., Kanagawa (Japan)

    2013-08-01

    In 2013, Nissan is going to launch a technology combination of 1-Motor 2-Clutch Parallel Hybrid system and 4-cylinder 2.5L supercharged engine for Infiniti QX60 HYBRID and new Nissan Pathfinder HYBRID. This Hybrid system has been developed to have three key advantages: (1) Significant improvement in fuel economy even when Highway driving, (2) Better response and more direct feeling, (3) Lightweight system and low-cost. To achieve these objectives, Nissan fitted a 1-Motor 2-Clutch Parallel system onto a new generation CVT without Torque Converter, combined with downsized 4 cylinder 2.5L supercharged Engine, which provides better fuel economy and V6 3.5-liter class driving performance. Nissan has developed the following proprietary technologies to realize the development of this Hybrid system: - High output and compact Li-ion battery, - Innovative high speed and precise motor and clutch control. Additionally, new technologies are added to both Engine and CVT. Engine: New 4-lobes Roots supercharger with precise electrical boost control. CVT: Chain driven, high efficiency and low friction with wide cover ratio. In this paper Nissan will introduce an outline of the system, key breakthrough technologies and how low fuel economy comparable with the compact car class, has been achieved and demonstrated. (orig.)

  12. Questioning the differences between general public vs. patient based preferences towards EQ-5D-5L defined hypothetical health states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogorevc, Marko; Murovec, Nika; Fernandez, Natacha Bolanos; Rupel, Valentina Prevolnik

    2017-03-28

    The purpose of this article is to explore whether any differences exist between the general population and patient based preferences towards EQ-5D-5L defined hypothetical health states. The article discusses the role of adaptation and self-interest in valuing health states and it also contributes rigorous empirical evidence to the scientific debate on the differences between the patient and general population preferences towards hypothetical health states. Patient preferences were elicited in 2015 with the EQ-5D-5L questionnaire using time trade-off and discrete choice experiment design and compared to the Spanish general population preferences, which were elicited using identical methods. Patients were chosen on a voluntary basis according to their willingness to participate in the survey. They were recruited from patient organisations and a hospital in Madrid, Spain. 282 metastatic breast cancer patients and 333 rheumatoid arthritis patients were included in the sample. The analysis revealed differences in preferences between the general population and patient groups. Based on the results of our analysis, it is suggested that the differences in preferences stem from patients being more able to accurately imagine "non-tangible" dimensions of health states (anxiety or depression, and pain or discomfort) than the general population with less experience in various health states. However, this does not mean that general public values should not be reflected in utilities derived for coverage decision making. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Estimación del gasto cardíaco: Utilidad en la práctica clínica. Monitorización disponible invasiva y no invasiva

    OpenAIRE

    García, X.; Mateu, L.; Maynar, J.; Mercadal, J.; Ochagavía, A.; Ferrandiz, A.

    2011-01-01

    Esta revisión pretende profundizar en el conocimiento del gasto cardíaco, sus variables y sus condicionantes, así como repasar exhaustivamente las diferentes técnicas disponibles para su monitorización y establecer las situaciones en que el conocimiento del gasto cardíaco nos aporta una información fundamental en el manejo del paciente crítico. La técnica de Fick, utilizada en los inicios para calcular el gasto cardíaco de los pacientes, ha sido sustituida hoy en día en la práctica clínica po...

  14. A Shellcode Detection Method Based on Full Native API Sequence and Support Vector Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yixuan; Fan, Wenqing; Huang, Wei; An, Jing

    2017-09-01

    Dynamic monitoring the behavior of a program is widely used to discriminate between benign program and malware. It is usually based on the dynamic characteristics of a program, such as API call sequence or API call frequency to judge. The key innovation of this paper is to consider the full Native API sequence and use the support vector machine to detect the shellcode. We also use the Markov chain to extract and digitize Native API sequence features. Our experimental results show that the method proposed in this paper has high accuracy and low detection rate.

  15. A Monte Carlo modeling alternative for the API Gamma Ray Calibration Facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galford, J E

    2017-04-01

    The gamma ray pit at the API Calibration Facility, located on the University of Houston campus, defines the API unit for natural gamma ray logs used throughout the petroleum logging industry. Future use of the facility is uncertain. An alternative method is proposed to preserve the gamma ray API unit definition as an industry standard by using Monte Carlo modeling to obtain accurate counting rate-to-API unit conversion factors for gross-counting and spectral gamma ray tool designs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A Head-to-Head Comparison of UK SF-6D and Thai and UK EQ-5D-5L Value Sets in Thai Patients with Chronic Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakthong, Phantipa; Munpan, Wipaporn

    2017-10-01

    Little was known about the head-to-head comparison of psychometric properties between SF-6D and EQ-5D-5L or the different value sets of EQ-5D-5L. Therefore, this study set out to compare the psychometric properties including agreement, convergent, and known-group validity between the SF-6D and the EQ-5D-5L using the real value sets from Thailand and the UK in patients with chronic diseases. 356 adults taking a medication for at least 3 months were identified from a university hospital in Bangkok, Thailand, between July 2014 and March 2015. Agreement was assessed by intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) and Bland-Altman plots. Convergent validity was evaluated using Spearman's rank correlation coefficients between SF-6D and EQ-5D-5L and EQ-VAS and SF-12v2. For known-groups validity, the Mann-Whitney U test and Kruskal-Wallis test were used to examine the associations between SF-6D and EQ-5D-5L and patient characteristics. Agreements between the SF-6D and the EQ-5D-5L using Thai and UK value sets were fair, with ICCs of 0.45 and 0.49, respectively. Bland-Altman plots showed that the majority of the SF-6D index scores were lower than the EQ-5D-5L index scores. Both the EQ-5D-5L value sets were more related to the EQ-VAS and physical health, while the SF-6D was more associated with mental health. Both EQ-5D-5L value sets were more sensitive than the SF-6D in discriminating patients with different levels of more known groups except for adverse drug reactions. The SF-6D and both EQ-5D-5L value sets appeared to be valid but sensitive to different outcomes in Thai patients with chronic diseases.

  17. Autotransplante cardíaco: um novo método no tratamento de problemas cardíacos complexos Heart autotransplantation: a new technique to complex intracardiac reppairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randas J. V Batista

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available No período de janeiro de 1990 a maio de 1995 foram operados com a técnica do autotransplante cardíaco 92 pacientes com cardiopatias complexas e arritmias supraventriculares, principalmente fibrilação atrial (n=89, reentrada (n=2, QT longo (n=1. O sexo feminino predominou (n=63. A idade variou de 18 a 76 anos (m=43. Os defeitos concomitantes foram: átrio esquerdo gigante (medido pelo ecocardiograma > 6 cm (n=65; átrio direito gigante (n=9; átrio esquerdo aumentado (4 cm (n=23; estenose mitral (n=46; insuficiência mitral (n=28; dupla lesão mitral (n=16; estenose aórtica (n=12; insuficiência aórtica (n=5; insuficiência tricúspide (n=78; trombose atrial (n=23; calcificação atrial (n=12; hipertensão pulmonar (n=86; fibroelastose biventricular (n=3; rotura atrioventricular (pós-troca de valva mitral (n=1; aneurisma da raiz aórtica (n=1; ventriculectomia parcial (n=8; 88 pacientes saíram do centro cirúrgico em ritmo sinusal e assim permaneceram; 6 precisaram de drogas inotrópicas e 3 de drogas antiarrítmicas. Todos os pacientes que apresentavam átrio esquerdo ou direito gigante com fibrilação atrial tiveram seus átrios reduzidos ao tamanho normal. Não houve mortalidade operatória e 6 evoluíram a óbito hospitalar. Na reavaliação aos seis meses de pós-operatório, os sobreviventes estavam bem, em ritmo sinusal. A técnica do autotransplante cardíaco facilita o reparo intracardíaco, proporciona a redução atrial e conseqüente retorno do paciente ao ritmo sinusal e abre novas perspectivas.From January 1990 to May 1995,92 patients with complex cardiac problems and supraventricular arrhythmias were operated upon with the technique of heart autotransplantation. The arrhythmias were: atrial fibrillation (n=89; reentry (n=2; long QT syndrome (n=1. Females predominated (n=63. The age varied from 18 to 76 years (m=43. Concomittant defects were: giant left atrium (> 6 cm measured by echo (n=65; giant right atrium (n=9; large

  18. Antimicrobial peptide evolution in the Asiatic honey bee Apis cerana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Xu

    Full Text Available The Asiatic honeybee, Apis cerana Fabricius, is an important honeybee species in Asian countries. It is still found in the wild, but is also one of the few bee species that can be domesticated. It has acquired some genetic advantages and significantly different biological characteristics compared with other Apis species. However, it has been less studied, and over the past two decades, has become a threatened species in China. We designed primers for the sequences of the four antimicrobial peptide cDNA gene families (abaecin, defensin, apidaecin, and hymenoptaecin of the Western honeybee, Apis mellifera L. and identified all the antimicrobial peptide cDNA genes in the Asiatic honeybee for the first time. All the sequences were amplified by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. In all, 29 different defensin cDNA genes coding 7 different defensin peptides, 11 different abaecin cDNA genes coding 2 different abaecin peptides, 13 different apidaecin cDNA genes coding 4 apidaecin peptides and 34 different hymenoptaecin cDNA genes coding 13 different hymenoptaecin peptides were cloned and identified from the Asiatic honeybee adult workers. Detailed comparison of these four antimicrobial peptide gene families with those of the Western honeybee revealed that there are many similarities in the quantity and amino acid components of peptides in the abaecin, defensin and apidaecin families, while many more hymenoptaecin peptides are found in the Asiatic honeybee than those in the Western honeybee (13 versus 1. The results indicated that the Asiatic honeybee adult generated more variable antimicrobial peptides, especially hymenoptaecin peptides than the Western honeybee when stimulated by pathogens or injury. This suggests that, compared to the Western honeybee that has a longer history of domestication, selection on the Asiatic honeybee has favored the generation of more variable antimicrobial peptides as protection against pathogens.

  19. Antimicrobial peptide evolution in the Asiatic honey bee Apis cerana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Peng; Shi, Min; Chen, Xue-Xin

    2009-01-01

    The Asiatic honeybee, Apis cerana Fabricius, is an important honeybee species in Asian countries. It is still found in the wild, but is also one of the few bee species that can be domesticated. It has acquired some genetic advantages and significantly different biological characteristics compared with other Apis species. However, it has been less studied, and over the past two decades, has become a threatened species in China. We designed primers for the sequences of the four antimicrobial peptide cDNA gene families (abaecin, defensin, apidaecin, and hymenoptaecin) of the Western honeybee, Apis mellifera L. and identified all the antimicrobial peptide cDNA genes in the Asiatic honeybee for the first time. All the sequences were amplified by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). In all, 29 different defensin cDNA genes coding 7 different defensin peptides, 11 different abaecin cDNA genes coding 2 different abaecin peptides, 13 different apidaecin cDNA genes coding 4 apidaecin peptides and 34 different hymenoptaecin cDNA genes coding 13 different hymenoptaecin peptides were cloned and identified from the Asiatic honeybee adult workers. Detailed comparison of these four antimicrobial peptide gene families with those of the Western honeybee revealed that there are many similarities in the quantity and amino acid components of peptides in the abaecin, defensin and apidaecin families, while many more hymenoptaecin peptides are found in the Asiatic honeybee than those in the Western honeybee (13 versus 1). The results indicated that the Asiatic honeybee adult generated more variable antimicrobial peptides, especially hymenoptaecin peptides than the Western honeybee when stimulated by pathogens or injury. This suggests that, compared to the Western honeybee that has a longer history of domestication, selection on the Asiatic honeybee has favored the generation of more variable antimicrobial peptides as protection against pathogens.

  20. Síndrome de bajo gasto cardíaco en la tetralogía de Fallot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lincoln de la Parte Pérez

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Se realiza un estudio retrospectivo de 200 niños operados de tetralogía de Fallot en el Cardiocentro del Hospital Pediátrico Universitario "William Soler" durante el período comprendido entre los años 1990 y 1993. Se observó una relación directamente proporcional entre el tiempo de pinzamiento aórtico (paro anóxico, el tiempo de circulación extracorpórea (CEC y el desarrollo del síndrome de bajo gasto cardíaco. La incidencia de bajo gasto cardíaco en los niños con tiempo de pinzamiento aórtico menor a los 30 min fue nula, en los pacientes con tiempo menor a los 60 min la incidencia fue del 23,2 % (40 pacientes. En los 24 pacientes que sufrieron procedimientos quirúrgicos prolongados y tiempo de pinzamiento aórtico mayor de 1 hora la incidencia fue del 95,8 %. En los pacientes con tiempo de CEC menor de 90 min la incidencia de bajo gasto cardíaco que de sólo el 9,75 %, en los niños con tiempo de CEC entre 91 y 105 min fue de 15,53 %, en los que necesitaron entre 106 y 120 min de CEC fue del 62,5 % y en los procedimientos quirúrgicos prolongados fue del 95,8 %. La mayoría de los pacientes respondió bien al tratamiento, aunque en un pequeño número de ellos se mantuvo la disfunción ventricular a pesar del tratamiento. Siete niños fallecieron en el posoperatorio para una mortalidad del 3,5 %.A retrospective study of 200 children with Tetralogy of Fallot, who were operated on the Cardiology Center of "William Soler" University Pediatric Hospital from 1990 to 1993, was performed. There was a direct proportional relation between time of holding aorta with forceps (anoxic arrest, time of extracorporeal circulation and the development of low cardiac output syndrome. The incidence of low cardiac output in children who underwent holding of aorta with forceps for less than 30 minutes was zero, but the same procedure applied in patients for less than 60 minutes, the incidence was 23,2%(40 patients. The 24 patients that underwent

  1. Validity, responsiveness, and minimal clinically important difference of EQ-5D-5L in stroke patients undergoing rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Poyu; Lin, Keh-Chung; Liing, Rong-Jiuan; Wu, Ching-Yi; Chen, Chia-Ling; Chang, Ku-Chou

    2016-06-01

    To examine the criterion validity, responsiveness, and minimal clinically important difference (MCID) of the EuroQoL 5-Dimensions Questionnaire (EQ-5D-5L) and visual analog scale (EQ-VAS) in people receiving rehabilitation after stroke. The EQ-5D-5L, along with four criterion measures-the Medical Research Council scales for muscle strength, the Fugl-Meyer assessment, the functional independence measure, and the Stroke Impact Scale-was administered to 65 patients with stroke before and after 3- to 4-week therapy. Criterion validity was estimated using the Spearman correlation coefficient. Responsiveness was analyzed by the effect size, standardized response mean (SRM), and criterion responsiveness. The MCID was determined by anchor-based and distribution-based approaches. The percentage of patients exceeding the MCID was also reported. Concurrent validity of the EQ-Index was better compared with the EQ-VAS. The EQ-Index has better power for predicting the rehabilitation outcome in the activities of daily living than other motor-related outcome measures. The EQ-Index was moderately responsive to change (SRM = 0.63), whereas the EQ-VAS was only mildly responsive to change. The MCID estimation of the EQ-Index (the percentage of patients exceeding the MCID) was 0.10 (33.8 %) and 0.10 (33.8 %) based on the anchor-based and distribution-based approaches, respectively, and the estimation of EQ-VAS was 8.61 (41.5 %) and 10.82 (32.3 %). The EQ-Index has shown reasonable concurrent validity, limited predictive validity, and acceptable responsiveness for detecting the health-related quality of life in stroke patients undergoing rehabilitation, but not for EQ-VAS. Future research considering different recovery stages after stroke is warranted to validate these estimations.

  2. Apie filosofijos ir meno sąsajas

    OpenAIRE

    Martinkus, Vytautas

    2008-01-01

    The article provides a review of Leonarda Jekentaitė’s book “De Profundis: Psichoanalitinės Filosofijos Žvilgsniu apie Mąstytojus ir Menininkus” (2007), written by V. Martinkus, according to whom, there are still few original art philosophy studies, published by Lithuanian authors in Lithuania. The review provides an analysis of the structure of the book, the style and main subjects are distinguished. The book provides the author’s articles, written during the period of thirty years. Most of ...

  3. Solar Eclipse Computer API: Planning Ahead for August 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Jennifer L.; Chizek Frouard, Malynda; Lesniak, Michael V.; Bell, Steve

    2016-01-01

    With the total solar eclipse of 2017 August 21 over the continental United States approaching, the U.S. Naval Observatory (USNO) on-line Solar Eclipse Computer can now be accessed via an application programming interface (API). This flexible interface returns local circumstances for any solar eclipse in JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) that can be incorporated into third-party Web sites or applications. For a given year, it can also return a list of solar eclipses that can be used to build a more specific request for local circumstances. Over the course of a particular eclipse as viewed from a specific site, several events may be visible: the beginning and ending of the eclipse (first and fourth contacts), the beginning and ending of totality (second and third contacts), the moment of maximum eclipse, sunrise, or sunset. For each of these events, the USNO Solar Eclipse Computer reports the time, Sun's altitude and azimuth, and the event's position and vertex angles. The computer also reports the duration of the total phase, the duration of the eclipse, the magnitude of the eclipse, and the percent of the Sun obscured for a particular eclipse site. On-line documentation for using the API-enabled Solar Eclipse Computer, including sample calls, is available (http://aa.usno.navy.mil/data/docs/api.php). The same Web page also describes how to reach the Complete Sun and Moon Data for One Day, Phases of the Moon, Day and Night Across the Earth, and Apparent Disk of a Solar System Object services using API calls.For those who prefer using a traditional data input form, local circumstances can still be requested that way at http://aa.usno.navy.mil/data/docs/SolarEclipses.php. In addition, the 2017 August 21 Solar Eclipse Resource page (http://aa.usno.navy.mil/data/docs/Eclipse2017.php) consolidates all of the USNO resources for this event, including a Google Map view of the eclipse track designed by Her Majesty's Nautical Almanac Office (HMNAO). Looking further ahead, a

  4. The Ensembl REST API: Ensembl Data for Any Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Andrew; Beal, Kathryn; Keenan, Stephen; McLaren, William; Pignatelli, Miguel; Ritchie, Graham R S; Ruffier, Magali; Taylor, Kieron; Vullo, Alessandro; Flicek, Paul

    2015-01-01

    We present a Web service to access Ensembl data using Representational State Transfer (REST). The Ensembl REST server enables the easy retrieval of a wide range of Ensembl data by most programming languages, using standard formats such as JSON and FASTA while minimizing client work. We also introduce bindings to the popular Ensembl Variant Effect Predictor tool permitting large-scale programmatic variant analysis independent of any specific programming language. The Ensembl REST API can be accessed at http://rest.ensembl.org and source code is freely available under an Apache 2.0 license from http://github.com/Ensembl/ensembl-rest. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press.

  5. Api Energia IGCC plant is fully integrated with refinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Bravo, R. [api Energia, Rome (Italy); Trifilo, R. [ABB Sadelmi, Milan (Italy); Chiantore, P.V. [api anonima petroli Italiania Spa, Rome (Italy); Starace, F. [ABB Power Generation, Baden (Switzerland); O`Keefe, L.F. [Texico, White Plains (United States)

    1998-06-01

    The api Energia integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plant being built at Falconara Marittima, on Italy`s Adriatic coast, is one of the three IGCC plants under construction in Italy following the liberalization of the electricity production sector. The plant will take 59.2 t/h of high sulphur heavy oil produced by the Falconara refinery, convert it to syngas and use the gas to generate 280 MW of electricity, plus steam and other gases for use in the refinery. The IGCC plant will be highly integrated into the refining process, with a large number of interchanges between the IGCC unit and the rest of the refinery. (author)

  6. Cross-cultural measurement equivalence of the 5-level EQ-5D (EQ-5D-5L) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ye; Tan, Ngiap-Chuan; Tay, Ee-Guan; Thumboo, Julian; Luo, Nan

    2015-07-16

    This study aimed to assess the measurement equivalence of the 5-level EQ-5D (EQ-5D-5L) among the English, Chinese, and Malay versions. A convenience sample of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus were enrolled from a public primary health care institution in Singapore. The survey questionnaire comprised the EQ-5D-5L and questions assessing participants' socio-demographic and clinical characteristics. Multiple linear regression models were used to assess the difference in EQ-5D-5L index (calculated using an interim algorithm) and EQ-visual analog scale (EQ-VAS) scores across survey language (Chinese vs. English, Malay vs. English, and Malay vs. Chinese). Measurement equivalence was examined by comparing the 90% confidence interval of difference in the EQ-5D-5L index and EQ-VAS scores with a pre-determined equivalence margin. Multiple logistic regression models were used to assess the response patterns of the 5 Likert-type items of the EQ-5D-5L across survey language. Equivalence was demonstrated between the Chinese and English versions and between the Malay and English versions of the EQ-5D-5L index scores. Equivalence was also demonstrated between the Chinese and English versions and between the Malay and Chinese versions of the EQ-VAS scores. Equivalence could not be determined between the Malay and Chinese versions of the EQ-5D-5L index score and between the Malay and English versions of the EQ-VAS score. No significant difference was found in responses to EQ-5D-5L items between any languages, except that patients who chose to complete the Chinese version were more likely to report "no problems" in mobility compared to those who completed the Malay version of the questionnaire. This study provided evidence for the measurement equivalence of the different language versions of EQ-5D-5L in Singapore.

  7. Uma breve revisão histórica do desenvolvimento da soldagem dos aços API para tubulações A brief history review of development on API steels welding for pipeline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Casanova Soeiro Junior

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho enfoca o desenvolvimento dos aços API para tubulações desde o aço API 5L X42, desenvolvido em 1948, através de laminação a quente seguida de tratamento térmico. Desde então foram feitos diferentes desenvolvimentos visando aumentar a resistência mecânica e a tenacidade, além de melhorar a soldabilidade. Entre eles, a adição de elementos de liga, produzindo os aços ARBL e a utilização de rotas de processamento termomecânico durante a laminação. Inicialmente a rota utilizada era a laminação a quente controlada (TMCR, com utilização de elemento microligante como Nb para os aços X60 e o conjunto Nb e V para os aços X65 e X70, associado a uma redução do teor de carbono. Posteriormente foi implantada a rota de fabricação do aço por laminação controlada seguida de resfriamento controlado (TMCP, com redução de carbono e adição de Nb e Ti para os aços X80, e adições de Mo, Nb, Be Ti para os X100. A redução do carbono foi motivada também para melhorar a sua soldabilidade e, por este motivo, estes aços são soldados por diferentes processos de soldagem, como o eletrodo revestido. Desenvolvimentos recentes com raiz feita com MAG-TC e enchimento com arame tubular tem dado resultados animadores.This paper is a brief history on the development of pipelines steels since the API 5L X42 steel, developed in 1948 by hot rolling followed by heat treatment. Subsequently different developments were made to increase the strength and toughness of these materials, and to improve their weldability. Among them, the addition of microalloying elements, producing HSLA steels and thermomechanical processing routes during hot rolling. Initially the route used was the controlled hot rolling (TMCR, together with microalloying element such as Nb for X60 steel and Nb plus V for X65 and X70 steels, associated with a reduction in carbon content. Later, the thermomechanical controlled process (TMCP manufacturing route was

  8. Sildenafil vs. Nitroprussiato de Sódio durante Teste de Reatividade Pulmonar pré-transplante cardíaco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguinaldo Figueiredo Freitas Jr

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: A hipertensão pulmonar é associada ao pior prognóstico no pós-transplante cardíaco. O teste de reatividade pulmonar com Nitroprussiato de Sódio (NPS está associado a elevados índices de hipotensão arterial sistêmica, disfunção ventricular do enxerto transplantado e elevadas taxas de desqualificação para o transplante. OBJETIVO: Neste estudo, objetivou-se comparar os efeitos do Sildenafil (SIL e NPS sobre variáveis hemodinâmicas, neuro-hormonais e ecocardiográficas durante teste de reatividade pulmonar. MÉTODOS: Os pacientes foram submetidos, simultaneamente, ao cateterismo cardíaco direito, ao ecocardiograma e à dosagem de BNP e gasometria venosa, antes e após administração de NPS (1 - 2 µg/Kg/min ou SIL (100 mg, dose única. RESULTADOS: Ambos reduziram a hipertensão pulmonar, porém o nitrato promoveu hipotensão sistêmica significativa (Pressão Arterial Média - PAM: 85,2 vs. 69,8 mmHg, p < 0,001. Ambos reduziram as dimensões cardíacas e melhoraram a função cardíaca esquerda (NPS: 23,5 vs. 24,8 %, p = 0,02; SIL: 23,8 vs. 26 %, p < 0,001 e direita (SIL: 6,57 ± 2,08 vs. 8,11 ± 1,81 cm/s, p = 0,002; NPS: 6,64 ± 1,51 vs. 7,72 ± 1,44 cm/s, p = 0,003, medidas pela fração de ejeção ventricular esquerda e Doppler tecidual, respectivamente. O SIL, ao contrário do NPS, apresentou melhora no índice de saturação venosa de oxigênio, medido pela gasometria venosa. CONCLUSÃO: Sildenafil e NPS são vasodilatadores que reduzem, de forma significativa, a hipertensão pulmonar e a geometria cardíaca, além de melhorar a função biventricular. O NPS, ao contrário do SIL, esteve associado a hipotensão arterial sistêmica e piora da saturação venosa de oxigênio.

  9. Primary cardiac lymphoma in dogLinfoma cardíaco primário em cão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Tinucci Costa

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Lymphomas are malignant neoplasm characterized by proliferation of lymphocytes that originate primarily in lymphoid organ such as lymph nodes, liver, spleen and bone marrow. However the feature of continuous migration of lymphocytes in different organs, this tumor can develop in any organ. Although lymphoma is a very common hematopoietic neoplasm in dogs, cardiac location is rare. The diagnosis of primary cardiac lymphoma may be performed when there is involvement of the heart and / or the pericardium without evidence of involvement in other organs. In veterinary medicine there are few reports on the diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of cardiac lymphoma. Therefore, the purpose of this report is to describe a case of cardiac lymphoma in which the patient responded favorably to chemotherapy employee with disease-free interval of 19 months and highlight the importance of including this neoplasm in the differential diagnosis of diseases that affect the cardiovascular system. Os linfomas são neoplasias caracterizadas pela proliferação maligna de linfócitos, que originamse principalmente em órgão linfóides como linfonodos, fígado, baço e medula óssea. Entretanto pela característica de contínua migração dos linfócitos por diferentes órgãos, esta neoplasia pode se desenvolver em qualquer órgão. Embora o linfoma seja a neoplasia hematopoiética de maior incidência em cães, a localização cardíaca é rara. O diagnóstico de linfoma cardíaco primário pode ser realizado quando há envolvimento do coração e/ou pericárdio sem evidências de ocorrência de órgãos linfáticos ou extranodais. Em medicina veterinária existem poucos relatos sobre o diagnóstico, tratamento e prognóstico desta neoplasia cardíaca. Portanto o objetivo do presente relato é descrever um caso de linfoma cardíaco em que o paciente respondeu favoravelmente ao tratamento quimioterápico empregado com intervalo livre de doença de 19 meses e salientar a

  10. A cena constituinte da psicose maníaco-depressiva no Brasil The emergence of manic depressive psychosis as a diagnosis in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Birman

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A intenção deste ensaio é esboçar a leitura da psicose maníaco-depressiva no Brasil, no começo do século XX. Destaca a transformação teórica ocorrida na psiquiatria brasileira, que se deslocou da tradição francesa para a alemã. Sublinha o modo como a problemática da histeria foi substituída pela da psicose maníaco-depressiva nesse contexto histórico.This essay examines the early twentieth-century interpretation of manic depressive psychosis in Brazil, during a moment when Brazilian psychiatry witnessed a theoretical shift from the French to German traditions. It calls special attention to how the problem of hysteria was replaced by manic depressive psychosis within this historical context.

  11. Registro Español de Trasplante Cardíaco. XX Informe oficial de la sección de insuficiencia Cardíaca y Trasplante Cardíaco de la sociedad Española de Cardiología (1984-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Almenar Bonet

    2009-07-01

    Conclusiones: La supervivencia obtenida en España con el TC, sobre todo en los últimos años, sitúa al trasplante cardíaco como el tratamiento de elección para cardiopatías irreversibles en situación funcional avanzada y sin otras opciones médicas o quirúrgicas establecidas.

  12. Acute Care of At-Risk Newborns (ACoRN: quantitative and qualitative educational evaluation of the program in a region of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singhal Nalini

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Acute Care of at-Risk Newborns (ACoRN program was developed in Canada for trained health care providers for the identification and management of newborns who are at-risk and/or become unwell in the first few hours or days after birth. The ACoRN process follows an 8-step framework that enables the evaluation and management of babies irrespective of the experience or expertise of the caregiving individual or team. This study assesses the applicability of the program to Chinese pediatric practitioners. Methods Course content and educational materials were translated from English into Chinese by bilingual neonatal practitioners. Confidence and knowledge questionnaires were developed and reviewed for face and content validity by a team of ACoRN instructors. Bilingual Chinese instructors were trained at the tertiary perinatal centre in Hangzhou Zhejiang to deliver the course at 15 level II county hospitals. Participants completed pre- and post-course confidence and knowledge questionnaires and provided feedback through post-course focus groups. Results 216 physicians and nurses were trained. Confidence and knowledge relating to neonatal stabilization improved significantly following the courses. Participants rated course utility and function between 4.2 and 4.6/5 on all items. Pre/post measures of confidence were significantly correlated with post course knowledge. Focus group data supported the perceived value of the program and recommended course adjustments to include pre-course reading, and increased content related to simulation, communication skills, and management of respiratory illness and jaundice. Conclusions ACoRN, a Canadian educational program, appears to be well received by Chinese health care providers and results in improved knowledge and confidence. International program adaptation for use by health care professionals requires structured and systematic evaluation to ensure that the program meets the needs of

  13. Comparison of the performance and security of free and open source smart card offcard APIs

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Chifura, A

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available . Off card APIs provide a framework for this by providing interfaces that can be implemented to enhance the communication. This study looks at the performance and security comparisons of several free and open source smart card offcard APIs...

  14. Macelignan inhibits bee pathogenic fungi Ascophaera apis growth through HOG1 pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.K. Shin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ascosphaera apis is a bee pathogen that causes bee larvae infection disease, to which treatment is not yet well investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate antifungal susceptibility in vitro against A. apis and to identify a new antifungal agent for this pathogen through minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC assay and western blot analysis. Macelignan had 1.56 and 3.125 μg/mL MIC against A. apis after 24 and 48 h, respectively, exhibiting the strongest growth inhibition against A. apis among the tested compounds (corosolic acid, dehydrocostus lactone, loganic acid, tracheloside, fangchinoline and emodin-8-O-β-D-glucopyranoside. Furthermore, macelignan showed a narrow-ranged spectrum against various fungal strains without any mammalian cell cytotoxicity. In spite of miconazole having powerful broad-ranged anti-fungal activity including A. apis, it demonstrated strong cytotoxicity. Therefore, even if macelignan alone was effective as an antifungal agent to treat A. apis, combined treatment with miconazole was more useful to overcome toxicity, drug resistance occurrence and cost effectiveness. Finally, HOG1 was revealed as a target molecule of macelignan in the anti-A. apis activity by inhibiting phosphorylation using S. cerevisiae as a model system. Based on our results, macelignan, a food-grade antimicrobial compound, would be an effective antifungal agent against A. apis infection in bees.

  15. Influence of humidity on the phase behavior of API/polymer formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prudic, Anke; Ji, Yuanhui; Luebbert, Christian; Sadowski, Gabriele

    2015-08-01

    Amorphous formulations of APIs in polymers tend to absorb water from the atmosphere. This absorption of water can induce API recrystallization, leading to reduced long-term stability during storage. In this work, the phase behavior of different formulations was investigated as a function of relative humidity. Indomethacin and naproxen were chosen as model APIs and poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) and poly(vinyl pyrrolidone-co-vinyl acetate) (PVPVA64) as excipients. The formulations were prepared by spray drying. The water sorption in pure polymers and in formulations was measured at 25°C and at different values of relative humidity (RH=25%, 50% and 75%). Most water was absorbed in PVP-containing systems, and water sorption was decreasing with increasing API content. These trends could also be predicted in good agreement with the experimental data using the thermodynamic model PC-SAFT. Furthermore, the effect of absorbed water on API solubility in the polymer and on the glass-transition temperature of the formulations was predicted with PC-SAFT and the Gordon-Taylor equation, respectively. The absorbed water was found to significantly decrease the API solubility in the polymer as well as the glass-transition temperature of the formulation. Based on a quantitative modeling of the API/polymer phase diagrams as a function of relative humidity, appropriate API/polymer compositions can now be selected to ensure long-term stable amorphous formulations at given storage conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Improvements and extensions to API 618 related to pulsation and mechanical response studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijk, A.; Smeulers, J.P.M.; Blodgett, L.E.; Smalley, A.J.

    1999-01-01

    Purchasers of reciprocating compressors need a standard to help ensure reliable installations. The PNEUROP standard evolved in Europe, and the API 618 Standard in the U.S.A. Frequent application and generally good experience, worldwide, have led to four releases of API 618, the last dated June 1995.

  17. Current situation of asthma-COPD overlap syndrome (ACOS) in Chinese patients older than 40 years with airflow limitation: rationale and design for a multicenter, cross-sectional trial (study protocol).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jian; Yao, Wanzhen; Cai, Baiqiang; Chen, Ping; Ling, Xia; Shang, Hongyan

    2016-12-01

    Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are the frequently occurring chronic airway diseases, and the overlapping syndrome observed in the majority of patients has been recently defined as asthma-COPD overlap syndrome (ACOS) by the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung (GOLD, 2014) and Global initiative for Asthma (GINA, 2015). The proportion, features, and clinical practice of ACOS still remain elusive in China. We are conducting this multicenter, cross-sectional, observational study (NCT02600221) to investigate the distributions of chronic obstructive diseases in patients >40 years of age with chronic airflow limitation in China along with determination of the main clinical practice and features of these diseases. The study will also explore the factors that may influence the exacerbations and severity of ACOS in Chinese patients (>40 years of age). A total of 2,000 patients (age, ≥40 years; either sex) who are clinically diagnosed as having asthma, COPD/chronic bronchitis/emphysema, or ACOS for at least 12 months with airflow limitation [post-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity (FEV 1 /FVC): current situation, main clinical practice, and features of ACOS, asthma, and COPD conditions in Chinese patients. The insights will be helpful in designing optimal management strategies for ACOS and redefining the healthcare development programs.

  18. Omalizumab (anti-IgE) therapy in the asthma-COPD overlap syndrome (ACOS) and its effects on circulating cytokine levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalcin, Arzu Didem; Celik, Betul; Yalcin, Ata Nevzat

    2016-06-01

    The term "asthma-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) overlap syndrome" (ACOS) has been applied to the condition, in which a person has clinical features of both asthma and COPD. The patients (N = 10) were presented to our clinic with low lung function, limited reversibility of airway obstruction, hyperinflation, abnormal body composition, dyspnea and episodic wheezing. Based on the clinical and laboratory findings, the patients were diagnosed with ACOS. Patients' serum IL-2 (sIL-2), sIL-4 sIL-6, sIL-10, sIL-17, sTNF-α and sIFN-γ levels were investigated as an apoptotic marker and a marker for inflammation. Having undergone omalizumab treatment and a long-term (12 months) later, patients had a decreased IgE, fractional exhaled nitric oxide concentrations (FENO), eosinophil, neutrophils, macrophages, eosinophil cationic peptide (ECP) and sIL-4 levels. To our knowledge, this is the first documentation of omalizumab use in ACOS. We demonstrated decreased IL-4, allergic pulmonary symptoms (dyspnea, wheezing, bronchial hyper responsiveness) and migraine attacks in the patients.

  19. Caso clínico del Departamento de Psiquiatría: Trastorno afectivo bipolar 1, episodio maníaco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Calvo Gómez

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available Se trata de un paciente de 21 años con un cuadro clínico de una semana de evolución cuyas características satisfacen los criterios diagnósticos de la Cuarta Edición del Manual Estadístico y Diagnóstico de los Trastornos Mentales (DSM IV para trastorno afectivo bipolar 1,episodio maníaco severo con características psicóticas congruentes con el estado de ánimo. Criterios diagnósticos para trastorno afectivo bipolar 1: A. Actualmente (o recientemente en episodio maníaco. B. Ha existido previamente al menos un episodio depresivo mayor, episodio maníaco o episodio mixto. C. Los episodios afectivos de los criterios A y B no son producidos por un trastorno esquizoafectivo y no están superpuestos sobre esquizofrenia, trastorno esquizofreniforme, trastorno delirante, o trastorno psicótico no especificado en otro sitio.

  20. Predominant Api m 10 sensitization as risk factor for treatment failure in honey bee venom immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frick, Marcel; Fischer, Jörg; Helbling, Arthur; Ruëff, Franziska; Wieczorek, Dorothea; Ollert, Markus; Pfützner, Wolfgang; Müller, Sabine; Huss-Marp, Johannes; Dorn, Britta; Biedermann, Tilo; Lidholm, Jonas; Ruecker, Gerta; Bantleon, Frank; Miehe, Michaela; Spillner, Edzard; Jakob, Thilo

    2016-12-01

    Component resolution recently identified distinct sensitization profiles in honey bee venom (HBV) allergy, some of which were dominated by specific IgE to Api m 3 and/or Api m 10, which have been reported to be underrepresented in therapeutic HBV preparations. We performed a retrospective analysis of component-resolved sensitization profiles in HBV-allergic patients and association with treatment outcome. HBV-allergic patients who had undergone controlled honey bee sting challenge after at least 6 months of HBV immunotherapy (n = 115) were included and classified as responder (n = 79) or treatment failure (n = 36) on the basis of absence or presence of systemic allergic reactions upon sting challenge. IgE reactivity to a panel of HBV allergens was analyzed in sera obtained before immunotherapy and before sting challenge. No differences were observed between responders and nonresponders regarding levels of IgE sensitization to Api m 1, Api m 2, Api m 3, and Api m 5. In contrast, Api m 10 specific IgE was moderately but significantly increased in nonresponders. Predominant Api m 10 sensitization (>50% of specific IgE to HBV) was the best discriminator (specificity, 95%; sensitivity, 25%) with an odds ratio of 8.444 (2.127-33.53; P = .0013) for treatment failure. Some but not all therapeutic HBV preparations displayed a lack of Api m 10, whereas Api m 1 and Api m 3 immunoreactivity was comparable to that of crude HBV. In line with this, significant Api m 10 sIgG 4 induction was observed only in those patients who were treated with HBV in which Api m 10 was detectable. Component-resolved sensitization profiles in HBV allergy suggest predominant IgE sensitization to Api m 10 as a risk factor for treatment failure in HBV immunotherapy. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Parasitic Cape honeybee workers, Apis mellifera capensis, evade policing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Stephen J.; Beekman, Madeleine; Wossler, Theresa C.; Ratnieks, Francis L. W.

    2002-01-01

    Relocation of the Cape honeybee, Apis mellifera capensis, by bee-keepers from southern to northern South Africa in 1990 has caused widespread death of managed African honeybee, A. m. scutellata, colonies. Apis mellifera capensis worker bees are able to lay diploid, female eggs without mating by means of automictic thelytoky (meiosis followed by fusion of two meiotic products to restore egg diploidy), whereas workers of other honeybee subspecies are able to lay only haploid, male eggs. The A. m. capensis workers, which are parasitizing and killing A. m. scutellata colonies in northern South Africa, are the asexual offspring of a single, original worker in which the small amount of genetic variation observed is due to crossing over during meiosis (P. Kryger, personal communication). Here we elucidate two principal mechanisms underlying this parasitism. Parasitic A. m. capensis workers activate their ovaries in host colonies that have a queen present (queenright colonies), and they lay eggs that evade being killed by other workers (worker policing)-the normal fate of worker-laid eggs in colonies with a queen. This unique parasitism by workers is an instance in which a society is unable to control the selfish actions of its members.

  2. Physicochemical analysis of apis dorsata honey from terai forests, Nepal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qamer, S.; Ahmad, F.; Latif, F.; Ali, S.S

    2008-01-01

    The multi floral honey produced by Apis dorsata from Shahabgunj, Dhakeri, Narayanpur and Perari forest, Nepal, were provided by International Center for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD), Nepal. These ninety nine Apis dorsata honey samples were characterized physicochemical and were found to have values of various quality determining parameters well with in the permissible International standards. The honey samples had pH in the range of 3.8-4.68, free acidity 41-48 meq/kg, lactones 13-16 meq/kg, total acidity 55-65 meq/kg, moisture content 20.5-26%, electrical conductivity 0.22-0.63 mS/cm, proline content 76-160 mg/kg, HMF content 30-56 mg/kg, diastase number 5.1-29 DN, invertase number 390-499, apparent reducing sugars 73.78-77.78%, fructose 36.93-44.61%, glucose 19.61-27.51% and sucrose 12.07-20.38%. (author)

  3. The Auroral Planetary Imaging and Spectroscopy (APIS) service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamy, L.; Prangé, R.; Henry, F.; Le Sidaner, P.

    2015-06-01

    The Auroral Planetary Imaging and Spectroscopy (APIS) service, accessible online, provides an open and interactive access to processed auroral observations of the outer planets and their satellites. Such observations are of interest for a wide community at the interface between planetology, magnetospheric and heliospheric physics. APIS consists of (i) a high level database, built from planetary auroral observations acquired by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) since 1997 with its mostly used Far-Ultraviolet spectro-imagers, (ii) a dedicated search interface aimed at browsing efficiently this database through relevant conditional search criteria and (iii) the ability to interactively work with the data online through plotting tools developed by the Virtual Observatory (VO) community, such as Aladin and Specview. This service is VO compliant and can therefore also been queried by external search tools of the VO community. The diversity of available data and the capability to sort them out by relevant physical criteria shall in particular facilitate statistical studies, on long-term scales and/or multi-instrumental multi-spectral combined analysis.

  4. APIS-a novel approach for conditioning honey bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkerud, Nicholas H; Wehmann, Henja-Niniane; Galizia, C Giovanni; Gustav, David

    2013-01-01

    Honey bees perform robustly in different conditioning paradigms. This makes them excellent candidates for studying mechanisms of learning and memory at both an individual and a population level. Here we introduce a novel method of honey bee conditioning: APIS, the Automatic Performance Index System. In an enclosed walking arena where the interior is covered with an electric grid, presentation of odors from either end can be combined with weak electric shocks to form aversive associations. To quantify behavioral responses, we continuously monitor the movement of the bee by an automatic tracking system. We found that escapes from one side to the other, changes in velocity as well as distance and time spent away from the punished odor are suitable parameters to describe the bee's learning capabilities. Our data show that in a short-term memory test the response rate for the conditioned stimulus (CS) in APIS correlates well with response rate obtained from conventional Proboscis Extension Response (PER)-conditioning. Additionally, we discovered that bees modulate their behavior to aversively learned odors by reducing their rate, speed and magnitude of escapes and that both generalization and extinction seem to be different between appetitive and aversive stimuli. The advantages of this automatic system make it ideal for assessing learning rates in a standardized and convenient way, and its flexibility adds to the toolbox for studying honey bee behavior.

  5. APIS - a novel approach for conditioning honey bees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Hagen Kirkerud

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Honey bees perform robustly in different conditioning paradigms. This makes them excellent candidates for studying mechanisms of learning and memory at both an individual and a population level. Here we introduce a novel method of honey bee conditioning: APIS, the Automatic Performance Index System. In an enclosed walking arena where the interior is covered with an electric grid, presentation of odours from either end can be combined with weak electric shocks to form aversive associations. To quantify behavioural responses, we continuously monitor the movement of the bee by an automatic tracking system. We found that escapes from one side to the other, changes in velocity as well as distance and time spent away from the punished odour are suitable parameters to describe the bee’s learning capabilities.Our data show that in a short-term memory test the response rate for the conditioned stimulus in APIS correlates well with response rate obtained from conventional Proboscis Extension Response (PER-conditioning. Additionally, we discovered that bees modulate their behaviour to aversively learned odours by reducing their rate, speed and magnitude of escapes and that both generalisation and extinction seem to be different between appetitive and aversive stimuli. The advantages of this automatic system make it ideal for assessing learning rates in a standardised and convenient way, and its flexibility adds to our toolbox for studying honey bee behaviour.

  6. Java Source Code Analysis for API Migration to Embedded Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winter, Victor [Univ. of Nebraska, Omaha, NE (United States); McCoy, James A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Guerrero, Jonathan [Univ. of Nebraska, Omaha, NE (United States); Reinke, Carl Werner [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Perry, James Thomas [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Embedded systems form an integral part of our technological infrastructure and oftentimes play a complex and critical role within larger systems. From the perspective of reliability, security, and safety, strong arguments can be made favoring the use of Java over C in such systems. In part, this argument is based on the assumption that suitable subsets of Java’s APIs and extension libraries are available to embedded software developers. In practice, a number of Java-based embedded processors do not support the full features of the JVM. For such processors, source code migration is a mechanism by which key abstractions offered by APIs and extension libraries can made available to embedded software developers. The analysis required for Java source code-level library migration is based on the ability to correctly resolve element references to their corresponding element declarations. A key challenge in this setting is how to perform analysis for incomplete source-code bases (e.g., subsets of libraries) from which types and packages have been omitted. This article formalizes an approach that can be used to extend code bases targeted for migration in such a manner that the threats associated the analysis of incomplete code bases are eliminated.

  7. Genetic variation in natural honeybee populations, Apis mellifera capensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepburn, Randall; Neumann, Peter; Radloff, Sarah E.

    2004-09-01

    Genetic variation in honeybee, Apis mellifera, populations can be considerably influenced by breeding and commercial introductions, especially in areas with abundant beekeeping. However, in southern Africa apiculture is based on the capture of wild swarms, and queen rearing is virtually absent. Moreover, the introduction of European subspecies constantly failed in the Cape region. We therefore hypothesize a low human impact on genetic variation in populations of Cape honeybees, Apis mellifera capensis. A novel solution to studying genetic variation in honeybee populations based on thelytokous worker reproduction is applied to test this hypothesis. Environmental effects on metrical morphological characters of the phenotype are separated to obtain a genetic residual component. The genetic residuals are then re-calculated as coefficients of genetic variation. Characters measured included hair length on the abdomen, width and length of wax plate, and three wing angles. The data show for the first time that genetic variation in Cape honeybee populations is independent of beekeeping density and probably reflects naturally occurring processes such as gene flow due to topographic and climatic variation on a microscale.

  8. Towards Standardized Patient Data Exchange: Integrating a FHIR Based API for the Open Medical Record System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasthurirathne, Suranga N; Mamlin, Burke; Grieve, Grahame; Biondich, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Interoperability is essential to address limitations caused by the ad hoc implementation of clinical information systems and the distributed nature of modern medical care. The HL7 V2 and V3 standards have played a significant role in ensuring interoperability for healthcare. FHIR is a next generation standard created to address fundamental limitations in HL7 V2 and V3. FHIR is particularly relevant to OpenMRS, an Open Source Medical Record System widely used across emerging economies. FHIR has the potential to allow OpenMRS to move away from a bespoke, application specific API to a standards based API. We describe efforts to design and implement a FHIR based API for the OpenMRS platform. Lessons learned from this effort were used to define long term plans to transition from the legacy OpenMRS API to a FHIR based API that greatly reduces the learning curve for developers and helps enhance adhernce to standards.

  9. [Effect of habitat and interspecific competition on Apis cerana cerana colony distribution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Linsheng; Han, Shengming

    2003-04-01

    Habitat change and interspecific competition were the main factors affecting, Apis cerana cerana colony distribution among Wannan and Wanxi Dabie mountainous areas, Jianghuai area and Huaibei plain. Wannan and Wanxi Dabie mountainous areas were the ideal places for Apis cerana cerana' habitation and propogation, in which, there were integrated natural vegetation, fine ecological condition, abundant nectariferous plants, and Apis cerana cerana had large colony size, wide distribution, high density, no disturbances of natural mating, and was dominant interspecific competition. In Jianghuai area and Huaibei plain, there were small covering of natural vegetation, different degree of degradation of ecological balance, few kinds of nectariferous plants with almost the same blooming periods, natural mating perturbed by Apis mellifera ligustica for Apis cerana cerana, and which was inferior in interspecific competition, colony size sharply decreased, distribution area reduced, and density cut down to a great extent. In Huaibei plain, the negative factors were more conspicuous.

  10. The new 3.5L V6 gasoline engine adopting the innovative stoichiometric direct injection system D-4S; Der neue 3.5L V6 Benzinmotor mit dem innovativen stoechiometrischen Direkteinspritzsystem D-4S

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuji, N.; Sugiyama, M.; Abe, S. [Toyota Motor Corp. (Japan)

    2006-07-01

    A new 3.5L V6 engine was introduced for the new Lexus sedan vehicles, GS350 and IS350 in Japan in August 2005. In 2006, this engine will be adapted to the power source of the new hybrid rear wheel driven vehicle GS450h. This new engine uses a newly developed stoichiometric direct injection system with two fuel injectors in each cylinder (this system is called D-4S: direct injection 4-stroke gasoline engine system superior version). One is a direct injection injector generating a dual-vertical-fan-shaped spray with wide dispersion, while the other is a port injector. This new fuel injection system can maximize the DI advantage for full-load performance. Simultaneously the optimisation of the intake and exhaust system and the increase of stiffness of the moving parts such as the timing chain system and the valve train system enable a specific power of 67kW/L and 234kW at 6400r/min to be achieved, placing it near the top of all naturally aspirated production gasoline engines in the world. Additionally, employing the dual-VVTi system (intake and exhaust VVT system) and the long dual exhaust pipe, an excellent maximum torque of 380Nm at 4800r/min was achieved while keeping 90 percent of maximum torque for a wide engine speed range from 2000r/min to 6500r/min. (orig.)

  11. Measurement properties of the EQ-5D-5L compared to the EQ-5D-3L across eight patient groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janssen, M F; Pickard, A Simon; Golicki, Dominik

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to assess the measurement properties of the 5-level classification system of the EQ-5D (5L), in comparison with the 3-level EQ-5D (3L). METHODS: Participants (n = 3,919) from six countries, including eight patient groups with chronic conditions (cardiovascular...... of the 3-level system which improves upon the measurement properties, reducing the ceiling while improving discriminatory power and establishing convergent and known-groups validity.......), redistribution properties, ceiling, discriminatory power, convergent validity, and known-groups validity. RESULTS: Missing values were on average 0.8 % for 5L and 1.3 % for 3L. In total, 2.9 % of responses were inconsistent between 5L and 3L. Redistribution from 3L to 5L using EQ dimension-specific rating scales...

  12. DESIGN AND OPTIMIZATION OF PERMANENT MAGNET SYNCHRONOUS GENERATOR FOR USE IN HYDRODYNAMIC RENEWABLE ENERGY BY APPLYING ACO AND FEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Nikbakhsh

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important ways to reduce fossil fuel consumption and consequently reduce greenhouse gases and environmental pollution is the use of renewable energies such as water, sun, wind, etc. One of the most efficient ways to take advantages of the shallow flowing waters such as rivers and fountains in electrical power generation is the use of hydrodynamic screw in the direction of water flow. The design of the generator for this application results in environmental dangers decrease. On the other hand, it provides some part of electrical energy required for human beings. Generators in hydrodynamic renewable energy system ought to have features such as high efficiency, power density and reliability as well as low volume. Among various generators, the permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG meets these requirements very well. In this paper, first, analytical calculations and the design process of PMSG were explained. Then, the ant colony optimization (ACO was used for the optimization of design quantities. PMSG design optimization increased in efficiency and decreased in volume. By improving these two parameters in the designed PMSG, it gets very suitable to be used in hydrodynamic renewable energy system. Finally, the results of the optimized design of PMSG were validated through simulation of it in Maxwell software and applying finite element analysis (FEA. Also the final results have been compared to similar experimental researches results.

  13. Optimizing VM allocation and data placement for data-intensive applications in cloud using ACO metaheuristic algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.P. Shabeera

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays data-intensive applications for processing big data are being hosted in the cloud. Since the cloud environment provides virtualized resources for computation, and data-intensive applications require communication between the computing nodes, the placement of Virtual Machines (VMs and location of data affect the overall computation time. Majority of the research work reported in the current literature consider the selection of physical nodes for placing data and VMs as independent problems. This paper proposes an approach which considers VM placement and data placement hand in hand. The primary objective is to reduce cross network traffic and bandwidth usage, by placing required number of VMs and data in Physical Machines (PMs which are physically closer. The VM and data placement problem (referred as MinDistVMDataPlacement problem is defined in this paper and has been proved to be NP- Hard. This paper presents and evaluates a metaheuristic algorithm based on Ant Colony Optimization (ACO, which selects a set of adjacent PMs for placing data and VMs. Data is distributed in the physical storage devices of the selected PMs. According to the processing capacity of each PM, a set of VMs are placed on these PMs to process data stored in them. We use simulation to evaluate our algorithm. The results show that the proposed algorithm selects PMs in close proximity and the jobs executed in the VMs allocated by the proposed scheme outperforms other allocation schemes.

  14. Oxigenación de membrana extracorpórea para soporte cardíaco o respiratorio en adultos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Torregrosa

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available La oxigenación de membrana extracorpórea (ECMO es un sistema de asistencia mecánica circulatoria y respiratoria extracorpórea de corta duración. Está indicado en el shock cardiogénico e insuficiencia respiratoria con compromiso vital de cualquier causa, cuando las medidas terapéuticas médicas o quirúrgicas convencionales, incluyendo el empleo del balón intraaórtico de contrapulsación, han fracasado. Sus ventajas respecto a otros sistemas de asistencia mecánica circulatoria son: 1 inicio rápido de la asistencia mediante canulación periférica; 2 es una técnica poco agresiva, por lo que es mejor tolerada en estos pacientes críticos; 3 al no necesitar toracotomía, permite continuar con las medidas de resucitación cardiopulmonar en los pacientes con parada cardíaca; 4 proporciona soporte pulmonar, univentricular o biventricular; 5 se ha mostrado eficaz como puente a una asistencia ventricular de larga duración o como puente a trasplante cardíaco, y 6 es mucho más económico que otros dispositivos de asistencia ventricular.

  15. Multi-objective ACO algorithms to minimise the makespan and the total rejection cost on BPMs with arbitrary job weights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Zhao-hong; Pei, Ming-li; Leung, Joseph Y.-T.

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, we investigate the batch-scheduling problem with rejection on parallel machines with non-identical job sizes and arbitrary job-rejected weights. If a job is rejected, the corresponding penalty has to be paid. Our objective is to minimise the makespan of the processed jobs and the total rejection cost of the rejected jobs. Based on the selected multi-objective optimisation approaches, two problems, P1 and P2, are considered. In P1, the two objectives are linearly combined into one single objective. In P2, the two objectives are simultaneously minimised and the Pareto non-dominated solution set is to be found. Based on the ant colony optimisation (ACO), two algorithms, called LACO and PACO, are proposed to address the two problems, respectively. Two different objective-oriented pheromone matrices and heuristic information are designed. Additionally, a local optimisation algorithm is adopted to improve the solution quality. Finally, simulated experiments are conducted, and the comparative results verify the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed algorithms, especially on large-scale instances.

  16. Building RESTful web services with Go learn how to build powerful RESTful APIs with Golang that scale gracefully

    CERN Document Server

    Yellavula, Naren

    2017-01-01

    REST is an architectural style that tackles the challenges of building scalable web services and in today's connected world, APIs have taken a central role on the web. APIs provide the fabric through which systems interact, and REST has become synonymous with APIs. The depth, breadth, and ease of use of Go, makes it a breeze for developers to ...

  17. The Ruby UCSC API: accessing the UCSC genome database using Ruby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishima, Hiroyuki; Aerts, Jan; Katayama, Toshiaki; Bonnal, Raoul J P; Yoshiura, Koh-ichiro

    2012-09-21

    The University of California, Santa Cruz (UCSC) genome database is among the most used sources of genomic annotation in human and other organisms. The database offers an excellent web-based graphical user interface (the UCSC genome browser) and several means for programmatic queries. A simple application programming interface (API) in a scripting language aimed at the biologist was however not yet available. Here, we present the Ruby UCSC API, a library to access the UCSC genome database using Ruby. The API is designed as a BioRuby plug-in and built on the ActiveRecord 3 framework for the object-relational mapping, making writing SQL statements unnecessary. The current version of the API supports databases of all organisms in the UCSC genome database including human, mammals, vertebrates, deuterostomes, insects, nematodes, and yeast.The API uses the bin index-if available-when querying for genomic intervals. The API also supports genomic sequence queries using locally downloaded *.2bit files that are not stored in the official MySQL database. The API is implemented in pure Ruby and is therefore available in different environments and with different Ruby interpreters (including JRuby). Assisted by the straightforward object-oriented design of Ruby and ActiveRecord, the Ruby UCSC API will facilitate biologists to query the UCSC genome database programmatically. The API is available through the RubyGem system. Source code and documentation are available at https://github.com/misshie/bioruby-ucsc-api/ under the Ruby license. Feedback and help is provided via the website at http://rubyucscapi.userecho.com/.

  18. The Ruby UCSC API: accessing the UCSC genome database using Ruby

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The University of California, Santa Cruz (UCSC) genome database is among the most used sources of genomic annotation in human and other organisms. The database offers an excellent web-based graphical user interface (the UCSC genome browser) and several means for programmatic queries. A simple application programming interface (API) in a scripting language aimed at the biologist was however not yet available. Here, we present the Ruby UCSC API, a library to access the UCSC genome database using Ruby. Results The API is designed as a BioRuby plug-in and built on the ActiveRecord 3 framework for the object-relational mapping, making writing SQL statements unnecessary. The current version of the API supports databases of all organisms in the UCSC genome database including human, mammals, vertebrates, deuterostomes, insects, nematodes, and yeast. The API uses the bin index—if available—when querying for genomic intervals. The API also supports genomic sequence queries using locally downloaded *.2bit files that are not stored in the official MySQL database. The API is implemented in pure Ruby and is therefore available in different environments and with different Ruby interpreters (including JRuby). Conclusions Assisted by the straightforward object-oriented design of Ruby and ActiveRecord, the Ruby UCSC API will facilitate biologists to query the UCSC genome database programmatically. The API is available through the RubyGem system. Source code and documentation are available at https://github.com/misshie/bioruby-ucsc-api/ under the Ruby license. Feedback and help is provided via the website at http://rubyucscapi.userecho.com/. PMID:22994508

  19. The Ruby UCSC API: accessing the UCSC genome database using Ruby

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mishima Hiroyuki

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The University of California, Santa Cruz (UCSC genome database is among the most used sources of genomic annotation in human and other organisms. The database offers an excellent web-based graphical user interface (the UCSC genome browser and several means for programmatic queries. A simple application programming interface (API in a scripting language aimed at the biologist was however not yet available. Here, we present the Ruby UCSC API, a library to access the UCSC genome database using Ruby. Results The API is designed as a BioRuby plug-in and built on the ActiveRecord 3 framework for the object-relational mapping, making writing SQL statements unnecessary. The current version of the API supports databases of all organisms in the UCSC genome database including human, mammals, vertebrates, deuterostomes, insects, nematodes, and yeast. The API uses the bin index—if available—when querying for genomic intervals. The API also supports genomic sequence queries using locally downloaded *.2bit files that are not stored in the official MySQL database. The API is implemented in pure Ruby and is therefore available in different environments and with different Ruby interpreters (including JRuby. Conclusions Assisted by the straightforward object-oriented design of Ruby and ActiveRecord, the Ruby UCSC API will facilitate biologists to query the UCSC genome database programmatically. The API is available through the RubyGem system. Source code and documentation are available at https://github.com/misshie/bioruby-ucsc-api/ under the Ruby license. Feedback and help is provided via the website at http://rubyucscapi.userecho.com/.

  20. GCN5L1 modulates cross-talk between mitochondria and cell signaling to regulate FoxO1 stability and gluconeogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lingdi; Scott, Iain; Zhu, Lu; Wu, Kaiyuan; Han, Kim; Chen, Yong; Gucek, Marjan; Sack, Michael N

    2017-09-12

    The mitochondrial enriched GCN5-like 1 (GCN5L1) protein has been shown to modulate mitochondrial protein acetylation, mitochondrial content and mitochondrial retrograde signaling. Here we show that hepatic GCN5L1 ablation reduces fasting glucose levels and blunts hepatic gluconeogenesis without affecting systemic glucose tolerance. PEPCK and G6Pase transcript levels are downregulated in hepatocytes from GCN5L1 liver specific knockout mice and their upstream regulator, FoxO1 protein levels are decreased via proteasome-dependent degradation and via reactive oxygen species mediated ERK-1/2 phosphorylation. ERK inhibition restores FoxO1, gluconeogenic enzyme expression and glucose production. Reconstitution of mitochondrial-targeted GCN5L1 blunts mitochondrial ROS, ERK activation and increases FoxO1, gluconeogenic enzyme expression and hepatocyte glucose production. We suggest that mitochondrial GCN5L1 modulates post-translational control of FoxO1, regulates gluconeogenesis and controls metabolic pathways via mitochondrial ROS mediated ERK activation. Exploring mechanisms underpinning GCN5L1 mediated ROS signaling may expand our understanding of the role of mitochondria in gluconeogenesis control.Hepatic gluconeogenesis is tightly regulated at transcriptional level and is essential for survival during prolonged fasting. Here Wang et al. show that the mitochondrial enriched GCN5-like 1 protein controls hepatic glucose production by regulating FoxO1 protein levels via proteasome-dependent degradation and, in turn, gluconeogenic gene expression.

  1. Qualidade de vida de pacientes submetidos ao transplante cardíaco: aplicação da escala Whoqol-Bref

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Isis Freire de Aguiar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: O sucesso do transplante cardíaco significa garantir a sobrevida dos pacientes com cardiopatia e permitir-lhes desenvolver suas atividades diárias. O transplante cardíaco apresenta-se como a primeira opção de tratamento na falência cardíaca, representando um aumento de sobrevida e qualidade de vida dos transplantados. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a qualidade de vida de pacientes submetidos ao transplante cardíaco através da aplicação de uma escala padronizada (Whoqol-Bref. MÉTODOS: Estudo exploratório descritivo de abordagem quantitativa, realizado com 55 pacientes submetidos ao transplante cardíaco, em um período entre o terceiro e o 103º mês, que realizam acompanhamento na Unidade de Transplante e Insuficiência Cardíaca em um Hospital de Referência em Cardiologia na cidade de Fortaleza, CE. Os dados foram coletados no período de fevereiro a abril de 2009, por meio da aplicação de um questionário padronizado pela Organização Mundial da Saúde e utilização de dados constantes nos prontuários. RESULTADOS: Com relação ao domínio físico, 62,8% e 58,3% dos pacientes, dos sexos masculino e feminino, respectivamente, estão satisfeitos. No domínio psicológico, dentre pacientes do sexo masculino, 65,1% apresentam satisfação quanto à qualidade de vida e, no sexo feminino, 58,3% encontram-se satisfeitas. No domínio das relações sociais, observou-se que, no sexo masculino, 53,5% estão muito satisfeitos, e apresentou-se um nível de satisfação de 100% no sexo feminino. No domínio do meio ambiente, 65,1% do sexo masculino encontram-se satisfeitos, e no sexo feminino, 83,3% estão satisfeitas. CONCLUSÃO: O transplante cardíaco teve bastante influência na qualidade de vida dos pacientes transplantados, pois os resultados mostram-se estatisticamente significantes no pós-transplante.

  2. Flight behaviour of honey bee (Apis mellifera) workers is altered by initial infections of the fungal parasite Nosema apis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dosselli, Ryan; Grassl, Julia; Carson, Andrew; Simmons, Leigh W.; Baer, Boris

    2016-01-01

    Honey bees (Apis mellifera) host a wide range of parasites, some being known contributors towards dramatic colony losses as reported over recent years. To counter parasitic threats, honey bees possess effective immune systems. Because immune responses are predicted to cause substantial physiological costs for infected individuals, they are expected to trade off with other life history traits that ultimately affect the performance and fitness of the entire colony. Here, we tested whether the initial onset of an infection negatively impacts the flight behaviour of honey bee workers, which is an energetically demanding behaviour and a key component of foraging activities. To do this, we infected workers with the widespread fungal pathogen Nosema apis, which is recognised and killed by the honey bee immune system. We compared their survival and flight behaviour with non-infected individuals from the same cohort and colony using radio frequency identification tags (RFID). We found that over a time frame of four days post infection, Nosema did not increase mortality but workers quickly altered their flight behaviour and performed more flights of shorter duration. We conclude that parasitic infections influence foraging activities, which could reduce foraging ranges of colonies and impact their ability to provide pollination services. PMID:27827404

  3. Resisting majesty: Apis cerana, has lower antennal sensitivity and decreased attraction to queen mandibular pheromone than Apis mellifera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Shihao; Wen, Ping; Zhang, Qi; Li, Xinyu; Tan, Ken; Nieh, James

    2017-03-01

    In highly social bees, queen mandibular pheromone (QMP) is vital for colony life. Both Apis cerana (Ac) and Apis mellifera (Am) share an evolutionarily conserved set of QMP compounds: (E)-9-oxodec-2-enoic acid (9-ODA), (E)-9-hydroxydec-2-enoic acid (9-HDA), (E)-10-hydroxy-dec-2-enoic acid (10-HDA), 10-hydroxy-decanoic acid (10-HDAA), and methyl p-hydroxybenzoate (HOB) found at similar levels. However, evidence suggests there may be species-specific sensitivity differences to QMP compounds because Ac workers have higher levels of ovarian activation than Am workers. Using electroantennograms, we found species-specific sensitivity differences for a blend of the major QMP compounds and three individual compounds (9-HDA, 10-HDAA, and 10-HDA). As predicted, Am was more sensitive than Ac in all cases (1.3- to 2.7- fold higher responses). There were also species differences in worker retinue attraction to three compounds (9-HDA, HOB, and 10-HDA). In all significantly different cases, Am workers were 4.5- to 6.2-fold more strongly attracted than Ac workers were. Thus, Ac workers responded less strongly to QMP than Ac workers, and 9-HDA and 10-HDA consistently elicited stronger antennal and retinue formation responses.

  4. Enzymatic extraction of pectin from artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) by-products using Celluclast®1.5L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabater, Carlos; Corzo, Nieves; Olano, Agustín; Montilla, Antonia

    2018-06-15

    The aim of this study was to optimise pectin extraction from artichoke by-products with Celluclast ® 1.5L using an experimental design analysed by response-surface methodology (RSM). The variables optimised were artichoke by-product powder concentration (2-7%, X 1 ), enzyme dose (2.2-13.3 U g -1 , X 2 ) and extraction time (6-24 h, X 3 ). The variables studied were galacturonic acid (GalA) (R 2 93.9) and pectic neutral sugars (R 2 92.8) content and pectin yield (R 2 88.6). In the optimum extraction conditions (X 1  = 6.5%; X 2  = 10.1 U g -1 ; X 3  = 27.2 h), pectin yield was 176 mgg -1 dry matter (DM). Considering 27.2 h of treatment as the +α value given by the design, the extraction time was increased up to 48 h obtaining a yield of 221 mg g -1 DM. The enzymatic method optimised allows obtaining artichoke pectin with good yield, high GalA (720 mg g -1 DM) and arabinose (127.6mgg -1 DM) contents and degree of methylation of 19.5%. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Apoptosis inhibitor 5 (API-5; AAC-11; FIF) is upregulated in human carcinomas in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koci, Lenka; Chlebova, Katarina; Hyzdalova, Martina; Hofmanova, Jirina; Jira, Miroslav; Kysela, Petr; Kozubik, Alois; Kala, Zdenek; Krejci, Pavel

    2012-04-01

    Apoptosis inhibitor 5 (API-5) is a 55 kDa nuclear protein with potent anti-apoptotic signaling in tumor cells in vitro. In this study, we analyzed the expression of the API-5 protein in vivo in a broad spectrum of human carcinomas, including those of the colon, lung, liver, kidney, pancreas, stomach and esophagus using tumor tissues obtained during tumor resection. The results showed significant upregulation of API-5 expression in biopsies of lung (23%, n=13) and colorectal tumors (33%, n=27) in comparison with biopsies from the adjacent normal tissue. Colon cancer biopsies were used to study the cell populations with an upregulated level of expression of API-5 more closely. Using a magnetic bead-based selection for the epithelial cell marker EpCAM, we purified epithelial cells from the tumor and control tissues and analyzed these cells for API-5 expression by western immunoblotting. We observed that EpCAM-positive tumor cells expressed API-5 in all three colorectal cancer cases tested, in contrast to the control EpCAM-positive and EpCAM-negative cells isolated from the control or tumor tissues. These data suggest that the expression of the API-5 protein is upregulated in tumor epithelial cells and may serve as a prognostic marker in colorectal cancer.

  6. Investigation into process-induced de-aggregation of cohesive micronised API particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Magnus; Wray, Patrick S; Gamble, John F; Tobyn, Mike

    2015-09-30

    The aim of this study was to assess the impact of unit processes on the de-aggregation of a cohesive micronised API within a pharmaceutical formulation using near-infrared chemical imaging. The impact on the primary API particles was also investigated using an image-based particle characterization system with integrated Raman analysis. The blended material was shown to contain large, API rich domains which were distributed in-homogeneously across the sample, suggesting that the blending process was not aggressive enough to disperse aggregates of micronised drug particles. Cone milling, routinely used to improve the homogeneity of such cohesive formulations, was observed to substantially reduce the number and size of API rich domains; however, several smaller API domains survived the milling process. Conveyance of the cone milled formulation through the Alexanderwerk WP120 powder feed system completely dispersed all remaining aggregates. Importantly, powder feed transmission of the un-milled formulation was observed to produce an equally homogeneous API distribution. The size of the micronised primary drug particles remained unchanged during powder feed transmission. These findings provide further evidence that this powder feed system does induce shear, and is in fact better able to disperse aggregates of a cohesive micronised API within a blend than the blend-mill-blend step. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Using PAT to accelerate the transition to continuous API manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Gouveia, Maria Francisca Dias Folque; Rahbek, Jesper P.; Mortensen, Asmus R.

    2017-01-01

    the following: speeding up the design of the continuous process and a better understanding of the manufacturing requirements to ensure optimal yield and avoid unreacted raw materials and by-products in the continuous reactor effluent. Graphical Abstract Using PAT to accelerate the transition to continuous API......Significant improvements can be realized by converting conventional batch processes into continuous ones. The main drivers include reduction of cost and waste, increased safety, and simpler scale-up and tech transfer activities. Re-designing the process layout offers the opportunity to incorporate...... a set of process analytical technologies (PAT) embraced in the Quality-by-Design (QbD) framework. These tools are used for process state estimation, providing enhanced understanding of the underlying variability in the process impacting quality and yield. This work describes a road map for identifying...

  8. Anaesthetic effects of Adenia gummifera distillates on Apis mellifera (Honeybee).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngarivhume, T; Dzomba, P; Gwizangwe, I; Zendera, C H; Katsvanga, C A T; Jimu, L; Moyo, M; Chagonda, T

    2008-01-01

    The anaesthetic activities of steam distillates of Adenia gummifera stem on Apis mellifera were evaluated by a diffusion method. Live, direct and fractional (61-80 degrees C fraction) distillates had greater anaesthetic effect while vacuum distillates were mild. The anaesthetic activity significantly increased with concentration up to 6% (v/v), and then it levelled off, while excessive exposure was lethal. The number of bees in a given volume had no significant effect on anaesthetic activity but container volume (F(cal) = 66.4; F(3,8) = 4.07) and bee-distillate distance (F(cal) = 31.0; F(2,6) = 5.14) did, suggesting the rate of diffusion of active component could be the determining factor. The active component is likely to contain amines and the rest halogenated alkane.

  9. API, Cloud computing, WebGIS and cartography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Favretto

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores some of the digital mapping processes available on the Internet in order to analyse their cartographic congruence. It will focus on WebGIS-based cartography in relation to what is produced using Mash-up site maps. These websites often use Googlebased maps in order to produce their own cartography. Thus, we can identify two main typologies of Internet mapping sites, which are characterized by the ownership or non-ownership of their cartographic bases. This paper will critically assess the cartography employed in the two different instances. A concise introduction to the Cloud Computing Internet propagated phenomenon is also premised in order to provide the reader with an accurate frame of reference. Cloud Computing has encouraged a significant Internet participation via the Application Programming Interface software (API, leading to mash-up cartographic websites.

  10. How Do Developers Use APIs? A Case Study in Concurrency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blom, Stefan; Kiniry, Joseph; Huisman, Marieke

    2013-01-01

    and functionalities of the Java concurrency library java. util. concurrent. It discusses the Histogram tool that we developed for this purpose, i.e., to efficiently analyse a large collection of bytecode classes. The Histogram tool is used on a representative benchmark set, the Qualitas Corpus. The paper discusses...... the results of the analysis of this benchmark set in detail. This covers both an analysis of the important classes and methods used by the current releases of the benchmark collection, as well as an analysis of the time it took for the Java concurrency library to start being used in released software....... of static analysis and verification tools this information is highly important, because it indicates where and how to put the most efficient effort in annotating APIs, to make them usable for the static analysis and verification tools. This paper presents an analysis of the usage of the routines...

  11. Lactobacillus panisapium sp. nov., from honeybee Apis cerana bee bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cong; Huang, Yan; Li, Li; Guo, Jun; Wu, Zhengyun; Deng, Yu; Dai, Lirong; Ma, Shichun

    2018-03-01

    A novel facultatively anaerobic, Gram-stain-positive, non-motile, non-spore-forming, catalase-negative bacterium of the genus Lactobacillus, designated strain Bb 2-3 T , was isolated from bee bread of Apis cerana collected from a hive in Kunming, China. The strain was regular rod-shaped. Optimal growth occurred at 37 °C, pH 6.5 with 5.0 g l -1 NaCl. The predominant fatty acids were C18 : 1ω9c, C16 : 0 and C19 : 0 iso. Respiratory quinones were not detected. Seven glycolipids, three lipids, phosphatidylglycerol and diphosphatidylglycerol were detected. The peptidoglycan type A4α l-Lys-d-Asp was determined. Strain Bb 2-3 T was closely related to Lactobacillus bombicola DSM 28793 T , Lactobacillus apis LMG 26964 T and Lactobacillus helsingborgensis DSM 26265 T , with 97.8, 97.6 and 97.0 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, respectively. A comparison of two housekeeping genes, rpoA and pheS, revealed that strain Bb 2-3 T was well separated from the reference strains of species of the genus Lactobacillus. The average nucleotide identity between strain Bb 2-3 T and the type strains of closely related species was lower than the 95-96 % threshold value for delineation of genomic prokaryotic species. The G+C content of the genomic DNA of strain Bb 2-3 T was 37.4 mol%. On the basis of phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic analyses, strain Bb 2-3 T is proposed to represent a novel species of the genus Lactobacillus, for which we propose the name Lactobacillus panisapium sp. nov. The type strain is Bb 2-3 T (=DSM 102188 T =ACCC 19955 T ).

  12. Transplante cardíaco no Instituto Dante Pazzanese de Cardiologia: análise da sobrevida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ASSEF Marco Aurélio Salles

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available CASUÍSTICA E MÉTODOS: Foram analisados, retrospectivamente, 80 transplantes cardíacos realizados no Instituto Dante Pazzanese de Cardiologia (IDPC no período de novembro de 1991 a agosto de 2000. Houve predomínio do sexo masculino em 70% dos casos e a idade variou de 7 a 69 anos, com média de 44,8 anos. Doze (15% pacientes se encontravam em prioridade, em uso de drogas inotrópicas endovenosas no momento do transplante. As etiologias determinantes da insuficiência cardíaca congestiva grave foram: miocardiopatia dilatada idiopática em 37,5%, miocardiopatia isquêmica em 33,75%, miocardiopatia chagásica em 17,5% e outras causas em 11,25%. Foram realizados 78 transplantes ortotópicos e 2 heterotópicos. A técnica empregada foi bicaval/bipulmonar em 63,75%, atrial em 27,5%, bicaval/unipulmonar em 6,25% e heterotópico em 2,5%. A mortalidade hospitalar (30 dias foi de 18,75%. RESULTADOS: A sobrevida para o transplante ortotópico em um ano foi de 72,7%, em cinco anos 61,5% e em sete anos 56,4%. A sobrevida após o transplante foi correlacionada com as variáveis idade, causa de óbito e sexo do doador, e pelo transplante ter sido ou não a primeira cirurgia cardíaca do paciente.

  13. Optimization on Paddy Crops in Central Java (with Solver, SVD on Least Square and ACO (Ant Colony Algorithm))

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parhusip, H. A.; Trihandaru, S.; Susanto, B.; Prasetyo, S. Y. J.; Agus, Y. H.; Simanjuntak, B. H.

    2017-03-01

    Several algorithms and objective functions on paddy crops have been studied to get optimal paddy crops in Central Java based on the data given from Surakarta and Boyolali. The algorithms are linear solver, least square and Ant Colony Algorithms (ACO) to develop optimization procedures on paddy crops modelled with Modified GSTAR (Generalized Space-Time Autoregressive) and nonlinear models where the nonlinear models are quadratic and power functions. The studied data contain paddy crops from Surakarta and Boyolali determining the best period of planting in the year 1992-2012 for Surakarta where 3 periods for planting are known and the optimal amount of paddy crops in Boyolali in the year 2008-2013. Having these analyses may guide the local agriculture government to give a decision on rice sustainability in its region. The best period for planting in Surakarta is observed, i.e. the best period is in September-December based on the data 1992-2012 by considering the planting area, the cropping area, and the paddy crops are the most important factors to be taken into account. As a result, we can refer the paddy crops in this best period (about 60.4 thousand tons per year) as the optimal results in 1992-2012 where the used objective function is quadratic. According to the research, the optimal paddy crops in Boyolali about 280 thousand tons per year where the studied factors are the amount of rainfalls, the harvested area and the paddy crops in 2008-2013. In this case, linear and power functions are studied to be the objective functions. Compared to all studied algorithms, the linear solver is still recommended to be an optimization tool for a local agriculture government to predict paddy crops in future.

  14. Clarification of some api characteristics in relation to caribou (Rangifer tarandus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William O. Pruitt, Jr.

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available A total of 2177 comparisons of api hardness vs. density in northern Saskatchewan, southeastern Manitoba and northeastern Finland revealed no consistent correlation (r varied from +.70 to -.17. A total of 1395 comparisons of horizontal hardness of the top layer of api to vertical hardness of the same layer of api in southeastern Manitoba, northeastern Finland and far eastern middle Finland revealed no consistent correlation (r varied from +.99 to -.20. Therefore one cannot substitute density for hardness nor horizontal hardness of the top layer for vertical hardness of the top layer in the terms of the Värriö Snow Index.

  15. IgE-Api m 4 Is Useful for Identifying a Particular Phenotype of Bee Venom Allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, B; Serrano, P; Moreno, C

    Different clinical behaviors have been identified in patients allergic to bee venom. Compound-resolved diagnosis could be an appropriate tool for investigating these differences. The aims of this study were to analyze whether specific IgE to Api m 4 (sIgE-Api m 4) can identify a particular kind of bee venom allergy and to describe response to bee venom immunotherapy (bVIT). Prospective study of 31 patients allergic to bee venom who were assigned to phenotype group A (sIgE-Api m 4 Api m 4 ≥0.98 kU/L), treated with purified aqueous (PA) extract. Sex, age, cardiovascular risk, severity of preceding sting reaction, exposure to beekeeping, and immunological data (intradermal test, sIgE/sIgG4-Apis-nApi m 1, and sIgE-rApi m 2-Api m 4 were analyzed. Systemic reactions (SRs) during bVIT build-up were analyzed. Immunological and sting challenge outcomes were evaluated in each group after 1 and 2 years of bVIT. Phenotype B patients had more severe reactions (P=.049) and higher skin sensitivity (P=.011), baseline sIgE-Apis (P=.0004), sIgE-nApi m 1 (P=.0004), and sIgG4-Apis (P=.027) than phenotype A patients. Furthermore, 41% of patients in group B experienced SRs during the build-up phase with NA; the sting challenge success rate in this group was 82%. There were no significant reductions in serial intradermal test results, but an intense reduction in sIgE-nApi m 1 (P=.013) and sIgE-Api m 4 (P=.004) was observed after the first year of bVIT. Use of IgE-Api m 4 as the only discrimination criterion demonstrated differences in bee venom allergy. Further investigation with larger populations is necessary.

  16. Infections with the Sexually Transmitted Pathogen Nosema apis Trigger an Immune Response in the Seminal Fluid of Honey Bees (Apis mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassl, Julia; Peng, Yan; Baer-Imhoof, Barbara; Welch, Mat; Millar, A Harvey; Baer, Boris

    2017-01-06

    Honey bee (Apis mellifera) males are highly susceptible to infections with the sexually transmitted fungal pathogen Nosema apis. However, they are able to suppress this parasite in the ejaculate using immune molecules in the seminal fluid. We predicted that males respond to infections by altering the seminal fluid proteome to minimize the risk to sexually transmit the parasite to the queen and her colony. We used iTRAQ isotopic labeling to compare seminal fluid proteins from infected and noninfected males and found that N. apis infections resulted in significant abundance changes in 111 of the 260 seminal fluid proteins quantitated. The largest group of proteins with significantly changed abundances consisted of 15 proteins with well-known immune-related functions, which included two significantly more abundant chitinases in the seminal fluid of infected males. Chitinases were previously hypothesized to be involved in honey bee antifungal activity against N. apis. Here we show that infection with N. apis triggers a highly specific immune response in the seminal fluid of honey bee males.

  17. IgE recognition of chimeric isoforms of the honeybee (Apis mellifera) venom allergen Api m 10 evaluated by protein array technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Vaerenbergh, Matthias; De Smet, Lina; Rafei-Shamsabadi, David; Blank, Simon; Spillner, Edzard; Ebo, Didier G; Devreese, Bart; Jakob, Thilo; de Graaf, Dirk C

    2015-02-01

    Api m 10 has recently been established as novel major allergen that is recognized by more than 60% of honeybee venom (HBV) allergic patients. Previous studies suggest Api m 10 protein heterogeneity which may have implications for diagnosis and immunotherapy of HBV allergy. In the present study, RT-PCR revealed the expression of at least nine additional Api m 10 transcript isoforms by the venom glands. Two distinct mechanisms are responsible for the generation of these isoforms: while the previously known variant 2 is produced by an alternative splicing event, novel identified isoforms are intragenic chimeric transcripts. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the identification of chimeric transcripts generated by the honeybee. By a retrospective proteomic analysis we found evidence for the presence of several of these isoforms in the venom proteome. Additionally, we analyzed IgE reactivity to different isoforms by protein array technology using sera from HBV allergic patients, which revealed that IgE recognition of Api m 10 is both isoform- and patient-specific. While it was previously demonstrated that the majority of HBV allergic patients display IgE reactivity to variant 2, our study also shows that some patients lacking IgE antibodies for variant 2 display IgE reactivity to two of the novel identified Api m 10 variants, i.e. variants 3 and 4. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Histochemical Comparison of the Hypopharyngeal Gland in Apis cerana Fabricius, 1793 Workers and Apis mellifera Linnaeus, 1758 Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guntima Suwannapong

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypopharyngeal glands of honeybee are age-dependent structures that change with the size of acini and are correlated with various social behaviors. The histochemical structure of Apis cerana and A. mellifera worker hypopharyngeal glands in four different developmental stages wes stained with ninhydrin Schiff's and periodic acid Schiff's reagents (PAS for localization of proteins and carbohydrates, respectively, and examined with light microscopy. Nurse bees of both honeybee species had significantly larger glands as compared to guards and forgers, but there were no statistically significant differences between these two species after accounting for caste. Gland protein concentration increased progressively in nurse bees, and this was correlated with the appearance of enriched protein granules in the cytoplasm. In addition, the hypopharyngeal gland protein concentration of A. mellifera was higher than that of A. cerana even though gland size was not significantly different between species. However, gland size was shown to have decreased progressively in foragers and guards.

  19. Researching of Covert Timing Channels Based on HTTP Cache Headers in Web API

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Nikolaevich Kolegov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, it is shown how covert timing channels based on HTTP cache headers can be implemented using different Web API of Google Drive, Dropbox and Facebook  Internet services.

  20. Telephone Interpreter Services (TIS)-Asian and Pacific Islander (API) Language Yearly Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This dataset displays our national TIS call volume for over 45 API languages for fiscal year 2011 onward. A fiscal year runs from October through September. We will...

  1. Telephone Interpreter Services (TIS) - Asian and Pacific Islander (API) Language Fiscal Year Quarterly Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This dataset displays our quarterly national TIS call volume for over 45 API languages for fiscal year 2013 onward. A fiscal year runs from October through September...

  2. BUILDING MODEL ANALYSIS APPLICATIONS WITH THE JOINT UNIVERSAL PARAMETER IDENTIFICATION AND EVALUATION OF RELIABILITY (JUPITER) API

    Science.gov (United States)

    The open-source, public domain JUPITER (Joint Universal Parameter IdenTification and Evaluation of Reliability) API (Application Programming Interface) provides conventions and Fortran-90 modules to develop applications (computer programs) for analyzing process models. The input ...

  3. An improved method for interpreting API filter press hydraulic conductivity test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heslin, G.M.; Baxter, D.Y.; Filz, G.M.; Davidson, R.R.

    1997-01-01

    The American Petroleum Institute (API) filter press is frequently used to measure the hydraulic conductivity of soil-bentonite backfill during the mix design process and as part of construction quality controls. However, interpretation of the test results is complicated by the fact that the seepage-induced consolidation pressure varies from zero at the top of the specimen to a maximum value at the bottom of the specimen. An analytical solution is available which relates the stress, compressibility, and hydraulic conductivity in soil consolidated by seepage forces. This paper presents the results of a laboratory investigation undertaken to support application of this theory to API hydraulic conductivity tests. When the API test results are interpreted using seepage consolidation theory, they are in good agreement with the results of consolidometer permeameter tests. Limitations of the API test are also discussed

  4. 314. Extracción de dispositivos intracardíacos en pacientes sometidos previamente a procedimientos de cardiología intervencionista

    OpenAIRE

    E. Villagrán; L. Montes; Z. Garcés; A. Ayaon; M. Carnero; J. Silva; A. Alswies; J.E. Rodríguez

    2012-01-01

    Descripción de una cohorte de pacientes sometidos a la implantación de algún dispositivo intracardíaco percutáneo (DCIP) que finalmente fueron intervenidos quirúrgicamente por disfunción de los mismos. Material y métodos: Se analizó de forma retrospectiva toda la cohorte de pacientes sometidos a extracción de DCIP intervenidos en nuestro centro. Se describe la muestra de pacientes y se resumen los resultados quirúrgicos. Resultados: Desde julio de 2007 – julio de 2011, 25 pacientes inte...

  5. Avaliação da doença vascular do enxerto no transplante cardíaco: experiência de um centro brasileiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elide Sbardellotto Mariano da Costa

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: O transplante cardíaco continua sendo o tratamento de escolha para a insuficiência cardíaca refratária ao tratamento otimizado. Dois métodos diagnósticos apresentam elevada sensibilidade no diagnóstico de episódios de rejeição ao enxerto e Doença Vascular do Enxerto (DVE, causas importantes de mortalidade no pós-transplante. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a relação entre os resultados do ultrassom intracoronariano (USIV e os laudos das biópsias endomiocárdicas (BX no seguimento de pacientes submetidos a transplante cardíaco em um serviço de referência brasileiro. MÉTODOS: Foi realizado um ensaio epidemiológico retrospectivo observacional, com pacientes submetidos a transplante cardíaco ortotópico, no período de 2000 a 2009. Foram analisados os prontuários desses pacientes e os resultados dos USIV e BX realizados rotineiramente no seguimento clínico pós-transplante e terapêutica em uso. RESULTADOS: Dos 77 pacientes analisados, 63,63% são do sexo masculino, nas faixas etárias de 22 a 69 anos. Quanto aos resultados dos USIV, 33,96% foram classificados em Stanford classe I, e 32,08%, como Stanford IV. Dos 143 laudos das biópsias, 51,08% tiveram resultado 1R, 3R em 0,69% dos laudos, e 14,48% apresentaram a descrição de efeito Quilty. Todos usaram antiproliferativos, 80,51% usaram inibidores da calcineurina e 19,48% usaram inibidores do sinal de proliferação (ISP. CONCLUSÃO: A avaliação dos pacientes pós-transplante cardíaco por meio do USIV incorpora informações detalhadas para o diagnóstico precoce e sensível da DVE, que são complementadas pelas informações histológicas fornecidas pelas BX, estabelecendo uma possível relação causal entre a DVE e os episódios de rejeição humoral.

  6. Inter-dependence of the electron beam excitations with the free electron laser stability on the super-ACO storage ring

    CERN Document Server

    Couprie, Marie Emmanuelle; Nutarelli, D; Renault, E; Billardon, M

    1999-01-01

    Storage ring free electron lasers have a complex dynamics as compared to the LINAC driven FEL sources since both the laser and the recirculating electron beam behaviours are involved. Electron beam perturbations can strongly affect the FEL operation (start-up, stability) whereas the FEL can stabilize beam instabilities. Experimental analysis together with simulations are reported here. Improvements of the Super-ACO FEL for users is discussed, and consequences are given in terms of electron beam tolerances for a source development for users.

  7. Extracción de un catéter fracturado mediante cateterismo cardíaco intervencionista en un paciente prematuro de 1 600 g

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Ozores Suárez

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Se documenta el caso de un paciente de 1 mes de edad, prematuro, con peso de 1 600 g, cuyo catéter epicutáneo se fracturó y desplazó hasta ubicarse en la porción distal en la rama izquierda de la arteria pulmonar. El catéter se extrajo por vía femoral mediante un procedimiento de cateterismo cardíaco intervencionista, con lo que se demostró la efectividad de dicho procedimiento ante este tipo de complicación.

  8. Significados dos episódios maníacos para pacientes com transtorno bipolar em remissão: um estudo qualitativo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Pereira Bin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo Discutir os significados da vivência de episódios maníacos para pacientes com transtorno bipolar (TAB. Métodos Trata-se de uma pesquisa qualitativa, feita por meio de entrevistas semidirigidas em profundidade, em uma amostra fechada pelo critério de saturação com oito pacientes com TAB em remissão. A técnica de tratamento de dados foi feita por meio da análise de conteúdo das entrevistas transcritas na íntegra e categorização. Os resultados foram submetidos à validação externa, no Laboratório de Pesquisa Clínico-Qualitativa do Departamento de Psicologia Médica e Psiquiatria da Unicamp, composto por 37 pesquisadores do método, entre eles mestrandos, doutorandos, pós-doutorados e pesquisadores seniores. Resultados Foram identificadas três categorias – Ambivalência e vergonha: pensar ou não pensar sobre os episódios maníacos; Organizando sentimentos pessoais: a remissão como um momento de autoconsciência; Episódios maníacos estruturando relações interpessoais versus projeções da angústia. Conclusão Os achados da presente pesquisa contribuem para a maior compreensão dos quadros maníacos no TAB, que podem auxiliar nas reflexões acerca da relação profissional-paciente, para elaborar estratégias para aderência e para as medidas terapêuticas e preventivas da recorrência dos episódios. Podem auxiliar a equipe de saúde envolvida no acompanhamento desses casos e também os pesquisadores na investigação da contribuição dos significados aqui discutidos nos fenômenos de aderência ao tratamento e de um melhor prognóstico.

  9. Ação do resveratrol sobre proteoglicanos de membrana presentes no músculo cardíaco em modelo animal de cardiomiopatia diabética

    OpenAIRE

    Paula Lazara Cruz

    2016-01-01

    Introdução: Ratos com diabetes induzido por estreptozotocina (STZ) apresentam alterações nos proteoglicanos Sindecan-4 e Glipican-1 no tecido cardíaco concomitantes à instalação da disfunção diastólica, evento precoce que culmina na cardiomiopatia diabética. O uso de resveratrol (RSV) em modelos animais foi capaz de melhorar a função cardíaca e o controle autonômico. Espera-se que o tratamento com esse flavonoide atue nos níveis alterados dos proteoglicanos em animais diabéticos. Objetivo: Av...

  10. NSLS-II High Level Application Infrastructure And Client API Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, G.; Yang, L.; Shroff, K.

    2011-01-01

    The beam commissioning software framework of NSLS-II project adopts a client/server based architecture to replace the more traditional monolithic high level application approach. It is an open structure platform, and we try to provide a narrow API set for client application. With this narrow API, existing applications developed in different language under different architecture could be ported to our platform with small modification. This paper describes system infrastructure design, client API and system integration, and latest progress. As a new 3rd generation synchrotron light source with ultra low emittance, there are new requirements and challenges to control and manipulate the beam. A use case study and a theoretical analysis have been performed to clarify requirements and challenges to the high level applications (HLA) software environment. To satisfy those requirements and challenges, adequate system architecture of the software framework is critical for beam commissioning, study and operation. The existing traditional approaches are self-consistent, and monolithic. Some of them have adopted a concept of middle layer to separate low level hardware processing from numerical algorithm computing, physics modelling, data manipulating, plotting, and error handling. However, none of the existing approaches can satisfy the requirement. A new design has been proposed by introducing service oriented architecture technology. The HLA is combination of tools for accelerator physicists and operators, which is same as traditional approach. In NSLS-II, they include monitoring applications and control routines. Scripting environment is very important for the later part of HLA and both parts are designed based on a common set of APIs. Physicists and operators are users of these APIs, while control system engineers and a few accelerator physicists are the developers of these APIs. With our Client/Server mode based approach, we leave how to retrieve information to the

  11. Using DLL as Interface between API an VC#.NET Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian DARDALA

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a solution for using complex Win32API data structures and functions in Visual C# .NET applications. We built DLL (Dynamic Link Library to manage the API functions and data structures and we used DLL modules in a C# application. This is an easier working way compared with the traditional way of importing and managing API’s functions in C# programs.

  12. A RESTful API for accessing microbial community data for MG-RAST.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Wilke

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Metagenomic sequencing has produced significant amounts of data in recent years. For example, as of summer 2013, MG-RAST has been used to annotate over 110,000 data sets totaling over 43 Terabases. With metagenomic sequencing finding even wider adoption in the scientific community, the existing web-based analysis tools and infrastructure in MG-RAST provide limited capability for data retrieval and analysis, such as comparative analysis between multiple data sets. Moreover, although the system provides many analysis tools, it is not comprehensive. By opening MG-RAST up via a web services API (application programmers interface we have greatly expanded access to MG-RAST data, as well as provided a mechanism for the use of third-party analysis tools with MG-RAST data. This RESTful API makes all data and data objects created by the MG-RAST pipeline accessible as JSON objects. As part of the DOE Systems Biology Knowledgebase project (KBase, http://kbase.us we have implemented a web services API for MG-RAST. This API complements the existing MG-RAST web interface and constitutes the basis of KBase's microbial community capabilities. In addition, the API exposes a comprehensive collection of data to programmers. This API, which uses a RESTful (Representational State Transfer implementation, is compatible with most programming environments and should be easy to use for end users and third parties. It provides comprehensive access to sequence data, quality control results, annotations, and many other data types. Where feasible, we have used standards to expose data and metadata. Code examples are provided in a number of languages both to show the versatility of the API and to provide a starting point for users. We present an API that exposes the data in MG-RAST for consumption by our users, greatly enhancing the utility of the MG-RAST service.

  13. Analisis Fitur M-Ticketing PT. Kereta Api Indonesia sebagai Bagian dari Customer Relation Management (CRM)

    OpenAIRE

    Hijrih, Fatchul; Prasetyo, Taufan Harry

    2015-01-01

    Sebagai Perusahaan jasa tranportasi darat yaitu kereta api, PT. Kereta Api Indonesia perlu memperhatikan aspek pelayanan terhadap pelanggan dengan memperhatikan fitur-fitur Customer Relation Management dalam membuat dalam membuat aplikasi-aplikasi yang berhubungan langsung dengan pelanggan, salah satunya m-ticketing. Kemunculan m-ticketing KAI saat ini digunakan sebagai alat penjualan tiket saja. Hal ini dapat terlihat dari menu atau fitur-fitur yang disematkan kedalam aplikasi tersebut. Adan...

  14. Sensitivity Analysis of Fatigue Crack Growth Model for API Steels in Gaseous Hydrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaro, Robert L; Rustagi, Neha; Drexler, Elizabeth S; Slifka, Andrew J

    2014-01-01

    A model to predict fatigue crack growth of API pipeline steels in high pressure gaseous hydrogen has been developed and is presented elsewhere. The model currently has several parameters that must be calibrated for each pipeline steel of interest. This work provides a sensitivity analysis of the model parameters in order to provide (a) insight to the underlying mathematical and mechanistic aspects of the model, and (b) guidance for model calibration of other API steels.

  15. The development, validity, and reliability of the Addiction Profile Index (API).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ögel, Kültegin; Evren, Cüneyt; Karadağ, Figen; Gürol, Defne Tamar

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a practical questionnaire for multidimensional assessment of problems associated with alcohol and substance abuse that would also be useful for treatment planning. The Addiction Profile Index (API) is a self-report questionnaire consisting of 37 items and the following 5 subscales: characteristics of substance use; dependency diagnosis; the effects of subsance use on the user; craving; motivation to quit using substances. The study included 345 alcohol and/or substance abusers from 2 addiction treatment clinics and a prison addiction service. The validity of the questionnaire was assessed using the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST), Readiness to Change Questionnaire (SOCRATES), Penn Alcohol Craving Scale (PACS), Drug Craving Scale (DCS), Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-I), and Addiction Severity Index (ASI). The Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the total API was 0.89 and for the subscales it ranged from 0.63 to 0.86. Item-total correlation coefficients ranged from 0.42 to 0.89. The Spearman Brown split-half method coefficient for the total API was 0.83. In all, 4 factors were obtained using explanatory factor analysis that represented 52.3% of the total variance. The API craving subscale was observed to be consistent with PACS and the API motivation subscale was consistent with SOCRATES. The API total score was strongly correlated with the mean MAST score, and the composite ASI medical status, substance use, legal status, and family social relations subscale scores. Based on ROC analyses, the area under curve was 0.90. With a total API cut-off score of 4, the scale's sensitivity and specificity 0.85 was 0.78, respectively. The findings show that the API is a valid and reliable questionnaire that can be used to measure the severity of different dimensions of substance dependency.

  16. A RESTful API for accessing microbial community data for MG-RAST.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilke, Andreas; Bischof, Jared; Harrison, Travis; Brettin, Tom; D'Souza, Mark; Gerlach, Wolfgang; Matthews, Hunter; Paczian, Tobias; Wilkening, Jared; Glass, Elizabeth M; Desai, Narayan; Meyer, Folker

    2015-01-01

    Metagenomic sequencing has produced significant amounts of data in recent years. For example, as of summer 2013, MG-RAST has been used to annotate over 110,000 data sets totaling over 43 Terabases. With metagenomic sequencing finding even wider adoption in the scientific community, the existing web-based analysis tools and infrastructure in MG-RAST provide limited capability for data retrieval and analysis, such as comparative analysis between multiple data sets. Moreover, although the system provides many analysis tools, it is not comprehensive. By opening MG-RAST up via a web services API (application programmers interface) we have greatly expanded access to MG-RAST data, as well as provided a mechanism for the use of third-party analysis tools with MG-RAST data. This RESTful API makes all data and data objects created by the MG-RAST pipeline accessible as JSON objects. As part of the DOE Systems Biology Knowledgebase project (KBase, http://kbase.us) we have implemented a web services API for MG-RAST. This API complements the existing MG-RAST web interface and constitutes the basis of KBase's microbial community capabilities. In addition, the API exposes a comprehensive collection of data to programmers. This API, which uses a RESTful (Representational State Transfer) implementation, is compatible with most programming environments and should be easy to use for end users and third parties. It provides comprehensive access to sequence data, quality control results, annotations, and many other data types. Where feasible, we have used standards to expose data and metadata. Code examples are provided in a number of languages both to show the versatility of the API and to provide a starting point for users. We present an API that exposes the data in MG-RAST for consumption by our users, greatly enhancing the utility of the MG-RAST service.

  17. Flood warning level forecasting for ungauged catchments by means of a combined API storage concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehmann, T; Holzmann, H

    2008-01-01

    The knowledge of the expected dimension of the flood peak is of major importance for security and warning services to take preventive measures. In this paper the authors want to introduce the concept of the Antecedent Precipitation Index (API) as a possible variable to estimate runoff warning classes. The aim was (a) to define API warning classes which correspond to runoff warning classes at a certain runoff gauge and (b) apply the method to ungauged basins. To consider time and state dependant rainfall losses a spatially distributed linear storage concept was applied to intercept the actual rainfall. The 3-parameter API function was fitted to several flood events at observed gauges within the district of lower Austria and lead to a set of optimized parameters. Through extreme value statistics the 1, 5 and 30 years API extremes were derived and set into correlation to the corresponding flood events. These API extremes together with the optimized API parameters were spatially interpolated and thus transferred to ungauged basins. The calculated flood events had the tendency to underestimate the smaller flood frequencies whereas the extreme flood classes could be reliably performed.

  18. Hot-stage microscopy for determination of API particles in a formulated tablet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simek, Michal; Grünwaldová, Veronika; Kratochvíl, Bohumil

    2014-01-01

    Although methods exist to readily determine the particle size distribution (PSD) of an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) before its formulation into a final product, the primary challenge is to develop a method to determine the PSD of APIs in a finished tablet. To address the limitations of existing PSD methods, we used hot-stage microscopy to observe tablet disintegration during temperature change and, thus, reveal the API particles in a tablet. Both mechanical and liquid disintegration were evaluated after we had identified optimum milling time for mechanical disintegration and optimum volume of water for liquid disintegration. In each case, hot-stage micrographs, taken before and after the API melting point, were compared with image analysis software to obtain the PSDs. Then, the PSDs of the APIs from the disintegrated tablets were compared with the PSDs of raw APIs. Good agreement was obtained, thereby confirming the robustness of our methodology. The availability of such a method equips pharmaceutical scientists with an in vitro assessment method that will more reliably determine the PSD of active substances in finished tablets.

  19. Hot-Stage Microscopy for Determination of API Particles in a Formulated Tablet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Šimek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Although methods exist to readily determine the particle size distribution (PSD of an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API before its formulation into a final product, the primary challenge is to develop a method to determine the PSD of APIs in a finished tablet. To address the limitations of existing PSD methods, we used hot-stage microscopy to observe tablet disintegration during temperature change and, thus, reveal the API particles in a tablet. Both mechanical and liquid disintegration were evaluated after we had identified optimum milling time for mechanical disintegration and optimum volume of water for liquid disintegration. In each case, hot-stage micrographs, taken before and after the API melting point, were compared with image analysis software to obtain the PSDs. Then, the PSDs of the APIs from the disintegrated tablets were compared with the PSDs of raw APIs. Good agreement was obtained, thereby confirming the robustness of our methodology. The availability of such a method equips pharmaceutical scientists with an in vitro assessment method that will more reliably determine the PSD of active substances in finished tablets.

  20. Programmatic access to logical models in the Cell Collective modeling environment via a REST API.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowal, Bryan M; Schreier, Travis R; Dauer, Joseph T; Helikar, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    Cell Collective (www.cellcollective.org) is a web-based interactive environment for constructing, simulating and analyzing logical models of biological systems. Herein, we present a Web service to access models, annotations, and simulation data in the Cell Collective platform through the Representational State Transfer (REST) Application Programming Interface (API). The REST API provides a convenient method for obtaining Cell Collective data through almost any programming language. To ensure easy processing of the retrieved data, the request output from the API is available in a standard JSON format. The Cell Collective REST API is freely available at http://thecellcollective.org/tccapi. All public models in Cell Collective are available through the REST API. For users interested in creating and accessing their own models through the REST API first need to create an account in Cell Collective (http://thecellcollective.org). thelikar2@unl.edu. Technical user documentation: https://goo.gl/U52GWo. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The Matchmaker Exchange API: automating patient matching through the exchange of structured phenotypic and genotypic profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buske, Orion J; Schiettecatte, François; Hutton, Benjamin; Dumitriu, Sergiu; Misyura, Andriy; Huang, Lijia; Hartley, Taila; Girdea, Marta; Sobreira, Nara; Mungall, Chris; Brudno, Michael

    2015-10-01

    Despite the increasing prevalence of clinical sequencing, the difficulty of identifying additional affected families is a key obstacle to solving many rare diseases. There may only be a handful of similar patients worldwide, and their data may be stored in diverse clinical and research databases. Computational methods are necessary to enable finding similar patients across the growing number of patient repositories and registries. We present the Matchmaker Exchange Application Programming Interface (MME API), a protocol and data format for exchanging phenotype and genotype profiles to enable matchmaking among patient databases, facilitate the identification of additional cohorts, and increase the rate with which rare diseases can be researched and diagnosed. We designed the API to be straightforward and flexible in order to simplify its adoption on a large number of data types and workflows. We also provide a public test data set, curated from the literature, to facilitate implementation of the API and development of new matching algorithms. The initial version of the API has been successfully implemented by three members of the Matchmaker Exchange and was immediately able to reproduce previously identified matches and generate several new leads currently being validated. The API is available at https://github.com/ga4gh/mme-apis. © 2015 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  2. A new detrended semipartial cross-correlation analysis: Assessing the important meteorological factors affecting API

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Chen-Hua, E-mail: shenandchen01@163.com [College of Geographical Science, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210046 (China); Jiangsu Center for Collaborative Innovation in Geographical Information Resource, Nanjing 210046 (China); Key Laboratory of Virtual Geographic Environment of Ministry of Education, Nanjing 210046 (China)

    2015-12-04

    To analyze the unique contribution of meteorological factors to the air pollution index (API), a new method, the detrended semipartial cross-correlation analysis (DSPCCA), is proposed. Based on both a detrended cross-correlation analysis and a DFA-based multivariate-linear-regression (DMLR), this method is improved by including a semipartial correlation technique, which is used to indicate the unique contribution of an explanatory variable to multiple correlation coefficients. The advantages of this method in handling nonstationary time series are illustrated by numerical tests. To further demonstrate the utility of this method in environmental systems, new evidence of the primary contribution of meteorological factors to API is provided through DMLR. Results show that the most important meteorological factors affecting API are wind speed and diurnal temperature range, and the explanatory ability of meteorological factors to API gradually strengthens with increasing time scales. The results suggest that DSPCCA is a useful method for addressing environmental systems. - Highlights: • A detrended multiple linear regression is shown. • A detrended semipartial cross correlation analysis is proposed. • The important meteorological factors affecting API are assessed. • The explanatory ability of meteorological factors to API gradually strengthens with increasing time scales.

  3. A new detrended semipartial cross-correlation analysis: Assessing the important meteorological factors affecting API

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Chen-Hua

    2015-01-01

    To analyze the unique contribution of meteorological factors to the air pollution index (API), a new method, the detrended semipartial cross-correlation analysis (DSPCCA), is proposed. Based on both a detrended cross-correlation analysis and a DFA-based multivariate-linear-regression (DMLR), this method is improved by including a semipartial correlation technique, which is used to indicate the unique contribution of an explanatory variable to multiple correlation coefficients. The advantages of this method in handling nonstationary time series are illustrated by numerical tests. To further demonstrate the utility of this method in environmental systems, new evidence of the primary contribution of meteorological factors to API is provided through DMLR. Results show that the most important meteorological factors affecting API are wind speed and diurnal temperature range, and the explanatory ability of meteorological factors to API gradually strengthens with increasing time scales. The results suggest that DSPCCA is a useful method for addressing environmental systems. - Highlights: • A detrended multiple linear regression is shown. • A detrended semipartial cross correlation analysis is proposed. • The important meteorological factors affecting API are assessed. • The explanatory ability of meteorological factors to API gradually strengthens with increasing time scales.

  4. Espectro óculo-aurículo-vertebral em pacientes com defeitos cardíacos congênitos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Fabiano Machado Rosa

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: Há poucos estudos avaliando a frequência do espectro óculo-aurículo-vertebral (EOAV nos pacientes com defeitos cardíacos congênitos (DCC. OBJETIVO: Verificar a frequência do EOAV em uma amostra de pacientes com malformações cardíacas graves. MÉTODOS: Avaliamos uma coorte prospectiva de pacientes com DCC, admitidos em uma unidade de terapia intensiva (UTI cardiopediátrica no Brasil. O diagnóstico de EOAV foi feito com base em dados clínicos, considerando critérios padrões. Os pacientes que preenchiam esses critérios foram submetidos ao cariótipo de alta resolução com bandamento GTG e hibridização fluorescente in situ para a microdeleção 22q11.2. O teste exato de Fisher (P < 0,05 foi usado para as análises estatísticas. RESULTADOS: Durante o período de avaliação, 330 pacientes foram hospitalizados pela primeira vez na UTI, mas trinta deles não participaram deste estudo. Dos 300 pacientes que constituíram a amostragem final, o EOAV foi verificado em três casos (1%. Todos apresentaram estudos citogenéticos normais. CONCLUSÃO: O EOAV parece ser uma condição frequente em pacientes com DCC. Contudo, não podemos excluir a possibilidade de que a frequência de EOAV encontrada em nosso estudo possa ter sido subestimada devido à baixa taxa de detecção pré-natal de DCC e ao acesso limitado dos pacientes ao tratamento médico apropriado em nosso meio. Estudos prospectivos futuros com critérios clínicos bem definidos e pacientes com defeitos leves e graves serão importantes para avaliar o papel do EOAV na população em geral de indivíduos com malformações cardíacas.

  5. API focuses on cleanliness, economics of fossil fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Fossil fuels, consumed in free markets, are playing positive economic and environmental roles as the world economy becomes integrated, industry leader said last week. Environmental zealots threaten to force conversion from gasoline as a motor fuel in the U.S. and oppose the growing integration of the world economy. Fossil fuels, free markets, human creativity, and entrepreneurial spirit--not government intervention--are the keys to a clean environment, said API pres. Charles J. DiBona and outgoing Chairman C.J. (Pete) Silas, chairman and chief executive officer of Phillips Petroleum Co. DiBona said proponents of the BTU tax defeated earlier this year used erroneous assumptions to make a case against oil use in an effort to replace the efficiency of the marketplace with the inefficiency of bureaucracy. The government's role is to set tough standards and avoid dictating the way environmental standards are met, they said. Other speakers warned that voluntary measures put forward by the Clinton administration of address global climate change issues likely will fall short

  6. Comparative Sucrose Responsiveness in Apis mellifera and A. cerana Foragers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wenchao; Kuang, Haiou; Wang, Shanshan; Wang, Jie; Liu, Wei; Wu, Zhenhong; Tian, Yuanyuan; Huang, Zachary Y.; Miao, Xiaoqing

    2013-01-01

    In the European honey bee, Apis mellifera, pollen foragers have a higher sucrose responsiveness than nectar foragers when tested using a proboscis extension response (PER) assay. In addition, Africanized honey bees have a higher sucrose responsiveness than European honey bees. Based on the biology of the Eastern honey bee, A. cerana, we hypothesized that A. cerana should also have a higher responsiveness to sucrose than A. mellifera. To test this hypothesis, we compared the sucrose thresholds of pollen foragers and nectar foragers in both A. cerana and A. mellifera in Fujian Province, China. Pollen foragers were more responsive to sucrose than nectar foragers in both species, consistent with previous studies. However, contrary to our hypothesis, A. mellifera was more responsive than A. cerana. We also demonstrated that this higher sucrose responsiveness in A. mellifera was not due to differences in the colony environment by co-fostering two species of bees in the same mixed-species colonies. Because A. mellifera foragers were more responsive to sucrose, we predicted that their nectar foragers should bring in less concentrated nectar compared to that of A. cerana. However, we found no differences between the two species. We conclude that A. cerana shows a different pattern in sucrose responsiveness from that of Africanized bees. There may be other mechanisms that enable A. cerana to perform well in areas with sparse nectar resources. PMID:24194958

  7. Comparative sucrose responsiveness in Apis mellifera and A. cerana foragers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wenchao; Kuang, Haiou; Wang, Shanshan; Wang, Jie; Liu, Wei; Wu, Zhenhong; Tian, Yuanyuan; Huang, Zachary Y; Miao, Xiaoqing

    2013-01-01

    In the European honey bee, Apis mellifera, pollen foragers have a higher sucrose responsiveness than nectar foragers when tested using a proboscis extension response (PER) assay. In addition, Africanized honey bees have a higher sucrose responsiveness than European honey bees. Based on the biology of the Eastern honey bee, A. cerana, we hypothesized that A. cerana should also have a higher responsiveness to sucrose than A. mellifera. To test this hypothesis, we compared the sucrose thresholds of pollen foragers and nectar foragers in both A. cerana and A. mellifera in Fujian Province, China. Pollen foragers were more responsive to sucrose than nectar foragers in both species, consistent with previous studies. However, contrary to our hypothesis, A. mellifera was more responsive than A. cerana. We also demonstrated that this higher sucrose responsiveness in A. mellifera was not due to differences in the colony environment by co-fostering two species of bees in the same mixed-species colonies. Because A. mellifera foragers were more responsive to sucrose, we predicted that their nectar foragers should bring in less concentrated nectar compared to that of A. cerana. However, we found no differences between the two species. We conclude that A. cerana shows a different pattern in sucrose responsiveness from that of Africanized bees. There may be other mechanisms that enable A. cerana to perform well in areas with sparse nectar resources.

  8. Comparative sucrose responsiveness in Apis mellifera and A. cerana foragers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenchao Yang

    Full Text Available In the European honey bee, Apis mellifera, pollen foragers have a higher sucrose responsiveness than nectar foragers when tested using a proboscis extension response (PER assay. In addition, Africanized honey bees have a higher sucrose responsiveness than European honey bees. Based on the biology of the Eastern honey bee, A. cerana, we hypothesized that A. cerana should also have a higher responsiveness to sucrose than A. mellifera. To test this hypothesis, we compared the sucrose thresholds of pollen foragers and nectar foragers in both A. cerana and A. mellifera in Fujian Province, China. Pollen foragers were more responsive to sucrose than nectar foragers in both species, consistent with previous studies. However, contrary to our hypothesis, A. mellifera was more responsive than A. cerana. We also demonstrated that this higher sucrose responsiveness in A. mellifera was not due to differences in the colony environment by co-fostering two species of bees in the same mixed-species colonies. Because A. mellifera foragers were more responsive to sucrose, we predicted that their nectar foragers should bring in less concentrated nectar compared to that of A. cerana. However, we found no differences between the two species. We conclude that A. cerana shows a different pattern in sucrose responsiveness from that of Africanized bees. There may be other mechanisms that enable A. cerana to perform well in areas with sparse nectar resources.

  9. When API Mass Spectrometry Meets Super Atmospheric Pressure Ion Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lee Chuin

    2015-01-01

    In a tutorial paper on the application of free-jet technique for API-MS, John Fenn mentioned that “…for a number of years and a number of reasons, it has been found advantageous in many situations to carry out the ionization process in gas at pressures up to 1000 Torr or more” (Int. J. Mass Spectrom. 200: 459–478, 2000). In fact, the first ESI mass spectrometer constructed by Yamashita and Fenn had a counter-flow curtain gas source at 1050 Torr (ca. 1.4 atm) to sweep away the neutral (J. Phys. Chem. 88: 4451–4459, 1984). For gaseous ionization using electrospray plume, theoretical analysis also shows that “super-atmospheric operation would be more preferable in space-charge-limited situations.”(Int. J. Mass Spectrom. 300: 182–193, 2011). However, electrospray and the corona-based chemical ion source (APCI) in most commercial instrument are basically operated under an atmospheric pressure ambient, perhaps out of the concern of safety, convenience and simplicity in maintenance. Running the ion source at pressure much higher than 1 atm is not so common, but had been done by a number of groups as well as in our laboratory. A brief review on these ion sources will be given in this paper. PMID:26819912

  10. blend4php: a PHP API for galaxy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wytko, Connor; Soto, Brian; Ficklin, Stephen P

    2017-01-01

    Galaxy is a popular framework for execution of complex analytical pipelines typically for large data sets, and is a commonly used for (but not limited to) genomic, genetic and related biological analysis. It provides a web front-end and integrates with high performance computing resources. Here we report the development of the blend4php library that wraps Galaxy's RESTful API into a PHP-based library. PHP-based web applications can use blend4php to automate execution, monitoring and management of a remote Galaxy server, including its users, workflows, jobs and more. The blend4php library was specifically developed for the integration of Galaxy with Tripal, the open-source toolkit for the creation of online genomic and genetic web sites. However, it was designed as an independent library for use by any application, and is freely available under version 3 of the GNU Lesser General Public License (LPGL v3.0) at https://github.com/galaxyproject/blend4phpDatabase URL: https://github.com/galaxyproject/blend4php. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Is Apis mellifera more sensitive to insecticides than other insects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardstone, Melissa C; Scott, Jeffrey G

    2010-11-01

    Honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) are among the most important pollinators in natural and agricultural settings. They commonly encounter insecticides, and the effects of insecticides on honey bees have been frequently noted. It has been suggested that honey bees may be (as a species) uniquely sensitive to insecticides, although no comparative toxicology study has been undertaken to examine this claim. An extensive literature review was conducted, using data in which adult insects were topically treated with insecticides. The goal of this review was to summarize insecticide toxicity data between A. mellifera and other insects to determine the relative sensitivity of honey bees to insecticides. It was found that, in general, honey bees were no more sensitive than other insect species across the 62 insecticides examined. In addition, honey bees were not more sensitive to any of the six classes of insecticides (carbamates, nicotinoids, organochlorines, organophosphates, pyrethroids and miscellaneous) examined. While honey bees can be sensitive to individual insecticides, they are not a highly sensitive species to insecticides overall, or even to specific classes of insecticides. However, all pesticides should be used in a way that minimizes honey bee exposure, so as to minimize possible declines in the number of bees and/or honey contamination. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. elevatr: Access Elevation Data from Various APIs | Science ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several web services are available that provide access to elevation data. This package provides access to several of those services and returns elevation data either as a SpatialPointsDataFrame from point elevation services or as a raster object from raster elevation services. Currently, the package supports access to the Mapzen Elevation Service, Mapzen Terrain Service, and the USGS Elevation Point Query Service. The R language for statistical computing is increasingly used for spatial data analysis . This R package, elevatr, is in response to this and provides access to elevation data from various sources directly in R. The impact of `elevatr` is that it will 1) facilitate spatial analysis in R by providing access to foundational dataset for many types of analyses (e.g. hydrology, limnology) 2) open up a new set of users and uses for APIs widely used outside of R, and 3) provide an excellent example federal open source development as promoted by the Federal Source Code Policy (https://sourcecode.cio.gov/).

  13. Mating flights select for symmetry in honeybee drones ( Apis mellifera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffé, Rodolfo; Moritz, Robin F. A.

    2010-03-01

    Males of the honeybee ( Apis mellifera) fly to specific drone congregation areas (DCAs), which virgin queens visit in order to mate. From the thousands of drones that are reared in a single colony, only very few succeed in copulating with a queen, and therefore, a strong selection is expected to act on adult drones during their mating flights. In consequence, the gathering of drones at DCAs may serve as an indirect mate selection mechanism, assuring that queens only mate with those individuals having a better flight ability and a higher responsiveness to the queen’s visual and chemical cues. Here, we tested this idea relying on wing fluctuating asymmetry (FA) as a measure of phenotypic quality. By recapturing marked drones at a natural DCA and comparing their size and FA with a control sample of drones collected at their maternal hives, we were able to detect any selection on wing size and wing FA occurring during the mating flights. Although we found no solid evidence for selection on wing size, wing FA was found to be significantly lower in the drones collected at the DCA than in those collected at the hives. Our results demonstrate the action of selection during drone mating flights for the first time, showing that developmental stability can influence the mating ability of honeybee drones. We therefore conclude that selection during honeybee drone mating flights may confer some fitness advantages to the queens.

  14. Custom synthesis of isotope-labelled Apis mellifera Pheromone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conanan, Aida P.; Cortes, Nicole Marie A.; Daguno, Cristel Lyn R.; Templonuevo, Jose Angelo A.; Sucgang, Raymond J.

    2012-01-01

    The object of this study is to determine the optimum conditions for the synthesis of the isotope-labelled isopentyl acetate. Isopentyl acetate is widely used as a raw material in industries, in syntheses, and is utilized as a sex attractant (pheromone) by the bee species, Apis mellifera. The isotope labelling of isopentyl acetate will allow tracking of the fate and movement of the isopentyl acetate in the environment, in chemical transformations, and in biological systems. Esterification by alcoholysis of acetic acid was optimized for the preparation of Carbon-14( 14 C)-labelled isopentyl acetate from 14 C-labelled acetic acid and isoamyl alcohol. The different conditions studied were: (1) The effects of acid catalysis and/or reflux on the incorporation and retention of the isotope label on the product. The efficiency of label incorporation and retention was determined through the beta radioactivity of Carbon 14 in each of the synthetic constructs. Determination of the beta radioactivity concentration of 14 C in the isopentyl acetate product was done using low level liquid scintillation spectrometry. Each of the synthetic products was mixed with Ultima Gold scintillation cocktail in a low potassium glass scintillation vial, and analysed in a low-level Wallac 1414 scintillation counter. The application of catalysis without reflux resulted in the highest yield (35%). The same condition also resulted in the highest abundance of carbon isotope label with 2.40 Bequerels per cubic centimetre, Bq/cc (measurement unit for radioactivity). (author)

  15. Mating flights select for symmetry in honeybee drones (Apis mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffé, Rodolfo; Moritz, Robin F A

    2010-03-01

    Males of the honeybee (Apis mellifera) fly to specific drone congregation areas (DCAs), which virgin queens visit in order to mate. From the thousands of drones that are reared in a single colony, only very few succeed in copulating with a queen, and therefore, a strong selection is expected to act on adult drones during their mating flights. In consequence, the gathering of drones at DCAs may serve as an indirect mate selection mechanism, assuring that queens only mate with those individuals having a better flight ability and a higher responsiveness to the queen's visual and chemical cues. Here, we tested this idea relying on wing fluctuating asymmetry (FA) as a measure of phenotypic quality. By recapturing marked drones at a natural DCA and comparing their size and FA with a control sample of drones collected at their maternal hives, we were able to detect any selection on wing size and wing FA occurring during the mating flights. Although we found no solid evidence for selection on wing size, wing FA was found to be significantly lower in the drones collected at the DCA than in those collected at the hives. Our results demonstrate the action of selection during drone mating flights for the first time, showing that developmental stability can influence the mating ability of honeybee drones. We therefore conclude that selection during honeybee drone mating flights may confer some fitness advantages to the queens.

  16. Effects of additives on solidification of API separator sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faschan, A; Tittlebaum, M; Cartledge, F; Eaton, H

    1991-08-01

    API separator sludge was solidified with various combinations of binders and absorbent soil additives. The binders utilized were Type I Portland Cement, Type C Flyash, and a 1:1 combination of the two. The soil additives used were bentonite, diatomite, Fuller's earth, and two brands of chemically altered bentonites, or organoclays. The effectiveness of the solidification materials was based on their effect on the physical and leaching characteristics of the sludge.It was determined the Portland cement and combination binders provided the sludge with adequate physical and strength characteristics. It was also determined the affinity of each additive for water had an important influence on the physical characteristics of the solidified sludge. The results of the leaching procedure indicated the binders alone reduced the leachability of organic constituents from the sludge by 1/5 to 1/10. It appeared the use of the additives with the binders may have further reduced the leachability of constituents from sludge, with the incorporation of the organoclay additives further reducing leachability by up to 1/2. Also, it appeared the absorbing capacity of the additives was directly related to their ability to reduce the leachability of organic constituents from the sludge.

  17. `Special agents' trigger social waves in giant honeybees ( Apis dorsata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmelzer, Evelyn; Kastberger, Gerald

    2009-12-01

    Giant honeybees ( Apis dorsata) nest in the open and have therefore evolved a variety of defence strategies. Against predatory wasps, they produce highly coordinated Mexican wavelike cascades termed ‘shimmering’, whereby hundreds of bees flip their abdomens upwards. Although it is well known that shimmering commences at distinct spots on the nest surface, it is still unclear how shimmering is generated. In this study, colonies were exposed to living tethered wasps that were moved in front of the experimental nest. Temporal and spatial patterns of shimmering were investigated in and after the presence of the wasp. The numbers and locations of bees that participated in the shimmering were assessed, and those bees that triggered the waves were identified. The findings reveal that the position of identified trigger cohorts did not reflect the experimental path of the tethered wasp. Instead, the trigger centres were primarily arranged in the close periphery of the mouth zone of the nest, around those parts where the main locomotory activity occurs. This favours the ‘special-agents’ hypothesis that suggest that groups of specialized bees initiate the shimmering.

  18. Western honeybee drones and workers (Apis mellifera ligustica) have different olfactory mechanisms than eastern honeybees (Apis cerana cerana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woltedji, Dereje; Song, Feifei; Zhang, Lan; Gala, Alemayehu; Han, Bin; Feng, Mao; Fang, Yu; Li, Jianke

    2012-09-07

    The honeybees Apis mellifera ligustica (Aml) and Apis cerana cerana (Acc) are two different western and eastern bee species that evolved in distinct ecologies and developed specific antennal olfactory systems for their survival. Knowledge of how their antennal olfactory systems function in regards to the success of each respective bee species is scarce. We compared the antennal morphology and proteome between respective sexually mature drones and foraging workers of both species using a scanning electron microscope, two-dimensional electrophoresis, mass spectrometry, bioinformatics, and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Despite the general similarities in antennal morphology of the drone and worker bees between the two species, a total of 106 and 100 proteins altered their expression in the drones' and the workers' antennae, respectively. This suggests that the differences in the olfactory function of each respective bee are supported by the change of their proteome. Of the 106 proteins that altered their expression in the drones, 72 (68%) and 34 (32%) were overexpressed in the drones of Aml and Acc, respectively. The antennae of the Aml drones were built up by the highly expressed proteins that were involved in carbohydrate metabolism and energy production, molecular transporters, antioxidation, and fatty acid metabolism in contrast to the Acc drones. This is believed to enhance the antennal olfactory functions of the Aml drones as compared to the Acc drones during their mating flight. Likewise, of the 100 proteins with expression changes between the worker bees of the two species, 67% were expressed in higher levels in the antennae of Aml worker contrasting to 33% in the Acc worker. The overall higher expressions of proteins related to carbohydrate metabolism and energy production, molecular transporters, and antioxidation in the Aml workers compared with the Acc workers indicate the Aml workers require more antennal proteins for their olfactory

  19. Advance Payment ACO Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Advance Payment Model is designed for physician-based and rural providers who have come together voluntarily to give coordinated high quality care to the...

  20. SjAPI, the first functionally characterized Ascaris-type protease inhibitor from animal venoms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongyun Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Serine protease inhibitors act as modulators of serine proteases, playing important roles in protecting animal toxin peptides from degradation. However, all known serine protease inhibitors discovered thus far from animal venom belong to the Kunitz-type subfamily, and whether there are other novel types of protease inhibitors in animal venom remains unclear. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, by screening scorpion venom gland cDNA libraries, we identified the first Ascaris-type animal toxin family, which contains four members: Scorpiops jendeki Ascaris-type protease inhibitor (SjAPI, Scorpiops jendeki Ascaris-type protease inhibitor 2 (SjAPI-2, Chaerilus tricostatus Ascaris-type protease inhibitor (CtAPI, and Buthus martensii Ascaris-type protease inhibitor (BmAPI. The detailed characterization of Ascaris-type peptide SjAPI from the venom gland of scorpion Scorpiops jendeki was carried out. The mature peptide of SjAPI contains 64 residues and possesses a classical Ascaris-type cysteine framework reticulated by five disulfide bridges, different from all known protease inhibitors from venomous animals. Enzyme and inhibitor reaction kinetics experiments showed that recombinant SjAPI was a dual function peptide with α-chymotrypsin- and elastase-inhibiting properties. Recombinant SjAPI inhibited α-chymotrypsin with a Ki of 97.1 nM and elastase with a Ki of 3.7 μM, respectively. Bioinformatics analyses and chimera experiments indicated that SjAPI contained the unique short side chain functional residues "AAV" and might be a useful template to produce new serine protease inhibitors. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: To our knowledge, SjAPI is the first functionally characterized animal toxin peptide with an Ascaris-type fold. The structural and functional diversity of animal toxins with protease-inhibiting properties suggested that bioactive peptides from animal venom glands might be a new source of protease inhibitors, which will accelerate the

  1. Dynamics and performance of the free electron laser at Super-Aco with a harmonic RF cavity set on 500 MHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nutarelli, D.

    2000-01-01

    This work is dedicated to the development of the potentialities of the free electron laser that has been installed on the storage ring Super-Aco at Orsay university. We have studied the dynamics of the electron beam inside a harmonic RF cavity set on 500 MHz. The impact of the geometric characteristics of the optical cavity on the transverse overlapping between laser radiation and the electron beam has been studied in details. An important part of the work has been the assessment of the optical characterization of the dielectric multi-layer mirrors of the cavity. For that purpose a complete system has been designed to assess the changes in optical properties of mirrors during laser operation. Another important part of this work was the study of the interaction process between laser radiation and the electron bunch leading to saturation. This interaction process has been simulated through a new model and some predictions given by this model have been successfully confronted to experimental data. The installation of the harmonic RF cavity has led to a significant increase of the laser radiation gain and the value of the mean power of the laser radiation has reached 300 mW. An interesting application of this technique is the generation of high energy gamma photons through Compton backscattering. A collimated 35 MeV-energy photon beam has been produced at Super-Aco with a rate of 5.10 6 photons per second. (A.C.)

  2. Hemolymph proteome changes during worker brood development match the biological divergences between western honey bees (Apis mellifera) and eastern honey bees (Apis cerana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Mao; Ramadan, Haitham; Han, Bin; Fang, Yu; Li, Jianke

    2014-07-05

    Hemolymph plays key roles in honey bee molecule transport, immune defense, and in monitoring the physiological condition. There is a lack of knowledge regarding how the proteome achieves these biological missions for both the western and eastern honey bees (Apis mellifera and Apis cerana). A time-resolved proteome was compared using two-dimensional electrophoresis-based proteomics to reveal the mechanistic differences by analysis of hemolymph proteome changes between the worker bees of two bee species during the larval to pupal stages. The brood body weight of Apis mellifera was significantly heavier than that of Apis cerana at each developmental stage. Significantly, different protein expression patterns and metabolic pathways were observed in 74 proteins (166 spots) that were differentially abundant between the two bee species. The function of hemolymph in energy storage, odor communication, and antioxidation is of equal importance for the western and eastern bees, indicated by the enhanced expression of different protein species. However, stronger expression of protein folding, cytoskeletal and developmental proteins, and more highly activated energy producing pathways in western bees suggests that the different bee species have developed unique strategies to match their specific physiology using hemolymph to deliver nutrients and in immune defense. Our disparate findings constitute a proof-of-concept of molecular details that the ecologically shaped different physiological conditions of different bee species match with the hemolymph proteome during the brood stage. This also provides a starting point for future research on the specific hemolymph proteins or pathways related to the differential phenotypes or physiology.

  3. Windows API funkcijų sekų perėmimo bibliotekų tyrimas Windows API Hooking Libraries Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas Radvilavičius

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available

    Nagrinėjamos bibliotekos, skirtos Windows API funkcijų sekų perėmimui. Sekų perėmimas gali būti panaudojamas įvairiose srityse: siekiant išsiaiškinti operacinės sistemos veikimo principus, norint atlikti programos derinimą arba pridėti papildomą funkcionalumą prie jau esamo. Straipsnyje apžvelgiamos Windows API ir pateikiamos trečiųjų šalių priemonės funkcijų sekoms  perimti. Aptariamos jų teikiamos galimybės, panaudojimo specifika. Taip pat atlikti testai, siekiant išsiaiškinti, kuri biblioteka su užduotimis susitvarko greičiausiai. Tyrimui pasirinkti du nemokami gaminiai: Microsoft Detours ir EasyHook bibliotekos.

    Straipsnis lietuvių kalba

    The paper describes methods how to apply Windows API hooking with third party libraries and solutions. In this research were used Windows API function SetWindowsHookEx, Detours and EasyHook libraries. Libraries methods, features and advantages were discussed in this paper. The practical part contains libraries tests. In analysis we tested target program start with hooking library and injected function call.

    Article in Lithuanian

  4. Long Term Storage of Ascosphaera aggregata and A. apis Pathogens of the Leafcutting Bee (Megachile rotundata) and the Honey Bee (Apis mellifera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Survival of Ascosphaera aggregata and A. apis over the course of a year were tested using different storage treatments. For spores, the methods tested were freeze drying and ultra-low temperature storage, and for hyphae, freeze drying, agar slants covered with water, and two methods of ultra-low tem...

  5. Differential physiological effects of neonicotinoid insecticides on honey bees: A comparison between Apis mellifera and Apis cerana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhiguo; Li, Meng; He, Jingfang; Zhao, Xiaomeng; Chaimanee, Veeranan; Huang, Wei-Fone; Nie, Hongyi; Zhao, Yazhou; Su, Songkun

    2017-08-01

    Acute toxicities (LD50s) of imidacloprid and clothianidin to Apis mellifera and A. cerana were investigated. Changing patterns of immune-related gene expressions and the activities of four enzymes between the two bee species were compared and analyzed after exposure to sublethal doses of insecticides. Results indicated that A. cerana was more sensitive to imidacloprid and clothianidin than A. mellifera. The acute oral LD50 values of imidacloprid and clothianidin for A. mellifera were 8.6 and 2.0ng/bee, respectively, whereas the corresponding values for A. cerana were 2.7 and 0.5ng/bee. The two bee species possessed distinct abilities to mount innate immune response against neonicotinoids. After 48h of imidacloprid treatment, carboxylesterase (CCE), prophenol oxidase (PPO), and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activities were significantly downregulated in A. mellifera but were upregulated in A. cerana. Glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity was significantly elevated in A. mellifera at 48h after exposure to imidacloprid, but no significant change was observed in A. cerana. AChE was downregulated in both bee species at three different time points during clothianidin exposure, and GST activities were upregulated in both species exposed to clothianidin. Different patterns of immune-related gene expression and enzymatic activities implied distinct detoxification and immune responses of A. cerana and A. mellifera to imidacloprid and clothianidin. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Development of API 5 CT grade P110 steel casing; Desenvolvimento de tubos casing API 5 CT grau P110

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kojima, Sergio Seijo; Roza, Juliana Espinossi

    2003-07-01

    This paper has as objective to discuss the results gotten in experiences carried through in industrial scale for the development of pipes class API 5CT P110 (1), with 244 mm of diameter and 12 mm of thickness. The pipes were welded longitudinally by process ERW (electric resistance welding) and submitted to quenching and tempering heat treatments. A C-Mn-Cr alloy with adequate quenching ability was used for the attainment of a martensite microstructure after quenching. The pipes at a temperature of 880 deg C were quenched in water and subsequently tempered at 515 deg C. The integrity of the weld region was evaluated through non destructive tests and flattening tests, Charpy impact tests and fracture toughness tests (CTOD). The pipes achieved the tension properties stipulated in the standard (yield strength bigger limit of 758 Mpa), and also the energy in the Charpy impact test (transversal), considering that the energy value obtained was 55 J (at 0 deg C) for base metal and 44 J in the weld metal. (author)

  7. [Melissopalynology and trophic niche of Apis cerana ceraca and Apis mellifera ligustica in Yunnan Province of Southwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu-Jia; Zhao, Tian-Rui; Zhao, Feng-Yun

    2013-01-01

    In 2010 and 2011, the honey samples of Apis cerana cerana and A. mellifera ligustica were collected from Kunming and Mengzi of Yunnan Province, respectively, aimed to analyze the melissopalynology and tropic niche of the two bee species. The absolute pollen concentration of the honey of A. cerana cerana was 1.55 x 10(4) ind x g(-1), being significantly higher than that (1.01 x 10(4) ind x g(-1)) of A. mellifera ligustica, and the number of nectar plant species collected by A. cerana cerana was 12.9, also significantly higher than that (7.7) collected by A. mellifera ligustica, indicating that A. cerana cerana could utilize more nectar plants, while A. mellifera ligustica had stronger selectivity to the nectar plants. The trophic niche breadth of A. cerana cerana was 0.35, which was significantly higher than that (0.23) of A. mellifera ligustica. The trophic niche overlap index between the two bee species was 0.71, and the interspecific competition index was 0.93, suggesting that the food competition between A. cerana cerana and A. mellifera ligustica was fierce.

  8. Manufacturing Amorphous Solid Dispersions with a Tailored Amount of Crystallized API for Biopharmaceutical Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theil, Frank; Milsmann, Johanna; Anantharaman, Sankaran; van Lishaut, Holger

    2018-05-07

    The preparation of an amorphous solid dispersion (ASD) by dissolving a poorly water-soluble active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) in a polymer matrix can improve the bioavailability by orders of magnitude. Crystallization of the API in the ASD, though, is an inherent threat for bioavailability. Commonly, the impact of crystalline API on the drug release of the dosage form is studied with samples containing spiked crystallinity. These spiked samples possess implicit differences compared to native crystalline samples, regarding size and spatial distribution of the crystals as well as their molecular environment. In this study, we demonstrate that it is possible to grow defined amounts of crystalline API in solid dosage forms, which enables us to study the biopharmaceutical impact of actual crystallization. For this purpose, we studied the crystal growth in fenofibrate tablets over time under an elevated moisture using transmission Raman spectroscopy (TRS). As a nondestructive method to assess API crystallinity in ASD formulations, TRS enables the monitoring of crystal growth in individual dosage forms. Once the kinetic trace of the crystal growth for a certain environmental condition is determined, this method can be used to produce samples with defined amounts of crystallized API. To investigate the biopharmaceutical impact of crystallized API, non-QC dissolution methods were used, designed to identify differences between the various amounts of crystalline materials present. The drug release in the samples manufactured in this fashion was compared to that of samples with spiked crystallinity. In this study, we present for the first time a method for targeted crystallization of amorphous tablets to simulate crystallized ASDs. This methodology is a valuable tool to generate model systems for biopharmaceutical studies on the impact of crystallinity on the bioavailability.

  9. Student project of optical system analysis API-library development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Tatiana; Zhukova, Tatiana; Dantcaranov, Ruslan; Romanova, Maria; Zhadin, Alexander; Ivanov, Vyacheslav; Kalinkina, Olga

    2017-08-01

    In the paper API-library software developed by students of Applied and Computer Optics Department (ITMO University) for optical system design is presented. The library performs paraxial and real ray tracing, calculates 3d order (Seidel) aberration and real ray aberration of axis and non-axis beams (wave, lateral, longitudinal, coma, distortion etc.) and finally, approximate wave aberration by Zernike polynomials. Real aperture can be calculated by considering of real rays tracing failure on each surface. So far we assume optical system is centered, with spherical or 2d order aspherical surfaces. Optical glasses can be set directly by refraction index or by dispersion coefficients. The library can be used for education or research purposes in optical system design area. It provides ready to use software functions for optical system simulation and analysis that developer can simply plug into their software development for different purposes, for example for some specific synthesis tasks or investigation of new optimization modes. In the paper we present an example of using the library for development of cemented doublet synthesis software based on Slusarev's methodology. The library is used in optical system optimization recipes course for deep studying of optimization model and its application for optical system design. Development of such software is an excellent experience for students and help to understanding optical image modeling and quality analysis. This development is organized as student group joint project. We try to organize it as a group in real research and development project, so each student has his own role in the project and then use whole library functionality in his own master or bachelor thesis. Working in such group gives students useful experience and opportunity to work as research and development engineer of scientific software in the future.

  10. Studies of learned helplessness in honey bees (Apis mellifera ligustica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinges, Christopher W; Varnon, Christopher A; Cota, Lisa D; Slykerman, Stephen; Abramson, Charles I

    2017-04-01

    The current study reports 2 experiments investigating learned helplessness in the honey bee (Apis mellifera ligustica). In Experiment 1, we used a traditional escape method but found the bees' activity levels too high to observe changes due to treatment conditions. The bees were not able to learn in this traditional escape procedure; thus, such procedures may be inappropriate to study learned helplessness in honey bees. In Experiment 2, we used an alternative punishment, or passive avoidance, method to investigate learned helplessness. Using a master and yoked design where bees were trained as either master or yoked and tested as either master or yoked, we found that prior training with unavoidable and inescapable shock in the yoked condition interfered with avoidance and escape behavior in the later master condition. Unlike control bees, learned helplessness bees failed to restrict their movement to the safe compartment following inescapable shock. Unlike learned helplessness studies in other animals, no decrease in general activity was observed. Furthermore, we did not observe a "freezing" response to inescapable aversive stimuli-a phenomenon, thus far, consistently observed in learned helplessness tests with other species. The bees, instead, continued to move back and forth between compartments despite punishment in the incorrect compartment. These findings suggest that, although traditional escape methods may not be suitable, honey bees display learned helplessness in passive avoidance procedures. Thus, regardless of behavioral differences from other species, honey bees can be a unique invertebrate model organism for the study of learned helplessness. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Detection of Illicit Drugs by Trained Honeybees (Apis mellifera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Schott

    Full Text Available Illegal drugs exacerbate global social challenges such as substance addiction, mental health issues and violent crime. Police and customs officials often rely on specially-trained sniffer dogs, which act as sensitive biological detectors to find concealed illegal drugs. However, the dog "alert" is no longer sufficient evidence to allow a search without a warrant or additional probable cause because cannabis has been legalized in two US states and is decriminalized in many others. Retraining dogs to recognize a narrower spectrum of drugs is difficult and training new dogs is time consuming, yet there are no analytical devices with the portability and sensitivity necessary to detect substance-specific chemical signatures. This means there is currently no substitute for sniffer dogs. Here we describe an insect screening procedure showing that the western honeybee (Apis mellifera can sense volatiles associated with pure samples of heroin and cocaine. We developed a portable electroantennographic device for the on-site measurement of volatile perception by these insects, and found a positive correlation between honeybee antennal responses and the concentration of specific drugs in test samples. Furthermore, we tested the ability of honeybees to learn the scent of heroin and trained them to show a reliable behavioral response in the presence of a highly-diluted scent of pure heroin. Trained honeybees could therefore be used to complement or replace the role of sniffer dogs as part of an automated drug detection system. Insects are highly sensitive to volatile compounds and provide an untapped resource for the development of biosensors. Automated conditioning as presented in this study could be developed as a platform for the practical detection of illicit drugs using insect-based sensors.

  12. Neutralization of Apis mellifera bee venom activities by suramin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Kik, Camila Z; Fernandes, Fabrício F A; Tomaz, Marcelo Amorim; Gaban, Glauco A; Fonseca, Tatiane F; Calil-Elias, Sabrina; Oliveira, Suellen D S; Silva, Claudia L M; Martinez, Ana Maria Blanco; Melo, Paulo A

    2013-06-01

    In this work we evaluated the ability of suramin, a polysulfonated naphthylurea derivative, to antagonize the cytotoxic and enzymatic effects of the crude venom of Apis mellifera. Suramin was efficient to decrease the lethality in a dose-dependent way. The hemoconcentration caused by lethal dose injection of bee venom was abolished by suramin (30 μg/g). The edematogenic activity of the venom (0.3 μg/g) was antagonized by suramin (10 μg/g) in all treatment protocols. The changes in the vascular permeability caused by A. mellifera (1 μg/g) venom were inhibited by suramin (30 μg/g) in the pre- and posttreatment as well as when the venom was preincubated with suramin. In addition, suramin also inhibited cultured endothelial cell lesion, as well as in vitro myotoxicity, evaluated in mouse extensor digitorum longus muscle, which was inhibited by suramin (10 and 25 μM), decreasing the rate of CK release, showing that suramin protected the sarcolemma against damage induced by components of bee venom (2.5 μg/mL). Moreover, suramin inhibited the in vivo myotoxicity induced by i.m. injection of A. mellifera venom in mice (0.5 μg/g). The analysis of the area under the plasma CK vs. time curve showed that preincubation, pre- and posttreatment with suramin (30 μg/g) inhibited bee venom myotoxic activity in mice by about 89%, 45% and 40%, respectively. Suramin markedly inhibited the PLA2 activity in a concentration-dependent way (1-30 μM). Being suramin a polyanion molecule, the effects observed may be due to the interaction of its charges with the polycation components present in A. mellifera bee venom. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Social waves in giant honeybees (Apis dorsata) elicit nest vibrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastberger, Gerald; Weihmann, Frank; Hoetzl, Thomas

    2013-07-01

    Giant honeybees (Apis dorsata) nest in the open and have developed a wide array of strategies for colony defence, including the Mexican wave-like shimmering behaviour. In this collective response, the colony members perform upward flipping of their abdomens in coordinated cascades across the nest surface. The time-space properties of these emergent waves are response patterns which have become of adaptive significance for repelling enemies in the visual domain. We report for the first time that the mechanical impulse patterns provoked by these social waves and measured by laser Doppler vibrometry generate vibrations at the central comb of the nest at the basic (='natural') frequency of 2.156 ± 0.042 Hz which is more than double the average repetition rate of the driving shimmering waves. Analysis of the Fourier spectra of the comb vibrations under quiescence and arousal conditions provoked by mass flight activity and shimmering waves gives rise to the proposal of two possible models for the compound physical system of the bee nest: According to the elastic oscillatory plate model, the comb vibrations deliver supra-threshold cues preferentially to those colony members positioned close to the comb. The mechanical pendulum model predicts that the comb vibrations are sensed by the members of the bee curtain in general, enabling mechanoreceptive signalling across the nest, also through the comb itself. The findings show that weak and stochastic forces, such as general quiescence or diffuse mass flight activity, cause a harmonic frequency spectrum of the comb, driving the comb as an elastic plate. However, shimmering waves provide sufficiently strong forces to move the nest as a mechanical pendulum. This vibratory behaviour may support the colony-intrinsic information hypothesis herein that the mechanical vibrations of the comb provoked by shimmering do have the potential to facilitate immediate communication of the momentary defensive state of the honeybee nest to

  14. Transcriptome analysis of the Asian honey bee Apis cerana cerana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zi Long Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Eastern hive honey bee, Apis cerana cerana is a native and widely bred honey bee species in China. Molecular biology research about this honey bee species is scarce, and genomic information for A. c. cerana is not currently available. Transcriptome and expression profiling data for this species are therefore important resources needed to better understand the biological mechanisms of A. c. cerana. In this study, we obtained the transcriptome information of A. c. cerana by RNA-sequencing and compared gene expression differences between queens and workers of A. c. cerana by digital gene expression (DGE analysis. RESULTS: Using high-throughput Illumina RNA sequencing we obtained 51,581,510 clean reads corresponding to 4.64 Gb total nucleotides from a single run. These reads were assembled into 46,999 unigenes with a mean length of 676 bp. Based on a sequence similarity search against the five public databases (NR, Swissport, GO, COG, KEGG with a cut-off E-value of 10(-5 using BLASTX, a total of 24,630 unigenes were annotated with gene descriptions, gene ontology terms, or metabolic pathways. Using these transcriptome data as references we analyzed the gene expression differences between the queens and workers of A. c. cerana using a tag-based digital gene expression method. We obtained 5.96 and 5.66 million clean tags from the queen and worker samples, respectively. A total of 414 genes were differentially expressed between them, with 189 up-regulated and 225 down-regulated in queens. CONCLUSIONS: Our transcriptome data provide a comprehensive sequence resource for future A. c. cerana study, establishing an important public information platform for functional genomic studies in A. c. cerana. Furthermore, the DGE data provide comprehensive gene expression information for the queens and workers, which will facilitate our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of the different physiological aspects of the two castes.

  15. Detection of Illicit Drugs by Trained Honeybees (Apis mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schott, Matthias; Klein, Birgit; Vilcinskas, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Illegal drugs exacerbate global social challenges such as substance addiction, mental health issues and violent crime. Police and customs officials often rely on specially-trained sniffer dogs, which act as sensitive biological detectors to find concealed illegal drugs. However, the dog "alert" is no longer sufficient evidence to allow a search without a warrant or additional probable cause because cannabis has been legalized in two US states and is decriminalized in many others. Retraining dogs to recognize a narrower spectrum of drugs is difficult and training new dogs is time consuming, yet there are no analytical devices with the portability and sensitivity necessary to detect substance-specific chemical signatures. This means there is currently no substitute for sniffer dogs. Here we describe an insect screening procedure showing that the western honeybee (Apis mellifera) can sense volatiles associated with pure samples of heroin and cocaine. We developed a portable electroantennographic device for the on-site measurement of volatile perception by these insects, and found a positive correlation between honeybee antennal responses and the concentration of specific drugs in test samples. Furthermore, we tested the ability of honeybees to learn the scent of heroin and trained them to show a reliable behavioral response in the presence of a highly-diluted scent of pure heroin. Trained honeybees could therefore be used to complement or replace the role of sniffer dogs as part of an automated drug detection system. Insects are highly sensitive to volatile compounds and provide an untapped resource for the development of biosensors. Automated conditioning as presented in this study could be developed as a platform for the practical detection of illicit drugs using insect-based sensors.

  16. Intraspecific Aggression in Giant Honey Bees (Apis dorsata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Weihmann

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We investigated intraspecific aggression in experimental nests (expN1, expN2 of the giant honey bee Apis dorsata in Chitwan (Nepal, focusing on interactions between surface bees and two other groups of bees approaching the nest: (1 homing “nestmate” foragers landing on the bee curtain remained unmolested by guards; and (2 supposed “non-nestmate” bees, which were identified by their erratic flight patterns in front of the nest, such as hovering or sideways scanning and splaying their legs from their body, and were promptly attacked by the surface bees after landing. These supposed non-nestmate bees only occurred immediately before and after migration swarms, which had arrived in close vicinity (and were most likely scouting for a nesting site. In total, 231 of the “nestmate” foragers (fb and 102 approaches of such purported “non-nestmate” scouts (sc were analysed (total observation time expN1: 5.43 min regarding the evocation of shimmering waves (sh. During their landing the “nestmate” foragers provoked less shimmering waves (relnsh[fb] = 23/231 = 0.0996, relnsh[sc] = 75/102 = 0.7353; p <0.001, χ2-test with shorter duration (Dsh[fb] = 197 ± 17 ms, Dsh[sc] = 488 ± 16 ms; p <0.001; t-test than “non-nestmates”. Moreover, after having landed on the nest surface, the “non-nestmates” were attacked by the surface bees (expN1, expN2: observation time >18 min quite similarly to the defensive response against predatory wasps. Hence, the surface members of settled colonies respond differently to individual giant honey bees approaching the nest, depending on whether erratic flight patterns are displayed or not.

  17. Social waves in giant honeybees ( Apis dorsata) elicit nest vibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastberger, Gerald; Weihmann, Frank; Hoetzl, Thomas

    2013-07-01

    Giant honeybees ( Apis dorsata) nest in the open and have developed a wide array of strategies for colony defence, including the Mexican wave-like shimmering behaviour. In this collective response, the colony members perform upward flipping of their abdomens in coordinated cascades across the nest surface. The time-space properties of these emergent waves are response patterns which have become of adaptive significance for repelling enemies in the visual domain. We report for the first time that the mechanical impulse patterns provoked by these social waves and measured by laser Doppler vibrometry generate vibrations at the central comb of the nest at the basic (=`natural') frequency of 2.156 ± 0.042 Hz which is more than double the average repetition rate of the driving shimmering waves. Analysis of the Fourier spectra of the comb vibrations under quiescence and arousal conditions provoked by mass flight activity and shimmering waves gives rise to the proposal of two possible models for the compound physical system of the bee nest: According to the elastic oscillatory plate model, the comb vibrations deliver supra-threshold cues preferentially to those colony members positioned close to the comb. The mechanical pendulum model predicts that the comb vibrations are sensed by the members of the bee curtain in general, enabling mechanoreceptive signalling across the nest, also through the comb itself. The findings show that weak and stochastic forces, such as general quiescence or diffuse mass flight activity, cause a harmonic frequency spectrum of the comb, driving the comb as an elastic plate. However, shimmering waves provide sufficiently strong forces to move the nest as a mechanical pendulum. This vibratory behaviour may support the colony-intrinsic information hypothesis herein that the mechanical vibrations of the comb provoked by shimmering do have the potential to facilitate immediate communication of the momentary defensive state of the honeybee nest to the

  18. Consistent Evaluation of ACOS-GOSAT, BESD-SCIAMACHY, CarbonTracker, and MACC Through Comparisons to TCCON

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulawik, Susan; Wunch, Debra; O’Dell, Christopher; Frankenberg, Christian; Reuter, Maximilian; Chevallier, Frederic; Oda, Tomohiro; Sherlock, Vanessa; Buchwitz, Michael; Osterman, Greg; hide

    2016-01-01

    Consistent validation of satellite CO2 estimates is a prerequisite for using multiple satellite CO2 measurements for joint flux inversion, and for establishing an accurate long-term atmospheric CO2 data record. Harmonizing satellite CO2 measurements is particularly important since the differences in instruments, observing geometries, sampling strategies, etc. imbue different measurement characteristics in the various satellite CO2 data products. We focus on validating model and satellite observation attributes that impact flux estimates and CO2 assimilation, including accurate error estimates, correlated and random errors, overall biases, biases by season and latitude, the impact of coincidence criteria, validation of seasonal cycle phase and amplitude, yearly growth, and daily variability. We evaluate dry-air mole fraction (X(sub CO2)) for Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) (Atmospheric CO2 Observations from Space, ACOS b3.5) and SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY (SCIAMACHY) (Bremen Optimal Estimation DOAS, BESD v2.00.08) as well as the CarbonTracker (CT2013b) simulated CO2 mole fraction fields and the Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate (MACC) CO2 inversion system (v13.1) and compare these to Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) observations (GGG2012/2014). We find standard deviations of 0.9, 0.9, 1.7, and 2.1 parts per million vs. TCCON for CT2013b, MACC, GOSAT, and SCIAMACHY, respectively, with the single observation errors 1.9 and 0.9 times the predicted errors for GOSAT and SCIAMACHY, respectively. We quantify how satellite error drops with data averaging by interpreting according to (error(sup 2) equals a(sup 2) plus b(sup 2) divided by n (with n being the number of observations averaged, a the systematic (correlated) errors, and b the random (uncorrelated) errors). a and b are estimated by satellites, coincidence criteria, and hemisphere. Biases at individual stations have year

  19. Identification of Staphylococcus species with the API STAPH-IDENT system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloos, W E; Wolfshohl, J F

    1982-01-01

    The API STAPH-IDENT system was compared with conventional methods for the identification of 14 Staphylococcus species. Conventional methods included the Kloos and Schleifer simplified scheme and DNA-DNA hybridization. The API STAPH-IDENT strip utilizes a battery of 10 miniaturized biochemical tests, including alkaline phosphatase, urease, beta-glucosidase, beta-glucuronidase, and beta-galactosidase activity, aerobic acid formation from D-(+)-mannose, D-mannitol, D-(+)-trehalose, and salicin, and utilization of arginine. Reactions of cultures were determined after 5 h of incubation at 35 degrees C. Results indicated a high degree of congruence (greater than 90%) between the expedient API system and conventional methods for most species. The addition of a test for novobiocin susceptibility to the API system increased the accuracy of identification of S. saprophyticus, S. cohnii, and S. hominis, significantly. Several strains of S. hominis, S. haemolyticus, and S. warneri which were difficult to separate with the Kloos and Schleifer simplified scheme were accurately resolved by the API system. PMID:6752190

  20. An adaptive software defined radio design based on a standard space telecommunication radio system API

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Wenhao; Tian, Xin; Chen, Genshe; Pham, Khanh; Blasch, Erik

    2017-05-01

    Software defined radio (SDR) has become a popular tool for the implementation and testing for communications performance. The advantage of the SDR approach includes: a re-configurable design, adaptive response to changing conditions, efficient development, and highly versatile implementation. In order to understand the benefits of SDR, the space telecommunication radio system (STRS) was proposed by NASA Glenn research center (GRC) along with the standard application program interface (API) structure. Each component of the system uses a well-defined API to communicate with other components. The benefit of standard API is to relax the platform limitation of each component for addition options. For example, the waveform generating process can support a field programmable gate array (FPGA), personal computer (PC), or an embedded system. As long as the API defines the requirements, the generated waveform selection will work with the complete system. In this paper, we demonstrate the design and development of adaptive SDR following the STRS and standard API protocol. We introduce step by step the SDR testbed system including the controlling graphic user interface (GUI), database, GNU radio hardware control, and universal software radio peripheral (USRP) tranceiving front end. In addition, a performance evaluation in shown on the effectiveness of the SDR approach for space telecommunication.

  1. JEnsembl: a version-aware Java API to Ensembl data systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Trevor; Law, Andy

    2012-11-01

    The Ensembl Project provides release-specific Perl APIs for efficient high-level programmatic access to data stored in various Ensembl database schema. Although Perl scripts are perfectly suited for processing large volumes of text-based data, Perl is not ideal for developing large-scale software applications nor embedding in graphical interfaces. The provision of a novel Java API would facilitate type-safe, modular, object-orientated development of new Bioinformatics tools with which to access, analyse and visualize Ensembl data. The JEnsembl API implementation provides basic data retrieval and manipulation functionality from the Core, Compara and Variation databases for all species in Ensembl and EnsemblGenomes and is a platform for the development of a richer API to Ensembl datasources. The JEnsembl architecture uses a text-based configuration module to provide evolving, versioned mappings from database schema to code objects. A single installation of the JEnsembl API can therefore simultaneously and transparently connect to current and previous database instances (such as those in the public archive) thus facilitating better analysis repeatability and allowing 'through time' comparative analyses to be performed. Project development, released code libraries, Maven repository and documentation are hosted at SourceForge (http://jensembl.sourceforge.net).

  2. Using Map Service API for Driving Cycle Detection for Wearable GPS Data: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Lei [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gonder, Jeffrey D [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-12-06

    Following advancements in smartphone and portable global positioning system (GPS) data collection, wearable GPS data have realized extensive use in transportation surveys and studies. The task of detecting driving cycles (driving or car-mode trajectory segments) from wearable GPS data has been the subject of much research. Specifically, distinguishing driving cycles from other motorized trips (such as taking a bus) is the main research problem in this paper. Many mode detection methods only focus on raw GPS speed data while some studies apply additional information, such as geographic information system (GIS) data, to obtain better detection performance. Procuring and maintaining dedicated road GIS data are costly and not trivial, whereas the technical maturity and broad use of map service application program interface (API) queries offers opportunities for mode detection tasks. The proposed driving cycle detection method takes advantage of map service APIs to obtain high-quality car-mode API route information and uses a trajectory segmentation algorithm to find the best-matched API route. The car-mode API route data combined with the actual route information, including the actual mode information, are used to train a logistic regression machine learning model, which estimates car modes and non-car modes with probability rates. The experimental results show promise for the proposed method's ability to detect vehicle mode accurately.

  3. Tamponamento cardíaco tardio traumático: análise de cinco casos Traumatic late cardiac tamponade: analysis of five cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FERNANDO LUIZ WESTPHAL

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available São analisados cinco casos de tamponamento cardíaco tardio traumático. Os pacientes eram masculinos, idade média de 26,2 anos, vítimas de ferimento por arma branca em região precordial, área de Ziedler, sendo admitidos em centro de referência para trauma. Foram classificados pelo índice fisiológico de Ivatury para trauma cardíaco e inicialmente tratados por pleurotomia intercostal e reposição volêmica, com estabilização do quadro hemodinâmico e respiratório. Os pacientes foram readmitidos após intervalo de oito a 24 dias (mediana de 20 dias, agora no serviço de cirurgia torácica de um hospital de referência terciária, com sinais de tamponamento cardíaco. Os exames diagnósticos confirmaram derrame pericárdico com espessamento pericárdico associado a encarceramento de base pulmonar esquerdo em quatro casos, os quais foram abordados por toracotomia póstero-lateral, com realização de pericardiectomia parcial e descorticação pulmonar. Um paciente evoluiu com pericardite purulenta, comprovada por exames complementares, e foi submetido à drenagem pericárdica subxifóidea. Ocorreu arritmia pós-operatória em um paciente; os demais evoluíram sem complicações pós-operatórias ou recidiva do tamponamento.Five traumatic late cardiac tamponade cases were analyzed. All patients were male, mean age was 26.2, victims of thoracic penetrating stabbing wound in the precordial region, Ziedler area, admitted to a trauma reference center. They were classified by the Ivatury physiological index for cardiac trauma. The first treatment approach was intercostal pleurectomy and volemic resuscitation followed by hemodynamic and respiratory recovery. Patients with cardiac tamponade symptoms were re-admitted within an interval from eight to twenty four days (mean 20 days in a thoracic surgery service of a tertiary reference hospital. Diagnostic exams confirmed thickening and pericardial effusion associated with a left pulmonary base

  4. Avaliação do sopro cardíaco na infância Assessment of heart murmurs in childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Elisabeth B.A. Kobinger

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: discutir a avaliação clínica e laboratorial do sopro cardíaco, considerando sua alta freqüência no atendimento ambulatorial do pediatra geral. FONTE DE DADOS: revisão baseada na análise crítica da literatura atual e consulta a compêndios de cardiologia pediátrica e pediatria contendo informações básicas sobre o tema. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: os principais destaques do artigo referem-se à importância da anamnese e exame físico do sistema cardiovascular, essenciais para o pediatra geral diagnosticar o sopro cardíaco inocente, e identificar situações que indiquem a ocorrência de cardiopatias congênitas, ou adquiridas, e a necessidade de encaminhamento ao especialista. CONCLUSÕES: o pediatra geral é geralmente o primeiro médico a detectar um sopro cardíaco e deve estar apto a reconhecer o sopro inocente, assim como a suspeitar precocemente de doenças cardiovasculares.OBJECTIVE: to discuss clinical and laboratorial evaluation of heart murmurs in children, an important problem faced by pediatricians in their practice. SOURCES OF DATA: this review was based on a critical analysis of the current literature, as well as pediatrics and pediatric cardiology textbooks, which were found to be an important source of information on the subject. SUMMARY OS THE FINDINGS: it is important for pediatricians to know how to obtain precise information regarding the patient's medical history and to perform extensive physical examination of a child with heart murmur. The diagnosis of innocent heart murmur is essentially clinical and it can help the pediatrician to identify situations which are associated with cardiovascular diseases. CONCLUSIONS: in our series, short-term video-EEG monitoring established a reliable diagnosis in most patients due to correlation between clinical and EEG data. This procedure was well tolerated by children, including infants and those with psychiatric disorders.

  5. Cardiac beta-receptors in experimental Chagas' disease Receptores beta cardíacos na doença de Chagas experimental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio E. Enders

    1995-02-01

    Full Text Available Experimental Chagas' disease (45 to 90 days post-infection showed serious cardiac alterations in the contractility and in the pharmacological response to beta adrenergic receptors in normal and T. cruzi infected mice (post-acute phase. Chagasic infection did not change the beta receptors density (78.591 ± 3.125 fmol/mg protein and 73.647 ± 2.194 fmol/mg protein for controls but their affinity was significantly diminished (Kd = 7.299 ± 0.426 nM and Kd = 3.759 ± 0.212 nM for the control p Estudaram-se os receptores beta cardíacos de camundongos infectados pelo Trypanosoma cruzi na fase pós-aguda da doença de Chagas para estabelecer em que medida os mesmos contribuem a gerar respostas anômalas às catecolaminas observadas nestes miocardios. Utilizara-se 3-H/DHA para a marcação dos receptores beta cardíacos dos camundongos normais e dos infectados na fase pós-aguda (45 a 90 dias pós-infecção. O número dos sítios de fixação foi similar nos dois grupos, 78.591 ± 3.125 fmol/mg. Proteína nos chagásicos e 73.647 ± 2.194 fmol/mg. Proteína no grupo controle. Em vez disso, a afinidade verificou-se significativamente diminuida no grupo chagásico (Kd = 7.299 ± 0.426 nM respeito do controle (Kd = 3.759 ± 0.212 nM p < 0.001. Os resultados obtidos demonstram que as modificações observadas na estimulação adrenérgica do miocárdio chagásico se correlacionam com a menor afinidade dos receptores beta cardíacos e que estas alterações exerceriam uma parte determinante para as consequências funcionais que são detectadas na fase crônica.

  6. Imunodepressão induzida por talidomida e ciclosporina em transplante cardíaco heterotópico de coelho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Batista Vieira de Carvalho

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: A talidomida, por seus efeitos antiinflamatórios e imunodepressores, tem sido utilizada no tratamento de doenças dermatológicas e na doença enxerto-contra-hospedeiro no transplante de medula óssea. O objetivo deste trabalho é avaliar a ação deste medicamento como imunodepressor em transplante de órgãos, estudando sua ação isoladamente ou em combinação com a ciclosporina na prevenção da rejeição ao aloenxerto cardíaco heterotópico em coelho. MÉTODO: Foram utilizados 50 coelhos, sendo 25 doadores e 25 receptores.Os animais receptores foram subdivididos em cinco grupos (n= 5 : Grupo I (controle animais não-imunodeprimidos; Grupo II (imunodeprimidos com ciclosporina na dose de 10 mg/kg/dia; Grupo III (imunodeprimidos com talidomida na dose de 100 mg/kg/dia; Grupo IV (imunodeprimidos com ciclosporina na dose de 5,0 mg/kg/dia e Grupo V (imunodeprimidos com ciclosporina na dose de 5,0 mg/kg/dia associada a talidomida na dose de 50 mg/kg/dia. Os medicamentos foram administrados através de cateter orogástrico, a partir do dia anterior ao transplante. RESULTADOS: O coração do doador foi implantado no abdome dos receptores. A associação de talidomida e ciclosporina apresentou o menor escore histopatológico de rejeição (p < 0,05. Observou-se que a talidomida empregada isoladamente ou associada à ciclosporina foi efetiva contra a rejeição, aumentando a sobrevida (p < 0,01 de animais submetidos ao transplante cardíaco heterotópico em posição abdominal. CONCLUSÕES: A talidomida empregada isoladamente, ou associada à ciclosporina, pode representar uma opção de imunodepressão em transplantes cardíaco heterotópico experimental de coelho.

  7. Transplante experimental cardíaco heterotópico e cutâneo em camundongos Experimental heterotopic cardiac and cutaneous transplantation in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Sestrheim

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estudo experimental com o objetivo de desenvolver e avaliar a viabilidade das técnicas de transplante experimental cardíaco heterotópico abdominal vascularizado e cutâneo em camundongos, criando um instrumento para investigação da eficácia de soluções de preservação, novas drogas imunossupressoras, agentes biológicos, terapia gênica e indução de tolerância imunológica. MÉTODO: Para este estudo, as técnicas utilizadas foram descritas previamente por Corry et al. e Billingham et al. RESULTADOS: O tempo cirúrgico total para a realização dos transplantes cardíacos (n=20 foi, em média, 60,3±6,3 minutos e para os transplantes cutâneos (n=20, 17,75±0,71 minutos. A média de sobrevida dos aloenxertos cutâneos (n=34 e cardíacos (n=24 foi, respectivamente, 7 e 11 dias, enquanto que os isoenxertos sobreviveram por mais de 100 dias. CONCLUSÕES: Ambas as técnicas se caracterizaram pela fácil reprodutibilidade dos modelos experimentais. As diferenças entre as técnicas não se limitaram às peculiaridades metodológicas ou ao tempo de sobrevida e vascularização, mas principalmente à sua imunogenicidade e suscetibilidade à rejeição.OBJECTIVE: This is an experimental study which aims at developing and evaluating the feasibility of experimental techniques of vascularized and cutaneous abdominal heterotopic heart transplant in mice, creating an instrument of investigation for the effectiveness of prservation solutions, new immunosuppressive drugs, biological agents, genetic therapy and induction of immunological tolerance. METHOD: The techniques used in this work were previously described by Corry et al. and Billingham et al. RESULTS: The total surgical time to perform the cardiac transplants (n=20 was on average 60.3+6.3 minutes and the time of cutaneous transplants (n= 20 17.75+0.71 minutes. The average survival of the cutaneous allografts (n=34 and cardiac (n=24 allografts was 7 and 11 days, respectively, while

  8. Quantificação de tecido conjuntivo do músculo cardíaco de cães

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hildebrando Gomes Benedicto

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, estudar a proporção de tecido conjuntivo existente na fração ventricular direita e esquerda do músculo cardíaco de cães, buscando, através da morfometria, dados referentes a inter-relação entre o tecido conjuntivo e o tecido muscular cardíaco, para o conhecimento das relações anátomo-funcionais da estrutura cardíaca, característica de determinados processos ligados a diminuição do trabalho do órgão. Utilizou-se 6 corações de cães SRD, machos e fêmeas, com idade entre 48 e 150 meses, pesando entre 18 e 30 Kg, sem alterações cardíacas, confirmado mediante exames eletrocardiográfico e ecocardiográfico. Preparou-se o material oriundo de três regiões ventriculares em relação a sua base, proximal, média e distal, tanto da face direita quanto da esquerda, segundo as técnicas histológicas convencionais e corados com Picrosirius red, Fucsina-Paraldeido e Tricromo de Gomori, para evidenciação das fibras conjuntivas. As lâminas foram analisadas com auxílio do Axioscópio Zeiss acoplado ao programa de análise de imagens KS-400 Zeiss. A quantidade de tecido conjuntivo no Ventrículo Esquerdo variou de 0,44 a 26,26%; no Ventrículo Direito variou de 0,97 a 21,18%; no ápice variou de 1,32 a 29,24% e no septo interventricular variou de 5,41 a 11,24%. Os resultados obtidos mostram que há uma complexa rede de fibras conjuntivas envolvendo as fibras do tecido muscular cardíaco e que sua quantidade e disposição é muito variada, dependendo da região estudada.

  9. Investigating fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma-COPD overlap (ACO): a scoping review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafavi-Pour-Manshadi, Seyed-Mohammad-Yousof; Naderi, Nafiseh; Barrecheguren, Miriam; Dehghan, Abolfazl; Bourbeau, Jean

    2017-12-21

    During the last decade, many articles have been published, including reviews on fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) use and utility in clinical practice and for monitoring and identifying eosinophilic airway inflammation, especially in asthma, and evaluating corticosteroid responsiveness. However, the exact role of FeNO in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and its ability to distinguish patients with COPD and those having concomitant asthma, that is, asthma-COPD overlap (ACO) is still unclear and needs to be defined. Due to the broad topics of FeNO in chronic airway disease, we undertook a scoping review. The present article describes the protocol of a scoping review of peer-reviewed published literature specific to FeNO in COPD/ACO over the last decade. We used Joanna Briggs Institute Reviewers' Manual scoping review methodology as well as Levac et al 's and Arksey et al 's framework as guides. We searched a variety of databases, including Medline, Embase, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and BioSciences Information Service (BIOSIS) on 29 June 2016. Additional studies will be recognised by exploring the reference list of identified eligible studies. Screening of eligible studies will be independently performed by two reviewers and any disagreement will be solved by the third reviewer. We will analyse the gathered data from article bibliographies and abstracts. To investigate the body of published studies regarding the role of FeNO in patients with COPD and its usefulness in the clinical setting, a scoping review can be used as a modern and pioneer model, which does not need ethics approval. By this review, new insights for conducting new research specific to FeNO in COPD/ACO population will emerge. The results of this study will be reported in the scientific meetings and conferences, which aim to provide information to the clinicians, primary care providers and basic

  10. Endovascular repair of an aorto-iliac aneurysm succeeded by kidney transplantation Tratamento endovascular de aneurisma aorto-ilíaco sucedido por transplante renal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Bellini Dalio

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available We present the case of aorto-iliac aneurysm in a patient with chronic renal failure requiring dialysis who were treated with an endovascular stent graft and, later on, submitted to kidney transplantation. A 53-year-old male with renal failure requiring dialysis presented with an asymptomatic abdominal aorto-iliac aneurysm measuring 5.0cm of diameter. He was treated with endovascular repair technique, being used an endoprosthesis Excluder®. After four months, he was successfully submitted to kidney transplantation (dead donor, with anastomosis of the graft renal artery in the external iliac artery distal to the endoprosthesis. The magnetic resonance imaging, carried out 30 days after the procedure, showed a good positioning of the endoprosthesis and adequate perfusion of the renal graft. In the follow-up, the patient presented improvement of nitrogenous waste, good positioning of the endoprosthesis without migration or endoleak. The endovascular repair of aorto-iliac aneurysm in a patient with end-stage renal failure under hemodialysis treatment showed to be feasible, safe and efficient, as it did not prevent the success of the posterior kidney transplantation.Apresentamos o caso de aneurisma aortoilíaco em um paciente com insuficiência renal crônica dialítica tratado com uma endoprótese vascular, sendo, após, submetido a transplante renal. Um homem de 53 anos com insuficiência renal dialítica apresentava um aneurisma abdominal aortoilíaco assintomático com 5,0cm de diâmetro. Foi tratado com técnica endovascular com uma endoprótese Excluderâ. Após quatro meses, foi submetido a transplante renal (doador cadáver com sucesso, com anastomose da artéria renal do enxerto na artéria ilíaca externa distal à endoprótese. A ressonância magnética 30 dias após o procedimento mostrou a endoprótese bem posicionada e o enxerto renal bem perfundido. No seguimento, o paciente evoluiu com melhora das escórias nitrogenadas, bom

  11. Produtos naturais no comportamento defensivo de Apis mellifera L. = Natural products in the defensive behaviour of Apis mellifera L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Leonardo Lomele

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos do estudo foram investigar a influência de produtos naturais como capim-limão (Cymbopogon citratus, folhas de abacateiro (Persea americana, casca de café (Coffea arabica e sementes de mamona (Ricinus communis na defensividade de Apis mellifera, e avaliar o efeito destes produtos no desenvolvimento populacional da colmeia. O comportamento defensivo foi avaliado por meio do tempo da primeira ferroada (TPF, número de ferrões (NFB e, o desenvolvimento populacional, pela área de cria aberta e fechada. Observou-se que o tratamento fumaça + sete sementes de mamona apresentou aumento significativo no TPF, em relação ao tratamento sem e com fumaça de maravalha. Com relação ao NFB, verificou-se que os tratamentos fumaça de maravalha + sete sementes de mamona e fumaça de maravalha + 20% de folhas de café foram diferentes do tratamento sem e com fumaça. Os demais tratamentos não diferiram significativamente em relação ao uso da fumaça ou sua ausência. A casca de café e a semente de mamona nãointerferiram no desenvolvimento populacional, sugerindo que estes compostos não foram tóxicos. Pode-se concluir que o uso de sementes de mamona e casca de café na fumaça pode representar importante ferramenta para a redução da defensividade, sem promover toxicidade para A. mellifera.The goal was to investigate the influence of natural products such as lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus, dried avocado leaves (Persea americana, coffee husk (Coffea arabica and castor bean (Ricinus communis in the defense of Apis mellifera, as well the effect of these products on the population development of the beehive. Defensive behavior was evaluated by time of first sting (TFS and number of stingers (NS, and population development, by open brood area and operculated brood. It was observed that the treatment with smoke + seven castor beans presented significant increase in the TFS, for treatment without and with smoke. Regarding NS, it was verified

  12. Design and Comparison of Cascaded H-Bridge, Modular Multilevel Converter, and 5-L Active Neutral Point Clamped Topologies for Motor Drive Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marzoughi, Alinaghi [Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA (United States). Center for Power Electronics Systems; Burgos, Rolando [Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA (United States). Bradley Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering; Boroyevich, Dushan [Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA (United States). Bradley Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering; Xue, Yaosuo [Siemens Corporate Research, Princeton, NJ (United States). Power Electronics Dept.

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents the design procedure and comparison of converters currently used in medium-voltage high-power motor drive applications. For this purpose, the cascaded H-bridge (CHB), modular multilevel converter (MMC), and five-level active neutral point clamped (5-L ANPC) topologies are targeted. The design is performed using 1.7-kV insulated gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs) for CHB and MMC converters, and utilizing 3.3- and 4.5-kV IGBTs for 5-L ANPC topology as normally done in industry. The comparison is done between the designed converter topologies at three different voltage levels (4.16, 6.9, and 13.8 kV, with only the first two voltage levels in case of the 5-L ANPC) and two different power levels (3 and 5 MVA), in order to elucidate the dependence of different parameters on voltage and power rating. Finally, the comparison is done from several points of view such as efficiency, capacitive energy storage, semiconductor utilization, parts count (for measure of reliability), and power density.

  13. 123. Intervención quirúrgica urgente en paciente varón joven con angiosarcoma primario cardíaco con diagnóstico de tromboembolismo pulmonar agudo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Miranda

    2012-04-01

    Conclusiones: Son infrecuentes los casos de sarcoma cardíaco primario publicados en la bibliografía y muy pocos los que han cursado como tromboembolismo pulmonar agudo. Este caso ilustra la enorme dificultad que presentan para un diagnóstico y tratamiento precoz que ofrezca unas mínimas expectativas de vida a medio plazo.

  14. 360-MAM-Affect: Sentiment Analysis with the Google Prediction API and EmoSenticNet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleanor Mulholland

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Online recommender systems are useful for media asset management where they select the best content from a set of media assets. We have developed an architecture for 360-MAM- Select, a recommender system for educational video content. 360-MAM-Select will utilise sentiment analysis and gamification techniques for the recommendation of media assets. 360-MAM-Select will increase user participation with digital content through improved video recommendations. Here, we discuss the architecture of 360-MAM-Select and the use of the Google Prediction API and EmoSenticNet for 360-MAM-Affect, 360-MAM-Select's sentiment analysis module. Results from testing two models for sentiment analysis, Sentiment Classifier (Google Prediction API and EmoSenticNetClassifer (Google Prediction API + EmoSenticNet are promising. Future work includes the implementation and testing of 360-MAM-Select on video data from YouTube EDU and Head Squeeze.

  15. Reactome Pengine: A web-logic API to the homo sapiens reactome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neaves, Samuel R; Tsoka, Sophia; Millard, Louise A C

    2018-03-30

    Existing ways of accessing data from the Reactome database are limited. Either a researcher is restricted to particular queries defined by a web application programming interface (API), or they have to download the whole database. Reactome Pengine is a web service providing a logic programming based API to the human reactome. This gives researchers greater flexibility in data access than existing APIs, as users can send their own small programs (alongside queries) to Reactome Pengine. The server and an example notebook can be found at https://apps.nms.kcl.ac.uk/reactome-pengine. Source code is available at https://github.com/samwalrus/reactome-pengine and a Docker image is available at https://hub.docker.com/r/samneaves/rp4/ . samuel.neaves@kcl.ac.uk. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  16. Using the RxNorm web services API for quality assurance purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Lee; Bodenreider, Olivier

    2008-11-06

    Auditing large, rapidly evolving terminological systems is still a challenge. In the case of RxNorm, a standardized nomenclature for clinical drugs, we argue that quality assurance processes can benefit from the recently released application programming interface (API) provided by RxNav. We demonstrate the usefulness of the API by performing a systematic comparison of alternative paths in the RxNorm graph, over several thousands of drug entities. This study revealed potential errors in RxNorm, currently under review. The results also prompted us to modify the implementation of RxNav to navigate the RxNorm graph more accurately. The RxNav web services API used in this experiment is robust and fast.

  17. Polymorphic DNA sequences of the fungal honey bee pathogen Ascosphaera apis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Annette B; Welker, Dennis L; Kryger, Per

    2012-01-01

    The pathogenic fungus Ascosphaera apis is ubiquitous in honey bee populations. We used the draft genome assembly of this pathogen to search for polymorphic intergenic loci that could be used to differentiate haplotypes. Primers were developed for five such loci, and the species specificities were...... verified using DNA from nine closely related species. The sequence variation was compared among 12 A. apis isolates at each of these loci, and two additional loci, the internal transcribed spacer of the ribosomal RNA (ITS) and a variable part of the elongation factor 1α (Ef1α). The degree of variation...... was then compared among the different loci, and three were found to have the greatest detection power for identifying A. apis haplotypes. The described loci can help to resolve strain differences and population genetic structures, to elucidate host–pathogen interaction and to test evolutionary hypotheses...

  18. MicroRNA-1 promotes apoptosis of hepatocarcinoma cells by targeting apoptosis inhibitor-5 (API-5).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dong; Liu, Yu; Li, Hua; Peng, Jing-Jing; Tan, Yan; Zou, Qiang; Song, Xiao-Feng; Du, Min; Yang, Zheng-Hui; Tan, Yong; Zhou, Jin-Jun; Xu, Tao; Fu, Zeng-Qiang; Feng, Jian-Qiong; Cheng, Peng; chen, Tao; Wei, Dong; Su, Xiao-Mei; Liu, Huan-Yi; Qi, Zhong-Chun; Tang, Li-Jun; Wang, Tao; Guo, Xin; Hu, Yong-He; Zhang, Tao

    2015-01-02

    Although microRNA-1 (miR-1) is a known liver cancer suppressor, the role of miR-1 in apoptosis of hepatoma cells has remained largely unknown. Our study shows that ectopic miR-1 overexpression induced apoptosis of liver hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells. Apoptosis inhibitor 5 (API-5) was found to be a potential regulator of miR-1 induced apoptosis, using a bioinformatics approach. Furthermore, an inverse relationship between miR-1 and API-5 expression was observed in human liver cancer tissues and adjacent normal liver tissues. Negative regulation of API-5 expression by miR-1 was demonstrated to promote apoptosis of HepG2 cells. Our study provides a novel regulatory mechanism of miR-1 in the apoptosis of hepatoma cells. Copyright © 2014 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. An API for Integrating Spatial Context Models with Spatial Reasoning Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Mikkel Baun

    2006-01-01

    The integration of context-aware applications with spatial context models is often done using a common query language. However, algorithms that estimate and reason about spatial context information can benefit from a tighter integration. An object-oriented API makes such integration possible...... and can help reduce the complexity of algorithms making them easier to maintain and develop. This paper propose an object-oriented API for context models of the physical environment and extensions to a location modeling approach called geometric space trees for it to provide adequate support for location...... modeling. The utility of the API is evaluated in several real-world cases from an indoor location system, and spans several types of spatial reasoning algorithms....

  20. Studi Eksperimen Distribusi Temperatur Nyala Api Kompor Bioetanol Tipe Side Burner dengan Variasi Diameter Firewall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.R. Vienna Sona Saputri Soetadi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Untuk mendapatkan kompor bioetanol efisiensi thermal maksimal diperlukan penelitian komprehensif. Salah satunya adalah penelitian terhadap posisi peletakkan beban pada kompor bioetanol kompak. Pengujian dilakukan pada kompor uji bioetanol dengan kadar 99%, yaitu kompor bioetanol tipe side burner dengan firewall 2.5 inci dan firewall 3 inci. Pengukuran temperatur api dengan 13 thermocouple K dengan pengukuran searah api keatas setiap 5 mm-an. Kemudian, water boiling test dilakukan untuk mendapatkan daya dan beban dan dilanjutkan mengukur waktu pendidihan air. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan gambaran total distribusi temperatur nyala api difusi. Hasil menunjukkan untuk kompor 2.5 inci dengan daya 1.6 kW mempunyai temperatur 542 ºC dengan jarak ketinggian 5 mm dari rim kompor sedangkan kompor 3 inci menghasilkan daya 2.38 kW dengan temperatur 516 ºC.