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Sample records for aconitum

  1. [Fatal exposure to Aconitum napellus].

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    German Jørgensen, Jørgen Rahr; Andersen, Anne Elsborg

    2013-06-10

    Fatal exposure to poisonous plants in northern Europe is a rare condition. In this case report we describe an intended poisoning with Aconitum napellus (monkshood), which contains the toxin aconitine. The lethal dose in adults is 3-6 mg. The toxin affects excitable cells such as neurons and myocytes causing degrees of unconsciousness, hypotension and cardiac arrhythmias. There is no antidote and treatment is symptomatic. We describe a patient who had eaten monkshood. She was treated with infusion of lidocaine and survived. After 24 hours of treatment and monitoring she was discharged from the intensive care unit.

  2. [Intoxication with Monkshood (Aconitum napellus)].

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    Tuinema, Rinske M; Uijlings, Ruben; Dijkman, Marieke A; van den Broek, Marcel P H; de Lange, Dylan W

    2009-01-01

    Three patients presented with an intoxication caused by Aconitum napellus, commonly known as Aconite, Monkshood or Wolfsbane. The first patient, a woman aged 24, was resuscitated after accidental ingestion of plant material 'from nature'. She experienced severe ventricular tachyarrhythmias. After discharge she returned with identical symptoms, which were now interpreted as intentional intoxication in a suicide attempt. She was referred to the Psychiatry department. The second patient was a 2-year-old boy who had cutaneous exposure to Aconite. Except for some red spots around his mouth there were no other symptoms. The third patient was a 34-year-old woman who ate Monkshood, which she mistook for parsley. Alarmed by the bitter taste she contacted the hospital. She was treated with stomach lavage which removed most of the ingested plant material, and with activated charcoal. She had no symptoms during observation in the hospital. Aconite alkaloids are known to cause ventricular arrhythmia by a prolonged activation of sodium channels. Because there is no antidote, treatment is largely supportive but serious arrhythmias and respiratory arrest need to be anticipated.

  3. Clinical and therapeutic potential of Aconitum heterophyllum

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    Sadia Khurshid

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aconitum heterophyllum is a plant that has very important medicinal value. Lots of phytochemical constituents (metabolites are extracted from this plant, especially diterpene alkaloids which are the main compounds having pharmacological activities such as analgesic and anti-inflammatory. Study of the structures of these compounds was done by the technique of nuclear magnetic resonance.

  4. Morpho-phenological and Antibacterial Characteristics of Aconitum spp.

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    Yoirentomba Meetei SINAM

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Aconitum species have been traditionally used as ethnomedicine to cure various ailments. The present study reveals the morpho-phenology and antibacterial property of alkaloid extracts of the two Aconitum species. The morpho-phenological characteristics will be helpful for determining the resource availability. Aconitum nagarum is erect type, whereas, Aconitum elwesii is a climber. Aconitum elwesii grows in advance of A. nagarum in terms of growth, flowering and senescence. Towards the end of the year, when the fruits have ripened, the parent tuber dies off. As a result, the daughter tuber becomes independent and in the following spring, takes over the function of the parent tuber. Aconitum nagarum and A. elwesii were found to contain 4-5 aconitine equivalent (AE mg/g of alkaloid. These alkaloids showed antibacterial activity against different bacterial species including human pathogens, namely, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhimurium, Bordetella bronchiseptica, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas putida, Pseudomonas fluorescence and Xanthomonas campestris. However, the extent of antibacterial activity varied among different bacterial species. The antibacterial activity against S. aureus, B. bronchiseptica, and B. subtilis was bactericidal in nature, whereas, against other tested bacterial species was bacteriostatic. Efficacy of the antibacterial activity of these alkaloids was evaluated by comparing with that of standard antibiotics. Differential localization of the antibacterial principle was observed among the Aconitum species studied.

  5. Flavonoids from Aconitum napellus subsp. neomontanum.

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    Fico, G; Braca, A; De Tommasi, N; Tomè, F; Morelli, I

    2001-06-01

    Three flavonol glycosides quercetin 7-O-(6-trans-caffeoyl)-beta-glucopyranosyl-(1-->3)-alpha-rhamnopyranoside-3-O-beta-glucopyranoside (1), kaempferol 7-O-(6-trans-caffeoyl)-beta-glucopyranosyl-(1-->3)-alpha-rhamnopyranoside-3-O-beta-glucopyranoside (2), and kaempferol 7-O-(6-trans-p-coumaroyl)-beta-glucopyranosyl-(1-->3)-alpha-rhamnopyranoside-3-O-beta-glucopyranoside (3), together with the known beta-3,4-dihydroxyphenethyl beta-glucopyranoside, were isolated from the flowers of Aconitum napellus subsp. neomontanum. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods, including 2D NMR spectral techniques.

  6. Norditerpenoid Alkaloids from Aconitum spicatum Stapf

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    To search for pharmacologically and structurally interesting substances from traditional Chinese medicines,we investigated the chemical compounds of Aconitum spicatum Stapf. Two new norditerpenoid alkaloids,namely spicatine A (compound 1) and spicatine B (compound 2), as well as 11 known norditerpenoid alkaloids were isolated from the CHCl3 portion of the 90% ethanol extract of the roots of A. spicatum. The structures of the alkaloids were characterized on the basis of their spectral data, One of the isolated compounds showed significant cytotoxic activities (IC50 values < 200 μmol/L) against the HL-60 cell line.

  7. Alkaloids with antioxidant activities from Aconitum handelianum.

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    Yin, Tian-Peng; Cai, Le; Xing, Yun; Yu, Jing; Li, Xue-Jiao; Mei, Rui-Feng; Ding, Zhong-Tao

    2016-06-01

    A new C20-diterpenoid alkaloid handelidine (1) and twenty-seven known alkaloids (2-28) were isolated from the roots of Aconitum handelianum. Their structures were established on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analyses. The study indicated that denudatine-type C20-diterpenoid alkaloids with vicinal-triol system and benzyltetrahydroisoquinoline alkaloids exhibited significant antioxidant activities measured by three antioxidant test systems. The aconitine-type C19-diterpenoid alkaloids could serve as potential secondary antioxidants for their strong binding effects to metal ions.

  8. [Study on the application of Aconitum in clinical orthopedics].

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    Jin, Hong-Ting; Shen, Yan; Xiao, Lu-Wei; Tong, Pei-Jian

    2008-12-01

    Aconitum is important in clinical orthopedics. From ancient times to the present day,there were many famous doctors who used this herb to cure many diseases in orthopedics. However, the toxicity always connect with its effect. This will limit its application in clinics. So now the important thing is how to use this herb correctly. This article will give some suggestions about how to use aconitum in orthopedics and to make sure it can be used correctly in future. It has four parts: application in orthopedics, pharmacology, factors related to toxicity and the prospect of the use of aconitum.

  9. NEW NORDITERPENOID ALKALOIDS FROM THE ROOTS OF ACONITUM GENICULATUM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG-BANG LI; LIANG XU; XI-XIAN JIAN; FENG-PENG WANG

    2001-01-01

    Four new norditerpenoid alkaloids, geniculatines A (1), B (4), C (7) and D (8), were isolated from the roots of Aconitum geniculatum Fletcher, and their structures were elucidated by spectral methods.

  10. Study on Metabolites of Aconitum Alkaloids in Human Urine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Ying; ZHANG Hong-gui; ZHONG Da-fang; ZHANG Han-qi

    2003-01-01

    @@ The aconite belongs to plants of genus Aconitum in family of Ranunculacea and have notable clinical functions intreating rheumatic arthritis, heart failure, etc. However, accidents of aconitine(from aconite) poisoning frequently occurto many people taking these herbs.

  11. Two major groups of chloroplast DNA haplotypes in diploid and tetraploid Aconitum subgen. Aconitum (Ranunculaceae in the Carpathians

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    J. Mitka

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aconitum in Europe is represented by ca. 10% of the total number of species and the Carpathian Mts. are the center of the genus variability in the subcontinent. We studied the chloroplast DNA intergenic spacer trnL(UAG-rpl32- ndhF (cpDNA variability of the Aconitum subgen. Aconitum in the Carpathians: diploids (2n=16, sect. Cammarum, tetraploids (2n=32, sect. Aconitum and triploids (2n=24, nothosect. Acomarum. Altogether 25 Aconitum accessions representing the whole taxonomic variability of the subgenus were sequenced and subjected to phylogenetic analyses. Both parsimony, Bayesian and character network analyses showed the two distinct types of the cpDNA chloroplast, one typical of the diploid and the second of the tetraploid groups. Some specimens had identical cpDNA sequences (haplotypes and scattered across the whole mountain arch. In the sect. Aconitum 9 specimens shared one haplotype, while in the sect. Camarum one haplotype represents 4 accessions and the second – 5 accessions. The diploids and tetraploids were diverged by 6 mutations, while the intrasectional variability amounted maximally to 3 polymorphisms. Taking into consideration different types of cpDNA haplotypes and ecological profiles of the sections (tetraploids – high‑mountain species, diploids – species from forest montane belt we speculate on the different and independent history of the sections in the Carpathians.

  12. [Long QRS tachycardia secondary to Aconitum napellus alkaloid ingestion].

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    Gaibazzi, Nicola; Gelmini, Gian Paolo; Montresor, Graziano; Canel, Daniela; Comini, Teresa; Fracalossi, Claudio; Martinetti, Claudio; Poeta, Maria Luisa; Ziacchi, Vigilio

    2002-08-01

    The roots and seeds of the aconite (Aconitum napellus) contain alkaloids with modulatory activity on the sodium voltage-dependent channels; most fatal cases have been determined by ventricular tachycardia and respiratory paralysis. The only established treatment is supportive. We report a case of poisoning from Aconitum napellus, ingested by a husband and wife who thought the plant was "mountain chicory". They both had tachyarrhythmias, but the husband had more malignant episodes of hemodynamically unstable wide QRS tachycardia and respiratory paralysis requiring mechanical ventilation.

  13. Two New Norditerpenoid Alkaloids from Aconitum spicatum Stapf

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Ming GAO; Xiao Mei WEI; Li YANG

    2005-01-01

    Two new norditerpenoid alkaloids, spicatine A (1) and spicatine B (2) were isolated from the root of Aconitum spicatum. The new compounds were deduced on the basis of their spectral data (IR, HREIMS, EIMS, 1D, 2D-NMR). This is the first whole report on the isolation of diterpenoid alkaloids from the A. spicatum Stapf.

  14. Use, history, and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry chemical analysis of Aconitum

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    Mohamed El-Shazly

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aconitum and its products have been used in Asia for centuries to treat various ailments, including arthritis, gout, cancer, and inflammation. In general, their preparations and dispensing have been restricted to qualified folk medicine healers due to their low safety index and reported toxicity. In the past few decades, official guidelines have been introduced in Asian pharmacopeias to control Aconitum herbal products. However, these guidelines were based on primitive analytical techniques for the determination of the whole Aconitum alkaloids and were unable to distinguish between toxic and nontoxic components. Recent advances in analytical techniques, especially high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and electrophoresis coupled with highly sensitive detectors, allowed rapid and accurate determination of Aconitum secondary metabolites. Reports focusing on liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis of Aconitum and its herbal products are discussed in the current review. This review can be used by the health regulatory authorities for updating pharmacopeial guidelines of Aconitum and its herbal products.

  15. Identification of the medicinal plants in Aconitum L. by DNA barcoding technique.

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    He, Jun; Wong, Ka-Lok; Shaw, Pang-Chui; Wang, Hong; Li, De-Zhu

    2010-10-01

    Plants of the genus Aconitum L. are commonly used in Asia for medicinal purposes. Although they are widely cultivated and marketed, there has been uncertainty about the efficacy of different species, and therefore accurate identification is crucial. To determine the genetic variation among these medicinal plants, the proposed DNA barcode PSBA- TRNH intergenic spacer of 134 individuals from 19 taxa of ACONITUM were sequenced. Among the two most commonly used medicinal ACONITUM species, A. carmichaeli and A. kusnezoffii, sequence inversions were observed. The studied samples were clustered into ten groups according to the sequence alignment and most of the tested Aconitum species could be differentiated by the PSBA -TRNH intergenic spacer.

  16. Establishment of a bioassay for the toxicity evaluation and quality control of Aconitum herbs

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    Qin, Yi [Integrative Medicine Center, 302 Military Hospital, Beijing 100039 (China); Faculty of Life Science and Technology, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650500 (China); Wang, Jia-bo, E-mail: pharm_sci@126.com [China Military Institute of Chinese Materia Medica, 302 Military Hospital, Beijing 100039 (China); Zhao, Yan-ling; Shan, Li-mei [Integrative Medicine Center, 302 Military Hospital, Beijing 100039 (China); Li, Bao-cai [Faculty of Life Science and Technology, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650500 (China); Fang, Fang; Jin, Cheng [Integrative Medicine Center, 302 Military Hospital, Beijing 100039 (China); Xiao, Xiao-he, E-mail: pharmacy302@126.com [Integrative Medicine Center, 302 Military Hospital, Beijing 100039 (China)

    2012-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A new bioassay was optimized to evaluate the toxicity of Aconitum herbs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Characterizing total toxicity is its unique advantage over chemical analysis methods. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The application of this bioassay promotes the safe use of Aconitum herbs in clinic. - Abstract: Currently, no bioassay is available for evaluating the toxicity of Aconitum herbs, which are well known for their lethal cardiotoxicity and neurotoxicity. In this study, we established a bioassay to evaluate the toxicity of Aconitum herbs. Test sample and standard solutions were administered to rats by intravenous infusion to determine their minimum lethal doses (MLD). Toxic potency was calculated by comparing the MLD. The experimental conditions of the method were optimized and standardized to ensure the precision and reliability of the bioassay. The application of the standardized bioassay was then tested by analyzing 18 samples of Aconitum herbs. Additionally, three major toxic alkaloids (aconitine, mesaconitine, and hypaconitine) in Aconitum herbs were analyzed using a liquid chromatographic method, which is the current method of choice for evaluating the toxicity of Aconitum herbs. We found that for all Aconitum herbs, the total toxicity of the extract was greater than the toxicity of the three alkaloids. Therefore, these three alkaloids failed to account for the total toxicity of Aconitum herbs. Compared with individual chemical analysis methods, the chief advantage of the bioassay is that it characterizes the total toxicity of Aconitum herbs. An incorrect toxicity evaluation caused by quantitative analysis of the three alkaloids might be effectively avoided by performing this bioassay. This study revealed that the bioassay is a powerful method for the safety assessment of Aconitum herbs.

  17. Some notes on the genus Aconitum in Chornohora Mts.

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    Andrew V. Novikoff

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper is a contribution to ecology and chorology of Aconitum in high-mountain zone of the Ukrainian Carpathians. It was confirmed that genus Aconitum in the Chornogora mountain range is represented by 14 taxa, and 7 more taxa were listed as potential for this region. These taxa belong to 3 subgenera and are divided on 4 main biomorphological groups delimited on the base of their habitat, life form, ecology and altitudinal distribution. The soil and vegetation types for all taxa have been identified and the maps of their distribution have been prepared. The most influent threats and their categories were identified. Threat category for A. × nanum was changed from DD to VU, and for A. firmum subsp. fussianum from NT to VU.

  18. Microcalorimetry studies of the antimicrobial actions of Aconitum alkaloids.

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    Shi, Yan-bin; Liu, Lian; Shao, Wei; Wei, Ting; Lin, Gui-mei

    2015-08-01

    The metabolic activity of organisms can be measured by recording the heat output using microcalorimetry. In this paper, the total alkaloids in the traditional Chinese medicine Radix Aconiti Lateralis were extracted and applied to Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The effect of alkaloids on bacteria growth was studied by microcalorimetry. The power-time curves were plotted with a thermal activity monitor (TAM) air isothermal microcalorimeter and parameters such as growth rate constant (μ), peak-time (Tm), inhibitory ratio (I), and enhancement ratio (E) were calculated. The relationships between the concentration of Aconitum alkaloids and μ of E. coli or S. aureus were discussed. The results showed that Aconitum alkaloids had little effect on E. coli and had a potentially inhibitory effect on the growth of S. aureus.

  19. Circadian aspects of hyperthermia in mice induced by Aconitum napellus

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    Salvador Sánchez de la Peña; Sothern, Robert B; Fernando Santillán López; Irene Mendoza Lujambio; José Waizel-Bucay; Carolina Olarte Sánchez; Claudia Pérez Monroy; Eduardo Tena Betancourt

    2011-01-01

    Background: Aconitum napellus (Acn) is used topically to relieve pain, itching and inflammation, and internally to reduce febrile states, among others. Any circadian time-related consequences of Acn administration are unknown. The objective of this study was to explore the effects of two doses of Acn on body temperature (BT) of mice treated at six different times over 24 hours. Materials and Methods: BALB/c female mice were housed in six chambers (six mice each) with air temperature 24 ± 3°C,...

  20. Evaluation of Aconitum diterpenoid alkaloids as antiproliferative agents.

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    Wada, Koji; Ohkoshi, Emika; Zhao, Yu; Goto, Masuo; Morris-Natschke, Susan L; Lee, Kuo-Hsiung

    2015-04-01

    Little information has been reported on the antitumor effects of the diterpenoid alkaloid constituents of Aconitum plants, used in the herbal drug 'bushi'. This study was aimed at determining the antitumor activities of Aconitum C19-and C20-diterpenoid alkaloids and synthetic derivatives against lung (A549), prostate (DU145), nasopharyngeal (KB), and vincristine-resistant nasopharyngeal (KB-VIN) cancer cell lines. Newly synthesized C20-diterpenoid alkaloid derivatives showed substantial suppressive effects against all human tumor cell lines tested. In contrast, natural and derivatized C19-diterpenoid alkaloids showed only a slight or no effect. Most of the active compounds were hetisine-type C20-diterpenoid alkaloids, specifically kobusine and pseudokobusine analogs with two different substitution patterns, C-11 and C-11,15. Notably, several C20-diterpenoid alkaloids were more potent against multidrug-resistant KB subline KB-VIN cells. Pseudokobusine 11-3'-trifluoromethylbenzoate (94) is a possible promising new lead meriting additional evaluation against multidrug-resistant tumors.

  1. Identification of diterpene alkaloids from Aconitum napellus subsp. firmum and GIRK channel activities of some Aconitum alkaloids.

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    Kiss, Tivadar; Orvos, Péter; Bánsághi, Száva; Forgo, Peter; Jedlinszki, Nikoletta; Tálosi, László; Hohmann, Judit; Csupor, Dezső

    2013-10-01

    Diterpene alkaloids neoline (1), napelline (2), isotalatizidine (3), karakoline (4), senbusine A (5), senbusine C (6), aconitine (7) and taurenine (8) were identified from Aconitum napellus L. subsp. firmum, four (2-4, 6) of which are reported for the first time from this plant. The structures were determined by means of LC-MS, 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy, including (1)H-(1)H COSY, NOESY, HSQC and HMBC experiments. Electrophysiological effects of the isolated compounds, together with nine diterpene alkaloids previously obtained from Aconitum toxicum and Consolida orientalis were investigated on stable transfected HEK-hERG (Kv11.1) and HEK-GIRK1/4 (Kir3.1 and Kir3.4) cell lines using automated patch clamp equipment. Significant blocking activity on GIRK channel was exerted by aconitine (7) (45% at 10 μM), but no blocking activities of the other investigated compounds were detected. The tested compounds were inactive on hERG channel in the tested concentration. The comparison of the previously reported metabolites of A. napellus subsp. firmum and compounds identified in our experiment reveals substantial variability of the alkaloid profile of this taxon.

  2. Seed morphology of Iberian Species of the genus Aconitum L.

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    Molero i Briones, Julià; Puig, Ma. Antonieta

    1990-01-01

    Es presenta un estudi morfològic-biomètric de les granes deis taxons del genere Aconitum L. presents a la Península Ibérica. Es tracten aspectes que fan referencia a: 1) disposició de les granes al fol-licle, 2) definido de paramètres (forma general i ornamentado de l'episperma), 3) biometria i 4) descripció de les granes deis représentants ibérics. Els microcaràcters relacionats fonamentalment amb el relleu epispérmic, forma i ornamentado de la base d'inserció (hílum i cél-lules umbil-licals...

  3. 3-Deoxyaconitine from the root of Aconitum Carmichaeli Debx.

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    Feng Gao

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The title compound (systematic name: 8β-acetoxy-14α-benzoyloxy-N-ethyl-13β,15α-dihydroxy-1α,6α,16β-trimethoxy-4β-methoxymethyleneaconitane, C34H47NO10, is a typical aconitine-type C19-diterpenoid alkaloid, and was isolated from the roots of the Aconitum carmichaeli Debx. The molecule has an aconitine carbon skeleton with four six-membered rings and two five-membered rings, whose geometry is similar to these observed in other C19-diterpenoid alkaloids; both of five-membered rings have the envelope configurations and the six-membered N-containing heterocyclic ring displays a chair conformation. Intramolecular O—H...O hydrogen bonding occurs. Weak intermolecular C—H...O hydrogen bonding is observed in the crystal structure.

  4. Quantification of Aconitum alkaloids in aconite roots by a modified RP-HPLC method.

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    Jiang, Zhi-Hong; Xie, Ying; Zhou, Hua; Wang, Jing-Rong; Liu, Zhong-Qiu; Wong, Yuen-Fan; Cai, Xiong; Xu, Hong-Xi; Liu, Liang

    2005-01-01

    The three Aconitum alkaloids, aconitine (1), mesaconitine (2) and hypaconitine (3), are pharmacologically active but also highly toxic. A standardised method is needed for assessing the levels of these alkaloids in aconite roots in order to ensure the safe use of these plant materials as medicinal herbs. By optimising extraction, separation and measurement conditions, a reliable, reproducible and accurate method for the quantitative determination of all three Aconitum alkaloids in unprocessed and processed aconite roots has been developed. This method should be appropriate for use in the quality control of Aconitum products. The three Aconitum alkaloids were separated by a modified HPLC method employing a C18 column gradient eluted with acetonitrile and ammonium bicarbonate buffer. Quantification of Aconitum alkaloids, detected at 240 nm, in different batches of samples showed that the content of 1, 2 and 3 varied significantly. In general, the alkaloid content of unprocessed roots was higher than that of processed roots. These variations were considered to be the result of differences in species, processing methods and places of origin of the samples.

  5. Enrichment and purification of six Aconitum alkaloids from Aconiti kusnezoffii radix by macroporous resins and quantification by HPLC-MS.

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    Liu, Jingjing; Li, Qing; Liu, Ran; Yin, Yidi; Chen, Xiaohui; Bi, Kaishun

    2014-06-01

    Aconitine, mesaconitine, hypaconitine, benzoylaconine, benzoylmesaconine and benzoylhypaconine are six main Aconitum alkaloids from traditional Chinese medicine, Aconiti kusnezoffii radix, which possess highly bioactive as well as highly toxic character for medicinal use. In the present study, for the purpose of better utilizing the toxic herbal material, the performance characteristics of NKA-II, D101, X-5, AB-8, S-8, HPD722 and HPD750 macroporous resins for the enrichment and purification of these six Aconitum alkaloids were critically evaluated. Results showed that NKA-II offered the best adsorption and desorption capacities for six Aconitum alkaloids among the seven macroporous resins tested, which were affected significantly by the pH value. Subsequently, dynamic adsorption and desorption experiments had been carried out with the column packed by NKA-II resin to optimize the separation process of six Aconitum alkaloids. After one run treatment with NKA-II resin, the content of total six Aconitum alkaloids were increased from 5.87% to 60.3%, the recovery was 75.8%. Meanwhile, a validated HPLC-MS method had been developed to qualitative and quantitative these six Aconitum alkaloids. This method would provide scientific references to the large-scale production of six Aconitum alkaloids from Aconiti kusnezoffii radix or other plants and might also expand the secure application of these highly toxic components for pharmacy.

  6. A study of the diterpene alkaloids of Aconitum napellus ssp. neomontanum during its onthogenetic cycle.

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    Colombo, M L; Bravin, M; Tome, F

    1988-12-01

    Qualitative and quantitative variations in the diterpene alkaloids content in the neomontanum subspecies of Aconitum napellus, growing near lake of Como, were studied throughout its complete onthogenetic cycle. Aconitine, N-deethylaconitine and two compounds with m.w. = 688 and m.w. = 629 have been detected in the various organs of plant almost at any time during the vegetative cycle.

  7. Norditerpenoid Alkaloids from the Roots of Aconitum hemsleyanum Pritz.var.Pengzhouense

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ChongShengPENG; FengPengWANG; 等

    2002-01-01

    In continuation of our studies on Aconitum hemsleyanum Pritz.var. pengzhouense, two new norditerpenoid alkaloids, pengshenines A(1) and B(2),have isolated from the roots of the plants and their strucures were elucidated by 1D-and 2D-NMR.

  8. Two new C19-diterpenoid alkaloids from roots Aconitum hemsleyanium var. atropurpureum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pei Tang; Dong Lin Chen; Xi Xian Jian; Feng Peng Wang

    2007-01-01

    A new franchetine-type C19-diterpenoid alkaloid 3-hydroxyfranchetine 1 and a new aconitine-type C19-diterpenoid alkaloid atropurpursine 2 have been isolated from the roots of Aconitum hemsleyanium var.atropurpureum.The structures of these new alkaloids were established on the basis of spectral data.

  9. Aconitum sp. alkaloids: The modulation of voltage-dependent Na+channels, toxicity and antinociceptive properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Friese, Jutta; Gleitz, Johannes; Gutser, Ulrike T.; Heubach, Jürgen F.; Matthiesen, Theo; Wilffert, Bob; Selve, Norma

    1997-01-01

    Alkaloids from Aconitum sp., used as analgesics in traditional Chinese medicine, were investigated to elucidate their antinociceptive and toxic properties considering: (1) binding to Na+channel epitope site 2, (2) alterations in synaptosoml Na+and Ca2+concentration ([Na+](i), [Ca2+](i)), (3) arrhyth

  10. Circadian aspects of hyperthermia in mice induced by Aconitum napellus

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    Salvador Sánchez de la Peña

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aconitum napellus (Acn is used topically to relieve pain, itching and inflammation, and internally to reduce febrile states, among others. Any circadian time-related consequences of Acn administration are unknown. The objective of this study was to explore the effects of two doses of Acn on body temperature (BT of mice treated at six different times over 24 hours. Materials and Methods: BALB/c female mice were housed in six chambers (six mice each with air temperature 24 ± 3°C, humidity 60 ± 4%, and a 12-hours light (L/12-hours dark cycle, but with L-onset staggered by 4 hours between chambers so that study at one external test time resulted in six test times (02, 06, 10, 14, 18 and 22 hours [h] after light onset. Rectal temperature (RT; in °C was measured at baseline (B and 1 hour after oral treatment with placebo (P or two doses of Acn (6C and 30C, two studies each in six studies over an 8 day span. The difference in RT for each mouse from the respective B + P timepoint mean RT was computed following each Acn treatment, and data from each of the six studies (original RT and difference from B + P were analyzed for time-effect by analysis of variance (ANOVA and for circadian rhythm by 24-hour cosine fitting. Results: A circadian rhythm in RT was found at B and after P (mean: 35.58°C vs. 35.69°C; peak: 15:31 h vs. 15:40 h and after each Acn dose (30C or 6C. Acn induced hyperthermia and the overall change in BT was rhythmically significant for each dose (mean = +1.95°C vs. +1.70°C, with greatest hyperthermia observed during the L-span for each dose (peak = 08:56 h vs. 05:17 h. Conclusion: Acn administered around the clock induced hyperthermia overall and in a time-dependent manner, with greatest effects during the resting (L span. Thus, time of day may significantly impact the outcome of Acn and other homeopathic treatments and should be considered in determining optimal dosing and treatment time(s in order to increase the

  11. Circadian aspects of hyperthermia in mice induced by Aconitum napellus

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    de la Peña, Salvador Sánchez; Sothern, Robert B.; López, Fernando Santillán; Lujambio, Irene Mendoza; Waizel-Bucay, José; Sánchez, Carolina Olarte; Monroy, Claudia Pérez; Betancourt, Eduardo Tena

    2011-01-01

    Background: Aconitum napellus (Acn) is used topically to relieve pain, itching and inflammation, and internally to reduce febrile states, among others. Any circadian time-related consequences of Acn administration are unknown. The objective of this study was to explore the effects of two doses of Acn on body temperature (BT) of mice treated at six different times over 24 hours. Materials and Methods: BALB/c female mice were housed in six chambers (six mice each) with air temperature 24 ± 3°C, humidity 60 ± 4%, and a 12-hours light (L)/12-hours dark cycle, but with L-onset staggered by 4 hours between chambers so that study at one external test time resulted in six test times (02, 06, 10, 14, 18 and 22 hours [h] after light onset). Rectal temperature (RT; in °C) was measured at baseline (B) and 1 hour after oral treatment with placebo (P) or two doses of Acn (6C and 30C, two studies each) in six studies over an 8 day span. The difference in RT for each mouse from the respective B + P timepoint mean RT was computed following each Acn treatment, and data from each of the six studies (original RT and difference from B + P) were analyzed for time-effect by analysis of variance (ANOVA) and for circadian rhythm by 24-hour cosine fitting. Results: A circadian rhythm in RT was found at B and after P (mean: 35.58°C vs. 35.69°C; peak: 15:31 h vs. 15:40 h) and after each Acn dose (30C or 6C). Acn induced hyperthermia and the overall change in BT was rhythmically significant for each dose (mean = +1.95°C vs. +1.70°C), with greatest hyperthermia observed during the L-span for each dose (peak = 08:56 h vs. 05:17 h). Conclusion: Acn administered around the clock induced hyperthermia overall and in a time-dependent manner, with greatest effects during the resting (L) span. Thus, time of day may significantly impact the outcome of Acn and other homeopathic treatments and should be considered in determining optimal dosing and treatment time(s) in order to increase the desired

  12. Salade malade: malignant ventricular arrhythmias due to an accidental intoxication with Aconitum napellus

    OpenAIRE

    Weijters, B.J.; Verbunt, R.J.A.M.; Hoogsteen, J.; Visser, R.F.

    2008-01-01

    Intoxication with Aconitum napellus is rare in our regions. Aconite alkaloids can cause ventricular arrhythmia by a prolonged activation of sodium channels. Because the margin of safety is low between the analgesic and toxic dose, intoxication is not rare when Aconite is used in herbal medicine. We present a case in which a 39-year-old male was accidentally intoxicated with Aconite. Even though no antidote or adequate therapy is available he was successfully resuscitated. (Neth Heart J 2008;1...

  13. Assessment of homeopathic medicine Aconitum napellus in the treatment of anxiety in an animal model

    OpenAIRE

    Andersom Ricardo Fréz; Sâmia Ahmad El Ghandour; Samarah Hamidi El Ghandour; Gabriele Baptista Haine

    2012-01-01

    Background: Aconitum napellus is a classic resource of complementary medicine for the treatment of patients exhibiting neurological symptoms of anxiety. Aim: To assess the action of homeopathic medicine Acon in the treatment of generalized anxiety in an experimental model using rats. Methods: 48 adult (two to three months old) male Wistar rats (Rattus rattus) were randomly divided in six groups (n= 8/treatment) and given the following treatments by gastric tube along 10 days: 1) control (diaz...

  14. Severe acute poisoning with homemade Aconitum napellus capsules: toxicokinetic and clinical data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritz, Fabienne; Compagnon, Patricia; Kaliszczak, Isabelle Guery; Kaliszczak, Yann; Caliskan, Valérie; Girault, Christophe

    2005-01-01

    Aconitum napellus is an extremely dangerous plant that contains various toxic diterpenoid alkaloids, mainly aconitine primarily concentrated in the roots. We report a case of acute intoxication of a 21-year-old man admitted to our Emergency Department after the ingestion, in order to sleep, of three homemade Aconitum napellus capsules. Capsules were measured to contain 237 mg of root and 19 microg of aconitine. The patient experienced the first symptoms on wakening 5 hours later with generalized paresthesia, nausea, diarrhea, vertigo, thoracic pain dyspnea, and dyschromatopsia. At admission, 7 hours after intake electrocardiographic analysis showed a sinusal bradycardia with polymorphic and bigeminal ventricular extrasystolia. Cardiovascular and neurological symptoms disappeared, respectively within 11 and 13 hours of ingestion. The patient was discharged from the ICU on day 2. Plasmatic concentrations at H7, H9, H14 H19, and after ingestion were, respectively, of 1.75, 0.75, 0.35, and 0.02 ng/mL. The calculated half-life of aconitine was 3 hours. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case with an aconitine toxicokinetic-effect relationship. The authors stress that clinicians must be aware of possible occurrence of acute poisoning with Aconitum napellus in European countries and in the United States as herbal medicine is becoming increasingly popular.

  15. Separation and purification of five alkaloids from Aconitum duclouxii by counter-current chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yarong; Cai, Shining; Chen, Yang; Deng, Liang; Zhou, Xumei; Liu, Jia; Xu, Xin; Xia, Qiang; Lin, Mao; Zhang, Jili; Huang, Weili; Wang, Wenjun; Xiang, Canhui; Cui, Guozhen; Du, Lianfeng; He, Huan; Qi, Baohui

    2015-07-01

    C19 -diterpenoid alkaloids are the main components of Aconitum duclouxii Levl. The process of separation and purification of these compounds in previous studies was tedious and time consuming, requiring multiple chromatographic steps, thus resulted in low recovery and high cost. In the present work, five C19 -diterpenoid alkaloids, namely, benzoylaconine (1), N-deethylaconitine (2), aconitine (3), deoxyaconitine (4), and ducloudine A (5), were efficiently prepared from A. duclouxii Levl (Aconitum L.) by ethyl acetate extraction followed with counter-current chromatography. In the process of separation, the critical conditions of counter-current chromatography were optimized. The two-phase solvent system composed of n-hexane/ethyl acetate/methanol/water/NH3 ·H2 O (25%) (1:1:1:1:0.1, v/v) was selected and 148.2 mg of 1, 24.1 mg of 2, 250.6 mg of 3, 73.9 mg of 4, and 31.4 mg of 5 were obtained from 1 g total Aconitum alkaloids extract, respectively, in a single run within 4 h. Their purities were found to be 98.4, 97.2, 98.2, 96.8, and 96.6%, respectively, by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography analysis. The presented separation and purification method was simple, fast, and efficient, and the obtained highly pure alkaloids are suitable for biochemical and toxicological investigation.

  16. [CHROMATOSPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHOD OF QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF LAPPACONITINE IN THE UNDERGROUND PARTS OF ACONITUM ORIENTALE MILL, GROWING IN GEORGIA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kintsurashvili, L

    2016-05-01

    Aconitum orientale Mill (family Helleboraceae) is a perennial herb. It is spread in forests of the west and the east Georgia and in the subalpine zone. The research objects were underground parts of Aconitum orientale Mill, which were picked in the phase of fruiting in Borjomi in 2014. We had received alkaloids sum from the air-dry underground parts (1.5 kg) with chloroform extract which was alkalined by 5% sodium carbonate. We received the alkaloids sum of 16.5 g and determined that predominant is pharmacologically active diterpenic alkaloid - Lappaconitine, which is an acting initial part of the antiarrhythmic drug "Allapinin". The chromatospectrophotometrical method of quantitative analysis of Lappaconitine is elaborated for the detection of productivity of the underground parts of Aconitum orientale Mill. It was determined that maximal absorption wave length in ultra-violet spectrum (λmax) is 308 nm; It is established that relative error is norm (4%) from statical processing of quantitative analysis results. We determined that the content of Lappaconitine in the underground parts of Aconitum orientale Mill is 0.11-0.13% in the phase of fruiting. In consequence of experimental data Aconitum orientale Mill is approved as the raw material to receive pharmacologically active Lappaconitine.

  17. Poisoning and Treatment of Aconitum Carmichaeli%有毒植物乌头草中毒及治疗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阿克别克·塔吉别克; 古丽娜尔

    2012-01-01

    近几年由于草原载畜量过大,放牧过度,造成有毒植物大量滋生。尤其在伊犁草原乌头草已给畜牧业生产带来了严重影响,本文介绍了乌头草的生长特点、毒性和中毒治疗方法。%In recent years, poisonous-weeds growth in grassland resulted from over-grazing. Aconitum carmichaeli in Yili grassland has serious affected animal husbandry, this paper presented characteristics, toxicity, poisoning and treatment of Aconitum carmichaeli.

  18. Salade malade: malignant ventricular arrhythmias due to an accidental intoxication with Aconitum napellus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weijters, B J; Verbunt, R J A M; Hoogsteen, J; Visser, R F

    2008-01-01

    Intoxication with Aconitum napellus is rare in our regions. Aconite alkaloids can cause ventricular arrhythmia by a prolonged activation of sodium channels. Because the margin of safety is low between the analgesic and toxic dose, intoxication is not rare when Aconite is used in herbal medicine. We present a case in which a 39-year-old male was accidentally intoxicated with Aconite. Even though no antidote or adequate therapy is available he was successfully resuscitated. (Neth Heart J 2008;16:96-9.).

  19. Phenetic and geographic pattern of Aconitum sect. Napellus (Ranunculaceae) in the Eastern Carpathians - a numerical approach

    OpenAIRE

    Józef Mitka

    2014-01-01

    Aconitum sect. Napellus in the Eastern Carpathians was explored with the use of methods of numerical taxonomy*. The taxon consists of A. bucovinense Zapał. pro hybr., A.firmum Rchb. subsp. firmum, A. firmum subsp. fissurae Nyarady, A. fimum nsubsp.fussianum Starmuhl (A.firmum subsp. firmum x subsp. f'issurae), A. x nanum (Baumg.) Simonk. (A. bucovinense x A. firmum) and a hybrid A. firmum x A. x nanum. The taxi form phenetic continuum in a character hyperspace and their delimitation bases on ...

  20. DPPH radical scavenging activity of two flavonol glycosides from Aconitum napellus sp. lusitanicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luis, J C; Valdés, F; Martín, R; Carmona, A J; Díaz, Jesús G

    2006-09-01

    The DPPH radical scavenging activity of two flavonol glycosides obtained from ethanolic extracts of Aconitum napellus sp. lusitanicum was studied. The results showed a high DPPH antiradical activity of compound 1 (quercetin 3-O-(6-trans-caffeoyl)-beta-glucopyranosyl-(1-->2)-beta-glucopyranosyl-7-O-alpha-rhamnopyranoside) when compared with compound 2 (quercetin-3-sophoroside-7-rhamnopyranoside), rutin and ascorbic acid. The relationship between the caffeoyl and rhamnopyranoside groups in the flavonol glycosides structures and the DPPH antiradical activity was also discussed.

  1. Analysis of Norditerpenoid Alkaloids Extracted from Aconitum sinomantanum Nakai by Electrospray Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry(ESI-MS) was applied simultaneously in determining norditerpenoid alkaloids from the roots of Aconitum sinomantanum Nakai (RAS) based on molecular mass information. The tandem mass spectra(ESI-MSn) provided the alkaloidal structural information, through which the existence of these alkaloids was further confirmed. Accordingly, six known norditerpenoid alkaloids were simultaneously determined on the basis of their ESI-MSn spectra. Furthermore, based on the diagnostic fragmentation pathways of alkaloidal MSn, a rapid method for direct detection and characterization of alkaloids from an ethanolic extract of RAS was described.

  2. Investigation of Aconitine-type Alkaloids from Processed Tuber of Aconitum carmiechaeli by HPLC-ESI-MS/MSn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUE Hao; PI Zi-feng; ZHAO Yu-feng; SONG Feng-rui; LIU Zhi-qiang; LIU Shu-ying

    2007-01-01

    @@ Introduction Aconitine-type alkaloids isolated from the roots of Aconitum carmiechaeli show a potential toxicity and a broad spectrum of bioactivity[1-4]. On the basis of the C8-substituent of C19-diterpenoid skeleton, aconitinetype alkaloids can be divided into diester-diterpenoid alkaloids( DDAs), monoester-diterpenoid alkaloids(MDAs), and lipo-alkaloids( Fig. 1 ).

  3. Biological and Molecular Characterization of a New Carlavirus Isolated from an Aconitum sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, J; Zeidan, M; Rosner, A; Gera, A

    2000-04-01

    ABSTRACT A new virus was isolated from symptomless Aconitum napellus plants. The virus, for which the name Aconitum latent virus (AcLV) is proposed, has flexuous particles 640 nm in length. The experimental host range was limited to Nicotiana clevelandii. Electron microscopy studies of ultrathin sections of infected A. napellus tissues revealed the presence of elongated virus particles. No inclusion bodies characteristic of potyvirus infection were observed. AcLV was purified from naturally infected A. napellus by cesium chloride step gradient centrifugation. In sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of dissociated purified virus preparations, a major protein component with a molecular mass of 35 kDa was observed. Diagnostic antibodies that could specifically bind to virus particles were produced. The 5' terminus (620 nucleotides) of the viral RNA was cloned and sequenced. It comprised 71 nucleotides from the untranslated 5' terminus and 549 nucleotides of an open reading frame encoding 183 amino acids. Comparison of the predicted amino acid sequence with those of other plant viruses revealed 40 to 60% identity with several carlaviruses. Based on particle morphology, absence of inclusion bodies in ultrathin sections, the relative molecular weight of the coat protein, the nucleotide sequence, and predicted amino acid homology, it is suggested that this virus belongs to the carlavirus group.

  4. SOME ASPECTS REGARDING THE CULTIVATION OF SPECIES WITH DECORATIVE VALUE ACONITUM DEGENII Gáyer

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    MARDARI CONSTANTIN

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Ex situ conservation is the most important way through a Botanic Garden contributes to biodiversity conservation. One of the multiple directions of ex situ conservation is the diversification of the collections with spontaneous cormophytes presenting decorative value. Aconitum degenii Gáyer is an herbaceous, perennial and toxic species with the areal in Alps and Carpathian Mountains, sporadically met at forest’s margins. This species has been studied in 2009-2011 period in order to observe its behavior in the environmental conditions characteristic to the Botanic Garden of Iasi. To accomplish this aim seeds, rhizomes and individuals have been collected from the wild and introduced in experimental fields. Comparisons between flowering periods, qualitative (color of the flowers and quantitative (number of the flowers, leaves and ramifications, plants height, rhizomes length decorative characters of both cultivated and spontaneous individuals have been realized. It was observed that Aconitum degenii Gáyer individuals are keeping (almost the same quantitative characteristics and even improve (longer flowering period their decorative characteristics without being deteriorated or diminished. From the morpho – anatomical perspective none significant differences have been observed.

  5. New diterpenoid alkaloids from Aconitum coreanum and their anti-arrhythmic effects on cardiac sodium current.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Bei-Ni; Jin, Si-Si; Wang, Hao; Tang, Qing-Fa; Liu, Jing-Han; Li, Rui-Yang; Liang, Jing-Yu; Tang, Yi-Qun; Yang, Chun-Hua

    2014-04-01

    Two new diterpenoid alkaloids, Guan-Fu base J (GFJ, 1) and Guan-Fu base N (GFN, 2) along with nineteen known alkaloids (3-21) were isolated from the roots of Aconitum coreanum (Lèvl.) Rapaics, which is the raw material of a new approval anti-arrhythmia drug "Acehytisine Hydrochloride". The structures of isolated compounds were established by means of 1D, 2D NMR spectroscopic and chemical methods. All isolates obtained in the present study were evaluated for their inhibitory effects on blocking the ventricular specific sodium current using a whole-cell patch voltage-clamp technique. Among these 21 compounds, Guan-Fu base S (GFS, 3) showed the strongest inhibitory effect with an IC50 value of 3.48 μM, and only hetisine-type C20 diterpenoid alkaloids showed promising IC50 values for further development.

  6. Cladosporium cladosporioides XJ-AC03, an aconitine-producing endophytic fungus isolated from Aconitum leucostomum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kai; Liang, Jie; Li, Qinfan; Kong, Xiangya; Chen, Rui; Jin, Yimin

    2013-05-01

    The endophytic fungus XJ-AC03, which was isolated from the healthy roots of Aconitum leucostomum, produced aconitine when grown in potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium. The presence of aconitine was confirmed by the chromatographic and spectroscopic analyses. The yield of aconitine was recorded as 236.4 μg/g by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The mass spectrometry was shown to be identical to authentic aconitine. Further analysis with nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to show the chemical structure of the fungal aconitine indicated that the fungal aconitine produced an NMR spectrum identical to that of authentic aconitine. Strain XJ-AC03 was identified as Cladosporium cladosporioides by its characteristic culture morphology and ITS rDNA sequence analysis.

  7. Record of Borearctia menetriesii (Eversmann, 1846 (Lepidoptera, Erebidae, Arctiinae larva on Aconitum rubicundum Fischer (Ranunculaceae in Eastern Siberia

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    Oleg E. Berlov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this note we report the first record of Borearctia menetriesii (Eversmann, 1846 (Erebidae: Arctiinae larva on a native host plant, Aconitum rubicundum Fischer (Ranunculaceae. This aconite species is a close relative of A. lycoctonum, which is widespread across Eurasia, but has a scattered distribution in Fennoscandia. The majority of B. menetriesii localities are situated within the distribution range of A. lycoctonum and other aconite taxa, which are diverse and widespread in the Eastern Palaearctic. However, only two of the six westernmost B. menetriesii localities in Finland are in accordance with sporadic records of A. lycoctonum. Our record confirms that B. menetriesii is a polyphagous species like most other boreal Arctiinae. We have expanded the list of a few Lepidoptera species which can use Aconitum spp. as suitable host plants despite the fact that they are poisonous for insects because of high alkaloid content.

  8. AFLP analysis reveals infraspecific phylogenetic relationships and population genetic structure of two species of Aconitum in Central Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Józef Mitka

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The genetic diversity of two Aconitum species endemic to the Carpathian Mountains and Sudetes was studied. A reticulate evolution between them was earlier postulated as an effect of secondary contact. The genetic diversity at the individual and taxonomic levels was examined across the entire geographical ranges of the taxa in 11 populations based on 247 AFLP markers found in 112 individuals in the Sudetes and Western Carpathians. The overall genetic differentiation was greater within the Sudetic A. plicatum (FST = 0.139, P < 0.001 than within the Carpathian A. firmum (FST = 0.062, P < 0.001, presumably due to the long-lasting geographic isolation between the Giant Mts and Praděd (Sudetes populations of the species. Interestingly, relatively distant and presently isolated populations of A. plicatum and A. f. subsp. maninense share a part of their genomes. It could be an effect of their common evolutionary history, including past and present reticulations. The introgression among infraspecific taxa of Aconitum is common, probably as a result of seed dispersal within a distance of ca. 20 km (Mantel’s r = 0.36, P = 0.01. Aconitum f. subsp. maninense had the highest genetic diversity indices: Nei’s h and rarefied FAr, and divergence index DW (P ≤ 0.05, pointing to its presumably ancient age and long-term isolation.

  9. Phenetic and geographic pattern of Aconitum sect. Napellus (Ranunculaceae in the Eastern Carpathians - a numerical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Józef Mitka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aconitum sect. Napellus in the Eastern Carpathians was explored with the use of methods of numerical taxonomy*. The taxon consists of A. bucovinense Zapał. pro hybr., A.firmum Rchb. subsp. firmum, A. firmum subsp. fissurae Nyarady, A. fimum nsubsp.fussianum Starmuhl (A.firmum subsp. firmum x subsp. f'issurae, A. x nanum (Baumg. Simonk. (A. bucovinense x A. firmum and a hybrid A. firmum x A. x nanum. The taxi form phenetic continuum in a character hyperspace and their delimitation bases on a few traits, hitherto neglected, e.g. type of hairiness and flower morphology. A key is provided to identify taxa at all ranks within the supplemented of sect. Napellus. There is a regional pattern of particular OTUs distribution, which show local morphological uniqueness within a taxon. The phenomenon was inquired using the concept of "centers of phenetic coherence" (CPC based on overall morphological similarity. The CPC may be interpreteted as regions of neoendemism and/or may reflect a post-glacial migratory route. High-mountain flora of the Western Bieszczady Mts. (sect. Napelus as its example has features of neoendemism (schizoendemism, being most probably a result of geographical vicarism.

  10. Allee effects within small populations of Aconitum napellus ssp. lusitanicum, a protected subspecies in northern France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Cadre, Solenn; Tully, Thomas; Mazer, Susan J; Ferdy, Jean-Baptiste; Moret, Jacques; Machon, Nathalie

    2008-01-01

    Plants growing at low density can suffer from Allee effects as a result of pollen limitation. Previous studies of Allee effects have focused on the effects of variation among populations in size or density on reproduction. Here, the effects of plant distribution within populations on fitness components are explored in a rare plant, Aconitum napellus ssp. lusitanicum, and ecological and genetic mechanisms underlying these effects are identified. To detect pollen limitation, seed production was compared under natural versus hand-supplemented pollinations on inflorescences of different sizes in natural patches differing both in flower density and in isolation from other patches. Germination rate and juvenile survival of seeds produced in low- and high-density patches were also compared. Pollen-supplemented flowers always produced more seeds than open-pollinated flowers, especially among small plants and plants growing at low density. Offspring produced in low-density patches exhibited lower fitness that those produced in high-density patches. This could have been caused by post-fertilization mechanisms, including inbreeding depression or differential maternal resource allocation. These results show that Allee effects on fitness components (ecological and genetic Allee effects) occur within A. napellus populations at different spatial scales. The spatial distribution of plants seems to be a crucial factor affecting reproductive output and fitness.

  11. Improvement of Aconitum napellus micropropagation by liquid culture on floating membrane rafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watad, A A; Kochba, M; Nissim, A; Gaba, V

    1995-03-01

    An efficient method was developed using floating membrane rafts (Liferaft(™)) for the micropropagation of Aconitum napellus (Ranunculaceae), a cut flower crop with a low natural propagation rate. This was achieved by introducing shoot tips into culture on Murashige and Skoog's (1962) solid medium, or liquid medium-supported rafts, supplemented by different levels of benzyl adenine (BA). Optimum shoot proliferation on solid medium required 4mg/l BA, whereas for expiants supported on rafts optimal proliferation was achieved at 0.25mg/l BA. Maximum shoot proliferation was found using the floating rafts (propagation ratio of 4.2 per month), 45% higher than the maximum value on solid medium. A similar value could be obtained on solid medium after a period of 2 months. The optimal response to BA was similar for fresh weight gain and shoot length. Growth in a shallow layer of liquid in shake flasks gives a similar shoot multiplication rate to that on floating rafts; however, submerged leaves brown and die.

  12. Underlying Mechanism of Aconitum Lizhong Acting on Experimental Hypothermia with Indigestion in Rats: Role of Ghrelin

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    Xin Zhao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed to investigate the Aconitum Lizhong pill (ALZ pharmacological actions on hypothermia with indigestion, especially the ghrelin roles. The littermate-matched rats were randomly divided into four groups. Control did sham operation or standard diet, Model carried out interscapular brown adipose (IBA removal with standard diet, Fat-diet did IBA removal with fat-diet, and ALZ did IBA removal and fat-diet with 4.536 g/kg/d ALZ. The potency of adaptive thermogenesis, ghrelin levels in plasma or gastric mucosa, thyroid hormones and metabolite in sera, expression of ghrelin mRNA, and protein in gastric mucous membrane were determined. ALZ relieved the hypothermia processes with indigestion, via inhibiting ghrelin expression and increasing ghrelin secretion; the dynamics from the therapy is supported with the energy changes as less body weight loss, less plasma lipid decrease, more plasma T3 or T4 increase with TSH decrease, and more compensation of thermogenic AUC decrease. Ghrelin played key roles in the actions of ALZ on the hypothermia with indigestion. The pharmacological mechanisms of ALZ involved the homeostasis of ghrelin expression and secretion.

  13. Evaluation of antifungal and antioxidant potential of two medicinal plants:Aconitum heterophyllum and Polygonum bistorta

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Neelma Munir; Wasqa Ijaz; Imran Altaf; Shagufta Naz

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To focus on the evaluation of antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of two endangered medicinal plants Aconitum heterophyllum (A. heterophyllum) and Polygonum bistorta (P. bistorta). Materials: Plant extracts were obtained by using microwave assisted extraction method. The in vitro antifungal activity of A. heterophyllum and P. bistorta extracts were determined by measuring diameters of inhibitory zones of these extracts against Aspergillus niger and Alternalia solani. Results:Methanolic extract of A. heterophyllum showed significant (P≤0.05) antifungal activity against both the tested organisms. It was also observed that ethanolic extracts of P. bistorta also had good antifungal activity against the tested fungal strains as compared to the methanolic extracts. It showed significant antifungal activity (P≤0.05) against both the tested strains. Antioxidant activity of methanolic and ethanolic extracts of A. heterophyllum and P. bistorta were also measured using a radical scavenging method. Ascorbic acid was used as a standard. Conclusions:It was observed that A. heterophyllum and P. bistorta have significant antioxidant activity. Higher antioxidant activity was recorded in methanolic extract of A. heterophyllum as compared to its ethanolic extract. However, in case of P. bistorta ethanolic extract of the plant exhibited higher antioxidant potential than methanolic extracts. Hence both of these plants have significant antimicrobial as well as antioxidant potential.

  14. Isolation of diterpenoid alkaloids from herb and flowers of aconitum napellus ssp. vulgare and electrospray ion trap multiple MS study of these alkaloids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen; Koelliker; Oehme; Katz

    1999-05-01

    Chemical investigation of herb and flowers of Aconitum napellus L. ssp. vulgare led to the isolation of 12 diterpenoid alkaloids. Their chemical structures were identified on the basis of NMR and MS and of their complete ion trap multiple fragmentation mass spectrometry study.

  15. BIO-ANALYTICAL STUDIES ON THE PROCESS OF DETOXIFICATION AND SAFETY EVALUATION OF ACONITUM LACINIATUM AND ABRUS PRECATORIUS FOR USE IN AYURVEDIC PREPARATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. T. Sane

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the study was to have bio-analytical approach for detoxification process of two poisonous plant materials viz. Aconitum laciniatum (root and Abrus precatorius (seed which are used in Ayurvedic preparations.Materials and Methods: For both the species proximate analysis was carried out. For the same plants HPTLC fingerprinting was compared , before and after detoxification process, using triphala quath. Infra red spectral studies for Abrus precatorius species (red and white were compared, with respect to detoxification process. Protein fingerprinting was carried out for various Aconitum species available in the market. In support of the results obtained from the above methods for detoxification, safety evaluation , post single dose administration, C1- post single dose administration]was done using albino mice as the study model for Aconitum laciniatum (root and Abrus precatorius (seeds- red and white.Outcome Measures: Comparison of the results for the crude poisonous herbal material with the material obtained after detoxification in triphala quath. Results: HPTLC fingerprinting, Infra red spectral studies, safety evaluation study (animal toxicity showed that process of detoxification for the above mentioned plant materials using triphala quath is effective and less time consuming.Conclusions: The study highlights that the commonly used poisonous crude herbal materials viz. Aconitum laciniatum (root and Abrus precatorius (seeds - red and white can be safely used in Ayurvedic preparations, after detoxification using triphala quath.

  16. Paper chromatography of anthocyanins in two species of Aconitum from the Tatry .Mts.: A. variegatum (L.) Rchb., and A. napellus ssp. skerisorae (Gayer) Seitz.

    OpenAIRE

    Krzakowa, M.; R. Zieliński; Szweykowski, J.

    2015-01-01

    The results of studies on phenolic compounds occurence and variation in the two Aconitum species were reported in our previous paper (Szweykowski, Krzakowa, 1977a and b). A modified extraction method allowed us to get additional data on anthocyanin variation in flowers of the same species. In addition one albino plant of A. variegatum was also investigated in this respect.

  17. Paper chromatography of anthocyanins in two species of Aconitum from the Tatry .Mts.: A. variegatum (L. Rchb., and A. napellus ssp. skerisorae (Gayer Seitz.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Krzakowa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of studies on phenolic compounds occurence and variation in the two Aconitum species were reported in our previous paper (Szweykowski, Krzakowa, 1977a and b. A modified extraction method allowed us to get additional data on anthocyanin variation in flowers of the same species. In addition one albino plant of A. variegatum was also investigated in this respect.

  18. Seed morphology of Iberian species of the genus Aconitum L.

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    Molero, Julià

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available A biometric-morphological study of' the seeds of the taxons of the genus Aconitum L. occurring in the Iberian peninsula is given. The following features are treated: 1 arrangement of the seeds on the follicle, 2 definition of the parameters (general shape and ornamentation of the episperm, 3 biometry, and 4 description of the seeds of the Iberian taxa. Microcharacteristics related to the seed coat, shape and ornamentation or the insertion base (hilum and surrounding cells have been found most useful in differentiating the taxa; furthermore, they may provide more phylogenetic information than other features. The results given agree generally with those reported by other authors (Seitz, 1969; Cappeleti & Poldini, 1984 but some important discrepancies have been noted with reference to seminal morphology, particularly episperm ornamentation in the species A. anthora. A. napellus s.l., A. burnatii and A. vulparia subsp. ranunculifolium. Seminal polymorphism is frequently observed in different geographically isolated colonies or the same species or subspecies. both in the Iberian Peninsula and in Central and Southern Europe. We conclude that polymorphism is further evidence of the phenotypical flexibility of this genus, probably owing to genetic drift in the populations. This flexibility is particularly important in colonizing species or wide ecological valence (A . napellus, s. l.; A. vulparia s.l..

    [ca] Es presenta un estudi morfològica-biomètric de les granes dels tàxons del gènere Aconitum L. presents a la Península Ibèrica. Es tracten aspectes que fan referència a: 1 disposició de les granes al fol-licle. 2 definició de paràmetres (forma general i ornamentació de l'episperma, 3 biometria i 4 descripció de les granes dels representants ibèrics. Els microcaràcters relacionats fonamentalment amb el relleu epispèrmic, forma i ornamentació de la base d'inserció (hílum i

  19. Modern Pharmacology Theory Research and Clinical New-application of Aconitum Carmichaeli Debx%附子的现代药理研究与临床新用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁涛

    2012-01-01

    目的:总结附子的药用原理,扩展其临床应用范围.方法:总结、归纳近年来的相关文献,用现代药理理论研究附子的医用价值与临床新用手段.结果:附子回阳救逆、补阳助火的功效,用现代医学的理论来说,与强心、抗心律失常、扩张血管、增强肾上腺皮质系统的作用直接相关;而散寒作用可以理解为与增强免疫系统、镇痛、增加血氧等作用相关.附子的药效主要体现在其化合物对神经膜蛋白和激素受体的作用,由于二者的作用机理复杂,交互环节很多,难以用单一化合物的药理来解释附子的作用.结论:附子的药理作用复杂,单一成分的作用还有待进一步研究.%Objective:To summarize the officinal principle of Aconitum Caraiichaeli Debx and extend its clinical application range. Methods : Related literatures in recent years were summarized and concluded, modern pharmacology theory was used to research the medical value and clinical new-application method of Aconitum Garmichaeli Debx. Results: Aconitum Carmichaeli Debx had the effects of regenerating yang and rescue cold limbs, tonifying yang and adding fire, in terms of modern medical theory, the effects had direct relation with stronging heart % resisting arrhythmia, dilating vessel % enhancing function of adrenal cortex system; dispersing cold effects of Aconitum Carmichaeli Debx could be interpreted as had relationship with stringing immune system, easing pain, increasing blood oxygen. Pesticide effect of Aconitum Garmichaeli Debx was mainly embodied in its compound had effects on neurilemma protein and hormone receptor, and the two objects had complex functional mechanism and multiple interactive links, thus, the effects of Aconitum Carmichaeli Debx could not be explained by single compound. Conclusion; Aconitum Carmichaeli Debx has complex pharmacology function, effect of its single component needs to be further studied.

  20. Assessment of homeopathic medicine Aconitum napellus in the treatment of anxiety in an animal model

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    Andersom Ricardo Fréz

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aconitum napellus is a classic resource of complementary medicine for the treatment of patients exhibiting neurological symptoms of anxiety. Aim: To assess the action of homeopathic medicine Acon in the treatment of generalized anxiety in an experimental model using rats. Methods: 48 adult (two to three months old male Wistar rats (Rattus rattus were randomly divided in six groups (n= 8/treatment and given the following treatments by gastric tube along 10 days: 1 control (diazepam 1 mg/kg/day; 2 negative control (0.15 mL saline solution/day; 3 ACH6 (0.15 mL Acon (6cH/day; 4 ACH12 (0.15 mL Acon 12cH/day; 5 ACH30 (0.15 mL Acon 30cH/day; and 6 ALC30 (0.15 mL 30% cereal alcohol/day. Behavioral effects were blindly and randomly assessed in elevated plus maze (EPM and open field test. Results: Acon in dilutions 12cH and 30cH exhibited possible anxiolytic effects on the central nervous system (CNS since they increased the number of entries in the EPM open arms (12cH and 30cH and the permanence time in the EPM open arms (30cH only. In the open field test the homeopathic preparations did not show effects on the locomotor system of rats. Conclusion: Dilutions 12cH and 30cH of Acon exhibited anxiolytic effects on the CNS in an animal experimental model.

  1. Nonomuraea flavida sp. nov., a novel species of soil actinomycete isolated from Aconitum napellus rhizosphere.

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    Chen, Shaofeng; Shi, Jindi; Li, Dan; Wu, Yingying; Huang, Yaojian

    2015-11-01

    A novel actinomycete strain, YN-5-1T, isolated from the rhizosphere soil of a medicinal plant, Aconitum napellus, was characterized by a polyphasic approach to determine its taxonomic position. The strain showed highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities of 97.3, 97.2 and 97.1 % to Nonomuraea turkmeniaca DSM 43926T, Nonomuraea ferruginea DSM 43553T and Nonomuraea candida DSM 45086T, respectively. A wide range of genotypic and phenotypic characteristics, as well as levels of DNA-DNA relatedness between strain YN-5-1T and N. turkmeniaca DSM 43926T (57.46 %), N. ferruginea DSM 43553T (53.50 %) and N. candida DSM 45086T (48.80 %), distinguished the novel isolate from its closest phylogenetic neighbours. The morphological characteristics of strain YN-5-1T were typical of the genus Nonomuraea. Chemotaxonomic characteristics, such as diagnostic diamino acid of the peptidoglycan, whole-cell sugars, phospholipid type, major menaquinone and major fatty acids, further supported the assignment of strain YN-5-1T to the genus Nonomuraea. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 72.1 mol%. Based on the above data, strain YN-5-1T is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Nonomuraea, for which the name Nonomuraea flavida sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YN-5-1T ( = CCTCC AB 2012909T = KCTC 29143T).

  2. Antisecretory and antimotility activity of Aconitum heterophyllum and its significance in treatment of diarrhea

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    Satyendra K Prasad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The roots of the plant Aconitum heterophyllum (EAH are traditionally used for curing hysteria, throat infection, dyspepsia, abdominal pain, diabetes, and diarrhea. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to determine the mechanism involved in the anti-diarrheal activity of roots of A. heterophyllum. Materials and Methods: Ant-diarrheal activity of ethanol extract at 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg p.o. was evaluated using fecal excretion and castor oil-induced diarrhea models, while optimized dose, that is, 100 mg/kg p.o. was further subjected to small intestinal transit, intestinal fluids accumulation, PGE 2 -induced enteropooling and gastric emptying test. To elucidate the probable mechanism, various biochemical parameters and Na + , K + concentration in intestinal fluids were also determined. Further, antibacterial activity of extract along with its standardization using aconitine as a marker with the help of HPLC was carried out. Results: The results depicted a significant (P < 0.05 reduction in normal fecal output at 100 and 200 mg/kg p.o. of extract after 5 th and 7 th h of treatment. Castor oil-induced diarrhea model demonstrated a ceiling effect at 100 mg/kg p.o. with a protection of 60.185% from diarrhea. EAH at 100 mg/kg p.o. also showed significant activity in small intestinal transit, fluid accumulation, and PGE 2 -induced enteropooling models, which also restored the altered biochemical parameters and prevented Na + and K + loss. The extract with 0.0833% w/w of aconitine depicted a potential antibacterial activity of extract against microbes implicated in diarrhea. Conclusion: The study concluded antisecretory and antimotility effect of A. heterophyllum, which mediates through nitric oxide path way.

  3. [Allelopathic effects of extracts from tuberous roots of Aconitum carmichaeli on three pasture grasses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Yu-jie; Wang, Ya-qi; Yuan, Ling

    2015-11-01

    The tuberous roots of Aconitum carmichaeli are largely used in traditional Chinese medicine and widely grown in Jiangyou, Sichuan, China. During the growth process, this medicinal plant releases a large amount of allelochemicals into soil, which retard the growth and development of near and late crops. Therefore, a pure culture experiment was thus carried out by seed soaking to study the allelopathic effects of extracts from tuberous roots of A. carmichaeli (ETR) on the seed germination and young seedling growth of Lolium perenne, Trifolium repens, and Medicago sativa, the late pasture grasses after cultivation of A. carmichaeli. The results showed that three pasture grasses varied significantly in seed germination and young seedling growth in response to ETR concentrations. Seed germination of M. sativa was stimulated by low ERT concentration (0.01 x g(-1)), while all of pasture grass seeds germinated poorly in solution with 1.00 g x L(-1). Seed soaking with 1.00 g x L(-1) also inhibited significantly the growth of pasture young seedlings, with M. sativa showing the highest seedling height reduction of 42.05% in seeding height, followed by T. repens (40.21%) and L. perenne with about 11%. Cultivation of L. perenne could thus be beneficial to increase whole land productivity in A. carmichaeli-pasture grass cropping systems. In addition, hydrolysis of protein, starch, and inositol phosphates was blocked and free amino acids, soluble sugars and phosphorus were decreased in seeds by seed soaking with ETR, which could be one of the reason for the inhibition of seed germination. There was a significant reduction in root vigor, nitrate reductase, and chlorophyll after the seed treatment with ETR, indicating the suppression of nutrient uptake, nitrate assimilation, and photosynthesis by allelopathic chemicals in ETR, which could lead to the slow growth rate of pasture grass seedlings.

  4. Physicochemical standardization and evaluation of in-vitro antioxidant activity of Aconitum heterophyllum Wall

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Satyendra K Prasad; R Kumar; DK Patel; AN Sahu; S Hemalatha

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate different physicochemical parameters and in-vitro antioxidant activity of Aconitum heterophyllum (A. heterophyllum), having great medicinal value in treatment of diseases associated to nervous system, digestive system, rheumatism, fever and also in case of bacterial, viral and fungal infections. Methods: Various physicochemical parameters such as extractive values, haemolytic activity, foaming index, swelling index, heavy metal analysis and pesticide content as per the guidelines of WHO were included. Determination of starch grains, crude fiber, fluorescence powder drug analysis and preliminary phytochemical analysis of root of A. heterophyllum were also included. Various phytoconstituents such as total phenols, tannins, flavonoids, flavonols, alkaloids and saponins were quantified in the present study. The ethanolic extract was further screened for in-vitro antioxidant activity using different models. Results:The result depicted a higher extractive value in case of aqueous extract which decreased as the polarity decreased. The haemolytic activity of A. heterophyllum was found to be 212.5 units/g of plant material while chlorinated and phosphate pesticides along with heavy metals were found to be within the standard limits of WHO. The quantitative estimations demonstrated the root to be highly rich in alkaloids while phenols, tannins, flavonoids and saponins were found in less quantity. The in-vitro antioxidant study showed a moderate to low activity in all models which may be attributed to low phenolic and flavonoid content. Conclusion: The valuable information provided in the study will ascertain the identity and authenticity of A. heterophyllum and will help in maintaining quality and purity thus, preventing its adulteration.

  5. Antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity of flavonol glycosides from different Aconitum species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braca, Alessandra; Fico, Gelsomina; Morelli, Ivano; De Simone, Francesco; Tomè, Franca; De Tommasi, Nunziatina

    2003-05-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation by 1,1-diphenyl-2-dipicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging test of polar extracts of some Italian Aconitum species (A. napellus subsp. tauricum, A. napellus subsp. neomontanum, A. paniculatum, A. vulparia) led to the isolation of 13 flavonol glycosides: quercetin 3-O-(6-trans-caffeoyl)-beta-glucopyranosyl-(1-->2)-beta-glucopyranoside-7-O-alpha-rhamnopyranoside (1), kaempferol 3-O-(6-trans-caffeoyl)-beta-glucopyranosyl-(1-->2)-beta-glucopyranoside-7-O-alpha-rhamnopyranoside (2), quercetin 3-O-(6-trans-p-coumaroyl)-beta-glucopyranosyl-(1-->2)-beta-glucopyranoside-7-O-alpha-rhamnopyranoside (3), kaempferol 3-O-(6-trans-p-coumaroyl)-beta-glucopyranosyl-(1-->2)-beta-glucopyranoside-7-O-alpha-rhamnopyranoside (4), quercetin 7-O-(6-trans-caffeoyl)-beta-glucopyranosyl-(1-->3)-alpha-rhamnopyranoside-3-O-beta-glucopyranoside (5), kaempferol 7-O-(6-trans-caffeoyl)-beta-glucopyranosyl-(1-->3)-alpha-rhamnopyranoside-3-O-beta-glucopyranoside (6), kaempferol 7-O-(6-trans-p-coumaroyl)-beta-glucopyranosyl-(1-->3)-alpha-rhamnopyranoside-3-O-beta-glucopyranoside (7), kaempferol 3-O-beta-(2"-acetyl)galactopyranoside (8), kaempferol 3-O-beta-(2"-acetyl)galactopyranoside-7-O-alpha-arabinopyranoside (9), quercetin 3-O-beta-(2"-acetyl)galactopyranoside-7-O-alpha-arabinopyranoside (10), quercetin 3,7-di-O-alpha-rhamnopyranoside (11), kaempferol 3,7-di-O-alpha-rhamnopyranoside (12) and quercetin 3-O-beta-glucopyranoside-7-O-alpha-rhamnopyranoside (13). Their antioxidant activity (AA) was determined by measuring free radical scavenging activity by DPPH test and the coupled oxidation of beta-carotene and linoleic acid assay. The results showed that 5 is the most active compound in the DPPH free-radical scavenging test (IC(50) 1.9 microM) while in the coupled oxidation of beta-carotene and linoleic acid assay compound 1 has the highest inhibitory ratio after 1h (58.9%). Some structure-activity relationships on the AA were obtained.

  6. Mice behavioural models with pooled data analysis of Gelsemium studies and new findings about Ignatia and Aconitum

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    Anita Conforti

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We investigated the effects of three different homeopathic medicines in several dilutions/dynamizations on mice, using validated models which explore anxiety-like and emotional symptoms. Two complete series of investigations were performed in order to assess the activity of Gelsemium sempervirens; furthermore, we investigated Ignatia amara and Aconitum napellus in the same model systems. Methods: Mice of CD1 strain were randomized in different cages (minimum 8 mice per treated group in each experiment and treatment solutions were coded in such a way that all protocols were carried out fully in blind. The indicated compounds at various centesimal dilutions/dynamizations, a control solution (the solvent vehicle of drugs, which was succussed before administration or the reference drugs diazepam (1 mg/kg body weight or buspirone (5 mg/kg body weight diluted in the same succussed solvent were delivered intraperitoneally (0.3 ml/mice for 9 days. A series of changes of animal behavior were assessed by the Light-Dark (LD choice test and the Open-Field (OF exploration test. Two series of studies with little technical differences, exploiting a total of 14 separate experiments, were carried out with Gelsemium, five complete experiments with Ignatia and four complete experiments with Aconitum. Results: In both series of experiments Gelsemium showed anxiolytic-like effects using both OF test (permanence and movement in centre area of field and LD test (time spent in lit area and number of light-dark transitions. However, due to high variability of animal responses and possibly to some minor differences in protocols, those effects reached the threshold of statistical significance only in OF in the first series and only in LD in the second series. Cumulative analysis of the two series demonstrated a highly significant (p<0.0001 effect of Gelsemium 5CH,7CH, and 30CH in OF parameters and of Gelsemium 5CH, 9CH, and 30CH in LD parameters. In OF the

  7. Study on the Alkaloids in Tibetan Medicine Aconitum pendulum Busch by HPLC-MSn Combined with Column Chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Beibei; Dong, Jie; Ji, Jiaojiao; Yuan, Jiang; Wang, Jiali; Wu, Jiarui; Tan, Peng; Liu, Yonggang

    2016-01-01

    A rapid, convenient and effective identification method of alkaloids was established and an attempt on isolating and analyzing the alkaloids in Aconitum pendulum Busch was conducted successfully. In this article, four high-content components including deoxyaconitine, benzoylaconine, aconine and neoline were isolated by using column chromatography. HPLC-MS(n)was employed to deduce the regulations of fragmentation of diterpenoid alkaloids which displayed a characteristic behavior of loss of CO(28u), CH3COOH(60u), CH3OH(32u), H2O(18u) and C6H5COOH(122u). Then, according to fragmentation regulation of mass spectrometry, 42 alkaloids were found inA. pendulum Among them, 38 compounds were identified and 29 alkaloids were reported for the first time for this herb. Therefore, this means that HPLC-MS(n)combined with column chromatography could work as an effective and reliable tool for rapid identification of the chemical components of herbal medicine.

  8. An electrophoretic and cytological study of hybridisation between Aconitum napellus ssp. skerisorae (2n= 32) and A. variegatum (2n= 16). I Electrophoretic evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Roman Zieliński

    2014-01-01

    The variability of six enzymes in pure and mixed populations of Aconitum napellus and A. variegatum, both from the Tatra Mountains was analysed by means of electrophoresis on starch and polyacrylamide gels. The enzymes differentiating the studied species are: glutamate dehydrogenase, isocitrate dehydrogenase, esterases and peroxidases. A group of plants was isolated with phenotypes intermediate between A. napellus and A. variegatum. Among them were most probably both F1 and introgressive hybr...

  9. An electrophoretic and cytological study of hybridisation between Aconitum napellus ssp. skerisorae (2n= 32) and A. variegatum (2n= 16). II. Cytological evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Roman Zieliński

    2014-01-01

    The number of chromosomes was determined in mitosis, the course of meiosis was analysed and the degree of pollen viability determined in plants with intermediate enzymatic phenotypes between Aconitum napellus and A. variegatum. One allotriploid plant was found with 2n=24 and a group of plants with 2n=32 showing disturbances in mitosis and meiosis. In mitosis somatic reduction and polysomaty were observed and in meiosis monads, diads, triads and polyads were present. These plants are considere...

  10. An electrophoretic and cytological study of hybridisation between Aconitum napellus ssp. skerisorae (2n= 32 and A. variegatum (2n= 16. I Electrophoretic evidence

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    Roman Zieliński

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The variability of six enzymes in pure and mixed populations of Aconitum napellus and A. variegatum, both from the Tatra Mountains was analysed by means of electrophoresis on starch and polyacrylamide gels. The enzymes differentiating the studied species are: glutamate dehydrogenase, isocitrate dehydrogenase, esterases and peroxidases. A group of plants was isolated with phenotypes intermediate between A. napellus and A. variegatum. Among them were most probably both F1 and introgressive hybrids.

  11. Monoester-Diterpene Aconitum Alkaloid Metabolism in Human Liver Microsomes: Predominant Role of CYP3A4 and CYP3A5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Ling; Yang, Xiao-Shan; Lu, Lin-lin; Chen, Wei-Ying; Zeng, Shan; Yan, Tong-Meng; Dong, Ling-Na; Peng, Xiao-Juan; Shi, Jian; Liu, Zhong-Qiu

    2013-01-01

    Aconitum, widely used to treat rheumatoid arthritis for thousands of years, is a toxic herb that can frequently cause fatal cardiac poisoning. Aconitum toxicity could be decreased by properly hydrolyzing diester-diterpene alkaloids into monoester-diterpene alkaloids. Monoester-diterpene alkaloids, including benzoylaconine (BAC), benzoylmesaconine (BMA), and benzoylhypaconine (BHA), are the primary active and toxic constituents of processed Aconitum. Cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes protect the human body by functioning as the defense line that limits the invasion of toxicants. Our purposes were to identify the CYP metabolites of BAC, BMA, and BHA in human liver microsomes and to distinguish which isozymes are responsible for their metabolism through the use of chemical inhibitors, monoclonal antibodies, and cDNA-expressed CYP enzyme. High-resolution mass spectrometry was used to characterize the metabolites. A total of 7, 8, and 9 metabolites were detected for BAC, BMA, and BHA, respectively. The main metabolic pathways were demethylation, dehydrogenation, demethylation-dehydrogenation, hydroxylation and didemethylation, which produced less toxic metabolites by decomposing the group responsible for the toxicity of the parent compound. Taken together, the results of the chemical inhibitors, monoclonal antibodies, and cDNA-expressed CYP enzymes experiments demonstrated that CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 have essential functions in the metabolism of BAC, BMA, and BHA. PMID:23864901

  12. Monoester-Diterpene Aconitum Alkaloid Metabolism in Human Liver Microsomes: Predominant Role of CYP3A4 and CYP3A5

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    Ling Ye

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aconitum, widely used to treat rheumatoid arthritis for thousands of years, is a toxic herb that can frequently cause fatal cardiac poisoning. Aconitum toxicity could be decreased by properly hydrolyzing diester-diterpene alkaloids into monoester-diterpene alkaloids. Monoester-diterpene alkaloids, including benzoylaconine (BAC, benzoylmesaconine (BMA, and benzoylhypaconine (BHA, are the primary active and toxic constituents of processed Aconitum. Cytochrome P450 (CYP enzymes protect the human body by functioning as the defense line that limits the invasion of toxicants. Our purposes were to identify the CYP metabolites of BAC, BMA, and BHA in human liver microsomes and to distinguish which isozymes are responsible for their metabolism through the use of chemical inhibitors, monoclonal antibodies, and cDNA-expressed CYP enzyme. High-resolution mass spectrometry was used to characterize the metabolites. A total of 7, 8, and 9 metabolites were detected for BAC, BMA, and BHA, respectively. The main metabolic pathways were demethylation, dehydrogenation, demethylation-dehydrogenation, hydroxylation and didemethylation, which produced less toxic metabolites by decomposing the group responsible for the toxicity of the parent compound. Taken together, the results of the chemical inhibitors, monoclonal antibodies, and cDNA-expressed CYP enzymes experiments demonstrated that CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 have essential functions in the metabolism of BAC, BMA, and BHA.

  13. Diterpene alkaloids from roots of Aconitum ouvrardianum%德钦乌头中的二萜生物碱

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁祥; 侯怡铃

    2013-01-01

    目的 研究乌头属植物德钦乌头Aconitum ouvrardianum根的二萜生物碱类化学成分.方法 采用反复硅胶柱色谱进行分离纯化,根据谱学数据和对照TLC分析鉴定化合物的结构.结果 从德钦乌头根的醋酸乙酯提取物中分离得到12个化合物,分别鉴定为塔拉乌头胺(1)、彭乌碱乙(2)、卡马考宁(3)、黄草乌碱亭(4)、粗茎乌头碱甲(5)、贡乌生(6)、14-乙酰黄草乌碱亭(7)、展花乌头碱(8)、黄乌宁(9)、膝乌亭丁(10)、异塔拉乌头定(11)、翠雀它灵(12).结论 12个化合物均为C-3位或C-6位无含氧取代的C19-二萜生物碱,且均为首次从该植物中分离得到.乌头碱型C19-二萜生物碱为德钦乌头药材的主要药用化学成分.%Objective To study the diterpene alkaloids from the roots ofAconitum ouvrardianum.Methods The silica gel column was used for the isolation and purification of the compounds from the roots ofA.ouvrardianum.Their structures were identified on the bases of spectral data,such as NMR,TLC,and references.Results Twelve diterpene alkaloids:talatizamine (1),pengshenine B (2),cammaconine (3),sachaconitine (4),crassicauline (5),liljestrandisine (6),14-acetylsachaconitine (7),chasmaconitine (8),vilmorinine (9),geniculatine D (10),isotalatizidine (11),and detaline (12) were isolated and identified in the acetic ether extract from the roots of A.ouvrardianum.Conclusion All these compounds are C19-diterpene alkaloids without C-3 or C-6 oxygen substitution and are found in this plant for the first time.The C19-diterpene alkaloids are the main chemical constituents in A.ouvrardianum.

  14. Preparative Isolation of Seven Diterpenoid Alkaloids from Aconitum coreanum by pH-Zone-Refining Counter-Current Chromatography

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    Xueyong Wang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to seek an efficient method to preparative separation of alkaloid compounds from Aconitum coreanum (Guanbaifu, a well-known traditional Chinese medicinal plant for heart disease. Seven alkaloid compounds were successfully purified by pH-zone-refining counter-current chromatography with two-phase solvent system of petroleum ether–ethyl acetate–methanol–water (5:5:1:9, v/v/v/v, 10 mM triethylamine in upper phase and 10 mM hydrochloric acid in lower phase. From 3.5 g of crude extract, 356 mg of Guanfu base I, 578 mg of Guanfu base A, 74 mg of atisine, 94 mg of Guanfu base F, 423 mg of Guanfu base G, 67 mg of Guanfu base R and 154 mg of Guanfu base P were obtained with the purity of 96.40%, 97.2%, 97.5%, 98.1%, 98.9%, 98.3% and 98.4%. Their chemical structures were identified by TOF-MS and 1H-NMR. This study indicated that pH-zone-refining counter-current chromatography was an efficient method for separating the kind of alkaloids with low absorbance values.

  15. Chemical Constituents from Lateral Roots of Aconitum carmichaelii%附子化学成分研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小红; 何成军; 周勤梅; 刘娟; 郭力; 彭成

    2013-01-01

    目的:研究附子Aconitum carmichaelii Debx.的子根的化学成分.方法:采用硅胶、MCI以及Sephadex LH-20柱色谱等分离,运用波谱数据鉴定化合物的结构.结果:从附子中分离得到12个化合物,分别鉴定为烟酰胺(1)、尿嘧啶(2)、次黄嘌呤(3)、腺苷(4)、尿苷(5)、5-羟甲基-吡咯-2-甲醛(6)、马齿苋酰胺E(7)、顺-对香豆酸-4-O-β-D-葡萄糖苷(8)、顺-阿魏酸-4-β-葡萄糖苷(9)、反-阿魏酸-4-β-葡萄糖苷(10)、异麦芽酚-葡萄糖苷(11)、2,4,6-三苯基-1-己烯(12).结论:除化合物2以外,其他化合物均为首次从该属植物中分离得到.

  16. An electrophoretic and cytological study of hybridisation between Aconitum napellus ssp. skerisorae (2n= 32 and A. variegatum (2n= 16. II. Cytological evidence

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    Roman Zieliński

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of chromosomes was determined in mitosis, the course of meiosis was analysed and the degree of pollen viability determined in plants with intermediate enzymatic phenotypes between Aconitum napellus and A. variegatum. One allotriploid plant was found with 2n=24 and a group of plants with 2n=32 showing disturbances in mitosis and meiosis. In mitosis somatic reduction and polysomaty were observed and in meiosis monads, diads, triads and polyads were present. These plants are considered as introgressive hybrids arising owing to a small scale gene flow from A. variegatum to A. napellus.

  17. Ultra-fast LC-ESI-MS/MS method for the simultaneous determination of six highly toxic Aconitum alkaloids from Aconiti kusnezoffii radix in rat plasma and its application to a pharmacokinetic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingjing; Li, Qing; Yin, Yidi; Liu, Ran; Xu, Huarong; Bi, Kaishun

    2014-01-01

    A fast, sensitive, and efficient ultra-fast LC-ESI-MS/MS method was developed for the simultaneous quantitation of six highly toxic Aconitum alkaloids, that is, aconitine, mesaconitine, hypaconitine, benzoylaconine, benzoylmesaconine, and benzoylhypaconine, in rat plasma after oral administration of crude ethanol extracts from Aconiti kusnezoffii radix by ultrasonic extraction, reflux extraction for 1 h, and reflux extraction for 3 h, respectively. The separation of six Aconitum alkaloids and aminopyrine (internal standard) was performed on an InertSustain® C18 column, and the quantification of the analytes was performed on a 4000Q ultra-fast LC-MS/MS system with turbo ion spray source in the positive ion and multiple-reaction monitoring mode. Absolute recoveries ranged within 65.06-85.1% for plasma samples. The intra- and interday precision and accuracy of analytes were satisfactory. The methods were validated with sensitivity reaching the lower LOQ for aconitine, mesaconitine, hypaconitine, benzoylaconine, benzoylmesaconine, and benzoylhypaconine, which were 0.025, 0.025, 0.050, 0.025, 0.025, and 0.100 ng/mL, respectively. The method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study of six Aconitum alkaloids in rat plasma after oral administration of crude ethanol extracts from the raw root of Aconitum kusnezoffii Reichb. by three different extraction processes.

  18. Simultaneous determination of 2 aconitum alkaloids and 12 ginsenosides in Shenfu injection by ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled with a photodiode array detector with few markers to determine multicomponents

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    Ai-Hua Ge

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A method with few markers to determine multicomponents was established and validated to evaluate the quality of Shenfu injection by ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled with a photodiode array detector. The separations were performed on an ACQUITY UPLC BEH C18 (2.1 × 50 mm2, 1.7 μm column. Methanol and 0.1% formic acid aqueous solution were used as the mobile phase. The flow rate was 0.3 mL/min. 2 aconitum alkaloids and 12 ginsenosides could be perfectly separated within 15 minutes. Ginsenoside Rg1 and benzoylmesaconine, the easily available active components, were employed as the maker components to calculate the relative correction factors of other components in Shenfu injection, Panax ginseng and Aconitum carmichaeli. The external standard method was also established to validate the feasibility of the method with few markers to determine multicomponents. Parameter p and the principal component analysis method were employed to investigate the disparities among batches for the effective quality control of Shenfu injection. The results demonstrated that the ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled with a photodiode array detector method with few markers to determine multicomponents could be used as a powerful tool for the quality evaluation of traditional Chinese medicines and their preparations.

  19. Identification of Oxygenated Fatty Acid as a Side Chain of Lipo-Alkaloids in Aconitum carmichaelii by UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS and a Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Ying; Wu, Jian-Lin; Leung, Elaine Lai-Han; Zhou, Hua; Liu, Zhongqiu; Yan, Guanyu; Liu, Ying; Liu, Liang; Li, Na

    2016-03-31

    Lipo-alkaloid is a kind of C19-norditerpenoid alkaloid usually found in Aconitum species. Structurally, they contain an aconitane skeleton and one or two fatty acid moieties of 3-25 carbon chains with 1-6 unsaturated degrees. Analysis of the lipo-alkaloids in roots of Aconitum carmichaelii resulted in the isolation of six known pure lipo-alkaloids (A1-A6) and a lipo-alkaloid mixture (A7). The mixture shared the same aconitane skeleton of 14-benzoylmesaconine, but their side chains were determined to be 9-hydroxy-octadecadienoic acid, 13-hydroxy-octadecadienoic acid and 10-hydroxy-octadecadienoic acid, respectively, by MS/MS analysis after alkaline hydrolysis. To our knowledge, this is the first time of the reporting of the oxygenated fatty acids as the side chains in naturally-occurring lipo-alkaloids. In order to identify more lipo-alkaloids, a compound database was established based on various combinations between the aconitane skeleton and the fatty acid chain, and then, the identification of lipo-alkaloids was conducted using the database, UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS and MS/MS. Finally, 148 lipo-alkaloids were identified from A. carmichaelii after intensive MS/MS analysis, including 93 potential new compounds and 38 compounds with oxygenated fatty acid moieties.

  20. Researches on Population, Reproductive Biology and Protection Measures of Aconitum Brachypodum in Lijiang Region%濒危药用植物短柄乌头丽江居群繁殖生物学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李娅琼; 游春

    2011-01-01

    目的:短柄乌头(Aconitum brachypodum)的居群与繁殖生物学特性进行研究,探明居群的繁殖特性.方法:对短柄乌头居群生境进行初步研究,对短柄乌头生育期、花开放动态、结实率、传粉媒介进行观察.结果:短柄乌头为雌雄同株异花传粉,传粉昆虫多为熊蜂,其结实率高,种子多而小,成熟期不一致.结论:短柄乌头的濒危原因主要是人为因素导致.%Objective : Aconitum brachypodum is an endangered species with a very small distributional area.To find out the possible cause of distributional limitedness , the population and reproductive biology were observed.Method : The environment of Aconitum brachypodum was observed, the developmental process from flower bud to f ruit was observed and discussed in this paper, and the pollination efficiency, the fertility, pollination insect and the plan of action pollination process was observed and discussed.Results : It was clear that the breeding behavior of Aconitum brachypodum belongs to cross - pollinate.The pollination insects are most bumblebees, the pollination efficiency and the fertility is very high, and the developing of che seed embryo is irregular.Conclusion :Population biology and the reproduction biology preliminary study of Aconitum brachypodum is all very important to its generation extension and even the evolution, so the consummation of this thesis provides the theory basis of protection and the direction of scientific cultivation and logical using.

  1. Preparative separation of C{sub 19}-diterpenoid alkaloids from Aconitum carmichaelii Debx by pH zone-refining counter-current chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Dahui [Institute of Medicinal Plants, Yunnan Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Kunming (China); Shu, Xikai; Wang, Xiao; Fang, Lei; Huang, Luqi, E-mail: wxjn1998@126.com [Shandong Analysis and Test Center, Shandong Academy of Sciences, Jinan, Shandong (China); Xi, Xingjun; Zheng, Zhenjia [China National institute of Standardization, Beijing (China)

    2013-11-01

    The technique of pH-zone-refining counter-current chromatography was successfully applied to preparatively separate three C{sub 19}-diterpenoid alkaloids from the crude extracts of Aconitum carmichaelii for the first time using a two-phase solvent system of petroleum ether-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (5:5:1:9, v/v/v/v). Mesaconitine (I), hypaconitine (II), and deoxyaconitine (III) were obtained from 2.5 g of the crude alkaloids in a one-step separation; the yields were 4.16%, 16.96%, and 5.05%, respectively. The purities of compounds I, II, and III were 93.0%, 95%, and 96%, respectively, as determined by HPLC. The chemical structures of the three compounds were identified by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and NMR. (author)

  2. Next-generation sequencing identification and characterization of microsatellite markers in Aconitum austrokoreense Koidz., an endemic and endangered medicinal plant of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Y-E; Yu, J-N; Nam, G H; Ryu, S-A; Kim, S; Oh, K; Lim, C E

    2015-05-11

    We used next-generation sequencing to develop 9 novel microsatellite markers in Aconitum austrokoreense, an endemic and endangered medicinal plant in Korea. Owing to its very limited distribution, over-harvesting for traditional medicinal purposes, and habitat loss, the natural populations are dramatically declining in Korea. All novel microsatellite markers were successfully genotyped using 64 samples from two populations (Mt. Choejeong, Gyeongsangbuk-do and Ungseokbong, Gyeongsangnam-do) of Gyeongsang Province. The number of alleles ranged from 2 to 7 per locus in each population. Observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.031 to 0.938 and from 0.031 to 0.697, respectively. The novel markers will be valuable tools for assessing the genetic diversity of A. austrokoreense and for germplasm conservation of this endangered species.

  3. Studies on the Diterpene Alkaloids of Aconitum macrorhynchum%细叶草乌的二萜生物碱成分研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵秋玲; 吴海燕; 杨姝; 羊晓东; 赵静峰; 李良

    2008-01-01

    对细叶草乌(Aconitum macrorhynchum)中的二萜生物碱进行研究.利用反复硅胶柱层析、重结晶等分离方法从中分离得到了5个二萜生物碱,用有机波谱学和理化常数测定鉴定了其结构,分别是:查斯曼宁(chas-manine,1)、塔拉萨敏(talatisamine,2)、滇乌碱( yunaconitine,3)、印乌碱(indaeonoitine,4)、粗茎乌碱甲(crassi-cauline A,5)、同时还得到β-谷甾醇(β-sitosterol,6)和β-胡萝卜苷(β-daueosterol,7).以上化合物均为首次从该植物中分离得到.

  4. Some phytochemical studies or the genera Aconitum L., Delphinium L. and Consolida (DC. S.F. Gray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de la Fuente, Gabriel

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available The diterpenoid alkaloids from Aconitum napellus L. subsp. castellanum Molera & Blanché, A. Burnatii Gayer, A. Compactum Reichenb., Delphinium gracile DC., D. pentagynum Lam., D. verdunense Balbis (= D. cardiopetalum DC., D. Requienii DC.. Consolida orientalis (Gay Schröd, subsp. orientalis i C. pubescens (OC. Soó. distributed in the Iberian Peninsula, and A . napellus L. s. Str. (from England, D. montanum DC. (from France, D. nanum Dc. subsp. elongatum (Boiss Blanché & al. (= D. peregrinum L. var. elongatum Boiss. (from Morocco i D. pictum Willd. (from Mallorca are reviewed. The alkaloid content, structural types. and oxygenation patterns are discussed with respect to related species.

    [ca] Es revisen els alcaloides diterpènics obtinguts d'Aconitum napellus L. subsp. castellanum Molera & Blanché, A. Burnatii Gayer, A. Compactum Reichenb., Delphinium gracile DC., D. pentagynum Lam., D. verdunense Balbis (= D. cardiopetalum DC., D. Requienii DC.. Consolida orientalis (Gay Schröd, subsp. orientalis and C. pubescens (OC. Soó. distribuïts a la Península Ibèrica, així com d'A . napellus L. s. Str. (d'Anglaterra, D. montanum DC. (de França, D. nanum Dc. subsp. elongatum (Boiss Blanché & al. (= D. peregrinum L. var. elongatum Boiss. (del Marroc i D. pictum Willd. (de Mallorca. El contingut en alcaloides, llurs tipus estructurals i models d'oxigenació són discutits en relació a d'alt res espècies afins.

  5. Research on Aconitum soongaricum and its processed products treatment for immunologic function of mice%新疆准噶尔乌头生品及其炮制品对小鼠免疫功能影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵翡翠; 卢军; 姜林; 聂继红

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To research Aconitum soongaricum and its processed products treatment on immunologic function of mice.Methods:Setting up immune paranormal and immunosuppressive mice model,mice were randomly divided into normal group,model group,positive group,Aconitum soongaricum and its processed products; in humoral immunology experiment,except normal group,each group was given drug intragastrically for 7 days,determined content of serum hemolysin in cellular immunology experiment,except normal group,each group was given drug intragastrically for 14 days,determined content of CD4+ and CD8+.Results:The contents of serum hemolysin were all lower to immune supernormal model group,Aconitum soongaricum and its processed products of pharmacopeia method had statistical significance (P<0.01),the content of serum hemolysin were all higher to immunosuppression model group,Aconitum soongaricum and its processed products of pharmacopeia method had statistical significance (P<0.01).There were no significant differences between Aconitum soongaricum and its processed products with immune supernormal model group in CD4+,CD8+ and CD+4+/CD8+.CD4+ of Aconitum soongaricum and its processed products of pharmacopeia method and document group were higher compared with immune supernormal model group (P<0.05).CD8+ of Aconitum soongaricum and its processed products of document group were higher compared with immunosuppression model group (P<0.05).CD4+/CD8+ of Aconitum soongaricum processed products of Kazakhs group were lower compared with immunosuppression model group (P<0.05).Conclusion:Aconitum soongaricum and its processed products of pharmacopeia method and document group have bidirectional control effects on humoral and cell immunological function,while Aconitum soongaricum processed products of Kazakhs group has inhibiting effect on humoral and cell immunological function.%目的:研究准噶尔乌头生品及其3种炮制品对小鼠免疫功能的影响.方法:昆明

  6. Simultaneous determination of thirteen aminoalcohol-diterpenoid alkaloids in the lateral roots of Aconitum carmichaeli by solid-phase extraction-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jia-Yu; Liu, Xiu-Xiu; Xiong, Dong-Mei; Ye, Li-Ming; Chao, Ruo-Bing

    2014-06-01

    Aminoalcohol-diterpenoid alkaloids have been reported as the cardioactive components in the lateral roots of Aconitum carmichaeli (Fuzi) according to recent studies. Determination of these effective components is of great significance for quality control purposes for Fuzi. Here we report, for the first, the development and validation of a new method to determine the 13 aminoalcohol-diterpenoid alkaloids in Fuzi by using a simple and accurate solid-phase extraction-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The chromatographic analysis was performed on an ODS column with methanol-0.1 % formic acid (80 : 20, v/v) as the mobile phase. The quantification was performed using MS/MS detection in the positive ion mode with multiple reaction monitoring. Linearity was observed within a range of concentrations of 20-2,000 ng/mL. For all the analytes, the r value was greater than 0.9990. The limit of detection and the limit of quantitation were less than 0.5 ng/mL and 2.0 ng/mL, respectively. The intraday and interday precisions were less than 5% and 10%, respectively. The accuracy was within the range of 90 to 105%. This method was successfully applied to determine the 13 aminoalcohol-diterpenoid alkaloids in Fuzi from different origins and with different processing methods.

  7. A New Norditerpenoid Alkaloid from Aconitum geniculatum%东川乌头中一个新的去甲二萜生物碱

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董锦艳; 李良

    2001-01-01

    从东川乌头(Aconitum geniculatum Fletcher et Lauener)块根的乙醇提取物中分离得到3个去甲二萜生物碱,经1D、2D-NMR技术鉴定,分别为20-乙基-8-乙酰氧基-14-(对-羟基苯甲酰氧基)-1α,6α,16β,18-四甲氧基乌头烷-3α,13β二醇(1)、20-乙基-8-乙酰氧基-14-苯酯基乌头烷-3α,13β二醇( 2)和20-乙基-8-乙酰氧基-14-(对-甲氧基苯酯基)乌头烷-3α,13β二醇 (3), 其中1为新化合物,命名为滇羟碱 (geniculine).

  8. Hypolipidemic effect of methanol fraction of Aconitum heterophyllum wall ex Royle and the mechanism of action in diet-induced obese rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Koorappally Subash

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aconitum heterophyllum is an endangered Himalayan plant included in "lekhaneyagana," a pharmacological classification mentioned by Charaka in "Charakasamhita" which means reduce excess fat. The subterranean part of the plant is used for the treatment of diseases like nervous system disorders, fever, diarrhea, obesity, etc. In the present study, we are reporting the hypolipidemic effect of methanol fraction of A. heterophyllum. The methanol extract of A. heterophyllum was orally administered in diet-induced obese rats. After four weeks treatment, blood samples were collected for the estimation of serum lipids and lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT. Liver was collected for the assay of HMG-CoA reductase (HMGR. The fecal samples were also collected to estimate the fecal fat content. The A. heterophyllum treatment markedly lowered total cholesterol, triglycerides and apolipoprotein B concentrations in blood serum. It also showed positive effects (increase on serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c and apolipoprotein A1 concentrations. On the other hand, A. heterophyllum treatment lowered HMGR activity, which helps to reduce endogenous cholesterol synthesis and also activated LCAT, helping increase in HDL-c. An increase in fecal fat content is also an indication of the hypolipidemic effect of A. heterophyllum. The significant hypolipidemic effect of A. heterophyllum may be linked to its ability to inhibit HMGR activity and block intestinal fat absorption. The increase in HDL-c may be linked to its ability to activate LCAT enzyme.

  9. Toxicity assessment of nine types of decoction pieces from the daughter root of Aconitum carmichaeli (Fuzi) based on the chemical analysis of their diester diterpenoid alkaloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Guanghua; Dong, Zhengqi; Wang, Qing; Qian, Guangsheng; Huang, Wenhua; Jiang, Zhihong; Leung, Kelvin Sze-Yin; Zhao, Zhongzhen

    2010-05-01

    Various processed types of FUZI (the daughter roots of the highly toxic plant Aconitum carmichaeli Debx, FZ) decoction pieces (the herbal materials processed according to the specifications of Chinese medicine manuals; " YINPIAN" in Chinese transliteration) are widely used in traditional medicine to treat various diseases, but their toxicities are not known. Nine types of FZ decoction pieces, including one raw slice and eight processed forms, were therefore prepared, each in 7 to 10 batches, to assess for their toxicity. Altogether 84 FZ samples were quantified on the amount of highly toxic diester diterpenoid alkaloids, i.e., aconitine, mesaconitine and hypaconitine by a newly developed HPLC method with HPLC-DAD and LC-MS techniques. The comparison of the processed FZ to raw slices of the root showed that the amount of each analyte in the processed FZ was drastically decreased. The sum of the three toxic compounds in the 8 types of processed FZ was only 3.91-34.80 % of this value in the FZ raw slice. This implies that the toxicity of processed FZ was decreased significantly. The amounts of toxic components in the 8 types of processed FZ varied significantly, often by a power of ten, indicating that the dosage of these herbs, when prescribed for clinical uses, should be cautiously set in order to avoid poisoning incidents.

  10. The role of late-acting self-incompatibility and early-acting inbreeding depression in governing female fertility in monkshood, Aconitum kusnezoffii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Qi Hao

    Full Text Available Reduced seed yields following self-pollination have repeatedly been observed, but the underlying mechanisms remain elusive when self-pollen tubes can readily grow into ovaries, because pre-, post-zygotic late-acting self-incompatibility (LSI, or early-acting inbreeding depression (ID can induce self-sterility. The main objective of this study was to differentiate these processes in Aconitum kusnezoffii, a plant lacking stigmatic or stylar inhibition of self-pollination. We performed a hand-pollination experiment in a natural population of A. kusnezoffii, compared seed set among five pollination treatments, and evaluated the distribution of seed size and seed set. Embryonic development suggested fertilization following self-pollination. A partial pre-zygotic LSI was suggested to account for the reduced seed set by two lines of evidence. The seed set of chase-pollination treatment significantly exceeded that of self-pollination treatment, and the proportion of unfertilized ovules was the highest following self-pollination. Meanwhile, early-acting ID, rather than post-zygotic LSI, was suggested by the findings that the size of aborted selfed seeds varied continuously and widely; and the selfed seed set both exhibited a continuous distribution and positively correlated with the crossed seed set. These results indicated that the embryos were aborted at different stages due to the expression of many deleterious alleles throughout the genome during seed maturation. No signature of post-zygotic LSI was found. Both partial pre-zygotic LSI and early-acting ID contribute to the reduction in selfed seed set in A. kusnezoffii, with pre-zygotic LSI rejecting part of the self-pollen and early-acting ID aborting part of the self-fertilized seeds.

  11. An Evaluation of Allelopathy in the Toxic Grassland Weed,Aconitum leucostomum%草原毒害草白喉乌头的化感作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩彩霞; 彭瑞娟; 邰凤姣; 张弛; 邵华

    2015-01-01

    采用培养皿滤纸法,研究白喉乌头根、茎、叶的粉末,三氯甲烷提取物及水提取物在不同浓度下(0.01、0.02、0.05、0.10 g/mL)对受体植物高羊茅、草地早熟禾、垂穗披碱草和蒲公英幼苗生长的影响。结果表明,白喉乌头根、茎、叶的不同处理对受体植物的根长和苗高均具有抑制作用,其中三氯甲烷提取物的作用最弱,粉末次之,水提取物的抑制作用最强,说明其主效化感物质为水溶性化合物。白喉乌头各部位的化感作用强度无本质差异,表明其化感物质在植株各部位均有分布。%The allelopathic effect of powdered and chloroform and aqueous extracts from the root,stem and leaves of Aconi-tum leucostomum at 0.01,0.02,0.05,and 0.10 g/mL on the receptor plants,Festuca elata,Poa pratensis,Elymus nutans and Taraxacum officinale were studied with the culture dish method.Allelochemicals from the root,stem and leaves of A. leucostomum inhibited root and seedling height of receptor plants.The lowest biological activity was observed with the chloroform extract,that of the powder was intermediate,and the aqueous extract was the most active,indicating that water -soluble compounds were the major allelochemicals of A.leucostomum.There was no difference in activity among plant parts of A.leucostomum,implying that its major allelochemicals are distributed throughout the plant.

  12. Guanfu base A, an antiarrhythmic alkaloid of Aconitum coreanum, Is a CYP2D6 inhibitor of human, monkey, and dog isoforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jianguo; Peng, Ying; Wu, Hui; Zhang, Xueyuan; Zhong, Yunxi; Xiao, Yanan; Zhang, Fengyi; Qi, Huanhuan; Shang, Lili; Zhu, Jianping; Sun, Yue; Liu, Ke; Liu, Jinghan; A, Jiye; Ho, Rodney J Y; Wang, Guangji

    2015-05-01

    Guanfu base A (GFA) is a novel heterocyclic antiarrhythmic drug isolated from Aconitum coreanum (Lèvl.) rapaics and is currently in a phase IV clinical trial in China. However, no study has investigated the influence of GFA on cytochrome P450 (P450) drug metabolism. We characterized the potency and specificity of GFA CYP2D inhibition based on dextromethorphan O-demethylation, a CYP2D6 probe substrate of activity in human, mouse, rat, dog, and monkey liver microsomes. In addition, (+)-bufuralol 1'-hydroxylation was used as a CYP2D6 probe for the recombinant form (rCYP2D6), 2D1 (rCYP2D1), and 2D2 (rCYP2D2) activities. Results show that GFA is a potent noncompetitive inhibitor of CYP2D6, with inhibition constant Ki = 1.20 ± 0.33 μM in human liver microsomes (HLMs) and Ki = 0.37 ± 0.16 μM for the human recombinant form (rCYP2D6). GFA is also a potent competitive inhibitor of CYP2D in monkey (Ki = 0.38 ± 0.12 μM) and dog (Ki = 2.4 ± 1.3 μM) microsomes. However, GFA has no inhibitory activity on mouse or rat CYP2Ds. GFA did not exhibit any inhibition activity on human recombinant CYP1A2, 2A6, 2C8, 2C19, 3A4, or 3A5, but showed slight inhibition of 2B6 and 2E1. Preincubation of HLMs and rCYP2D6 resulted in the inactivation of the enzyme, which was attenuated by GFA or quinidine. Beagle dogs treated intravenously with dextromethorphan (2 mg/ml) after pretreatment with GFA injection showed reduced CYP2D metabolic activity, with the Cmax of dextrorphan being one-third that of the saline-treated group and area under the plasma concentration-time curve half that of the saline-treated group. This study suggests that GFA is a specific CYP2D6 inhibitor that might play a role in CYP2D6 medicated drug-drug interaction.

  13. Simultaneous determination of ten Aconitum alkaloids in rat tissues by UHPLC-MS/MS and its application to a tissue distribution study on the compatibility of Heishunpian and Fritillariae thunbergii Bulbus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bin; Xu, Yanyan; Wu, Yuanyuan; Wu, Huanyu; Wang, Yuan; Yuan, Lei; Xie, Jiabin; Li, Yubo; Zhang, Yanjun

    2016-10-15

    A rapid, sensitive and selective ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for simultaneous determination of ten Aconitum alkaloids in rat tissues. The tissue samples were prepared by a simple procedure protein precipitation with acetonitrile containing 0.1% acetic acid and separated on an Agilent XDB C18 column (4.6 mm×50mm, 1.8μm) using gradient elution with a mobile phase consisting of water and acetonitrile (both containing 0.1% formic acid) at a flow rate of 0.3mL/min. The quantitive determination was performed on an electrospray ionization (ESI) triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer using selective reaction monitoring (SRM) under positive ionization mode. The established method was fully validated according to the USA Food and Drug Administration (FDA) bioanalytical method validation guidance and the results demonstrated that the method was sensitive and selective with the lowest limits of quantification (LLOQ) at 0.025ng/mL in rat tissue homogenates. Meanwhile, the linearity, precision, accuracy, extraction recovery, matrix effect and stability were all within the required limits of biological sample analysis. After method validation, the validated method was successfully applied to the tissue distribution study on the compatibility of Heishunpian (HSP, the processed product of Aconitum carmichaelii Debx) and Fritillariae thunbergii Bulbus (Zhebeimu, ZBM). The results indicated that the distribution feature of monoester diterpenoid aconitines (MDAs), diester diterpenoid aconitines (DDAs) and non-ester alkaloids (NEAs) were inconsistency, and the compatibility of HSP and ZBM resulted in the distribution amount of DDAs increased in tissues. What's more, the results could provide the reliable basis for systematic research on the substance foundation of the compatibility of the herbal pair.

  14. Effect and mechanism of alcohol extractive from Aconitum excelsum on isolated tracheal smooth muscles in guinea pigs%蒙药紫花高乌头醇提物对豚鼠离体气管平滑肌的作用及机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩瑞兰; 常福厚; 肖云峰; 王敏杰

    2011-01-01

    Objective To observe the effect of alcohol extract from Aconitum excelsum on tracheal smooth muscles and its anti-asthmatic mechanism. Methods Isolated tracheal circle was used to observe the effect of Aconitum excelsum in low-dose, medium-dose, and high-dose on isolated smooth muscle tension pretreated by acetylcholine. Results Aconitum excelsum caused relaxation of the isolated tracheal smooth muscles pre-contracted by acetylcholine and the relaxation increased with the doses. Aconitum excelsum shifted the dose-response curves of acetylcholine to the right and inhibited the maximum response. Conclusion The extract of Aconitum excelsum can relax the isolated tracheal smooth muscles in guinea pigs by non-competitive antagonist acetylcholine.%目的 观察蒙药紫花高乌头醇提物对豚鼠离体气管平滑肌张力的影响,探讨紫花高乌头醇提物的平喘机制.方法 用离体气管环法观察紫花高乌头醇提物高、中、低3种不同剂量作用于由乙酰胆碱(Ach)预收缩的豚鼠离体气管平滑肌,观察其对平滑肌张力的影响及对Ach诱发的离体气管平滑肌收缩的量效曲线的影响.结果 蒙药紫花高乌头醇提物可舒张由Ach诱发的豚鼠离体气管平滑肌收缩,且舒张作用随剂量增加而加强.紫花高乌头醇提物能使Ach诱发的豚鼠离体气管平滑肌收缩效应的量效曲线右移,最大效能降低.结论 蒙药紫花高乌头醇提物对豚鼠离体气管平滑肌有舒张作用,可能与非竞争性拮抗Ach的收缩作用有关.

  15. Study on Optimization of Extraction Technology for Total Alkaloids of Aconitum flavum by Orthogonal Design Method%正交试验优化铁棒锤生物碱提取工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜弢; 陈红刚; 林丽; 魏学明

    2011-01-01

    目的:优选铁棒锤生物碱的最佳提取工艺.方法:选择溶剂、提取次数、洗涤次数为考察因素,以总生物碱的含量为考察指标,采用正交试验法优选铁棒锤生物碱的最佳提取工艺.结果:铁棒锤生物碱的最佳提取工艺为浸提次数3次,提取溶剂为乙醚-三氯甲烷(3∶1),洗涤1次.结论:优选得到的提取工艺稳定性好、得率高、简便可行.%Objective:To optimize the extraction technology for total alkaloids in the root of Aconitum flavum. Method: Dissolvent, times of extraction and washing were the test factors and the total alkaloids were the test index. The orthogonal design was used to optimize the extraction technology of total alkaloids. Result: The optimal extraction method was as follows: the ether: chloroform (3: 1 ) as dissolvent, extraction 3 times and washing once.Conclusion: The technology after optimization had a good stability, the yield of total alkaloids was high, and the method was easy to operate.

  16. The Optimization of HPLC Determination for Three Kinds of Alkaloids in Aconitum kongboense L .%工布乌头中三种生物碱HPLC法测定优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王若丁; 王超; 孟凡娟; 彭光华; 兰小中

    2014-01-01

    In order to optimize the extracting method of alkaloids in Aconitum kongboense L .,the content of mesaconitine ,talatisamine and aconitine were determined by HPLC .The results showed that 10% ammonia 1 mL ,ether 20 mL ,soak for 24 h ,30 min after ultrasonic treatment could be used to the quantitative analysis of the alkaloids of A conitum kongboense L ..%为优化工布乌头中生物碱的测定方法,采用 H PLC法测定工布乌头中新乌头碱、塔拉萨敏和乌头碱的含量。结果表明:采用10%氨水1 mL、乙醚20 mL ,浸泡24 h后超声处理30 min可有效地对工布乌头中生物碱进行定量分析。

  17. 草乌花蜜产量的梯度分布及熊蜂自下而上的访花行为%Flight patterns of bumblebees (Bombus ignitus) on vertical inflorescences of Aconitum kusnezoffii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马海萍; 赵大贺; 廖万金

    2012-01-01

    Nectar-collecting bumblebees usually move upward while foraging in consecutive flowers on vertical inflorescences. This tendency to successively move upwards has been suggested to be a direct response to available nectar rewards. Therefore, bumblebees starting at bottom flowers will visit the most rewarding flowers first. An alternative explanation is that bumblebees have a better view of the flowers above than those below and they fly to those they can most readily see while maintaining an upright orientation. To evaluate these two hypotheses, we recorded flight patterns of bumblebee (Bombus ignitus) nectar foraging behaviors on upward and downward vertical inflorescences of monkshood (Aconitum kusnezoffii) and measured the difference in the reward for bumblebee from nectar between lower (female phase) and upper (male phase) flowers. We found significant support for the hypothesis explaining bottom-to-up flights while visiting upward vertical inflorescences. Nectar analysis indicated that both nectar volume and sugar content in lower female-phase flowers were significantly higher than those in upper male-phase flowers. Our findings suggest that B. ignitus forage from more to less rewarding flowers and depart when gain of reward is low. We also noted bottom-to-up foraging behaviors for both the downward and upward vertical inflorescences. However, pollinators started from less rewarding male-phase flowers, which was inconsistent with the declining reward hypothesis. Our results suggest that gender-biased nectar production towards the female phase does not directly regulate bumblebee foraging sequences, but rather attract bumblebees starting from the bottom female-phase flowers.%收益降低假说(declining reward hypothesis)认为熊蜂自下而上的访花顺序是对花蜜产量的直接响应,先访问下部花蜜产量高的花可以获得更多的收益;花开口方向假说认为自下而上访花是因为熊蜂更容易看见其上

  18. Enrichment and Purification of Alkaloids from Aconitum carmichaelii with D101 Macroporous Resin%D101型大孔树脂纯化附子生物碱

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭拓华; 张少俊; 钟世顺; 杨毅达; 杨彤

    2012-01-01

    Objective; To resarch chemical composition change after enrichment and purification of alkaloids from Aconitum carmichaelii with D101 macroporous resin. Method: Taking transfer rate of total alkaloids, diester diterpenoid alkaloids, aconitine, hypaconitine and mesaconitine as indexes, before and after purification, the content of alkaloids from extracts of A. carmichaelii was determined by UV and HPLC, ingredients of alkaloids differentiated by TLC. Result; Alkaloids from A. carmichaelii was enriched by D101 macroporous resin, transfer rate and purity of total alkaloids were 83. 70% , 67. 34% , respectively; Transfer rate of aconitine, hypaconitine and mesaconitine were 77.78% , 94. 12% , 52.63% ; It showed 6 similar biological spots by TLC comparison, this indicated that there was no significant difference before and after enrichment of alkaloids composition. Conclusion; D101 type macroporous resin could effectively enhance purity of total alkaloids from A. carmichaelii with high transfer rate of alkaloids, it could be used for production promotion.%目的:研究附子生物碱经D101型大孔树脂富集后化学成分的变化.方法:以附子中总生物碱、酯型生物碱、乌头碱、次乌头碱及新乌头碱的转移率为指标,采用UV,HPLC,TLC分别对富集前后附子提取物中的生物碱进行含量测定及其成分鉴别.结果:采用D101型大孔树脂富集附子生物碱,总生物碱转移率83.70%,纯度67.34%;乌头碱转移率77.78%,次乌头碱转移率94.12%,新乌头碱转移率52.63%;TLC比较发现显示6个相似的生物斑点,说明富集前后生物碱化学成分无明显差异.结论:D101型大孔树脂能有效提高附子中总生物碱的纯度,且各生物碱转移率较高,可用于大生产推广.

  19. 岩乌头根部的生物碱类成分及其抗PAF活性%Diterpenoid Alkaloids from roots of Aconitum recemulosum and their inhibitory effects on PAF-induced platelet aggregation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛永辉; 穆淑珍; 张建新; 汪冶; 孙黔云; 郝小江

    2009-01-01

    Objective:To study diterpenoid alkaloids from the roots of Aconitum recemulosum,and their inhibitory effects on PAF-induced platelet aggregation.Method:The root of A.recemulosum was extracted with 95% EtOH.The total alkaloids extracted were isolated and purified by several kinds of column chromatography over silica gel,RP-18,and Sephadex LH-20,and identified based on spectral analysis.And the inhibitory effects of isolated compounds on PAF-induced platelet aggregation were detected.Result:Five alkaloids were isolated and identified as sachaconitine(1),14-acetylsachaconitine(2),hemsleyanine C(3),circinasine A(4),and talatisamine(5).The results showed compounds 1 and 2 have moderate inhibition effect on PAF.Conclusion:Compounds 1-5 were firstly isolated from this plant.Furthermore,compounds 1 and 2 possessed moderate inhibitory effects on PAF-induced platelet aggregation.%目的:研究岩乌头根部的二萜生物碱类成分及其抗PAF活性.方法:95%乙醇提取,所得浸膏采用经典的酸-碱处理方法,得到总碱,总碱经硅胶,RP-18,sephadex LH-20等多种材料柱色谱分离,得到生物碱单体,再通过波谱解析鉴定其化学结构;并对分离鉴定的生物碱进行抗PAF活性的检测.结果:分离鉴定了5个二萜类生物碱,分别为sachaconitine(1),14-acetylsachaconitine(2),hemsleyanine C(3),circinasine A(4),talatisamine(5);化合物1和2显示了一定的抗PAF活性.结论:所有化合物均为首次从该植物中分得,化合物1和2对PAF诱导的血小板聚集具有一定的抑制作用.

  20. 乌头块根浸提液对3种牧草的化感效应%Allelopathic effects of extracts from tuberous roots of Aconitum carmichaeli on three pasture grasses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦玉洁; 王亚麒; 袁玲

    2015-01-01

    乌头Aconitum carmichaeli是传统的大宗中药材之一,广泛种植于四川省江油市,所释放的化感物质严重影响周围和后茬作物的生长发育.试验以当地种植乌头的后茬牧草白三叶、黑麦草和紫花苜蓿为材料,研究了乌头块根浸提液(ETR)浸种对种子萌发和幼苗生长的化感效应.结果表明,牧草品种不同,种子发芽和幼苗生长对ETR浓度的响应也不一样.低浓度的ETR(0.01 g·L-1)促进紫花苜蓿种子发芽,ETR 1.00 9·L-对3种牧草的种子发芽率均有抑制作用.用高浓度的ETR(1.00 g·L-1)浸种,苗高的最大降幅为:紫花苜蓿(42.05%)≥白三叶(40.21%)>黑麦草(10.64%).因此,在乌头-牧草种植体系中,选择对ETR相对不敏感的黑麦草有益于减轻乌头产生的化感效应,提高土地整体生产力.随ETR浸种浓度提高,抑制牧草种子中的蛋白质、淀粉和肌醇磷酸盐水解,降低游离氨基酸、可溶性糖和可溶性磷含量,进而影响种子发芽.此外,高浓度的ETR还显著降低牧草幼苗的根系活力、硝酸还原酶活性和叶绿素含量,说明ETR中的化感成分可抑制养分吸收,硝酸盐同化和光合作用,妨碍幼苗生长.

  1. FIVE NEW NORDITERPENOID ALKALOIDS FROM ACONITUM SINOMONTANUM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG-PENG WANG; CHONG-SHENG PENG; XI-XIAN JIAN; DONG-LIN CHEN

    2001-01-01

    From the roots of A conitum sinomontanum, five new norditerpenoid alkaloids, sinomontanitines A (1) and B (2), sinomontanines A (3), B (4) and C (5), were isolated together with the known alkaloids lappaconitine (6) and ranaconitine (7), The structures of the new alkaloids were determined by spectral analysis.

  2. Influence of the Joint Medication of Ampelopsis japonica Root and Aconitum carmichaelii Root on the Function and Pathological Morphology of the Heart, Liver and Kidneyin Rats%白蔹、乌头合用对小鼠心、肝、肾功能及病理形态的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张寒; 贾敏

    2012-01-01

    目的:观察十八反药物白蔹反乌头应用时对小鼠的毒性作用.方法:连续14 d给予小鼠乌头、白蔹、乌头-白蔹水煎剂,末次给药后30 min取小鼠血液并分离血清,测定血清总蛋白(TP)、血清白蛋白(ALB)、丙氨酸转氨酶(ALT)、天冬氨酸转氨酶(AST)、尿素氮(BUN)、肌酐(Cr)、乳酸脱氢酶(LDH);处死后进行尸检,取心、肝、肾测定脏器系数并做病理检查.结果:血液生化指标检查结果表明,单用乌头组ALT,AST值升高(P<0.05);单用白蔹组AST升高(P<0.05);两药合用组ALT,AST,LDH均升高(P<0.01或P<0.05);其余各组各项生化指标的变化均在正常值范围内波动.脏器系数检查结果表明:单用乌头组肝脏系数增加(P<0.05),两药合用组肝、肾脏器系数均增加(P <0.01或P<0.05).尸检及病理组织学检查结果表明:两药合用组小鼠肝、肾可见明显改变.结论:十八反药物乌头与白蔹合用时对小鼠毒性增强.%Objective: To observe theinfluence of the joint medication of Ampelopsis japonica root and Aconitum carmichaelii root on the function and pathological morphology of the heart, liver and kidney in rats. Method: Rats were administrated with water decoction of A. japonica and A. carmichaelii for successive 14 days. At thirty minutes after the last administration, the serum levels of total serum protein ( TP) , albumin ( Alb) , alanine aminotransferase ( ALT) , aspartate aminotransferase ( AST) , blood urea nitrogen ( BUN) , creatinine ( Cr) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were measured. Autopsy was conducted after the death of the rats and the heart, liver, kidney were harvested for pathological examination. The index of viscera was calculated. Result: The levelof ALT and AST ( P < 0. 05 ) was increased in the A. japonica group; the level of AST ( P < 0. 05 ) was increased in the aconitum group. When treated with A. japonica and A. carmichaelii jointly, the level of ALT, AST and LDH (P <0. 01 or P <0

  3. Effects of total alkaloids of Aconitum sungpanens Hand-Mazz on morphine-induced behavioral senitization and withdrawal sympotoms of morphine-dependence%松潘乌头总碱对吗啡行为敏化及其依赖戒断症状的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李敏; 王建治; 刘秀花; 焦海胜

    2012-01-01

    目的 研究松潘乌头总碱(TAA)对吗啡行为敏化及其依赖戒断症状的影响.方法 小鼠皮下注射吗啡10 mg/(kg.d),连续7d,建立吗啡诱导的小鼠行为敏化模型,观察TAA对行为敏化形成和表达的影响,恒量法和剂量递增法建立小鼠及大鼠吗啡依赖模型,观察TAA对吗啡依赖动物戒断症状的影响.结果 TAA(1.5~3.0 mg/kg)可抑制小鼠吗啡行为敏化的形成和表达过程;对吗啡依赖动物戒断评分值、体重下降均有明显抑制作用.结论 TAA可阻止吗啡成瘾行为的形成,可改善吗啡依赖动物的戒断症状,TAA对吗啡依赖可能有一定的干预作用.%Objective To study the effects of total alkaloids of Aconitum sungpanens Hand-Mazz (TAA) on morphine-induced behavioral sensitizations in mice and its effects on the withdrawal symptoms of morphine-dependence in mice and rats. Methods Mice were made behavioral sensi-tization to morphine by subcutaneous injection of 10 mg/(kg·d) morphine for 7 days, and treated with combination of morphine and TAA to investigate the effects of TAA on the sensitization to morphine. Morphine-dependent models were administrated by a constant and a gradual increasing dosage in mice and rats, and followed by the treatment of TAA. The withdrawal syndromes were scored spontaneous withdrawal after stop administration of morphine and after naloxone precipitation. Results TAA obviously blocked the development and expression of behavioral sensitization to morphine in mice. It also could inhibit the withdrawal syndromes and body weight loss in morphine-dependent mice and rats. Conclusion TAA can inhibit the development of morphine addiction behavior and morphine-withdrawal syndromes.

  4. 基于化学组分动态变化的附子配伍甘草煎煮条件研究%Optimization of Decoction Conditions of Compatibility of Aconitum carmichaelii and Glycyrrhiza uralensis Base on Dynamic Change of Chemical Components

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦素红; 章津铭; 何宇新; 何瑶; 廖婉; 傅超美

    2012-01-01

    目的:研究与甘草配伍前后,附子化学组分在煎煮过程中的动态变化规律,以确定附子配伍甘草的最佳煎煮条件.方法:测定不同时间附子单煎液和附子-甘草合煎液中乌头总碱及3种双酯型生物碱的含量,确定最佳煎煮条件;考察最佳煎煮工艺所得汤液的大鼠心脏毒性.结果:附子-甘草配伍的最佳煎煮条件为大火煮沸后小火微沸保持30 min;在煎煮0~90 min时,附子-甘草配伍前后的乌头总碱及3种双酯型生物碱的含量呈现不同的变化趋势,30 min时达两者综合的峰值;煎煮30 min的单附煎液和附子-甘草合煎液均表现出一定的大鼠毒性,但合煎液心脏毒性较小.结论:优选的配伍煎煮工艺可为中药复方及临床应用中附子的“减毒存性”提供参考.%Objective: To study on dynamic change rule of chemical components from Aconitum carmichaelii during decoction process after and before compatibility with Glycyrrhiza uralensis, in order to determine optimum decoction conditions of compatibility of G. uralensis and A. carmichaelii. Method: To determine optimum decoction conditions by determining the contents of total alkaloids and 3 kinds of double ester alkaloid in different decoction time, which were from single decoction liquid of A. carmichaelii and mixed decoction liquid of G. uralensis and A. carmichaelii. And rats cardiac toxicity of soup with optimum boiling technology was investigated. Result; Optimum boiling technology of G. uralensis-A. carmichaelii was; after boiling with a blaze, kept boiling 30 min with small fire. During 0-90 min decoction process, it showed different change trend of the contents of total alkaloids and 3 kinds of double ester alkaloid before and after compatibility of G. uralensis and A. carmichaelii, it reached to both comprehensive peak value in 30 min; both single decoction liquid of A. Carmichaelii and mixed decoction liquid of G. uralensis and A. carmichaelii showed some

  5. [Fatal poisoning caused by aconite monk's hood (Aconitum napellus)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldkamp, A; Köster, B; Weber, H P

    1991-06-01

    Severe intoxications after ingestion of monk's hood are rare in childhood. We report a case of fatal intoxication in a 20 months old child. There is no specific therapy available. A review of the literature is added.

  6. Environ: E00576 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00576 Aconitum tuberous root Crude drug Aconitum kusnesoffii, Aconitum [TAX:49188]... Ranunculaceae (buttercup family) Aconitum kusnesoffii, Aconitum tuberous root Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dico...t plants: others Ranunculaceae (buttercup family) E00576 Aconitum tuberous root ...

  7. Environ: E00577 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00577 Aconitum triphyllum tuberous root Crude drug Aconitum triphyllum, Aconitum [...TAX:49188] Ranunculaceae (buttercup family) Aconitum triphyllum tuberous root Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot... plants: others Ranunculaceae (buttercup family) E00577 Aconitum triphyllum tuberous root ...

  8. Environ: E00359 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00359 Aconitum japonicum tuberous root Crude drug Aconitine [CPD:C06091], Mesaconi...amine [CPD:C06346], Coryneine chloride Aconitum japonicum, Aconitum [TAX:49188] Ranunculaceae (buttercup family) Aconitum... japonicum tuberous root Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: others Ranunculaceae (buttercup family) E00359 Aconitum tuberous root ...

  9. New flavonol glycosides from the flowers of Aconitum napellus ssp. tauricum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fico, G; Braca, A; Bilia, A R; Tomè, F; Morelli, I

    2001-04-01

    From the methanolic extract of the flowers of A. napellus spp. tauricum four new flavonol glycosides: quercetin 3-O-(6-trans-caffeoyl)-beta-glucopyranosyl-(1-->2)-beta-glucopyranoside-7- O-alpha-rhamnopyranoside (1), kaempferol 3-O-(6-trans-caffeoyl)-beta-glucopyranosyl-(1-->2)-beta- glucopyranoside-7-O-alpha-rhamnopyranoside (2), quercetin 3-O-(6-trans-p-coumaroyl)-beta-glucopyranosyl-(1-->2)-beta- glucopyranoside-7-O-alpha-rhamnopyranoside (3), and kaempferol 3-O-(6-trans-p-coumaroyl)-beta-glucopyranosyl-(1-->2)-beta- glucopyranoside-7-O-alpha-rhamnopyranoside (4), together with the known beta-3,4-dihydroxyphenethyl beta-glucopyranoside were isolated. The structural elucidation of all compounds was deduced on the basis of 1H- and 13C-NMR spectral data, including those derived from 2D-NMR, as well as on HPLC-MS results.

  10. Anatomical structure of Aconitum napellus over ground part and subterranean organs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tatiana L kiseleva; Ekaterina Y Ladyiguina; Larisa N Frolova; Nina N Melnikova; Elena V Tsvetayeva; Julia A Smirnova

    2010-01-01

    @@ Aconite or monkshood is various and counts as many as 300 types. All types can be distinguished by color of flowers, flower galea heights, number of follicles and mostly, by their root system~([1]).

  11. Evaluation of antifungal and antioxidant potential of two medicinal plants: Aconitum heterophyllum and Polygonum bistorta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelma Munir

    2014-07-01

    Conclusions: It was observed that A. heterophyllum and P. bistorta have significant antioxidant activity. Higher antioxidant activity was recorded in methanolic extract of A. heterophyllum as compared to its ethanolic extract. However, in case of P. bistorta ethanolic extract of the plant exhibited higher antioxidant potential than methanolic extracts. Hence both of these plants have significant antimicrobial as well as antioxidant potential.

  12. Environ: E00579 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00579 Processed aconitum japonicum tuberous root Crude drug Aconitum japonicum, Ac...t with caustic lime (dried) Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: others Ranunculaceae (buttercup family) E00579 Processed aconitum japonicum tuberous root ...

  13. Environ: E00574 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00574 Processed aconitum carmicha daughter root Crude drug Aconitum carmichaeli [T...AX:85363] Same as: D06784 Ranunculaceae (buttercup family) Aconitum carmichael daughter root with cortex soa

  14. Environ: E00580 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00580 Aconitum coreanum tuberous root Crude drug Aconitum coreanum [TAX:662772] Ra...nunculaceae (buttercup family) Aconitum coreanum tuberous root Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: others Ranunculaceae (buttercup family) E00580 Aconitum coreanum tuberous root ...

  15. Environ: E00256 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00256 Aconitum carmichaeli mother root Crude drug Aconitine [CPD:C06091], Jesaconi...onitine [CPD:C08704]), Coryneine chloride Aconitum carmichaeli [TAX:85363] Same as: D07152 Ranunculaceae (bu...ttercup family) Aconitum carmichael mother root Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot pl...ants: others Ranunculaceae (buttercup family) E00256 Aconitum carmichaeli mother root ...

  16. Environ: E00575 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00575 Aconitum carmichael daughter root Crude drug Aconitum carmichaeli [TAX:85363...] Ranunculaceae (buttercup family) Aconitum carmichael daughter root (dried) Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot ...plants: others Ranunculaceae (buttercup family) E00575 Aconitum carmichael daughter root ...

  17. Determination of Aconitine and its Metabolites in Animal Experiment by LC/ESI - MSn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Duan Ming-Yu; ZHANG Hong-gui; ZHONG Da-fang; ZHANG Han-qi

    2003-01-01

    @@ Aconitum species (Ranunculaceae), which distribute widely in middle and lower reaches of the Yangzi River, northand southwest of China, contain highly toxic diesterditerpene Aconitum alkaloids, especially high content of aconitine.

  18. Environ: E00154 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00154 Processed aconitum carmicha daughter root Crude drug Aconitum carmichaeli [T...rn or brine (semi-dried) Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: others Ranunculaceae (buttercup family) E00154 Processed aconitum carmicha daughter root ...

  19. Environ: E00573 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00573 Processed aconitum carmicha daughter root Crude drug Aconitum carmichaeli [T...ked in bittern, semi-dried and sulfurized (x-section) Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: others Ranunculaceae (buttercup family) E00573 Processed aconitum carmicha daughter root ...

  20. Environ: E00572 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00572 Processed aconitum carmicha daughter root Crude drug Aconitum carmichaeli [T...ked in bittern (x-section, semi-dried) Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: others Ranunculaceae (buttercup family) E00572 Processed aconitum carmicha daughter root ...

  1. Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis of Aconitum Alkaloids in Raw and Processed Chuanwu and Caowu by HPLC in Combination with Automated Analytical System and ESI/MS/MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimin Sun

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available HPLC in combination with automated analytical system and ESI/MS/MS was used to analyze aconitine (A, mesaconitine (MA, hypaconitine (HA, and their benzoyl analogs in the Chinese herbs Caowu and Chuanwu. First, an HPLC method was developed and validated to determine A, MA, and HA in raw and processed Caowu and Chuanwu. Then an automated analytical system and ESI/MS/MS were applied to analyze these alkaloids and their semihydrolyzed products. The results obtained from automated analytical system are identical to those from ESI/MS/MS, which indicated that the method is a convenient and rapid tool for the qualitative analysis of herbal preparations. Furthermore, HA was little hydrolyzed by heating processes and thus it might account more for the toxicity of processed aconites. Hence, HA could be used as an indicator when one alkaloid is required as a reference to monitor the quality of raw and processed Chuanwu and Caowu. In addition, the raw and processed Chuanwu and Caowu can be distinguished by monitoring the ratio of A and MA to HA.

  2. Embryotoxicity and Teratogenecity of Aconitum in Rats%乌头类中药的胚胎毒性及致畸性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖凯; 李宏霞; 王亚其; 王莉; 彭成; 郭立; 刘玉清

    2005-01-01

    目的:研究乌头类中药盐附子、生川乌、生草乌的胚胎毒性及致畸性.方法:选用SD大鼠,实验分为5组:盐附子1.14 g生药/kg,3.43 g生药/kg;10.30 g生药/kg,生川乌13.0 g生药/kg;生草乌8.3 g生药/kg,另设阴性对照(蒸馏水)组和阳性对照(维生素A)组,试验组和阴性对照组大鼠于妊娠第7至16天,阳性对照组大鼠于妊娠第9至12天灌胃给药.结果:盐附子10.30 g生药/kg剂量组和生川乌13.0 g生药/kg剂量组、生草乌8.3 g生药/kg剂量组对大鼠都出现了轻微母体毒性(孕鼠体重增加缓慢和摄食量减少);与阴性对照组比较,生草乌8.3 g生药/kg剂量组出现胎鼠身长减小,胸骨骨化数减少(P<0.05);其余无异常.结论:在本实验条件下,乌头类中药盐附子、生川乌、生草乌对大鼠均无致畸作用;生草乌8.3 g生药/kg有一定的胚胎毒性.

  3. 东川乌头中二萜生物碱的研究%Studies on the Diterpene Alkaloids of Aconitum geniculatum Flet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董锦艳; 李良

    2000-01-01

    从东川乌头块根乙醇提取物中分离得到4个去甲二萜生物碱, 通过波谱和化学方法鉴定它们分别为: 印乌碱(Ⅰ)、粗茎乌碱(Ⅱ)、尾毛乌头碱宁(Ⅲ)、滇乌碱(Ⅳ), 其中(Ⅰ)首次从该植物中得到.

  4. Study on Diterpene Alkaloids from the Roots of Aconitum flavum%伏毛铁棒锤根部二萜生物碱的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张帆; 王兴明; 彭树林; 丁立生

    2006-01-01

    目的 研究伏毛铁棒锤根部的二萜生物碱成分.方法 采用正、反相硅胶柱色谱分离纯化,根据理化性质和波谱数据鉴定结构.结果 从伏毛铁棒锤根部的乙醇提取物中分离鉴定出11个二萜生物碱,分别为3-脱氧乌头碱(Ⅰ)、3-脱氧乌头原碱-8-亚油酸酯(Ⅱ)、3-乙酰乌头碱(Ⅲ)、16,17-二氢-12β,16β-环氧欧乌头碱(Ⅳ)、尼奥灵(Ⅴ)、宋果灵(Ⅵ)、乌头原碱.8-亚油酸酯(Ⅶ)、乌头碱(Ⅷ)、12-表-欧乌头碱(Ⅸ)、欧乌头碱(Ⅹ)和6-O-去甲基尼奥灵(Ⅺ).结论 二萜生物碱是伏毛铁棒锤药材的主要化学成分,其中Ⅱ,Ⅳ~Ⅶ和Ⅺ为首次从该植物中分离得到.

  5. 液质联用技术在乌头类生物碱定性定量研究中的应用%Application of Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Mass Spectrometry in Identification and Quantification of Aconitum Alkaloids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张根衍; 潘桂湘

    2010-01-01

    为了更好地控制乌头类生物碱的药品质量,阐明该类成分在体内的代谢转化及药动学特征,综述了液质联用技术在乌头类生物碱的裂解、成分鉴别、炮制配伍前后成分变化、药物的体内代谢转化、药物代谢动力学及药材、饮片、成药质量控制等方面的应用.

  6. Uniform Design in Optimizing the Extraction Technology of Aconitum Carmichaeli Dexb%辛伐他汀片在4种溶出介质中溶出度的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢福强; 周红梅

    2014-01-01

    目的:检测辛伐他汀片在4种溶出介质中的不同时间的溶出度,绘制溶出曲线,确定溶出介质,建立溶出度检测方法。方法:在不同的溶出介质中,分别在5、10、15、20、30、40分钟取样,测定溶出度,绘制出溶出曲线,比较在不同介质中的溶出结果。结果:最终选择含0.5%十二烷基硫酸钠的0.01mol/L磷酸二氢钠缓冲液为溶出介质。结论:辛伐他汀片在不同溶出介质中的溶出度与其自身理化性质有直接关系。%Objective:Detecting Simvastatin Tablets dissolution of the different times in the four kinds of dissolution medium, draw-ing the dissolution curve, to determine the dissolution medium, the establishment of the detection method of the dissolution. Methods:Different dissolution media, 5,10,15,20,30,40 minute sampling measured dissolution dissolution curve plotted comparative dissolution re-sults in different media.Results:Eventually containing 0.5%sodium dodecylsulfate 0.01mol/L sodium dihydrogen phosphate buffer dis-solution medium. Conclusion:Dissolution of simvastatin tablets in different dissolution media have a direct relationship to its physico-chemical properties.

  7. EFFECT OF TOTAL ALKALOIDES OF ACONITUM EXCELSUM REICHB ON CYP2E1 METABOLISM ACTIVITY IN MORPHINE DEPENDENT RATS%紫花高乌头总碱对吗啡依赖大鼠CYP2E1代谢活力的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛永志; 杨玉梅; 刘和莉; 李月玲; 武海军; 李艳玲

    2007-01-01

    目的:观察紫花高乌头总碱对吗啡依赖大鼠CYP2E1代谢活力的影响.方法:采用剂量递增法建立吗啡依赖大鼠模型,注射纳洛酮催促产生戒断症状,高效液相色谱法(HPLC)测定经CYP2E1代谢的探针药物氯唑沙宗血药浓度经时变化.结果:吗啡依赖可致大鼠CYP2E1对探针药物氯唑沙宗的代谢活性增强,催促戒断可致体重减轻,CYP2E1对探针药物氯唑沙宗的代谢活性进一步增强.紫花高乌头总碱可降低大鼠的戒断反应症状分值,控制大鼠的体重下降,下调吗啡依赖所致的CYP2E1的代谢活性增强.结论:紫花高乌头总碱可抑制吗啡依赖大鼠的戒断症状,使吗啡依赖及其催促戒断后增高的CYP2E1代谢活力下调.

  8. Forecast of potential distribution area of Aconitum leucostomum in China based on MaxEnt model and ArcGIS%基于MaxEnt模型和ArcGIS的白喉乌头在中国潜在分布区预测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨会枫; 郑江华; 吴秀兰; 穆晨; 沙依拉吾

    2015-01-01

    基于环境因子和白喉乌头(A conitum leucostomum)在中国地理分布记录,结合最大熵(MaxEnt)模型与ArcGIS,预测了白喉乌头在我国的潜在分布区,并采用接受者操作特征曲线(ROC)分析法对预测结果进行了验证.训练数据(training data)和验证数据(testing data)的AUC都为0.996,表明预测结果较好.结果表明,最冷月的低温、最冷季平均温度、最干季平均温度、昼夜温差与年温差比值是影响白喉乌头分布的主要环境因子.根据适生值的大小,高危区和适生区主要分布在新疆西北地区、甘肃东南部、宁夏大部、陕西中部北部、山西东部北部、河北北部、内蒙古西南部东南部地区.

  9. Simultaneous determination of the 6 kinds of aconitum alkaloid contents in Mongolian medicine Garidi-13 pill by HPLC method%HPLC法测定蒙药嘎日迪-13味丸中6种乌头类生物碱的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    巴图德力根; 布仁巴图; 韩志强

    2015-01-01

    Objective To establish a method for simultaneous determi-nation of 6 alkaloid in Mongolia medicine Garidi -13 pill.Methods Diamonsi I C18 column was used.The acetonitrile-tetrahydrofuran (25:15 ) and 0.1 mol? L-1 of ammonium acetate solution were used as mobile phase by gradient elution.The volume flow rate was 0.8 mL? min -1 , and column temperature was 30 ℃, wavelength was 235 nm.The speci-ficity, lower limit of quantification and standard curve , precision and re-covery rate and stability as well as the matrix effect were investigated . Results The aconitine , hypaconitine , mesaconitine , benzoylaconitine , benzoylhypacoitine and benzoylmesaconine showed a good linear relation-ship in the 3.48 ×10 -3 -0.17 ( r=0.999 5 ) ,3.24 ×10 -3 -0.16 ( r=0.999 6 ) ,6.96 ×10 -3 -0.35 ( r=0.999 5 ) ,2.06 ×10 -3 -0.10 ( r=0.999 9 ) , 2.02 ×10 -3 -0.20 ( r=0.999 9 ) and 6.66 ×10 -3 -0.33 ( r=0.999 9 ) mg? mL-1 .The RSD was 3.56%, 1.87%, 4.86%, 2.74% and 3.21%, 4.59%, respectively , and the average recovery rate was 101.11%, 98.07%, 97.81%, 9 9.24%, 104.55% and 104.84%.Conclusion The method is simple , accurate and reproduci-ble, which can simultaneously determinate the mono ester alkaloid and double ester alkaloid in the Mongolia medicine Garidi -13 pills.%目的 建立测定蒙药嘎日迪-13味丸中6种生物碱的含量的高效液相色谱法. 方法 Diamonsi I C18色谱柱,以乙腈-四氢呋喃(25:15)为流动相A,以0.1 mol? L-1醋酸铵溶液为流动相B,梯度洗脱,流速为0.8 mL? min-1 ,柱温为30 ℃,检测波长为235 nm,检测专属性、标准曲线与定量下限、精密度与回收率、基质效应和稳定性. 结果 乌头碱、次乌头碱、新乌头碱、苯甲酰乌头原碱、苯甲酰次乌头原碱、苯甲酰新乌头原碱分别在3.48 ×10 -3 ~0.17 ( r=0.999 5 ) , 3.24 ×10 -3 ~0.16 (r=0.999 6),6.96 ×10-3 ~0.35 (r=0.999 5),2.06 ×10-3 ~0.10(r =0.999 9),4.04 ×10 -3 ~0.20 (r =0.999 9),6.66 ×10 -3 ~0.33 ( r=0.999 9 ) mg? mL-1 呈良好的线性关系, RSD 分别为 3.56%, 1.87%, 4.86%, 2.74%, 3.21%, 4.59%,平均回收率分别为 101.11%, 98.07%, 97.81%,99.24%,104.55%,104.84%. 结论 本方法简便、准确、重复性好,可用于嘎日迪-13味丸中单酯型生物碱和双酯型生物碱的含量测定.

  10. Determination of 3 kinds of Aconitum alkaloids in human urine and whole blood using ultra-pressure liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry%超高压液相色谱-串联质谱法快速测定人尿液和全血中3种乌头生物碱

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张秀尧; 蔡欣欣; 林学尧; 陈端秀

    2013-01-01

      Objective To establish a rapid ultra-pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrome-try (UPLC-MS/MS) method for detection of aconitine, mesaconitine and hypaconitine in human urine and whole blood. Methods Urine sample was directly injected into the separation system and plasma sample was initially prepared by precipitation of proteins with acetonitrile–methanol (9:1, v/v). The analysis of the alkaloids was performed on an ACQUITY UPLC BEH C18 column using gradient elution with methanol and 5.0 mmol/L ammonium bicarbonate in water, and then detected by the positive electrospray ionization-MS/MS (ESI-MS/MS) method under MRM mode, and quantified by matrix internal standard method using noscapine as internal standard. Results The average recoveries were 93.9%~108%and 89.7%~109%for the three alkaloids in urine and whole blood, with relative standard deviation (RSD) of 1.3%~11%and 1.1%~18%(n=6), respec-tively. The quantitative limits (S/N=10) of the alkaloids in both of urine and whole blood were 0.05μg/L and 0.1μg/L. Conclusion This method is sensitive and accurate, and has been successfully applied to determine the 3 alkaloids in one case of food poisoning.%  目的建立快速检测人尿液和全血中乌头碱、新乌头碱和次乌头碱的超高压液相色谱-串联质谱分析方法。方法尿液样品直接进样,全血样品经乙腈-甲醇(9:1, v/v)沉淀蛋白,以甲醇和5.0 mmol/L碳酸氢铵水溶液作为流动相进行梯度洗脱,在BEH C18色谱柱上实现分离,电喷雾正离子多反应监测方式检测,以那可丁作为内标的基质标准内标法定量。结果尿液和全血中3种乌头生物碱的平均加标回收率分别为93.9%~108%和89.7%~109%,相对标准偏差为1.3%~11%和1.1%∼18%(n=6),定量限(S/N =10)分别为0.05μg/L 和0.1μg/L。结论此方法灵敏、准确,已成功应用于一起中毒事件的检测。

  11. 乌头类生物碱对心肌的毒性作用及分子毒理学研究进展%The toxicity of aconitum alkaloids on cardiocytes and the progress of its research using the methods of molecular toxicology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘艳; 章诗伟; 周兰; 刘良

    2009-01-01

    乌头属植物是被子植物亚门毛茛科中一类重要的有毒植物,也是我国最早有记载的药用有毒植物之一;其块根中多含有剧毒的二萜类双酯型生物碱-乌头碱,因个体差异、用法不当以及误服或投毒等原因而发生乌头中毒、甚至死亡的报道屡见不鲜.目前,对乌头碱的研究多局限在临床救治方面,缺乏对乌头碱毒性作用机制研究.本文参考国内外相关文献资料,对乌头碱的心肌细胞毒性作用机制进行了综述.%Aconltium plants are a group of important poisonous plants in the Ranunculaeeae family of Angiosperm subphylum.and one of the earliest recorded poisonous plants in China as well.In their tubers(root)have hypertoxic Aconitium alkaloids,which belong to the group of diesterditerpene alkaloids.It is repeatedly reported in China that aconitine poisoning,and even death from aconitine poisoning,caused by the individual differences in pharmaceutical tolerance of aconitine,taking the wrong medicine or inadequate dosage,or put in the poison by homicide.At present,the research on aconitine is mainly limited to clinical treatment,but lack of research on toxicity mechanism of aeonitine.This paper reviews some progress relating to the toxicological mechanisms of this kind of alkaloid.

  12. Pharmacokinetic evaluation of Shenfu Injection in beagle dogs after intravenous drip administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuqiao; Tian, Dali; Huang, Yuyou; Li, Ling; Mao, Juan; Tian, Juan; Ding, Jinsong

    2016-11-01

    Shenfu Injection (SFI) is a well-defined Chinese herbal formulation that is obtained from red ginseng and processed aconite root. The main active constituents in SFI are ginsenosides and aconitum alkaloids. In this work, ginsenosides (ginsenoside Rg1, ginsenoside Rb1 and ginsenoside Rc) and aconitum alkaloids (benzoylmesaconine and fuziline) were used as the index components to explore the pharmacokinetic behavior of SFI. A selective and sensitive HPLC-MS/MS method was developed for the quantification of ginsenosides and aconitum alkaloids in dog plasma and was used to characterize the pharmacokinetics of the five index components after intravenous drip of three different dosages of SFI in beagle dogs. The pharmacokinetic properties of the index components were linear over the dose range of 2-8 mL/kg.

  13. Pharmacokinetic evaluation of Shenfu Injection in beagle dogs after intravenous drip administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuqiao Zhang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Shenfu Injection (SFI is a well-defined Chinese herbal formulation that is obtained from red ginseng and processed aconite root. The main active constituents in SFI are ginsenosides and aconitum alkaloids. In this work, ginsenosides (ginsenoside Rg1, ginsenoside Rb1 and ginsenoside Rc and aconitum alkaloids (benzoylmesaconine and fuziline were used as the index components to explore the pharmacokinetic behavior of SFI. A selective and sensitive HPLC–MS/MS method was developed for the quantification of ginsenosides and aconitum alkaloids in dog plasma and was used to characterize the pharmacokinetics of the five index components after intravenous drip of three different dosages of SFI in beagle dogs. The pharmacokinetic properties of the index components were linear over the dose range of 2–8 mL/kg.

  14. National Wetland Plant List Indicator Rating Definitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    cut grass), Acorus americanus (sweetflag), Carex aquatilis (leafy tussock sedge ), and Toxicodendron vernix (poison sumac). FACW (Facultative Wetland...where water saturates the soils or floods the soil surface at least seasonally. Examples include Carex scoparia (broom sedge ), Aconitum columbianum...Ambrosia artemisifolia (annual ragweed), Betula papyrifera (paper birch), Carex eburnea (bristle-leaf sedge ), Carya ovata (shag-bark hickory), Elymus

  15. Alkaloid profiling of the Chinese herbal medicine Fuzi by combination of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, J.; Heijden, R. van der; Spijksma, G.; Reijmers, T.; Wang, M.; Xu, G.; Hankemeier, T.; Greef, J. van der

    2009-01-01

    A matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) method was developed for the high throughput and robust qualitative profiling of alkaloids in Fuzi-the processed lateral roots of the Chinese herbal medicine Aconitum carmichaeli Debx (A. carmichaeli). After optimization, pow

  16. Immune Regulatory Effect of Shenfu Preparation (参附制剂) and Its Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏影非; 杜惠兰

    2004-01-01

    Shenfu preparation (SFP, 参附制剂) is a preparation consists of Radix Ginseng and Radix Aconiti lateralis. Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer is a plant that belongs to Panax Linn genus of Araliaceae, generally its root is taken for medical use;Radix Aconiti lateralis is the lateral root tuber of Aconitum carmichaeli Debx. As an auxiliary herb

  17. [High-dose magnesium sulfate in the treatment of aconite poisoning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clara, A; Rauch, S; Überbacher, C A; Felgenhauer, N; Drüge, G

    2015-05-01

    This article reports the case of a 62-year-old male patient who ingested the roots of Monkshood (Aconitum napellus) and white hellebore (Veratrum album) dissolved in alcohol with a suicidal intention and suffered cardiotoxic and neurotoxic symptoms. After contacting the Poison Information Centre ventricular arrhythmia was treated with high-dose magnesium sulphate as the only antiarrhythmic agent and subsequently a stable sinus rhythm could be established after approximately 3 h. Aconitum napellus is considered the most poisonous plant in Europe and it is found in gardens, the Alps and the Highlands. Poisoning is mainly caused by the alkaloid aconite that leads to persistent opening and activation of voltage-dependent sodium channels resulting in severe cardiac and neurological toxicity. As no specific antidote is known so far, poisoning is associated with a high mortality. The therapy with high-dose magnesium sulphate is based on in vitro and animal experiments as well as limited clinical case reports.

  18. Mountain species in the flora of the Sopotnia Wielka creek (Western Beskids, Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartoszek Wacław

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an analysis of mountain species occurrence in the Sopotnia Wielka creek, in the Beskid Żywiecki Mts (Western Carpathians, Poland. The list contains 55 plant species, which represent the whole altitudinal spectrum from piedmont to alpine zones (Viola biflora, Mutellina purpurea. The species inhabit mostly moist and wet communities along creek. They represent mainly the Alpic-Central-European distributional type. Three species are endemics for the Carpathians: Aconitum firmum subsp. firmum, Crocus scepusiensis, Dentaria glandulosa.

  19. A case of fatal poisoning with the aconite plant: quantitative analysis in biological fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, S P

    2002-01-01

    In recent years recorded cases of plant poisoning have become rare, this may in part be due to the possibility of plant ingestion not being indicated at the beginning of an investigation. Aconitum napellus (aconite, Wolfsbane, Monkshood) is one of the most poisonous plants in the UK. It contains various potent alkaloids such as aconitine, isoaconitine, lycaconitine and napelline. Ingestion of Aconitum plant extracts can result in severe, potentially fatal toxic effects. This paper describes the analytical findings in a recent death in the UK. resulting from deliberate ingestion of Aconitum napellus extract. The concentrations of aconitine measured by HPLC-DAD in the post mortem femoral blood and urine were 10.8 micrograms/L and 264 micrograms/L, respectively. The aconitine concentration in the ante mortem urine was 334 micrograms/L and was estimated to be 6 micrograms/L in the ante mortem serum. Hence, accidental, suicidal or homicidal poisoning due to the ingestion of plant material remains a possibility and should be borne in mind when investigating sudden or unexplained death.

  20. Chosen aspects of flowering of Ranunculaceae representatives in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bożena Denisow

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The family Ranunculaceae consists of numerous widespread species occuring from lowlands to subalpine or alpine zones. In Poland, the species grow in different types of habitats, including xerothermic swards (Adonido-Brachypodietum, Brachypodio- Teucrietum, Thalictro-Salvietum, Seslerio- Scorzoneretum and decidous forests (Tilio- Carpinetum. Many species are popular ornamentals cultivated fro their esthetic value. Ranunculaceans vary remarkably in the phenology of blooming. Among them, there are early spring blooming species like Eranthis hyemalis, Ficaria verna, Isopyrum thalictroides, Anemone nemorosa, A. ranunculoides, and those that start to bloom in autumn, e.g. Aconitum carmichaelli. The overall flowering duration may differ significantly between years – for example, in Anemone sylvestris the disparities reached more than three weeks. The occurrence and the length of each blooming phase may vary considerably between sites, e.g. in Adonis vernalis 10-15-day dissimilarities in the occurrence of blooming stages were recorded. Additionally, the duration of the full blooming stage varied from 10 to 30 days. The diurnal pattern of blooming among Ranunculaceae members was proved to be highly species-specific. Flowers of Aquilegia vulgaris started opening at approx. 5.00 (GMT+2, which was 2-3 hours earlier than those of Adonis vernalis. Significant differences in the diurnal flowering dynamics can be found even in the same genus: flowers of Aconitum lycoctonum began opening at 5.00 (with the peak between 6.00-9.00, while flowers of Aconitum carmichaelii started opening at 8.00 and peaked between 11.00-13.00. The flowering abundance may differ among populations of the same species. The management type was found to have an impact on the individuals’ density of Adonis vernalis occurring in xerothermic grasslands. The control of shrub encashment has already been designated as the factor determining the flowering abundance of Adonis vernalis in

  1. Reaction product analysis of aconitine in dilute ethanol using ESI-Q-ToF-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Peng; Liu, Yong-Gang; Li, Fei; Qiao, Yan-Jiang

    2012-04-01

    The study was done to identify the reaction products of aconitine in dilute ethanol using electrospray ionization-triple quad time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ESI-Q-TOF-MS). Five hydrolysates were detected, their pseudo-molecules are 632, 604, 586, 570, 500, they are 8-ethyoxyl-14-benzoylaconitine, benzoylaconine, pyraconitine, 8-acetyl-14-ethyoxylaconitine, aconine, respectively. Among them, 8-ethyoxyl-14-benzoylaconitine and 8-acetyl-14-ethyoxylaconitine were identified firstly as reaction products of aconitine in dilute ethanol, and can thus be used as indicators in quality control of medicinal Aconitum preparations used in Traditional Chinese Medicine.

  2. Important Poisonous Plants in Tibetan Ethnomedicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijuan Ma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tibetan ethnomedicine is famous worldwide, both for its high effectiveness and unique cultural background. Many poisonous plants have been widely used to treat disorders in the Tibetan medicinal system. In the present review article, some representative poisonous plant species are introduced in terms of their significance in traditional Tibetan medicinal practices. They are Aconitum pendulum, Strychnos nux-vomica, Datura stramonium and Anisodus tanguticus, for which the toxic chemical constituents, bioactivities and pharmacological functions are reviewed herein. The most important toxins include aconitine, strychnine, scopolamine, and anisodamine. These toxic plants are still currently in use for pain-reduction and other purposes by Tibetan healers after processing.

  3. [Case of fatal aconite poisoning, and its background].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazuma, Kohei; Satake, Motoyoshi; Konno, Katsuhiro

    2013-01-01

    Two people out of three who accidentally ate boiled aconite leaves died in 2012. This was a typical case of aconite poisoning in Japan: Aconite (Aconitum spp.) was mistakenly collected instead of Anemone flaccida, an edible wild plant. The leaves of these plants are quite similar to each other. Chemical analyses of the aconite plant left at the scene suggested intake of a fatal amount of aconitine alkaloids by each person. The collector, who died, had missed the botanical differences between the two plants, even though he owned a wild plant guidebook. A. flaccida should be collected with its flowers in order to aid positive indentification and avoid aconite poisoning.

  4. Overdose effect of aconite containing Ayurvedic Medicine ('Mahashankha Vati').

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Ashok Kumar; Debnath, Saroj Kumar

    2010-07-01

    There are chances that the use of larger than recommended dose of Ayurvedic medicines containing aconite can produce drug reactions. Vatsanabha (Aconitum ferox Wall.) is a very well-known ingredient of Ayurvedic formulations and is prescribed as an antipyretic, analgesic, anti-rheumatic, appetizer and digestive. The recommended dose of purified Vatsanabha (A. ferox Wall.) root is 15 mg. We present a case of hypotension and bradycardia due to aconite poisoning caused by overdosing of an Ayurvedic medicine (Mahashankha Vati), which was primarily managed by Ayurvedic treatment.

  5. Diterpenoid alkaloid toxicosis in cattle in the Swiss Alps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puschner, Birgit; Booth, Marcia C; Tor, Elizabeth R; Odermatt, Arnold

    2002-02-01

    Between 1995 and 1999, several cattle of a group of 80 heifers died acutely on a pasture in the Swiss Alps. The animals were Found dead between July 9th and 15th eachyear. Only 1 animal was examined on post-mortem, and no significant lesions were found. Aconitum vulpera, A napellus, and Delphinium elatum were identified in the pasture. The presence of diterpenoid alkaloid-containing plants in the pasture, the rapid death of the animals, and the lack of pathologic lesions suggested diterpenoid alkaloid toxicosis as a cause of death. A multiresidue alkaloid screen using gas chromatography with a mass spectrometric detector was employed on rumen, abomasal, small intestine, and cecal contents from the I heifer. Deltaline, deltamine, and lycoctonine were identified. Aconitine was found in all gastrointestinal samples using a sensitive and highly specific liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry methodology for aconitine analysis. The findings ofditerpenoid alkaloids in the gastrointestinal contents confirmed exposure to Delphinium and Aconitum spp, possibly resulting in sudden death.

  6. [Toxicity of monkshood. Review.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingolfsdottir, K; Olafsson, K

    1997-03-01

    Monkshood, Aconitum napellus L. (Ranunculaceae), is considered one of the most poisonous plants growing in Europe. Monkshood and other Aconitum species are still used in Oriental and homeopathic medicine as analgesics, febrifuges and hypotensives. The neurotoxin aconitine is the principal alkaloid in most subspecies of monkshood. A review is presented, which includes historical aspects of monkshood as a poisonous and medicinal plant, the mode of action of aconitine, symptoms of toxicity, treatment and reports of recent poisoning incidents. In addition, results of quantitative HPLC examination of hypogeous and epigeous organs from a population of A. napellus ssp. vulgare cultivated in Iceland are discussed. The fact that children in Iceland have commonly been known to eat the sweet tasting nectaries in monkshood prompted an investigation of the alkaloidal content of these organs specifically. The low aconitine content found in the nectaries as well as in whole flowers accords with the absence of reported toxicity arising from the handling of flowers and consumption of nectaries from A. napellus in this country.

  7. THE COPĂCEL HILL FOREST, BETWEEN BĂLA AND ERCEA, A FUTURE RESERVE OF MUREŞ COUNTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OROIAN SILVIA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The forest lies in the region known as the “Transylvanian Plain”, on the Copăcel hill, between Băla and Ercea. The specific landscape of this region is characterized by medium altitude hills, with wide and soft slopes. In this forest, the presence of the Delphinium simonkaianum Pawł. var. psilocarpum (Simk. Pawł species, a threatened endemic taxon, was reported in 1953. In 2011, this globally threatened taxon was identified, after 58 years, on the upper side of the Copăcel slope, in a mixed oak and hornbeam forest. These oak and hornbeam mixtures are the result of impacts exerted on oak forests. The identified association, Melampyro bihariensis-Carpinetum (Borza 1941 Soó 1964 em. Coldea 1975, has three distinct layers: the arborescent layer dominated by Carpinus betulus and Quercus petraea, along with Quercus robur, Prunus avium, Acer campestre, Ulmus glabra, etc., with good canopy cover (0.8-0.9; the shrub layer, represented by species such as: Crataegus monogyna, Corylus avellana, Cornus mas, Ligustrum vulgare, Rosa canina, Sambucus nigra, Staphylea pinnata, etc., is relatively poor in individuals, which are present particularly in forest clearings or at the edge of the forest. Grass synusia is well developed, sometimes forming an almost continuous cover (Asarum europaeum, Convallaria majalis, Dactylis glomerata ssp. aschersoniana, Galium odoratum, Melampyrum bihariense, Stellaria holostea, Aconitum anthora, Aconitum moldavicum, Lilium martagon, Arum orientale.

  8. 基于偏最小二乘法的乌头碱类化合物毒性的定量构效关系研究%Study on the quantitative structure-toxicity relationships of aconitine compounds basing on partial least squares method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李佐静; 王琳; 闫心丽; 高志祥; 孟繁浩

    2011-01-01

    乌头碱类化合物属于二萜类生物碱,存在于乌头属欧乌头、川乌、北草乌和华乌头等多种毛茛科植物中,该类化合物既是其活性成分,也是其毒性成分。利用化合物定量结构-毒性效应关系(QSTR)方法研究了14个乌头碱类化合物的各种量化参数对其毒性的影响,并建立了毒性预测模型。由于该类化合物是从中药中提取分离的生物碱,样本数量相对较少,本文采用了偏最小二乘回归方法(PLS)进行降维,进行4个成分的提取及建模。毒性预测模型为:Log(toxi)=0.1593*Mass+0.2908*LogP+1.5475*SAA-0.5222*SAG-0.6104*Volume+0.3112*Ref+0.1784*Polar+0.1785*BE+0.1634*HF-0.1387*Dipole+0.1412,结果表明该模型具有较好的毒性预测能力。%Aconitine compounds are found in Aconitum Ouwu head, Chuan Wu, Aconitum, and the North China and other Ranunculaceae Aconitum plants, which are not only the active ingredient but also the toxic component. The quantum chemistry parameters of 14 kinds of aconitine compounds were studied using the quantitative structure toxicity relationships (QSTR) method to affect its toxicity and to build the forecast model. In this paper, Partial least squares method was taken into account to reduce the dimension and build the model using 4 principle components because of the limitation of sample space. It is tested that the model has a good forecasting ability. The model is: Log(toxi)=0.1593*Mass+0.2908*LogPf 1.5475*SAA-0.5222*SAG-0.6104*Volume+0.3112*Ref+0.1784*Polar+0.1785*BE+0.1634*HF-0.1387*Dipole+0.1412.

  9. Optimization of microwave-assistant extraction technology for codecoction of Aconiti Radix Cocta coupled with Paeoniae Radix Alba%制川乌白芍合煎微波提取工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝伟伟; 郑琴; 朱根华; 陆浩伟; 王粟莙; 杨明

    2011-01-01

    Objective To optimize the microwave extraction (ME) technology for extraction of total aconitum alkaloids and paeoniflorin in co-decoction of Aconiti Radix Cocta coupled with Paeoniae Radix Alba.. Methods Orthogonal test with single factor,as well as ME method was used, 65% ethanol was optimized as extraction solvent, the effects of four factors, such as the microwave power, the radiation time, the solvent consumption, and ethanol concentration in microwave extraction process were investigated. The contents of total aconitum alkaloids were determined by UV-visible spectrophotometry and the paeoniflorin by HPLC by taking the contents and extract yield as evaluation indexes. Results The optimum conditions of extraction were as follows: 65% ethanol as extracting solvent, the microwave power was 800 W, the radiation time was 0.5 h, the proportion of raw material to solvent was 1: 10.In the condition, the highest extracting content and lowest extract yield of total aconitum alkaloids and paeoniflorin could be obtained.Conclusion The optimized microwave extraction technology could be a potential way with the shorter time and higher extract yield and ME methods is better than the conventional extraction methods.%目的 优选微波法提取制川乌配伍白芍中有效成分乌头总生物碱和芍药苷的工艺条件.方法 采用单因素结合正交设计法,优选出65%乙醇为提取溶媒,进一步考察了微波功率、微波辐射时间、乙醇体积分数及料液比4个因素,用紫外可见分光光度法测定乌头总生物碱,采用HPLC法测定芍药苷,并以其量及浸膏得率作为评价指标.结果 以65%乙醇为提取溶媒,在微波功率800 W,微波辐射时间为0.5 h,固液比为1:10时乌头总生物碱和芍药苷的提取量最高且浸膏得率最低.结论 微波提取时间短,有效成分提取率高,此方法是一种有发展潜力的工艺.

  10. Acute toxic herbal intake in a suicide attempt and fatal refractory ventricular arrhythmia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strzelecki, Antoine; Pichon, Nicolas; Gaulier, Jean M; Amiel, Jean B; Champy, Pauline; Clavel, Marc

    2010-08-01

    This report involves a 54-year-old man who died following refractory ventricular fibrillation after ingestion of a plant in a suicide attempt. Repeated direct-current cardioversions were unsuccessful and no single anti-arrhythmic agent was effective for arrhythmia control. The routine blood toxicological screening was negative. Aconitine, the main toxin of Aconitum napellus was identified using a specific liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method. The whole blood concentration (24 microg/l) was higher than those reported in other aconitine-related deaths. The patient had found information about the life-threatening nature of such a toxic herb intake on a free medical encyclopedia online.

  11. 越毒越美丽

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    藏在后花园的杀手舟形乌头学名"Aconitum napellus"。有一次,有人问毒植物研究专家斯图尔特,什么植物才是谋杀晚宴宾客的最理想选择。认真思索之后,她给出了舟形乌头这个答案。她说:"你只要将它的根剁碎然后炖,就能获得一个杀人利器,根本无需求助于化工厂。"舟形乌头开出紫色的花,通常栖身于后院花园内。它们舍有有毒的乌头生物碱,能够导致窒息。

  12. A case of fatal aconitine poisoning by Monkshood ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pullela, Ravi; Young, Lorraine; Gallagher, Barry; Avis, Simon P; Randell, Edward W

    2008-03-01

    Accidental aconitine poisoning is extremely rare in North America. This report describes the confirmation of a case of accidental aconitine poisoning using a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method. The case involved a 25-year-old man who died suddenly following a recreational outing with friends where he consumed a number of wild berries and plants including one that was later identified as Monkshood (Aconitum napellus). Postmortem blood and urine samples were available for analysis. All routine urine and blood toxicology screens were negative. The LC-MS/MS method allowed sensitive quantification of aconitine, the main toxin in A. napellus, and showed 3.6 and 149 microg/L in blood and urine, respectively. These concentrations were similar to that reported in other aconitine-related deaths. This case illustrates the dangers of consuming unidentified plants, and documents concentrations of aconitine in blood and urine in a fatal case of A. napallus-related poisoning.

  13. [Herbs and cardiotoxic effects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffè, Stefano; Paffoni, Paola; Laura Colombo, Maria; Davanzo, Franca; Dellavesa, Pierfranco; Cucchi, Lorenzo; Zenone, Franco; Paino, Anna Maria; Franchetti Pardo, Nicolò; Bergamasco, Luca; Signorotti, Fabiana; Parravicini, Umberto

    2013-06-01

    Accidental or deliberate ingestion of poisonous herbs has become an increasingly common phenomenon over the last years. From existing literature data and case reports from emergency room visits or poison control centers, an overview is presented of the potential cardiotoxic manifestations following intoxication by wild herbal plants of the territory. The effects of the consumption of cardiac glycoside-containing plants (e.g., digitalis) are discussed along with tachyarrhythmias induced by Aconitum napellus L., Atropa belladonna L., Mandragora officinarum L. or Ephedra distachya L. herbs, and hypertensive crises associated with licorice abuse. For each plant, a brief historical and botanical background is provided, focusing on pathophysiology of intoxication and cardiotoxic effects on the basis of the most recent literature. Finally, medical management of intoxication, from both a general and cardiological viewpoint, is reviewed.

  14. Antipyretic studies on some indigenous Pakistani medicinal plants: II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikram, M; Khattak, S G; Gilani, S N

    1987-01-01

    Eight Pakistani medicinal plants were investigated for antipyretic activity in rabbits receiving subcutaneous yeast injections. Hexane- and chloroform-soluble extracts of Aconitum napellus stems, Corchorus depressus whole plant and Gmelina asiatica roots exhibited prominent oral antipyretic activity while insignificant antipyretic effects were found in the hexane- and chloroform-soluble portions of Melia azadirachta seeds, Tinospora cordifolia stems and Vitex trifolia seeds. No antipyretic actions whatsoever were produced by extracts of A. heterophyllum roots and Hedysarum alhagi aerial parts. Toxicity studies revealed no noteworthy toxic or adverse effects for any of the above plant extracts up to the highest oral doses of 1.6 g/kg except in the case of A. napellus.

  15. DNA-based identification of Peucedanum ostruthium specimens and detection of common adulterants by high-resolution melting curve analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmiderer, Corinna; Ruzicka, Joana; Novak, Johannes

    2015-12-01

    Masterwort (Peucedanum ostruthium, syn. Imperatoria ostruthium, Apiaceae) is an old economic plant in Alpine countries cultivated as ornamental plant and used for spirits and in folk medicine. P. ostruthium is a species that has often been confused with related Apiaceae species or morphologically similar roots or tubers resulting in products of minor quality. Masterwort can be distinguished from other Apiaceae species by nrDNA (ITS1 and ITS2). The analysed chloroplast markers (trnK 5' intron, trnT-trnL, and psbA-trnH), however, showed no species-specific mutations. With the application of two primer pairs amplifying parts of ITS and developed for high-resolution melting curve analysis (HRM) the target species was distinguishable from the other Peucedanum and Apiaceae species of our reference set. A multiplex PCR/HRM was developed to detect adulterations with Gentiana spp., Aconitum napellus and Veratrum album.

  16. Study on the Supramolecular Inclusion Complex of

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liao; Kaijun

    2001-01-01

    Lappaconitine (Lap) is a diterpenoid akaliamide, naturally occurring in roots and rhizomes of Aconitum and delphinium. Lap reveals bradycardic, hypotensive, antinocieptive activity. However, its application is restrained owing to its poor water solubility, toxicity and side effects on humans. In a number of pharmaceutical studies,CDs have been reported to interact with many drug molecules to form inclusion complexes. These inclusion complexes have been extensively used to improve water solubility of poorly soluble drugs, to reduce their toxicity, and to increase the dissolution rate [1]. In the present work, the β-CD/Lap complex was prepared by kneading method. The products have been characterized by the solubility measurement as well as UV, FTIR, NMR spectroscopy and X-ray powder diffractometry.  ……

  17. Bioactive heterocyclic alkaloids with diterpene structure isolated from traditional Chinese medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tengfei; Liu, Shu; Meng, Lulu; Pi, Zifeng; Song, Fengrui; Liu, Zhiqiang

    2016-07-15

    The diterpenoid alkaloids as one type of heterocyclic alkaloids have been found in many traditional herbal medicines, such as genus Consolida, Aconitum, and Delphinium (Ranunculaceae). Pharmacological researches have indicated that many diterpenoid alkaloids are the main bioactive components which have analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, anti-tumor, cardiotonic, and anti-arrhythmic activities. Studies focused on the determination, quantitation and pharmacological properties of these alkaloids have dramatically increased during the past few years. Up to now, newly discovered diterpenoid alkaloids with important biological activities have been isolated and synthesized. Considering their significant role and diffusely used in many disease treatments, we summarized the information of their analysis methods, bioactivity, metabolism and biotransformation in vivo as well as the pharmacological mechanisms. Based on above review, the further researches are suggested.

  18. Two new varieties of the Ranunculaceae from Sichuan%四川毛茛科两新变种

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文锦; 陈光后

    2001-01-01

    @@1 彭州岩乌头 新变种 图1   Aconitum racemulosum Franch. Var. Pengzhouense W. J. Zhang et G. H. Chen, var. Nov. Fig. 1   A. Rhombifolium Chen var. Pengzhouense W. J. Chang et G. H. Chen in West China Journ. Pharm. Scien. 10(1): 54, fig. 2. 1995, nom. Nud.   A var. Racemuloso recedit carpellis folliculisque albido-puberulis, sepalis superioribus extra pubescentibus.   Sichuan (四川): Pengzhou (彭州),Dabao (大宝), Donglinsi (东林寺), alt. 2500 m, 1998-09-23, X. D. Zhang et al. (张晓冬等) 98-9-3 (holotype, PE, here designated; is otype, in Herbarium of School of Pharmacy, West China University of Medical Sciences (WCU)).

  19. Study on the Supramolecular Inclusion Complex of β-Cyclodextrin/Lappaconitine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ Lappaconitine (Lap) is a diterpenoid akaliamide, naturally occurring in roots and rhizomes of Aconitum and delphinium. Lap reveals bradycardic, hypotensive, antinocieptive activity. However, its application is restrained owing to its poor water solubility, toxicity and side effects on humans. In a number of pharmaceutical studies,CDs have been reported to interact with many drug molecules to form inclusion complexes. These inclusion complexes have been extensively used to improve water solubility of poorly soluble drugs, to reduce their toxicity, and to increase the dissolution rate [1]. In the present work, the β-CD/Lap complex was prepared by kneading method. The products have been characterized by the solubility measurement as well as UV, FTIR, NMR spectroscopy and X-ray powder diffractometry.

  20. 由青藤属植物、乌头、芍药等植物提取物组成的制剂治疗关节炎及疼痛

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高展(摘)

    2007-01-01

    本品由青藤属(Sinomenium spp.)植物、乌头Aconitum carmichaeli Debx.、芍药Paeonia lactiflora Pall.、牡丹Paeonia suffruticosa Andr.和姜黄Curcuma longa L.提取物组成。将上述植物粉碎后,用溶剂提取至少1次,提取液浓缩、合并即得。本品可治疗关节炎及相关的炎症(如类风湿性关节炎和强直性脊柱炎),缓解疼痛,也可作为营养物。

  1. Floral reward in Ranunculaceae species

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    Bożena Denisow

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Floral reward is important in ecological and evolutionary perspectives and essential in pollination biology. For example, floral traits, nectar and pollen features are essential for understanding the functional ecology, the dynamics of pollen transport, competition for pollinator services, and patterns of specialization and generalization in plant–pollinator interactions. We believe to present a synthetic description in the field of floral reward in Ranunculaceae family important in pollination biology and indicating connections between ecological and evolutionary approaches. The links between insect visitors’ behaviour and floral reward type and characteristics exist. Ranunculaceae is a family of aboot 1700 species (aboot 60 genera, distributed worldwide, however the most abundant representatives are in temperate and cool regions of the northern and southern hemispheres. The flowers are usually radially symmetric (zygomorphic and bisexual, but in Aconitum, Aquilegia are bilaterally symmetric (zygomorphic. Most Ranunculaceae flowers offer no nectar, only pollen (e.g., Ranunculus, Adonis vernalis, Thalictrum, but numerous species create trophic niches for different wild pollinators (e.g. Osmia, Megachile, Bombus, Andrena (Denisow et al. 2008. Pollen is a source of protein, vitamins, mineral salts, organic acids and hormones, but the nutritional value varies greatly between different plant species. The pollen production can differ significantly between Ranunculacea species. The mass of pollen produced in anthers differ due to variations in the number of developed anthers. For example, interspecies differences are considerable, 49 anthers are noted in Aquilegia vulgaris, 70 anthers in Ranunculus lanuginosus, 120 in Adonis vernalis. A significant intra-species differences’ in the number of anthers are also noted (e.g. 41 to 61 in Aquilegia vulgaris, 23-45 in Ranunculus cassubicus. Pollen production can be up to 62 kg per ha for Ranunculus acer

  2. Pharmacologic evalution and application of some anti-cancer plants from Changbai Mountain%长白山若干抗癌植物的药理评价及应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金洙哲; 李相来; 李钟一

    2004-01-01

    从1956年至2000年在长白山采集了抗癌植物,有61科,129属,162属.在本文提出其中10种,讨论其药理评价及临床应用,种类如F:(1)核桃楸Juglans nandshurica Maxim.胡桃科;(2)北鸟头Aconitum kusnezoffi Reichb.毛莨科;(3)黄耆Astragalus membranaceus(Fisch)Bunge.豆科;(4)棉团铁线莲Clematis hexapetala Pall.毛莨科;(5)龙葵Solanum nigrum Linnaeus.茄科;(6)龙牙草Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb.蔷薇科.(7)东北天南星Arisaema amurense Maxin.天南星科;(8)毛莨Ranunculus japonicus Thunberg.毛莨科.(9)白屈菜Chelidonium majus Linnaeus.罂粟科.蝙蝠葛Menispermum dauricum Dc.防已科.%Various kinds of plants were collected from the Changbai Mountain from 1956 to 2000. They were identified and classified into anti-cancer plants. According to the results, they were composed of 61 families, 129 genera and 162 species. Among them, 10 species of anti-cancer plants were discussed on their pharmacologic evalution and application, the plants were (1)J uglans mandshurica Maxim; (2) Aconitum kusnezoffi Reichb; ( 3 ) Astragalus membranaceus (Fisch) Bunge; (4) Clemat is hexapetala Pall; ( 5 ) Solanum nigrum Linnaeus; ( 6 ) Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb. (7) Arisaema amurense Maxim. (8) Ranunculus japonicus Thunberg.; ( 9 ) Chelidonium majus Linnaeus. Menispermumdauricum Dc.

  3. 商品白附片、黑顺片的质量分析%Quality analysis of the commodities Baifupian and Heishunpian

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王诒纯; 黄勤挽; 马逾英; 杨枝中

    2011-01-01

    目的 对商品白附片、黑顺片进行纯度分析,了解其质量现状.方法水分、灰分、总灰分、生物碱含量的测定采用《中国药典》2010年版附录方法;胆巴残留量的测定采用EDTA滴定法和银量法;各纯度指标间的相关性分析采用SPSS统计软件.结果通过分析50批样品,有19批水分含量高于现行药典规定的15%,最高为26.77%;总灰分最高为22.59%,最低为1.50%,平均8.23%;酸不溶性灰分最高为1.69%,最低为0.01%,平均0.18%;有13批单酯型生物碱的含量低于现行药典规定的0.01%,最低为0.004%;有12批双酯型生物碱的含量高于现行药典规定的0.02%,最高为0.11%.胆巴的残留量为0.64%~23.45%,正常加工的“清水片”为0.64% ~4.64%,平均2.21%;“含胆片”为5.77%~23.45%,平均10.77%.样品的含水量与胆巴残留量有显著的相关性;总灰分与胆巴残留最有高度显著的相关性;酸不溶性灰分、单酯型生物碱、双酯型生物碱含量与胆巴残留量均无相关性.结论文中方法为附子纯度指标的选择及限量规定提供了参考依据.%OBJECTIVE To analyse the purity of the commodities Baifupian and Heishunpian.to know about their quanlity. METHODS The content of water,total ash,acid insoluble ash and alklodid were examined by the methods of Chinese Pharmacopoeia( edition 2010). EDTA titration and argentometry were used to determine the residual content of danba. SPSS statistical software was utilized to analyse the correlation of impurities. RESULTS Though the analysis of 50 batches of samples,the water content of 19 baches were higher than the current phamacopoeia( 15% ) , with the highest value of 26.77% . The highest,minimum and average value of the total ash were 22.59% , 1.50% and 8.23% , respectively. The highest, minimum and average value of the acid insoluble ash were 1.69% , 0.01% and 0.18% , respectively. The content of the monoester - aconitum alkaloids in 13 batches were

  4. Quantification of aconitine in post-mortem specimens by validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method: three case reports on fatal 'monkshood' poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicker, Wolfgang; Monticelli, Fabio; Bauer, Andreas; Roider, Gabriele; Keller, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The diester-diterpene alkaloid aconitine was quantified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in post-mortem specimens of three cases where suicidal ingestion of Aconitum napellus L. ('monkshood') was supposed. In an attempt at rationalization, sample preparation and chromatographic conditions of plasma/serum drug analysis routine were utilized. Linearity was established from 0.5 to 20 µg L⁻¹ using newborn calf serum (NCS) as a surrogate calibration matrix for all sample types and mesaconitine as an internal standard. Validation (selectivity, sensitivity, precision, accuracy, recovery of the extraction procedure, matrix effect, processed sample stability) confirmed the applicability of the analytical method to various post-mortem matrices. Internal standard selection was based on multi-matrix process efficiency data. In human post-mortem peripheral blood a lower limit of quantification of 0.51 µg L⁻¹ and a limit of detection of 0.13 µg L⁻¹ were accomplished (0.1 ml sample aliquots). Aconitine was degraded to a large extent in different sample types when being stored at +20 °C for 30 days, while at -20 °C and for some matrices also at +4 °C no appreciable degradation occurred. Aconitine concentrations in real samples were 10.3-17.9 µg L⁻¹ (peripheral blood, n = 3), 14.9-87.9 µg L⁻¹ (heart blood, n = 3), 317-481 µg L⁻¹ (urine, n = 2), 609-4040 µg L⁻¹ (stomach content, n = 3), 139-240 µg L⁻¹ (bile, n = 2), 8.4 µg L⁻¹ (vitreous humor, n = 1), 54.7 µg L⁻¹ (pericardial fluid, n = 1), 492 µg kg⁻¹ (liver, n = 1), 15.2-19.7 mg L⁻¹ (unknown liquids secured onsite, n = 3). Together with concomitant circumstances the analytical data provided compelling evidence for acute Aconitum poisoning as being the cause of death.

  5. Simultaneous use of traditional Chinese medicine (Si-Ni-Tang to treat septic shock patients: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

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    Wu Shin-Hwar

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Even though there are continually upgraded recommendations for managing sepsis, such as "Surviving Sepsis Campaign: international guidelines for management of severe sepsis and septic shock", mortality is still high. Si-Ni-Tang, a remedy documented in Shanghan Lun, a medical collection from ancient China, is used for treating patients with sepsis and septic shock. Using a well-designed clinical trial, we are eager to survey the effectiveness of the concurrent use of this remedy in restoring these patients' hemodynamic status, or "Yang Qi". Methods/Design Patients admitted to our medical intensive care units with the diagnosis of septic shock, defined as persistent hypotension induced by sepsis despite adequate fluid resuscitation, are eligible for participation. The inclusion criteria include: age from 20 to 85 years, conditions meeting the definition of septic shock, use of vasopressors within 24 hours of entering the study, and use of a nasogastric tube for feeding. The enrolled patients are randomly allocated either to the Si-Ni-Tang group or the placebo group. The prescription of the trial drugs (Si-Ni-Tang/placebo is 2.25 grams 4 times a day for 7 days or till shock reversal (if shock reversal occurs in less than 7 days. Data, including duration of vasopressor infusion, gender, age, co-morbidities, APACHE II score, predicted mortality, ICU mortality, ICU length of stay, hospital mortality, hospital length of stay, source of sepsis, and culture results, are collected for the following analysis. Discussion Si-Ni-Tang is composed of processed Zingiber officinale, Glycyrrhiza uralensis, and Aconitum carmichaeli. Zingiber officinale and Glycyrrhiza uralensis are found to have the ability to reduce pro-inflammatory cytokine production, to inhibit lipopolisaccharide-induced macrophage activation and function, and to lessen the bacterial load and suppress acute and chronic inflammation. Aconitum carmichaeli is known to have

  6. Toxicology in the Old Testament. Did the High Priest Alcimus die of acute aconitine poisoning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moog, Ferdinand P; Karenberg, Axel

    2002-01-01

    The Bible contains several interesting contributions to the history of neurology, as is the case of the High Priest Alkimos, who died suddenly in 159 BC. He was regarded as a stereotypical stroke victim for a long time. The reports on his death in the Septauginta and the later 'Jewish Antiquities' of Flavius Josephus present some typical symptoms of stroke (collapse, loss of speech and death within a short time), but they also describe severe pains, which are very unusual among patients with stroke. Similar symptoms can be found in the case of the Roman emperor Claudius, who was poisoned by his spouse Agrippina. It was thought that she used aconitine, an ingredient of the monkshood plant (Aconitum napellus L.), which imitates an apoplectic insult, but also causes vehement pains. It was therefore possible that something similar had happened to Alkimos, as aconitine was a common poison in ancient times and the surroundings of his death may confirm the suspicion. Reigning during a time of great upheaval, Alkimos was able to maintain his high office chiefly because of the help of the Seleucides. He has just begun construction work on the temple of Jerusalem, an order, which was regarded as a sacrilege by his foes. This impression was enhanced by his subsequent illness which could be considered as a divine punishment.

  7. Fatal aconitine intoxication or thyroid storm? A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlt, E M; Keller, T; Wittmann, H; Monticelli, F

    2012-05-01

    The case of a female in the latter half of her teens found dead in her father's apartment is reported. A glass containing liquid and plant remnants was found at the death scene. There were no indications of any intervention or the application of force by a third party. Autopsy showed unremarkable findings. Toxicological investigations revealed lethal doses of aconitine, a highly poisonous alkaloid and the major active compound of Aconitum napellus, in all specimens. Plant remnants were identified as A. napellus leaves by a botanist and toxicological examination of the liquid in the glass on site showed extremely high concentrations of aconitine. Additionally, laboratory results revealed that the young female was suffering from thyrotoxicosis factitia, an uncommon form of hyperthyroidism caused by misuse or overdosing of thyroid hormones in order to loose weight. A rare but serious and often fatal complication of hyperthyroidism is thyroid storm. Eventually the condition of thyroid storm due to thyrotoxicosis factitia could have contributed to the woman's death from aconitine poisoning.

  8. [Acute otitis media in children. Comparison between conventional and homeopathic therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friese, K H; Kruse, S; Moeller, H

    1996-08-01

    Within a prospective group study of five practicing otorhinolaryngologists, conventional therapy of acute otitis media in children was compared with homeopathic treatments. Group A (103 children) was primarily treated with homeopathic single remedies (Aconitum napellus, Apis mellifica, Belladonna, Capsicum, Chamomilla, Kalium bichromicum, Lachesis, Lycopodium, Mercurius solubilis, Okoubaka, Pulsatilla, Silicea). Group B (28 children) was treated by decongestant nose-drops, antibiotics, secretolytics and/or antipyretics. Comparisons were done by symptoms, physical findings, duration of therapy and number of relapses. The children of the study were between 1 and 11 years of age. The difference in numbers was explained by the children with otitis media being primarily treated by pediatricians using conventional methods. The median duration of pain in group A was 2 days and in group B 3 days. Median therapy in group A lasted 4 days and in group B 10 days. Antibiotics were given over a period of 8-10 days, while homeopathic treatments were stopped after healing. In group A 70.7% of the patients were free of relapses within 1 years and 29.3% had a maximum of three relapses. Group B had 56.5% without relapses and 43.5% a maximum of six relapses. Five children in group A were given antibiotics and 98 responded solely to homeopathic treatments. No side effects of treatment were found in either group.

  9. The anticancer homeopathic composite "Canova Method" is not genotoxic for human lymphocytes in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seligmann, Igor C; Lima, Patrícia D L; Cardoso, Plínio C S; Khayat, André S; Bahia, Marcelo O; Buchi, Dorli de Freitas; Cabral, Isabel R; Burbano, Rommel R

    2003-06-30

    The Canova Method (CM) is a homeopathic medicine indicated for the treatment of patients with cancer and for pathologies that involve a depressed immune system, such as AIDS. This product is composed of homeopathic dilutions of Aconitum napellus, Arsenicum album (arsenic trioxide), Bryonia alba, Lachesis muta venom and Thuya occidentalis. It stimulates the immune system by activating macrophages. Activated macrophages stimulate the lymphocytes so that they increase their cytotoxic action in response to tumoral growth or infection. Given that the CM stimulates and accelerates the activity of macrophages and lymphocytes, we evaluated genotoxic effects induced in human lymphocytes treated with this homeopathic medication in vitro. Structural and numerical chromosomal aberrations were scored for the assessment of induced genotoxic effects, while the variation in mitotic index was considered as a monitor for induced cellular toxicity. The lymphocytes were cultivated for 24, 48 or 72 h in the following final concentrations of the medicinal composite CM: 4, 8 and 12%. Treatments with the CM did not affect mitotic indexes, nor did they provoke chromosomal aberrations, when compared with untreated controls. There was no cytotoxicity or genotoxicity at the chromosomal level.

  10. An optimized high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC method for benzoylmesaconine determination in Radix Aconiti Lateralis Preparata (Fuzi, aconite roots and its products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Hongxi

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Benzoylmesaconine (BMA is the main Aconitum alkaloid in Radix Aconiti Lateralis Preparata (Fuzi, aconite roots with potent pharmacological activities, such as analgesia and anti-inflammation. The present study developed a simple and reliable method using BMA as a marker compound for the quality control of processed aconite roots and their products. Methods After extraction, a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC determination of BMA was conducted on a RP-C18 column by gradient elution with acetonitrile and aqueous phase, containing 0.1% phosphoric acid adjusted with triethylamine to pH 3.0. Results A distinct peak profile was obtained and separation of BMA was achieved. Method validation showed that the relative standard deviations (RSDs of the precision of BMA in all intra-day and inter-day assays were less than 1.36%, and that the average recovery rate was 96.95%. Quantitative analysis of BMA showed that the content of BMA varied significantly in processed aconite roots and their products. Conclusion This HPLC method using BMA as a marker compound is applicable to the quality control of processed aconite roots and their products.

  11. Material basis of Chinese herbal formulas explored by combining pharmacokinetics with network pharmacology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixia Pei

    Full Text Available The clinical application of Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM, using several herbs in combination (called formulas, has a history of more than one thousand years. However, the bioactive compounds that account for their therapeutic effects remain unclear. We hypothesized that the material basis of a formula are those compounds with a high content in the decoction that are maintained at a certain level in the system circulation. Network pharmacology provides new methodological insights for complicated system studies. In this study, we propose combining pharmacokinetic (PK analysis with network pharmacology to explore the material basis of TCM formulas as exemplified by the Bushen Zhuanggu formula (BZ composed of Psoralea corylifolia L., Aconitum carmichaeli Debx., and Cnidium monnieri (L. Cuss. A sensitive and credible liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS method was established for the simultaneous determination of 15 compounds present in the three herbs. The concentrations of these compounds in the BZ decoction and in rat plasma after oral BZ administration were determined. Up to 12 compounds were detected in the BZ decoction, but only 5 could be analyzed using PK parameters. Combined PK results, network pharmacology analysis revealed that 4 compounds might serve as the material basis for BZ. We concluded that a sensitive, reliable, and suitable LC-MS/MS method for both the composition and pharmacokinetic study of BZ has been established. The combination of PK with network pharmacology might be a potent method for exploring the material basis of TCM formulas.

  12. Ethnopharmacological Survey of Plants Used for the Treatment of Stomach, Diabetes, and Ophthalmic Diseases in Sudhan Gali, Kashmir, Pakistan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Muhammad Waseem; M. Amin Ullah Shah; Rizwana Aleem Qureshi; Iqbal Muhammad; Rabia Afza; Saeeda Yousaf

    2006-01-01

    The present paper represents the ethnopharmacological survey of Sudhan Gali, Kashmir, Pakistan. The study revealed that 12 plant species belonging to 11 famihes were used for the treatment of stomach, diabetes and ophthalmic diseases by the local people in Sudhan GaB. Achillea millefolium, Aconitun heterophyllum, Berberis lycium, Polygonum amplexicaule, Mentha longifolia, Paeonia emodi, Plantago lanceolata were locally used for stomach related problemstreatment; Berberis lycium, Skimmia lareola, Solanum dulcamara for diabetes and Geranium wallichianum, Artemisia vulgaris, Solanum dulcamara, and Corydalis crassifolia used for the treatment of ophthalmic diseases. Two species Berberis lycium and Solanum dulcamara have multipurpose value. Former is used to treat stomach as well as diabetes while latter is used to treat not only to diabetes but also ophthalmic diseases. According to IUCN categories, out of these 12 plant species collected and marketed, Polygonum amplexicaule and Paeonia emodi are endangered, Aconitum heterophyllum; Berberis lycium species are vulnerable while Plantago lanceolata and Skimmia lareola species are rare.The availability of these medicinal plants has decreased during the past 20 years and these are facing a drastic biotic pressure due to their extensive usage and non-scientific methods of collection. It is quite evident that these valuable native medicinal plants species are going to decline in number and ultimately will become extinct if no timely proper conservation strategies are adopted.

  13. 甘肃碌曲的野生药用观赏植物(一)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈祥; 宁蕊

    2010-01-01

    甘肃省碌曲县地处甘、青、川三省交界,青藏高原东部,甘肃省西南部,位于青藏高原和黄土高原过渡地带,境内大部分地区海拔为2900~4287 m,年均气温为3℃.其多样性的地形地貌和气候条件为野生植物的繁殖和生存提供了良好的环境.本文为连载的第一部分,介绍了瞿麦(Dianthus superbus)、党参(Codonopsis pilosula)、小花草玉梅(Anemone rivularis var.flore-minore)、缬草(Valeriana officinalis)、扭旋马先蒿(Pedicularis torta)、斑唇马先蒿(Pedicularis longiflora Rudolph.var.tubiformis)、微孔草(Microula sikkimensis)、高乌头(Aconitum sinomontanum)、三军碱毛莨(Halerpestes tricuspis)、甘肃棘豆(Ajuga lupulina Maxim.)等10种碌曲地区野生的药用观赏植物.

  14. Effects of Active Components of Fuzi and Gancao Compatibility on Bax, Bcl-2, and Caspase-3 in Chronic Heart Failure Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liqin Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypaconitine (HA and glycyrrhetinic acid (GA are active components of Fuzi (Aconitum carmichaelii and Gancao (Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch; they have been used in compatibility for chronic heart failure (CHF from ancient times. The purpose of the present research was to explore whether apoptosis pathways were related with the protective effects of HA + GA against CHF rats or not. The rats were progressed with transverse-aortic constriction (TAC operation for 4 weeks to build the CHF state, and then the Digoxin (1 mg/kg, HA (2.07 mg/kg, GA (25 mg/kg, and HA (2.07 mg/kg + GA (25 mg/kg were orally administrated to rats for 1 week. The levels of BNP and cTnI in the plasma were decreased in the HA + GA group, and the heart/body weight ratio (H/B and left ventricular (LV parameters of transthoracic echocardiography were also declined; moreover, the expressions of Bax, Bcl-2, and caspase-3 were all improved in the HA + GA group than other groups in the immunohistochemistry and western blot methods. In general, the data suggested that Fuzi and Gancao compatibility could protect the CHF rats from apoptosis, which provided a strong evidence for further searching for mechanisms of them.

  15. Covariance of Floral and Vegetative Traits in Four Species of Ranunculaceae: A Comparison between Specialized and Generalized Pollination Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin-Liu Meng; Xian-Hui Zhou; Zhi-Gang Zhao; Guo-Zhen Du

    2008-01-01

    Theory predicts that tighter correlation between floral traits and weaker relationship between floral and vegetative traits more likely occur in specialized flowers than generalized flowers,favoring by precise fit with pollinators.However,traits and trait correlations frequently vary under different environments.Through detecting spatiotemporal variation in phenotypic traits (floral organ size and vegetative size) and trait correlations in four Ranunculaceae species,we examined four predictions.Overall,our results supported these predictions to a certain degree.The mean coefficient of variation (CV) of floral traits in two specialized species (Delphinium kamaonense and Aconitum gymnandrum) was marginally significantly lower than that of another two generalized species (Trollius ranunculoides and Anemone obtusiloba).The two specialized species also showed marginally significantly smaller CV in floral traits than vegetative size across the two species.The absolute mean correlation between floral and vegetative traits,or that between floral traits in species with specialized flowers was not significantly lower,or higher than that in generalized plants,weakly supporting the predictions.Furthermore,we documented a large variation in trait correlations of four species among different seasons and populations.Study of covariance of floral and vegetative traits will benefit from the contrast of results obtained from generalized and specialized pollination systems.

  16. Effects of the alkaloids 6-benzoylheteratisine and heteratisine on neuronal activity in rat hippocampal slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameri, A

    1997-08-01

    Alkaloids of different Aconitum species are employed as analgesics in traditional Chinese folk medicine. The present study was designed in order to investigate the effects of the structurally related alkaloids 6-benzoylheteratisine and heteratisine on neuronal activity in rat hippocampus. Experiments were performed as extracellular recordings of stimulus evoked population spikes in rat hippocampal slices. 6-Benzoylheteratisine (0.01-10 microM) inhibited the ortho- and antidromic population spike as well as the field EPSP in a concentration- and frequency-dependent manner. Heteratisine (1-100 microM) was a less potent inhibitor. It exerted a depression of the orthodromic spike, but failed to affect the antidromic population spike. 6-Benzoylheteratisine (10 microM) diminished epileptiform activity induced by bicuculline. In hippocampal neurons, this compound reduced the peak amplitude of the sodium current. There was no effect of heteratisine on the sodium current in concentrations up to 100 microM. It is concluded that the frequency-dependent action of 6-benzoylheteratisine suggests an inhibition of neuronal activity which underlies epileptiform burst discharges. The predominant effect is a suppression of neuronal activity due to a blockade of sodium channels.

  17. Inhibition of rat hippocampal excitability by the plant alkaloid 3-acetylaconitine mediated by interaction with voltage-dependent sodium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameri, A

    1997-02-01

    The effects of the Aconitum alkaloid 3-acetylaconitine on neuronal activity were investigated in the slice preparation and on cultivated neurons of rat hippocampus by extracellular and patch-clamp recordings, respectively. 3-Acetylaconitine (0.01-1 microM) diminished the orthodromic and antidromic population spike in a concentration-dependent manner. The inhibitory action of the drug was preceded by a transiently enhanced excitability. The latency of onset of the inhibition was accelerated by increased stimulation frequency, whereas recovery during washout of the alkaloid was accelerated by decreased stimulation frequency. Moreover, the inhibitory effect of 3-acetylaconitine was evaluated in two different models of epileptiform activity induced either by blockade of GABA receptors by bicuculline (10 microM) or by a nominal Mg(2+)-free bathing medium. In accordance with the activity-dependent mode of action, this compound abolished the synaptically evoked population spikes in the presence of bicuculline or nominal Mg(2+)-free bathing medium, respectively. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings revealed an interaction of 3-acetylaconitine with the voltage-dependent sodium channel. At a concentration of 1 microM, 3-acetylaconitine did not affect the peak amplitude of the sodium current, but shifted the current-voltage relationship in the hyperpolarized direction such that sodium currents were already activated at the resting potential.

  18. Development of natural products as drugs acting on central nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing-Zu Zhu

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available We have recenty studied several natural product constituents which have effects on the CNS. (1 Tetrahydropalmatine (THP and its analogues were isolated from Corydalis ambigua and various species of Stephania. (+-THP and (--THP posses not only analgesic activity, but also exert sedative-tranquillizing and hypnotic actions. Results of receptor binding assay and their pre-and post-synaptic effects on dopaminergic system indicate that (--THP and (--stepholidine are dopamine receptor antagonists while (+-THP is a selective dopamine depletor. (2 3-Acetylaconitine (AAC is an alkaloid isolated from Aconitum flavum. The relative potency of analgesic action of AAC was 5.1-35.6 and 1250-3912 times that of morphine and aspirin, respectively. The analgesic effect of AAC was antagonized by naloxone, but was eliminated by reserpine. In monkeys, after AAC was injected for 92 days, no abstinence syndrome was seen after sudden AAC withdrawal or when challenged with nalorphine. (3 Huperzine A (Hup-A is an alkaloid isolated from Huperzia serrata which was found to be a selective ChE inhibitor and could improve learning and retrieval process. Preliminary clinical studies showed that Hup-A improve short-and long-term memory in patients of cerebral arteriosclerosis with memory impairment. (4 Ranamargarin is a new tetradecapeptide isolated from the skin of the Chines frog Rana margaratae. This peptide may mainly act on NK-1 receptor.

  19. The comparative research on constituents of Radix Aconiti and its processing by HPLC quadrupole TOF-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jian; Hong, Bo; Wang, Jia; Wang, Xi; Niu, Sijia; Zhao, Chunjie

    2012-11-01

    Based upon the regulations stipulated by the State Food and Drug Administration of China, only the processed, detoxified tubers and roots of Aconitum are allowed to be administered orally, used in clinical decoctions and adopted as raw materials for pharmaceutical manufacturing, so the processing principle of preparation of Radix Aconiti is important for ensuring the Radix Aconiti praeparata quality. A simple approach was described for HPLC-Q-TOF-MS screening and identification of many of the aconitine alkaloids present in unprocessed Radix Aconiti and Radix Aconiti praeparata. To compare their fingerprints, the processing principle of preparation of Radix Aconiti was developed. Twenty-nine compounds and 26 compounds were assigned to aconitine alkaloids and tentatively identified by comparing accurate mass and fragments information with that of the authentic standards or by mass spectrometry analysis and retrieving the reference literature. The nonester alkaloids were almost the same. The diester diterpene alkaloids were decreased, the monoester-diterpene alkaloids were increased and lipo-alkaloids decreased obviously in the processing of the preparation. These transformed components could be regarded as potential chemical markers that can be used to distinguish between raw and processed herbs.

  20. Studies on metabolites and metabolic pathways of bulleyaconitine A in rat liver microsomes using LC-MS(n) combined with specific inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Yunfeng; Zhuang, Xiaoyu; Zhu, Hongbin; Song, Fengrui; Liu, Zhiqiang; Liu, Shuying

    2015-07-01

    Bulleyaconitine A (BLA) from Aconitum bulleyanum plants is usually used as anti-inflammatory drug in some Asian countries. It has a variety of bioactivities, and at the same time some toxicities. Since the bioactivities and toxicities of BLA are closely related to its metabolism, the metabolites and the metabolic pathways of BLA in rat liver microsomes were investigated by HPLC-MS(n). In this research, the 12 metabolites of BLA were identified according to the results of HPLC-MS(n) data and the relevant literature. The results showed that there are multiple metabolites of BLA in rat liver microsomes, including demethylation, deacetylation, dehydrogenation deacetylation and hydroxylation. The major metabolic pathways of BLA in rat liver microsomes were clarified by HPLC-MS combined with specific inhibitors of CYP450 isoforms. As a result, CYP3A and 2C were found to be the principal CYP isoforms contributing to the metabolism of BLA. Moreover, CYP2D6 and 2E1 are also more important CYP isoforms for the metabolism of BLA. While CYP1A2 only affected the formation rate of M11, its effect on the metabolism of BLA is very small.

  1. Putative forest glacial refugia in the Western and Eastern Carpathians

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    Józef Mitka

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available An examination of thermophilous species pollen deposits found in the Plenivistulian river alluvial terraces in the Polish Western Carpathians was conducted. Of the 16 palaeobotanical sites evaluated, most often noted were Alnus and Betula t. alba; Abies, Carpinus and Corylus occurred less frequently, and Quercus, Tilia and Ulmus were rare. Fagus and Fraxinus pollen were absent. Abies and Carpinus were relatively overrepresented, because their frequency of occurrence was similar to Corylus avellana, i.e. one of the most cold-resistant species. Based on a literature survey of phylogeographic studies and data regarding the forest species Aconitum moldavicum, A. variegatum, Bromus benekenii, Carpinus betulus, Lathyrus vernus, Lonicera nigra, and the moderately thermophilous Rosa pendulina, 47 cryptic refugial areas of temperate plant species are postulated. The combined analysis indicates that they could have survived the last glaciation in the W & E Carpathian microrefugia close to 650 m a.s.l., and in Podolia (north of the Eastern Carpathians along a contour of 300 m a.s.l.

  2. Serum Pharmacochemistry Analysis Using UPLC-Q-TOF/MS after Oral Administration to Rats of Shenfu Decoction

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    Jia-le He

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to study the serum pharmacochemistry of SFD as well as the material basis through analyzing the constituents absorbed in blood. The SFD was orally administrated to Wistar rats at 20 g·kg−1, and Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography (UPLC fingerprints of SFD were created. Serum samples were collected for analysis, and further data processing used MarkerLynx XS software. 19 ginsenosides and 16 alkaloids were detected in SFD. The absorption of alkaloids (mainly monoester diterpenoid alkaloids increased when Aconitum carmichaeli Debx. was combined with Panax ginseng, while the ginsenosides remained stable. Diester diterpenoid alkaloids were not present in the serum samples. A suitable serum pharmacochemistry method was successfully established to study pharmacological effects and potential improvements in formulation. This may also be useful for toxicity reduction. We suspect that the increased absorption of the monoester diterpenoid alkaloids from the mixture of Panax and Radix, compared to the Panax only extract, may be the reason for the combination of the two herbs in popular medicine formulas in China.

  3. Floral anatomy of Delphinieae (Ranunculaceae: comparing flower organization and vascular patterns

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    Andrew V. Novikoff

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Species of the tribe Delphinieae have dorsoventralized flowers; their pentamerous calyx and reduced corolla are dorsally spurred and inner spurs are nectariferous. Based on this common floral scheme, Delphinieae species exhibit a wide diversity of floral structures and morphologies. We present here the first investigation of the floral anatomy in Delphinieae. The organization of the floral vascular system has been studied in species representative of the floral morphological diversity of Delphinieae: Aconitum lasiocarpum, Delphinium elatum, and Consolida regalis. The three species show a similar vascularization of the calyx and of the reproductive organs, but exhibit distinct anatomical features in the corolla where the nectaries are borne. The sepals and the stamens have a trilacunar three-traced and a unilacunar one-traced vascularization, respectively. Three free carpels in D. elatum and A. lasiocarpum are basically supplied by six vascular bundles – three independent dorsal bundles and three fused lateral bundles. In C. regalis the single carpel is supplied by three independent vascular bundles (one dorsal and two ventral. Staminodes are not vascularized. The basic type of petal vascularization is unilacunar one-traced, but in the case of C. regalis the derived bilacunar two-traced type has been observed. This latter state arose as a result of the fusion of the two dorsal petal primordia. The results of this first comparative study of the floral anatomy of Delphinieae are discussed with the recent phylogenetic, morphological, and evo-devo findings concerning the tribe.

  4. Vegetation of eastern Unalaska Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, Stephen S.; Schofield, Wilfred B.; Talbot, Sandra L.; Daniëls, Fred J. A.

    2010-01-01

    Plant communities of Unalaska Island in the eastern Aleutian Islands of western Alaska, and their relationship to environmental variables, were studied using a combined Braun-Blanquet and multivariate approach. Seventy relevés represented the range of structural and compositional variation in the matrix of vegetation and landform zonation. Eleven major community types were distinguished within six physiognomic–ecological groups: I. Dry coastal meadows: Honckenya peploides beach meadow, Leymus mollis dune meadow. II. Mesic meadows: Athyrium filix-femina – Aconitum maximum meadow, Athyrium filix-femina – Calamagrostis nutkaensis meadow, Erigeron peregrinus – Thelypteris quelpaertensis meadow. III. Wet snowbed meadow: Carex nigricans snowbed meadow. IV. Heath: Linnaea borealis – Empetrum nigrum heath, Phyllodoce aleutica heath, Vaccinium uliginosum – Thamnolia vermicularis fellfield. V. Mire: Carex pluriflora – Plantago macrocarpa mire. VI. Deciduous shrub thicket: Salix barclayi – Athyrium filix-femina thicket. These were interpreted as a complex gradient primarily influenced by soil moisture, elevation, and pH. Phytogeographical and syntaxonomical analysis of the plant communities indicated that the dry coastal meadows, most of the heaths, and the mire vegetation belonged, respectively, to the widespread classes Honckenyo–Elymetea, Loiseleurio–Vaccinietea, and Scheuchzerio–Caricetea, characterized by their circumpolar and widespread species. Amphi-Beringian species were likely diagnostic of amphi-Beringian syntaxa, many of these yet to be described.

  5. Śodhana: An Ayurvedic process for detoxification and modification of therapeutic activities of poisonous medicinal plants

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    Santosh Kumar Maurya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ayurveda involves the use of drugs obtained from plants, animals, and mineral origin. All the three sources of drugs can be divided under poisonous and nonpoisonous category. There are various crude drugs, which generally possess unwanted impurities and toxic substances, which can lead to harmful health problems. Many authors have reported that not all medicinal plants are safe to use since they can bear many toxic and harmful phytoconstituents in them. Śodhana (detoxification/purification is the process, which involves the conversion of any poisonous drug into beneficial, nonpoisonous/nontoxic ones. Vatsanābha (Aconitum species, Semecarpus anacardium, Strychnos nux-vomica, Acorus calamus, Abrus precatorius etc., are some of the interesting examples of toxic plants, which are still used in the Indian system of medicine. Aconite, bhilawanols, strychnine, β-asarone, abrin are some of the toxic components present in these plants and are relatively toxic in nature. Śodhana process involves the purification as well as reduction in the levels of toxic principles which sometimes results in an enhanced therapeutic efficacy. The present review is designed to extensively discuss and understand the scientific basis of the alternative use of toxic plants as a medicine after their purification process.

  6. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of the Chinese Herbal Formula Sini Tang in Myocardial Infarction Rats

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    Jiangang Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory profiling of the Chinese herbal formula Sini Tang (SNT in myocardial infarction (MI rats. SNT, a decoction consisting of four herbs: Aconitum carmichaelii, Cinnamomum cassia, Zingiber officinale, and Glycyrrhiza uralensis, was characterized as a remedy to treat syndromes corresponding to heart failure and MI in China. Potential biomarkers, which reflect the extent of myocardial necrosis and correlate with cardiac outcomes following MI, such as atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP, and proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, and interleukin-1β (TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β were determined in plasma, serum, and in myocardial tissue of MI rats after treatment with SNT. Our data indicate that SNT decreased significantly the levels of hs-CRP, TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β in MI rats. SNT decreased the expression of ANP levels in plasma and increased the vascular active marker nitric oxide, which limits vascular inflammation. In addition, SNT could decrease the expression of endothelin-1 levels in rat plasma post-MI. Our data suggest that the Chinese herbal formula SNT has the potential to improve cardiac function after MI. SNT may be a candidate for treating MI and its associated inflammatory responses.

  7. Do abundance and proximity of the alien Impatiens glandulifera affect pollination and reproductive success of two sympatric co-flowering native species?

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    Anne-Laure Jacquemart

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In invasion ecology, potential impacts of aliens on native flora are still under debate. Our aim was to determine the pollinator mediated effects of both proximity and abundance of an alien species on the reproductive success of natives. We chose the highly invasive Impatiens glandulifera and two native species: Epilobium angustifolium and Aconitum napellus ssp. lusitanicum. These species share characteristics allowing for pollination interactions: similar biotopes, overlapping flowering periods and same main pollinators. The effects of abundance (5, 25 and 100 individuals and proximity (0 and 15 m of the alien on visitation rate, insect behaviour, pollen deposition and reproductive success of both natives were investigated during 2 flowering seasons. We used centred visitation rates as they can be directly interpreted as a positive or negative effect of the invasive.Both abundance and proximity of the alien increased bumblebee visitation rates to both natives. On the other hand, abundance of the exotic species had a slight negative effect on honeybee visits to natives while its proximity had no effect. The behaviour of bumblebees changed as visitors left significantly more often the native plants for I. glandulifera when its abundance increased. As a consequence of this “inconstancy”, bees deposited considerable quantities of alien pollen on native stigmas. Nevertheless, this interspecific pollen transfer did not decrease seed set in natives. Self-compatibility and high attractiveness of both native species probably alleviate the risk of altered pollinator services and reproductive success due to the invader in natural populations.

  8. Covariance of floral and vegetative traits in four species of Ranunculaceae: a comparison between specialized and generalized pollination systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Jin-Liu; Zhou, Xian-Hui; Zhao, Zhi-Gang; Du, Guo-Zhen

    2008-09-01

    Theory predicts that tighter correlation between floral traits and weaker relationship between floral and vegetative traits more likely occur in specialized flowers than generalized flowers, favoring by precise fit with pollinators. However, traits and trait correlations frequently vary under different environments. Through detecting spatiotemporal variation in phenotypic traits (floral organ size and vegetative size) and trait correlations in four Ranunculaceae species, we examined four predictions. Overall, our results supported these predictions to a certain degree. The mean coefficient of variation (CV) of floral traits in two specialized species (Delphinium kamaonense and Aconitum gymnandrum) was marginally significantly lower than that of another two generalized species (Trollius ranunculoides and Anemone obtusiloba). The two specialized species also showed marginally significantly smaller CV in floral traits than vegetative size across the two species. The absolute mean correlation between floral and vegetative traits, or that between floral traits in species with specialized flowers was not significantly lower, or higher than that in generalized plants, weakly supporting the predictions. Furthermore, we documented a large variation in trait correlations of four species among different seasons and populations. Study of covariance of floral and vegetative traits will benefit from the contrast of results obtained from generalized and specialized pollination systems.

  9. Ethnomedicine in Himalaya: a case study from Dolpa, Humla, Jumla and Mustang districts of Nepal

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    Kshhetri Hari B

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Traditional plant use in Nepal has been documented for millennia. The importance of plants as medicine has not diminished in any way in recent times, and traditional medicines are still the most important health care source for the vast majority of the population. This paper examines the ethnobotany and traditional use of plants extracted from the vulnerable alpine zone in the Dolpa, Humla, Jumla and Mustang districts of Nepal. The results of this ethnobotanical study indicate that a very large number of plant species is used as traditional medicines. There were 107, 59, 44 and 166 species of ethnomedicinal importance in surveyed areas of Dolpa, Humla, Jumla and Mustang district respectively. Of these, 84 common species, used at least in two districts, were selected to enumerate their ethnomedicinal properties. The 84 species belonged to 75 genera and 39 families. The commonest species in this pharmacopoeia were: Allium wallichii, Cordyceps sinensis, Dactylorhiza hatagirea, and Rheum australe. A total of 21 species were most common in three districts and 59 in two districts. The genera Aconitum, Allium, Arisaema, Berberis, Corydalis, Gentiana, Hippophae, Juniperus and Rhododendron each possessed two species with ethnomedicinal use. Labiatae was the most medicinally important family with five species used, followed by Araceae, Compositae, Liliaceae, Polygonaceae, Ranunculaceae, Scrophulariaceae and Umbelliferae, each contributing four species.

  10. РАСТИТЕЛЬНОСТЬ ЗАКАЗНИКА «ЗАЛЕСОВСКИЙ» (АЛТАЙСКИЙ КРАЙ)

    OpenAIRE

    Терёхина, Татьяна; Елесова, Наталья; Копытина, Татьяна; Иванова, Мария

    2013-01-01

    Растительность заказника «Залесовский» представлена черневой тайгой со значительным участием комплекса травянистых третичных реликтов. Характерными ассоциациями растительности являются: Abies sibirica+Betula pendula–Crepis sibirica, Abies sibirica+Betula pendula–Brachypodium pinnatum+Aegopodium podagraria, Abies sibirica–Salix caprea, Populus tremula+Abies sibirica–Aconitum septentrionale, Abies sibirica+Populus tremulaAegopodium podagraria+Filipendula ulmaria, Abies sibirica+Populus tremula–...

  11. Śodhana: An Ayurvedic process for detoxification and modification of therapeutic activities of poisonous medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurya, Santosh Kumar; Seth, Ankit; Laloo, Damiki; Singh, Narendra Kumar; Gautam, Dev Nath Singh; Singh, Anil Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Ayurveda involves the use of drugs obtained from plants, animals, and mineral origin. All the three sources of drugs can be divided under poisonous and nonpoisonous category. There are various crude drugs, which generally possess unwanted impurities and toxic substances, which can lead to harmful health problems. Many authors have reported that not all medicinal plants are safe to use since they can bear many toxic and harmful phytoconstituents in them. Śodhana (detoxification/purification) is the process, which involves the conversion of any poisonous drug into beneficial, nonpoisonous/nontoxic ones. Vatsanābha (Aconitum species), Semecarpus anacardium, Strychnos nux-vomica, Acorus calamus, Abrus precatorius etc., are some of the interesting examples of toxic plants, which are still used in the Indian system of medicine. Aconite, bhilawanols, strychnine, β-asarone, abrin are some of the toxic components present in these plants and are relatively toxic in nature. Śodhana process involves the purification as well as reduction in the levels of toxic principles which sometimes results in an enhanced therapeutic efficacy. The present review is designed to extensively discuss and understand the scientific basis of the alternative use of toxic plants as a medicine after their purification process.

  12. Plant-derived natural medicines for the management of depression: an overview of mechanisms of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahani, Marzieh Sarbandi; Bahramsoltani, Roodabeh; Farzaei, Mohammad Hosein; Abdollahi, Mohammad; Rahimi, Roja

    2015-01-01

    Depression is a serious widespread psychiatric disorder that affects approximately 17% of people all over the world. Exploring the neurological mechanisms of the antidepressant activity of plant-derived agents could have a crucial role in developing natural drugs for the management of depression. The aim of the present study is to review the neurological mechanisms of action of antidepressant plants and their constituents. For this purpose, electronic databases, including PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, and Cochrane Library, were searched from 1966 to October 2013. The results showed that several molecular mechanisms could be proposed for the antidepressant activity of medicinal plants and their constituents. Hypericum species could normalize brain serotonin level. Liquiritin and isoliquiritin from Glycyrrhiza uralensis rhizome act via the noradrenergic system. Rosmarinus officinalis and curcumin from Curcuma longa interact with D1 and D2 receptors as well as elevate the brain dopamine level. Sida tiagii and Aloysia gratissima involve γ-aminobutyric acid and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors, respectively. Fuzi polysaccharide-1 from Aconitum carmichaeli could affect brain-derived neurotrophic factor signaling pathways. Psoralidin from Psoralea corylifolia seed modulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. The total glycosides of Paeonia lactiflora demonstrate an inhibitory effect on both subtypes of monoamine oxidase. 3,6'-Di-o-sinapoyl-sucrose and tenuifoliside A from Polygala tenuifolia exhibit cytoprotective effects on neuronal cells. Further preclinical and clinical trials evaluating their safety, bioefficacy, and bioavailability are suggested to prove the valuable role of natural drugs in the management of depressive disorders.

  13. 关白附中1,6-葡聚糖及其硫酸酯的抗补体活性%Anti-complementary Activities of a (1→6) Linked Glucan from Korean Mondshood Root and Its Sulfated Derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓军; 蒋嘉烨; 施松善; 栗源; 江永波; 可燕; 王顺春

    2014-01-01

    In order to study anti-complement activity in the classical pathway of Korean Mondshood root and its sulfated polysaccharides, a homogeneous polysaccharide(KMPS-2A) was gained from the Korean Monds-hood root[Aconitum coreanum(Lévl. ) Raipaics] by water extract and alcohol precipitate via DE-32, Super-dex-200 and Superdex-75 gel filtration. Its structure was investigated by high performance gel permeation chro-matography, methylation analysis, NMR and IR spectrometry. The results showed that the average molecular weights(Mw ) of the KMPS-2A was 676000 and it was consisted of a repeating structure as [α-1,6-D-Glc] n . Sulfated derivatives were gained by chlorosulfonic acid-pyridine method and it was found that the sulfated de-rivatives had the highest degree of substitution(1. 79) when the volume ratio of chlorosulfonic acid and pyri-dine was 1. 75 : 1. 0. It was shown that sulfated polysaccharide 1. 75B had a better anti-complementary activi-ty. C2, C3 and C4 were substituted by sulfate groups. A certain correlation was presented between the degree of substitution and the anticomplementary activity of sulfated derivatives. Anticomplementary activity of sulfated derivative 1. 75B was better than the heparin group in the classical pathway, which suggested the po-tential activity of the complement inhibitors.%为研究关白附多糖及其硫酸酯的经典途径抗补体活性,以关白附[Aconitum coreanum(Lévl.) Raipaics]为原料,经水提醇沉、 DE-32、 Superdex-200和 Superdex-75凝胶柱分离纯化,得到1个均一的中性多糖KMPS-2A.采用高效凝胶渗透色谱法、甲基化、核磁共振和红外光谱等手段对 KMPS-2A 的结构进行了鉴定;采用氯磺酸吡啶法制备了多糖硫酸酯,并测定了多糖及硫酸酯的抗补体活性.结果表明, KMPS-2A 的平均相对分子量为6.76×105,结构为α-1,6-D-Glc 链接的线性多糖;在氯磺酸与吡啶的体积比为1.75:1.0时制备的多糖硫酸酯1.75B

  14. Comparative biomorphological study of the taxonomy and Phylogeny of the genera Consolida (DC.S.F. Gray and Aconitella Spach

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    Trifinova, V. I.

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available Phylogenetic connections within the genus Consolida and between the genera Consolida and Aconitella have been revealed as a result of the comparison of anatomical, k.aryological and morphological data. This study has confinned the correctness or the intrageneric division of the genus Consolida proposed by E. Huth (1895, for three out or the five sections growing on the territory of the USSR. Taxonomical rank. has been specified fo r the youngest and most highly evolved group of species of the genus Aconitella, which is regarded by many botanists as beingwithin the limits of the genus Consolida. The taxonomical position of Aconitella barbata (Bunge Sojak, whose morphological rentures are intermediate between the genera Aconitella and Consolida, has been stated exactly. The main trends in the evolution or the tribe Delphineae have been identified: beginning from the primarily perennial mesophytic genus Aconitum, which is the most primitive in its anatomical, karyological and morphological features. through a series of unknown forms to the genus Delphinium;and also from the representatives of' the annual section Delphinium of the subgenus Delphinium to the genera Consolida and Aconitella.

    [ca] Les relacions filogenètiques a l'interior del gènere Consolida i entre els gèneres Consolida i Aconitella han estat posades de manifest com a resultat de la comparació de dades anatòmiques, cariològiques i morfològiques. Aquesta investigació ha confirmat la correcció de Ja divisió intragenèrica del gènere Consolida, proposada per E. Huth (1895, per a tres de les cinc seccions que creixen al territori de la U.R.S.S. El rang taxonòmic ha estat especificat per al grup més mòdem i evolutivament avançat d'espècies del gènere Aconitella. que és considerat per molts autors a l'interior dels límits del g

  15. The homoeopathic treatment of otitis media in children--comparisons with conventional therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friese, K H; Kruse, S; Lüdtke, R; Moeller, H

    1997-07-01

    In a prospective observational study carried out by 1 homoeopathic and 4 conventional ENT practitioners, the 2 methods of treating acute pediatric otitis media were compared. Group A received treatment with homoeopathic single remedies (Aconitum napellus, Apis mellifica, Belladonna, Capsicum, Chamomilla, Kalium bichromicum, Lachesis, Lycopodium, Mercurius solubilis, Okoubaka, Pulsatilla, Silicea), whereas group B received nasal drops, antibiotics, secretolytics and/or antipyretics. The main outcome measures were duration of pain, duration of fever, and the number of recurrences after 1 year, whereby alpha < 0.05 was taken as significance level. The secondary measures were improvement after 3 hours, results of audiometry and tympanometry, and necessity for additional therapy. These parameters were only considered descriptively. The study involved 103 children in group A and 28 children in group B, aged between 6 months and 11 years in both groups. For duration of pain, the median was 2 days in group A and 3 days in group B. For duration of therapy, the median was 4 days in group A and 10 days in group B: this is due to the fact that antibiotics are usually administered over a period of 8-10 days, whereas homoeopathics can be discontinued at an earlier stage once healing has started. Of the children treated, 70.7% were free of recurrence within a year in group A and 29.3% were found to have a maximum of 3 recurrences. In group B, 56.5% were free of recurrence, and 43.5% had a maximum of 6 recurrences. Out of the 103 children in group A, 5 subsequently received antibiotics, though homoeopathic treatment was carried through to the healing stage in the remaining 98. No permanent sequels were observed in either group.

  16. Simultaneous quantification and pharmacokinetics of alkaloids in Herba Ephedrae-Radix Aconiti Lateralis extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Shuai; Tang, Qingfa; Huo, Huiling; Li, Hancheng; Xing, Xuefeng; Luo, Jiabo

    2015-01-01

    The combination of Herba Ephedrae (Mahuang in Chinese) and Radix Aconiti Lateralis (Fuzi in Chinese) is a classical preparation in traditional Chinese medicine and used for treating colds and rheumatic arthralgia. However, herbal medicines containing ephedrines and Aconitum alkaloids are strictly regulated because of the potential for adverse effects on the cardiovascular system and the central nervous system. We aimed to investigate the pharmacokinetics of 11 alkaloids in the Mahuang-Fuzi combination and single-herb extracts after oral administration in rats. The alkaloids were norephedrine, norpseudoephedrine, ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, methylephedrine, aconitine, mesaconitine, hypaconitine, benzoylaconine, benzoylmesaconine and benzoylhypaconine. Simultaneous determination of the alkaloids, including two pairs of diastereomers, was achieved in 14.5 min by a simple, rapid and sensitive ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method. The separation was performed on a Zorbax SB-Aq column (100 mm × 2.1 mm, 3.5 μm) at a flow rate of 0.3 mL/min using acetonitrile-0.1% formic acid aqueous solution as the mobile phase. The validated method demonstrated adequate sensitivity, selectivity and process efficiency for the quantitative analysis of complex herbal components. Compared with single-herb extracts, alkaloids in plasma (except methylephedrine, benzoylmesaconine and benzoylhypaconine) showed slower elimination (the mean residence time or half-life was longer), although the maximum plasma concentration and area under the plasma concentration curve values decreased. Accumulation may occur with continuous drug intake. These results suggest that drug monitoring may be essential for the safe use of the Mahuang-Fuzi combination.

  17. Investigation of the therapeutic effectiveness of active components in Sini decoction by a comprehensive GC/LC-MS based metabolomics and network pharmacology approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Si; Wu, Si; Li, Wuhong; Chen, Xiaofei; Dong, Xin; Tan, Guangguo; Zhang, Hai; Hong, Zhanying; Zhu, Zhenyu; Chai, Yifeng

    2014-12-01

    As a classical formula, Sini decoction (SND) has been fully proved to be clinically effective in treating doxorubicin (DOX)-induced cardiomyopathy. Current chemomics and pharmacology proved that the total alkaloids (TA), total gingerols (TG), total flavones and total saponins (TFS) are the major active ingredients of Aconitum carmichaelii, Zingiber officinale and Glycyrrhiza uralensis in SND respectively. Our animal experiments in this study demonstrated that the above active ingredients (TAGFS) were more effective than formulas formed by any one or two of the three individual components and nearly the same as SND. However, very little is known about the action mechanisms of TAGFS. Thus, this study aimed to use for the first time the combination of GC/LC-MS based metabolomics and network pharmacology for solving this problem. By metabolomics, it was found that TAGFS worked by regulating six primary pathways. Then, network pharmacology was applied to search for specific targets. 17 potential cardiovascular related targets were found through molecular docking, 11 of which were identified by references, which demonstrated the therapeutic effectiveness of TAGFS using network pharmacology. Among these targets, four targets, including phosphoinositide 3-kinase gamma, insulin receptor, ornithine aminotransferase and glucokinase, were involved in the TAGFS regulated pathways. Moreover, phosphoinositide 3-kinase gamma, insulin receptor and glucokinase were proved to be targets of active components in SND. In addition, our data indicated TA as the principal ingredient in the SND formula, whereas TG and TFS served as adjuvant ingredients. We therefore suggest that dissecting the mode of action of clinically effective formulae with the combination use of metabolomics and network pharmacology may be a good strategy.

  18. Drug metabolism and pharmacokinetic diversity of ranunculaceae medicinal compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Da-Cheng; Ge, Guang-Bo; Xiao, Pei-Gen; Wang, Ping; Yang, Ling

    2015-01-01

    The wide-reaching distributed angiosperm family Ranunculaceae has approximately 2200 species in around 60 genera. Chemical components of this family include several representative groups: benzylisoquinoline alkaloid (BIA), ranunculin, triterpenoid saponin and diterpene alkaloid, etc. Their extensive clinical utility has been validated by traditional uses of thousands of years and current evidence-based medicine studies. Drug metabolism and pharmacokinetic (DMPK) studies of plant-based natural products are an indispensable part of comprehensive medicinal plant exploration, which could facilitate conservation and sustainable utilization of Ranunculaceae pharmaceutical resources, as well as new chemical entity development with improved DMPK parameters. However, DMPK characteristics of Ranunculaceaederived medicinal compounds have not been summarized. Black cohosh (Cimicifuga) and goldenseal (Hydrastis) raise concerns of herbdrug interaction. DMPK studies of other Ranunculaceae genera, e.g., Nigella, Delphinium, Aconitum, Trollius, and Coptis, are also rapidly increasing and becoming more and more clinically relevant. In this contribution, we highlight the up-to-date awareness, as well as the challenges around the DMPK-related issues in optimization of drug development and clinical practice of Ranunculaceae compounds. Herb-herb interaction of Ranunculaceae herb-containing traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formula could significantly influence the in vivo pharmacokinetic behavior of compounds thereof, which may partially explain the complicated therapeutic mechanism of TCM formula. Although progress has been made on revealing the absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity (ADME/T) of Ranunculaceae compounds, there is a lack of DMPK studies of traditional medicinal genera Aquilegia, Thalictrum and Clematis. Fluorescent probe compounds could be promising substrate, inhibitor and/or inducer in future DMPK studies of Ranunculaceae compounds. A better

  19. Experimental induced wound cicatrisation after highly diluted products treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorly de Freitas Buchi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Skin is an attractive target to study extracellular matrix, due to abundance in Connective tissue. In cases of injuries the first step is an inflammatory reaction and subsequent the healing that involves several changes in the matrix. These changes are fundamental to inflammatory cells activities allowing healing. Highly diluted products were shown to facilitate inflammatory mediators and to activate immune cells in vivo and in vitro, thus it can be effective to wound healing. Aims: This study aims to evaluate highly diluted products effects on inflammation and cicatrization process. Methodology: Three compounds (M8 (Aconitum napellus 20dH, Arsenicum album 18dH, Asa foetida 20dH, Calcarea carbonica 16dH, Conium maculatum 17dH, Ipecacuanha 13dH, Phosphorus 20dH, Rhus toxicodendron 17dH, Silicea 20dH, Sulphur 24dH, Thuja occidentalis 19dH, M1 (Chelidonium majus 20dH, Cinnamon 20dH, Echinaceae purpurea 20dH, Gelsemium sempervirens 20dH plus all M8 compounds and Curcuma cH30 – simple product, were manipulated as a gel and applied on mice dorsal flank after incision and suture (approximately 1 cm and three points, for 3 consecutive days. After the treatments the scars were evaluated macroscopically, the animals were killed, the skin samples collected, fixed and processed for Hematoxilin-Eosin (HE and Masson Tricromic (to observe the collagen fibers type I. The slices were analyzed and images collected by a light microscope Olympus BX51 with camera attached Olympus DP72. Results: It was observed a higher and faster rate of tissue epithelization in the treated groups after three days of gel-product application. This could be observed in lower rates in the control group (no treatment - Figure 1 and 2. Regeneration and organization of connective tissue were proportional to epithelization the treated groups. We also observed evidences of changes in amount of neutrophils and fibroblasts, resulting in changes in the

  20. Aconitine-induced Ca{sup 2+} overload causes arrhythmia and triggers apoptosis through p38 MAPK signaling pathway in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Gui-bo; Sun, Hong; Meng, Xiang-bao [Key Laboratory of Bioactive Substances and Resources Utilization of Chinese Herbal Medicine, Ministry of Education, Institute of Medicinal Plant Development, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, 100193 (China); Hu, Jin; Zhang, Qiang; Liu, Bo [Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences of Jilin Province, Changchun, Jilin 130021 (China); Wang, Min [Key Laboratory of Bioactive Substances and Resources Utilization of Chinese Herbal Medicine, Ministry of Education, Institute of Medicinal Plant Development, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, 100193 (China); Xu, Hui-bo, E-mail: xhb_6505@163.com [Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences of Jilin Province, Changchun, Jilin 130021 (China); Sun, Xiao-bo, E-mail: sun_xiaobo163@163.com [Key Laboratory of Bioactive Substances and Resources Utilization of Chinese Herbal Medicine, Ministry of Education, Institute of Medicinal Plant Development, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, 100193 (China)

    2014-08-15

    Aconitine is a major bioactive diterpenoid alkaloid with high content derived from herbal aconitum plants. Emerging evidence indicates that voltage-dependent Na{sup +} channels have pivotal roles in the cardiotoxicity of aconitine. However, no reports are available on the role of Ca{sup 2+} in aconitine poisoning. In this study, we explored the importance of pathological Ca{sup 2+} signaling in aconitine poisoning in vitro and in vivo. We found that Ca{sup 2+} overload lead to accelerated beating rhythm in adult rat ventricular myocytes and caused arrhythmia in conscious freely moving rats. To investigate effects of aconitine on myocardial injury, we performed cytotoxicity assay in neonatal rat ventricular myocytes (NRVMs), as well as measured lactate dehydrogenase level in the culture medium of NRVMs and activities of serum cardiac enzymes in rats. The results showed that aconitine resulted in myocardial injury and reduced NRVMs viability dose-dependently. To confirm the pro-apoptotic effects, we performed flow cytometric detection, cardiac histology, transmission electron microscopy and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling assay. The results showed that aconitine stimulated apoptosis time-dependently. The expression analysis of Ca{sup 2+} handling proteins demonstrated that aconitine promoted Ca{sup 2+} overload through the expression regulation of Ca{sup 2+} handling proteins. The expression analysis of apoptosis-related proteins revealed that pro-apoptotic protein expression was upregulated, and anti-apoptotic protein BCL-2 expression was downregulated. Furthermore, increased phosphorylation of MAPK family members, especially the P-P38/P38 ratio was found in cardiac tissues. Hence, our results suggest that aconitine significantly aggravates Ca{sup 2+} overload and causes arrhythmia and finally promotes apoptotic development via phosphorylation of P38 mitogen-activated protein kinase. - Highlights: • Aconitine-induced Ca

  1. P-glycoprotein is responsible for the poor intestinal absorption and low toxicity of oral aconitine: In vitro, in situ, in vivo and in silico studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Cuiping, E-mail: yangsophia76@hotmail.com; Zhang, Tianhong, E-mail: wdzth@sina.com; Li, Zheng, E-mail: lizh2524@126.com; Xu, Liang, E-mail: wj24998@163.com; Liu, Fei, E-mail: liufeipharm@163.com; Ruan, Jinxiu, E-mail: ruanjx1936@yahoo.com.cn; Liu, Keliang, E-mail: keliangliu55@126.com; Zhang, Zhenqing, E-mail: zhangzhenqingpharm@163.com

    2013-12-15

    Aconitine (AC) is a highly toxic alkaloid from bioactive plants of the genus Aconitum, some of which have been widely used as medicinal herbs for thousands of years. In this study, we systematically evaluated the potential role of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in the mechanisms underlying the low and variable bioavailability of oral AC. First, the bidirectional transport of AC across Caco-2 and MDCKII-MDR1 cells was investigated. The efflux of AC across monolayers of these two cell lines was greater than its influx. Additionally, the P-gp inhibitors, verapamil and cyclosporin A, significantly decreased the efflux of AC. An in situ intestinal perfusion study in rats showed that verapamil co-perfusion caused a significant increase in the intestinal permeability of AC, from 0.22 × 10{sup −5} to 2.85 × 10{sup −5} cm/s. Then, the pharmacokinetic profile of orally administered AC with or without pre-treatment with verapamil was determined in rats. With pre-treatment of verapamil, the maximum plasma concentration (C{sub max}) of AC increased sharply, from 39.43 to 1490.7 ng/ml. Accordingly, a 6.7-fold increase in the area under the plasma concentration–time curve (AUC{sub 0–12} {sub h}) of AC was observed when co-administered with verapamil. In silico docking analyses suggested that AC and verapamil possess similar P-gp recognition mechanisms. This work demonstrated that P-gp is involved in limiting the intestinal absorption of AC and attenuating its toxicity to humans. Our data indicate that potential P-gp-mediated drug–drug interactions should be considered carefully in the clinical application of aconite and formulations containing AC. - Highlights: • Verapamil and cyclosporin A decreased the efflux of aconitine across Caco-2 cells. • Both inhibitors decreased the efflux of aconitine across MDCKII-MDR1 cells. • Co-perfusion with verapamil increased the intestinal permeability of aconitine. • Co-administration with verapamil sharply increased the C{sub max

  2. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use in an Italian cohort of pediatric headache patients: the tip of the iceberg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalla Libera, D; Colombo, B; Pavan, G; Comi, G

    2014-05-01

    The use of complementary alternative medicine (CAM) in paediatric populations is considerably increased, especially for pain and chronic conditions, as demonstrated by epidemiological surveys both in Europe and in the USA. In our study, CAM was used in 76 % patients of a cohort of 124 children affected by headache (age 4-16 years; 67 % female; 70 % migraine without aura, 12 % migraine with aura, 18 % tensive headache according to IHS criteria) consecutively recruited at a Pediatric Headache University Center. CAM was used as preventive treatment in 80 % cases. The main reasons for seeking CAM were: the wish of avoiding chronic use of drugs with their related side effects, the desire of an integrated approach, the reported inefficacy of conventional medicine, and a more suitable children disposition to CAM than to pharmacological compound. Female gender, younger age, migraine without aura, parents' higher educational status, maternal use of CAM and other associated chronic conditions, correlated with CAM use (p insomnia, muscle-scheletric disorders and dysmenorrhoea). The most assumed CAM were: herbal remedies (64 %) such as Valeriana, Ginkgo biloba, Boswellia serrata, Vitex agnus-castus, passion flower, Linden tree; vitamins/minerals supplements (40 %) with magnesium, 5-Hydroxytryptophan, vitamin B6 or B12, Multivitamin compounds; Homeopathy (47 %) with Silicea, Ignatia Amara, Pulsatilla, Aconitum, Nux Vomica, Calcarea phosphorica; physical treatment (45 %) such as Ayurvedic massage, shiatsu, osteopathy; yoga (33 %); acupuncture (11 %). CAM-often integrated with conventional care-was auto-prescribed in 30 % of the cases, suggested by non-physician in 22 %, by the General Practitioner in 24 % and by paediatrician in 24 %. Both general practitioners and neurologists were mostly unaware of their patients' CAM use. In conclusion, neurologists should inquire for CAM use and be prepared to learn about CAM therapies or to directly interact with CAM trained experts, in

  3. Habitat Range of two Alpine Medicinal Plants in a Trans-Himalayan Dry Valley, Central Nepal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bharat Babu SHRESTHA; Pramod Kumar JHA

    2009-01-01

    Understanding of the habitat range of threatened Himalayan medicinal plants which are declining in their abundance due to high anthropogenic disturbances is essential for developing conservation strategies and agro-technologies for cultivation. In this communication, we have discussed the habitat range of two alpine medicinal plants, Aconitum naviculare (Briihl) Stapf and Neopierorhiza scrophulariiflora (Pennel) Hong in a trans-Himalayan dry valley of central Nepal, Manang district. They are the most prioritized medicinal plants of the study area in terms of ethnomedicinal uses. A. naviculare occurs on warm and dry south facing slopes between 4090-4650 m asl along with sclerophyllous and thorny alpine scrubs, while N. serophulariiflora is exclusively found on cool and moist north facing slope between 4o0o and 4400 m asl where adequate water is available from snow melt to create a suitable habitat for this wetland dependent species. The soil in rooting zone of the two plants differs significantly in organic carbon (OC), organic matter (OM), total nitrogen (N) and carbon to nitrogen (C/N) ratio. Due to cool and moist condition of N. scrophulariiflora habitat, accumulation of soil OC is higher, but soil N content is lower probably due to slow release from litter, higher leaching loss and greater retention in perennial live biomass of the plant. The C/N ratio of soil is more suitable in A. navuculare habitat than that of N scrophulariiflora for N supply. Warm and sunny site with N rich soft can be suitable for cultivation of A. naviculare, while moist and cool site with organic soil for N. scrophulariiflora. The populations of both the plants are fragmented and small. Due to collection by human and trampling damage by livestock, the population of A. naviculare was found absent in open areas in five of the six sampling sites and it was confined only within the bushes of alpine scrubs. For N. serophulariiflora, high probability of complete receding of small glaciers may

  4. Oral, topical, and inhalation of Calcarea carbonica derivative complex (M8 to treat inflammatory mammary carcinoma in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina de Oliveira

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Inflammatory mammary carcinoma (IMC is locally aggressive, fast growing, highly malignant tumor that affects humans and dogs. Affected dogs usually are presented with generalized edema, pain, erythema, and skin ulceration in mammary glands. Surgery is not recommended and an effective treatment has not been established [1]. Calcarea carbonica derivative complex (M8 has demonstrated anticancer properties in a murine model, by improving innate immune response against tumor cells [2]. M8 is a complex high diluted medication comprised of Calcarea carbonica 16x, Aconitum napellus 20x, Arsenicum album 18x, Asa foetida 20x, Conium maculatum 17x, Ipecacuanha 13x, Phosphorus 20x, Rhus toxicodendron 17x, Silicea 20x, Sulphur 24x, and Thuya occidentalis 19x, dilution procedures have followed standard methodology described at the Brazilian Homeopathic Pharmacopoeia. Aims: To describe different routes of M8 administration associated with oral pyroxican (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug to treat dogs with IMC. Methodology: Three female dogs with 10 years old median age were presented to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital at Federal University of Parana, Curitiba (HV-UFPR with cytological and clinical diagnosis of IMC. Patients were treated with oral (0.5 mL,q12h, topical (q12h and inhalatory (2 mL, q24h, through an ultrasonic inhalation device M8, and oral pyroxican (0.3mg/kg, q24h.Thoracic radiographs showed pulmonary metastasis in all dogs. Results: 7 days after initiating treatment all patients had clinical improvement. It was observed reduction on mammary glands inflammation and decreased pain sensitivity. One patient had 8 month of complete remission. The other two patients died 1 and 2 month after initial treatment. However none of the patients had pulmonary progressive disease, showed by radiographic examinations. Owners revealed treatment satisfaction in regards to quality of life improvement, easy M8 administration, good M8

  5. Research on Molecular Mechanism of “Yin Asthenia with Internal Heat” in Asthenia Hot Syndrome Rats by Gene Chip Technology%基因芯片技术研究虚热证大鼠阴虚内热的分子机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩冰冰; 王世军

    2013-01-01

    目的:通过基因芯片技术研究虚热证大鼠肝全基因表达谱的改变,阐释虚热证大鼠“阴虚内热”的分子机制.方法:使用中药复方附子、肉桂、干姜建立虚热证大鼠模型,应用基因芯片检测各组大鼠肝脏基因表达,筛选差异表达基因,进行基因功能分类注释,荧光定量PCR验证芯片结果.结果:虚热模型组与空白对照组比较有99条基因差异表达,主要涉及防御应答,固醇代谢等功能.结论:虚热证阴虚内热的分子机制可能与刺激应答相关基因及固醇代谢相关基因两类基因的异常表达相关.%To explain molecular mechanism of “Yin Asthenia with Internal Heat” in asthenia hot syndrome rats by analysis the whole gene expression profile of the hver in rats with asthenia hot syndrome.Methods:The Asthenia hot syndrome rats models were induced by compound preparation of Traditional Chinese Medicine of Aconitum carmichaeli,Cinnamomi Cortex,Rhizoma Zingiberis.The liver gene expression in each group was detected by gene chip.We selected the differential expression genes and conducted the significant analysis on the genetic function of differential genes.A part of genes were selected to test the accuracy of results by RT-PCR.Results:As compared to the control group,in asthenia hot model group there were 99 strips of differential expression gene,mainly about function of defense response and sterol metabolic process.Conclusion:The abnormal expression of genes about defense response and sterol metabolic process in asthenia hot syndrome rats is possibly related to the substance foundation of asthenia hot syndrome.

  6. Study on the Valuation System for the Superficial Characteristics of the Rat Models with Heat-deficiency Syndrome Based on PLS%基于PLS的虚热证大鼠模型表征评价体系的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩冰冰; 王世军; 张发艳; 王媛; 张亚楠

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the valuation system for superficial characteristics of rat models with heat-deficiency syndrome in ac-cordance with the theory of traditional Chinese medicine by PLS data analysis. Methods;Rat models with heat-deficiency syndrome were established by compound preparation of Aconitum carmichaeli, Cinnamomi Cortex and Rhizoma Zingiberis. After the models were cop-ied, superficial characteristics such as body temperature, ordinary situation, cold and warm tendency, autonomy activities and metabolism energy were tested and the data were estimated by PLS. Results: Rat models of heat-deficiency syndrome were significantly influenced by stool texture and colors, average toe temperature, body weight, rectal temperature, metabolic energy to unit weight and activity state (VIP > 1). Conclusion;The main symptoms and signs of animal models with heat-deficiency syndrome are consistent with the clinical diagnosis of heat-deficiency syndrome, which reflects the pathological features of "yin-deficiency and endogenous heat" of heat-deficien-cy syndrome.%目的:探讨采用偏最小二乘回归(PLS)法对符合虚热证动物模型表征评价体系进行研究.方法:使用中药复方附子、干姜、肉桂建立虚热证大鼠模型,检测体温、一般状况、寒热趋向、自主活动及代谢能等表征,PLS法建立回归模型,并进行数据分析.结果:粪质地、粪色、平均趾温、体质量、肛温、单位体质量可代谢能、活动状态对模型有重要影响力(VIP>1).结论:虚热证模型动物的主要症状及体征与虚热证的临床诊断基本相符,体现了虚热证阴虚内热的病理特点.

  7. Calcarea carbonica derivative complex (M8 as adjuvant treatment of inflammatory mammary carcinoma in a dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Domit Guérios

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Inflammatory mammary carcinoma (IMC is locally aggressive, fast growing, highly malignant tumor that affects humans and dogs. Affected dogs usually are presented with generalized edema, pain, erythema, and skin ulceration in mammary glands. Surgery is not recommended and an effective treatment has not been established [1]. Calcarea carbonica derivative complex (M8 has demonstrated anticancer properties in a murine model, by improving innate immune response against tumor cells [2,3]. M8 is a complex high diluted medication comprised of a 10%-20% concentration of Calcarea carbonica, Aconitum napellus, Arsenicum album, Asa foetida, Conium maculatum, Ipecacuanha, Phosphorus, Rhus tox, Silicea, Sulphur, and Thuya occidentalis, all in decimal dilutions of Hahnemann in distilled water and submitted to vigorous shaking. Aim: Describe an association of M8 and piroxicam (Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug to treat a dog with IMC. Discussion: A 7 years old, mixed breed intact female dog was presented to the Federal University of Parana - Veterinary Hospital, Curitiba (HV-UFPR for mammary glands examination. The owners related inflammation of mammary glands with clinical course of approximately 10 days, which was treated for mastitis (cephalexin and metergoline without clinical improvement. Clinical examination revealed erythema, increased skin warmth, pain on palpation, and plaque involving the 4th and 5th right mammary glands. Abdominal ultrasound and serum biochemistry were unremarkable. Thoracic radiographs showed suspicious images of pulmonary metastasis. Fine needle biopsy was taken for cytologic examination. Cytological interpretation was a malignant epithelial neoplasm, probably a mammary carcinoma. Diagnosis of IMC was based on clinical signs and cytopathology. Dog was treated with oral (0.5 mL and topical M8 twice a day for 15 days, and pyroxican, 0.3mg/kg, PO, q24h. Clinical improvement was observed 7 days after starting

  8. Traditional herbal medicine in Far-west Nepal: a pharmacological appraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrestha Keshab P

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant species have long been used as principal ingredients of traditional medicine in far-west Nepal. The medicinal plants with ethnomedicinal values are currently being screened for their therapeutic potential but their data and information are inadequately compared and analyzed with the Ayurveda and the phytochemical findings. Methods The present study evaluated ethnomedicinal plants and their uses following literature review, comparison, field observations, and analysis. Comparison was made against earlier standard literature of medicinal plants and ethnomedicine of the same area, the common uses of the Ayurveda and the latest common phytochemical findings. The field study for primary data collection was carried out from 2006-2008. Results The herbal medicine in far-west Nepal is the basis of treatment of most illness through traditional knowledge. The medicine is made available via ancient, natural health care practices such as tribal lore, home herbal remedy, and the Baidhya, Ayurveda and Amchi systems. The traditional herbal medicine has not only survived but also thrived in the trans-cultural environment with its intermixture of ethnic traditions and beliefs. The present assessment showed that traditional herbal medicine has flourished in rural areas where modern medicine is parsimoniously accessed because of the high cost and long travel time to health center. Of the 48 Nepalese medicinal plants assessed in the present communication, about half of the species showed affinity with the common uses of the Ayurveda, earlier studies and the latest phytochemical findings. The folk uses of Acacia catechu for cold and cough, Aconitum spicatum as an analgesic, Aesculus indica for joint pain, Andrographis paniculata for fever, Anisomeles indica for urinary affections, Azadirachta indica for fever, Euphorbia hirta for asthma, Taxus wallichiana for tumor control, and Tinospora sinensis for diabetes are consistent with the latest

  9. Extraction and Determination of Alkaloids from Bozhou Peony Paeonia lactiflora%亳芍生物碱提取及含量测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈乃东; 周飞

    2013-01-01

    目的探讨亳芍生物碱提取、定性鉴别及含量测定方法。方法95%乙醇提取亳芍干粉,总提物回收乙醇后盐酸酸化,二氯甲烷萃取除杂,加氨水中和至弱碱性后氯仿萃取获总生物碱提物,薄层色谱检测,改良碘化铋钾等显色,酸碱滴定法测定总生物碱含量。结果总生物碱提取物经薄层色谱展开后,改良碘化铋钾显色,可检测到4个橙红色斑点;浓硫酸显色,其中2个斑点呈紫红色;甲醛浓硫酸显色,可见4个紫黑色斑点;以浓硝酸及茚三酮显色未见明显色斑。亳芍总生物碱含量约为0.079%。结论亳芍中含有生物碱,其中可能包含乌头碱类生物碱。%Objective To explore the extraction and assaying of the alkaloids from Bozhou Peony Paeonia lactiflora. Methods Dry root powder of the medical material was extracted by 90%ethanol. The extraction was first acidified by hydrochloric acid after recovering alcohol, and then extracted by dichloromethane. The acid solution was adjusted pH to alkalescence by ammonia water, then extracted by chloroform to get crude alkaloid. Bozhou Peony alkaloids were confirmed by TLC along with different colouration method, and its content was detected by acid-base titration. Results Four alkaloid-representative salmon patches were observed by colored with improving potassium heptaiodobismuthate method, and two prunosus blotches, four dark prunosus spots were delected by concentrated sulfuric acid and formaldehyde-concentrated sulfuric acid method, respectively. However, no chromogenic spots were found by colored with nitric acid as well with ninhydrin. The content of alkaloids in Bozhou Peony Paeonia lactiflora was about 0.079%. Conclusion Bozhou Peony Paeonia lactiflora contained alkaloid, and may including aconitum alkaloids.

  10. Screening for Nemaicidal Activity of Some Chinese Plant Extracts against Plant Parasitic Nematodes, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, Meloidogyne arenaria and Hirschmanniella oryzae%植物抽提物对几种植物病原线虫的杀线活性筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文艳华; 冯志新; 徐汉虹; 陈立

    2001-01-01

    Extracts of 14 Chinese plants (belong to 10 fami lies in Hubei,Shanxi and Guangdong Provinces, China) were assessed f or nematicidal activity against Bursaphelenchus xylophilus using a fungal-f eedin g method in vitro. Some of 14 plant extracts were also assessed for nematicidal activity against Meloidogyne arenaria and Hirschmanniella oryzae. Five p lant ext racts(Cephalotaxus fortunei, Cephalotaxus sinensis, Paeonia suffrutccosa, Soph or a viciifolia and Derris elliptica) showed strong nematicidal activity against B ursaphelenchus xylophilus; 3 plant extracts (Cephalotaxus fortunei, Paeonia suf frutccosa, Sophora viciifolia) also showed strong nematicidal activity agains t M. arenaria and H.oryzae. While 4 plant extracts (Sargentodoxus argota enia, Mang lietia patungensis, Liriope spicata, and Liriodendron chinese) demonstrated no nematicidal activity against B. xylophilus and M. arenaria.%测定了中国湖北、陕西及广东省的10科14种植物抽提物对几种植物病原线虫的杀线活性,结果表明:对松材线虫,毛鱼藤(Derris elliptica)根有极强杀线活性,三尖杉( Cephalotaxus fortunei)茎叶、粗榧(Cephalotaxus sinensis)叶、狼牙刺( Sophora vi ciifolia)种子、紫斑牡丹(Paeonia suffrutccosa)茎有强杀线活性,神农香菊( Dendra nthema indicum)全株有中等杀线活性,瓜叶乌头(Aconitum hemsleyanum)全株、香果树(Emmenopterys henryi)叶、东方荚果蕨(Matteuccia orientalis)茎叶、大叶醉鱼草( Buddleja davidii)叶均无杀线活性;对花生根结线虫及水稻潜根线虫,三尖杉茎叶、狼牙刺种子、紫斑牡丹茎有极强杀线活性,神农香菊全株有中等杀线活性;大血藤(Sargento do xus argotaenia)茎、巴东木莲(Manglietia patungensis)叶、土麦冬(Liriop e spicat a)全株及鹅掌揪(Liriodendron chinese)叶对松材线虫、花生根结线虫均无杀线活性。

  11. 乌头属植物中毒事件的病因判定%An etiological judgment of a poisoning event caused by Acontium plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢立璟; 王效俊; 侯小平; 刘全儒; 王英伟; 龙鑫; 马沛滨; 孙承业

    2013-01-01

    目的 验证中毒事件病因判定模型在新疆维吾尔自治区塔城地区发生的一起乌头属植物中毒事件病因判定中的作用. 方法 中毒事件病因判定模型的要点是根据现场、病例和实验研究结果进行综合判定.接到中毒事件报告后,当地疾病预防控制中心(CDC)专业人员迅速赶往现场开展流行病学调查,了解中毒患者临床情况,采集中毒患者的血液、呕吐物样本及可疑有毒植物新鲜样本,国家CDC组织相关专业机构进行可疑有毒植物的形态学鉴定、DNA分子鉴定和毒素检验,并按照中毒病因判定模型,综合3方面的结果进行病因判定,指导临床诊断和救治. 结果 2010年5月30日,新疆塔城地区某县某矿业金属有限公司13名员工食用在附近山上采集的“野芹菜”后15 ~ 30 min内陆续出现口唇及四肢麻木、全身乏力、恶心、呕吐等症状,立即被送往当地医院,运送途中死亡4人,9人送到医院进行抢救,其中2人抢救无效均于中毒后4h左右死亡.可疑有毒植物新鲜样本形态学鉴定确认为毛茛科乌头属植物.1例呕吐物样品和3例血液样品中检测出乌头碱,血液样品中乌头碱含量分别为0.17、0.25和0.48μg/L.DNA分子鉴定结果显示现场采集的可疑有毒植物新鲜叶片与乌头属植物属于同一类.综合上述结果,明确该起事件为误采误食乌头属植物茎叶所致突发中毒事件. 结论 中毒事件病因判定模型在中毒事件病因判定中可起到重要指导作用.%Objective To validate the effects of the etiological judgment model for poisoning event in a poisoning event caused by Aconitum in Tacheng District,Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region.Methods The main point of the etiological judgment model for poisoning event was synthesized determination according to the results of the scene,cases and laboratory research.After receiving the report of poisoning event,the specialists in local Center for

  12. In vivo treatment with M8, a highly diluted tinctures complex, reduced the malignancy of a mouse melanoma model

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    Dorly F Buchi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cancer is a class of disease responsible for 13% of death cause worldwide. Among all types of cancers, one of the most aggressive and with the highest death rate is melanoma. It is highly metastatic and current treatments with chemotherapeutic drugs do not yield satisfactory results. Therefore, the interest on new therapeutics for cancer treatment has been increasing on research. Highly diluted tinctures (HDT are intended to enhance immune system responses resulting in reduced frequency of various diseases, and often present no risk of serious side-effects due to its low toxicity. Previous results have demonstrated in vitro inhibition of invasion ability and in vivo anti-metastatic potential of B16F10 lung metastasis model after mice treatment with M8 inhalation. Aims: Now we have evaluated M8 effects on hyaluronic acid and its specific melanoma cell surface receptor (CD44 expression on lungs after inhalation by mice. Methodology: M8 compounds include Aconitum napellus 20dH, Arsenicum album 18dH, Asa foetida 20dH, Calcarea carbonica 16dH, Conium maculatum 17dH, Ipecacuanha 13dH, Phosphorus 20dH, Rhus toxicodendron 17H, Silicea 20dH, Sulphur 24dH, and Thuja occidentalis 19dH. B16F10 Melanoma cells were inoculated into C57B/L6 mouse lateral tail vein. Treatment started 24 hours after inoculation, and was repeated after each 12 hours during 14 days on an inhalation chamber that is adapted to little rodents. Mice were subjected to euthanasia by intraperitoneal injection of thiopental followed by decapitation. Lungs were surgically removed and analyzed under a stereomicroscope for the presence of metastatic foci. They were formaldehyde fixed, dehydrated and paraffin embedded. Histological sections were processed for hematoxilin/eosin (HE, Fontana-Masson and immunohistochemistry staining methods. Images were captured and blindly analysed by ImageJ (NIH software. Results: HE and Fontana-Masson showed a reduction in number and size

  13. Species Diversity and Population Status of Threatened Plants in Different Landscape Elements of the Rohtang Pass,Western Himalaya

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K.N.Singh; Gopichand; Amit Kumar; Brij Lal; N.P.Todaria

    2008-01-01

    .25 individuals/m2),Picrorhiza kurrooa(19.83 individuals/m2)and Rhododendron anthopogon(26.23 individuals/25m2)was highest.Aconitum heterophyllum was recorded for the lowest density(1 individual/m2).It was observed that the distribution of medicinal plants was very habitat-specific.Lower soil pH in most of the LSEs reflected its acidic nature.A significant positive correlation of Shannon diversity was found with soil organic matter,carbon content available and total nitrogen.Considering the continuous pressure of anthropogenie activities,this paper suggests effective ecotourism planning and plant conservation mechanisms to protect valuable plant bioresource at the Rohtang Pass.

  14. Ethnobotany of the Monpa ethnic group at Arunachal Pradesh, India

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    Tangjang Sumpam

    2011-10-01

    religious scripts in Buddhist monasteries. Three plant species (Derris scandens, Aesculus assamica, and Polygonum hydropiper were frequently used to poison fish during the month of June-July every year and the underground tuber of Aconitum ferrox is widely used in arrow poisoning to kill ferocious animals like bear, wild pigs, gaur and deer. The most frequently cited plant species; Buddleja asiatica and Hedyotis scandens were used as common growth supplements during the preparation of fermentation starter cultures. Conclusion The traditional pharmacopoeia of the Monpa ethnic group incorporates a myriad of diverse botanical flora. Traditional knowledge of the remedies is passed down through oral traditions without any written document. This traditional knowledge is however, currently threatened mainly due to acculturation and deforestation due to continuing traditional shifting cultivation. This study reveals that the rural populations in Arunachal Pradesh have a rich knowledge of forest-based natural resources and consumption of wild edible plants is still an integral part of their socio-cultural life. Findings of this documentation study can be used as an ethnopharmacological basis for selecting plants for future phytochemical and pharmaceutical studies.

  15. 25种植物提取物杀灭鱼类指环虫活性研究%Study on the activity 25 natural plant extracts killing the Dactylogyrus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王高学; 赵云奎; 申烨华; 郑伟; 袁明; 陈俏

    2011-01-01

    目的 筛选出对指环虫具有杀灭活性的植物.方法 将感染有指环虫的金鱼投放在加有一定浓度植物提取物的水体中,控制一定的水体条件,显微镜下定期观察鱼鳃上的指环虫数量,最后统计杀虫率.结果 黄花烟草、牵牛子对中型指环虫最高杀灭率均为90%,其次是茶粕和贯众,分别为70%和55%.苦楝、80%印楝、10%雷公藤、雷丸、使君子、鹤虱、白鲜皮、山豆根、半夏、川鸟、千金子、木鳖子、阿魏、补骨脂、巴豆、天南星、大戟、仙鹤草的最高杀虫率48 h内均在10%~50%.黄花烟草的最佳有效浓度是80.0 mg/L;茶粕最低用量为6.5 mg/L,但对鱼不安全,在9.5 mg/L时鱼死亡率达60%以上;在药物浓度100~1000 mg/L范围内,柴胡、白头翁、姜黄提取物没有明显杀虫活性.结论 黄花烟草、牵牛子具有较好的杀虫活性,可以作为进一步研究的材料.%Aim To screen out plants active in killing the Dactylogyrus.Methods Put goldfish infectedby the Dactylogyrus in water which has been added plant extracts of a certain concentration, controling essential water condition, observe Dactylogyrus'number of fish gills under the microscope regularly, finally count the rate of pesticide.Results Both the extracts of Nicotiana tabacum and Pharbitis nil Choisy had the highest killing rate of 90%, followed by Tea seed flakes and Dryopteris crassirhizoma Nakal, 70% and 55% respectively.The highest rate of pesticide.was 10% ~50% in 48 hours for such plant extracts as Melia azedarach L., 80% Azadriachta indica, 10% Tripterygium wilfordil, Polyporus mylittae, Qusqualis indica L., Carpesium abrotanoides L., Dictamnus dasycarpus Turcz, Bupleurum chinense, Pulsatilla chinensis Regel, Sophora tonkinensis Gapnep, Penellia ternate Breit., Aconitum carmichaeli Debx., Euphorba lathyris L., Momordica cochinchinensis, Ferula sinkiangensis, Psoralea corylifolia, Croton tiglium, Arisaema erubescens, Euphoria

  16. The Disaster, Ecological Distribution and Control of Poisonous Weeds in Natural Grasslands of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region%新疆天然草地毒草灾害分布与防控对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严杜建; 周启武; 路浩; 吴晨晨; 赵宝玉; 曹丹丹; 马烽; 刘晓学

    2015-01-01

    some regions, the grassland poisoned has led to the poisonous grass disaster take place frequently, even broke out, which have increased from the basic ecological problem to a social problem, seriously affected the local social stability and grassland ecological security. At present, more than 85% available natural grasslands are degenerating to a greater or lesser extent and 37.50% of them are severely degraded, with an poisonous weeds disaster area of nearly 700 million hm2, which has accounted for 20.42% of the total hazard area of natural grassland of the country, and the annual death number of animals with poisoning is more than 3000 in average . Xinjiang natural grassland contains common poisonous plants of 81 species, 24 families and 54 genera. Among them, theAconitum carmichaeli, Aconitum soongaricum, Achnatherum inebrians, Oxytropis glabra, Astragalus variabilis, Anabasis aphylla, Pedicularis, Ligularia sibirica andCucuta virosa are more serious harmful poisonous weeds to grassland animal husbandry, which accounted for approximately more than 80% of the total poisonous weeds hazard area. Therefore, a comprehensive understanding of poisonous weeds disaster situation in natural grassland of Xinjiang, weed species and geographic distribution, the effective prevention and control, the solution of the poisonous weeds disaster, is of great significance to improve the grassland productivity and forage quality, promote the sustainable development of animal husbandry in pastoral areas and farmers’ income, flourishing frontier minority economy and stabilize the ecological environment balance. According to the analysis and summary of data reported and results of the project group actually investigated in Xinjiang natural grasslands, the disaster situation, species of poisonous weeds and geographical distribution, prevention and control measures and reasonable utilization are reviewed. The disaster condition of regional grassland ecological and animal husbandry

  17. Research on Classifications,Actions and Usage Features of Mongolian Medicine Formulas Based on Drug Standards%基于药品标准的蒙药制剂品种、主治和用药特点研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙位军; 孙铭; 王张; 邝婷婷; 曾勇; 江道峰

    2016-01-01

    frequency and medicinal part as well as the characteristics of forms,name and usage of formulas,based on the number of formulas, pharmaceutical enterprises,approval numbers.Results Confirmed the total count of 164 formulas,including 12 recorded in Chinese Pharmacopoeia,125 received license number,39 hospital preparation or agreements prescription.The formulas are frequently named by "The name of main medicinal herb +number","The main function ingredients +number","Mongolian transliteration +number".Dosage forms have 6 types from high to low pill,powder,capsule,paste,tablet,and granule.The patients taking,carrying and storing are convenient for the steppe.The formula with 7 drugs is the most.The formulas ,having diversified characteristics of Mongolian Medicine which are used to the clinical treatment of gastrointestinal disease,respiratory disease,gynecologic diseases,Mon-golian medicine disease,infectious diseases,etc.Mongolian medicine should be developed in treatment dominant diseases.268 drugs have been used,including 210 herbal drugs,30 animal drugs,22 mineral drugs.It has a great relationship with the special geograph-ical position and natural condition of Inner Mongolia.The medicinal parts,such as seed fruits,root,flowers,mineral medicine,heart-wood,herb,gallbladder,resin,stool,stems,aerial part,etc.,are commonly used.Terminaliachebula Retz.,Carthamustinctorius L., Cardeniajasminoides Ellis., GypsumFibrosum, Myristicafragrans Houtt., Bostaurusdomesticus Gmelin, Piperlongum L., Ewgewiacaryophyllata Thunb.,Meliatoosendan Sieb.et Zucc.,Aconitum kusnezoffii Reichb.completed the top 10 frequency of drug use.The traditional Chinese and Tibetan medicine take place in cross appearance in the use of drugs.Conclusion Mongolian medicine formulas,with rich in varieties,a reasonable amount of drugs,more solid preparations and widely clinic application,contain more herbal drugs.But the lack of well-known enterprise have been influenced by Tibetan medicine and Chinese medicine.

  18. Fuzi Lizhong Pills regulating myosin ATPase activity of skeletal muscle in rats with spleen yang deficient syndrome%附子理中丸对脾阳虚证大鼠骨骼肌肌球蛋白ATP酶活性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文通; 蔡大勇; 唐汉庆; 卢阿娜; 王晓怡; 杨艳; 罗静; 杨美娟; 李国璋; 蒋玉凤

    2011-01-01

    from d70.At d98, gastrocnemius was taken from left leg of rats, then, the enzyme histochemistry for M-ATPase was carried out on the frozening sections pre-incubation at pH 10.4.The potency data were derives from the primary data.A t-test was used to evaluate the change between groups (P<0.05) as the statistic significant.Results: In the euthyroid rats, compared with the control, the activity of M-ATPase in skeletal muscle increased by 26.10% (P<0.01) in model rats.The activity in fat-diet rats decreased 10.40% (P<0.01) than that in the model rats.The rats treated with Huanglian-Jiedu Decoction decreased the activity by 21.39% (P<0.01) and the rats treated with Aconitum Lizhong Pill increased by 34.89% (P<0.01) than that in the fat-diet rats.In the hypothyroid rats, compared with the control, the activity of M-ATPase in skeletal muscle increased by 101.56% (P<0.01) in model rats; the activity in fat-diet rats decreased 19.98% (P<0.01) than that in the model rats; the rats treated with Huanglian-Jiedu Decoction increased the activity by 8.01% (P<0.01) and the rats treated with Fuzi Lizhong Pills decreased by 18.65% (P<0.01) than that in the fat-diet rats.The activity potency of energy charge in the groups with hypothyroid was higher than that in the design-mated groups with euthyroid by 59.85% (P<0.01) in model, 42.76% (P<0.01) in fat-diet, 96.14% (P<0.01) in HuanglianJiedu Decoction and 18.29% (P<0.01) in Fuzi Lizhong Pills.Conclusion: Fuzi Lizhong Pills down-regulates the M-ATPase activity of skeletal muscle in rats with spleen yang deficiency, more effective in the hypothyroid rats than that in the euthyroid rats.

  19. Evaluation of Calcarea carbonica derivative complex (M8 on milk parameters in the dairy cow

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    Daniel Ollhoff

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Any dairy herd that continually has a somatic cell count (SCC above 200,000 cells/ml has an indication of mammary gland inflammation (mastitis. Routine use of antibiotics to prevent mastitis is prohibited by organic farming regulations. This limitation has lead researchers to focus on cows natural defense mechanisms [1]. Calcarea carbonica derivative complex (M8 is a complex high diluted medication comprised of comprised of Calcarea carbonica 16x, Aconitum napellus 20x, Arsenicum album 18x, Asa foetida 20x, Conium maculatum 17x, Ipecacuanha 13x, Phosphorus 20x, Rhus toxicodendron 17x, Silicea 20x, Sulphur 24x, and Thuya occidentalis 19x. Dilution procedures have followed standard methodology described at the Brazilian Homeopathic Pharmacopoeia. This medication has enhanced immune system responses both in vitro and in vivo in a murine model [2]. Aims In the present study, we investigate the response of dairy cows after M8 treatment. Methodology The study was performed as a randomized, observer double-blinded and placebo-controlled trial, with a stratified design, using lactation number and SCC as stratification factors. The study sample consisted of 42 lactating dairy cows (Holstein in one high producing dairy herd with 52 cows in milk in southern Brazil, divided into two experimental groups (n=21. Exclusion criteria were cows with clinical mastitis or receiving any other medical treatment. Pre- and post-milking teat disinfection was practiced in the herd. All cows were clinically examined, with udder and milk samples being appraised according to Rosenberger (1990 [3]. During 3 months one group received daily M8 treatment, the other placebo. Oral administration of 5 ml/day/cow was performed using an automatic dosage dispenser. Monthly, milk production, SCC, fat and total protein content were carefully recorded for each animal by an official milk recording program. SCC were log transformed for analysis. ANOVA and Tukey test were

  20. 脾阳虚证大鼠棕色脂肪组织和解偶联蛋白1关联性的研究%Experimental Research on Relationship between Brown Adipose Tissue and Uncoupling Protein 1 in Rats with Spleen Yang Deficiency Syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴云起; 唐汉庆; 吴翠松; 劳传君; 庞广福

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To explore the relationship and mechanism about brown adipose tissue, uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), high fatty diet and Chinese herbal decoction during the process of energy metabolism. Method: Rats were divided into four groups (n = 16 each). ①Control group was fed with ordinary food, also ig given 0.9% NaCl 10 g·kg-1 during d70-d98 daily. The ability of ISO deducing heat generating was tested on d98, and the curve of the rectal temperature was monitored, and the peak within two hours and the area under the curve were determined.②Yang deficiency syndrome group: the same procedure was carried out as the control group except removing brown adipose tissue on d42. ③Spleen yang deficiency syndrome group: the same procedure was carried out as the yang deficiency syndrome group except of being fed with high fatty diet (including 83% ordinary diet,15% triglycerides,2% cholesterol) from d49 to d98 and placed in 19 ℃ environment every other day. ④Chinese herbal decoction group: the same procedure was carried out as the spleen yang deficiency syndrome group except giving 4 g·kg-1 ig daily with Aconitum Lizhong decoction and the body weight was measured every week. The index of the weight growth rate, the peak of temperature and the area under the temperature curve were all investigated. The content of UCP1 was determined by using brown adipose tissue. Result: ①Weight growth rate: compared with yang deficiency syndrome group, weight growth rate in spleen yang deficiency syndrome group was lower( P < 0. 01 ); compared with spleen yang deficiency syndrome group, weight growth rate was higher in the Chinese herbal decoction group (P < 0.01 ). ②Temperature: compared with yang deficiency syndrome group, the temperature peak of heat generating in spleen yang deficiency syndrome group was higher(P < 0.01 ); compared with spleen yang deficiency syndrome group, temperature peak of heat generating was higher in Chinese herbal decoction group ( P

  1. Plausibility of the implausible: is it possible that ultra-high dilutions ‘without biological activity’ cause adverse effects?

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    Marcus Zulian Teixeira

    2013-06-01

    intermediate to high propensity to produce at least one of the five symptoms that define ALTE, when given in homeopathic dilutions. Two of these (Veratrum album and Cuprum metallicum have an intermediate-to-high propensity to produce three of the four possible ALTE symptoms”. The authors conclude that “it is unlikely that the ALTE following ingestion of GCB was a toxic reaction to any of the drug’s component”, proposing the ‘homeopathic theory’ (pathogenetic manifestations [15] as explanation for this linkage. In view of these results, it can be inferred that AEs caused by homeopathic medicines at potencies ≥ 6C ‘are more closely related to the imponderable effects of ultra-high dilutions than the toxic (allergic effects of substances’. Accordingly, other case reports cited in that review described serious AEs with potencies of this magnitude, including the occurrence of ‘drug rash with eosinophilia and severe pulmonary involvement’ after using Sedativ PC (complex homeopathic medicine with 6 ingredients in 6CH [16], and the occurrence of ‘heart disease and bladder cancer’ with a complex homeopathic medicine in very high potencies (Aconitum napellus, Barytacarbonica, Cantharis vesicatoria, Gambogia, Pulsatilla nigricans and Rhus toxicodendron at 1000c, M or 10M potencies [17], discarding any influence of ‘toxicity of substances’. Similarly, in a systematic review on information regarding adverse effects of homeopathic medicines including 19 reports of clinical trials, 19 case (or case series reports and 15 homeopathic pathogenetic trials, Dantas and Rampes [18] concluded that “the mean incidence of AEs of homeopathic medicines (ultra-high dilutions was greater than placebo (9.4/6.1 in controlled clinical trials”, including mostly headaches, tiredness, skin eruptions, dizziness, bowel dysfunction such as diarrhea or loose stools and, more frequently, aggravations of symptoms following the administration of homeopathic medicines. Countering

  2. Effect of Shenfu parenteral injection on the expressions of Bcl-2, Bax and c-Fos proteins in ischemia reperfusion myocardium of rats%参附注射液影响大鼠缺血再灌注心肌Bcl-2,Bax与c-Fos蛋白的表达

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    陈玉培; 牟崇明; 季道如; 但伶; 龚文婷; 王莉莎

    2006-01-01

    -2/Bax比率显著升高(P<0.01).结论:参附注射液对缺血再灌注心肌保护效应可能与其促进Bcl-2蛋白高表达、抑制Bax与c-Fos蛋白表达、增加Bcl-2/Bax比率,从而抑制心肌细胞凋亡有关.%BACKGROUND: It has been confirmed that Shenfu parenteral injection can ameliorate and treat various shocks, heart failure, myocardial ischemia and supraventricular/ventricular arrhythmia, and it also has a good protective effect on myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats.OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects of Shenfu parenteral injection on the protein expressions of myocardial apoptosis-related genes of Bcl-2, Bax and c-Fos in rats with acute ischemia/reperfusion injury.DESIGN: A complete randomized grouping design, controlled experiment.SETTING: Department of Anesthesiology, the Second Affiliated Hospital,Chongqing University of Medical Sciences.MATERIALS: The experiments were carried out in the Staff Room of Anesthesiology, the Second Affiliated Hospital, Chongqing University of Medical Sciences from April to December in 2004. Thirty-five healthy adult Wistar rats were provided by the experimental animaI center of Daping Hospital, Third Military Medical University of Chinese PLA. Shenfu parenteral injection was the TCM formula of Shenfu Tang, which is for recuperating depleted yang and rescuing the patient from collapse, and its main components are ginsenoside and aconitum alkaloid. It was the product of Yaan Sanjiu Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., 10 mL/piece, the batch number was 030110.METHODS: In vivo models of myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury were used. The 35 rats were divided into 5 groups according to the number of random number table, with 7 rats in each group: ① Sham-operated group: The rats were treated with only insertion of thread without ligation, followed by intravenous injection of saline (8 mL/kg), and then observed for 120 minutes. ② Shenfu parenteral injection 30-minute group: The rats were treated with intravenous