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Sample records for acnes infection induces

  1. Bacteriophages Infecting Propionibacterium acnes

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    Holger Brüggemann

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Viruses specifically infecting bacteria, or bacteriophages, are the most common biological entity in the biosphere. As such, they greatly influence bacteria, both in terms of enhancing their virulence and in terms of killing them. Since the first identification of bacteriophages in the beginning of the 20th century, researchers have been fascinated by these microorganisms and their ability to eradicate bacteria. In this review, we will cover the history of the Propionibacterium acnes bacteriophage research and point out how bacteriophage research has been an important part of the research on P. acnes itself. We will further discuss recent findings from phage genome sequencing and the identification of phage sequence signatures in clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs. Finally, the potential to use P. acnes bacteriophages as a therapeutic strategy to combat P. acnes-associated diseases will be discussed.

  2. Bacteriophages infecting Propionibacterium acnes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brüggemann, Holger; Lood, Rolf

    2013-01-01

    Viruses specifically infecting bacteria, or bacteriophages, are the most common biological entity in the biosphere. As such, they greatly influence bacteria, both in terms of enhancing their virulence and in terms of killing them. Since the first identification of bacteriophages in the beginning of the 20th century, researchers have been fascinated by these microorganisms and their ability to eradicate bacteria. In this review, we will cover the history of the Propionibacterium acnes bacteriophage research and point out how bacteriophage research has been an important part of the research on P. acnes itself. We will further discuss recent findings from phage genome sequencing and the identification of phage sequence signatures in clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs). Finally, the potential to use P. acnes bacteriophages as a therapeutic strategy to combat P. acnes-associated diseases will be discussed.

  3. Etiologic Aspect of Sarcoidosis as an Allergic Endogenous Infection Caused by Propionibacterium acnes

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    Yoshinobu Eishi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sarcoidosis is a systemic granulomatous disease of unknown etiology. Propionibacterium acnes is the only microorganism that has been isolated from sarcoid lesions. Many P. acnes have been detected in sarcoid lymph nodes using quantitative PCR and in sarcoid granulomas by in situ hybridization. P. acnes trigger factor protein causes a cellular immune response only in sarcoid patients and induces pulmonary granulomas in mice sensitized with the protein and adjuvant, but only those with latent P. acnes infection in their lungs. Eradication of P. acnes by antibiotics prevents the development of granulomas in this experimental model. Although P. acnes is the most common commensal bacterium in the lungs and lymph nodes, P. acnes-specific antibody detected the bacterium within sarcoid granulomas of these organs. P. acnes can cause latent infection in the lung and lymph node and persist in a cell-wall-deficient form. The dormant form is activated endogenously under certain conditions and proliferates at the site of latent infection. In patients with P. acnes hypersensitivity, granulomatous inflammation is triggered by intracellular proliferation of the bacterium. Proliferating bacteria may escape granulomatous isolation, spreading to other organs. Latent P. acnes infection in systemic organs can be reactivated by another triggering event, leading to systemic sarcoidosis.

  4. Acne

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    ... skin. Testing is not needed in most cases. Bacterial culture may be performed to rule out infection if large pus bumps persist. Treatment SELF-CARE Steps you can take to help your acne : Clean your skin gently with a mild, nondrying soap (such as Dove, Neutrogena, Cetaphil, CeraVe, or Basics). ...

  5. Propionibacterium acnes: An Underestimated Pathogen in Implant-Associated Infections

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    María Eugenia Portillo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of Propionibacterium acnes in acne and in a wide range of inflammatory diseases is well established. However, P. acnes is also responsible for infections involving implants. Prolonged aerobic and anaerobic agar cultures for 14 days and broth cultures increase the detection rate. In this paper, we review the pathogenic role of P. acnes in implant-associated infections such as prosthetic joints, cardiac devices, breast implants, intraocular lenses, neurosurgical devices, and spine implants. The management of severe infections caused by P. acnes involves a combination of antimicrobial and surgical treatment (often removal of the device. Intravenous penicillin G and ceftriaxone are the first choice for serious infections, with vancomycin and daptomycin as alternatives, and amoxicillin, rifampicin, clindamycin, tetracycline, and levofloxacin for oral treatment. Sonication of explanted prosthetic material improves the diagnosis of implant-associated infections. Molecular methods may further increase the sensitivity of P. acnes detection. Coating of implants with antimicrobial substances could avoid or limit colonization of the surface and thereby reduce the risk of biofilm formation during severe infections. Our understanding of the role of P. acnes in human diseases will likely continue to increase as new associations and pathogenic mechanisms are discovered.

  6. Production of superoxide anions by keratinocytes initiates P. acnes-induced inflammation of the skin.

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    Philippe A Grange

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Acne vulgaris is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the sebaceous follicles. Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes, a gram-positive anareobic bacterium, plays a critical role in the development of these inflammatory lesions. This study aimed at determining whether reactive oxygen species (ROS are produced by keratinocytes upon P. acnes infection, dissecting the mechanism of this production, and investigating how this phenomenon integrates in the general inflammatory response induced by P. acnes. In our hands, ROS, and especially superoxide anions (O2(*-, were rapidly produced by keratinocytes upon stimulation by P. acnes surface proteins. In P. acnes-stimulated keratinocytes, O2(*- was produced by NAD(PH oxidase through activation of the scavenger receptor CD36. O2(*- was dismuted by superoxide dismutase to form hydrogen peroxide which was further detoxified into water by the GSH/GPx system. In addition, P. acnes-induced O2(*- abrogated P. acnes growth and was involved in keratinocyte lysis through the combination of O2(*- with nitric oxide to form peroxynitrites. Finally, retinoic acid derivates, the most efficient anti-acneic drugs, prevent O2(*- production, IL-8 release and keratinocyte apoptosis, suggesting the relevance of this pathway in humans.

  7. Acne

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hair care Douching Makeup Tanning Tattoos and piercing Cosmetic surgery Points about shoes Backpack safety Protecting your ears ... Acne Whether you call them pimples, zits, or acne, lots of teens find skin problems confusing and upsetting. But you ...

  8. Acne

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    Acne is a common skin disease that causes pimples. Pimples form when hair follicles under your skin ... neck, back, chest, and shoulders. Anyone can get acne, but it is common in teenagers and young ...

  9. Acne

    OpenAIRE

    Emel Güngör

    2012-01-01

    Acne is a chronic disorder of pilosebaceous unit clinically characterized by comedones, papules, pustules, nodules and scarring. It affects almost 85% of young people between 12-24 years of age. Four main pathophysiologic factors that influence the development of acne are; increased sebum secretion, abnormal follicular desquamation, P. acnes colonization of the follicle and inflammation. The treatment of acne includes; topical retinoids, topical antimicrobial agents, systemic antibiotics, hor...

  10. Acne

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Acne? (in Chinese 繁體中文 ) What Is Acne? (in Korean 한국어 ) What Is Acne? (in Vietnamese bằng tiếng ... of diseases and conditions. NIH RePORTER is an electronic tool that allows users to search a repository ...

  11. Acne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emel Güngör

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Acne is a chronic disorder of pilosebaceous unit clinically characterized by comedones, papules, pustules, nodules and scarring. It affects almost 85% of young people between 12-24 years of age. Four main pathophysiologic factors that influence the development of acne are; increased sebum secretion, abnormal follicular desquamation, P. acnes colonization of the follicle and inflammation. The treatment of acne includes; topical retinoids, topical antimicrobial agents, systemic antibiotics, hormonal therapy and oral isotretinoin. Topical retinoids should be used as the first choice in comedonal acne, in combination with topical and/or systemic antimicrobials for mild to moderate inflammatory acne and as maintenance therapy once clearance has been achieved. Topical and systemic antibiotics which are used to treat moderate inflammatory acne should not be used as monotherapy but combined with topical benzoyl peroxide or topical retinoids and should be stopped as soon as possible. Hormonal therapy is an excellent choice for women, especially if oral contraception is desired. It may also be used for female patients with severe seborrhea, late onset acne and with proven hyperandrogenism. Oral isotretinoin targets all pathophysiologic factors in acne and is the mainstay of therapy for severe acne. It has to be kept in mind that the management of acne and compliance of the patient to the treatment can be enhanced by a number of general strategies such as education about acne and treatment, skin care, diet and adjuvant procedures.

  12. Acne

    OpenAIRE

    Krafchik, Bernice R

    1999-01-01

    Acne is a disease that primarily affects adolescents but it may also be seen in neonates, children and adults. The main areas of involvement are the face, chest and back. Many individuals with acne are embarrassed by their condition, and even refuse to go to school and become socially withdrawn. Early treatment can prevent the devastating physical and emotional sequelae of acne. There are numerous effective therapies, and it is not necessary for patients to go through the trauma that plagued ...

  13. Acne induzida por amineptina Acne induced by amineptine

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    Antonio Carlos Martins Guedes

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Relata-se um caso grave de lesões acne-símile associada a amineptina (Survector®, proeminentes na face e dorso, acometendo outros sítios não afetados pela acne vulgar, como períneo, braços e pernas. As lesões apareceram após a auto-administração crônica de altas doses do medicamento. Lesões ceratoacantoma-símile também estavam presentes, tendo as lesões menores resposta satisfatória ao tratamento com imiquimod tópico. O relato é significativo pela raridade da doença.

  14. Acne

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pills are used along with a drug called spironolactone to treat acne in adult females. This medication lowers levels of ... include irregular menstruation, breast tenderness, headache and fatigue. Spironolactone is ... used for acne scarring? If you have scarring, your dermatologist may ...

  15. Rosmarinus officinalis extract suppresses Propionibacterium acnes-induced inflammatory responses.

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    Tsai, Tsung-Hsien; Chuang, Lu-Te; Lien, Tsung-Jung; Liing, Yau-Rong; Chen, Wei-Yu; Tsai, Po-Jung

    2013-04-01

    Propionibacterium acnes is a key pathogen involved in the progression of acne inflammation. The development of a new agent possessing antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activity against P. acnes is therefore of interest. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) extract on P. acnes-induced inflammation in vitro and in vivo. The results showed that ethanolic rosemary extract (ERE) significantly suppressed the secretion and mRNA expression of proinflammatory cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-8, IL-1β, and tumor necrosis factor-α in P. acnes-stimulated monocytic THP-1 cells. In an in vivo mouse model, concomitant intradermal injection of ERE attenuated the P. acnes-induced ear swelling and granulomatous inflammation. Since ERE suppressed the P. acnes-induced nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) activation and mRNA expression of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2, the suppressive effect of ERE might be due, at least partially, to diminished NF-κB activation and TLR2-mediated signaling pathways. Furthermore, three major constituents of ERE, carnosol, carnosic acid, and rosmarinic acid, exerted different immumodulatory activities in vitro. In brief, rosmarinic acid significantly suppressed IL-8 production, while the other two compounds inhibited IL-1β production. Further study is needed to explore the role of bioactive compounds of rosemary in mitigation of P. acnes-induced inflammation. PMID:23514231

  16. Heat-killed Propionibacterium acnes is capable of inducing inflammatory responses in skin.

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    Lyte, Peter; Sur, Runa; Nigam, Anu; Southall, Michael D

    2009-12-01

    The etiology of acne is a complex process, and acne is one of the most common skin disorders affecting millions of people. The pathogenesis of acne is closely associated with the bacterium, Propionibacterium acnes which was previously known as Corynebacterium parvum. Both viable and non-viable P. acnes/C. parvum have been shown to induce an immunostimulatory effect in vivo, suggesting that even dead bacteria continue to activate an inflammatory response. Acne treatments with lasers or devices, induce a bactericidal effect through heat generation which may not address the immunogenic activity of P. acnes and the resulting acne inflammation. Therefore, we sought to determine whether killed P. acnes is capable of inducing an inflammatory response and therefore could be a contributing factor in acne. Direct heat treatment of P. acnes cultures with temperatures ranging from 50 degrees C to 80 degrees C reduced P. acnes viability. Both viable and heat-killed P. acnes activated the p38 MAP kinase and its downstream substrate Hsp27. Stimulating keratinocytes with normal and heat-inactivated P. acnes resulted in an induction of proinflammatory nitric oxide and IL-8 production. Thus killed P. acnes is capable of inducing inflammation in skin suggesting that therapies that have both bactericidal and anti-inflammatory effects may result in a more effective treatment of patients with acne than treatments that are bactericidal alone. PMID:19624731

  17. Delayed Propionibacterium acnes surgical site infections occur only in the presence of an implant.

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    Shiono, Yuta; Ishii, Ken; Nagai, Shigenori; Kakinuma, Hiroaki; Sasaki, Aya; Funao, Haruki; Kuramoto, Tetsuya; Yoshioka, Kenji; Ishihama, Hiroko; Isogai, Norihiro; Takeshima, Kenichiro; Tsuji, Takashi; Okada, Yasunori; Koyasu, Shigeo; Nakamura, Masaya; Toyama, Yoshiaki; Aizawa, Mamoru; Matsumoto, Morio

    2016-01-01

    Whether Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) causes surgical-site infections (SSI) after orthopedic surgery is controversial. We previously reported that we frequently find P. acnes in intraoperative specimens, yet none of the patients have clinically apparent infections. Here, we tracked P. acnes for 6 months in a mouse osteomyelitis model. We inoculated P. acnes with an implant into the mouse femur in the implant group; the control group was treated with the bacteria but no implant. We then observed over a 6-month period using optical imaging system. During the first 2 weeks, bacterial signals were detected in the femur in the both groups. The bacterial signal completely disappeared in the control group within 28 days. Interestingly, in the implant group, bacterial signals were still present 6 months after inoculation. Histological and scanning electron-microscope analyses confirmed that P. acnes was absent from the control group 6 months after inoculation, but in the implant group, the bacteria had survived in a biofilm around the implant. PCR analysis also identified P. acnes in the purulent effusion from the infected femurs in the implant group. To our knowledge, this is the first report showing that P. acnes causes SSI only in the presence of an implant. PMID:27615686

  18. Distribution of rabies virus in infected mice, vaccinated and submitted to P. acnes as immunomodulator.

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    Megid, J; Cremonini, D N; Leomil, H

    2002-07-01

    The lethality and distribution of rabies virus were evaluated in swiss mice experimentally infected with street rabies virus, vaccinated and submitted to immunomodulation by P .acnes (formerly Corynebacterium parvum). The animals were sacrificed at different times,when the different tissues were collected and submitted to fluorescent antibody test (FAT) and mouse inoculation test (MIT). The group submitted to vaccination and P. acnes treatment presented a percentage of survival superior to that observed in infected mice only treated with P. acnes. Control infected animals had the lowest survival rates. The distribution of rabies virus in spleen of infected mice, vaccinated and submitted to P. acnes was superior to that verified in infected mice not treated with P.acnes. The increased survival correlated with the distribution of rabies virus in lymphoid tissues, could be interpreted as the consequence of P. acnes activity on macrophages. The results suggest the role of macrophages against rabies virus infection in mice and the importance of vaccination in the post expositive treatment of rabies. PMID:12135238

  19. Acne vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Hywel C; Dellavalle, Robert P; Garner, Sarah

    2012-01-28

    Acne is a chronic inflammatory disease of the pilosebaceous unit resulting from androgen-induced increased sebum production, altered keratinisation, inflammation, and bacterial colonisation of hair follicles on the face, neck, chest, and back by Propionibacterium acnes. Although early colonisation with P acnes and family history might have important roles in the disease, exactly what triggers acne and how treatment affects the course of the disease remain unclear. Other factors such as diet have been implicated, but not proven. Facial scarring due to acne affects up to 20% of teenagers. Acne can persist into adulthood, with detrimental effects on self-esteem. There is no ideal treatment for acne, although a suitable regimen for reducing lesions can be found for most patients. Good quality evidence on comparative effectiveness of common topical and systemic acne therapies is scarce. Topical therapies including benzoyl peroxide, retinoids, and antibiotics when used in combination usually improve control of mild to moderate acne. Treatment with combined oral contraceptives can help women with acne. Patients with more severe inflammatory acne usually need oral antibiotics combined with topical benzoyl peroxide to decrease antibiotic-resistant organisms. Oral isotretinoin is the most effective therapy and is used early in severe disease, although its use is limited by teratogenicity and other side-effects. Availability, adverse effects, and cost, limit the use of photodynamic therapy. New research is needed into the therapeutic comparative effectiveness and safety of the many products available, and to better understand the natural history, subtypes, and triggers of acne. PMID:21880356

  20. Acute infection with Propionibacterium acnes after a Latarjet coracoid transfer procedure: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Brandon J; Bhatia, Sanjeev; Biswas, Debdut; Verma, Nikhil N

    2016-06-01

    Coracoid transfer procedures are highly effective at improving glenohumeral stability in patients with recurrent shoulder instability; complication rates from this procedure are generally low. We present the first case in the literature of a Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) infection following a coracoid transfer. The case stresses the importance of proper antibiotic prophylaxis for patients undergoing Latarjet procedures, as well as the workup for a painful postoperative shoulder, and the need to maintain cultures from the shoulder for up to 21 days to isolate P. acnes.

  1. Acne (Acne Vulgaris)

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    ... rash and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Acne (Acne Vulgaris) Information for adults A A A Whiteheads (closed comedones) are the earliest lesions of acne. Overview Acne, also known as acne vulgaris, is ...

  2. Propionibacterium acnes inhibits FOXM1 and induces cell cycle alterations in human primary prostate cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sayanjali, Behnam; Christensen, Gitte J M; Al-Zeer, Munir A;

    2016-01-01

    Propionibacterium acnes has been detected in diseased human prostate tissue, and cell culture experiments suggest that the bacterium can establish a low-grade inflammation. Here, we investigated its impact on human primary prostate epithelial cells. Microarray analysis confirmed the inflammation......-inducing capability of P. acnes but also showed deregulation of genes involved in the cell cycle. qPCR experiments showed that viable P. acnes downregulates a master regulator of cell cycle progression, FOXM1. Flow cytometry experiments revealed that P. acnes increases the number of cells in S-phase. We tested...... the hypothesis that a P. acnes-produced berninamycin-like thiopeptide is responsible for this effect, since it is related to the FOXM1 inhibitor siomycin. The thiopeptide biosynthesis gene cluster was strongly expressed; it is present in subtype IB of P. acnes, but absent from type IA, which is most abundant...

  3. Propionibacterium acnes in the pathogenesis and immunotherapy of acne vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pei-Feng; Hsieh, Yao-Dung; Lin, Ya-Ching; Two, Aimee; Shu, Chih-Wen; Huang, Chun-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Acne vulgaris, a multi-factorial disease, is one of the most common skin diseases, affecting an estimated 80% of Americans at some point during their lives. The gram-positive and anaerobic Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) bacterium has been implicated in acne inflammation and pathogenesis. Therapies for acne vulgaris using antibiotics generally lack bacterial specificity, promote the generation of antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains, and cause adverse effects. Immunotherapy against P. acnes or its antigens (sialidase and CAMP factor) has been demonstrated to be effective in mice, attenuating P. acnes-induced inflammation; thus, this method may be applied to develop a potential vaccine targeting P. acnes for acne vulgaris treatment. This review summarizes reports describing the role of P. acnes in the pathogenesis of acne and various immunotherapy-based approaches targeting P. acnes, suggesting the potential effectiveness of immunotherapy for acne vulgaris as well as P. acnes-associated diseases.

  4. Suppression of Propionibacterium acnes Infection and the Associated Inflammatory Response by the Antimicrobial Peptide P5 in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunhyo Ryu

    Full Text Available The cutaneous inflammation associated with acne vulgaris is caused by the anaerobic bacterium Propionibacterium acnes through activation of the innate immune system in the skin. Current standard treatments for acne have limitations that include adverse effects and poor efficacy in many patients, making development of a more effective therapy highly desirable. In the present study, we demonstrate the protective effects of a novel customized α-helical cationic peptide, P5, against P. acnes-induced inflammatory responses in vitro and in vivo. Application of P5 significantly reduced expression of two inflammatory cytokines IL-8 and TNF-α in P. acnes-treated primary human keratinocytes, where P5 appeared to act in part by binding to bacterial lipoteichoic acid, thereby suppressing TLR2-to-NF-κB signaling. In addition, in a mouse model of acne vulgaris, P5 exerted both anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial effects against P. acnes, but exerted no cytotoxic effects against skin cells. These results demonstrate that P5, and perhaps other cationic antimicrobial peptides, offer the unique ability to reduce numbers P. acnes cells in the skin and to inhibit the inflammation they trigger. This suggests these peptides could potentially be used to effectively treat acne without adversely affecting the skin.

  5. Baby Acne (Neonatal Acne)

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    ... and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Baby Acne (Neonatal Acne) A parent's guide for infants and babies A A A Acne whiteheads and bumps (papules) typically involve the forehead ...

  6. Inhibition of Propionibacterium acnes-induced mediators of inflammation by Indian herbs.

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    Jain, A; Basal, E

    2003-01-01

    Propionibacterium acnes, an anaerobic pathogen, plays an important role in the pathogenesis of acne by inducing certain inflammatory mediators. These mediators include reactive oxygen species (ROS) and pro-inflammatory cytokines. In the present study, ROS, interleukin-8 (IL-8) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) were used as the major criteria for the evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity. To prove the anti-inflammatory effects of herbs, polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL) and monocytes were treated with culture supernatant of P. acnes in the presence or absence of herbs. It was found that Rubia cordifolia, Curcuma longa, Hemidesmus indicus, and Azadirachta indica caused a statistically significant suppression of ROS from PMNL. Sphaeranthus indicus caused a smaller, still significant suppression of ROS. Aloe vera had no effect on ROS production. In the case of proinflammatory cytokine-induced monocytes, maximum suppression was shown by Azadirachta indica and Sphaeranthus indicus, followed by Hemidesmus indicus, Rubia cordifolia, and Curcuma longa. Aloe vera showed insignificant inhibitory activity. Thus, these herbs shows anti-inflammatory activity by suppressing the capacity of P. acnes-induced ROS and pro-inflammatory cytokines, the two important inflammatory mediators in acne pathogenesis. PMID:12622461

  7. Population genetic analysis of Propionibacterium acnes identifies a subpopulation and epidemic clones associated with acne.

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    Hans B Lomholt

    Full Text Available The involvement of Propionibacterium acnes in the pathogenesis of acne is controversial, mainly owing to its dominance as an inhabitant of healthy skin. This study tested the hypothesis that specific evolutionary lineages of the species are associated with acne while others are compatible with health. Phylogenetic reconstruction based on nine housekeeping genes was performed on 210 isolates of P. acnes from well-characterized patients with acne, various opportunistic infections, and from healthy carriers. Although evidence of recombination was observed, the results showed a basically clonal population structure correlated with allelic variation in the virulence genes tly and camp5, with pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE- and biotype, and with expressed putative virulence factors. An unexpected geographically and temporal widespread dissemination of some clones was demonstrated. The population comprised three major divisions, one of which, including an epidemic clone, was strongly associated with moderate to severe acne while others were associated with health and opportunistic infections. This dichotomy correlated with previously observed differences in in vitro inflammation-inducing properties. Comparison of five genomes representing acne- and health-associated clones revealed multiple both cluster- and strain-specific genes that suggest major differences in ecological preferences and redefines the spectrum of disease-associated virulence factors. The results of the study indicate that particular clones of P. acnes play an etiologic role in acne while others are associated with health.

  8. Anti-acne inducing bacteria activity and -mangostin content of Garcinia mangostana fruit rind extracts from different provenience

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    Werayut Pothitirat

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The fruit rind of Garcinia mangostana Linn. has been traditionally used for treatment of skin infection, wounds, dysentery, and diarrhea. -Mangostin, a major constituent of the fruit rind, was reported to possess a strong inhibitory effect against Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis, which is involved in acne development. This study was conducted to quantitative analyze the content of -mangostin in the fruit rind of this plant collected from 13 locations in the South and East of Thailand by validated TLC-densitometric method. Antibacterial activity against P. acnes and S. epidermidis of the extracts was also determined. -Mangostin contents in the fruit rinds and in the 95 % ethanolic extracts were found in the ranges of 3.39-5.68 and 11.83-23.11 % dry weight, respectively. The samples from the South showed higher contents of -mangostin (average 17.64 % w/w in the extract and 4.85 % w/w in the dried powder than the eastern samples. The MIC values of all extracts against P. acnes and S. epidermidis were in the range of 7.81-15.63 and 15.63-31.25 g/mL, respectively,while the MBC values were in the range of 15.63-31.25 and 62.50-125.00 g/mL, respectively. The antibacterial activityand mangostin content of the samples from different locations were significantly different (p<0.05. The average MIC and MBC values indicate that the samples from the South of Thailand (MIC = 13.02 g/mL, MBC = 15.63 g/mL for P. acne and MIC = 23.44 g/mL, MBC = 83.33 g/mL for S. epidermidis promoted stronger antibacterial effect than the samples from the East. The results suggest that the -mangostin content in the extract of G. mangostana fruit rind correlates with the antiacne inducing bacteria activity. The fruit rinds of G. mangostana cultivated in the South seemed to be the appropriate source in terms of higher -mangostin content and better anti-acne property.

  9. Green Nail Syndrome (Pseudomonas aeruginosa Nail Infection: Two Cases Successfully Treated with Topical Nadifloxacin, an Acne Medication

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    Simon Müller

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Green nail syndrome (GNS caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the most common bacterial nail infection. The treatment of GNS is challenging in many cases and recommendations based on clinical trials are lacking. We report two cases with GNS successfully treated with off-label use of topical nadifloxacin, a fluoroquinolone approved for acne and bacterial skin infections in some countries.

  10. Acne Scars

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... care Kids’ zone Video library Find a dermatologist Acne scars Overview Acne scar treatment: This woman's dermatologist ... At 3 months (right), she has noticeable improvement. Acne scars: Overview If acne scars bother you, safe ...

  11. Malassezia infection: is there any chance or necessity in refractory acne?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Gang; WEI Yu-ping; FENG Jie

    2010-01-01

    @@ The prevalence rate of acne in China is continuously increasing in adolescents,young and middle-aged adults.In many cases,those who have refractory inflammatory papules and pustules on the face and mandibular have received long-term antibiotic therapy.Some severe cases have had isotretinoin treatment and even corticosteroid application by either topical or oral administration.The curative effect has not been prominent in these cases,even with combined treatment including antimicrobials and/or isotretinoin and Chinese patent medicines.Papules and pustules even increase and recur during the course of treatment.The phenomena aroused our interest in the possibility of a mixed Malassezia infection.We chose those patients who had had a limited response to traditional acne therapies and recent exacerbation of their symptoms to examine the incidence of Malassezia furfur (M.furfur) in pustules using the potassium hydroxide (KOH) examination technique.However,the results were inconclusive because very few clusters of spores were observed.In order to evaluate an antifungal therapeutic treatment,we administrated the treatment to the patients who accepted it that was approved by the Ethical Committee of Second Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University and the patients signed informed consent.Excitingly,acne responded well after discontinuation of antibiotics and combined application of topical and oral antifungal treatments.For example,by oral administration of itraconazole and topical application of naftifine and ketoconazole cream for 2-4 weeks,pustules were significantly decreased,and even disappeared in some cases.

  12. Inhibitory effects of wild bitter melon leaf extract on Propionibacterium acnes-induced skin inflammation in mice and cytokine production in vitro.

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    Huang, Wen-Cheng; Tsai, Tsung-Hsien; Huang, Ching-Jang; Li, You-Yi; Chyuan, Jong-Ho; Chuang, Lu-Te; Tsai, Po-Jung

    2015-08-01

    Propionibacterium acnes is a key pathogen involved in acne inflammation. Wild bitter melon (WBM, Momordica charantia L. var. abbreviate Seringe) is consumed as both a vegetable and as folk medicine in Taiwan. We examined the inhibitory activity of the total phenolic extract (TPE) of WBM leaf on P. acnes-induced inflammatory responses in vivo and in vitro. Our data showed that TPE significantly attenuated P. acnes-induced ear swelling in mice along with microabscess. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that TPE treatment significantly decreased the migration of neutrophils and interleukin (IL)-1β(+) populations in vivo. In P. acnes-stimulated human monocytic THP-1 cells, TPE suppressed the mRNA levels and production of IL-8, IL-1β, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-αin vitro. In addition, TPE suppressed P. acnes-induced matrix metalloproteinase-9 levels. TPE blocked nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation and inactivated mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK); these actions may partially account for its inhibitory effect on cytokine production. The quantitative HPLC analysis revealed gallic, chlorogenic, caffeic, ferulic, and cinnamic acids, myricetin, quercetin, luteolin, apigenin, and thymol in TPE. All these phenolics significantly suppressed P. acnes-induced IL-8 production in vitro. Our results suggest that WBM leaf extract effectively inhibits P. acnes-induced inflammatory responses and may be useful to relieve the inflammation of acne. PMID:26098998

  13. Hepatotoxicidade pela flutamida em paciente sob tratamento para acne: relato de caso Flutamide-induced hepatotoxicity during treatment of acne: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Fátima Duques de Amorim

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available A flutamida é agente antiandrogênico não esteróide usado no tratamento do câncer de próstata, da acne e do hirsutismo. Alguns casos de hepatotoxicidade grave têm sido apresentados na literatura com seu uso. Relata-se o caso de uma paciente com 21 anos de idade, que apresentou significativa elevação das aminotransferases durante o tratamento para acne com flutamida, completamente resolvida após a descontinuação da droga. Discute-se o diagnóstico, a relação risco/benefício e conclui-se que a monitoração com exames que avaliem o fígado é imperativa e que a droga deve ser suspensa se houver elevação de aminotransferases, dada a possibilidade de disfunção hepática grave.Flutamide is a non-steroidal anti-androgenic drug used in the treatment of prostate cancer, acne and hirsutism. Some cases of severe flutamide-induced hepatotoxicity have been reported in the literature. We report the case of a 21-year-old female who presented with a significant increase of aminotransferase levels during the treatment of acne with flutamide, which resolved completely after discontinuation of the drug. We discuss the diagnosis, the risk/benefit ratio, and conclude that monitoring liver function tests is mandatory and that the drug should be discontinued if an increase in aminotransferase levels occurs, due to the possibility of severe liver dysfunction.

  14. Evaluation of cytokines concentration and percentage of survival of rabies virus-infected mice submitted to anti-rabies Vero-cell propagated vaccine and P. acnes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megid, J; Appolinario, C M; Mazzini, A M; Almeida, M F

    2006-11-15

    Previously, survival of rabies infection was shown to correlate with low IL-6 serum concentration in mice subjected to post-exposure treatment with the Fuenzalida Palacios rabies vaccine in conjunction with the immunomodulator Propionibacterium acnes, previously Corynebacterium parvum. Considering the substitution of the Fuenzalida Palacios rabies vaccine by the Vero cell raised anti-rabies vaccine in almost all countries, the objective of this work was to evaluate the survival and cytokine serum concentration of rabies virus-infected mice treated with P. acnes in conjunction with or the anti-rabies-VERO vaccine. For this, Swiss mice were experimentally infected with street rabies virus and subjected to vaccine and/or P. acnes following infection. Animals were killed at different times and serum was collected to evaluate cytokines. The greatest survival was observed in animals given one or two does of P. acnes in the absence of vaccination. Animals given anti-rabies VERO vaccine alone or with three doses of P. acnes had the second highest survival rate. The group that had the highest percentage of mortality also had the highest IL-6 concentration on the 10th day, a time correlating with clinical symptoms of the animals. The results reinforce the inefficacy of anti-rabies vaccine in only one dose as a post-exposure treatment irrespective of the type of vaccine used, the immunomodulation activity of P. acnes in rabies post-exposure treatment and suggest a role for IL-6 in rabies virus pathogenesis. PMID:16930720

  15. [Acne tarda. Acne in adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, T; Janßen, O E; Plewig, G

    2013-04-01

    Acne is one of the most common skin diseases in the general population, especially among adolescents. Acne tarda (adult acne) is defined as acne that develops (late-onset acne) or continues (persistent acne) after 25 years of age. The disease is more common in women. The clinical features are quite specific: inflammatory acne in the lower facial region or macrocomedones (microcysts) spread over the face. Involvement of the trunk is much more common in men. The etiology of acne tarda is still controversial, as cosmetics, drugs, smoking, stress, diet, and endocrine abnormalities have been implicated. Women with acne tarda and other symptoms of hyperandrogenism have a high probability of endocrine abnormalities such as polycystic ovary syndrome. Treatment is similar to that of acne in adolescence. Long-term treatment over years or decades may be required. PMID:23576169

  16. Acne fulminans incapacitante Disabling Acne Fulminans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Pina Zanelato

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Acne fulminans é uma manifestação rara, que pode ocorrer durante a evolução da acne vulgar, principalmente, em adolescentes masculinos. Uso de isotretinoína, testosterona, e reações imunológicas exacerbadas no organismo são desencadeantes relacionados. Sinais, sintomas e alterações laboratoriais como: febre, hepatomegalia, poliartralgia, leucocitose, plaquetose, aumento de provas inflamatórias e transaminases, são característicos. A cintilografia óssea pode detectar lesões líticas em vários sítios do esqueleto. O tratamento é realizado com prednisolona, isotretinoína e antibióticos se infecções secundárias. Este caso relata um paciente masculino com diagnóstico de acne grau III, que desenvolveu acne fulminans e sacroileíte bilateral, com incapacidade de deambulação após início de terapia com isotretinoínaAcne fulminans is a rare manifestation that may occur during the evolution of acne vulgaris primarily in male adolescents. Use of isotretinoin, testosterone, and exacerbated immune responses in the body are related triggers. Signs, symptoms and laboratory findings such as fever, hepatomegaly, polyarthralgia, leukocytosis, plaquetose, increased inflammatory markers and transaminases, are characteristic. A bone scan can detect osteolytic lesions in multiple skeletal sites. The treatment is performed with prednisolone, isotretinoin and antibiotics if secondary infection is present. This case describes a male patient with a diagnosis of grade III acne, who developed acne fulminans and bilateral sacroiliitis with inability to ambulate, after initiation of therapy with isotretinoin

  17. [DRUG-INDUCED LUPUS CAUSED BY LONG TERM MINOCYCLINE TREATMENT FOR ACNE VULGARIS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanai, Shunichiro; Sato, Takeo; Takeda, Koichi; Nagatani, Katsuya; Iwamoto, Masahiro; Minota, Seiji

    2015-09-01

    An 18-year-old Japanese girl had received oral minocycline 200mg daily for treatment of acne vulgaris since 16 years old. She had a fever three months before admission, followed by joint pains in her knees, elbows and several proximal interphalangeal joints one month before admission. She was referred to our hospital because of a high serum level of anti-DNA antibody. She had already discontinued oral minocycline five weeks before admission, because she missed her medication refilled. On admission, the arthralgia and fever spontaneously resolved, and there were no laboratory evidence of hypocomplementemia and cytopenia. She had neither erythema nor internal organ involvements. Because her symptoms subsided spontaneously after the cessation of minocycline, she was considered to have drug-induced lupus. Both the arthralgia and fever did not relapse, and anti-ds DNA antibody returned to normal during a follow-up period without treatment. There are few reports of drug-induced lupus caused by minocycline in Japan. This case highlights the importance of considering minocycline-induced lupus.

  18. Vaccination targeting a surface sialidase of P. acnes: implication for new treatment of acne vulgaris.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teruaki Nakatsuji

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Acne vulgaris afflicts more than fifty million people in the United State and the severity of this disorder is associated with the immune response to Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes. Systemic therapies for acne target P. acnes using antibiotics, or target the follicle with retinoids such as isotretinoin. The latter systemic treatment is highly effective but also carries a risk of side effects including immune imbalance, hyperlipidemia, and teratogenicity. Despite substantial research into potential new therapies for this common disease, vaccines against acne vulgaris are not yet available. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Here we create an acne vaccine targeting a cell wall-anchored sialidase of P. acnes. The importance of sialidase to disease pathogenesis is shown by treatment of a human sebocyte cell line with recombinant sialidase that increased susceptibility to P. acnes cytotoxicity and adhesion. Mice immunized with sialidase elicit a detectable antibody; the anti-sialidase serum effectively neutralized the cytotoxicity of P. acnes in vitro and P. acnes-induced interleukin-8 (IL-8 production in human sebocytes. Furthermore, the sialidase-immunized mice provided protective immunity against P. acnes in vivo as this treatment blocked an increase in ear thickness and release of pro-inflammatory macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP-2 cytokine. CONCLUSIONS: Results indicated that acne vaccines open novel therapeutic avenues for acne vulgaris and other P. acnes-associated diseases.

  19. Acne vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi Tuchayi, Sara; Makrantonaki, Evgenia; Ganceviciene, Ruta; Dessinioti, Clio; Feldman, Steven R; Zouboulis, Christos C

    2015-01-01

    Acne vulgaris is a chronic inflammatory disease - rather than a natural part of the life cycle as colloquially viewed - of the pilosebaceous unit (comprising the hair follicle, hair shaft and sebaceous gland) and is among the most common dermatological conditions worldwide. Some of the key mechanisms involved in the development of acne include disturbed sebaceous gland activity associated with hyperseborrhoea (that is, increased sebum production) and alterations in sebum fatty acid composition, dysregulation of the hormone microenvironment, interaction with neuropeptides, follicular hyperkeratinization, induction of inflammation and dysfunction of the innate and adaptive immunity. Grading of acne involves lesion counting and photographic methods. However, there is a lack of consensus on the exact grading criteria, which hampers the conduction and comparison of randomized controlled clinical trials evaluating treatments. Prevention of acne relies on the successful management of modifiable risk factors, such as underlying systemic diseases and lifestyle factors. Several treatments are available, but guidelines suffer from a lack of data to make evidence-based recommendations. In addition, the complex combination treatment regimens required to target different aspects of acne pathophysiology lead to poor adherence, which undermines treatment success. Acne commonly causes scarring and reduces the quality of life of patients. New treatment options with a shift towards targeting the early processes involved in acne development instead of suppressing the effects of end products will enhance our ability to improve the outcomes for patients with acne. PMID:27189872

  20. Acne vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi Tuchayi, Sara; Makrantonaki, Evgenia; Ganceviciene, Ruta; Dessinioti, Clio; Feldman, Steven R; Zouboulis, Christos C

    2015-09-17

    Acne vulgaris is a chronic inflammatory disease - rather than a natural part of the life cycle as colloquially viewed - of the pilosebaceous unit (comprising the hair follicle, hair shaft and sebaceous gland) and is among the most common dermatological conditions worldwide. Some of the key mechanisms involved in the development of acne include disturbed sebaceous gland activity associated with hyperseborrhoea (that is, increased sebum production) and alterations in sebum fatty acid composition, dysregulation of the hormone microenvironment, interaction with neuropeptides, follicular hyperkeratinization, induction of inflammation and dysfunction of the innate and adaptive immunity. Grading of acne involves lesion counting and photographic methods. However, there is a lack of consensus on the exact grading criteria, which hampers the conduction and comparison of randomized controlled clinical trials evaluating treatments. Prevention of acne relies on the successful management of modifiable risk factors, such as underlying systemic diseases and lifestyle factors. Several treatments are available, but guidelines suffer from a lack of data to make evidence-based recommendations. In addition, the complex combination treatment regimens required to target different aspects of acne pathophysiology lead to poor adherence, which undermines treatment success. Acne commonly causes scarring and reduces the quality of life of patients. New treatment options with a shift towards targeting the early processes involved in acne development instead of suppressing the effects of end products will enhance our ability to improve the outcomes for patients with acne.

  1. Acne Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Dilworth, G. R.

    1983-01-01

    Acne surgery consists of comedone extraction of non-inflamed lesions, triamcinolone acetate injections of some inflamed lesions, and extraction of milia. Prevention is a very important part of comedone treatment, especially avoidance of picking, moisturizers and harsh soaps. Instruments are also very important: even the finest may be too thick and may have to be filed down. Acne surgery is only an adjunct of good medical therapy.

  2. Multilocus sequence typing and phylogenetic analysis of Propionibacterium acnes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilian, Mogens; Scholz, Christian F. P.; Lomholt, Hans B.

    2012-01-01

    Propionibacterium acnes is a commensal of human skin but is also implicated in the pathogenesis of acne vulgaris, in biofilm-associated infections of medical devices and endophthalmitis, and in infections of bone and dental root canals. Recent studies associate P. acnes with prostate cancer...

  3. Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST) and Phylogenetic Analysis of Propionibacterium acnes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilian, Mogens; Scholz, Christian; Lomholt, Hans B

    2011-01-01

    Propionibacterium acnes is a commensal of human skin but is also implicated in the pathogenesis of acne vulgaris and in biofilm-associated infections of medical devices and endophthalmitis, and in infections of bone and dental root canals. Recent studies associate P. acnes with prostate cancer...

  4. Effect of interferon or Propionibacterium acnes on the course of experimentally induced feline infectious peritonitis in specific-pathogen-free and random-source cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, R C; Cox, N R; Oostrom-Ram, T

    1990-05-01

    Seventy-four cats (52 treated and 22 untreated) were evaluated in efficacy studies of interferon (IFN), Propionibacterium acnes, or a combination of these drugs against experimentally induced feline infectious peritonitis (FIP). Cats were given doses of recombinant human leukocyte (alpha) IFN (rHuIFN-alpha), feline fibroblastic (beta) IFN (FIFN-beta) or P acnes at regular intervals before and after inoculation of virulent FIP virus (FIPV). Prophylactic and therapeutic administration of high doses (10(6) U/kg of body weight) or moderate doses (10(4) U/kg) of rHuIFN-alpha, FIFN-beta (10(3) u/kg), or P acnes (0.4 or 4 mg) did not significantly reduce mortality in treated vs untreated cats. However, the mean survival time in cats treated with 10(6) U of rHuIFN-alpha-/kg alone or combined with doses of P acnes was significantly (P = 0.03) increased after inoculation of highly lethal amounts (200 LD100) of FIPV vs survival time in untreated cats. Although P acnes alone was ineffective, there was some indication that a combination of P acnes and high doses of rHuIFN-alpha was more effective than rHuIFN-alpha alone. Seemingly, the efficacy of rHuIFn-alpha treatment was improved in cats challenge-exposed with less FIPV; in 1 trial, 4 of 5 cats (80%) treated with high doses of rHuIFN-alpha survived after inoculation of minimal lethal amounts (0.6 LD100) of FIPV, whereas only 2 of 5 untreated cats (40%) survived. Pretreatment of cats with 10(6) U of rHuIFN-alpha/kg resulted in detectable serum IFN activity 24 hours later; serum IFN activity was not detected in cats pretreated with P acnes, FIFN-beta, or 10(4) U of rHuIFn-alpha/kg.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Breast cancer induced by radiation. Relation to mammography and treatment of acne

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A report is given of cases of 16 women in whom cancer of the breast developed after radiation therapy for acne or hirsutism, suggesting another group at higher risk than is generally expected for cancer of the breast. It is prudent to regard the carcinogenic effect of radiation on the breast as proportional to dose without a threshold. Mammography in young women should be ordered only selectively, not for screening

  6. Can I Prevent Acne?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Help a Friend Who Cuts? Can I Prevent Acne? KidsHealth > For Teens > Can I Prevent Acne? Print ... en español ¿Puedo prevenir el acné? What Causes Acne? Contrary to what you may have heard, acne ...

  7. Plasma Pharmacokinetics of Polyphenols in a Traditional Japanese Medicine, Jumihaidokuto, Which Suppresses Propionibacterium acnes-Induced Dermatitis in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Matsumoto

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Most orally administered polyphenols are metabolized, with very little absorbed as aglycones and/or unchanged forms. Metabolic and pharmacokinetic studies are therefore necessary to understand the pharmacological mechanisms of polyphenols. Jumihaidokuto (JHT, a traditional Japanese medicine, has been used for treatment of skin diseases including inflammatory acne. Because JHT contains various types of bioactive polyphenols, our aim was to clarify the metabolism and pharmacokinetics of the polyphenols in JHT and identify active metabolites contributing to its antidermatitis effects. Orally administered JHT inhibited the increase in ear thickness in rats induced by intradermal injection of Propionibacterium acnes. Quantification by LC-MS/MS indicated that JHT contains various types of flavonoids and is also rich in hydrolysable tannins, such as 1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloyl glucose. Pharmacokinetic and antioxidant analyses showed that some flavonoid conjugates, such as genistein 7-O-glucuronide and liquiritigenin 7-O-glucuronide, appeared in rat plasma and had an activity to inhibit hydrogen peroxide-dependent oxidation. Furthermore, 4-O-methylgallic acid, a metabolite of Gallic acid, appeared in rat plasma and inhibited the nitric oxide reaction. JHT has numerous polyphenols; it inhibited dermatitis probably via the antioxidant effect of its metabolites. Our study is beneficial for understanding in vivo actions of orally administered polyphenol drugs.

  8. Acne Scars

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for treating acne scars include: Improved appearance Enhanced self-esteem Promotion of better skin health What you need ... 480px View Render 320px View Connect with ASDS: Facebook LinkedIn YouTube Twitter Quick Links About ASDS Advocacy ...

  9. Can Acne Scars Be Removed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Can Acne Scars Be Removed? KidsHealth > For Teens > Can Acne ... eliminarse las marcas de acne? Different Types of Acne Scars from acne can seem like double punishment — ...

  10. Acne Facts and Stats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Conditions Cosmetic treatments Prevention and care News releases Acne Acne is the most common skin condition in the ... affecting up to 50 million Americans annually. 1 Acne often causes significant physical and psychological problems such ...

  11. Acne Keloidalis Nuchae

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rash and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Acne Keloidalis Nuchae Information for adults A A A ... neck at the hairline that is affected by acne keloidalis nuchae. Overview Acne keloidalis nuchae, also known ...

  12. 女大学生面部痤疮与蠕形螨感染的关系调查分析%The relationship between facial acne and demodex infection in female college students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘安怡; 汪作琳; 张振东

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨女大学生面部痤疮患病率以及与蠕形螨感染的相关性。方法对阜阳职业技术学院医学专业306名女大学生进行面部痤疮的检查及蠕形螨感染的鉴定,同时对学生的皮肤类型、饮食习惯等进行问卷调查。结果120名学生确诊痤疮,患病率39.22%(120/306),面部蠕形螨的感染率23.20%(71/306)。蠕形螨感染的学生痤疮患病率高于非蠕形螨感染的学生(P<0.05),且痤疮患病程度高于未感染者(P<0.001),中重度蠕形螨感染的学生,痤疮患病程度高于轻度感染者(P<0.05)。油性皮肤、饮食习惯和化妆频率均与痤疮发病有一定的相关性(P<0.05)。结论女大学生面部痤疮患病较普遍,蠕形螨感染是痤疮患病的相关因素,感染的程度与痤疮分度有相关性。另外,痤疮的患病率还与皮肤性质、饮食习惯等有关。%ObjectiveTo investigate the relationship between the prevalence of facial acne and demodex infection in female college students.MethodsIdentification of facial acne and demodex infection of Fuyang Vocational and Technical College medical professional 306 female college students was carried out. A questionnaire on their skin types and diet habits was performed simultaneously.Results120 students were diagnosed with acne, the prevalence rate was 39.22%(120/306).71 students were with demodex infection with a total infection rate of 23.20%(71/306). Acne prevalence rate of students with demodex infection was higher than that of student withput demodex infection. The acne degree of students with moderate and severe demodex infection was higher than that of students with mild infection(P< 0.05).Oily skin,diet habits and make-up frequency have a certain correlation with the incidence of acne(P<0.05),and the degree of acne was higher than that of non infected persons.ConclusionFemale students of medicine profession in the Fuyang vocational and technical school

  13. Dermabrasion-Loo-punch-excision technique for the treatment of acne-induced osteoma cutis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, J E

    1987-06-01

    Three patients with chronic osteoma cutis secondary to acne vulgaris were treated with the dermabrasion-Loo-punch-excision technique. Under regional nerve block with lidocaine-bipuvacaine (50:50) a uniform dermabrasion was performed across the entire face, including the hairline and 1 cm below the jawline. This exposed the foci of osteoma cutis. Then the appropriate sized Loo punch (usually the 2.0- or the 2.5-mm punch) was used to excise the bluish-gray miliary lesions. The majority of the foci were removed in one operation. Following excision, the lesions were closed with 7-0 prolene suture. To prevent crust formation postoperatively, Aloe-vera-soaked polyethylene oxide gel dressings (Vigilon) were changed twice daily following an ice water compress. Sutures were removed rapidly in 5 to 7 days to prevent the appearance of suture lines. Although one patient required an additional procedure, the cosmetic results were excellent. Only a few small residual blue "dot" lesions remained in these three cases. PMID:2953769

  14. Multilocus Sequence Typing and Phylogenetic Analysis of Propionibacterium acnes

    OpenAIRE

    Kilian, Mogens; Scholz, Christian F. P.; Hans B Lomholt

    2012-01-01

    Propionibacterium acnes is a commensal of human skin but is also implicated in the pathogenesis of acne vulgaris, in biofilm-associated infections of medical devices and endophthalmitis, and in infections of bone and dental root canals. Recent studies associate P. acnes with prostate cancer. As the species includes evolutionary lineages with distinct association with health and disease, there is a need for a high-resolution typing scheme. Recently, two multilocus sequence typing (MLST) scheme...

  15. Propionibacterium acnes CAMP factor and host acid sphingomyelinase contribute to bacterial virulence: potential targets for inflammatory acne treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teruaki Nakatsuji

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In the progression of acne vulgaris, the disruption of follicular epithelia by an over-growth of Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes permits the bacteria to spread and become in contact with various skin and immune cells. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have demonstrated in the present study that the Christie, Atkins, Munch-Peterson (CAMP factor of P. acnes is a secretory protein with co-hemolytic activity with sphingomyelinase that can confer cytotoxicity to HaCaT keratinocytes and RAW264.7 macrophages. The CAMP factor from bacteria and acid sphingomyelinase (ASMase from the host cells were simultaneously present in the culture supernatant only when the cells were co-cultured with P. acnes. Either anti-CAMP factor serum or desipramine, a selective ASMase inhibitor, significantly abrogated the P. acnes-induced cell death of HaCaT and RAW264.7 cells. Intradermal injection of ICR mouse ears with live P. acnes induced considerable ear inflammation, macrophage infiltration, and an increase in cellular soluble ASMase. Suppression of ASMase by systemic treatment with desipramine significantly reduced inflammatory reaction induced by intradermal injection with P. acnes, suggesting the contribution of host ASMase in P. acnes-induced inflammatory reaction in vivo. Vaccination of mice with CAMP factor elicited a protective immunity against P. acnes-induced ear inflammation, indicating the involvement of CAMP factor in P. acnes-induced inflammation. Most notably, suppression of both bacterial CAMP factor and host ASMase using vaccination and specific antibody injection, respectively, cooperatively alleviated P. acnes-induced inflammation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings envision a novel infectious mechanism by which P. acnes CAMP factor may hijack host ASMase to amplify bacterial virulence to degrade and invade host cells. This work has identified both CAMP factor and ASMase as potential molecular targets for the development of drugs

  16. Propionibacterium acnes induces an adjuvant effect in B-1 cells and affects their phagocyte differentiation via a TLR2-mediated mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambero, Monica; Teixeira, Daniela; Butin, Liane; Ishimura, Mayari Eika; Mariano, Mario; Popi, Ana Flavia; Longo-Maugéri, Ieda Maria

    2016-09-01

    B-1 lymphocytes are present in large numbers in the mouse peritoneal cavity, as are macrophages, and are responsible for natural IgM production. These lymphocytes migrate to inflammatory foci and are also involved in innate immunity. It was also demonstrated that B-1 cells are able to differentiated into phagocytes (B-1CDP), which is characterized by expression of F4/80 and increased phagocytic activity. B-1 cell responses to antigens and adjuvants are poorly characterized. It has been shown that Propionibacterium acnes suspensions induce immunomodulatory effects in both macrophages and B-2 lymphocytes. We recently demonstrated that this bacterium has the ability to increase B-1 cell populations both in vitro and in vivo. P. acnes induces B-1CDP differentiation, increases the expression of TLR2, TLR4 and TLR9 and augments the expression of CD80, CD86 and CD40 in B-1 and B-1CDP cells. Because P. acnes has been shown to modulate TLR expression, in this study, we investigated the role of TLR2 and TLR4 in B-1 cell population, including B-1CDP differentiation and phagocytic activity in vitro and in vivo. Interestingly, we have demonstrated that TLR2 signaling could be involved in the increase in the B-1 cell population induced by P. acnes. Furthermore, the early differentiation of B-1CDP is also dependent of TLR2. It was also observed that TLR signals also interfere in the phagocytic ability of B-1 cells and their phagocytes. According to these data, it is clear that P. acnes promotes an important adjuvant effect in B-1 cells by inducing them to differentiate into B-1CDP cells and modulates their phagocytic functions both in vivo and in vitro. Moreover, most of these effects are mediated primarily via TLR2. These data reinforce the findings that such bacterial suspensions have powerful adjuvant properties. The responses of B-1 cells to exogenous stimulation indicate that these cells are important to the innate immune response. PMID:27233619

  17. Diet in acne: further evidence for the role of nutrient signalling in acne pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnik, Bodo C

    2012-05-01

    Recent evidence underlines the role of Western diet in the pathogenesis of acne. Acne is absent in populations consuming Palaeolithic diets with low glycaemic load and no consumption of milk or dairy products. Two randomized controlled studies, one of which is presented in this issue of Acta Dermato-Venereologica, have provided evidence for the beneficial therapeutic effects of low glycaemic load diets in acne. Epidemiological evidence confirms that milk consumption has an acne-promoting or acne-aggravating effect. Recent progress in understanding the nutrient-sensitive kinase mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) allows a new view of nutrient signalling in acne by both high glycaemic load and increased insulin-, IGF-1-, and leucine signalling due to milk protein consumption. Acne should be regarded as an mTORC1-driven disease of civilization, like obesity, type 2 diabetes and cancer induced by Western diet. Early dietary counselling of teenage acne patients is thus a great opportunity for dermatology, which will not only help to improve acne but may reduce the long-term adverse effects of Western diet on more serious mTORC1-driven diseases of civilization. PMID:22419445

  18. Activity of ethanolic extracts leaves of Machaerium floribundum against acne-inducing bacteria, and their cytoprotective and antioxidant effects on fibroblast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Díaz

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Propionibacterium acnes, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus have been recognized as the bacteria that are involved in the inflammatory process of acne, while oxidants and antioxidants are involved in the repair of cutaneous tissue affected. In this study an evaluation was made of the antibacterial effect by the agar diffusion and broth dilution method, the cytoprotective and antioxidant effect on 3T3 dermic fibroblast cells, treated with hydrogen peroxide and the scavenging capacity of free radicals was determined by the 2, 2-diphenyl-l-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH method as well as the Reducing Power of the ethanolic extracts of the leaves of the Machaerium floribundum. Minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBC were obtained against Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus aureus of 5 mg/mL and 2 mg/mL, respectively. A cytoprotective effect of 111% was observed over the cellular viability of the fibroblasts at 10 μg/mL and an antioxidant effect of 92% over the viability of the fibroblasts treated with hydrogen peroxide at 25 μg/mL. A stimulation of 24% growth of fibroblasts at 50 μg/mL was evidenced. On the other hand a 93% scavenging activity of the DPPH free radical was shown for 100 μg/mL with a CI50 of 34 μg/mL. The reducing power was evidenced to be dependent on the concentration. The results obtained indicated that the ethanolic extract of Machaerium floribundum shows a good antibacterial activity against bacteria that induce acne and a high potential for scavenging of free radicals at relatively low concentrations.

  19. Epidemiology of acne vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhate, K; Williams, H C

    2013-03-01

    Despite acne being an almost universal condition in younger people, relatively little is known about its epidemiology. We sought to review what is known about the distribution and causes of acne by conducting a systematic review of relevant epidemiological studies. We searched Medline and Embase to the end of November 2011. The role of Propionibacterium acnes in pathogenesis is unclear: antibiotics have a direct antimicrobial as well as an anti-inflammatory effect. Moderate-to-severe acne affects around 20% of young people and severity correlates with pubertal maturity. Acne may be presenting at a younger age because of earlier puberty. It is unclear if ethnicity is truly associated with acne. Black individuals are more prone to postinflammatory hyperpigmentation and specific subtypes such as 'pomade acne'. Acne persists into the 20s and 30s in around 64% and 43% of individuals, respectively. The heritability of acne is almost 80% in first-degree relatives. Acne occurs earlier and is more severe in those with a positive family history. Suicidal ideation is more common in those with severe compared with mild acne. In the U.S.A., the cost of acne is over 3 billion dollars per year in terms of treatment and loss of productivity. A systematic review in 2005 found no clear evidence of dietary components increasing acne risk. One small randomized controlled trial showed that low glycaemic index (GI) diets can lower acne severity. A possible association between dairy food intake and acne requires closer scrutiny. Natural sunlight or poor hygiene are not associated. The association between smoking and acne is probably due to confounding. Validated core outcomes in future studies will help in combining future evidence. PMID:23210645

  20. Epidemiology of acne vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhate, K; Williams, H C

    2013-03-01

    Despite acne being an almost universal condition in younger people, relatively little is known about its epidemiology. We sought to review what is known about the distribution and causes of acne by conducting a systematic review of relevant epidemiological studies. We searched Medline and Embase to the end of November 2011. The role of Propionibacterium acnes in pathogenesis is unclear: antibiotics have a direct antimicrobial as well as an anti-inflammatory effect. Moderate-to-severe acne affects around 20% of young people and severity correlates with pubertal maturity. Acne may be presenting at a younger age because of earlier puberty. It is unclear if ethnicity is truly associated with acne. Black individuals are more prone to postinflammatory hyperpigmentation and specific subtypes such as 'pomade acne'. Acne persists into the 20s and 30s in around 64% and 43% of individuals, respectively. The heritability of acne is almost 80% in first-degree relatives. Acne occurs earlier and is more severe in those with a positive family history. Suicidal ideation is more common in those with severe compared with mild acne. In the U.S.A., the cost of acne is over 3 billion dollars per year in terms of treatment and loss of productivity. A systematic review in 2005 found no clear evidence of dietary components increasing acne risk. One small randomized controlled trial showed that low glycaemic index (GI) diets can lower acne severity. A possible association between dairy food intake and acne requires closer scrutiny. Natural sunlight or poor hygiene are not associated. The association between smoking and acne is probably due to confounding. Validated core outcomes in future studies will help in combining future evidence.

  1. The effect of Propionibacterium acnes on maturation of dendritic cells derived from acne patients' peripherial blood mononuclear cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalak-Stoma, Anna; Tabarkiewicz, Jacek; Olender, Alina; Juszkiewicz-Borowiec, Maria; Stoma, Filip; Pietrzak, Aldona; Pozarowski, Piotr; Bartkowiak-Emeryk, Małgorzata

    2008-01-01

    Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of acne vulgaris which is the most common cutaneous disorder. It has a proinflammatory activity and takes part in immune reactions modulating the Th1/Th2 cellular response. The exposure of dendritic cells (DCs) to whole bacteria, their components, cytokines or other inflammatory stimuli and infectious agents induces differentiation from immature DCs into antigen-presenting mature DCs. The aim of the study was to evaluate the capability of P. acnes to induce the maturation of DCs. We stimulated monocyte derived dendritic cells (Mo-DCs) from acne patients with various concetrations of heat-killed P. acnes (10(6)-10(8) bacteria/ml) cultured from acne lesions. The results showed an increase in CD80+/CD86+/DR+ and CD83+/CD1a+/DR+ cells percentage depending on the concetration of P. acnes. The expression of CD83 and CD80 (shown as the mean fluorescence intensity - MFI) increased with higher concetrations of P. acnes. There were also significant correlations between MFI of CD83, CD80, CD86 and concetration of P. acnes. The study showed that P. acnes in the concetration of 10(8) bacteria/ml is most effective in the induction of Mo-DCs maturation. Futher studies concerning the influence on the function of T cells are needed.

  2. The effect of Propionibacterium acnes on maturation of dendritic cells derived from acne patients' peripherial blood mononuclear cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Juszkiewicz-Borowiec

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes has been implicated in the pathogenesis of acne vulgaris which is the most common cutaneous disorder. It has a proinflammatory activity and takes part in immune reactions modulating the Th1/Th2 cellular response. The exposure of dendritic cells (DCs to whole bacteria, their components, cytokines or other inflammatory stimuli and infectious agents induces differentiation from immature DCs into antigen-presenting mature DCs. The aim of the study was to evaluate the capability of P. acnes to induce the maturation of DCs. We stimulated monocyte derived dendritic cells (Mo-DCs from acne patients with various concetrations of heat-killed P. acnes (10(6-10(8 bacteria/ml cultured from acne lesions. The results showed an increase in CD80+/CD86+/DR+ and CD83+/CD1a+/DR+ cells percentage depending on the concetration of P. acnes. The expression of CD83 and CD80 (shown as the mean fluorescence intensity - MFI increased with higher concetrations of P. acnes. There were also significant correlations between MFI of CD83, CD80, CD86 and concetration of P. acnes. The study showed that P. acnes in the concetration of 10(8 bacteria/ml is most effective in the induction of Mo-DCs maturation. Futher studies concerning the influence on the function of T cells are needed.

  3. Role of insulin resistance and diet in acne

    OpenAIRE

    Rashmi Kumari; Devinder Mohan Thappa

    2013-01-01

    There is increasing evidence in support of the interplay of growth hormone (GH), insulin, and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) signaling during puberty, which have a causal role in pathogenesis of acne by influencing adrenal and gonadal androgen metabolism. Milk consumption and hyperglycemic diets can induce insulin and IGF-1-mediated PI3K ⁄ Akt-activation inducing sebaceous lipogenesis, sebocyte, and keratinocyte proliferation, which can aggravate acne. Occurence of acne as part of vario...

  4. Acne in hirsute women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pupovci, Hatixhe Latifi; Berisha, Violeta Lokaj; Goçi, Aferdita Uka; Gerqari, Antigona

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Acne and hirsutism are common manifestations of hyperandrogenism. Aim To investigate whether or not acne is present in women with hirsutism, associated with different clinical, endocrine and ultrasonographic features. Material and methods The prospective study included 135 women with hirsutism, aged 14–46 years. We measured the levels of hormones with radioimmunoassay/immunoradiometric assay methods. Results Acne were present in 63 (47.6%) women with hirsutism. Sixty women had mild forms of acne, including: whiteheads, blackheads, papules and pustules. Only 3 women had moderate to severe acne, including nodules. In a group of women with hirsutism and acne, 6 (9.5%) were obese. In our study we found a high prevalence of androgen excess among hirsute women with acne: total testosterone was increased in 79%, free testosterone in 20.6%, androstenedione in 69.8%, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) in 30.1%, 17-OH-progesterone 68.2% and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) was decreased in 33.3% of women. Women with hirsutism and acne have received oral contraceptives for a year, without or in a combination with other medication. Thirty-four (53.9%) women have shown improvement in hirsutism and acne. Conclusions In this study we found a high prevalence of acne in hirsute women. The prevalence of acne was higher in polycystic ovarian syndrome. Since these women have associated endocrine changes it is important to correct them with hormonal therapy. PMID:25610349

  5. [Acne vulgaris: endocrine aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekkers, O M; Thio, B H; Romijn, J A; Smit, J W A

    2006-06-10

    Androgens play an important part in the development of acne vulgaris. Androgen levels in patients with acne are higher than those in controls and people with the androgen insensitivity syndrome do not develop acne. Local factors other than androgen plasma levels, also play a part in the development of acne. The skin contains enzymes that convert precursor hormones to the more potent androgens such as testosterone and dihydrotestosterone. Androgen synthesis can therefore be regulated locally. The effects of androgens on the skin are the result of circulating androgens and enzyme activity in local tissues and androgen receptors. Acne is a clinical manifestation of some endocrine diseases. The polycystic ovary syndrome has the highest prevalence. In women with acne that persists after puberty, in 10-200% of cases polycystic ovary syndrome is later diagnosed. The mechanism of hormonal anti-acne therapy may work by blocking the androgen-production (oestrogens) or by blocking the androgen receptor (cyproterone, spironolactone). PMID:16821451

  6. Role of insulin resistance and diet in acne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Rashmi; Thappa, Devinder Mohan

    2013-01-01

    There is increasing evidence in support of the interplay of growth hormone (GH), insulin, and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) signaling during puberty, which have a causal role in pathogenesis of acne by influencing adrenal and gonadal androgen metabolism. Milk consumption and hyperglycemic diets can induce insulin and IGF-1-mediated PI3K ⁄ Akt-activation inducing sebaceous lipogenesis, sebocyte, and keratinocyte proliferation, which can aggravate acne. Occurence of acne as part of various syndromes also provides evidence in favor of correlation between IGF-1 and acne. PMID:23619434

  7. Role of insulin resistance and diet in acne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Kumari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing evidence in support of the interplay of growth hormone (GH, insulin, and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 signaling during puberty, which have a causal role in pathogenesis of acne by influencing adrenal and gonadal androgen metabolism. Milk consumption and hyperglycemic diets can induce insulin and IGF-1-mediated PI3K ⁄ Akt-activation inducing sebaceous lipogenesis, sebocyte, and keratinocyte proliferation, which can aggravate acne. Occurence of acne as part of various syndromes also provides evidence in favor of correlation between IGF-1 and acne.

  8. Deciphering the Intracellular Fate of Propionibacterium acnes in Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Fischer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Propionibacterium acnes is a Gram-positive bacterium that colonizes various niches of the human body, particularly the sebaceous follicles of the skin. Over the last years a role of this common skin bacterium as an opportunistic pathogen has been explored. Persistence of P. acnes in host tissue has been associated with chronic inflammation and disease development, for example, in prostate pathologies. This study investigated the intracellular fate of P. acnes in macrophages after phagocytosis. In a mouse model of P. acnes-induced chronic prostatic inflammation, the bacterium could be detected in prostate-infiltrating macrophages at 2 weeks postinfection. Further studies performed in the human macrophage cell line THP-1 revealed intracellular survival and persistence of P. acnes but no intracellular replication or escape from the host cell. Confocal analyses of phagosome acidification and maturation were performed. Acidification of P. acnes-containing phagosomes was observed at 6 h postinfection but then lost again, indicative of cytosolic escape of P. acnes or intraphagosomal pH neutralization. No colocalization with the lysosomal markers LAMP1 and cathepsin D was observed, implying that the P. acnes-containing phagosome does not fuse with lysosomes. Our findings give first insights into the intracellular fate of P. acnes; its persistency is likely to be important for the development of P. acnes-associated inflammatory diseases.

  9. Acne: more than skin deep

    OpenAIRE

    Ayer, J; Burrows, N

    2006-01-01

    Acne is one of the most prevalent skin conditions affecting teenagers. It is a disease of the pilosebaceous unit. Blockage of sebaceous glands and colonisation with Proionobacterium acnes leads to acne. Grading the severity of acne helps to determine the appropriate treatment. Treatment of acne should be started as early as possible to minimise the risk of scarring and adverse psychological effects. It should be tailored to the individual patient, the type of acne, its severity, the patient's...

  10. Topical retinoids for acne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Lindsey; Bonati, Lauren Meshkov; Silverberg, Nanette B

    2016-06-01

    Topical retinoids are currently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of acne vulgaris in nonpregnant, nonlactating patients 12 years of age and older. Their efficacy, safety, and tolerability are well documented for inflammatory and noninflammatory acne with studies repeatedly demonstrating a decrease in the number of lesions, significant improvement in acne severity, improvement in the cosmetic appearance of acne, and the prevention of acne lesions through microcomedone formation. There is some variability between prescription retinoid products regarding efficacy, safety, and tolerability; with erythema, peeling, and dryness being common, potential side effects. Due to their efficacious and safe profile, topical retinoids remain the first-line treatment for acne vulgaris. PMID:27416308

  11. Hormonal therapy for acne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Rosalyn; Clarke, Shari; Thiboutot, Diane

    2008-09-01

    Acne affects more than 40 million people, of which more than half are women older than 25 years of age. These women frequently fail traditional therapy and have high relapse rates even after isotretinoin. Recent advances in research have helped to delineate the important role hormones play in the pathogenesis of acne. Androgens such as dihydrotestosterone and testosterone, the adrenal precursor dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, estrogens, growth hormone, and insulin-like growth factors may all contribute to the development of acne. Hormonal therapy remains an important part of the arsenal of acne treatments available to the clinician. Women dealing with acne, even those without increased serum androgens, may benefit from hormonal treatments. The mainstays of hormonal therapy include oral contraceptives and antiandrogens such as spironolactone, cyproterone acetate, or flutamide. In this article, we discuss the effects of hormones on the pathogenesis of acne, evaluation of women with suspected endocrine abnormalities, and the myriad of treatment options available. PMID:18786497

  12. Hormone therapy in acne

    OpenAIRE

    Chembolli Lakshmi

    2013-01-01

    Underlying hormone imbalances may render acne unresponsive to conventional therapy. Relevant investigations followed by initiation of hormonal therapy in combination with regular anti-acne therapy may be necessary if signs of hyperandrogenism are present. In addition to other factors, androgen-stimulated sebum production plays an important role in the pathophysiology of acne in women. Sebum production is also regulated by other hormones, including estrogens, growth hormone, insulin, insulin-l...

  13. Acne and anticonvulsants.

    OpenAIRE

    Greenwood, R; Fenwick, P B; Cunliffe, W J

    1983-01-01

    The severity of acne and rate of excretion of sebum were assessed in 243 patients with epilepsy taking various anticonvulsants who were in hospital long term and in matched controls derived from a normal population of 2176 people. Neither the prevalence of acne nor the sebum excretion rate significantly increased in the patients compared with the controls or in patients taking phenytoin compared with those not. It is concluded that anticonvulsant treatment does not cause acne.

  14. Acne: What's New.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein Gold, Linda F

    2016-06-01

    Acne vulgaris is one of the most prevalent skin conditions. Antibiotics, when considered, are most effective in combination with other therapies, and limited evidence suggests that submicrobial doses of antibiotics may improve acne without increasing the risk for antibiotic resistance. A small but significant risk for inflammatory bowel disease has also been identified in children treated with multiple courses of antibiotics. New topical agents are expanding therapeutic options for acne. Semin Cutan Med Surg 35(supp6):S114-S116. PMID:27538054

  15. Acne in hirsute women

    OpenAIRE

    Lumezi, Besa Gacaferri; Pupovci, Hatixhe Latifi; Berisha, Violeta Lokaj; Goçi, Aferdita Uka; Gerqari, Antigona

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Acne and hirsutism are common manifestations of hyperandrogenism. Aim To investigate whether or not acne is present in women with hirsutism, associated with different clinical, endocrine and ultrasonographic features. Material and methods The prospective study included 135 women with hirsutism, aged 14–46 years. We measured the levels of hormones with radioimmunoassay/immunoradiometric assay methods. Results Acne were present in 63 (47.6%) women with hirsutism. Sixty women had mi...

  16. Anti-inflammatory effects of anthocyanins-rich extract from bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) on croton oil-induced ear edema and Propionibacterium acnes plus LPS-induced liver damage in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Hui; Lv, Xiao-Dan; Wang, Guo-En; Li, Yi-Fang; Kurihara, Hiroshi; He, Rong-Rong

    2014-08-01

    Bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) has been known to play a protective role in human health due to its high anthocyanin content. This study investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of bilberry extract (BE, containing 42.04% anthocyanin) on Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) plus lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced liver injury and croton oil-induced ear edema in mice. Results showed that BE could effectively inhibit croton oil-induced ear edema and liver inflammation provoked by P. acnes plus LPS, as reflected by the reduced plasma alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities. These findings were confirmed by hepatic pathological examination. Moreover, BE administration markedly suppressed the increase of liver mRNA levels of iNOS, TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6, and the protein levels of iNOS, TNF-α and NF-κB. In addition, liver malondialdehyde and NO contents were significantly reduced by BE treatment. These results indicated that BE has potent protective effects on acute and immunological inflammation, which might contribute to the study of the anti-inflammatory effects of natural products and healthy food. PMID:24548119

  17. Formulation and evaluation of herbal anti-acne moisturizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasheed, Arun; Shama, Shaik Neelufar; Joy, Jyothi Mulanjananiyil; Reddy, Bobbu Sravya; Roja, Chirra

    2012-10-01

    The moisture content present in human skin makes it look young and the use of moisturizer results in fastening the moisture with a surface film of oil. Acne vulgaris is one of the most commonly seen diseases among the youth. The present study is focused on the use of herbs as moisturizer for acne treatment. The anti-acne moisturizer was formulated from herbal crude extracts and investigated the physico-chemical parameters as well as antibacterial activity of the formulation. The study revealed that ethanol extract of Andrographis paniculata, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Ocimum sanctum, Azadiracta indica and Green tea possessed the potential for inhibiting acne. It was observed that the optimal formula of anti-acne moisturizer was satisfactorily effective to control acne inducing bacteria i.e., Staphylococcus epidermis and Propionibacterium. The physico-chemical parameters of the formulation were also optimal with no signs of irritation. PMID:23010007

  18. Comparative genomics and transcriptomics of Propionibacterium acnes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elzbieta Brzuszkiewicz

    Full Text Available The anaerobic gram-positive bacterium Propionibacterium acnes is a human skin commensal that is occasionally associated with inflammatory diseases. Recent work has indicated that evolutionary distinct lineages of P. acnes play etiologic roles in disease while others are associated with maintenance of skin homeostasis. To shed light on the molecular basis for differential strain properties, we carried out genomic and transcriptomic analysis of distinct P. acnes strains. We sequenced the genome of the P. acnes strain 266, a type I-1a strain. Comparative genome analysis of strain 266 and four other P. acnes strains revealed that overall genome plasticity is relatively low; however, a number of island-like genomic regions, encoding a variety of putative virulence-associated and fitness traits differ between phylotypes, as judged from PCR analysis of a collection of P. acnes strains. Comparative transcriptome analysis of strains KPA171202 (type I-2 and 266 during exponential growth revealed inter-strain differences in gene expression of transport systems and metabolic pathways. In addition, transcript levels of genes encoding possible virulence factors such as dermatan-sulphate adhesin, polyunsaturated fatty acid isomerase, iron acquisition protein HtaA and lipase GehA were upregulated in strain 266. We investigated differential gene expression during exponential and stationary growth phases. Genes encoding components of the energy-conserving respiratory chain as well as secreted and virulence-associated factors were transcribed during the exponential phase, while the stationary growth phase was characterized by upregulation of genes involved in stress responses and amino acid metabolism. Our data highlight the genomic basis for strain diversity and identify, for the first time, the actively transcribed part of the genome, underlining the important role growth status plays in the inflammation-inducing activity of P. acnes. We argue that the disease

  19. Treatment of acne vulgaris and prevention of acne scarring: canadian consensus guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, W S; Landells, I D; Poulin, Y; Searles, G E; Smith, K C; Tan, J K; Toole, J; Zip, C M; Degreef, H

    2000-06-01

    Acne affects approximately 95% of the population at some point during their lifetime.1 This common disorder can range from mild to severe forms, cause sometimes extensive scarring, and can last well into the fourth and fifth decades. Effective therapeutic agents are available to both treat acne and prevent ongoing disease. Despite this, dermatologists frequently see patients with significant acne scarring because many patients delay seeking medical attention for acne and many practitioners procrastinate over using effective antiscarring options. In patients who already demonstrate scarring, repeated courses of antibiotics only result in recurring acne and additional scarring. This, in turn, exacerbates the despair and other adverse psychosocial effects of the disease. There are a variety of agents and devices to help acne patients with scarring. However, successful treatment cannot be guaranteed, and in most cases residual scarring will be evident. Thus, the most effective way of managing acne scarring is to prevent its occurrence in the first place. Although we currently have a number of effective antiacne agents to control the disease, such as antibiotics and hormonal agents, isotretinoina is the only agent that has been shown to induce long-term drug-free remission and curative potential. PMID:11749902

  20. Treatment of acne vulgaris and prevention of acne scarring: canadian consensus guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, W S; Landells, I D; Poulin, Y; Searles, G E; Smith, K C; Tan, J K; Toole, J; Zip, C M; Degreef, H

    2000-06-01

    Acne affects approximately 95% of the population at some point during their lifetime.1 This common disorder can range from mild to severe forms, cause sometimes extensive scarring, and can last well into the fourth and fifth decades. Effective therapeutic agents are available to both treat acne and prevent ongoing disease. Despite this, dermatologists frequently see patients with significant acne scarring because many patients delay seeking medical attention for acne and many practitioners procrastinate over using effective antiscarring options. In patients who already demonstrate scarring, repeated courses of antibiotics only result in recurring acne and additional scarring. This, in turn, exacerbates the despair and other adverse psychosocial effects of the disease. There are a variety of agents and devices to help acne patients with scarring. However, successful treatment cannot be guaranteed, and in most cases residual scarring will be evident. Thus, the most effective way of managing acne scarring is to prevent its occurrence in the first place. Although we currently have a number of effective antiacne agents to control the disease, such as antibiotics and hormonal agents, isotretinoina is the only agent that has been shown to induce long-term drug-free remission and curative potential.

  1. Teens and Acne Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Teens and Acne Treatment Page Content Article Body I'm starting to ... peroxide wash, lotion, or gel—the most effective acne treatment you can get without a prescription. It helps ...

  2. Postadolescent acne in females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzmann, R; Shakery, K

    2014-01-01

    Acne in the adult female often presents as a chronic condition that can have a considerable negative psychological, social and emotional impact on the affected individual. Estimated prevalence rates of adult female acne vary widely according to study type. Case reports and clinical examinations estimate the prevalence of clinical acne at 10-12%, while survey estimates of physiological disease states are as high as 54%. Two subtypes of adult female acne may be defined according to time of onset: 'persistent' and 'late-onset', accounting for approximately 80 and 20% of cases, respectively. Postadolescent acne is generally mild-to-moderate in severity and presents with more inflammatory lesions and fewer comedones compared to adolescent acne. Furthermore, the impact of acne on the quality of life is often greater in adult females than in younger individuals. Despite these important differences, the key principles of acne treatment in the adult female do not differ significantly from those of other age groups. However, specific characteristics relating to the adult female should be considered when selecting a treatment regimen. PMID:24280643

  3. Moisturizers for Acne

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chularojanamontri, Leena; Tuchinda, Papapit; Kulthanan, Kanokvalai

    2014-01-01

    Acne is a chronic inflammatory disease of the pilosebaceous unit that affects almost all teenagers. Different treatments offer different modes of action, but aim to target acne pathology. Topical therapies, such as benzoyl peroxide, retinoids, antibiotics with alcohol-based preparations, and salicylic acid, can cause skin irritation resulting in a lack of patient adherence. Some physicians recommend patients use moisturizers as adjunctive treatment of acne, especially when either topical benzoyl peroxide or a retinoid is prescribed. Furthermore, some evidence shows that moisturizers can contribute independently to improve signs and symptoms of acne. Moisturizers contain three main properties, which are occlusive, humectant, and emollient effects. Currently, many moisturizers claim to be suitable for acne treatment. This article aims to provide a review of the active ingredients and properties of those moisturizers. Fifty-two moisturizers for acne were included for analysis. Most of the products (92%) have anti-inflammatory properties apart from occlusive, humectant, and emollient effects. Anti-acne medications, including salicylic acid, benzoyl peroxide, and retinol, were found respectively in 35, 10, and 8 percent of the moisturizer products containing anti-inflammatory properties. More than half of the products contain dimethicone and/or glycerin for its moisturizer property. Aloe vera and witch hazel are botanical anti-inflammatories that were commonly found in this study. Scientific data regarding some ingredients are discussed to provide a guide for physicians in selecting moisturizers for acne patients. PMID:24847408

  4. [Charles Bukowski's acne].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahmer, F A; Bahmer, J A

    2012-04-01

    In his autobiography, Charles Bukowski (1920-1994) describes his severe acne conglobata, his experience with therapy, family conflicts and emotional tension. Despite the stigmatization by his acne scars, Bukowski became a philobatic writer and a true chronist of the American way of life in the second half of the 20th century, writing in a coarse and obscene language.

  5. Hormonal therapies in acne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, James C

    2002-07-01

    Hormones, in particular androgen hormones, are the main cause of acne in men, women, children and adults, in both normal states and endocrine disorders. Therefore, the use of hormonal therapies in acne is rational in concept and gratifying in practice. Although non-hormonal therapies enjoy wide usage and continue to be developed, there is a solid place for hormonal approaches in women with acne, especially adult women with persistent acne. This review covers the physiological basis for hormonal influence in acne, the treatments that are in use today and those that show promise for the future. The main treatments to be discussed are oral contraceptives androgen receptor blockers like spironolactone and flutamide, inhibitors of the enzyme 5 alpha-reductase and topical hormonal treatments. PMID:12083987

  6. Contraceptive use in acne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Charlene; Zaenglein, Andrea L

    2014-01-01

    Acne vulgaris is an inflammatory disorder of the pilosebaceous follicle. It is well established that androgen hormones play a major role in sebum production and excretion, and are vital in the pathogenesis of acne. Isotretinoin notwithstanding, hormonal therapies such as combined oral contraceptives (COCs) and spironolactone are the only treatments that can affect sebum production and the androgen component of acne. Contraceptives are also used during isotretinoin therapy for pregnancy prevention. It is important for a dermatologist to be familiar with all the available methods of contraception to provide essential counseling to patients. The aim of this paper is to review the role of hormones in acne pathogenesis, discuss the use of hormonal therapies for acne, and detail various alternative contraceptive methods in relation to isotretinoin treatment and pregnancy prevention. PMID:25017461

  7. Evaluation and Management of Acne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botros, Paul A; Tsai, Gary; Pujalte, George G A

    2015-12-01

    Acne is a common complaint in the primary care clinics. It has not only physical implications but also psychological. This article discusses the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and criteria for making the diagnosis. It also discusses endocrine disorders that may be the cause of acne. Treatment and management are discussed by subtype. Acne mechanica or sports-related acne is also discussed. PMID:26612368

  8. Acne fulminans incapacitante Disabling Acne Fulminans

    OpenAIRE

    Tiago Pina Zanelato; Gabriela Maria Abreu Gontijo; Célia Antônia Xavier de Moares Alves; Jacqueline Campoi Calvo Lopes Pinto; Paulo Rowilson Cunha

    2011-01-01

    Acne fulminans é uma manifestação rara, que pode ocorrer durante a evolução da acne vulgar, principalmente, em adolescentes masculinos. Uso de isotretinoína, testosterona, e reações imunológicas exacerbadas no organismo são desencadeantes relacionados. Sinais, sintomas e alterações laboratoriais como: febre, hepatomegalia, poliartralgia, leucocitose, plaquetose, aumento de provas inflamatórias e transaminases, são característicos. A cintilografia óssea pode detectar lesões líticas em vários s...

  9. Importance of androgens in acne

    OpenAIRE

    Luz Stella Montoya de Bayona

    2002-01-01

    Several factor play animportant role in acne. Acne vulgaris affect pilosebaceousunit while in inversa acne affect terminal folicule. There is aninflammatory process with negative outcome when diagnosisand accurate treatment is delayed. Abnormal androgenproduction help acne apparition by stimulating seborrheicsecretion and queratinocitic growth in follicular channel. Thischange appear clinically by different forms, by example,hirsutism, seborrhea, acne, alopecia, and obesity. SAHAand Hair-an a...

  10. Sunflower Seed and Acne Vulgaris

    OpenAIRE

    Mohebbipour, Alireza; Sadeghi-Bazargani, Homayoun; Mansouri, Mona

    2015-01-01

    Background: Regardless of the overall association between diet and acne which cannot be easily ignored, there might be an association between specific nutrients and acne development or improvement. Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the effect of dietary intake of sunflower seeds on acne severity and the pattern of acne lesions. Patients and Methods: In a randomized controlled trial, 50 patients aged 15 - 30 years old with acne vulgaris were enrolled through consecutive convenien...

  11. Hyaluronidase in Clinical Isolates of Propionibacterium acnes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harmony Tyner

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. We sought to describe the prevalence of a hyaluronidase gene and hyaluronidase production in 197 clinical isolates of P. acnes; we assessed kinetics of hyaluronidase production in a subset of three isolates. Methods. The hyaluronidase gene was detected using polymerase chain reaction. Hyaluronidase production was detected by growing isolates on BHI agar containing 400 μg/mL hyaluronic acid and 1% albumin and flooding plates with 2 N glacial acetic acid to precipitate unbound hyaluronic acid, with a zone of clearing representing a positive phenotype. Hyaluronidase production kinetics were measured as a function of hyaluronic acid digestion over time in a liquid medium. Results. A hyaluronidase gene and hyaluronidase production were detected in 100 and 97% of P. acnes isolates, respectively. Hyaluronidase production in liquid medium was detectable after 96 hours of growth. Conclusions. Hyaluronidase production is nearly universal among P. acnes isolates. Three days appear to be required for significant hyaluronidase production in a liquid medium. Detection of hyaluronidase in tissue specimens may be a strategy to differentiate P. acnes infection from colonization when P. acnes is isolated from a clinical specimen.

  12. Complete Genome Sequences of Three Propionibacterium acnes Isolates from the Type IA2 Cluster

    OpenAIRE

    Vörös, Andrea; Horváth, Balázs; Hunyadkürti, Judit; McDowell, Andrew; Barnard, Emma; Patrick, Sheila; Nagy, István

    2012-01-01

    Propionibacterium acnes is an anaerobic Gram-positive bacterium that has been linked to a wide range of opportunistic human infections and conditions, most notably acne vulgaris (I. Kurokawa et al., Exp. Dermatol. 18:821–832, 2009). We now present the whole-genome sequences of three P. acnes strains from the type IA2 cluster which were recovered from ophthalmic infections (A. McDowell et al., Microbiology 157:1990–2003, 2011).

  13. Zolav®: a new antibiotic for the treatment of acne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinant A

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Alexa Dinant,1 Ramiz A Boulos2,3 1AXD Pty Ltd, Semaphore Park, 2School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, Bedford Park, 3Boulos & Cooper Pharmaceuticals Pty Ltd, Port Adelaide, SA, Australia Background: Acne is a prominent skin condition affecting >80% of teenagers and young adults and ~650 million people globally. Isotretinoin, a vitamin A derivative, is currently the standard of care for treatment. However, it has a well-established teratogenic activity, a reason for the development of novel and low-risk treatment options for acne. Objective: To investigate the effectiveness of Zolav®, a novel antibiotic as a treatment for acne vulgaris. Materials and methods: Minimum inhibitory concentration of Zolav® against Propionibacterium acnes was determined by following a standard protocol using Mueller-Hinton broth and serial dilutions in a 96-well plate. Cytotoxicity effects on human umbilical vein endothelial cells and lung cells in the presence of Zolav® were investigated by determining the growth inhibition (GI50 concentration, total growth inhibition concentration, and the lethal concentration of 50% (LC50. The tryptophan auxotrophic mutant of Escherichia coli strain, WP2 uvrA (ATCC 49979, was used for the AMES assay with the addition of Zolav® tested for its ability to reverse the mutation and induce bacterial growth. The in vivo effectiveness of Zolav® was tested in a P. acnes mouse intradermal model where the skin at the infection site was removed, homogenized, and subjected to colony-forming unit (CFU counts. Results: Susceptibility testing of Zolav® against P. acnes showed a minimum inhibitory concentration of 2 µg/mL against three strains with no cytotoxicity and no mutagenicity observed at the highest concentrations tested, 30 µM and 1,500 µg/plate, respectively. The use of Zolav® at a concentration of 50 µg/mL (q8h elicited a two-log difference in CFU/g between the treatment group and the control

  14. Nanoparticle Stabilized Liposomes for Acne Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Victoria

    Acne vulgaris is a common skin disease that affects over 40 million people in the United States alone. The main cause of acne vulgaris is Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes), resides deep in the pores and follicles of the skin in order to feed on oil produced by the sebaceous glands. The liposome is a lipid based nanoparticle with numerous advantages over free drug molecules as an acne treatment alternative. Bare liposomes loaded with lauric acid (LipoLA) were found to show strong antimicrobial activity against P. acnes while generating minimal toxicity. However, the platform is limited by the spontaneous tendency of liposomes to fuse with each other. Attaching nanoparticles to the surface of liposomes can overcome this challenge by providing steric repulsion and reduce surface tension. Thus, carboxyl-functionalized gold nanoparticles (AuC) were attached to the surface of liposomes (AuC-liposomes) loaded with doxycycline, a general tetracycline antibiotic. These particles were found to have a diameter of 120 nm and a zeta potential of 20.0 mV. Both fluorescent and antimicrobial studies demonstrated that based on electrostatic interaction, negatively charged AuC attached to the liposome's positively charged surface and stabilized liposomes in a neutral pH environment (pH = 7.4). Upon entering the skin's acidic environment (pH = 4), AuC detached from the liposome's surface and liposomes could fuse with P. acnes residing in the pores. Furthermore, toxicity studies showed that AuC-liposomes did not induce any significant toxicity, while two of the leading over-the-counter therapies, benzoyl peroxide and salicylic acid, generated substantial skin irritation.

  15. Virus Infection-Induced Bronchial Asthma Exacerbation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutsuo Yamaya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Infection with respiratory viruses, including rhinoviruses, influenza virus, and respiratory syncytial virus, exacerbates asthma, which is associated with processes such as airway inflammation, airway hyperresponsiveness, and mucus hypersecretion. In patients with viral infections and with infection-induced asthma exacerbation, inflammatory mediators and substances, including interleukins (ILs, leukotrienes and histamine, have been identified in the airway secretions, serum, plasma, and urine. Viral infections induce an accumulation of inflammatory cells in the airway mucosa and submucosa, including neutrophils, lymphocytes and eosinophils. Viral infections also enhance the production of inflammatory mediators and substances in airway epithelial cells, mast cells, and other inflammatory cells, such as IL-1, IL-6, IL-8, GM-CSF, RANTES, histamine, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1. Viral infections affect the barrier function of the airway epithelial cells and vascular endothelial cells. Recent reports have demonstrated augmented viral production mediated by an impaired interferon response in the airway epithelial cells of asthma patients. Several drugs used for the treatment of bronchial asthma reduce viral and pro-inflammatory cytokine release from airway epithelial cells infected with viruses. Here, I review the literature on the pathogenesis of the viral infection-induced exacerbation of asthma and on the modulation of viral infection-induced airway inflammation.

  16. Acne Scar Subcision

    OpenAIRE

    B S Chandrashekar; A S Nandini

    2010-01-01

    Subcision is a simple and safe office surgery procedure for treatment of depressed acne scars. It can easily be combined with other treatments such as laser, dermaroller and scar revisions for maximum efficacy.

  17. Acne: Diet and acnegenesis

    OpenAIRE

    F William Danby

    2011-01-01

    Acne is a manifestation of hormonal overstimulation of the pilosebaceous units of genetically susceptible individuals. Endogenous reproductive and growth hormones, exogenous reproductive hormones, insulin and endogenous insulin-like growth hormone-1, sourced from and stimulated by dairy and high glycemic load foods, all appear to contribute to this overstimulation. A postulated molecular mechanism linking food and acne is reported and integrated into the clinical picture.

  18. Acne: Diet and acnegenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F William Danby

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Acne is a manifestation of hormonal overstimulation of the pilosebaceous units of genetically susceptible individuals. Endogenous reproductive and growth hormones, exogenous reproductive hormones, insulin and endogenous insulin-like growth hormone-1, sourced from and stimulated by dairy and high glycemic load foods, all appear to contribute to this overstimulation. A postulated molecular mechanism linking food and acne is reported and integrated into the clinical picture.

  19. Acne and diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Ronni; Matz, Hagit; Orion, Edith

    2004-01-01

    Forbidden foods? "The first law of dietetics seems to be: If it tastes good, it's bad for you" (Isaac Asimov, Russian-born biochemist and science fiction writer). This was essentially the Magna Carta for dermatologists of the 1950s: anything coveted by the teenage palate was suspect for morning after acne. Today, half a century later, although the slant has shifted away for this line of thinking in our dermatologic textbooks, several articles on the beliefs and perceptions of acne patients showed that nothing much has changed and that they expect us to give them detailed instructions of what "acne-related" foods they should avoid. In one such study(1), diet was the third most frequently implicated factor (after hormones and genetics) as the cause of the disease, with 32% of the respondents selecting diet as the main cause, and 44% thinking that foods aggravate acne. In another study that analyzed knowledge about causes of acne among English teenagers, 11% of the responders blamed greasy food as the main cause of the disease(2), whereas in another study found that 41% of final-year medical students of the University of Melbourne chose diet as an important factor of acne exacerbation on a final examination.(3)

  20. Treatment Modalities for Acne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Lizelle; Csongradi, Candice; Aucamp, Marique; du Plessis, Jeanetta; Gerber, Minja

    2016-01-01

    Acne is a common inflammatory skin disease which affects the pilosebaceous units of the skin. It can have severe psychological effects and can leave the patient with severe skin scarring. There are four well-recognized pathological factors responsible for acne which is also the target for acne therapy. In this review, different treatment options are discussed, including topical (i.e., retinoids, and antibiotics) and systemic (i.e., retinoids, antibiotics, and hormonal) treatments. Since the general public has been showing an increasing interest in more natural and generally safer treatment options, the use of complementary and alternative medicines (CAM) for treating acne was also discussed. The use of physical therapies such as comedone extraction, cryoslush therapy, cryotherapy, electrocauterization, intralesional corticosteroids and optical treatments are also mentioned. Acne has been extensively researched with regards to the disease mechanism as well as treatment options. However, due to the increasing resistance of Propionibacterium acnes towards the available antibiotics, there is a need for new treatment methods. Additionally, the lack of necessary evidence on the efficacy of CAM therapies makes it necessary for researchers to investigate these treatment options further. PMID:27529209

  1. Blue and red light acne in acne therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Utz S.R.; Galkina Е.М.; Raigorodskiy Y.M.

    2013-01-01

    The review presents the results of the research of acne phototherapy. The foundational photobiological principles of acne therapy are considered, biomedical and therapeutic values of different wave lengths are discussed, a clinical case of laser technologies use is presented.

  2. Acne Excoriée

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rash and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Acne Excoriée Teen information A A A Scars displayed as dark spots (hyperpigmentation) with virtually no active acne on chest are a sign that the patient ...

  3. Topical Acne Treatments and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topical Acne Treatments and Pregnancy In every pregnancy, a woman starts out with a 3-5% chance of having ... This sheet talks about whether exposure to topical acne treatments may increase the risk for birth defects ...

  4. Acne neonatorum and familial hyperandrogenism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekaert, C; Song, M; Delvigne, A

    1998-01-01

    We report a case of acne neonatorum developed in a boy since birth. His mother and his aunt had different signs of hyperandrogenism including acne and hirsutism. This case illustrates the correlation between acne neonatorum and familial hyperandrogenism. It shows the importance of the family history and the eventual clinical and serological presence of hyperandrogenism in the mother when confronted with acne neonatorum. PMID:9669129

  5. Genome Sequence of Propionibacterium acnes Type II Strain ATCC 11828

    OpenAIRE

    Horváth, Balázs; Hunyadkürti, Judit; Vörös, Andrea; Fekete, Csaba; Urbán, Edit; Kemény, Lajos; Nagy, István

    2012-01-01

    Propionibacterium acnes is an anaerobic Gram-positive bacterium that forms part of the normal human cutaneous microbiota and is occasionally associated with inflammatory diseases (I. Kurokawa et al., Exp. Dermatol. 18:821–832, 2009). Here we present the complete genome sequence for the commercially available P. acnes type II reference strain ATCC 11828 (I. Nagy et al., Microbes Infect. 8:2195–2205, 2006) recovered from a subcutaneous abscess.

  6. Ventricular patch endocarditis caused by Propionibacterium acnes: advantages of gallium scanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenbos, F; Roger, P M; Mondain-Miton, V; Dunais, B; Fouché, R; Kreitmann, P; Carles, D; Migneco, O; Dellamonica, P

    2001-11-01

    Propionibacterium acnes is a weakly pathogenic commensal of the skin. When isolated from blood cultures it is often considered a contaminant. However, P. acnes may be responsible for severe infections and its role in certain cases of infectious endocarditis has now been definitely established.(1) We report a case of endocarditis due to P. acnes stemming from a ventricular patch and revealed by a gallium 67 scan. PMID:11869063

  7. Potential role of FoxO1 and mTORC1 in the pathogenesis of Western diet-induced acne

    OpenAIRE

    Melnik, Bodo C; Zouboulis, Christos C.

    2013-01-01

    Acne in adolescents of developed countries is an epidemic skin disease and has currently been linked to the Western diet (WD). It is the intention of this viewpoint to discuss the possible impact of WD-mediated nutrient signalling in the pathogenesis of acne. High glycaemic load and dairy protein consumption both increase insulin/insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) signalling (IIS) that is superimposed on elevated IGF-1 signalling of puberty. The cell's nutritional status is primarily sensed...

  8. Evaluation of Acne Quality of Life and Clinical Severity in Acne Female Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Amal Kokandi

    2010-01-01

    Acne is a common disease especially among teenagers. It has a considerable psychological impact on affected individuals. The aim of this paper was to assess if the effect of acne on acne-related quality of life is correlated to acne clinical severity. 112 university female students attending the university medical clinics with acne complaints were examined. Cardiff Acne Disability Index (CADI) was used to assess acne-related quality of life, and global acne grading system (GAGS) was used to a...

  9. Management strategies for acne vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whitney KM

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Kristen M Whitney1, Chérie M Ditre21Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 2Skin Enhancement Center and Cosmetic Dermatology, Department of Dermatology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USADate of preparation: 30th November 2010Conflicts of interest: None declaredClinical question: What are the most effective treatment(s for mild, moderate, severe, and hormonally driven acne?Results: Mild acne responds favorably to topical treatments such as benzoyl peroxide, salicylic acid, and a low-dose retinoid. Moderate acne responds well to combination therapy comprising-topical benzoyl peroxide, antibiotics, and/or retinoids, as well as oral antibiotics in refractory cases and oral contraceptive pills for female acne patients. Severe nodulocystic acne vulgaris responds best to oral isotretinoin therapy. In female patients with moderate to severe acne, facial hair, loss of scalp hair and irregular periods, polycystic ovarian syndrome should be considered and appropriate treatment with hormonal modulation given. Adjunctive procedures can also be considered for all acne patients.Implementation: Pitfalls to avoid when treating acne: treatment of acne in women of childbearing age; familiarization of all acne treatments in order to individualize management for patients; indications for specialist referral.Keywords: acne vulgaris, benzoyl peroxide, retinoids, antibiotics, light and laser therapy, photodynamic therapy, photopneumatic therapy, chemical peels

  10. Efficacy of diode laser for treating acne keloidalis nuchae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah Girish

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Acne keloidalis nuchae is usually treated with oral antibiotics, local antiseptics or intralesional steroids but with limited success. I assessed the efficacy of diode laser for treating the inflammatory and keloidal papules of acne keloidalis nuchae in two cases. The lesions in both the cases showed about 90 to 95% clearance after 4 treatment sessions at one to one and half month intervals. No new lesions were observed during the follow up period of six months after the last laser treatment. Thus, after clearing bacterial infection, laser hair epilation can be used as the first line of therapy for treating papules of acne keloidalis nuchae. This is the first attempt at treating acne keloidalis nuchae with a diode laser.

  11. Acne - self-care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... It may help to use a wash with salicylic acid or benzoyl if your skin is oily and prone to acne. Remove all ... products may contain benzoyl peroxide, sulfur, resorcinol, or ... bacteria, drying up skin oils, or causing the top layer of your ...

  12. Linking diet to acne metabolomics, inflammation, and comedogenesis: an update

    OpenAIRE

    Melnik BC

    2015-01-01

    Bodo C Melnik Department of Dermatology, Environmental Medicine and Health Theory, University of Osnabrück, Germany Abstract: Acne vulgaris, an epidemic inflammatory skin disease of adolescence, is closely related to Western diet. Three major food classes that promote acne are: 1) hyperglycemic carbohydrates, 2) milk and dairy products, 3) saturated fats including trans-fats and deficient ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Diet-induced insulin/insulin-like growth fac...

  13. Pathogenesis, clinical course and neuro-radiological signs of Proprionibacterium acnes cerebritis: Case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakhkind, Aleksandra; Yacoub, Hussam A; Grove, Jacqueline; Varrato, Jay D; Castaldo, John E

    2015-01-01

    The clinical and neuroimaging characteristics of brain infections related to Propionibacterium acnes are not well-characterized, making early diagnosis and treatment a challenge. More recently, life-threatening central nervous system infections with P. acnes are being reported with increasing frequency as complications of neurointerventional procedures. We present a rare case of P. acnes cerebritis that occurred as a sequela of bare platinum aneurysm coiling and a contaminant of percutaneous angiographic intervention. We include an extensive review of the literature describing the pathogenesis of P. acnes and neuro-radiological signs of brain infections related to this pathogen. PMID:25762004

  14. Intratumoral injection of Propionibacterium acnes suppresses malignant melanoma by enhancing Th1 immune responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenshiro Tsuda

    Full Text Available Malignant melanoma (MM is an aggressive cutaneous malignancy associated with poor prognosis; many putatively therapeutic agents have been administered, but with mostly unsuccessful results. Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes is an aerotolerant anaerobic gram-positive bacteria that causes acne and inflammation. After being engulfed and processed by phagocytes, P. acnes induces a strong Th1-type cytokine immune response by producing cytokines such as IL-12, IFN-γ and TNF-α. The characteristic Th2-mediated allergic response can be counteracted by Th1 cytokines induced by P. acnes injection. This inflammatory response induced by P. acnes has been suggested to have antitumor activity, but its effect on MM has not been fully evaluated.We analyzed the anti-tumor activity of P. acnes vaccination in a mouse model of MM. Intratumoral administration of P. acnes successfully protected the host against melanoma progression in vivo by inducing both cutaneous and systemic Th1 type cytokine expression, including TNF-α and IFN-γ, which are associated with subcutaneous granuloma formation. P. acnes-treated tumor lesions were infiltrated with TNF-α and IFN-γ positive T cells. In the spleen, TNF-α as well as IFN-γ producing CD8(+T cells were increased, and interestingly, the number of monocytes was also increased following P. acnes administration. These observations suggest that P. acnes vaccination induces both systemic and local antitumor responses. In conclusion, this study shows that P. acnes vaccination may be a potent therapeutic alternative in MM.

  15. Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus lugdunensis Cause Pyogenic Osteomyelitis in an Intramedullary Nail Model in Rabbits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gahukamble, Abhay Deodas; McDowell, Andrew; Post, Virginia; Varela, Julian Salavarrieta; Rochford, Edward Thomas James; Richards, Robert Geoff; Patrick, Sheila; Moriarty, Thomas Fintan

    2014-01-01

    Propionibacterium acnes and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) are opportunistic pathogens implicated in prosthetic joint and fracture fixation device-related infections. The purpose of this study was to determine whether P. acnes and the CoNS species Staphylococcus lugdunensis, isolated from a

  16. Isotretinoin Use in Severe Acne

    OpenAIRE

    Turgeon, E.W.T.

    1985-01-01

    Isotretinoin, an oral vitamin A derivative, is highly effective in, and at present indicated only for, the treatment of cystic acne, conglobate acne, or severe acne which has failed to respond to conventional therapy, including systemic antibiotics. Isotretinoin use usually results in a prolonged remission, often with complete disappearance of previously resistant lesions. Virtually all patients experience reversible integumentary side effects, which can almost always be controlled with emoll...

  17. Dietary intervention in acne

    OpenAIRE

    Melnik, Bodo

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to highlight the endocrine signaling of Western diet, a fundamental environmental factor involved in the pathogenesis of epidemic acne. Western nutrition is characterized by high calorie uptake, high glycemic load, high fat and meat intake, as well as increased consumption of insulin- and IGF-1-level elevating dairy proteins. Metabolic signals of Western diet are sensed by the nutrient-sensitive kinase, mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), which integ...

  18. [Acne and diet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnik, B C

    2013-04-01

    In industrialized countries acne presents as an epidemic disease of civilization affecting sebaceous follicles of adolescents and young adults, associated with increased body mass index and insulin resistance. "Western style" diet, characterized by high glycaemic load and increased consumption of insulinotropic milk proteins, plays an important role in acne pathogenesis. On the cellular level, nutrient-derived metabolic signals are sensed by the metabolic transcription factor FoxO1 and integrated by the regulatory kinase mTORC1. mTORC1, the central hub of protein- and lipid biosynthesis, cell growth and proliferation, is activated by insulin, IGF-1 and branched-chain essential amino acids, especially leucine. The understanding of Western diet-mediated nutrient signalling with over-activated mTORC1 offers a reasonable approach for dietary intervention in acne by lowering glycaemic load and consumption of milk and milk products. A suitable diet attenuating increased mTORC1 activity is a Palaeolithic-like diet with reduced intake of sugar, hyperglycaemic grains, milk and milk products but enriched consumption of vegetables and fish. PMID:23529682

  19. Prevalence of acne in primary school children and the relationship of acne with pubertal maturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilal Kaya Erdoğan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: Although acne vulgaris is generally regarded as a disease of adolescence period, it can occur in infancy, early childhood and prepubertal period. Acne may emerge as the first sign of pubertal maturation. In our study, we aimed to determine the acne prevalence in primary school children, then, evaluate the pubertal signs in those children; examine the correlation of the presence and severity of acne with pubertal signs, and finally, revise the concept of prepubertal acne. Materials and Methods: A thousand students from 2 schools in Istanbul were included in the study. Age, gender, and the presence, localization and severity of acne were recorded. Acne severity was evaluated using the Orfanos-Gollnick Acne Grading System while a validated self evaluation form which had been developed by Morris and Udry was used to evaluate pubertal stage. Data were evaluated statistically. Results: Five hundred and thirty-four male and 466 female primary school children, with an age range of 7 to 11, were included in the study. Acne was determined in 11.5% of the students. 20% of girls and 4% of boys had acne. Comparing acne presence and age, the average age was higher in group with acne than those with no acne. The mean age of children with grade 1 acne was lower than those with grade 2 acne. All the students with acne had mid-facial acne. Comparing acne presence and pubertal symptoms, the rate of the presence of acne was higher in pubertal girls. No acne was observed in prepubertal boys. Evaluating acne severity and pubertal signs, the difference between prepubertal and pubertal girls was not significant. Comparing acne and telarche stages, the group without acne had lower telarche rates. Comparing acne and pubertal stages, children with acne had advanced puberty. Conclusion: Our study denotes that acne prevalence is related to pubertal maturation and age; while it does not support the hypothesis that acne is the first sign of pubertal

  20. Blue and red light acne in acne therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utz S.R.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The review presents the results of the research of acne phototherapy. The foundational photobiological principles of acne therapy are considered, biomedical and therapeutic values of different wave lengths are discussed, a clinical case of laser technologies use is presented.

  1. New Developments in Acne Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Stolman, Lewis P.

    1982-01-01

    Acne is a metabolic disorder of the pilosebaceous appendage in which microorganisms, hormones, inflammatory cells and fatty acids seem to contribute to the pathologic process. Through education and judicious use of therapeutic agents including benzoyl peroxide, vitamin A acid, topical and systemic antibiotics and 13 cis retinoic acid, most patients with acne can enjoy good control of their disease.

  2. Improving diagnostic criteria for Propionibacterium acnes osteomyelitis: a retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asseray, Nathalie; Papin, Christophe; Touchais, Sophie; Bemer, Pascale; Lambert, Chantal; Boutoille, David; Tequi, Brigitte; Gouin, François; Raffi, François; Passuti, Norbert; Potel, Gilles

    2010-07-01

    The identification of Propionibacterium acnes in cultures of bone and joint samples is always difficult to interpret because of the ubiquity of this microorganism. The aim of this study was to propose a diagnostic strategy to distinguish infections from contaminations. This was a retrospective analysis of all patient charts of those patients with >or=1 deep samples culture-positive for P. acnes. Every criterion was tested for sensitivity, specificity, and positive likelihood ratio, and then the diagnostic probability of combinations of criteria was calculated. Among 65 patients, 52 (80%) were considered truly infected with P. acnes, a diagnosis based on a multidisciplinary process. The most valuable diagnostic criteria were: >or=2 positive deep samples, peri-operative findings (necrosis, hardware loosening, etc.), and >or=2 surgical procedures. However, no single criterion was sufficient to ascertain the diagnosis. The following combinations of criteria had a diagnostic probability of >90%: >or=2 positive cultures + 1 criterion among: peri-operative findings, local signs of infection, >or=2 previous operations, orthopaedic devices; 1 positive culture + 3 criteria among: peri-operative findings, local signs of infection, >or=2 previous surgical operations, orthopaedic devices, inflammatory syndrome. The diagnosis of P. acnes osteomyelitis was greatly improved by combining different criteria, allowing differentiation between infection and contamination.

  3. Is acne caused by colonization with the "wrong" strain of Propionibacterium acnes? A review of the role of Propionibacterium acnes in acne

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomholt, Hans Bredsted; Kilian, Mogens

    2008-01-01

    Acne is still a major problem, and treatment options are far from ideal. A number of studies suggest that the species Propionibacterium acnes plays an important role in the pathogenesis, and new data point towards molecular mechanisms by which the organism is able to trigger the host inflammatory...... response. The current knowledge on P. acnes in relation to acne is reviewed....

  4. Acne fulminans e isotretinoína: relato de caso Acne fulminans and isotretinoin: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayra Falcao Pereira

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A acne fulminans é afecção rara e a forma mais grave de todo o espectro clínico da acne. Caracterizase pelo aparecimento súbito de nódulos inflamatórios dolorosos que ulceram, concomitantemente, a manifestações sistêmicas. Pode ser induzida pela isotretinoína e alguns autores acreditam que a ocorrência do quadro seja dose dependente. O tratamento é controverso, não havendo padronização até o momento. Apresenta-se caso desta rara doença, desenvolvida durante o uso de isotretinoína em baixas doses.Acne fulminans (AF is a rare disorder, the most severe form of the entire clinical spectrum of acne. It is characterized by emergence of painful inflammatory nodules that turn into ulcers, concomitant with systemic manifestations. It can be induced by isotretinoin and some authors believe that the occurrence of this condition is dose dependent. The treatment is controversial and there is no consensus up to this time. A case of this rare disease, developed during use of isotretinoin in low doses, is presented.

  5. Acne Scars: Pathogenesis, Classification and Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriella Fabbrocini; Annunziata, M. C.; V. D'Arco; V. De Vita; Lodi, G.; M. C. Mauriello; F. Pastore; G. Monfrecola

    2010-01-01

    Acne has a prevalence of over 90% among adolescents and persists into adulthood in approximately 12%–14% of cases with psychological and social implications. Possible outcomes of the inflammatory acne lesions are acne scars which, although they can be treated in a number of ways, may have a negative psychological impact on social life and relationships. The main types of acne scars are atrophic and hypertrophic scars. The pathogenesis of acne scarring is still not fully understood, but severa...

  6. Cardiff Acne Disability Index in Sarawak, Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Yap, Felix Boon-Bin

    2012-01-01

    Background Acne is considered a cosmetic nuisance in Malaysia since no insurance coverage is provided for its treatment. Its psychological impact is unknown. Objective The aim of this study is to determine the impact of acne on quality of life and its relationship with severity. Methods A cross-sectional study using the Cardiff acne disability index (CADI) and Global Acne Grading System for acne severity grading was done in three government-run dermatology clinics in Sarawak, Malaysia. Result...

  7. The Historic Panorama of Acne Vulgaris

    OpenAIRE

    Humyra Tabasum; Tanzeel Ahmad; Farzana Anjum; Hina Rehman

    2013-01-01

    Although acne is described in very ancient writings dating back to Eber’s Papyrus, its clear description is found after Fuch’s coined the term ‘Acne Vulgaris’ and Erasmus Wilson separated it from acne rosacea. The early treatment of acne was based upon the witchcraft. Later new therapies got evolved with the discoveries in the field of anatomy, physiology and biochemistry. The following review focuses the historical overview of acne vulgaris, highlighting persons and discoveries in medival an...

  8. Acne Vulgaris and Acne Rosacea: An Update in Etiopathogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozlem Ekiz

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Acne vulgaris is a chronic inflammatory disease of the pilosebaceous unit, characterized by comedones, papules, pustules, nodules, and scars rarely. The major pathogenic factors are abnormal follicular differentiation and increased ductal cornification, abnormal activity of sebaceous glands, microbial colonization of pilosebaceous units by Propionibacterium acnes and inflammation. Rosacea is a common, chronic inflammatory relapsing skin disorder of the central area of the face characterized by transient or persistent erythema, telangiectasia, papules and pustules. Although several hypotheses have been suggested for the etiopathogenesis of rosacea, the exact etiology is still unknown. In this review, we tried to summarize up-to-date information about etiopathogenesis of acne vulgaris and rosocea.

  9. CRISPR/cas loci of type II Propionibacterium acnes confer immunity against acquisition of mobile elements present in type I P. acnes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holger Brüggemann

    Full Text Available Propionibacterium acnes is a skin commensal that occasionally acts as an opportunistic pathogen. The population structure of this species shows three main lineages (I-III. While type I strains are mainly associated with sebaceous follicles of human skin and inflammatory acne, types II and III strains are more often associated with deep tissue infections. We investigated the occurrence and distribution of the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR in P. acnes, assessed their immunological memory, and addressed the question if such a system could account for type-specific properties of the species. A collection of 108 clinical isolates covering all known phylotypes of P. acnes was screened for the existence of CRISPR/cas loci. We found that CRISPR loci are restricted to type II P. acnes strains. Sequence analyses of the CRISPR spacers revealed that the system confers immunity to P. acnes-specific phages and to two mobile genetic elements. These elements are found almost exclusively in type I P. acnes strains. Genome sequencing of a type I P. acnes isolate revealed that one element, 54 kb in size, encodes a putative secretion/tight adherence (TAD system. Thus, CRISPR/cas loci in P. acnes recorded the exposure of type II strains to mobile genetic elements of type I strains. The CRISPR/cas locus is deleted in type I strains, which conceivably accounts for their ability to horizontally acquire fitness or virulence traits and might indicate that type I strains constitute a younger subpopulation of P. acnes.

  10. Potential role of FoxO1 and mTORC1 in the pathogenesis of Western diet-induced acne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnik, Bodo C; Zouboulis, Christos C

    2013-05-01

    Acne in adolescents of developed countries is an epidemic skin disease and has currently been linked to the Western diet (WD). It is the intention of this viewpoint to discuss the possible impact of WD-mediated nutrient signalling in the pathogenesis of acne. High glycaemic load and dairy protein consumption both increase insulin/insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) signalling (IIS) that is superimposed on elevated IGF-1 signalling of puberty. The cell's nutritional status is primarily sensed by the forkhead box transcription factor O1 (FoxO1) and the serine/threonine kinase mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1). Increased IIS extrudes FoxO1 into the cytoplasm, whereas nuclear FoxO1 suppresses hepatic IGF-1 synthesis and thus impairs somatic growth. FoxO1 attenuates androgen signalling, interacts with regulatory proteins important for sebaceous lipogenesis, regulates the activity of innate and adaptive immunity, antagonizes oxidative stress and most importantly functions as a rheostat of mTORC1, the master regulator of cell growth, proliferation and metabolic homoeostasis. Thus, FoxO1 links nutrient availability to mTORC1-driven processes: increased protein and lipid synthesis, cell proliferation, cell differentiation including hyperproliferation of acroinfundibular keratinocytes, sebaceous gland hyperplasia, increased sebaceous lipogenesis, insulin resistance and increased body mass index. Enhanced androgen, TNF-α and IGF-1 signalling due to genetic polymorphisms promoting the risk of acne all converge in mTORC1 activation, which is further enhanced by nutrient signalling of WD. Deeper insights into the molecular interplay of FoxO1/mTORC1-mediated nutrient signalling are thus of critical importance to understand the impact of WD on the promotion of epidemic acne and more serious mTORC1-driven diseases of civilization. PMID:23614736

  11. Acne by Mikael Zobel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>提起Acne,你会立即想到什么?暗疮?不错,这的确是它的英文解释。可是Acne同时也是一个在瑞典家喻户晓的品牌名称,全名是Ambitions to Create Novel Expressions的Acne,是斯德哥尔摩的牛仔裤专家。年前与Lanvin合作的系列曾引起了一阵风潮。喜欢找不同设计师台作的Acne,这次请到的是产品在各国艺术馆展出的德国著名珠宝师Mikael Zobel。Mikael Zobel为Acne设计的09秋冬高级珠宝系列共有20多件,包括了吊坠、胸针、袖口钮和戒指等。设计的特色是原石及经过打磨的矿物的混合材料,如212克拉的红碧玺、紫锂辉石、白及紫玉石、金发石英,以及黑色、粉色、黄色和未经琢磨的钻石原石。所有宝石都根据各自的功能与设计,以经过抛光、氧化、装饰及电镀过的金、白金及银等金属共同镶嵌。虽然所用的材料都罕有而珍贵,但Mikael Zobel的设计却令整个系列不会过于奢华及俗气,反带有低调而贵气的味道。这个简洁而具有雕塑感觉的系列乍看之下有点女性化,但原石及金属的特殊质感,令整个系列仍不失Acne一贯的硬朗。官方网站由即日起接受订购。网址:shop.acnestudios.com

  12. The psychosocial impact of acne vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neirita Hazarika

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acne vulgaris causes erythematous papulopustular lesions in active stage and often leave behind residual scarring and pigmentation. Its onset in adolescence may add to the emotional and psychological challenges experienced during this period. Aims: To assess the impact of acne on the various psychosocial domains of daily life. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective, cross-sectional study done in the dermatology out-patient department of a tertiary care hospital from January to March 2015. A total of 100 consecutive, newly diagnosed patients of acne vulgaris, aged 15 years and above were included in this study. The relationship between acne vulgaris and its sequelae was analyzed with ten different domains of daily life by using dermatology life quality index (DLQI questionnaire. Results: Females (56%, 15–20 year olds (61%, facial lesions (60%, and Grade II acne (70% were most common. Acne scars were noted in 75% patients, whereas 79% cases had post-acne hyperpigmentation. Thirty-seven percent patients had DLQI scores of (6–10 interpreted as moderate effect on patient's life. Statistically significant correlation (P < 0.05 found were as follows: Physical symptoms with grade of acne; embarrassment with site and grade of acne; daily activities with grade of acne and post-acne pigmentation; choice of clothes with site of acne; social activities with gender, site and grade of acne; effect on work/study with grade of acne; interpersonal problems with site and post-acne pigmentation; sexual difficulties with grade of acne. Limitation: It was a hospital-based study with small sample size. Conclusion: Significant impact of acne and its sequelae was noted on emotions, daily activities, social activities, study/work, and interpersonal relationships. Assurance and counseling along with early treatment of acne vulgaris is important to reduce disease-related psychosocial sequelae and increase the efficacy of treatment.

  13. Management strategies for acne vulgaris

    OpenAIRE

    Ditre, Cherie

    2011-01-01

    Kristen M Whitney1, Chérie M Ditre21Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 2Skin Enhancement Center and Cosmetic Dermatology, Department of Dermatology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USADate of preparation: 30th November 2010Conflicts of interest: None declaredClinical question: What are the most effective treatment(s) for mild, moderate, severe, and hormonally driven acne?Results: Mild acne responds favorably to topi...

  14. Laser Treatment of Acne Vulgaris

    OpenAIRE

    Jih, Ming H.; Kimyai-Asadi, Arash

    2007-01-01

    Traditional medical treatments for acne vulgaris include a variety of topical and oral medications. The combination of poor compliance, lack of durable remission, and potential side effects are common drawbacks to these treatments. The use of lasers and light devices has increased dramatically in recent years due to the overall ease of treatment, predictable clinical efficacy, and minimal adverse effects. A variety of light and laser devices has been used for the treatment of acne, including ...

  15. Treatment of Acne in Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Anna L; Qi, Ji; Rainer, Barbara; Sachs, Dana L; Helfrich, Yolanda R

    2016-01-01

    Acne vulgaris is a common disease of the pilosebaceous unit and affects adolescents and adults. Because high-quality guidelines regarding treatment of acne in pregnancy are scarce, management of this condition can be challenging. We describe the safety profile of common therapies and outline approaches based on available evidence. Topical azelaic acid or benzoyl peroxide can be recommended as baseline therapy. A combination of topical erythromycin or clindamycin with benzoyl peroxide is recommended for inflammatory acne. Oral erythromycin or cephalexin is generally considered safe for moderate to severe inflammatory acne when used for a few weeks. A short course of oral prednisolone may be useful for treating fulminant nodular cystic acne after the first trimester. In general, topical and oral antibiotics should not be used as monotherapy, but combined with topical benzoyl peroxide to decrease bacterial resistance. Oral retinoids are teratogenic and absolutely contraindicated for women who are pregnant or considering pregnancy. Although some complementary therapies including micronutrients and nonpharmacologic treatments seem to be well tolerated, limited data exist regarding their safety and efficacy, and they are not currently recommended during pregnancy. The risk-to-benefit ratio, efficacy, acceptability, and costs are considerations when choosing a treatment for acne in pregnancy. PMID:26957383

  16. Diet and acne%饮食与痤疮

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鞠强

    2016-01-01

    痤疮是皮肤科常见的毛囊皮脂腺慢性炎症性疾病,发病机制不清。饮食是与痤疮发生有关的重要诱发因素之一,但与痤疮的关系多年来颇受争议。本文从体重、甜食、牛奶、油脂及其他饮食等几个方面综述近年来在饮食与痤疮方面的研究进展,从而为皮肤科医生及患者在痤疮的正确防治上提供临床诊疗依据。%Acne is a common chronic inlfammatory disease in the hair follicle sebaceous glands in the department of dermatology, and its pathogenesis is not clear. Diet is one of the important inducing factors related to acne, but its relationship with acne is quite controversial for many years. This paper overviews the research progress of diet and acne in recent years from the aspects of body weight, sweet food, milk, grease and other diet so as to provide a clinical basis for dermatologists and patients to correctly diagnose and treat acne.

  17. IL-17/Th17 pathway is activated in acne lesions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna-Leena Kelhälä

    Full Text Available The mechanisms of inflammation in acne are currently subject of intense investigation. This study focused on the activation of adaptive and innate immunity in clinically early visible inflamed acne lesions and was performed in two independent patient populations. Biopsies were collected from lesional and non-lesional skin of acne patients. Using Affymetrix Genechips, we observed significant elevation of the signature cytokines of the Th17 lineage in acne lesions compared to non-lesional skin. The increased expression of IL-17 was confirmed at the RNA and also protein level with real-time PCR (RT-PCR and Luminex technology. Cytokines involved in Th17 lineage differentiation (IL-1β, IL-6, TGF-β, IL23p19 were remarkably induced at the RNA level. In addition, proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines (TNF-α, IL-8, CSF2 and CCL20, Th1 markers (IL12p40, CXCR3, T-bet, IFN-γ, T regulatory cell markers (Foxp3, IL-10, TGF-β and IL-17 related antimicrobial peptides (S100A7, S100A9, lipocalin, hBD2, hBD3, hCAP18 were induced. Importantly, immunohistochemistry revealed significantly increased numbers of IL-17A positive T cells and CD83 dendritic cells in the acne lesions. In summary our results demonstrate the presence of IL-17A positive T cells and the activation of Th17-related cytokines in acne lesions, indicating that the Th17 pathway is activated and may play a pivotal role in the disease process, possibly offering new targets of therapy.

  18. New and emerging treatments in dermatology: acne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsambas, A; Dessinioti, C

    2008-01-01

    Topical retinoids, benzoyl peroxide, azelaic acid, and topical and oral antibiotics remain the milestone of treatment for mild to moderate acne vulgaris. Oral isotretinoin is useful for the treatment of severe nodular acne, treatment-resistant acne, and acne with a risk of physical or psychological scarring. Hormonal treatment in female acne is useful in resistant or late-onset acne. With increasing concerns regarding teratogenicity of isotretinoin and increasing antibiotic resistance, there is a clear need for therapeutic alternatives to these long-used treatments. Research in the pathogenesis of acne has allowed for new therapies and future perspectives regarding acne to evolve. They include low-dose long-term isotretinoin regimens, insulin-sensitizing agents, 5alpha-reductase type 1 inhibitors, topical photodynamic therapy, new combination formulations, dietary interventions, and antiinflammatory agents such as lipoxygenase inhibitors. PMID:18394082

  19. Understanding Acne: How to Banish Breakouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... equipment, backpacks, tight collars or tight sports uniforms Skin irritants, such as pollution and high humidity Squeezing or picking at blemishes Hard scrubbing of the skin Stress Web Sites Acne What Is Acne? back ...

  20. Acne, cystic on the face (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The face is the most common location of acne. Here, there are 4 to 6 millimeter red ( ... scars and fistulous tract formation (connecting passages). Severe acne may have a profound psychological impact and may ...

  1. Acne, vulgaris on the back (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acne frequently occurs on the back. Here, there are 2 to 6 millimeter wide erythematous (red) pustules ... Permanent scarring may follow a severe case of acne. Men are more often affected on their shoulders ...

  2. Effective Treatments of Atrophic Acne Scars

    OpenAIRE

    Gozali, Maya Valeska; ZHOU, BINGRONG

    2015-01-01

    Atrophic scarring is often an unfortunate and permanent complication of acne vulgaris. It has high prevalence, significant impact on quality of life, and therapeutic challenge for dermatologists. The treatment of atrophic acne scars varies depending on the types of acne scars and the limitations of the treatment modalities in their ability to improve scars. Therefore, many options are available for the treatment of acne scarring, including chemical peeling, dermabrasion, laser treatment, punc...

  3. Insulin resistance in severe acne vulgaris

    OpenAIRE

    Emiroğlu, Nazan; Cengiz, Fatma Pelin; Kemeriz, Funda

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Acne vulgaris is a pilosebaceous gland disease that usually affects people from puberty to young adulthood. It is seen especially on the face, neck, trunk and arms. Its severity differs from patient to patient and its pathogenesis is multifactorial. The main pathogenic factors of acne are high sebaceous gland secretion, follicular hyperproliferation, high androgen effects, propionibacterium acnes colonization and inflammation. Diet is always thought a probable reason for acne and...

  4. Fillers for the improvement in acne scars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollina, Uwe; Goldman, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Acne is a common inflammatory disease. Scarring is an unwanted end point of acne. Both atrophic and hypertrophic scar types occur. Soft-tissue augmentation aims to improve atrophic scars. In this review, we will focus on the use of dermal fillers for acne scar improvement. Therefore, various filler types are characterized, and available data on their use in acne scar improvement are analyzed. PMID:26491364

  5. Antibacterial activity of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids against Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desbois, Andrew P; Lawlor, Keelan C

    2013-11-01

    New compounds are needed to treat acne and superficial infections caused by Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus aureus due to the reduced effectiveness of agents used at present. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) are attracting attention as potential new topical treatments for Gram-positive infections due to their antimicrobial potency and anti-inflammatory properties. This present study aimed to investigate the antimicrobial effects of six LC-PUFAs against P. acnes and S. aureus to evaluate their potential to treat infections caused by these pathogens. Minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined against P. acnes and S. aureus, and the LC-PUFAs were found to inhibit bacterial growth at 32-1024 mg/L. Generally, P. acnes was more susceptible to the growth inhibitory actions of LC-PUFAs, but these compounds were bactericidal only for S. aureus. This is the first report of antibacterial activity attributed to 15-hydroxyeicosapentaenoic acid (15-OHEPA) and 15-hydroxyeicosatrienoic acid (HETrE), while the anti-P. acnes effects of the six LC-PUFAs used herein are novel observations. During exposure to the LC-PUFAs, S. aureus cells were killed within 15-30 min. Checkerboard assays demonstrated that the LC-PUFAs did not antagonise the antimicrobial potency of clinical agents used presently against P. acnes and S. aureus. However, importantly, synergistic interactions against S. aureus were detected for combinations of benzoyl peroxide with 15-OHEPA, dihomo-γ-linolenic acid (DGLA) and HETrE; and neomycin with 15-OHEPA, DGLA, eicosapentaenoic acid, γ-linolenic acid and HETrE. In conclusion, LC-PUFAs warrant further evaluation as possible new agents to treat skin infections caused by P. acnes and S. aureus, especially in synergistic combinations with antimicrobial agents already used clinically. PMID:24232668

  6. Antibacterial Activity of Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids against Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew P. Desbois

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available New compounds are needed to treat acne and superficial infections caused by Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus aureus due to the reduced effectiveness of agents used at present. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs are attracting attention as potential new topical treatments for Gram-positive infections due to their antimicrobial potency and anti-inflammatory properties. This present study aimed to investigate the antimicrobial effects of six LC-PUFAs against P. acnes and S. aureus to evaluate their potential to treat infections caused by these pathogens. Minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined against P. acnes and S. aureus, and the LC-PUFAs were found to inhibit bacterial growth at 32–1024 mg/L. Generally, P. acnes was more susceptible to the growth inhibitory actions of LC-PUFAs, but these compounds were bactericidal only for S. aureus. This is the first report of antibacterial activity attributed to 15-hydroxyeicosapentaenoic acid (15-OHEPA and 15-hydroxyeicosatrienoic acid (HETrE, while the anti-P. acnes effects of the six LC-PUFAs used herein are novel observations. During exposure to the LC-PUFAs, S. aureus cells were killed within 15–30 min. Checkerboard assays demonstrated that the LC-PUFAs did not antagonise the antimicrobial potency of clinical agents used presently against P. acnes and S. aureus. However, importantly, synergistic interactions against S. aureus were detected for combinations of benzoyl peroxide with 15-OHEPA, dihomo-γ-linolenic acid (DGLA and HETrE; and neomycin with 15-OHEPA, DGLA, eicosapentaenoic acid, γ-linolenic acid and HETrE. In conclusion, LC-PUFAs warrant further evaluation as possible new agents to treat skin infections caused by P. acnes and S. aureus, especially in synergistic combinations with antimicrobial agents already used clinically.

  7. Therapeutic Approach to Acne and Rosacea, Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graber, Emmy M

    2016-06-01

    Acne has been written about since ancient Greek times and was a recognized entity even during Cleopatra's reign. Today, acne is pervasive in most cultures and is the number two reason why patients visit a dermatologist in the United States. It is the eighth most common disease worldwide. Despite the longstanding awareness of acne and its prevalence, no perfect treatment yet exists. PMID:27416307

  8. Current and future treatment options for acne.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerkhof, P.C.M. van de; Kleinpenning, M.M.; Jong, E.M.G.J. de; Gerritsen, M.J.P.; Dooren-Greebe, R.J. van; Alkemade, J.A.C.

    2006-01-01

    Acne is a frequent skin disease with abnormalities in the process of keratinization, sebaceous gland functioning and inflammation. In this review, our understanding of the pathogenesis of acne has been updated. An overview of efficacy and side effects of available anti-acne treatments is presented.

  9. Linking diet to acne metabolomics, inflammation, and comedogenesis: an update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melnik BC

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Bodo C Melnik Department of Dermatology, Environmental Medicine and Health Theory, University of Osnabrück, Germany Abstract: Acne vulgaris, an epidemic inflammatory skin disease of adolescence, is closely related to Western diet. Three major food classes that promote acne are: 1 hyperglycemic carbohydrates, 2 milk and dairy products, 3 saturated fats including trans-fats and deficient ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs. Diet-induced insulin/insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1-signaling is superimposed on elevated IGF-1 levels during puberty, thereby unmasking the impact of aberrant nutrigenomics on sebaceous gland homeostasis. Western diet provides abundant branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs, glutamine, and palmitic acid. Insulin and IGF-1 suppress the activity of the metabolic transcription factor forkhead box O1 (FoxO1. Insulin, IGF-1, BCAAs, glutamine, and palmitate activate the nutrient-sensitive kinase mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1, the key regulator of anabolism and lipogenesis. FoxO1 is a negative coregulator of androgen receptor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ, liver X receptor-α, and sterol response element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c, crucial transcription factors of sebaceous lipogenesis. mTORC1 stimulates the expression of PPARγ and SREBP-1c, promoting sebum production. SREBP-1c upregulates stearoyl-CoA- and Δ6-desaturase, enhancing the proportion of monounsaturated fatty acids in sebum triglycerides. Diet-mediated aberrations in sebum quantity (hyperseborrhea and composition (dysseborrhea promote Propionibacterium acnes overgrowth and biofilm formation with overexpression of the virulence factor triglyceride lipase increasing follicular levels of free palmitate and oleate. Free palmitate functions as a “danger signal,” stimulating toll-like receptor-2-mediated inflammasome activation with interleukin-1β release, Th17 differentiation, and interleukin-17-mediated keratinocyte

  10. The diversity and host interactions of Propionibacterium acnes bacteriophages on human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jared; Yan, Riceley; Zhong, Qiao; Ngo, Sam; Bangayan, Nathanael J; Nguyen, Lin; Lui, Timothy; Liu, Minghsun; Erfe, Marie C; Craft, Noah; Tomida, Shuta; Li, Huiying

    2015-09-01

    The viral population, including bacteriophages, is an important component of the human microbiota, yet is poorly understood. We aim to determine whether bacteriophages modulate the composition of the bacterial populations, thus potentially playing a role in health or disease. We investigated the diversity and host interactions of the bacteriophages of Propionibacterium acnes, a major human skin commensal implicated in acne pathogenesis. By sequencing 48 P. acnes phages isolated from acne patients and healthy individuals and by analyzing the P. acnes phage populations in healthy skin metagenomes, we revealed that P. acnes phage populations in the skin microbial community are often dominated by one strain. We also found phage strains shared among both related and unrelated individuals, suggesting that a pool of common phages exists in the human population and that transmission of phages may occur between individuals. To better understand the bacterium-phage interactions in the skin microbiota, we determined the outcomes of 74 genetically defined Propionibacterium strains challenged by 15 sequenced phages. Depending on the Propionibacterium lineage, phage infection can result in lysis, pseudolysogeny, or resistance. In type II P. acnes strains, we found that encoding matching clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat spacers is insufficient to confer phage resistance. Overall, our findings suggest that the prey-predator relationship between bacteria and phages may have a role in modulating the composition of the microbiota. Our study also suggests that the microbiome structure of an individual may be an important factor in the design of phage-based therapy.

  11. DEVELOPMENT OF HERBAL ANTI ACNE GEL AND ITS EVALUATION AGAINST ACNE CAUSING BACTERIA PROPIONIBACTERIUM ACNE AND STAPHYLOCOCCUS EPIDERMIDIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daud Farhat S.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Acne by definition is multifactorial chronic inflammatory disease of pilosebaceous units. Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis are considered as the major skin bacteria that cause the formation of acne. Although acne does not pose serious threat to general health, it is one of the most socially distressing conditions especially for adolescents. The objective of this study was to design a product to treat Acne with purely herbal actives as an effective and safe alternative to harmful antibiotics. For this purpose three essential oils and two herbal extracts having anti-microbial properties were selected. These were incorporated in a Gel Base in different concentrations and the in vitro antibacterial activity for the different formulations (F1, F2, F3 was studied against Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis (S.epidermidis, a causative organism for Acne vulgaris using Agar Well Diffusion method. All the formulations showed satisfactory Anti-microbial activity with Formulation F3 showing highest activity. It was then subjected to stress testing for three months at various temperatures. The samples were found to be stable after three months of stability studies and showed satisfactory antibacterial activity against Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis at the end of the stress testing studies. Thus it was concluded that the formulated Herbal Anti Acne Gel with natural actives can be used effectively for treating acne on skin.

  12. The Historic Panorama of Acne Vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humyra Tabasum

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Although acne is described in very ancient writings dating back to Eber’s Papyrus, its clear description is found after Fuch’s coined the term ‘Acne Vulgaris’ and Erasmus Wilson separated it from acne rosacea. The early treatment of acne was based upon the witchcraft. Later new therapies got evolved with the discoveries in the field of anatomy, physiology and biochemistry. The following review focuses the historical overview of acne vulgaris, highlighting persons and discoveries in medival and modern period.

  13. Chemical peels for acne and acne scars in asians: Evidence based review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangeline B Handog

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical peeling is a widely used procedure in the management of acne and acne scars, but there are very few studies on Asian populations who are more prone to develop hyper pigmentation. This article aims to summarize and evaluate the existing studies on the role of chemical peels in the treatment of acne and acne scars among Asians. An online search was conducted to identify prospective studies published in English that evaluated the use of chemical peels in active acne and acne scars in Asian populations. There were six studies for acne and eight studies for acne scars that were identified using our search parameters. Most were single-centre, open label and with small sample sizes. Acne severity was not uniformly reported and the objective outcome measures of some studies were not explicitly reported as well. The general trend of the results of the studies support the safety and efficacy of chemical peels for acne and acne scars including those of darker skin types. The existing studies support the use of chemical peels in the treatment of acne and acne scars in Asians. Further clinical trials with better study design and more subjects are needed to further establish the role of chemical peels in Asian acne patients.

  14. Chemical peels for acne and acne scars in asians: Evidence based review

    OpenAIRE

    Handog, Evangeline B; Datuin, Maria Suzanne L; Singzon, Ivan A

    2012-01-01

    Chemical peeling is a widely used procedure in the management of acne and acne scars, but there are very few studies on Asian populations who are more prone to develop hyper pigmentation. This article aims to summarize and evaluate the existing studies on the role of chemical peels in the treatment of acne and acne scars among Asians. An online search was conducted to identify prospective studies published in English that evaluated the use of chemical peels in active acne and acne scars in As...

  15. Brucella abortus-infected B cells induce osteoclastogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesce Viglietti, Ayelén Ivana; Arriola Benitez, Paula Constanza; Giambartolomei, Guillermo Hernán; Delpino, María Victoria

    2016-09-01

    Brucella abortus is an intracellular bacterium that establishes lifelong infections in livestock and humans although the mechanisms of its chronicity are poorly understood. Activated B cells have long lifespan and B. abortus infection activates B cells. Our results indicate that the direct infection of B cells with B. abortus induced matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), receptor activator for NF κB ligand (RANKL), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-6 secretion. In addition, supernatants from B. abortus-infected B cells induced bone marrow-derived monocytes to undergo osteoclastogenesis. Using osteoprotegerin, RANKL's decoy receptor, we determined that RANKL is involved in osteoclastogenesis induced by supernatants from B. abortus-infected B cells. The results presented here shed light on how the interactions of B. abortus with B cells may have a role in the pathogenesis of brucellar osteoarticular disease.

  16. Unveiling ubiquitinome rearrangements induced by Salmonella infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bionda, Tihana; Behrends, Christian

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Ubiquitination plays a critical role in the activation of host immune responses to infection and serves as a signal for pathogen delivery to phagophores along the xenophagy pathway. We recently performed systematic ubiquitination site profiling of epithelial cells infected with Salmonella Typhimurium. Our findings specifically highlight components of the NFKB, membrane trafficking pathways and RHO GTPase systems as ubiquitination hubs during infection. In addition, a broad spectrum of bacterial effectors and several outer membrane proteins are ubiquitinated in infected cells. This comprehensive resource of ubiquitinome dynamics during Salmonella infection enables further understanding of the complex host-pathogen interplay and may reveal novel targets for the inhibition of Salmonella invasion and inflammation. PMID:27467224

  17. Acupuncture Induced Necrotizing Aortitis with Infected Pseudoaneurysm Formation

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Sak; Lim, Sang Hyun; Kim, Do-Kyun; Joo, Hyun-Chul

    2008-01-01

    Necrotizing aortitis is a rare and life-threatening complication of local or generalized bacterial infections and most commonly affects the abdominal aorta. We described a case of a 79-year-old man with an acupuncture-induced bacterial aortitis associated with pseudoaneurysm formation causing near rupture. The patient underwent emergent explolapartomy, resection of the infected aorta, wide debridement of surrounding infected tissues, and extra-anatomic axillary to bifemoral graft bypass. The ...

  18. Hepatitis B, interferon, and acne fulminans in a young girl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Arora

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Acne fulminans (AF is a very rare severe form of acne seen in young males, characterized by a sudden and explosive onset of hemorrhagic pustules and ulceration on the trunk, systemic features in the form of fever, polyarthropathy, malaise, erythema nodosum and painful osteolytic bone involvement with leukocytosis, and an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Conventional treatment of AF includes corticosteroids or immunosuppressive agents for the initial phase followed by isotretinoin. Active hepatitis B infection with a high viral load precludes the administration of any immunosuppressive drugs. We present the case of an 18-year-old girl with a history of occasional acne who presented with AF of sudden onset following administration of interferon-alpha-2a for her recently detected hepatitis B infection. Management of hepatitis B was withheld in view of her general condition. The patient was managed with low dose isotretinoin with subsidence of lesions. AF in a young female precipitated by interferon and its management with isotretinoin in the presence of active hepatitis B infection make the case unique.

  19. Linking diet to acne metabolomics, inflammation, and comedogenesis: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnik, Bodo C

    2015-01-01

    Acne vulgaris, an epidemic inflammatory skin disease of adolescence, is closely related to Western diet. Three major food classes that promote acne are: 1) hyperglycemic carbohydrates, 2) milk and dairy products, 3) saturated fats including trans-fats and deficient ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Diet-induced insulin/insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1)-signaling is superimposed on elevated IGF-1 levels during puberty, thereby unmasking the impact of aberrant nutrigenomics on sebaceous gland homeostasis. Western diet provides abundant branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), glutamine, and palmitic acid. Insulin and IGF-1 suppress the activity of the metabolic transcription factor forkhead box O1 (FoxO1). Insulin, IGF-1, BCAAs, glutamine, and palmitate activate the nutrient-sensitive kinase mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), the key regulator of anabolism and lipogenesis. FoxO1 is a negative coregulator of androgen receptor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ), liver X receptor-α, and sterol response element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c), crucial transcription factors of sebaceous lipogenesis. mTORC1 stimulates the expression of PPARγ and SREBP-1c, promoting sebum production. SREBP-1c upregulates stearoyl-CoA- and Δ6-desaturase, enhancing the proportion of monounsaturated fatty acids in sebum triglycerides. Diet-mediated aberrations in sebum quantity (hyperseborrhea) and composition (dysseborrhea) promote Propionibacterium acnes overgrowth and biofilm formation with overexpression of the virulence factor triglyceride lipase increasing follicular levels of free palmitate and oleate. Free palmitate functions as a "danger signal," stimulating toll-like receptor-2-mediated inflammasome activation with interleukin-1β release, Th17 differentiation, and interleukin-17-mediated keratinocyte proliferation. Oleate stimulates P. acnes adhesion, keratinocyte proliferation, and comedogenesis via interleukin-1α release. Thus, diet-induced

  20. Genotypic and antimicrobial characterisation of Propionibacterium acnes isolates from surgically excised lumbar disc herniations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rollason, Jess; McDowell, Andrew; Albert, Hanne B;

    2013-01-01

    The anaerobic skin commensal Propionibacterium acnes is an underestimated cause of human infections and clinical conditions. Previous studies have suggested a role for the bacterium in lumbar disc herniation and infection. To further investigate this, five biopsy samples were surgically excised f...

  1. Acne fulminans successfully treated with prednisone and dapsone Acne fulminans tratada com prednisona associada à dapsona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Bandeira Lages

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Acne fulminans is a rare condition and the most severe form of acne. It involves the sudden onset of febrile and multisystemic symptoms, with poor response to ordinary therapy in patients who previously had mild to moderate acne. It is characterized by hemorrhagic ulcerative crusting lesions on the face, chest and upper back. The authors report a case of acne fulminans that was successfully treated with oral prednisone and dapsone.A acne fulminans é uma condição rara e a mais severa forma de acne. Manifesta-se com um quadro agudo, febril e multissistêmico, resistente à terapêutica convencional em doentes com antecedente de acne leve ou moderada. As lesões são caracteristicamente úlcero-hemorrágicas e acometem preferencialmente tórax e face. Os autores relatam um caso de acne fulminans com excelente resposta terapêutica ao tratamento empregado.

  2. Prevalence of acne in primary school children and the relationship of acne with pubertal maturation

    OpenAIRE

    Hilal Kaya Erdoğan; İlknur Kıvanç Altunay; Serap Turan

    2014-01-01

    Background and Design: Although acne vulgaris is generally regarded as a disease of adolescence period, it can occur in infancy, early childhood and prepubertal period. Acne may emerge as the first sign of pubertal maturation. In our study, we aimed to determine the acne prevalence in primary school children, then, evaluate the pubertal signs in those children; examine the correlation of the presence and severity of acne with pubertal signs, and finally, revise the concept of prepubertal a...

  3. Significance of diet in treated and untreated acne vulgaris

    OpenAIRE

    Kucharska, Alicja; Szmurło, Agnieszka; Sińska, Beata

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between diet and acne is highly controversial. Several studies during the last decade have led dermatologists to reflect on a potential link between diet and acne. This article presents the latest findings on a potential impact that diet can have on pathogenesis of acne vulgaris. The association between diet and acne can no longer be dismissed. Compelling evidence shows that high glycemic load diets may exacerbate acne. Dairy ingestion appears to be weakly associated with acn...

  4. Do generalists and specialists agree on descriptive acne morphology?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yazdanyar, S; Bryld, L E; Heidenheim, M;

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Acne is a common skin disease, which is treated by many different specialities. Clinical guidelines for treatment are based on the recognition of acne morphology. The assessment of acne morphology is therefore an important element of the proper diagnosis and treatment of acne. OBJECTIVE...... in the distribution of answers. CONCLUSION: GPs described acne morphology recognized clinical hallmarks of severity in acne less well than dermatologists and were far less consistent....

  5. Abuse of anabolic-androgenic steroids and bodybuilding acne: an underestimated health problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnik, Bodo; Jansen, Thomas; Grabbe, Stephan

    2007-02-01

    Abuse of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) by members of fitness centers and others in Germany has reached alarming dimensions. The health care system provides the illegal AAS to 48.1 % of abusers. Physicians are involved in illegal prescription of AAS and monitoring of 32.1 % of AAS abusers. Besides health-threatening cardiovascular, hepatotoxic and psychiatric long-term side effects of AAS, acne occurs in about 50 % of AAS abusers and is an important clinical indicator of AAS abuse, especially in young men 18-26 years of age. Both acne conglobata and acne fulminans can be induced by AAS abuse. The dermatologist should recognize bodybuilding acne, address the AAS abuse, and warn the patient about other potential hazards.

  6. Acne and diet: facts and controversies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaković, Saida; Bukvić Mokos, Zrinka; Basta-Juzbašić, Aleksandra

    2012-01-01

    Acne is a common skin disorder characterized by follicular hyperkeratinization and obstruction of the pilosebaceous follicles, androgen stimulated sebum production, colonization of the follicles by Propionibacterium acne, and inflammation. A large number of epidemiological studies have shown a low incidence of acne in non-Western societies, suggesting that diet might be an important factor in acne pathogenesis, particularly in mediating inflammation, oxidative stress and androgen stimulation in the acne process. Consequently, it has been hypothesized that diet might have a preventive or therapeutic effect in this skin disorder. Since the majority of recent data have not been consistent, the aim of this article is to present current knowledge and scientific assumptions on the relationship between diet and acne. PMID:23069302

  7. Acne vulgaris and rosacea: evaluation and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, G F

    2001-01-01

    Acne vulgaris, commonly termed acne, is an extremely common disease. It can be found in nearly all teenagers to some degree as well as in women in their 30s. Regardless of severity, acne often has a greater psychologic effect than cutaneous effect. Indeed, most patients overestimate the severity of their disease, while most physicians underestimate its impact on their patients. Studies have shown that people with severe acne as teens are less employable as adults and that self-esteem is low. When combined with other adolescent tensions, acne can be a difficult disease to treat. Rosacea, which usually starts in the late 20s, may affect the eyes as well as the skin. This article describes the pathogenesis of acne and rosacea and treatment approaches the primary care physician can use. PMID:12739318

  8. Physical modalities for treating acne and rosacea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalian, H Ray; Levin, Yakir; Wanner, Molly

    2016-06-01

    Physical modalities provide an important adjunct to medical treatment of acne and rosacea. In patients who cannot tolerate or fail medical treatments, physical modalities offer an alternative approach. For cases of acne scarring, phymatous changes of rosacea, and rosacea-associated telangiectasia, physical modalities such as laser and light treatments represent the treatment of choice. We will review the use of laser and light treatments, photodynamic therapy, and other physical modalities such as targeted therapies for the treatment of acne and rosacea.

  9. Neglected aspects in the management of acne.

    OpenAIRE

    Gordon, B.

    1985-01-01

    Acne is the result of excessive grease on the skin. The successful treatment of acne depends essentially on the degreasing of the skin to an extent which produces peeling, which is the observable index of adequate treatment. The use of antibiotics is supplementary to degreasing and peeling. Degreasing is best achieved by thrice daily washing with Neutrogena acne cleansing soap, followed by the application of a benzoyl peroxide preparation of a suitable strength. If necessary, further degreasi...

  10. Psychological impairments in the patients with acne

    OpenAIRE

    Behnaz Behnam; Ramin Taheri; Raheb Ghorbani; Peyvand Allameh

    2013-01-01

    Background: The psychological impacts of acne appearance and its-related negative emotional reactions have been proved; however, these reactions are varied in different populations. Aim: We investigated whether acne and its severity affected psychological functioning in those who suffered from this disorder among Iranians. Materials and Methods: One hundred and six patients with acne vulgaris who consecutively attended the dermatology outpatient clinics in Semnan city in 2008 were included. A...

  11. Oxidative Stress in Patients With Acne Vulgaris

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Acne vulgaris is one of the common dermatological diseases and its pathogenesis is multifactorial. In this study, we aim to determine the effects of oxidative stress in acne vulgaris. Forty-three consecutive acne patients and 46 controls were enrolled. The parameters of oxidative stress such as catalase (CAT), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and malondialdehyde (MDA) in the venous blood of cases were measured spectrophotometrically. The values compared wi...

  12. Moisturizers for Acne: What are their Constituents?

    OpenAIRE

    Chularojanamontri, Leena; Tuchinda, Papapit; Kulthanan, Kanokvalai; Pongparit, Kamolwan

    2014-01-01

    Acne is a chronic inflammatory disease of the pilosebaceous unit that affects almost all teenagers. Different treatments offer different modes of action, but aim to target acne pathology. Topical therapies, such as benzoyl peroxide, retinoids, antibiotics with alcohol-based preparations, and salicylic acid, can cause skin irritation resulting in a lack of patient adherence. Some physicians recommend patients use moisturizers as adjunctive treatment of acne, especially when either topical benz...

  13. Acne: the role of medical nutrition therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burris, Jennifer; Rietkerk, William; Woolf, Kathleen

    2013-03-01

    Acne is a common disease in Westernized nations, particularly among adolescents and young adults. Acne has substantial effects on quality of life, making treatment essential. Medical nutrition therapy as a potential treatment for acne is not new, although the literature examining diet and acne during the past 100 years is mixed. During the late 1800s and early 1900s, diet was commonly used as an adjunct treatment for acne. During the 1960s, however, the diet-acne connection fell out of favor. In recent years, dermatologists and registered dietitians have revisited the idea and become increasingly interested in the role of medical nutrition therapy in acne treatment. This article reviews the history and existing literature examining the association between diet and acne. Although the total number of studies conducted within the past 40 years is relatively small, the growing body of epidemiologic and experimental evidence suggests a relationship between diet and acne. Compared with other dietary factors, more research examines dietary glycemic load. The evidence is more convincing for high glycemic load diets, compared with other dietary factors. To date there are no randomized controlled trials investigating the relationship between frequent dairy or milk consumption and acne. Similarly, the number of research studies examining the relationship between dietary fat and/or n-3 fatty acids is sparse and the evidence is less robust. Taken together, several methodologic limitations need to be addressed, and additional research, preferably randomized controlled trials, is warranted before comprehensive evidence-based guidelines can be established. While dermatologists and registered dietitians continue to debate and research the potential relationship between diet and acne, the best dietary approach is to address each acne patient individually, carefully considering the possibility of dietary counseling. PMID:23438493

  14. [Using combined magnetotherapy in patients with acne].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kul'chitskaia, D B; Orekhova, E M; Vasil'eva, E S

    2004-01-01

    Laser Doppler flowmetry discovered microcirculatory disorders in acne patients. Affected are arterioles as well as capillaries and venules. Combination of magnetotherapy with medication improves microcirculation in acne patients. More marked positive changes occurred in the microcirculatory system due to combined treatment compared to medication therapy only. Thus, laser Doppler flowmetry is a new, noninvasive method of assessing microcirculation in acne patients and can serve an objective criterion of treatment efficacy. PMID:15449670

  15. Correlation between the Severity and Type of Acne Lesions with Serum Zinc Levels in Patients with Acne Vulgaris

    OpenAIRE

    Majid Rostami Mogaddam; Nastaran Safavi Ardabili; Nasrollah Maleki; Maedeh Soflaee

    2014-01-01

    Acne vulgaris is the most common cutaneous disorder affecting adolescents and young adults. Some studies have reported an association between serum zinc levels and acne vulgaris. We aimed to evaluate the serum zinc level in patients with acne vulgaris and compare it with healthy controls. One hundred patients with acne vulgaris and 100 healthy controls were referred to our clinic. Acne severity was classified according to Global Acne Grading System (GAGS). Atomic absorption spectrophotometry ...

  16. Injectable Poly-l-Lactic Acid: A Novel Sculpting Agent for the Treatment of Dermal Fat Atrophy After Severe Acne

    OpenAIRE

    Sadove, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Acne vulgaris affects up to 80% of people 11 to 30 years of age, and scarring can occur for up to 95% of these patients. Scarring may be pitted or hypertrophic in nature, although in most cases it is atrophic. Atrophic acne scarring follows dermal collagen and fat loss after moderate to severe acne infection. Injectable poly-L-acid (PLLA) is a biocompatible, biodegradable, synthetic polymer device that is hypothesized to enhance dermal volume via the endogenous production of fibroblasts and, ...

  17. Isotretinoin for acne and rosacea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Kendra D; Miest, Rachel Y; Tollefson, Megha M

    2016-06-01

    Isotretinoin is a revolutionary medicine for the treatment of acne vulgaris, with new studies showing evidence of excellent clinical outcomes in treating rosacea. After 30 years of clinical experience, new insights are being gained into dosing strategies, recurrence prevention, and dose-related side effects. Previous controversial associations with inflammatory bowel diseases and mood disorders have hampered the use of this medication in some clinical situations, with new evidence disproving these claims. The teratogenicity of this medication mandates iPLEDGE compliance with government regulations. Clinicians should be knowledgeable about this medication including its side effects, teratogenicity, and its controversies in order to adequately counsel patients, dissuade fears, and obtain the best clinical outcome when treating acne and rosacea. PMID:27416313

  18. Standard guidelines of care for acne surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khunger Niti

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Acne surgery is the use of various surgical procedures for the treatment of postacne scarring and also, as adjuvant treatment for active acne. Surgery is indicated both in active acne and post-acne scars. Physicians′ qualifications: Any Dermatologist can perform most acne surgery techniques as these are usually taught during postgraduation. However, certain techniques such as dermabrasion, laser resurfacing, scar revisions need specific "hands-on" training in appropriate training centers. Facility: Most acne surgery procedures can be performed in a physician′s minor procedure room. However, full-face dermabrasion and laser resurfacing need an operation theatre in a hospital setting. Active acne: Surgical treatment is only an adjunct to medical therapy, which remains the mainstay of treatment. Comedone extraction is a process of applying simple mechanical pressure with a comedone extractor, to extract the contents of the blocked pilosebaceous follicle. Superficial chemical peel is a process of applying a chemical agent to the skin, so as to cause controlled destruction of the epidermis leading to exfoliation. Glycolic acid, salicylic acid and trichloroacetic acid are commonly used peeling agents for the treatment of active acne and superficial acne scars. Cryotherapy: Cryoslush and cryopeel are used for the treatment of nodulocystic acne. Intralesional corticosteroids are indicated for the treatment of nodules, cysts and keloidal acne scars. Nonablative lasers and light therapy using Blue light, non ablative radiofrequency, Nd:YAG laser, IPL (Intense Pulsed Light, PDT (Photodynamic Therapy, pulse dye laser and light and heat energy machines have been used in recent years for the treatment of active inflammatory acne and superficial acne scars. Proper counseling is very important in the treatment of acne scars. Treatment depends on the type of acne scars; a patient may need more than one type of treatment. Subcision is a treatment to break the

  19. Virus-induced secondary bacterial infection: a concise review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendaus, Mohamed A; Jomha, Fatima A; Alhammadi, Ahmed H

    2015-01-01

    Respiratory diseases are a very common source of morbidity and mortality among children. Health care providers often face a dilemma when encountering a febrile infant or child with respiratory tract infection. The reason expressed by many clinicians is the trouble to confirm whether the fever is caused by a virus or a bacterium. The aim of this review is to update the current evidence on the virus-induced bacterial infection. We present several clinical as well in vitro studies that support the correlation between virus and secondary bacterial infections. In addition, we discuss the pathophysiology and prevention modes of the virus–bacterium coexistence. A search of the PubMed and MEDLINE databases was carried out for published articles covering bacterial infections associated with respiratory viruses. This review should provide clinicians with a comprehensive idea of the range of bacterial and viral coinfections or secondary infections that could present with viral respiratory illness. PMID:26345407

  20. Effect of oral administration of Propionibacterium acnes on growth performance, DTH response and anti-OVA titers in goat kids

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Miguel Ferrer; Antonio Fernández; Araceli Loste; Aurora Ortín; Delia Lacasta; Juan José Ramos; María Teresa Verde; Tomás Conde

    2013-01-01

    Immunostimulants are susbstances that stimuli the response of effector cells to activate the immune response such as antigen uptake, cytokine release or antibody response. These substances can increase resistence to infection by different types of microorganisms, reducing dependence of antibiotics used in livestock animals. Recent reports have demonstrated the positive effect of Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) to control animal diseases. In this study, we evaluated the effect of the non-sp...

  1. A case of emphysematous pyelonephritis induced by Citrobacter freundii infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youichi Yanagawa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 79-year-old female with diabetes mellitus had general fatigue, a high fever and vomiting. A CT revealed acute emphysematous pyelonephritis (EPN. A nephrectomy was performed on the 2 nd hospital day. The results of the blood culture showed the presence of Citrobacter freundii infection. The patient′s post-operative course was uneventful. This case is the second reported case of EPN induced by Citrobacter freundii. Bacteremia induced by Citrobacter freundii infection typically results in a high mortality rate. In this case, the early diagnosis of the EPN using CT and immediate medical treatment, including urgent elective nephrectomy, were key to the favorable outcome.

  2. Zapping Those Zits: Helping Teens Handle Acne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Paul

    1992-01-01

    Describes five types of acne and stresses the importance of appropriate treatment. Some dermatologists believe diet is critical in improving acne. Other treatments include the use of drying lotions and soaps, astringents, abrasive cleansers, prescription drugs, face peels, and dermabrasion. (SM)

  3. Moisturizers for Acne: What are their Constituents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chularojanamontri, Leena; Tuchinda, Papapit; Kulthanan, Kanokvalai; Pongparit, Kamolwan

    2014-05-01

    Acne is a chronic inflammatory disease of the pilosebaceous unit that affects almost all teenagers. Different treatments offer different modes of action, but aim to target acne pathology. Topical therapies, such as benzoyl peroxide, retinoids, antibiotics with alcohol-based preparations, and salicylic acid, can cause skin irritation resulting in a lack of patient adherence. Some physicians recommend patients use moisturizers as adjunctive treatment of acne, especially when either topical benzoyl peroxide or a retinoid is prescribed. Furthermore, some evidence shows that moisturizers can contribute independently to improve signs and symptoms of acne. Moisturizers contain three main properties, which are occlusive, humectant, and emollient effects. Currently, many moisturizers claim to be suitable for acne treatment. This article aims to provide a review of the active ingredients and properties of those moisturizers. Fifty-two moisturizers for acne were included for analysis. Most of the products (92%) have anti-inflammatory properties apart from occlusive, humectant, and emollient effects. Anti-acne medications, including salicylic acid, benzoyl peroxide, and retinol, were found respectively in 35, 10, and 8 percent of the moisturizer products containing anti-inflammatory properties. More than half of the products contain dimethicone and/or glycerin for its moisturizer property. Aloe vera and witch hazel are botanical anti-inflammatories that were commonly found in this study. Scientific data regarding some ingredients are discussed to provide a guide for physicians in selecting moisturizers for acne patients. PMID:24847408

  4. The flexible gene pool of Propionibacterium acnes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brüggemann, Holger; Lomholt, Hans B; Kilian, Mogens

    2012-01-01

    palindromic repeats (CRISPR), found exclusively in type II P. acnes, recently revealed the presence of CRISPR spacers that derived from mobile genetic elements. These elements are present in a subset of P. acnes type I lineages. Their significance for type-specific host-interacting properties...

  5. Infantile acne treated with oral isotretinoin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Iben Marie; Echeverría, Begoña; Torrelo, Antonio;

    2013-01-01

    In contrast to adolescent acne, infantile acne (IA) is a rare condition with only a limited body of available literature. In this descriptive, retrospective study, we reviewed six cases from 2002 to 2010 treated with oral isotretinoin. The average age of onset was 6.16 months (range 0-21 mos...

  6. Acute hantavirus infection induces galectin-3-binding protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepojoki, Jussi; Strandin, Tomas; Hetzel, Udo; Sironen, Tarja; Klingström, Jonas; Sane, Jussi; Mäkelä, Satu; Mustonen, Jukka; Meri, Seppo; Lundkvist, Ake; Vapalahti, Olli; Lankinen, Hilkka; Vaheri, Antti

    2014-11-01

    Hantaviruses are zoonotic viruses that cause life-threatening diseases when transmitted to humans. Severe hantavirus infection is manifested by impairment of renal function, pulmonary oedema and capillary leakage. Both innate and adaptive immune responses contribute to the pathogenesis, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. Here, we showed that galectin-3-binding protein (Gal-3BP) was upregulated as a result of hantavirus infection both in vitro and in vivo. Gal-3BP is a secreted glycoprotein found in human serum, and increased Gal-3BP levels have been reported in chronic viral infections and in several types of cancer. Our in vitro experiments showed that, whilst Vero E6 cells (an African green monkey kidney cell line) constitutively expressed and secreted Gal-3BP, this protein was detected in primary human cells only as a result of hantavirus infection. Analysis of Gal-3BP levels in serum samples of cynomolgus macaques infected experimentally with hantavirus indicated that hantavirus infection induced Gal-3BP also in vivo. Finally, analysis of plasma samples collected from patients hospitalized because of acute hantavirus infection showed higher Gal-3BP levels during the acute than the convalescent phase. Furthermore, the Gal-3BP levels in patients with haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome correlated with increased complement activation and with clinical variables reflecting the severity of acute hantavirus infection. PMID:25013204

  7. Self-reported acne is not associated with prostate cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremers, R.G.H.M.; Aben, K.K.H.; Vermeulen, S.; Heijer, M. den; Oort, I.M. van; Kerkhof, P.C.M. van de; Schalken, J.A.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Some studies have suggested an inverse association between acne vulgaris and the acne-related bacterium Propionibacterium acnes and prostate cancer (PCa). Self-reported acne might be an easily obtainable marker to identify men at relatively low risk of PCa and might be incorporated into P

  8. Psychological impairments in the patients with acne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnaz Behnam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The psychological impacts of acne appearance and its-related negative emotional reactions have been proved; however, these reactions are varied in different populations. Aim: We investigated whether acne and its severity affected psychological functioning in those who suffered from this disorder among Iranians. Materials and Methods: One hundred and six patients with acne vulgaris who consecutively attended the dermatology outpatient clinics in Semnan city in 2008 were included. Among them, 103 patients met the study′s inclusion criterion and agreed to participate. One hundred and six age and gender cross-matched healthy volunteers were included as controls that attended the clinic with their diseased relatives. All acne patients were evaluated using the Symptom Check List-90 (SCL-90. Results: According to the American Academy of Dermatology classification, 25.2% of the patients had mild acne, 50.5% moderate acne, and 24.3% severe acne. A higher percentage of participants than controls required further evaluation and psychological consultant when studying each psychological problem. The most common psychological symptoms requiring treatment due to disturbed daily activities in acne group were psychoticism (34.0% and depression (31.1%, respectively. Significant positive correlations were observed between the duration of illness and SCL-90 total score. When evaluating the SCL-90 scores, patients with multiple sites of involvement were affected more severely than those with a single site of involvement. Conclusion: Acne vulgaris has significant effects on psychological status. Effective concomitant anti-acne therapy and psychological assessment make significant contributions for the mental health and should be strongly recommended.

  9. Significance of inducible defense-related proteins in infected plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loon, L.C. van; Rep, M.; Pieterse, C.M.J.

    2006-01-01

    Inducible defense-related proteins have been described in many plant species upon infection with oomycetes, fungi, bacteria, or viruses, or insect attack. Several types of proteins are common and have been classified into 17 families of pathogenesis-related proteins (PRs). Others have so far been fo

  10. Over-the-counter Acne Treatments: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Decker, Ashley; Graber, Emmy M.

    2012-01-01

    Acne is a common dermatological disorder that most frequently affects adolescents; however, individuals may be affected at all ages. Many people who suffer from acne seek treatment from both prescription and over-the-counter acne medications. Due to convenience, lower cost, and difficulty getting an appointment with a dermatologist, the use of over-the-counter acne treatments is on the rise. As the plethora of over-the-counter acne treatment options can be overwhelming, it is important that d...

  11. Pseudo-acne fulminans associated with oral isotretinoin *

    OpenAIRE

    Grando, Luciana Rosa; Leite, Oriete Gerin; Cestari, Tania Ferreira

    2014-01-01

    Acne fulminans is a rare and serious condition characterized by the sudden onset of nodular and ulcerative acne lesions associated with systemic symptoms. It has been recognized a subset of patients with a sudden worsening of acne, often during treatment with oral isotretinoin, but without the strong presence of systemic involvement. Recognized by some authors as "pseudo-acne fulminans" or " acne fulminans sine fulminans," we report a case with these features in order to draw attention to the...

  12. Acne is not Associated with yet Uncultured Bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bek-Thomsen, Malene; Lomholt, Hans Bredsted; Kilian, Mogens

    2008-01-01

    Current clinical and microbiological information on acne fail to demonstrate a clear association between particular species, including Propionibacterium acnes, and disease, and the disease continues to be a considerable problem. To test if acne is associated with hitherto uncultured bacteria...... excludes that acne is associated with yet uncultured bacteria and shows that healthy skin follicles constitute a remarkably exclusive habitat allowing colonization only by P. acnes....

  13. Effects of fish oil supplementation on inflammatory acne

    OpenAIRE

    Khayef Golandam; Young Julia; Burns-Whitmore Bonny; Spalding Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Given that acne is a rare condition in societies with higher consumption of omega-3 (n-3) relative to omega-6 (n-6) fatty acids, supplementation with n-3 may suppress inflammatory cytokine production and thereby reduce acne severity. Methods 13 individuals with inflammatory acne were given three grams of fish oil containing 930 mg of EPA to their unchanged diet and existing acne remedies for 12 weeks. Acne was assessed using an overall severity grading scale, total inflamm...

  14. The Association between Cigarette Smoking and Acne Intensity

    OpenAIRE

    Taheri Ramin; Nasaji Zavareh Mohammad; Ghorbani Raheb; Mohmmadi Zahra

    2009-01-01

    Background: Acne vulgaris is a common chronic inflammatory disease of pilosebaceous unit. Different factors have been suggested to influence acne including diet, menstruation and occupation. The role of some of these factors on acne intensity is confirmed. The affect of Cigarette smoking on acne intensity has been suggested. In this research, we evaluated the association between cigarette smoking and the acne intensity.Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed on 278 sm...

  15. 痤疮易感基因的研究进展%Predisposing genes in acne

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨小燕; 何黎

    2011-01-01

    痤疮是发生于毛囊皮脂腺的一种慢性炎症性疾病,发病机制尚不完全清楚.目前认为,主要与雄激素、皮脂分泌增多、毛囊导管的异常角化、痤疮丙酸杆菌感染、外界因素、机体的免疫反应和遗传有关.近年来研究表明,痤疮是一种多基因遗传病,尤其是重型痤疮与遗传密切相关.CYP11α、CYP17、CYP1A1、雄激素受体基因、CYP21等基因被认为是痤疮易感基因.因此,探讨痤疮的易感基因,对痤疮尤其是重型痤疮的早期诊断、治疗和预防具有重要意义.%Acne is a common chronic inflammatory disease affecting hair follicles and sebaceous glands with unclear pathogenesis. It is a multifactorial disease and several pathogenetic factors have been identified, including the increase of androgen and sebum excretion, follicular hyperkeratinization, infection with Propionibacterium acnes, external factors, innate immunity, genetics, etc. Latest studies have indicated that acne is a polygenic disease and there is a particularly close correlation between severe acne and heredity. Many predisposing genes have been discovered for acne, including human CYP11α gene, CYP17 gene, CYP1A1gene, androgen receptor gene, CYP21 gene, etc. Therefore, the investigation into susceptible genes for acne may be beneficial to the early diagnosis, treatment and prevention of severe acne.

  16. Efficacy of red light alone and methyl-aminolaevulinate-photodynamic therapy for the treatment of mild and moderate facial acne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Pinto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Photodynamic therapy (PDT has been shown to be an effective alternative for acne. However, there is little information comparing the efficacy of red light alone and methyl aminolaevulinate (MAL-PDT. Aims: To compare the efficacy and tolerability of red light alone and MAL-PDT in patients with mild to moderate facial acne. Methods: Thirty six patients with mild to moderate acne were enrolled. Eighteen patients recieved MAL-PDT and 18 received red light alone in two sessions, 2 weeks apart. Acne grade and lesion counts were assessed by blinded evaluators at baseline, 2, 4 and 10 weeks. Results: At week 2, clinical improvement from acne grade II-IV to 0-I was observed in 82.3% of MAL-PDT group and 14.2% of red light alone group. Red light alone group had a gradual clinical improvement over time with a 77% response at week 10. In contrast, MAL-PDT group had a rapid clinical improvement with total response at week 10. Both treatments were significantly effective for improving acne lesions. However, MAL-PDT group had a greater response (P < 0.001. Histologically, decreased amounts of sebocytes and lipids along with atrophic sebaceous glands were observed after MAL-PDT. Conclusion: MAL-PDT has a quicker onset of action with a higher response than red light alone. MAL-PDT may induce a reduction in the size of the sebaceous glands and then long-term acne remission.

  17. Update and future of systemic acne treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zouboulis, Christos C; Piquero-Martin, Jaime

    2003-01-01

    Systemic treatment is required in patients with moderate-to-severe acne, especially when acne scars start to occur. Antibiotics with anti-inflammatory properties, such as tetracyclines (oxytetracycline, tetracycline chloride, doxycycline, minocycline and limecycline) and macrolide antibiotics (erythromycin and azithromycin) are the agents of choice for papulopustular acne, even though the emerging resistant bacterial strains are minimizing their effect, especially regarding erythromycin. Systemic antibiotics should be administered during a period of 8-12 weeks. In severe papulopustular and in nodulocystic/conglobate acne, oral isotretinoin is the treatment of choice. Hormonal treatment represents an alternative regimen in female acne, whereas it is mandatory in resistant, severe pubertal or post-adolescent forms of the disease. Compounds with anti-androgenic properties include estrogens combined with progestins, such as ethinyl estradiol with cyproterone acetate, chlormadinone acetate, desogestrel, drospirenone, levonogestrel, norethindrone acetate, norgestimate, and other anti-androgens directly blocking the androgen receptor (flutamide) or inhibiting androgen activity at various levels, corticosteroids, spironolactone, cimetidine, and ketoconazole. After 3 months of treatment control of seborrhea and acne can be obtained. Low-dose corticosteroids (prednisone, prednisolone, or dexamethasone) are indicated in patients with adrenal hyperandrogenism or acne fulminans. New developments and future trends represent low-dose long-term isotretinoin regimens, new isotretinoin formulations (micronized isotretinoin), isotretinoin metabolites, combination treatments to reduce toxicity, insulin-sensitizing agents, 5alpha-reductase type 1 inhibitors, antisense oligonucleotide molecules, and, especially, new anti-inflammatory agents, such as lipoxygenase inhibitors. PMID:12566804

  18. Acne image analysis: lesion localization and classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abas, Fazly Salleh; Kaffenberger, Benjamin; Bikowski, Joseph; Gurcan, Metin N.

    2016-03-01

    Acne is a common skin condition present predominantly in the adolescent population, but may continue into adulthood. Scarring occurs commonly as a sequel to severe inflammatory acne. The presence of acne and resultant scars are more than cosmetic, with a significant potential to alter quality of life and even job prospects. The psychosocial effects of acne and scars can be disturbing and may be a risk factor for serious psychological concerns. Treatment efficacy is generally determined based on an invalidated gestalt by the physician and patient. However, the validated assessment of acne can be challenging and time consuming. Acne can be classified into several morphologies including closed comedones (whiteheads), open comedones (blackheads), papules, pustules, cysts (nodules) and scars. For a validated assessment, the different morphologies need to be counted independently, a method that is far too time consuming considering the limited time available for a consultation. However, it is practical to record and analyze images since dermatologists can validate the severity of acne within seconds after uploading an image. This paper covers the processes of region-ofinterest determination using entropy-based filtering and thresholding as well acne lesion feature extraction. Feature extraction methods using discrete wavelet frames and gray-level co-occurence matrix were presented and their effectiveness in separating the six major acne lesion classes were discussed. Several classifiers were used to test the extracted features. Correct classification accuracy as high as 85.5% was achieved using the binary classification tree with fourteen principle components used as descriptors. Further studies are underway to further improve the algorithm performance and validate it on a larger database.

  19. Knowledge, Beliefs, and Psychosocial Effect of Acne Vulgaris among Saudi Acne Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Magdy A Darwish; Al-Rubaya, Ahmed A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. This study was conducted to assess the knowledge, beliefs, and psychosocial effect of acne vulgaris among acne patients attending referral dermatology clinic in Al-Khobar city. Material and Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted on all Saudi acne patients (males and females) attending referral dermatology clinic in Al-Khobar Governmental Hospital. The data were collected by using a structured self-administered questionnaire. Results. Like other studies conducted before, we ...

  20. Virus-induced secondary bacterial infection: a concise review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendaus MA

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Mohamed A Hendaus,1 Fatima A Jomha,2 Ahmed H Alhammadi3 1Department of Pediatrics, Academic General Pediatrics Division, Weill-Cornell Medical College, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar; 2School of Pharmacy, Lebanese International University, Khiara, Lebanon; 3Department of Pediatrics, Academic General Pediatrics Division, Weill-Cornell Medical College, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar Abstract: Respiratory diseases are a very common source of morbidity and mortality among children. Health care providers often face a dilemma when encountering a febrile infant or child with respiratory tract infection. The reason expressed by many clinicians is the trouble to confirm whether the fever is caused by a virus or a bacterium. The aim of this review is to update the current evidence on the virus-induced bacterial infection. We present several clinical as well in vitro studies that support the correlation between virus and secondary bacterial infections. In addition, we discuss the pathophysiology and prevention modes of the virus–bacterium coexistence. A search of the PubMed and MEDLINE databases was carried out for published articles covering bacterial infections associated with respiratory viruses. This review should provide clinicians with a comprehensive idea of the range of bacterial and viral coinfections or secondary infections that could present with viral respiratory illness. Keywords: bacteria, infection, risk, virus

  1. Hormonal treatment of acne vulgaris: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsaie, Mohamed L

    2016-01-01

    Acne vulgaris is a common skin condition associated with multiple factors. Although mostly presenting alone, it can likewise present with features of hyperandrogenism and hormonal discrepancies. Of note, hormonal therapies are indicated in severe, resistant-to-treatment cases and in those with monthly flare-ups and when standard therapeutic options are inappropriate. This article serves as an update to hormonal pathogenesis of acne, discusses the basics of endocrinal evaluation for patients with suspected hormonal acne, and provides an overview of the current hormonal treatment options in women. PMID:27621661

  2. Acne and whey protein supplementation among bodybuilders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonart, Thierry

    2012-01-01

    Accumulative evidence supports the role of nutritional factors in acne. I report here 5 healthy male adult patients developing acne after the consumption of whey protein, a favorite supplement of those engaged in bodybuilding. These observations are in line with biochemical and epidemiological data supporting the effects of milk and dairy products as enhancers of insulin/insulin-like growth factor 1 signaling and acne aggravation. Further prospective studies are required to determine the possible role of dietary supplements in the fitness and bodybuilding environment.

  3. Physical modalities for treating acne and rosacea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalian, H Ray; Levin, Yakir; Wanner, Molly

    2016-06-01

    Physical modalities provide an important adjunct to medical treatment of acne and rosacea. In patients who cannot tolerate or fail medical treatments, physical modalities offer an alternative approach. For cases of acne scarring, phymatous changes of rosacea, and rosacea-associated telangiectasia, physical modalities such as laser and light treatments represent the treatment of choice. We will review the use of laser and light treatments, photodynamic therapy, and other physical modalities such as targeted therapies for the treatment of acne and rosacea. PMID:27416315

  4. Hormonal treatment of acne vulgaris: an update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsaie, Mohamed L

    2016-01-01

    Acne vulgaris is a common skin condition associated with multiple factors. Although mostly presenting alone, it can likewise present with features of hyperandrogenism and hormonal discrepancies. Of note, hormonal therapies are indicated in severe, resistant-to-treatment cases and in those with monthly flare-ups and when standard therapeutic options are inappropriate. This article serves as an update to hormonal pathogenesis of acne, discusses the basics of endocrinal evaluation for patients with suspected hormonal acne, and provides an overview of the current hormonal treatment options in women. PMID:27621661

  5. Dental Infection of Porphyromonas gingivalis Induces Preterm Birth in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Ao

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies have revealed a link between dental infection and preterm birth or low birth weight (PTB/LBW, however, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Progress in understanding the associated mechanisms has been limited in part by lack of an animal model for chronic infection-induced PTB/LBW, mimicking pregnancy under conditions of periodontitis. We aimed to establish a mouse model of chronic periodontitis in order to investigate the link between periodontitis and PTB/LBW.To establish chronic inflammation beginning with dental infection, we surgically opened mouse (female, 8 weeks old 1st molar pulp chambers and directly infected with w83 strain Porphyromonas gingivalis (P.g., a keystone periodontal pathogen. Mating was initiated at 6 wks post-infection, by which time dental granuloma tissue had developed and live P.g. was cultured from extracted tooth root, which serves as a persistent source of P.g. The gestational day (gd and birth weight were recorded during for P.g.-infected and control mice, and serum and placental tissues were collected at gd 15 to evaluate the systemic and local conditions during pregnancy.Dental infection with P.g. significantly increased circulating TNF-α (2.5-fold, IL-17 (2-fold, IL-6 (2-fold and IL-1β (2-fold. The P.g.-infected group delivered at gd 18.25 vs. gd 20.45 in the non-infected control (NC group (p < 0.01, and pups exhibited LBW compared to controls (p < 0.01. P.g. was localized to placental tissues by immunohistochemistry and PCR, and defects in placental tissues of P.g. infected mice included premature rupture of membrane, placental detachment, degenerative changes in trophoblasts and endothelial cells, including necrotic areas. P.g. infection caused significantly increased numbers of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNLs and macrophages in placental tissues, associated with increased local expression of pro-inflammatory mediators including TNF-α and COX-2. Further placental tissue

  6. Serum levels of hypersensitive-C-reactive protein in moderate and severe acne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M R Namazi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Elevation of C-reactive protein (CRP has been reported to occur in psoriasis, urticaria, acne, rosacea and many other dermatological and nondermatological conditions. Chronic systemic inflammation has been implicated in the development of neuropsychiatric/degenerative disorders, atherosclerosis, coronary artery disease, diabetes mellitus and even carcinogenesis. The present study is designed to determine whether the level of inflammation created by acne vulgaris could be high enough to raise the serum levels of high-sensitive CRP. Materials and Methods: Forty-two patients with moderate and severe acne vulgaris were enrolled, along with 44 age and sex matched healthy blood donors as controls. Hypersensitive-CRP (Hs-CRP was measured in both groups. Results: Hypersensitive-C-reactive protein levels in the case group varied between 0 and 28.1 μg/ml with an average of 2.24 ± 4.87 μg/ml (mean ± standard deviation and a median of 0.6 μg/ml (interquartile range [IQR] =0.3, 1.4 μg/ml. Hs-CRP levels of the control group varied between 0 and 14 μg/ml with an average of 3.12 ± 3.67 μg/ml and a median of 1.5 μg/ml (IQR = 0.55, 5.0 μg/ml. No significant difference of Hs-CRP level between the two groups was seen (t = -0.961, 95% confidence interval: Lower = -2.6942, upper = 0.9377; P = 0.339. Additionally, no significant difference in the level of Hs-CRP was noted between the moderate and severe acne groups (95% confidence interval: Lower = -5.2495, upper = 1.6711; P = 0.165. Conclusion: Acne vulgaris, even in its severe grades (excluding acne fulminans and acne conglobata, does not induce significant inflammation at the systemic level.

  7. [Effective and safe pharmacotherapy of acne vulgaris and treatment of sun-damaged skin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fendrich, Z; Jandová, E; Finsterlová, M

    2000-03-01

    An inevitable condition for the pharmacist is a basic knowledge of dermatological changes which are prominent in acne and solar impairment of the skin to be able to recommend in a qualified manner an effective and safe treatment to the patient. However, sufferers of the more serious forms of acne should always be referred to their general practitioner, or preferentially a dermatologist. Acne vulgaris is an androgen-induced disorder, but three major mechanisms for the development of the disease have been identified: hypertrophy of the sebaceous gland, hyperkatosis of the follicular epithelium, and proliferation of microbial flora, particularly Propionibacterium acnes. The basis of all lesions is the microcomedone which is developed into the ripe comedone. Inflammatory lesions are thought to be due to proliferation of P. acnes. In the selfmedication of common acne, benzoyl peroxide, which in a 5-10% lotion exerts antimicrobial and keratolytic properties, proved to be useful. Patients appreciate a lot its instant effect which is visible after just one day of treatment. Salicylic acid is another effective drug, which, when used on the long-term basis, has comedolytic properties; it reduces the number of microcomedones and counteracts plugging of the follicles. In addition, in healthy young women who take oral contraception, a triphasic combined oral preparations of contraceptives with newer progestins, notably with norgestimmate, which is practically free of androgenic effects, are recommended with advantage for the treatment of moderate acne vulgaris without any adverse effects. Solar impairment of the skin, the so-called solar ageing, is clinically indistinguishable from biological ageing. Changes connected with solar impairment appear mostly in the dermis, where solar elastosis develops, the skin gets drier and wrinkle formation appears. For the treatment, hydroxy acids are recommended, namely salicylic acid, which is very effective, because in combination with a

  8. Properties of herbal extracts against Propionibacterium acnes for biomedical application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Youn-Mook; Kim, Sung Eun; Kim, Yong Soo; Shin, Young Min; Jeong, Sung In; Jo, Sun-Young; Gwon, Hui-Jeong; Park, Jong-seok; Nho, Young-Chang; Kim, Jong-Cheol; Kim, Seong-Jang; Shin, HeungSoo

    2012-10-01

    Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes), one of the anaerobic bacterium, causes inflammatory acne. To find a novel medication for treating the inflammation caused by P. acnes, we investigated the anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory activities of several herbal extracts against P. acnes. The aqueous extracts from five dried herbs, Phellodendron amurense Rupr., Paeonia lactiflora Pallas., Houttuynia cordata Thunb., Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb. and Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch., were prepared and mixed. In this experiment, 1 mg/ml of the herbal extract mixture caused a decrease in the growth of P. acnes and reduced the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α, IL-8, IL-1β and IL-6, in human monocytic THP-1 cells treated with heat-killed P. acnes. Therefore, this herbal extract mixture may possess both anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory activities against P. acnes and can be a novel therapeutic agent for treating inflammatory acne.

  9. Should dermatologists prescribe hormonal contraceptives for acne?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Julie C

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT One of the primary factors contributing to the development of acne vulgaris is excess sebum. Sebaceous glands and sebum excretion are regulated, at least in part, by androgen hormones. Acne treatments that block this androgen effect include spironolactone and combination oral contraceptives (COC). Three COC are now FDA approved to treat moderate acne. Dermatologists must become experts at prescribing these hormonal contraceptives. Likewise, it is vital to be aware of contraindications to hormonal contraceptive therapy. Proper patient selection relies on an appropriate medical history and an assessment of blood pressure. A pelvic exam and/or Papanicolaou smear are not required prior to initiating therapy with a COC. It is important to counsel patients about potential adverse effects of COC pills and to establish appropriate expectations concerning acne improvement. PMID:19845722

  10. What's new in the physiopathology of acne?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, D H; Kwon, H H

    2015-07-01

    There are four central factors that contribute to acne physiopathology: the inflammatory response, colonization with Propionibacterium acnes, increased sebum production and hypercornification of the pilosebaceous duct. In addition, research in the areas of diet and nutrition, genetics and oxidative stress is also yielding some interesting insights into the development of acne. In this paper we review some of the most recent research and novel concepts revealed in this work, which has been published by researchers from diverse academic disciplines including dermatology, immunology, microbiology and endocrinology. We discuss the implications of their findings (particularly in terms of opportunities to develop new therapies), highlight interrelationships between these novel factors that could contribute to the pathology of acne, and indicate where gaps in our understanding still exist. PMID:25645151

  11. What's new in acne and rosacea?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keri, Jonette

    2016-06-01

    Acne and rosacea are common conditions seen every day by dermatologists. This review will discuss the most recent therapeutic options for patients with these conditions. Specifically, for acne, there will be a discussion of the use of isotretinoin at higher cumulative doses as well as a new formulation of isotretinoin, isotretinoin-lidose. Adult women with acne represent a growing population of patients who present for treatment of acne; the use of hormonal therapies as well as topical dapsone gel will be reviewed for these patients. For rosacea patients, the new topical agents - brimonidine gel and ivermectin cream - will be reviewed, with a discussion on possible rebound phenomenon from brimonidine. Finally, future treatments in the pipeline will be discussed. PMID:27416316

  12. 青春期前痤疮的研究进展%Prepubertal acne

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王琪; 张国毅; 尹跃平

    2015-01-01

    青春期前痤疮是儿童期痤疮的一种,多发生于7岁以后青春期体征出现以前,表现为以粉刺样损害为主的皮损.其发病主要与青春期发育初期肾上腺功能初现引起的雄激素分泌增高有关,痤疮丙酸杆菌感染及高雄激素血症在痤疮发病中也有重要作用.青春期前痤疮的严重程度影响青春期痤疮的发展,在诊疗时需仔细询问病史及家族史.并做相应的实验室检查以排除其他疾病影响引起高雄激素血症性痤疮.在治疗时根据患儿年龄、皮损数量选择合适的治疗方法,治疗方案尽量简单.%Prepubertal acne,a kind of childhood acne,usually occurs from 7 years of age to the emergence of puberty signs in children.Comedo-like lesions are the main presentation of prepubertal acne.Its pathogenesis is mainly associated with increased secretion of androgen caused by adrenarche in early puberty.Furthermore,Propionibacterium acne infection and hyperandrogenism also play important roles in the occurrence of acne.The severity of prepubertal acne can affect the development of acne,thus careful inquiry of medical history and family history is suggested for the diagnosis and treatment of acne.Also,relevant laboratory examinations are needed to exclude hyperandrogenism-associated acne caused by other diseases.Therapeutic strategies should be selected according to patients' age and the number of skin lesions,and be as simple as possible.

  13. HIV-infected microglia mediate cathepsin B-induced neurotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenón, Frances; Cantres-Rosario, Yisel; Adiga, Radhika; Gonzalez, Mariangeline; Rodriguez-Franco, Eillen; Langford, Dianne; Melendez, Loyda M

    2015-10-01

    HIV-1-infected mononuclear phagocytes release soluble factors that affect the homeostasis in tissue. HIV-1 can prompt metabolic encephalopathy with the addition of neuronal dysfunction and apoptosis. Recently, we reported that HIV-1 enhances the expression and secretion of bioactive cathepsin B in monocyte-derived macrophages, ultimately contributing to neuronal apoptosis. In this research, we asked if microglia respond to HIV infection similarly by modifying the expression, secretion, and neurotoxic potential of cathepsin B and determined the in vivo relevance of these findings. HIV-1ADA-infected human primary microglia and CHME-5 microglia cell line were assessed for expression and activity of cathepsin B, its inhibitors, cystatins B and C, and the neurotoxicity associated with these changes. Human primary neurons were exposed to supernatants from HIV-infected and uninfected microglia in the presence of cathepsin B inhibitors and apoptosis was assessed by TUNEL. Microglial expression of cathepsin B was validated in brain tissue from HIV encephalitis (HIVE) patients. HIV-infected microglia secreted significantly greater levels of cathepsin B, cystatin B, and cystatin C compared to uninfected cells. Increased apoptosis was observed in neurons exposed to supernatants from HIV-1 infected microglia at day 12 post-infection. The cathepsin B inhibitor CA-074 and cathepsin B antibody prevented neuronal apoptosis. Increased microglia-derived cathepsin B, cystatin B, and cystatin C and caspase-3+ neurons were detected in HIVE brains compared to controls. Our results suggest that HIV-1-induced cathepsin B production in microglia contributes to neuronal apoptosis and may be an important factor in neuronal death associated with HIVE.

  14. ACNE VULGARIS TREATMENT : THE CURRENT SCENARIO

    OpenAIRE

    Rathi, Sanjay K

    2011-01-01

    Acne Vulgaris is one of the most common skin disorders which dermatologists have to treat. It mainly affect adolescent, though may present at any age. In recent years, due to better understanding of the pathogenesis of acne, new therapeutic modalities and various permutation and combinations have been designed. In topical agents; benzoyl peroxide, antibiotics, retinoids, etc are the mainstay of treatment; can be given in combinations. While systemic therapy includes oral antibiotics, hormonal...

  15. Light-based therapies in acne treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Susan Pei; Inamadar, Arun C.; Keshavmurthy A Adya; Maria M Tsoukas

    2015-01-01

    The use of light and laser in the treatment of acne is increasing as these modalities are safe, effective, and associated with no or minimal complications when used appropriately. These light and laser sources are also being used in combination with pharmacological and/or physical measures to synergize their effects and optimize the therapeutic outcome. This review focuses on optical devices used in treating acne and serves to delineate the current application of various methods, including th...

  16. Treatment of acne vulgaris with anti androgens

    OpenAIRE

    Vaswani Neena; Pandhi R

    1990-01-01

    This study was conducted to compare the relative efficacy of spironolactone and cimetidine in moderately severe acne vulgaris. Fifteen women were treated with spironolactone (100 mg daily) given cyclically, while 14 women were given cimetidine (1400 mg daily) cyclically. The response was evaluated at 12 weeks. Spironolactone produced a good to excellent response in 11 (73. 3%) acne patients while with cimetidine 6 (42.8%) patients showed a good to excellent response. The mean re...

  17. The psychosocial impact of acne vulgaris

    OpenAIRE

    Neirita Hazarika; M Archana

    2016-01-01

    Background: Acne vulgaris causes erythematous papulopustular lesions in active stage and often leave behind residual scarring and pigmentation. Its onset in adolescence may add to the emotional and psychological challenges experienced during this period. Aims: To assess the impact of acne on the various psychosocial domains of daily life. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective, cross-sectional study done in the dermatology out-patient department of a tertiary care hospital from January...

  18. [ACNE VULGARIS--AETIOLOGY, CLASSIFICATION, TREATMENT].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janda, Katarzyna; Chwilkowska, Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    A spotless skin is a rarity. Both women and men have different problems related to the complexion. One of the most common problems is acne, which affects an increasing number of people of all ages. Seborrhea skin areas rich in sebaceous glands, the formation of comedones, inflammation, and scars are characteristic for this disease. The aim of the study was to discuss the causes of acne vulgaris, methods of treatment, and proper care of the skin affected by this problem.

  19. Laser and light based treatments of acne

    OpenAIRE

    Reena Rai; Karthika Natarajan

    2013-01-01

    Medical treatments for acne vulgaris include a variety of topical and oral medications. Poor compliance, lack of durable remission, and potential side effects are common drawbacks to these treatments. Therefore, there is a growing demand for a fast, safe, and side-effect-free novel therapy. Acne often improves after exposure to sunlight, and this has led to the development of laser and other light therapies resulting in the overall ease of treatment, with minimal adverse effects. A variety of...

  20. Pulse Clarithromycin Therapy In Severe ACNE Vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rathi Sanjay K

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Three patients with severe acne vulgaris, not responding with long courses of doxycycline, minocycline and erythromycin were given oral clarithromycin in pulsed regimen. The patients were given 7 days course of clarithromycin 250mg twice daily, which was repeated after a gap of 10 days. Such 3 courses were given. The lesions responded significantly. No significant side effect was noted. Pulse clarithromycin therapy seems to be a good alternative and effective tool in the management of severe acne vulgaris.

  1. Adolescent female acne: etiology and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olutunmbi, Yetunde; Paley, Kristina; English, Joseph C

    2008-08-01

    Acne vulgaris, a multifactorial condition often conferring significant psychosocial morbidity, affects an estimated 40 million people in the United States. The majority of these individuals are adolescents and young adults. The pathophysiology of the condition is still not fully known, but it is believed to be related in part to excess sebum production, follicular hyperkeratinization, microbial colonization by P acnes, and inflammation. Prior to initiating treatment in a female patient, a hyperandrogenic state must be considered and ruled out through history, physical exam, and laboratory evaluation if necessary. Treatment options are vast and include hormonal therapy among others. Hormonal therapies have long been noted to reduce acne lesions and offer a valuable adjuvant to standard therapy. Hormonal agents are thought to improve acne by blocking the androgen receptor and/or decreasing circulating androgens which leads to decreased sebum production. Hormonal treatment options include spironolactone, other antiandrogens, and oral contraceptives. The use of these agents to effectively treat acne has been demonstrated in several randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials. Optimal results are often achieved with combination therapy with the goal of targeting multiple pathogenic pathways in acne development. PMID:18656070

  2. Impaired water barrier function in acne vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, A; Takenouchi, K; Ito, M

    1995-01-01

    In acne vulgaris, abnormal follicular keratinization is important for comedo formation, yet the precise mechanisms of comedogenesis are not known. The present study examined the interrelationship between sebum secretion rate (SSR), lipid content and water barrier function (WBF) of the stratum corneum (SC) in 36 acne patients and 29 control subjects. All major SC lipid classes were separated and quantified by thin-layer chromatography/photodensitometry. WBF was evaluated by measuring transepidermal water loss (TEWL), and the hygroscopic properties and waterholding capacity of the SC. The SSR over a period of 3 h was significantly higher in patients with moderate acne than in control subjects, but no significant difference was noticed between patients with mild acne and control subjects. Significant differences between patients with both moderate and mild acne and control subjects were noted in the amount of sphingolipids (ceramides and free sphingosine), but not for any other lipid classes. Furthermore in acne patients, lower amounts of sphingolipids were observed corresponding with a diminished WBF. These results suggest that an impaired WBF caused by decreased amounts of ceramides may be responsible for comedo formation, since barrier dysfunction is accompanied by hyperkeratosis of the follicular epithelium.

  3. A systematic review and meta-analysis on Staphylococcus aureus carriage in psoriasis, acne and rosacea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totté, J E E; van der Feltz, W T; Bode, L G M; van Belkum, A; van Zuuren, E J; Pasmans, S G M A

    2016-07-01

    Staphylococcus aureus might amplify symptoms in chronic inflammatory skin diseases. This study evaluates skin and mucosal colonization with S. aureus in patients with psoriasis, acne and rosacea. A systematic literature search was conducted. Both odds ratios (OR) for colonization in patients versus controls and the prevalence of colonization in patients are reported. Fifteen articles about psoriasis and 13 about acne (12 having a control group) were included. No study in rosacea met our inclusion criteria. For psoriasis, one study out of three controlled studies showed increased skin colonization (OR 18.86; 95 % confidence interval [CI] 2.20-161.99). Three out of the five studies that reported on nasal colonization showed significant ORs varying from 1.73 (95 % CI 1.16-2.58) to 14.64 (95 % CI 2.82-75.95). For acne one of the three studies that evaluated skin colonization reported a significant OR of 4.16 (95 % CI 1.74-9.94). A relation between nasal colonization and acne was not found. Limitations in study design and low sample sizes should be taken into consideration when interpreting the results. Colonisation with S. aureus seems to be increased in patients with psoriasis. This bacterial species, known for its potential to induce long-lasting inflammation, might be involved in psoriasis pathogenesis. Information on acne is limited. Prospective controlled studies should further investigate the role of S. aureus in chronic inflammatory skin diseases. PMID:27151386

  4. Cathelicidin-BF, a snake cathelicidin-derived antimicrobial peptide, could be an excellent therapeutic agent for acne vulgaris.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yipeng Wang

    Full Text Available Cathelicidins are a family of antimicrobial peptides acting as multifunctional effector molecules in innate immunity. Cathelicidin-BF has been purified from the snake venoms of Bungarus fasciatus and it is the first identified cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide in reptiles. In this study, cathelicidin-BF was found exerting strong antibacterial activities against Propionibacterium acnes. Its minimal inhibitory concentration against two strains of P. acnes was 4.7 µg/ml. Cathelicidin-BF also effectively killed other microorganisms including Staphylococcus epidermidis, which was possible pathogen for acne vulgaris. Cathelicidin-BF significantly inhibited pro-inflammatory factors secretion in human monocytic cells and P. acnes-induced O2.- production of human HaCaT keratinocyte cells. Observed by scanning electron microscopy, the surfaces of the treated pathogens underwent obvious morphological changes compared with the untreated controls, suggesting that this antimicrobial peptide exerts its action by disrupting membranes of microorganisms. The efficacy of cathelicidin-BF gel topical administering was evaluated in experimental mice skin colonization model. In vivo anti-inflammatory effects of cathelicidin-BF were confirmed by relieving P. acnes-induced mice ear swelling and granulomatous inflammation. The anti-inflammatory effects combined with potent antimicrobial activities and O2.- production inhibition activities of cathelicidin-BF indicate its potential as a novel therapeutic option for acne vulgaris.

  5. Tratamento da papilomatose canina com Propionibacterium acnes Treatment of canine papillomatosis using Propionibacterium acnes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Megid

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Propionibacterium acnes as immunostimulant in oral canine papillomatosis treatment in 16 animals was studied. Regression of the pappiloma started being observed after the second aplication, with complete resolution in all dogs after the sixth aplication. These results suggest the use of P. acnes as an alternative in oral canine papillomatosis therapy.

  6. Acne e dieta: verdade ou mito? Acne and diet: truth or myth?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adilson Costa

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Nos últimos 50 anos, foram publicados inúmeros estudos com a finalidade de comprovar se a dieta está relacionada à etiologia da acne. Embora existam estudos antigos, que são bem difundidos entre os dermatologistas e negam a associação entre acne e dieta, seu delineamento científico é pobre. Recentemente, novos artigos demonstraram evidências contrárias às publicações anteriores. Sendo assim, os autores realizaram esta revisão bibliográfica com o intuito de averiguar se a dieta influencia direta ou indiretamente um ou mais dos quatro pilares etiopatogênicos fundamentais da acne: (1 hiperproliferação dos queratinócitos basais, (2 aumento da produção sebácea, (3 colonização pelo Propionibacterium acnes e (4 inflamação.Numerous studies were published over the last 50 years to investigate whether diet is associated with the etiology of acne. Although older studies well known by dermatologists that refute the association between acne and diet exist, their scientific foundation is weak. New articles have recently brought to light evidence contrary to previous findings. Therefore, we would like to investigate whether diet, directly or indirectly, influences one or more of the four fundamental etiopathogenic pillars of acne: (1 hyperproliferation of basal keratinocytes, (2 increase of sebaceous production, (3 colonization by Propionibacterium acnes, and (4 inflammation.

  7. Effects of fish oil supplementation on inflammatory acne

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    Khayef Golandam

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Given that acne is a rare condition in societies with higher consumption of omega-3 (n-3 relative to omega-6 (n-6 fatty acids, supplementation with n-3 may suppress inflammatory cytokine production and thereby reduce acne severity. Methods 13 individuals with inflammatory acne were given three grams of fish oil containing 930 mg of EPA to their unchanged diet and existing acne remedies for 12 weeks. Acne was assessed using an overall severity grading scale, total inflammatory lesion counts, and colorimetry. Findings There was no significant change in acne grading and inflammatory counts at week 12 compared to baseline. However, there was a broad range of response to the intervention on an individual basis. The results showed that acne severity improved in 8 individuals, worsened in 4, and remained unchanged in 1. Interestingly, among the individuals who showed improvement, 7 were classified as having moderate to severe acne at baseline, while 3 of the 4 whose acne deteriorated were classified as having mild acne. Conclusion There is some evidence that fish oil supplementation is associated with an improvement in overall acne severity, especially for individuals with moderate to severe acne. Divergent responses to fish oil in our pilot study indicates that dietary and supplemental lipids are worthy of further investigation in acne.

  8. Genotypic and Antimicrobial Characterisation of Propionibacterium acnes Isolates from Surgically Excised Lumbar Disc Herniations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jess Rollason

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The anaerobic skin commensal Propionibacterium acnes is an underestimated cause of human infections and clinical conditions. Previous studies have suggested a role for the bacterium in lumbar disc herniation and infection. To further investigate this, five biopsy samples were surgically excised from each of 64 patients with lumbar disc herniation. P. acnes and other bacteria were detected by anaerobic culture, followed by biochemical and PCR-based identification. In total, 24/64 (38% patients had evidence of P. acnes in their excised herniated disc tissue. Using recA and mAb typing methods, 52% of the isolates were type II (50% of culture-positive patients, while type IA strains accounted for 28% of isolates (42% patients. Type III (11% isolates; 21% patients and type IB strains (9% isolates; 17% patients were detected less frequently. The MIC values for all isolates were lowest for amoxicillin, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, rifampicin, tetracycline, and vancomycin (≤1mg/L. The MIC for fusidic acid was 1-2 mg/L. The MIC for trimethoprim and gentamicin was 2 to ≥4 mg/L. The demonstration that type II and III strains, which are not frequently recovered from skin, predominated within our isolate collection (63% suggests that the role of P. acnes in lumbar disc herniation should not be readily dismissed.

  9. Chlamydia trachomatis infection induces replication of latent HHV-6.

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    Bhupesh K Prusty

    Full Text Available Human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6 exists in latent form either as a nuclear episome or integrated into human chromosomes in more than 90% of healthy individuals without causing clinical symptoms. Immunosuppression and stress conditions can reactivate HHV-6 replication, associated with clinical complications and even death. We have previously shown that co-infection of Chlamydia trachomatis and HHV-6 promotes chlamydial persistence and increases viral uptake in an in vitro cell culture model. Here we investigated C. trachomatis-induced HHV-6 activation in cell lines and fresh blood samples from patients having Chromosomally integrated HHV-6 (CiHHV-6. We observed activation of latent HHV-6 DNA replication in CiHHV-6 cell lines and fresh blood cells without formation of viral particles. Interestingly, we detected HHV-6 DNA in blood as well as cervical swabs from C. trachomatis-infected women. Low virus titers correlated with high C. trachomatis load and vice versa, demonstrating a potentially significant interaction of these pathogens in blood cells and in the cervix of infected patients. Our data suggest a thus far underestimated interference of HHV-6 and C. trachomatis with a likely impact on the disease outcome as consequence of co-infection.

  10. 痤疮丙酸杆菌与痤疮%Propionibacterium acnes and acne

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王博; 赵肖庆; 郑捷

    2010-01-01

    痤疮丙酸杆菌的结构、分布和生理特点决定其在痤疮发病中的重要作用,尤其与痤疮的炎症损害及严重程度密切有关.目前,针对痤疮丙酸杆菌的痤疮治疗方法众多,包括应用四环素类、克林霉素、红霉素等治疗和过氧苯甲酰或5-氨基酮戊酸光动力疗法等.由于耐药性痤疮丙酸杆菌的出现,抗生素与非抗生素类药物的联合疗法已被证明为最佳治疗手段.痤疮丙酸杆菌全部基因组序列的测定使针对痤疮的菌苗疗法成为可能.%Propionibacterium acnes plays an essential role in the pathogenesis of acne, and is closely associated with the inflammation in and severity of acne, which may be attributed to the structure, colonization and physiological features of this pathogen. Now, many P. acnes-targeted strategies have been developed to treat acne, including antibiotic regimens such as tetracycline, clindamycin, erythromycin, nonantibiotic regimens such as benzoyl peroxide and photodynamic therapy with ALA. With the emergence of antibiotic-resistant P. acnes, the combination of antibiotic and non-antibiotic drugs has proved to be the optimized treatment for acne. The revealment of complete genome sequence of P. acnes has made it possible to treat acne with vaccines targeting P. acnes.

  11. Correlation between the severity and type of acne lesions with serum zinc levels in patients with acne vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostami Mogaddam, Majid; Safavi Ardabili, Nastaran; Maleki, Nasrollah; Soflaee, Maedeh

    2014-01-01

    Acne vulgaris is the most common cutaneous disorder affecting adolescents and young adults. Some studies have reported an association between serum zinc levels and acne vulgaris. We aimed to evaluate the serum zinc level in patients with acne vulgaris and compare it with healthy controls. One hundred patients with acne vulgaris and 100 healthy controls were referred to our clinic. Acne severity was classified according to Global Acne Grading System (GAGS). Atomic absorption spectrophotometry was used to measure serum zinc levels. Mean serum level of zinc in acne patients and controls was 81.31 ± 17.63 μg/dl and 82.63 ± 17.49 μg/dl, respectively. Although the mean serum zinc level was lower in acne group, it was not statistically significant (P = 0.598). There was a correlation between serum zinc levels with severity and type of acne lesions. The results of our study suggest that zinc levels may be related to the severity and type of acne lesions in patients with acne vulgaris. Relative decrease of serum zinc level in acne patients suggests a role for zinc in the pathogenesis of acne vulgaris.

  12. FDA OKs Non-Prescription Use of Acne Drug

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 159779.html FDA OKs Non-Prescription Use of Acne Drug Differin Gel 0.1% is first retinoid ... July 8, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Good news for acne sufferers: The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has ...

  13. Development of Acne therapeutic hydrogel patches by radiation technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Younmook; Nho, Youngchang; Gwon, Huijeong; Park, Jongseok; Kim, Jinkyu; Kim, Yongsoo

    2012-04-15

    In this project, hydrogel patches containing herbal extracts mixture were developed by radiation technology for acne treatment. Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes), one of the anaerobic bacterium, is the cause of inflammatory acne. To find novel mediation for inflammation of P. acnes, we confirmed the anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory activities of several herbal extracts against P. acnes. The water extracts from five dried herbs, Phellodendron amurense Rupr., Paeonia lactiflora Pallas., Houttuynia cordata Thumb., Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb. and Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch., were mixed into biocompatible polymers and irradiated by using gamma-ray to prepare hydrogels. The hydrogels containing herbal extracts mixture initiated to decrease the growth of P. acnes and reduced the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNF-{alpha}, IL-8, IL-1{beta} and IL-6, in experiment with human monocytic THP-1 cells treated with heat-killed P. acnes at 1 mg/ml of mixture concentration.

  14. Serum testosterone, DHEA-S and androstenedione levels in acne

    OpenAIRE

    Hatwal A; Singh S; Agarwal J; Singh G.; Bajpai H; Gupta S

    1990-01-01

    Basal serum levels of total testosterone, dehydroepiandosterone sulfate (DHEA, - S) and androstenedione (A4) were measured by radioimmunoassay in 100 patients of acne vulgaris, and in 100 age and sex matched acne free healthy subjects. In males with acne the mean serum testosterone levels were marginally and the DHEAS and A4A levels were significantly higher as compared to controls (p). Females with acne had significantly higher levels of testosterone (p< 0.001), DHEA-S (p< 0.001) and...

  15. Diet and acne: an exploratory survey study of patient beliefs

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Quynh-Giao; Markus, Ramsey; Katta, Rajani

    2016-01-01

    Background: In the past, medical literature reflected that diet was not a proven cause of acne. However, studies in recent years have substantiated a link between certain dietary factors and acne. It is unclear whether patients are aware of recent research findings. Objectives: Acne patients were surveyed to explore beliefs regarding the link between diet and acne, to determine whether these beliefs translated into behavior change and to identify health information sources. Patients/Methods: ...

  16. An innovative approach to the topical treatment of acne

    OpenAIRE

    Sparavigna A; Tenconi B; De Ponti I; La Penna L

    2015-01-01

    Adele Sparavigna, Beatrice Tenconi, Ileana De Ponti, Laura La PennaDermIng srl, Clinical Research and Bioengineering Institute, Monza, MB, ItalyAbstract: Acne is characterized by primary lesions on the face, chest, and back, and by a variety of other signs and symptoms. In particular, acne inflammatory lesions result from Propionibacterium acnes colonization and are of particular relevance as they can cause permanent scarring. Acne also causes significant psychological morbidity in affected p...

  17. Consequences of psychological distress in adolescents with acne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misery, Laurent

    2011-02-01

    Acne may cause psychological distress that is associated with many psychiatric disorders. In this issue, Halvorsen et al. report suicidal ideation, mental health problems, and affective isolation to be relatively frequent in adolescents with acne. This report suggests that adverse events that have been attributed to therapies for acne, including suicidal ideation and depression, may reflect the burden of substantial acne rather than the effect of medications.

  18. Atrophic Acne Scarring: A Review of Treatment Options

    OpenAIRE

    Hession, Meghan T.; Graber, Emmy M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Scarring is an unfortunate and frequent complication of acne, resulting in significant psychological distress for patients. Fortunately, numerous treatment options exist for acne scarring. Objectives: To extensively review the literature on treatment options for atrophic acne scarring. Materials and methods: A comprehensive literature search was conducted on the following topics: dermabrasion, subcision, punch techniques, chemical peels, tissue augmentation, and lasers. Results: T...

  19. The Association between Cigarette Smoking and Acne Intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taheri Ramin

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acne vulgaris is a common chronic inflammatory disease of pilosebaceous unit. Different factors have been suggested to influence acne including diet, menstruation and occupation. The role of some of these factors on acne intensity is confirmed. The affect of Cigarette smoking on acne intensity has been suggested. In this research, we evaluated the association between cigarette smoking and the acne intensity.Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed on 278 smoker and 277non smoker males referred to dermatology clinics of Semnan during 2006-2007. The dermatologists interviewing the patients completed questionnaires based on clinical diagnosis and intensity of acne. Data analysis was performed using t-test, Mann-Whitney, Chi-square and Spearman coefficient tests. P-value less than 0.05 were considered significant. Results: Severe acne was observed in 16.6% of non-smokers and 22.7% of smokers. Distribution of acne intensity in both groups was significant (P=0.023. Association between duration of cigarette smoking and acne intensity was significant too (P<0.001. The association between dosage of cigarette smoking and acne intensity was also significant (P<0.001.Conclusion: Significant association between cigarette smoking and acne intensity showed that smoking withdrawal is helpful for reducing the acne intensity

  20. Laser and light based treatments of acne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reena Rai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Medical treatments for acne vulgaris include a variety of topical and oral medications. Poor compliance, lack of durable remission, and potential side effects are common drawbacks to these treatments. Therefore, there is a growing demand for a fast, safe, and side-effect-free novel therapy. Acne often improves after exposure to sunlight, and this has led to the development of laser and other light therapies resulting in the overall ease of treatment, with minimal adverse effects. A variety of light and laser devices has been used for the treatment of acne, including the potassium titanyl phosphate laser, the 585- and 595-nm pulsed dye lasers, the 1450-nm diode laser, radiofrequency devices, intense pulsed light sources, and photodynamic therapy using 5-aminolevulinic acid and indocyanine green. These devices are thought to target the underlying pathogenic factors such as propionibacterium acnes colonization, increased sebaceous gland activity, and the cutaneous inflammatory response. In this article, we review the current status of light- and laser-based treatment of acne.

  1. Passive Immunoprotection Targeting a Secreted CAMP Factor of Propionibacterium acnes as a Novel Immunotherapeutic for Acne Vulgaris

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Pei-Feng; Nakatsuji, Teruaki; Zhu, Wenhong; Gallo, Richard L; Huang, Chun-Ming

    2011-01-01

    Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) bacteria play a key role in the pathogenesis of acne vulgaris. Although our previous studies have demonstrated that vaccines targeting a surface sialidase or bacterial particles exhibit a preventive effect against P. acnes, the lack of therapeutic activities and incapability of neutralizing secretory virulence factors motivate us to generate novel immunotherapeutics. In this study, we develop an immunotherapeutic antibody to secretory Christie-Atkins-Munch-P...

  2. Environmental pollution and acne: Chloracne

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zouboulis, Christos C; Xia, Longqing

    2009-01-01

    Environmental pollutants can result in a variant of acne called ‘chloracne’. Chloracne is caused by systemic exposure to certain halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons ‘chloracnegens’, and is considered to be one of the most sensitive indicators of systemic poisoning by these compounds. Dioxin is the most potent environmental chloracnegen. Most cases of chloracne have resulted from occupational and non-occupational exposures, non-occupational chloracne mainly resulted from contaminated industrial wastes and contaminated food products. Non-inflammatory comedones and straw-colored cysts are the primary clinical manifestation of chloracne. Increasing of cysts in number is a signal of aggravation of chloracne. Generalized lesions can appear on the face, neck, trunk, exterimities, genitalia, axillary and other areas. Course of chloracne is chronic. Severity of chloracne is related to dosage of exposed chloracnegens, chloracnegenic potency and individual susceptibility. Histopathology of chloracne is characterized mainly by hyperplasia of epidermal cell, while follicular and sebaceous gland are taken placed by keratinized epidermal cell. The pathogenesis of chloracne maybe related to the imbalance of epidermal stem cell. Chloracne appears to be resistant to all tested forms of treatment. The only way to control chloracne is to prevent exposure to chloracnegens. PMID:20436879

  3. Infection of Murine Macrophages by Salmonella enterica Serovar Heidelberg Blocks Murine Norovirus Infectivity and Virus-induced Apoptosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhakar S Agnihothram

    Full Text Available Gastroenteritis caused by bacterial and viral pathogens constitutes a major public health threat in the United States accounting for 35% of hospitalizations. In particular, Salmonella enterica and noroviruses cause the majority of gastroenteritis infections, with emergence of sporadic outbreaks and incidence of increased infections. Although mechanisms underlying infections by these pathogens have been individually studied, little is known about the mechanisms regulating co-infection by these pathogens. In this study, we utilized RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cells to investigate the mechanisms governing co-infection with S. enterica serovar Heidelberg and murine norovirus (MNV. We demonstrate that infection of RAW 264.7 cells with S. enterica reduces the replication of MNV, in part by blocking virus entry early in the virus life cycle, and inducing antiviral cytokines later in the infection cycle. In particular, bacterial infection prior to, or during MNV infection affected virus entry, whereas MNV entry remained unaltered when the virus infection preceded bacterial invasion. This block in virus entry resulted in reduced virus replication, with the highest impact on replication observed during conditions of co-infection. In contrast, bacterial replication showed a threefold increase in MNV-infected cells, despite the presence of antibiotic in the medium. Most importantly, we present evidence that the infection of MNV-infected macrophages by S. enterica blocked MNV-induced apoptosis, despite allowing efficient virus replication. This apoptosis blockade was evidenced by reduction in DNA fragmentation and absence of poly-ADP ribose polymerase (PARP, caspase 3 and caspase 9 cleavage events. Our study suggests a novel mechanism of pathogenesis whereby initial co-infection with these pathogens could result in prolonged infection by either of these pathogens or both together.

  4. Treatment of acne vulgaris with anti androgens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaswani Neena

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to compare the relative efficacy of spironolactone and cimetidine in moderately severe acne vulgaris. Fifteen women were treated with spironolactone (100 mg daily given cyclically, while 14 women were given cimetidine (1400 mg daily cyclically. The response was evaluated at 12 weeks. Spironolactone produced a good to excellent response in 11 (73. 3% acne patients while with cimetidine 6 (42.8% patients showed a good to excellent response. The mean reduction of the non-inflammatory and inflammatory lesion count was 29. 3 + 3. 6 and 9. 7 + 1. 3 respectively with spironolactone and 18.6 + 5.8 and 6.4 + 2.1 respectively with cimetidine. The response of acne vulgaris to spironolactone was superior to that of cimetidine and this difference was statistically significant (p< .05. The side effects were minimal and did not necessitate withdrawal of treatment.

  5. Fraxelated radiofrequency device for acne scars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Babar K.; Khokher, Sairah

    2012-09-01

    Acne scars can be improved with various treatments such as topical creams, chemical peels, dermal fillers, microdermabrasion, laser, and radiofrequency devices. Some of these treatments especially lasers and deep chemical peels can have significant side effects such as post inflammatory hyperpigmentation in darker skin types. Fraxelated RF Laser devices have been reported to have lower incidence of side effects in all skin phototypes. Nine patients between ages 18 and 35 of various skin phototypes were selected from a private practice and treated with a RF fraxelated device (E-matrix) for acne scars. Outcomes were measured by physician observation, subjective feedback received by patients, and comparison of before and after photographs. In this small group of patients with various skin phototypes, fraxelated radiofrequency device improved acne scars with minimal side effects and downtime.

  6. Therapeutic considerations for severe nodular acne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Marissa D; Bowe, Whitney P; Heughebaert, Carol; Shalita, Alan R

    2011-02-01

    Severe nodular acne, defined as grade 4 or 5 acne on the Investigator's Static Global Assessment scale, is a skin condition characterized by intense erythema, inflammation, nodules, cysts, and scarring. Both the well known risk of physical scarring and the more recent recognition that acne can be a chronic, psychologically distressing disease with significant adverse effects on a patient's quality of life, have prompted earlier, more aggressive treatment with more effective medications, in the hope of preventing progression to more severe, nodular forms of the disease. Oral antibacterials, primarily tetracyclines, have long been the first-line therapy for severe nodular acne, which frequently remained refractory to therapy. However, concerns of antibacterial adverse effects, patient adherence, and antimicrobial resistance prompted the search for alternate therapies and combinations thereof in order to target the multifactorial pathogenesis of the disease. Isotretinoin, an oral retinoid introduced in 1982, has since become the gold standard therapy in severe acne and has revolutionized its treatment. Several adjunctive agents exist. Oral antibacterials are indicated as an alternative for patients with severe acne who cannot tolerate oral retinoids, or for whom a contraindication exists. In order to prevent bacterial resistance, antibacterials should always be used in combination with benzoyl peroxide, a nonantibiotic antimicrobial agent with anti-inflammatory activity. Topical retinoids are often added to this regimen. In women, hormonal agents, which include oral contraceptives, spironolactone, and oral corticosteroids, and, in Europe, cyproterone acetate, may be used as monotherapy or concomitantly with isotretinoin. For rapid treatment of inflammatory nodules, intralesional corticosteroids are effective. These treatment modalities have been studied, refined, and combined in novel ways in order to target the multifactorial pathogenesis of the disease, and in this

  7. Rhinovirus infection of allergen-sensitized and -challenged mice induces eotaxin release from functionally polarized macrophages

    OpenAIRE

    Nagarkar, Deepti R.; Bowman, Emily R.; Schneider, Dina; Wang, Qiong; Shim, Jee; Zhao, Ying; Linn, Marisa J.; McHenry, Christina L.; Gosangi, Babina; Bentley, J. Kelley; Tsai, Wan C.; Sajjan, Umadevi S.; Lukacs, Nicholas W; Hershenson, Marc B.

    2010-01-01

    Human rhinovirus is responsible for the majority of virus-induced asthma exacerbations. To determine the immunologic mechanisms underlying rhinovirus-induced asthma exacerbations, we combined mouse models of allergic airways disease and human rhinovirus infection. We inoculated ovalbumin-sensitized and challenged BALB/c mice with rhinovirus serotype 1B, a minor group strain capable of infecting mouse cells. Compared to sham-infected, ovalbumin-treated mice, virus-infected mice showed increase...

  8. Propionibacterium acnes as a cause of lung abscess in a cardiac transplant recipient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veitch, David; Abioye, Abu; Morris-Jones, Stephen; McGregor, Alastair

    2015-12-16

    A 29-year-old man was admitted with fevers, cough, left-sided chest pain and lethargy for 1 week. He had a cardiac transplant 10 years prior and was on immunosuppressive drugs. He was found to have a pulmonary lesion and went on to develop a lung abscess. Propionibacterium acnes was identified on matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation mass spectrometry-time of flight and 16s rRNA gene sequencing after drainage. He was curatively treated with co-trimoxazole and co-amoxiclav. He divulged a longstanding history of seborrhoeic dermatitis with frequent flares leading to large volumes of squames collecting on his bed sheets. We hypothesise this was a possible route of entry: inhalation of the Propionibacterium. This case highlights how a common commensal bacterium, P. acnes, was able to cause pathology in an immunosuppressed patient. This is the only case of a patient with transplantation developing a P. acnes pulmonary infection and the only case of P. acnes causing these clinical features to be reported in the literature.

  9. Facial dermabrasion in acne scars and genodermatoses-A study of 65 patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savant S

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available bermabrasion is sequential planing of the raised skin/lesions to the desired depth. Facial dermabrasion was carried out in 65 patients (acne scars -48, adenoma sebaceum 12, multiple trichoepitheliomas 4, barier′s diease-1. Preancillary acne scar revision in 34/48 patients and excision of larger papules and electrodesiccation was performed in 10/12 adenoma sebaceum. In acne scars, 35/48 showed good to excellent and 13/48 poor results. In adenoma sebaceum, 9/12 had excellent and 3 satisfactory results. Preancillary procedures enhanced results in both conditions. Excellent results were obtained in 3/4 multiple trichoepitheliomas and in barier′s disease. Repeat dermabrasion was helpful in 7/65 patients. Side effects seen were persistent hypopigmentation 41, persistent erythema 30, milia 20, hyperpigmentation 15 and exacerbation of acne 3. Complications encountered were small deep scars 8, recurrence of adenoma sebaceum 3, gouging 2, secondary infection 2, oval large atrophic hypo-depigmented scar I and hypertrophic linear scar 1. Facial dermabrasion is a useful dermatosurgical modality to treat various skin disorders.

  10. Antiandrogen and hormonal treatment of acne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, J C

    1996-10-01

    In the treatment of acne in women, the use of antiandrogens and other hormonal approaches is a valuable alternative to standard therapy. These treatments that are based on physiologically sound principles produce gratifying results in selected women with acne, and are the primary treatment for women with hirsutism. The drugs discussed in this article include spironolactone, cyproterone acetate, flutamide, oral contraceptives, corticosteroids, finasteride, and gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists. Patient selection, pretreatment evaluation, and case studies also are discussed with an emphasis on practical applications. PMID:9238337

  11. [How I treat... acne by isotretinoin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piérard-Franchimont, C; Nikkels, A F; Piérard, G E

    2008-03-01

    Acne benefits from a series of treatments. The introduction of isotretinoin was a therapeutic breakthrough which considerably improved both the evolution and the prognosis of the disease. Indications of this retinoid kept changing over the past twenty years. New clinical conditions emerged including the management of disease recurrences. The daily dosages must be selected according to the type of acne, the gender of the patient and the pharmaco-economical implications. Teratogenicity must never be neglected as it represents the dreadful adverse event of the drug. A European Directive currently marks out the way to use this retinoid. PMID:18561765

  12. Light-based therapies in acne treatment

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    Susan Pei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of light and laser in the treatment of acne is increasing as these modalities are safe, effective, and associated with no or minimal complications when used appropriately. These light and laser sources are also being used in combination with pharmacological and/or physical measures to synergize their effects and optimize the therapeutic outcome. This review focuses on optical devices used in treating acne and serves to delineate the current application of various methods, including their utility and efficacy.

  13. Retinoid plus antimicrobial combination treatments for acne

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    Feneran A

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Ashley N Feneran1, William S Kaufman2, Tushar S Dabade1, Steven R Feldman1,3,41Department of Dermatology, Center for Dermatology Research, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, USA; 2Medical College of Virginia, Richmond, VA, USA; 3Department of Pathology, Center for Dermatology Research, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, USA; 4Department of Public Health Sciences, Center for Dermatology Research, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, USABackground: Acne vulgaris is a chronic disease with several pathogenic factors. Multiple medications are typically used that can lead to nonadherence and treatment failure. Combination medications target multiple pathways of acne formation and may offer therapeutic benefit.Purpose: To explore the efficacy and tolerability of combination retinoid plus antimicrobial treatments in acne vulgaris.Methods: A PubMed and Google search was conducted for combination therapies of clindamycin and tretinoin, with secondary analysis of related citations and references. Similar searches were completed for the combination medications of benzoyl peroxide plus clindamycin or erythromycin, and for the combination therapy of adapalene and benzoyl peroxide.Results: Combination clindamycin phosphate and tretinoin gel was found to be more efficacious than monotherapy of either drug or its vehicle for acne, including inflammatory acne, and has a greater onset of action than either drug alone. Clindamycin phosphate and tretinoin gel was well-tolerated, and adherence to its use exceeded that of using both medications in separate formulations. Benzoyl peroxide-containing combination medications with clindamycin or erythromycin were both more effective in the treatment of acne than either drug alone. Both medications were well-tolerated, with dry skin being the most common adverse effect.Conclusions: Combination medications have superior efficacy and adherence, and

  14. Fluorescence guided evaluation of photodynamic therapy as acne treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ericson, Marica B.; Horfelt, Camilla; Cheng, Elaine; Larsson, Frida; Larko, Olle; Wennberg, Ann-Marie

    2005-08-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an attractive alternative treatment for patients with acne because of its efficiency and few side effects. Propionibacterium acnes (P.acnes) are bacteria present in the skin, which produce endogenous porphyrins that act as photosensitisers. In addition, application of aminolaevulinic acid or its methyl ester (mALA) results in increased accumulation of porphyrins in the pilosebaceous units. This makes it possible to treat acne with PDT. This initial study investigates the possibility of fluorescence imaging as assessment tool in adjunct to PDT of patients with acne. Twenty-four patients with acne on the cheeks have been treated with PDT with and without mALA. Fluorescence images have been obtained before and after treatment. The clinical acne score was assessed as base line before PDT, and at every follow up visit. Additionally the amount of P.acnes was determined. The clinical evaluation showed a general improvement of acne, even though no difference between treatment with and without mALA was observed. By performing texture analysis and multivariate data analsysis on the fluorescence images, the extracted texture features were found to correlate with the corresponding clinical assessment (67%) and amount of P.acnes (72%). The analysis showed that features describing the highly fluorescent pores could be related to the clinical assessment. This result suggests that fluorescence imaging can be used as an objective assessment of acne, but further improvement of the technique is possible, for example by including colour images.

  15. Sociodemographic Characteristics of Acne among University Students in Damascus, Syria

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    Waqar Al-Kubaisy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To estimate the prevalence and identify risk factors that may be associated with acne among university students in Syria, a cross-sectional study was conducted in the Syrian International University for Science and Technology in December 2009. A sample of 500 students was chosen. Each participant was subjected to an interview and clinical examination of acne in addition to height and weight measurements. Acne prevalence was 34.7% (172/496. Male students had higher rate of acne compared to females (42.9% versus 23.6%, P<0.0001 and their acne started significantly at a younger age (18.13 versus 19.04 years old, P<0.0001. Face was the commonest site for acne in both males and females. Washing face frequently per day in both sexes has a significant relation with a decreased prevalence of acne. Moreover, psychological stress particularly when the students were away from family was associated with a significant higher rate of acne. We found that the prevalence of acne steadily increased with increasing body mass index. Acne is a health and psychological problem among university students particularly when affecting the face. Several factors such as gender, body mass index, and stress were found to be associated with acne formation.

  16. Significance of diet in treated and untreated acne vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucharska, Alicja; Szmurło, Agnieszka; Sińska, Beata

    2016-04-01

    The relationship between diet and acne is highly controversial. Several studies during the last decade have led dermatologists to reflect on a potential link between diet and acne. This article presents the latest findings on a potential impact that diet can have on pathogenesis of acne vulgaris. The association between diet and acne can no longer be dismissed. Compelling evidence shows that high glycemic load diets may exacerbate acne. Dairy ingestion appears to be weakly associated with acne and the roles of omega-3 fatty acids, dietary fiber, antioxidants, vitamin A, zinc and iodine remain to be elucidated. The question of what the impact of diet is on the course of acne vulgaris still remains unclear. PMID:27279815

  17. Significance of diet in treated and untreated acne vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucharska, Alicja; Szmurło, Agnieszka; Sińska, Beata

    2016-04-01

    The relationship between diet and acne is highly controversial. Several studies during the last decade have led dermatologists to reflect on a potential link between diet and acne. This article presents the latest findings on a potential impact that diet can have on pathogenesis of acne vulgaris. The association between diet and acne can no longer be dismissed. Compelling evidence shows that high glycemic load diets may exacerbate acne. Dairy ingestion appears to be weakly associated with acne and the roles of omega-3 fatty acids, dietary fiber, antioxidants, vitamin A, zinc and iodine remain to be elucidated. The question of what the impact of diet is on the course of acne vulgaris still remains unclear.

  18. Propionibacterium acnes Augments Antitumor, Anti-Angiogenesis and Immunomodulatory Effects of Melatonin on Breast Cancer Implanted in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talib, Wamidh H; Saleh, Suhair

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most invasive cancers with high mortality. The immune stimulating Propionibacterium acnes is a Gram positive bacterium that has the ability to cause inflammation and activate Th1-type cytokine immune response. Antitumor response was associated with the inflammation induced by P. acnes, but the antitumor effect of this bacterium was not evaluated in combination with other agents. The aim of this study was to test the antitumor potential of a combination of melatonin and P. acnes against breast cancer implanted in mice. Balb/C mice were transplanted with EMT6/P cell line and in vivo antitumor effect was assessed for P. acnes, melatonin, and a combination of melatonin and P. acnes. Tumor and organs sections were examined using hematoxylin/eosin staining protocol, and TUNEL colorimetric assay was used to detect apoptosis. The expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was measured in tumor sections and serum levels of INF-γ, and IL-4 were measured to evaluate the immune system function. To evaluate the toxicity of our combination, AST and ALT levels were measured in the serum of treated mice. The combination of melatonin and P. acnes has high efficiency in targeting breast cancer in mice. Forty percent of treated mice were completely cured using this combination and the combination inhibited metastasis of cancer cells to other organs. The combination therapy reduced angiogenesis, exhibited no toxicity, induced apoptosis, and stimulates strong Th1-type cytokine antitumor immune response. The combination of melatonin and P. acnes represents a promising option to treat breast cancer. However, carful preclinical and clinical evaluation is needed before considering this combination for human therapy. PMID:25919398

  19. Propionibacterium acnes Augments Antitumor, Anti-Angiogenesis and Immunomodulatory Effects of Melatonin on Breast Cancer Implanted in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wamidh H Talib

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is one of the most invasive cancers with high mortality. The immune stimulating Propionibacterium acnes is a Gram positive bacterium that has the ability to cause inflammation and activate Th1-type cytokine immune response. Antitumor response was associated with the inflammation induced by P. acnes, but the antitumor effect of this bacterium was not evaluated in combination with other agents. The aim of this study was to test the antitumor potential of a combination of melatonin and P. acnes against breast cancer implanted in mice. Balb/C mice were transplanted with EMT6/P cell line and in vivo antitumor effect was assessed for P. acnes, melatonin, and a combination of melatonin and P. acnes. Tumor and organs sections were examined using hematoxylin/eosin staining protocol, and TUNEL colorimetric assay was used to detect apoptosis. The expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF was measured in tumor sections and serum levels of INF-γ, and IL-4 were measured to evaluate the immune system function. To evaluate the toxicity of our combination, AST and ALT levels were measured in the serum of treated mice. The combination of melatonin and P. acnes has high efficiency in targeting breast cancer in mice. Forty percent of treated mice were completely cured using this combination and the combination inhibited metastasis of cancer cells to other organs. The combination therapy reduced angiogenesis, exhibited no toxicity, induced apoptosis, and stimulates strong Th1-type cytokine antitumor immune response. The combination of melatonin and P. acnes represents a promising option to treat breast cancer. However, carful preclinical and clinical evaluation is needed before considering this combination for human therapy.

  20. Hypoglycaemia induced by Trichinella infection is due to the increase of glucose uptake in infected muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Z; Nagano, I; Kajita, K; Nishina, M; Takahashi, Y

    2009-03-01

    The present study investigates how Trichinella infection induces host hypoglycaemia and explores a potential relationship between infection and the insulin signalling pathway. The results showed that mice infected with Trichinella spiralis or Trichinella pseudospiralis exhibited a temporary decrease in blood glucose level between 8 and 28 days p.i. and the kinetics of the glucose levels corresponded to the process of muscle larval growth and development. Histochemical results showed that glycogen accumulation increased in infected muscle cells during the period of hypoglycaemia. Analysis of gene expression profiles with quantitative PCR demonstrated that insulin signalling pathway-related genes, such as insulin receptor (IR), insulin receptor substance 1 (IRS-1), IRS-2, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K) and V-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homologue 2 (Akt2) were up-regulated in infected muscle cells during infection and these expression changes correlated with the kinetics of blood glucose level, glycogen accumulation and the process of larval growth and development in infected muscle cells. Western blot analysis clarified that the expression of IR and Akt2 proteins increased in muscle tissues infected with both species of Trichinella. This study suggests that hypoglycaemia induced by Trichinella infection is the result of an increase in glucose uptake by infected muscle cells via up-regulation of insulin signalling pathway factors. PMID:18838075

  1. Make-up improves the quality of life of acne patients without aggravating acne eruptions during treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Nobukazu; Imori, Mizuho; Yanagisawa, Midori; Seto, Yoko; Nagata, Osamu; Kawashima, Makoto

    2005-01-01

    Boehncke et al. suggested that decorative cosmetics can improve the quality of life (QOL) of skin diseases. But dermatologists sometimes discourage female acne patients from applying make-up since decorative cosmetics are considered one of the aggravating factors for acne eruptions. The purpose of this study is to assess whether make-up application interferes with acne treatments and how QOL changes when the make-up items are designed for acne patients and used in order to disguise acne eruptions. Eighteen female acne patients were trained by a make-up artist and advised to apply acne-designed basic and decorative cosmetics for 2 to 4 weeks while their acne was appropriately treated. The acne-severity and QOL of patients were assessed before and after the study. The results revealed that the number of acne eruptions decreased even though patients were applying make-up. The QOL scores of Skindex-16, GHQ30 and anxiety state index greatly improved. Our results suggest that dermatologists should encourage acne patients to utilize appropriate make-up to improve their QOL. PMID:16048760

  2. EFFECT OF BACILLUS OF CALMETTE-GUÉRIN, AVRIDINE AND Propionibacterium acnes AS IMMUNOMODULATORS ON RABIES IN MICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MEGID J.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The cellular and humoral immune responses of mice inoculated with rabies virus and treated with the Bacillus of Calmette-Guérin, Avridine and Propionibacterium acnes were evaluated in this paper. There was a higher percentage of surviving mice in groups submitted to P. acnes treatment. Lower levels of interferon-g (IFN-g were found in infected mice. The intra-pad inoculation test (IPI was not effective to detect cellular immune response, contrary to the results found in MIF reaction. The survival of mice did not present correlation with the levels of antirabies serum neutralizing (SN antibodies titers, IFN-g concentration and MIF response.

  3. O-antigen modulates infection-induced pain states.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles N Rudick

    Full Text Available The molecular initiators of infection-associated pain are not understood. We recently found that uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC elicited acute pelvic pain in murine urinary tract infection (UTI. UTI pain was due to E. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS and its receptor, TLR4, but pain was not correlated with inflammation. LPS is known to drive inflammation by interactions between the acylated lipid A component and TLR4, but the function of the O-antigen polysaccharide in host responses is unknown. Here, we examined the role of O-antigen in pain using cutaneous hypersensitivity (allodynia to quantify pelvic pain behavior and using sacral spinal cord excitability to quantify central nervous system manifestations in murine UTI. A UPEC mutant defective for O-antigen biosynthesis induced chronic allodynia that persisted long after clearance of transient infections, but wild type UPEC evoked only acute pain. E. coli strains lacking O-antigen gene clusters had a chronic pain phenotype, and expressing cloned O-antigen gene clusters altered the pain phenotype in a predictable manner. Chronic allodynia was abrogated in TLR4-deficient mice, but inflammatory responses in wild type mice were similar among E. coli strains spanning a wide range of pain phenotypes, suggesting that O-antigen modulates pain independent of inflammation. Spinal cords of mice with chronic allodynia exhibited increased spontaneous firing and compromised short-term depression, consistent with centralized pain. Taken together, these findings suggest that O-antigen functions as a rheostat to modulate LPS-associated pain. These observations have implications for an infectious etiology of chronic pain and evolutionary modification of pathogens to alter host behaviors.

  4. Topical and oral antibiotics for acne vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Rosso, James Q

    2016-06-01

    Antibiotics, both oral and topical, have been an integral component of the management of acne vulgaris (AV) for approximately 6 decades. Originally thought to be effective for AV due to their ability to inhibit proliferation of Propionibacterium acnes, it is now believed that at least some antibiotics also exert anti-inflammatory effects that provide additional therapeutic benefit. To add, an increase in strains of P acnes and other exposed bacteria that are less sensitive to antibiotics used to treat AV have emerged, with resistance directly correlated geographically with the magnitude of antibiotic use. Although antibiotics still remain part of the therapeutic armamentarium for AV treatment, current recommendations support the following when used to treat AV: 1) monotherapy use should be avoided; 2) use benzoyl peroxide concomitantly to reduce emergence of resistant P acnes strains; 3) oral antibiotics should be used in combination with a topical regimen for moderate-to-severe inflammatory AV; and 4) use oral antibiotics over a limited duration to achieve control of inflammatory AV with an exit plan in place to discontinue their use as soon as possible. When selecting an oral antibiotic to treat AV, potential adverse effects are important to consider. PMID:27416309

  5. Topical and oral antibiotics for acne vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Rosso, James Q

    2016-06-01

    Antibiotics, both oral and topical, have been an integral component of the management of acne vulgaris (AV) for approximately 6 decades. Originally thought to be effective for AV due to their ability to inhibit proliferation of Propionibacterium acnes, it is now believed that at least some antibiotics also exert anti-inflammatory effects that provide additional therapeutic benefit. To add, an increase in strains of P acnes and other exposed bacteria that are less sensitive to antibiotics used to treat AV have emerged, with resistance directly correlated geographically with the magnitude of antibiotic use. Although antibiotics still remain part of the therapeutic armamentarium for AV treatment, current recommendations support the following when used to treat AV: 1) monotherapy use should be avoided; 2) use benzoyl peroxide concomitantly to reduce emergence of resistant P acnes strains; 3) oral antibiotics should be used in combination with a topical regimen for moderate-to-severe inflammatory AV; and 4) use oral antibiotics over a limited duration to achieve control of inflammatory AV with an exit plan in place to discontinue their use as soon as possible. When selecting an oral antibiotic to treat AV, potential adverse effects are important to consider.

  6. ICG laser therapy of acne vulgaris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuchin, Valery V.; Altshuler, Gregory B.; Genina, Elina A.; Bashkatov, Alexey N.; Simonenko, Georgy V.; Odoevskaya, Olga D.; Yaroslavsky, Ilya V.

    2004-07-01

    The near-infrared (NIR) laser radiation due to its high penetration depth is widely used in phototherapy. In application to skin appendages a high selectivity of laser treatment is needed to prevent light action on surrounding tissues. Indocyanine Green (ICG) dye may provide a high selectivity of treatment due to effective ICG uploading by a target and its narrow band of considerable absorption just at the wavelength of the NIR diode laser. The goal of this study is to demonstrate the efficacy of the NIR diode laser phototherapy in combination with topical application of ICG suggested for soft and thermal treatment of acne vulgaris. 28 volunteers with facile or back-located acne were enrolled. Skin sites of subjects were stained by ICG and irradiated by NIR laser-diode light (803 or 809 nm). Untreated, only stained and only light irradiated skin areas served as controls. For soft acne treatment, the low-intensity (803 nm, 10 - 50 mW/cm2, 5-10 min) or the medium-intensity (809 nm, 150 - 190 mW/cm2, 15 min) protocols were used. The single and multiple (up to 8-9) treatments were provided. The individual acne lesions were photothermally treated at 18 W/cm2 (803 nm, 0.5 sec) without skin surface cooling or at 200 W/cm2 (809 nm, 0.5 sec) with cooling. The results of the observations during 1-2 months after the completion of the treatment have shown that only in the case of the multiple-wise treatment a combined action of ICG and NIR irradiation reduces inflammation and improves skin state during a month without any side effects. At high power densities (up to 200 W/cm2) ICG stained acne inflammatory elements were destructed for light exposures of 0.5 sec. Based on the concept that hair follicle, especially sebaceous gland, can be intensively and selectively stained by ICG due to dye diffusion through pilosebaceous canal and its fast uptake by living microorganisms, by vital keratinocytes of epithelium of the canal and sebaceous duct, and by rapidly proliferating

  7. Global metabolic profiling of infection by an oncogenic virus: KSHV induces and requires lipogenesis for survival of latent infection.

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    Tracie Delgado

    Full Text Available Like cancer cells, virally infected cells have dramatically altered metabolic requirements. We analyzed global metabolic changes induced by latent infection with an oncogenic virus, Kaposi's Sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV. KSHV is the etiologic agent of Kaposi's Sarcoma (KS, the most common tumor of AIDS patients. Approximately one-third of the nearly 200 measured metabolites were altered following latent infection of endothelial cells by KSHV, including many metabolites of anabolic pathways common to most cancer cells. KSHV induced pathways that are commonly altered in cancer cells including glycolysis, the pentose phosphate pathway, amino acid production and fatty acid synthesis. Interestingly, over half of the detectable long chain fatty acids detected in our screen were significantly increased by latent KSHV infection. KSHV infection leads to the elevation of metabolites involved in the synthesis of fatty acids, not degradation from phospholipids, and leads to increased lipid droplet organelle formation in the infected cells. Fatty acid synthesis is required for the survival of latently infected endothelial cells, as inhibition of key enzymes in this pathway led to apoptosis of infected cells. Addition of palmitic acid to latently infected cells treated with a fatty acid synthesis inhibitor protected the cells from death indicating that the products of this pathway are essential. Our metabolomic analysis of KSHV-infected cells provides insight as to how oncogenic viruses can induce metabolic alterations common to cancer cells. Furthermore, this analysis raises the possibility that metabolic pathways may provide novel therapeutic targets for the inhibition of latent KSHV infection and ultimately KS tumors.

  8. Acne Etiology and Treatments in Traditional Persian Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirbeigi, Leila; Oveidzadeh, Laleh; Jafari, Zahra; Fard, Monireh Sadat Motahari

    2016-01-01

    Background: Traditional Persian medicine (TPM) is based on humors theory. Temperament or mizaj is the result of a combination of four fundamental humors called blood, phlegm, yellow bile, and black bile. Like any other diseases, acne is the result of humoral imbalance. Acne is a highly prevalent dermatological problem, which has both physical and psychological effects on patients. The aim of this study was to determine the etiology of acne formation and natural remedies from the perspective of Persian scientists. Methods: The etiology and treatment of acne were collected and analyzed from selected TPM medical textbooks. Some selected plants in these books were assessed in tabular format and their anti-acne activities were compared with modern medicine’s databases. Results: In the acne treatment, considering six essential schemes for health, diet and herbal remedies as well as manipulation are recommended. Although the mentioned herbs in acne treatment have antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant effects; however, some have special proven effects on the acne formation process. There is also a strong relationship between the digestive system and skin. This paper was rendered to show ancient Persian scholar’s viewpoints on acne and its treatment. Conclusion: Some reported remedies might be beneficial towards further studies on acne treatment. PMID:26722141

  9. Screening Helicobacter pylori genes induced during infection of mouse stomachs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aparna Singh; Nathaniel Hodgson; Ming Yan; Jungsoo Joo; Lei Gu; Hong Sang; Emmalena Gregory-Bryson

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the effect of in vivo environment on gene expression in Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori) as it relates to its survival in the host.METHODS:In vivo expression technology (IVET) systems are used to identify microbial virulence genes.We modified the IVET-transcriptional fusion vector,pIVET8,which uses antibiotic resistance as the basis for selection of candidate genes in host tissues to develop two unique IVET-promoter-screening vectors,pIVET11 and pIVET12.Our novel IVET systems were developed by the fusion of random Sau3A DNA fragments of H.pylori and a tandem-reporter system of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase and beta-galactosidase.Additionally,each vector contains a kanamycin resistance gene.We used a mouse macrophage cell line,RAW 264.7 and mice,as selective media to identify specific genes that H.pylori expresses in vivo.Gene expression studies were conducted by infecting RAW 264.7 cells with H.pylori.This was followed by real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis to determine the relative expression levels of in vivo induced genes.RESULTS:In this study,we have identified 31 in vivo induced (ivi) genes in the initial screens.These 31 genes belong to several functional gene families,including several well-known virulence factors that are expressed by the bacterium in infected mouse stomachs.Virulence factors,vacA and cagA,were found in this screen and are known to play important roles in H.pylori infection,colonization and pathogenesis.Their detection validates the efficacy of these screening systems.Some of the identified ivi genes have already been implicated to play an important role in the pathogenesis of H.pylori and other bacterial pathogens such as Escherichia coli and Vibrio cholerae.Transcription profiles of all ivi genes were confirmed by real time PCR analysis of H.pylori RNA isolated from H.pylori infected RAW 264.7 macrophages.We compared the expression profile of H.pylori and RAW 264.7 coculture with that of H.pylori only

  10. Changes in the hormone and lipid profile of obese adolescent Saudi females with acne vulgaris

    OpenAIRE

    K. O. Abulnaja

    2009-01-01

    Acne vulgaris is a multifactorial disease affecting a majority of the adolescent population. The objective of this study was to test for a correlation between fasting serum lipid profiles and levels of testosterone, insulin, leptin, and interleukin 1-β (IL-1β) and the incidence of severe acne vulgaris in obese adolescent females. Four groups of adolescent females were studied: obese with acne, obese without acne, non-obese with acne, and non-obese without acne. Obese females with ac...

  11. Treatment Experience of Acne by the Methods of Eliminating Stagnation and Anthracoma%散结消痈治疗痤疮经验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周宝宽; 周探

    2012-01-01

    Objective :To summarize treatment experience of acne by the. Methods of eliminating stagnation and anthracoma, and the decoctions of Miraculous decoction for regional infection, Lianqiao Baidu Powder, Wuwei Xiaodu Decoction, Simiao Yong'an decoction. Methods : Discuss principles, methods, formulas and medicinals of hypomnesia caused by sexual overindulgence based on medical records. Result: Acne with lung meridian wind-heat, toxic heat stagnanl was treated by Miraculous decoction for regional infection; acne with wind heat toxin attacking, toxic heat stagnation, qi stagnation blood stasis was treated by Lianqiao Baidu Powder; acne with lung meridian wind-heat, burn infection stagnation was treated by Wuwei Xiaodu Decoction;acne with toxic he.at flourishing and obstructing meridian and vessels was treated with Simiao Yong'an Decoction. Those methods and decoction show a better therapeutic effect on acne. Conclusions : Methods of eliminating stagnation and anthracoma have a good effect on acne.%目的:总结仙方活命饮、连翘败毒散、五味消毒饮、四妙勇安汤四方散结消痈治疗痤疮经验.方法:以医案形式,融理、法、方、药为一体进行阐述.结果:仙方活命饮加减治疗肺经风热、热毒壅滞型痤疮;连翘败毒散治疗风热毒邪上攻、热毒壅结、气血瘀滞型痤疮;五味消毒饮治疗肺经风热、火毒结聚型痤疮;四妙勇安汤治疗热毒炽盛、瘀阻经脉型痤疮,均取得满意疗效.结论:散结消痈治疗痤疮,疗效满意.

  12. Cryptococcus gattii-Induced Infections in Dogs from Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Headley, Selwyn Arlington; Di Santis, Giovana Wingeter; de Alcântara, Brígida Kussumoto; Costa, Thais Correa; da Silva, Elisangela Olegário; Pretto-Giordano, Lucienne Garcia; Gomes, Lucas Alécio; Alfieri, Amauri Alcindo; Bracarense, Ana Paula Frederico R L

    2015-10-01

    Cryptococcus gattii-induced cryptococcosis is an emerging infectious disease of humans and animals worldwide, with rare descriptions of this infection in domestic animals from Brazil. This study presents the findings associated with C. gattii in dogs from Londrina, Paraná, Southern Brazil. Two dogs, a 3-year-old, female German shepherd and a 6-year-old, male Boxer, were evaluated by a combination of pathological, mycological, and molecular diagnostic techniques. Significant pathological alterations included cryptococcal lymphadenitis, meningoencephalitis, tonsillitis, and rhinitis with nasal cryptococcomas in the German shepherd dog, while cryptococcal lymphadenitis and pneumonia were observed in the Boxer; both dogs had pseudocystic cryptococcosis. The mucicarmine histochemical stain readily identified the intralesional cryptococcal budding organisms in all affected tissues. Mycological culture and isolation confirmed the yeasts as C. gattii due to positive reaction with the L-canavanine glycine bromothymol blue agar. A PCR assay using the internal transcribed spacers (ITS)1 and ITS2 primers, which target the ITS1 and 2 regions including the 5.8S rRNA gene, amplified the desired amplicons; direct sequencing confirmed the isolate as C. gattii. ITS nucleotide differentiation demonstrated that the isolate forms part of the ITS type 4 Cryptococcus organisms which corresponds to the C. gattii VGII molecular subtype or the RAPD type 2 Cryptococcus organisms. Collectively, these findings confirmed the participation of C. gattii in the etiopathogenesis of the lesions observed in these dogs and expanded the epidemiological niche of this important mycotic agent to include Southern Brazil. It is noteworthy to mention that previous epidemiological studies have suggested that C. gattii-induced cryptococcosis is more frequently diagnosed in Northern relative to Southern Brazil, so these findings might suggest an expansion of the distribution of this agent within continental

  13. A Honey Trap for the Treatment of Acne: Manipulating the Follicular Microenvironment to Control Propionibacterium acnes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Anne Eady

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, as 40 years ago, we still rely on a limited number of antibiotics and benzoyl peroxide to treat inflammatory acne. An alternative way of suppressing the growth of Propionibacterium acnes is to target the environment in which it thrives. We conjecture that P. acnes colonises a relatively “extreme” habitat especially in relation to the availability of water and possibly related factors such as ionic strength and osmolarity. We hypothesise that the limiting “nutrient” within pilosebaceous follicles is water since native sebum as secreted by the sebaceous gland contains none. An aqueous component must be available within colonised follicles, and water may be a major factor determining which follicles can sustain microbial populations. One way of preventing microbial growth is to reduce the water activity ( of this component with a biocompatible solute of very high water solubility. For the method to work effectively, the solute must be small, easily diffusible, and minimally soluble in sebaceous lipids. Xylose and sucrose, which fulfil these criteria, are nonfermentable by P. acnes and have been used to reduce water activity and hence bacterial colonisation of wounds. A new follicularly targeted topical treatment for acne based on this approach should be well tolerated and highly effective.

  14. Low Dose Intermittent Isotretinoin Therapy in Moderate Acne Vulgaris

    OpenAIRE

    Belçın İzol; Emel Bülbül Başkan; Zübeyde Başar; Şükran Tunalı; Hayriye Sarıcaoğlu

    2012-01-01

    Objective: In this study, we aimed to investigate the efficiency and side effects of intermittent low dose isotretinoin therapy in moderate acne. Materials and Methods: Patients followed up at our acne outpatient clinic between September 2007 and April 2009 were evaluated. Those treated with 20 mg/day isotretinoin three times a week were included in the study. Relevant data were recorded from patient files. We recorded the age and weight of the cases, duration of acne, previous treatments, ac...

  15. Carrier-Based Drug Delivery System for Treatment of Acne

    OpenAIRE

    Amber Vyas; Avinesh Kumar Sonker; Bina Gidwani

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 95% of the population suffers at some point in their lifetime from acne vulgaris. Acne is a multifactorial disease of the pilosebaceous unit. This inflammatory skin disorder is most common in adolescents but also affects neonates, prepubescent children, and adults. Topical conventional systems are associated with various side effects. Novel drug delivery systems have been used to reduce the side effect of drugs commonly used in the topical treatment of acne. Topical treatment of...

  16. Etiopathogenesis and Therapeutic Approach to Adult Onset Acne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Sarabjit; Verma, Poonam; Sangwan, Ankita; Dayal, Surabhi; Jain, Vijay Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Acne vulgaris is usually considered as a skin disorder that primarily affects adolescents reaching a peak at the age of 14-17 years in females and 16-19 years in males. However, recent epidemiologic studies have shown that a significant number of female patients aged >25 years experience acne. As it is regarded as a disease of teenagers, adults are more apprehensive and experience social anxiety. Hence, adult onset acne has become a matter of concern. PMID:27512185

  17. UVB-induced immune suppression and infection with Schistosoma mansoni

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noonan, F.P.; Lewis, F.A. [George Washington Univ., Washington, DC (United States). School of Medicine]|[Biomedical Research Inst., Rockville, MD (United States)

    1995-01-01

    Irradiation with ultraviolet B (UVB, 290-320 nm) causes a systematic immunosuppression of cell-mediated immunity. The question of whether UV immunosuppression modulates the course of infectious diseases is important because UVB levels in sunlight are sufficient to predict significant UV-induced immunosuppression at most latitudes. We have investigated the effect of immunosuppressive doses of UVB on the disease caused by the helminth parasite Schistosoma mansoni. C57BL/6 mice were irradiated once or three times weekly over 60-80 days with UV from a bank of FS40 sunlamps. Each UV treatment consisted of an immunosuppressive UV dose, as determined by suppression of contact hypersensitivity to trinitrochlorobenzene, corresponding to about 15-30 min of noonday tropical sunlight exposure under ideal clear sky conditions. Cumulative UV doses were between 80 and 170 kJ/m{sup 2}. Worm and egg burdens, liver granuloma diameters and liver fibrosis showed minimal changes (< 20%) compared with parameters in unirradiated animals. Ultraviolet irradiation (a total of 55 kJ/m{sup 2} administered in six treatments) did not impair the resistance to rechallenge conferred by vaccination with {sup 60}Co-irradiated cercariae. We have observed a dichotomy between UV immnosuppression and both disease and vaccination in this helminth infection, in contrast to the effects of UVB shown in other infectious diseases. (author).

  18. The use of hormonal agents in the treatment of acne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassoun, Lauren A; Chahal, Dev S; Sivamani, Raja K; Larsen, Larissa N

    2016-06-01

    Hormones and androgens play an important role in the pathogenesis of acne. Multiple hormonal modulators are now available for the treatment of acne. The efficacies and side effects of currently available hormonal agents are reviewed here including the use of oral contraceptives, spironolactone, flutamide, cyproterone acetate, finasteride, and cortexolone 17α-propionate. Hormonal therapies are an efficacious treatment option for acne among females. With the growing need to reduce antibiotic exposures, hormonal therapies should be more widely studied and incorporated into acne treatment strategies. PMID:27416311

  19. Practical approach to the hormonal treatment of acne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulin, Yves

    2004-01-01

    Acne is a disease of the pilosebaceous units and these are mainly under hormonal control. In female patients, hormonal therapy is a unique opportunity for the treatment of acne. Several combined oral contraceptives (COCs), cyproterone acetate, spironolactone, flutamide, and others, have been tried for the control of acne. An overview on the use of the most useful drugs in clinical practice was conducted. COCs are thoroughly discussed, also taking into consideration their potential side effects. A practical approach with guidelines on the use of COC in acne is proposed. PMID:15778820

  20. Diet and acne update: carbohydrates emerge as the main culprit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Shereen N; Bowe, Whitney P

    2014-04-01

    The prevalence of adult acne in the US appears to be increasing over the last few decades. But what's behind the rise: is it nature or nurture? We are well aware that genetics can strongly influence a patient's risk of developing acne. However, significant changes in germline genetic variants are unlikely to have occurred over the last 20 years. Consequently, we are forced to examine environmental variables, including diet. This review article presents the most updated evidence supporting a link between refined carbohydrates and acne. Based on the data summarized here, dermatologists should encourage their acne patients to minimize their intake of high glycemic index foods. PMID:24719062

  1. Hirsutism and acne in polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Johanna S; Chang, R Jeffrey

    2004-10-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine abnormality affecting reproductive age women. Population-based studies estimate a prevalence of 5-10% [Obstet Gynecol 101 (2003) 995; Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol 41 (2001) 202]. The clinical characteristics of PCOS include hyperandrogenism, chronic anovulation, insulin resistance and infertility. Hyperandrogenism is generally manifested as hirsutism and acne. Both these clinical symptoms are treated with similar drug therapies, including oral contraceptive pills (OCPs), topical medications or antiandrogens such as spironolactone, flutamide and finasteride, as well as topical medications. Recent studies have shown that lower doses of these medications are as efficacious as high doses and have the advantage of decreased cost and an improved side-effect profile. Although hirsutism and acne can be considered cosmetic in nature, they cause significant social embarrassment and emotional distress. Physicians should be sensitive to these issues and approach patients in a caring and sympathetic manner. PMID:15380144

  2. Spironolactone for 
Adult Female Acne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Adam J

    2015-10-01

    Many cases of acne are hormonal in nature, meaning that 
they occur in adolescent girls and women and are aggravated 
by hormonal fluctuations such as those that occur during the menstrual cycle or in the setting of underlying hormonal imbalances as seen in polycystic ovary syndrome. For these patients, antihormonal therapy such as spironolactone is a valid and efficacious option. Herein, initiation and utilization of this medication is reviewed. PMID:27141564

  3. Hyaluronidase in Clinical Isolates of Propionibacterium acnes

    OpenAIRE

    Harmony Tyner; Robin Patel

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to describe the prevalence of a hyaluronidase gene and hyaluronidase production in 197 clinical isolates of P. acnes; we assessed kinetics of hyaluronidase production in a subset of three isolates. Methods. The hyaluronidase gene was detected using polymerase chain reaction. Hyaluronidase production was detected by growing isolates on BHI agar containing 400 μg/mL hyaluronic acid and 1% albumin and flooding plates with 2 N glacial acetic acid to precipitate unbound hyalu...

  4. Acne e dieta: verdade ou mito? Acne and diet: truth or myth?

    OpenAIRE

    Adilson Costa; Denise Lage; Thaís Abdalla Moisés

    2010-01-01

    Nos últimos 50 anos, foram publicados inúmeros estudos com a finalidade de comprovar se a dieta está relacionada à etiologia da acne. Embora existam estudos antigos, que são bem difundidos entre os dermatologistas e negam a associação entre acne e dieta, seu delineamento científico é pobre. Recentemente, novos artigos demonstraram evidências contrárias às publicações anteriores. Sendo assim, os autores realizaram esta revisão bibliográfica com o intuito de averiguar se a dieta influencia dire...

  5. An innovative approach to the topical treatment of acne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparavigna, Adele; Tenconi, Beatrice; De Ponti, Ileana; La Penna, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Acne is characterized by primary lesions on the face, chest, and back, and by a variety of other signs and symptoms. In particular, acne inflammatory lesions result from Propionibacterium acnes colonization and are of particular relevance as they can cause permanent scarring. Acne also causes significant psychological morbidity in affected patients. Products currently available for the treatment of acne include systemic and topical treatments. As these products can cause severe side effects, new, innovative therapies are needed. Farmaka Acne Cream (FAC) is a novel, film-forming cream developed to treat mild and moderate acne. In vitro studies have demonstrated that FAC is as effective as 5% benzoyl peroxide in inhibiting growth of P. acnes. In 32 subjects with mild or moderate acne, FAC reduced all the major signs and symptoms of the disease. These included itching, erythema, and scaling, as well as reductions in the numbers of papules, pustules, and open and closed comedones. Acne severity improved in 38% of subjects, while none worsened. FAC was found to be effective in controlling sebum secretion, and was non-comedogenic. Most subjects (90%) reported tolerability as good or very good, while clinical efficacy and cosmetic acceptability were judged as good. For assessment of contact sensitization and photosensitization, FAC was applied daily to the backs of 29 subjects in two symmetric areas for 10 days. Using a solar stimulator, one minimal erythema dose was delivered to one side of the back from days 11 to 13. The four different subareas of treated/untreated and irradiated/nonirradiated and combinations thereof were compared. No cases of contact sensitization or photosensitization were observed, and FAC is considered safe for use in intense sunlight. In vitro and in vivo studies provide evidence for the safety and clinical benefits of FAC, a promising candidate for the treatment of mild and moderate acne. PMID:25914552

  6. Staphylococcus aureus - induced tumor necrosis factor - related apoptosis - inducing ligand expression mediates apoptosis and caspase-8 activation in infected osteoblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bost Kenneth L

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Staphylococcus aureus infection of normal osteoblasts induces expression of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL. Results Normal osteoblasts were incubated in the presence of purified bacterial products over a range of concentrations. Results demonstrate that purified surface structures and a selected superantigen present in the extracellular environment are not capable of inducing TRAIL expression by osteoblasts. Osteoblasts were co-cultured with S. aureus at various multiplicities of infection utilizing cell culture chamber inserts. Results of those experiments suggest that direct contact between bacteria and osteoblasts is necessary for optimal TRAIL induction. Finally, S. aureus infection of osteoblasts in the presence of anti-TRAIL antibody demonstrates that TRAIL mediates caspase-8 activation and apoptosis of infected cells. Conclusions Collectively, these findings suggest a mechanism whereby S. aureus mediates bone destruction via induction of osteoblast apoptosis.

  7. Management of Antiviral Induced Anemia in HCV Infected Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitra Ranjbar

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionHepatitis C virus (HCV infection affects more than 170 million people worldwide(1,2. Approximately 80% of patients with acute infection will subsequently develop chronic disease, and an estimated 20% to 30% will develop cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma(3. The maost effective therapeutic regimen for chronic hepatitis C is the combination of pegylated interferon alpha and ribavirin, which yields a sustained virologic response (SVR in up to 56% of patients(4, 5. However, combination therapy is also associated with significant adverse events and is contraindicated in certain patient populations. Development of side effects, particularly hematologic ones, may result in suboptimal dosing or discontinuation of therapy that can reduce the likelihood of SVR.IncidenceIn clinical trials, significant anemia (hemoglobin 10.6 mg/kg/d is 65% compared with a rate of 50% for those receiving peginterferon alfa-2b plus ribavirin at dosages of 10.6 mg/kg/d or less.It has been shown that SVR rates are significantly higher in patients who receive more than 80% of their full interferon alfa-2b plus ribavirin doses for more than 80% of the time for more than 80% of the intended duration of therapy(14. In the Hepatitis C Long-term Treatment Against Cirrhosis (HALT-C trial, a trial involving patients who were previous nonresponders to or relapsers after therapy, reduction of ribavirin dose from> 80% to 10.6 mg/kg/d. The standard-of-care management of ribavirin induced anemia has been dose reduction to 600 mg/d when the hemoglobin level decreases to =2g/dL decrease inhemoglobinduring any 4-weektreatment period 12g/dL despite 4weeks at reduceddose Recombinant human erythropoietin therapy in the HCV-infected patient who becomes anemic during antiviral therapy represents an alternative to ribavirin dose reduction or discontinuation. Erythropoietin is mainly produced by the kidney in adults in response to tissue hypoxia, and it increases the number of

  8. Adenovirus infection reverses the antiviral state induced by human interferon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feduchi, E; Carrasco, L

    1987-04-01

    HeLa cells treated with human lymphoblastoid interferon do not synthesize poliovirus proteins. The antiviral state against poliovirus is reversed if cells are previously infected with adenovirus type 5. A late gene product seems to be involved in this reversion, since no effect is observed at early stages of infection or in the presence of aphidicolin.

  9. linical characteristics of nosocomial infections of patients with acute central nervous system infections treated in ICU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olgica Gajović

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A retrospective study was performed to evaluate the clinical characteristics of nosocomial infections in patients with acute infection of central nervous system (ACNS infections. The study included 1,686 patients admitted to the ICU. Of 1,686 patients, 936 (55.5% had ACNS infection. Nosocomial infections was confirmedin 221 (23.6% patients with ACNS infection. The most common risk factors for ICU-acquired nosocomial infections were consciousness disorder, mechanical ventilation and nasogastric tube. The coagulase – negative Staphylococcus aureus was the most frequent isolated pathogen (285 isolates, 56.5%. Results suggest that a persistently high level of therapeutic activity and persistently depressed consciousness after the ICU admission are associatedwith the occurrence of hospital-acquired infection in critically ill patients hospitalized at a medical ICU.

  10. Fractional CO2 laser resurfacing for atrophic acne scars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedelund, Lene; Haak, Christina S; Togsverd-Bo, Katrine;

    2012-01-01

    The treatment of acne scars with fractional CO(2) lasers is gaining increasing impact, but has so far not been compared side-by-side to untreated control skin.......The treatment of acne scars with fractional CO(2) lasers is gaining increasing impact, but has so far not been compared side-by-side to untreated control skin....

  11. Photopneumatic Technology in Acne Treatment and Skin Rejuvenation: Histological Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Omi, Tokuya

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims: Recent reports indicate that a variety of light-based devices have been used for acne treatment and skin rejuvenation. A new technology combining intense pulsed light with negative pressure, photopneumatic technology, has recently attracted interest. The present study assessed acne treatment and skin rejuvenation with this novel approach

  12. Acne vulgaris: A review of causes and treatment options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Well, Danielle

    2013-10-10

    Acne vulgaris is a disorder of the sebaceous follicle. The cause is multifactorial, and both adolescents and adults can be affected. Acne is associated with a significant financial burden and considerable psychological distress. Treatment options are reviewed, including over-the-counter medications, prescription medications, and in-office procedures.

  13. Virus-induced type I interferon deteriorates control of systemic pseudomonas aeruginosa infection

    OpenAIRE

    Merches, Katja; Khairnar, Vishal; Knuschke, Torben; et al.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Type I interferon (IFN-I) predisposes to bacterial superinfections, an important problem during viral infection or treatment with interferon-alpha (IFN-α). IFN-I-induced neutropenia is one reason for the impaired bacterial control; however there is evidence that more frequent bacterial infections during IFN-α-treatment occur independently of neutropenia. METHODS: We analyzed in a mouse model, whether Pseudomonas aeruginosa control is influenced by co-infection with the lymphocy...

  14. An innovative approach to the topical treatment of acne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sparavigna A

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Adele Sparavigna, Beatrice Tenconi, Ileana De Ponti, Laura La PennaDermIng srl, Clinical Research and Bioengineering Institute, Monza, MB, ItalyAbstract: Acne is characterized by primary lesions on the face, chest, and back, and by a variety of other signs and symptoms. In particular, acne inflammatory lesions result from Propionibacterium acnes colonization and are of particular relevance as they can cause permanent scarring. Acne also causes significant psychological morbidity in affected patients. Products currently available for the treatment of acne include systemic and topical treatments. As these products can cause severe side effects, new, innovative therapies are needed. Farmaka Acne Cream (FAC is a novel, film-forming cream developed to treat mild and moderate acne. In vitro studies have demonstrated that FAC is as effective as 5% benzoyl peroxide in inhibiting growth of P. acnes. In 32 subjects with mild or moderate acne, FAC reduced all the major signs and symptoms of the disease. These included itching, erythema, and scaling, as well as reductions in the numbers of papules, pustules, and open and closed comedones. Acne severity improved in 38% of subjects, while none worsened. FAC was found to be effective in controlling sebum secretion, and was non-comedogenic. Most subjects (90% reported tolerability as good or very good, while clinical efficacy and cosmetic acceptability were judged as good. For assessment of contact sensitization and photosensitization, FAC was applied daily to the backs of 29 subjects in two symmetric areas for 10 days. Using a solar stimulator, one minimal erythema dose was delivered to one side of the back from days 11 to 13. The four different subareas of treated/untreated and irradiated/nonirradiated and combinations thereof were compared. No cases of contact sensitization or photosensitization were observed, and FAC is considered safe for use in intense sunlight. In vitro and in vivo studies provide

  15. A novel multiple locus variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) analysis (MLVA) method for Propionibacterium acnes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauck, Yolande; Soler, Charles; Gérôme, Patrick; Vong, Rithy; Macnab, Christine; Appere, Géraldine; Vergnaud, Gilles; Pourcel, Christine

    2015-07-01

    Propionibacterium acnes plays a central role in the pathogenesis of acne and is responsible for severe opportunistic infections. Numerous typing schemes have been developed that allow the identification of phylotypes, but they are often insufficient to differentiate subtypes. To better understand the genetic diversity of this species and to perform epidemiological analyses, high throughput discriminant genotyping techniques are needed. Here we describe the development of a multiple locus variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) analysis (MLVA) method. Thirteen VNTRs were identified in the genome of P. acnes and were used to genotype a collection of clinical isolates. In addition, publically available sequencing data for 102 genomes were analyzed in silico, providing an MLVA genotype. The clustering of MLVA data was in perfect congruence with whole genome based clustering. Analysis of the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) element uncovered new spacers, a supplementary source of genotypic information. The present MLVA13 scheme and associated internet database represents a first line genotyping assay to investigate large number of isolates. Particular strains may then be submitted to full genome sequencing in order to better analyze their pathogenic potential.

  16. DSCG reduces RSV-induced illness in RSV-infected mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Koichi; Mori, Syuichi; Hashimoto, Yuko; Kaneko, Hisatoshi; Ishibashi, Kei; Ishioka, Ken; Kawasaki, Yukihiko; Peebles, Ray Stokes; Munakata, Mitsuru; Hosoya, Mitsuaki; Suzutani, Tatsuo

    2009-02-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is one of the pathogens generally associated with the common cold, lower respiratory infection, and exacerbation of asthma. Disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) is a safe and widely used drug for the prevention of bronchial asthma and allergic rhinitis attacks. The effect of DSCG on acute upper respiratory tract viral infections remains controversial. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of DSCG on parameters of RSV induced-illness. Using a well-characterized murine model of RSV infection, the effect of DSCG on RSV-induced illness was evaluated by body weight, respiratory function, viral replication, level of IFN-gamma in lungs, serology, and histopathology. Mice treated with DSCG were protected against RSV-induced weight loss. The baseline Penh in RSV-infected mice treated with DSCG was less than that in mice treated with saline. In methacholine challenge, the increase in Penh in RSV-infected mice treated with DSCG was suppressed to the same level as that in the mock-infected group. Further, there were no differences in viral replication between the mice treated with DSCG and those treated with saline, and the level of inflammation observed in the lungs in RSV-infected mice treated with DSCG was not as severe as that in mice treated with saline. These findings indicate that DSCG may be an effective agent for the prevention of RSV induced disease and the relief of symptoms of RSV infection. PMID:19107959

  17. Screening of selected Herbal plants for Anti Acne Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandey Chetana

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the invitro and in-vivo anti-acne effects of ethanolic and aqueous extract of rhizomes of selected curcuma species (Curcuma aromatica, Curcuma amada, Curcuma zedoaria and bark of Adina cordifolia against Propionibacterium acnes. Minimum inhibitory concentration to inhibit the growth of P.acne of ethanolic extract of Curcuma spp. And Adina cordifolia were found to be 125 μg/ml and aqueous extract of Curcuma spp and Adina cordifolia. were found to inhibit the growth of P. acne at concentration 250 μg/ml. 140 μg of heat killed P. acnes injected in the ears of rats by subcutaneous route. Ear thickness was measured as an index of inflammatory strength using vernier caliper upto 35 days but there was no significant change after 10th day.

  18. Propionibacterium acnes biofilm - A sanctuary for Staphylococcus aureus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyner, Harmony; Patel, Robin

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the effect of combined culture of Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus aureus on biofilm formation under different oxygen concentrations. We measured planktonic growth and biofilm formation of P. acnes and S. aureus alone and together under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Both P. acnes and S. aureus grew under anaerobic conditions. When grown under anaerobic conditions, P. acnes with or without S. aureus formed a denser biomass biofilm than did S. aureus alone. Viable S. aureus was recovered from a16-day old combined P. acnes and S. aureus biofilm, but not a monomicrobial S. aureus biofilm.

  19. Antibiotic-resistant acne: getting under the skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Mau; Sadhasivam, Suresh; Bhattacharyya, Anamika; Jain, Shilpi; Ghosh, Shamik; Arndt, Kenneth A; Dover, Jeffrey S; Sengupta, Shiladitya

    2016-06-01

    Propionibacterium acnes is a key pathogenic factor in the development of acne. Antibiotics are the first choice of treatment for mild-to-moderate, mixed, papular/pustular, and moderate nodular acne, and an alternative choice in severe, nodular/conglobate acne. The emergence of resistance to the currently available antibiotics poses a serious set-back to this algorithm, and the reduced arsenal can diminish efficacy of treatment. This emerging situation should catalyze innovations in dermatology; for example, newer drugs and technologies such as next-generation antibiotics with excellent potency and low propensity to develop resistance, rapid diagnostic platforms to select responders and nonresponders, and delivery technologies that target the bacteria. Such innovations can dramatically expand the arsenal for dermatologists in the management of acne. PMID:27416310

  20. Metastatic basal cell carcinoma caused by carcinoma misdiagnosed as acne - case report and literature review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aydin, Dogu; Hölmich, Lisbet Rosenkrantz; Jakobsen, Linda P

    2016-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma can be misdiagnosed as acne; thus, carcinoma should be considered in treatment-resistant acne. Although rare, neglected basal cell carcinoma increases the risk of metastasis.......Basal cell carcinoma can be misdiagnosed as acne; thus, carcinoma should be considered in treatment-resistant acne. Although rare, neglected basal cell carcinoma increases the risk of metastasis....

  1. Treatment of 56 Cases of Women with Post-adolescent Acne by Auricular Point Sticking Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Min; JIANG Ya-qiu; CUI Xue-jun

    2008-01-01

    @@ Acne is a common disorder in adolescence. However, more and more patients are over 25 years old. This type of acne is recurrent, so it is called post-adolescence acne. The author treated 56 cases of women with post-adolescence acne by auricular point sticking method, and obtained excellent results. It is reported as follows.

  2. Generation and characterization of chicken egg yolk antibodies against propionibacterium acnes for the prevention of acne vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthika Selvan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Antigen-specific antibody has been widely used for immunological analysis in the field of diagnosis as well as in pure scientific research, where the IgY antibodies can be raised against P acnes antigen. Material and Methods: To produce IgY against Propionibacterium acnes, laying hens were immunized with P acnes (MTCC No: 1951 and subsequent booster injections were given. The antibodies produced were purified from the egg yolk of immunized chicken using the polyethylene glycol and ammonium sulfate precipitation method and, further, by Diethylaminoethyl (DEAE cellulose ion-exchange column chromatography. The protein fraction of IgY was isolated from the egg yolk. The separation was rapid, and the success of each step was viewed on Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE. The reactivity of anti-P acnes was evaluated by the Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA test and the dot-immunoassay. Results: With ELISA, the highest titter of 1:10000 was observed on the 150 th day after vaccination. The results of dot-immunoassay suggested that anti-P acnes IgY developed a brown color as positive reaction, which showed the antigen-antibody binding even after a maximum dilution of 1/500. These results suggest that anti-acne IgY was produced and had strong specific antibody reactivity. Conclusion: The findings indicate that anti-acne IgY is worth utilizing as a preventive agent for acne vulgaris.

  3. Proteomic identification of secreted proteins of Propionibacterium acnes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holland Carsten

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The anaerobic Gram-positive bacterium Propionibacterium acnes is a human skin commensal that resides preferentially within sebaceous follicles; however, it also exhibits many traits of an opportunistic pathogen, playing roles in a variety of inflammatory diseases such as acne vulgaris. To date, the underlying disease-causing mechanisms remain ill-defined and knowledge of P. acnes virulence factors remains scarce. Here, we identified proteins secreted during anaerobic cultivation of a range of skin and clinical P. acnes isolates, spanning the four known phylogenetic groups. Results Culture supernatant proteins of P. acnes were separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE and all Coomassie-stained spots were subsequently identified by MALDI mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS. A set of 20 proteins was secreted in the mid-exponential growth phase by the majority of strains tested. Functional annotation revealed that many of these common proteins possess degrading activities, including glycoside hydrolases with similarities to endoglycoceramidase, β-N-acetylglucosaminidase and muramidase; esterases such as lysophospholipase and triacylglycerol lipase; and several proteases. Other secreted factors included Christie-Atkins-Munch-Petersen (CAMP factors, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH, and several hypothetical proteins, a few of which are unique to P. acnes. Strain-specific differences were apparent, mostly in the secretion of putative adhesins, whose genes exhibit variable phase variation-like sequence signatures. Conclusions Our proteomic investigations have revealed that the P. acnes secretome harbors several proteins likely to play a role in host-tissue degradation and inflammation. Despite a large overlap between the secretomes of all four P. acnes phylotypes, distinct differences between predicted host-tissue interacting proteins were identified, providing potential insight into the differential virulence

  4. HIV-1 Nef Inhibits Ruffles, Induces Filopodia, and Modulates Migration of Infected Lymphocytes▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobile, Cinzia; Rudnicka, Dominika; Hasan, Milena; Aulner, Nathalie; Porrot, Françoise; Machu, Christophe; Renaud, Olivier; Prévost, Marie-Christine; Hivroz, Claire; Schwartz, Olivier; Sol-Foulon, Nathalie

    2010-01-01

    The HIV-1 Nef protein is a pathogenic factor modulating the behavior of infected cells. Nef induces actin cytoskeleton changes and impairs cell migration toward chemokines. We further characterized the morphology, cytoskeleton dynamics, and motility of HIV-1-infected lymphocytes. By using scanning electron microscopy, confocal immunofluorescence microscopy, and ImageStream technology, which combines flow cytometry and automated imaging, we report that HIV-1 induces a characteristic remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton. In infected lymphocytes, ruffle formation is inhibited, whereas long, thin filopodium-like protrusions are induced. Cells infected with HIV with nef deleted display a normal phenotype, and Nef expression alone, in the absence of other viral proteins, induces morphological changes. We also used an innovative imaging system to immobilize and visualize living individual cells in suspension. When combined with confocal “axial tomography,” this technique greatly enhances three-dimensional optical resolution. With this technique, we confirmed the induction of long filopodium-like structures in unfixed Nef-expressing lymphocytes. The cytoskeleton reorganization induced by Nef is associated with an important impairment of cell movements. The adhesion and spreading of infected cells to fibronectin, their spontaneous motility, and their migration toward chemokines (CXCL12, CCL3, and CCL19) were all significantly decreased. Therefore, Nef induces complex effects on the lymphocyte actin cytoskeleton and cellular morphology, which likely impacts the capacity of infected cells to circulate and to encounter and communicate with bystander cells. PMID:20015995

  5. Capillaria hepatica-induced hepatic fibrosis in rats: paradoxical effect of repeated infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira Ludmila

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple exposures to parasitic agents are considered an important factor in the genesis of the most severe forms of the diseases they cause. Capillaria hepatica-induced septal fibrosis of the liver in rats usually runs without signs of portal hypertension or hepatic failure. After determining the hepatic profile of 15 animals during the course of a single infection, we submitted 20 rats to multiple Capillaria hepatica infections to determine whether repeated exposures would augment fibrosis production, transforming septal hepatic fibrosis into a true cirrhosis. Ten single-infection rats served as controls. A total of 5 exposures, with 45-day intervals, were made. Histological changes were followed by means of surgical liver biopsies, collected prior to infection and to each re-infection. Functional changes were minimal and transient. Although a slight recrudescence of fibrosis was observed after the first two re-infections and when the single-infected control group was re-infected at the end of the experiment, subsequent re-infections failed to increase the amount of fibrosis. On the contrary, there occurred quantitative and qualitative evidence of collagen degradation and suppression of parasite development. These paradoxical results are in keeping with the hypothesis that a complex immunological modulation participates in the mechanism of hepatic fibrosis induced by Capillaria hepatica infection in rats.

  6. Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection induces altered amphiregulin processing and release.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Löfmark

    Full Text Available Adhesion of the human pathogen Neisseria gonorrhoeae has established effects on the host cell and evokes a variety of cellular events including growth factor activation. In the present study we report that infection with N. gonorrhoeae causes altered amphiregulin processing and release in human epithelial cells. Amphiregulin is a well-studied growth factor with functions in various cell processes and is upregulated in different forms cancer and proliferative diseases. The protein is prototypically cleaved on the cell surface in response to external stimuli. We demonstrate that upon infection, a massive upregulation of amphiregulin mRNA is seen. The protein changes its subcellular distribution and is also alternatively cleaved at the plasma membrane, which results in augmented release of an infection-specific 36 kDa amphiregulin product from the surface of human cervical epithelial cells. Further, using antibodies directed against different domains of the protein we could determine the impact of infection on pro-peptide processing. In summary, we present data showing that the infection of N. gonorrhoeae causes an alternative amphiregulin processing, subcellular distribution and release in human epithelial cervical cells that likely contribute to the predisposition cellular abnormalities and anti-apoptotic features of N. gonorrhoeae infections.

  7. Porphyromonas gingivalis infection induced reproductive abnormalities in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke-min WEI

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To establish a pregnant mouse model infected with Porphyromonas gingivalis (P.g, and investigate the relationship of P.g infection to prematurity and associated birth abnormalities. Methods  Fifty two female mice were randomly divided into P.g infection group (n=26 and control group (n=26. Mice in P.g infection group were anesthetized, the pulp cavity of the first molar was opened and directly injected with W83 strain P.g, and the tooth was then filled. Six weeks after infection, the mice were mated with males and the formation of vagina plug was recorded as 0d. The P.g extracted from the granulation tissue in tooth root was cultivated. The pregnant days and the connatal body weight of infant mouse were recorded, the serum and placental tissue were collected to assess the systemic and local conditions during pregnancy. Results  After periodontal P.g infection, the TNF-α, IL-17, IL -6 and IL -1βlevels in peripheral blood sera increased significantly. The average gestation was shorter in P.g infection group (18.25d than in control group (20.45d, P<0.01, and the connatal body weight of infant mouse was also less in the former than in the latter (P<0.01. Immunohistochemistry and PCR revealed the existence of P.g in placenta tissue. P.g infection caused premature rupture of membranes, placental abruption, degeneration and necrosis of trophoblastic and endothelial cells; significantly increased the number of neutrophils and macrophages in placenta tissues, and increased the expression of local TNF-αand COX-2 inflammatory factors at the same time. In P.g infection group, the expressions of CD-31 in endothelial cells of placenta tissues and the apoptotic factor caspase-3 decreased, and the DNA oxidative damage index 8-OHdG increased. Conclusions  P.g infection in female mice may cause premature birth and lower connatal body weight of infant mouse, and increase the expression of serous and local inflammatory factors in the placenta

  8. Activation of lymphocytes induced by bronchial epithelial cells with prolonged RSV infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Qin

    Full Text Available Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV preferentially infects airway epithelial cells,which might be responsible for susceptibility to asthma; however, the underlying mechanism is not clear. This study determined the activation of lymphocytes and drift of helper T (Th subsets induced by RSV-infected human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs in vitro. HBECs had prolonged infection with RSV, and lymphocytes isolated from human peripheral blood were co-cultured with RSV-infected HBECs. Four groups were established, as follows: lymphocytes (group L; lymphocytes infected with RSV (group RL; co-culture of lymphocytes with non-infected HBECs (group HL; and co-culture of lymphocytes with infected HBECs (group HRL. After co-culture with HBECs for 24 hours, lymphocytes were collected and the following were determined in the 4 groups: cell cycle status; apoptosis rate; and concentrations of IL-4, IFN-γ, and IL-17 in the supernatants. Cell cycle analysis for lymphocytes showed a significant increase in S phase cells, a decrease in G1 phase cells, and a higher apoptosis rate in group HRL compared with the other three groups. In group HRL, the levels of IL-4, IFN-γ, and IL-17 in supernatants were also higher than the other three groups. For further study, lymphocytes were individually treated with supernatants from non-infected and RSV-infected HBECs for 24 h. We showed that supernatants from RSV-infected HBECs induced the differentiation of Th2 and Th17 subsets, and suppressed the differentiation of Treg subsets. Our results showed that HBECs with prolonged RSV infection can induce lymphocyte proliferation and apoptosis, and enhance the release of cytokines by lymphocytes. Moreover, subset drift might be caused by RSV-infected HBECs.

  9. Leishmania donovani infection induces anemia in hamsters by differentially altering erythropoiesis in bone marrow and spleen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William P Lafuse

    Full Text Available Leishmania donovani is a parasite that causes visceral leishmaniasis by infecting and replicating in macrophages of the bone marrow, spleen, and liver. Severe anemia and leucopenia is associated with the disease. Although immune defense mechanisms against the parasite have been studied, we have a limited understanding of how L. donovani alters hematopoiesis. In this study, we used Syrian golden hamsters to investigate effects of L. donovani infection on erythropoiesis. Infection resulted in severe anemia and leucopenia by 8 weeks post-infection. Anemia was associated with increased levels of serum erythropoietin, which indicates the hamsters respond to the anemia by producing erythropoietin. We found that infection also increased numbers of BFU-E and CFU-E progenitor populations in the spleen and bone marrow and differentially altered erythroid gene expression in these organs. In the bone marrow, the mRNA expression of erythroid differentiation genes (α-globin, β-globin, ALAS2 were inhibited by 50%, but mRNA levels of erythroid receptor (c-kit, EpoR and transcription factors (GATA1, GATA2, FOG1 were not affected by the infection. This suggests that infection has a negative effect on differentiation of erythroblasts. In the spleen, erythroid gene expression was enhanced by infection, indicating that the anemia activates a stress erythropoiesis response in the spleen. Analysis of cytokine mRNA levels in spleen and bone marrow found that IFN-γ mRNA is highly increased by L. donovani infection. Expression of the IFN-γ inducible cytokine, TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL, was also up-regulated. Since TRAIL induces erythroblasts apoptosis, apoptosis of bone marrow erythroblasts from infected hamsters was examined by flow cytometry. Percentage of erythroblasts that were apoptotic was significantly increased by L. donovani infection. Together, our results suggest that L. donovani infection inhibits erythropoiesis in the bone marrow by

  10. Oral contraceptives as anti-androgenic treatment of acne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemay, André; Poulin, Yves

    2002-07-01

    Although acne is seldom associated with high serum levels of androgens, it has been shown that female acne patients have definite increases in ovarian and adrenal androgen levels when compared to appropriate controls. As shown in several pilot and in multiple open and comparative studies, oral contraceptives (OCs) are effective in causing a significant regression of mild to moderate acne. These results have been confirmed by multicentre randomized trials where low-dose OCs did not cause side effects different from those of the placebo-controlled group. The beneficial effect of OCs is related to a decrease in ovarian and adrenal androgen precursors; to an increase in sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), which limits free testosterone; and to a decrease in 3a-androstenediol glucuronide conjugate, the catabolite of dihydrotestosterone (DHT) formed in peripheral tissues. The estrogen-progestin combination containing cyproterone acetate (CPA) is particularly effective in treating acne, since this progestin also has a direct peripheral anti-androgenic action in blocking the androgen receptor. Only two open studies and one randomized study on small numbers of patients have reported some efficacy of spironolactone used alone or in combination with an OC in the treatment of acne. The new non-steroidal anti-androgens flutamide and finasteride are being evaluated for the treatment of hirsutism. Oral antibiotics are prescribed to patients with inflammatory lesions, where they are effective in decreasing the activity of microbes, the activity of microbial enzymes, and leukocyte chemotaxis. Concomitant intake of an OC and an antibiotic usually prescribed for acne does not impair the contraceptive efficacy of the OC. A second effective contraceptive method should be used whenever there would be decreased absorption or efficacy of the OC (digestive problems, breakthrough bleeding), lack of compliance and use of a type or dose of antibiotic different from that usually prescribed

  11. Psychological Impact of Isotretinoin Treatment in Patients with Moderate and Severe Acne

    OpenAIRE

    Šimić, Dubravka; Šitum, Mirna; Letica, Edita; Zeljko Penavić, Jasna; Vurnek Živković, Maja; Tomić, Teo

    2009-01-01

    Acne patients are subject to different degree of psychosocial distress. The emotional impact of acne vulgaris due to disfigurement caused by the disease is undisputed. Most common reactions to the acne are depression and anxiety. The use of isotretinoin, one of the most effective options in acne treatment, increases depression symptoms. The aim of this study was to investigate the psychological status of the patients with moderate to severe acne and to compare patients treated with isotretino...

  12. Comparison of three different regimens of oral azithromycin in the treatment of acne vulgaris

    OpenAIRE

    Naieni Farahnaz; Akrami Hooman

    2006-01-01

    Background: Acne vulgaris is a common skin disease that involves pilosebaceous units. Oral antibiotics are the most widely administered drugs, which are prescribed as systemic therapy for treatment of moderate to severe acne vulgaris. Azithromycin is one of the antibiotics that has been recently used for acne treatment. There are several protocols of oral azithromycin in the treatment of acne. Objective: To compare three various regimens of oral azithromycin in the treatment of acne. Mate...

  13. Hepatitis C virus infection induces elevation of CXCL10 in human brain microvascular endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuan; Chen, Li; Zou, Ziying; Zhu, Bing; Hu, Zonghai; Zeng, Ping; Wu, Lijuan; Xiong, Jie

    2016-09-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) primarily infects liver tissues, while pathogenesis of extrahepatic tissues has been reported. About 50% of patients with HCV infection suffer from neurological disease. The underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the induction of CXC chemokine ligand 10 (CXCL10) in human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMECs) by HCV infection. CXCL10 and its receptor CXCR3 were constitutively expressed in HBMECs. HCV infection induced CXCL10 elevation in HBMECs. The elevation of CXCL10 in HBMECs was eliminated when HCV infection was blocked by neutralizing antibodies. NF-κB is a positive regulator for CXCL10 transcription. HCV infection led to an increased phosphorylation of NF-κB (ser536) in HBMECs, and CXCL10 induced by HCV was slightly decreased when an inhibitor of NF-κB was added. IL1 beta and IFN gama were also upregulated in HCV infected HBMECs, and could be depressed by inhibitor of NF-κB. Thus, HCV infection leads to upregulated expression of CXCL10 in HBMECs, which is probably via the phosphorylation of NF-κB. The findings of this study provide potential mechanisms and novel targets for HCV induced neuroinflammation. J. Med. Virol. 88:1596-1603, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26895737

  14. Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Hepatitis C infections induce distinct immunologic imprints in peripheral mononuclear cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottilil, S; Yan, MY; Reitano, KN; Zhang, X; Lempicki, R; Roby, G; Daucher, M; Yang, J; Cortez, KJ; Ghany, M; Polis, MA; Fauci, AS

    2009-01-01

    Co-infection with Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is present in one-third of all Human Immunodeficiency Virus-infected (HIV) individuals in the United States and is associated with rapid progression of liver fibrosis and poor response to pegylated interferon (IFN) and ribavirin. In this study, we examined gene expression profiles in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from different groups of individuals who are mono- or co-infected with HIV and HCV. Data showed that HIV and HCV viremia up-regulate genes associated with immune activation and immunoregulatory pathways. HCV viremia is also associated with abnormalities in all peripheral immune cells, suggesting a global effect of HCV on the immune system. Interferon-α-induced genes were expressed at a higher level in PBMCs from HIV-infected individuals. HCV and HIV infections leave distinct profiles or gene expression of immune activation in PBMCs. HIV viremia induces an immune activated state; by comparison, HCV infection induces immunoregulatory and pro-inflammatory pathways that may contribute to progression of liver fibrosis. An aberrant type-I IFN response seen exclusively in HIV-infected individuals could be responsible for the poor therapeutic response experienced by HIV/HCV co-infected individuals receiving interferon-α based current standard of care. PMID:19551908

  15. Permanent Draft Genome Sequence of Frankia sp. Strain ACN1ag, a Nitrogen-Fixing Actinobacterium Isolated from the Root Nodules of Alnus glutinosa

    OpenAIRE

    Swanson, Erik; Oshone, Rediet; Simpson, Stephen; Morris, Krystalynne; Abebe-Akele, Feseha; Thomas, W Kelley; Tisa, Louis S.

    2015-01-01

    Frankia strain ACN1ag is a member of Frankia lineage Ia, which are able to re-infect plants of the Betulaceae and Myricaceae families. Here, we report a 7.5-Mbp draft genome sequence with a G+C content of 72.35% and 5,687 candidate protein-encoding genes.

  16. Permanent Draft Genome Sequence of Frankia sp. Strain ACN1ag, a Nitrogen-Fixing Actinobacterium Isolated from the Root Nodules of Alnus glutinosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Erik; Oshone, Rediet; Simpson, Stephen; Morris, Krystalynne; Abebe-Akele, Feseha; Thomas, W Kelley; Tisa, Louis S

    2015-01-01

    Frankia strain ACN1(ag) is a member of Frankia lineage Ia, which are able to re-infect plants of the Betulaceae and Myricaceae families. Here, we report a 7.5-Mbp draft genome sequence with a G+C content of 72.35% and 5,687 candidate protein-encoding genes. PMID:26679592

  17. Treatment of acne vulgaris with fractional radiofrequency microneedling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang Tae; Lee, Kang Hoon; Sim, Hyung Jun; Suh, Kee Suck; Jang, Min Soo

    2014-07-01

    Fractional radiofrequency microneedling is a novel radiofrequency technique that uses insulated microneedles to deliver energy to the deep dermis at the point of penetration without destruction of the epidermis. It has been used for the treatment of various dermatological conditions including wrinkles, atrophic scars and hypertrophic scars. There have been few studies evaluating the efficacy of fractional radiofrequency microneedling in the treatment of acne, and none measuring objective parameters like the number of inflammatory and non-inflammatory acne lesions or sebum excretion levels. The safety and efficacy of fractional radiofrequency microneedling in the treatment of acne vulgaris was investigated. In a prospective clinical trial, 25 patients with moderate to severe acne were treated with fractional radiofrequency microneedling. The procedure was carried out three times at 1-month intervals. Acne lesion count, subjective satisfaction score, sebum excretion level and adverse effects were assessed at baseline and at 4, 8 and 12 weeks after the first treatment as well as 4, 8 and 12 weeks after the last treatment. Number of acne lesions (inflammatory and non-inflammatory) decreased. Sebum excretion and subjective satisfaction were more favorable at every time point compared with the baseline values (P acne vulgaris.

  18. [Use of organic acids in acne and skin discolorations therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapuścińska, Alicja; Nowak, Izabela

    2015-03-22

    Acne is one of the most frequent skin disorders that occurs in puberty, but often adults also have acne. The most important factors responsible for acne are elevated production of sebum by hyperactive sebaceous glands and blockage of the follicle because of hyperkeratosis [14]. The third etiopathogenic factor of acne is excessive microflora reproduction [8]. The most significant bacterium that is responsible for formation of skin lesions is Propionibacterium acnes, a rod-shaped Gram-positive and aerotolerant anaerobic bacterium. It is estimated that P. acnes is responsible for acne in approximately 80% of people aged 11 to 30 [27,40]. Even healed skin lesions can often cause skin discolorations and scar formation [51]. Exfoliating chemical substances that are commonly used in dermatology and cosmetology are organic acids. Exfoliating treatment using organic acids is called "chemical peeling" and consists of controlled application of those substances on the skin [38]. The depth of exfoliation depends on organic acid concentration, type of substance and contact time with the skin [41]. Using exfoliating agents seems to be helpful in excessive keratinization - one of several factors responsible for acne. Moreover, epidermis exfoliation is a popular method of removing skin discoloration [22]. Considering chemical structure, exfoliating substances that are most often used in cosmetology contain alpha-hydroxyacids (glycolic acid, lactic acid, mandelic acid and citric acid), beta-hydroxyacids (salicylic acid) and other organic acids, such as trichloroacetic acid and pyruvic acid [47]. In this article, a literature review of use of organic acids in acne and skin discoloration therapy is presented.

  19. Acute Borrelia infection inducing an APMPPE-like picture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Mousa, Munjid; Koch, Frank

    2016-12-01

    Acute posterior multifocal placoid pigment epitheliopathy (APMPPE) is an uncommon disorder of unknown etiology affecting the retina, the retinal pigment epithelium, and the choroid. Although several etiological factors have been suggested, none has been confirmed. We report a case of APMPPE associated with acute infection of Borreliosis. A 30-year-old man presented with a decrease in vision in the right eye of about 1-week duration. His visual acuity in the right eye was 6/36. Fundus exam revealed the presence of multiple placoid creamy retinal/subretinal lesions in the right eye. Fundus fluorescein angiography supported the diagnosis of APMPPE. Blood tests revealed the presence of concomitant acute Borreliosis infection, as confirmed by IgM. The patient received oral prednisone therapy and amoxicillin. Six weeks later, the visual acuity returned to 6/6, and the patient was symptom free. Borreliosis can have several manifestations in the eye. One of the less common presentations is an APMPPE-like picture. The clinician should suspect acute Borreliosis infection in patients presenting with APMPPE, especially when there is a history of a tick bite, when the patient has systemic symptoms, or when living in/visiting endemic areas. This may help in the prompt management of APMPPE, avoiding complications due to the condition itself, or systemic involvement secondary to the Borreliosis infection. PMID:27294731

  20. Update and future of hormonal therapy in acne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiboutot, Diane; Chen, WenChieh

    2003-01-01

    Hormonal therapy is an important component in the treatment of women with acne who may or may not have elevated serum androgens. The mainstays of hormonal therapy include oral contraceptives and antiandrogens such as cyproterone acetate, flutamide or spironolactone. Recent research over the past several years has unraveled some of the details regarding the way that the skin and sebaceous glands synthesize and metabolize hormones. The knowledge gained from this work may provide an impetus for future drug discovery in the hormonal treatment of acne and lead to improvements in the care of our patients with acne. PMID:12566806

  1. Efficacy and Safety of Topical Niacinamide for Acne Vulgaris

    OpenAIRE

    Zeynep Nurhan Saraçoğlu; Ayşe Esra Koku Aksu; Tuğçe Köksüz; İlham Sabuncu; İnci Arıkan

    2011-01-01

    Background and Design: To investigate the efficacy and safety of topical 4% naicinamide gel cream in the treatment of mild to moderate acne vulgaris and to assess the quality of life of acne patients.Material and Method: Twenty-nine female patients aged 16-38 (mean: 23.57±5.42) years with mild to moderate acne vulgaris who presented in dermatology outpatient clinic were enrolled in the study. All patients applied 4% niacinamide gel cream (Vivatinell-acnecinamide gel cream®) on their faces twi...

  2. Calcinosis cutis secondary to facial acne vulgaris: A rare complication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Srimanta Kumar; Gupta, Nikhil; Vohra, Suruchi

    2015-12-01

    Acne vulgaris is a common dermatological disease commonly affecting the adolescent and young adults. It is characterized by the presence of pleomorphic skin lesions such as comadones, papules, pustules, and nodules. The common complications are postacne hyperpigmentation and scarring causing psychological impact. Calcinosis cutis is the pathologic deposition of insoluble calcium salt in the skin and subcutaneous tissue. Calcinosis cutis following acne vulgaris is rarely reported in the literature. We report a case of calcinosis cutis in acne vulgaris in a 55-year-old man.

  3. Trichinella papuae and Trichinella zimbabwensis induce infection in experimentally infected varans, caimans, pythons and turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozio, E; Marucci, G; Casulli, A; Sacchi, L; Mukaratirwa, S; Foggin, C M; La Rosa, G

    2004-03-01

    The discovery of Trichinella zimbabwensis in farm crocodiles of Zimbabwe has opened up a new frontier in the epidemiology of the Trichinella genus. The objective of the present study was to investigate the infectivity of encapsulated species (T. spiralis, T. nativa, T. britovi, T. murrelli and T. nelsoni) and non-encapsulated species (T. pseudospiralis, T. papuae and T. zimbabwensis) in caimans (Caiman crocodilus), varans (Varanus exanthematicus), pythons (Python molurus bivittatus) and turtles (Pelomedusa subrufa) raised at their natural temperature range (26-32 degrees C). Mice and chickens were used as controls. At 6 days post-infection (p.i.), adult worms were detected in the small intestine of reptiles infected with T. papuae and T. zimbabwensis, of chickens infected with T. pseudospiralis and of mice infected with all encapsulated and non-encapsulated species. At 60 days p.i., T. papuae and T. zimbabwensis adult worms were collected from the intestine of varans and caimans and larvae from muscles of the four reptile species, T. pseudospiralis larvae from muscles of chickens, and larvae of all Trichinella species from mouse muscles. The highest reproductive capacity index of both T. papuae and T. zimbabwensis was observed in varans. The results show that T. papuae and T. zimbabwensis are able to complete their entire life-cycle in both poikilothermic and homoiothermic animals. PMID:15074882

  4. Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection induces non-apoptotic cell death of human dendritic cells

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ryan, Ruth CM

    2011-10-24

    Abstract Background Dendritic cells (DCs) connect innate and adaptive immunity, and are necessary for an efficient CD4+ and CD8+ T cell response after infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). We previously described the macrophage cell death response to Mtb infection. To investigate the effect of Mtb infection on human DC viability, we infected these phagocytes with different strains of Mtb and assessed viability, as well as DNA fragmentation and caspase activity. In parallel studies, we assessed the impact of infection on DC maturation, cytokine production and bacillary survival. Results Infection of DCs with live Mtb (H37Ra or H37Rv) led to cell death. This cell death proceeded in a caspase-independent manner, and without nuclear fragmentation. In fact, substrate assays demonstrated that Mtb H37Ra-induced cell death progressed without the activation of the executioner caspases, 3\\/7. Although the death pathway was triggered after infection, the DCs successfully underwent maturation and produced a host-protective cytokine profile. Finally, dying infected DCs were permissive for Mtb H37Ra growth. Conclusions Human DCs undergo cell death after infection with live Mtb, in a manner that does not involve executioner caspases, and results in no mycobactericidal effect. Nonetheless, the DC maturation and cytokine profile observed suggests that the infected cells can still contribute to TB immunity.

  5. Toxoplasma gondii Infection Promotes Neuroinflammation Through Cytokine Networks and Induced Hyperalgesia in BALB/c Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudvand, Hossein; Ziaali, Naser; Ghazvini, Hamed; Shojaee, Saeideh; Keshavarz, Hossein; Esmaeilpour, Khadijeh; Sheibani, Vahid

    2016-02-01

    We hypothesized that in Toxoplasma gondii infection, communication among immune cells promotes neuroinflammation through cytokine networks and induces pain sensitivity under conditions of neuropathic pain. The animal model of Toxoplasma infection was established by the intraperitoneal inoculation of 20-25 tissue cysts from Tehran strain of T. gondii to BALB/c mice. Amitriptyline (20 mg/kg, i.p., 1/day) administrated to animals for 7 days before behavioral tests. Pain behavioral tests including tail flick, hot plate, and formalin test were evaluated in all the groups. The mRNA levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-6 were examined by real-time PCR. Results revealed that T. gondii induce hyperalgesia in the infected mice, whereas amitriptyline showed a promising effect against the hyperalgesia induced by Toxoplasma infection. The mRNA levels of the aforementioned cytokines significantly (P < 0.05) increased in the infected mice compared to the uninfected ones. Obtained findings suggested that T. gondii infection could promote neuroinflammation through cytokine networks and induced hyperalgesia in BALB/c mice, whereas amitriptyline as an analgesic drug reverses them. PMID:26490968

  6. Differential immunological responses induced by infection with female muscle larvae and newborn larvae of Trichinella pseudospiralis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Z; Nagano, I; Asano, K; Liu, M Y; Takahashi, Y

    2013-05-20

    Trichinella pseudospiralis infection can modulate the immunological response of autoimmune and allergic diseases leading to the amelioration of these diseases. The present study was undertaken to compare immunity induced by adult worms and muscle larvae. Higher eosinophilia was observed from newborn larva (NBL) infection than from adult females while higher levels of IgE were observed in adult female infections over those induced by NBL. The IgG1 response to ES antigen was more prominent in infections with adult females. The IgG2 responses to larval crude antigen were prominent against NBL. The Th2 cytokine, IL-4 cytokine was elevated in adult female infection following re-stimulation with adult crude antigen and ES. Both infections induced strong IFN-γ responses. The present study demonstrates that adult female worms induced stronger Th2 responses (IgG1, IgE and IL-4 responses) than NBL. Further examination of the mechanisms involved in immune modulation may be helpful for identifying Trichinella-derived molecules responsible for regulating autoimmune and allergic diseases. PMID:23433605

  7. Relationship between the severity of acne vulgaris and antimicrobial resistance of bacteria isolated from acne lesions in a hospital in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakase, Keisuke; Nakaminami, Hidemasa; Takenaka, Yuko; Hayashi, Nobukazu; Kawashima, Makoto; Noguchi, Norihisa

    2014-05-01

    Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis are normal skin inhabitants that are frequently isolated from lesions caused by acne, and these micro-organisms are considered to contribute to the inflammation of acne. In the present study, we examined the antimicrobial susceptibilities and resistance mechanisms of P. acnes and S. epidermidis isolated from patients with acne vulgaris in a university hospital in Japan from 2009 to 2010. Additionally, we analysed the relationship between the antimicrobial resistance of P. acnes and the severity of acne vulgaris. Some P. acnes strains (18.8 %; 13/69) were resistant to clindamycin. All strains had a mutation in the 23S rRNA gene, except for one strain that expressed erm(X) encoding a 23S rRNA methylase. Tetracycline-resistant P. acnes strains were found to represent 4.3 % (3/69) of the strains, and this resistance was caused by a mutation in the 16S rRNA gene. Furthermore, three strains with reduced susceptibility to nadifloxacin (MIC = 16 µg ml(-1)) were detected. When analysing the correlation between the antimicrobial resistance of P. acnes and S. epidermidis, more than 80 % of the patients who carried clindamycin-resistant P. acnes also carried clindamycin-resistant S. epidermidis. However, no epidemic strain that exhibited antimicrobial resistance was detected in the P. acnes strains when analysed by PFGE. Therefore, our results suggest that the antimicrobial resistance of P. acnes is closely related to antimicrobial therapy. Additionally, those P. acnes strains tended to be frequently found in severe acne patients rather than in mild acne patients. Consequently, the data support a relationship between using antimicrobial agents and the emergence of antimicrobial resistance.

  8. Anxiety, depression, social phobia, and quality of life in Turkish patients with acne and their relationships with the severity of acne

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmet ÖZTÜRK; DEVECİ, Erdem; BAĞCIOĞLU, Erman; Atalay, Figen; Serdar, Zehra

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the psychiatric characteristics of acne vulgaris and the effects of the disease on quality of life. Materials and methods: We included 70 acne patients and 50 healthy controls. The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale, Quality of Life Scale Short Form, and Acne Quality of Life Questionnaire were applied. Results: Anxiety and depression scores of the acne patients were significantly h...

  9. Changes in gastric microbiota induced by Helicobacter pylori infection and preventive effects of Lactobacillus plantarum ZDY 2013 against such infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Mingfang; Wan, Cuixiang; Xie, Qiong; Huang, Renhui; Tao, Xueying; Shah, Nagendra P; Wei, Hua

    2016-02-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a gram-negative pathogen linked to gastric ulcers and stomach cancer. Gastric microbiota might play an essential role in the pathogenesis of these stomach diseases. In this study, we investigated the preventive effect of a probiotic candidate Lactobacillus plantarum ZDY 2013 as a protective agent against the gastric mucosal inflammation and alteration of gastric microbiota induced by H. pylori infection in a mouse model. Prior to infection, mice were pretreated with or without 400 µL of L. plantarum ZDY 2013 at a concentration of 10(9) cfu/mL per mouse. At 6 wk postinfection, gastric mucosal immune response and alteration in gastric microbiota mice were examined by quantitative real-time PCR and high-throughput 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing, respectively. The results showed that L. plantarum ZDY 2013 pretreatment prevented increase in inflammatory cytokines (e.g., IL-1β and IFN-γ) and inflammatory cell infiltration in gastric lamina propria induced by H. pylori infection. Weighted UniFrac principal coordinate analysis showed that L. plantarum ZDY 2013 pretreatment prevented the alteration in gastric microbiota post-H. pylori infection. Linear discriminant analysis coupled with effect size identified 22 bacterial taxa (e.g., Pasteurellaceae, Erysipelotrichaceae, Halomonadaceae, Helicobacteraceae, and Spirochaetaceae) that overgrew in the gastric microbiota of H. pylori-infected mice, and most of them belonged to the Proteobacteria phylum. Lactobacillus plantarum ZDY 2013 pretreatment prevented this alteration; only 6 taxa (e.g., Lachnospiraceae, Ruminococcaceae, and Clostridiaceae), mainly from the taxa of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, were dominant in the gastric microbiota of the L. plantarum ZDY 2013 pretreated mice. Administration of L. plantarum ZDY 2013 for 3 wk led to increase in several bacterial taxa (e.g., Rikenella, Staphylococcus, Bifidobacterium), although a nonsignificant alteration was found in the gastric microbiota

  10. Changes in gastric microbiota induced by Helicobacter pylori infection and preventive effects of Lactobacillus plantarum ZDY 2013 against such infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Mingfang; Wan, Cuixiang; Xie, Qiong; Huang, Renhui; Tao, Xueying; Shah, Nagendra P; Wei, Hua

    2016-02-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a gram-negative pathogen linked to gastric ulcers and stomach cancer. Gastric microbiota might play an essential role in the pathogenesis of these stomach diseases. In this study, we investigated the preventive effect of a probiotic candidate Lactobacillus plantarum ZDY 2013 as a protective agent against the gastric mucosal inflammation and alteration of gastric microbiota induced by H. pylori infection in a mouse model. Prior to infection, mice were pretreated with or without 400 µL of L. plantarum ZDY 2013 at a concentration of 10(9) cfu/mL per mouse. At 6 wk postinfection, gastric mucosal immune response and alteration in gastric microbiota mice were examined by quantitative real-time PCR and high-throughput 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing, respectively. The results showed that L. plantarum ZDY 2013 pretreatment prevented increase in inflammatory cytokines (e.g., IL-1β and IFN-γ) and inflammatory cell infiltration in gastric lamina propria induced by H. pylori infection. Weighted UniFrac principal coordinate analysis showed that L. plantarum ZDY 2013 pretreatment prevented the alteration in gastric microbiota post-H. pylori infection. Linear discriminant analysis coupled with effect size identified 22 bacterial taxa (e.g., Pasteurellaceae, Erysipelotrichaceae, Halomonadaceae, Helicobacteraceae, and Spirochaetaceae) that overgrew in the gastric microbiota of H. pylori-infected mice, and most of them belonged to the Proteobacteria phylum. Lactobacillus plantarum ZDY 2013 pretreatment prevented this alteration; only 6 taxa (e.g., Lachnospiraceae, Ruminococcaceae, and Clostridiaceae), mainly from the taxa of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, were dominant in the gastric microbiota of the L. plantarum ZDY 2013 pretreated mice. Administration of L. plantarum ZDY 2013 for 3 wk led to increase in several bacterial taxa (e.g., Rikenella, Staphylococcus, Bifidobacterium), although a nonsignificant alteration was found in the gastric microbiota

  11. Acne fulminans e isotretinoína: relato de caso Acne fulminans and isotretinoin: case report

    OpenAIRE

    Mayra Falcao Pereira; Eduardo Mendes Roncada; Cláudia Macedo de Oliveira; Rodrigo Monteiro; Marilda Aparecida Milanez Morgado de Abreu; Luciena Cegato Ortigosa

    2011-01-01

    A acne fulminans é afecção rara e a forma mais grave de todo o espectro clínico da acne. Caracterizase pelo aparecimento súbito de nódulos inflamatórios dolorosos que ulceram, concomitantemente, a manifestações sistêmicas. Pode ser induzida pela isotretinoína e alguns autores acreditam que a ocorrência do quadro seja dose dependente. O tratamento é controverso, não havendo padronização até o momento. Apresenta-se caso desta rara doença, desenvolvida durante o uso de isotretinoína em baixas do...

  12. Dengue virus infection induces interferon-lambda1 to facilitate cell migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Yu-Lin; Wang, Mei-Yi; Ho, Ling-Jun; Lai, Jenn-Haung

    2016-01-01

    A marked increase in the rate of dengue virus (DENV) infection has resulted in more than 212 deaths in Taiwan since the beginning of 2015, mostly from fatal outcomes such as dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome. The pathogenic mechanisms of these fatal manifestations are poorly understood. Cytokines induce an overwhelming immune reaction and thus have crucial roles. Interferon-lambda (IFN-λ), a newly identified IFN subtype, has antiviral effects, but its immunologic effects in DENV infection have not been investigated. In the present study, we show that DENV infection preferentially induced production of IFN-λ1 in human dendritic cells (DCs) and human lung epithelial cells. Virus nonstructural 1 (NS1) glycoprotein was responsible for the effect. DENV-induced production of IFN-λ1 was dependent on signaling pathways involving toll-like receptor (TLR)-3, interferon regulation factor (IRF)-3, and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB). Blocking interaction between IFN-λ1 and its receptor IFN-λR1 through siRNA interference reduced DENV-induced DC migration towards the chemoattractants CCL19 and CCL21, by inhibiting CCR7 expression. Furthermore, IFN-λ1 itself induced CCR7 expression and DC migration. Our study presents the first evidence of the mechanisms and effects of IFN-λ1 induction in DENV-infected DCs and highlights the role of this cytokine in the immunopathogenesis of DENV infection. PMID:27456172

  13. Dengue virus infection induces interferon-lambda1 to facilitate cell migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Yu-Lin; Wang, Mei-Yi; Ho, Ling-Jun; Lai, Jenn-Haung

    2016-01-01

    A marked increase in the rate of dengue virus (DENV) infection has resulted in more than 212 deaths in Taiwan since the beginning of 2015, mostly from fatal outcomes such as dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome. The pathogenic mechanisms of these fatal manifestations are poorly understood. Cytokines induce an overwhelming immune reaction and thus have crucial roles. Interferon-lambda (IFN-λ), a newly identified IFN subtype, has antiviral effects, but its immunologic effects in DENV infection have not been investigated. In the present study, we show that DENV infection preferentially induced production of IFN-λ1 in human dendritic cells (DCs) and human lung epithelial cells. Virus nonstructural 1 (NS1) glycoprotein was responsible for the effect. DENV-induced production of IFN-λ1 was dependent on signaling pathways involving toll-like receptor (TLR)-3, interferon regulation factor (IRF)-3, and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB). Blocking interaction between IFN-λ1 and its receptor IFN-λR1 through siRNA interference reduced DENV-induced DC migration towards the chemoattractants CCL19 and CCL21, by inhibiting CCR7 expression. Furthermore, IFN-λ1 itself induced CCR7 expression and DC migration. Our study presents the first evidence of the mechanisms and effects of IFN-λ1 induction in DENV-infected DCs and highlights the role of this cytokine in the immunopathogenesis of DENV infection. PMID:27456172

  14. Atypical Papular Purpuric Eruption Induced by Parvovirus B19 Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Şeyma Kayalı; Nilden Tuygun; Halise Akça; Can Demir Karacan

    2016-01-01

    Parvovirus B19 infection’s most common dermatological manifestation is erythema infectiosum as also known the fifth disease. Rare clinical presentations of parvovirus B 19 like papulopurpuric gloves and socks syndrome and acropetechial syndrome has also been described re­cently. This study presents report of a case with atypical feature and distribution of rash due to parvovirus B19 in­fection. We want to emphasize that pediatricians should consider parvovirus B19 infection of any patient who...

  15. Theileria parva infection induces autocrine growth of bovine lymphocytes.

    OpenAIRE

    Dobbelaere, D A; Coquerelle, T M; Roditi, I J; Eichhorn, M; Williams, R O

    1988-01-01

    Bovine lymphocytes infected with the parasite Theileria parva continuously secrete a growth factor that is essential for their proliferation in vitro and also constitutively express interleukin 2 receptors on their surface. Dilution of the secreted growth factor, caused by culturing cells at low density, results in retardation of culture growth. Human recombinant interleukin 2, however, effectively substitutes for the diluted growth factor by restoring normal growth rates and also allows Thei...

  16. Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Potential Hazards Exposure of employees to community and nosocomial infections, e.g., Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) . Nosocomial infections are infections that occur from exposure to infectious ...

  17. Legionella pneumophila infection of Drosophila S2 cells induces only minor changes in mitochondrial dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Wen Sun

    Full Text Available During infection of cells by Legionella pneumophila, the bacterium secretes a large number of effector proteins into the host cell cytoplasm, allowing it to alter many cellular processes and make the vacuole and the host cell into more hospitable environments for bacterial replication. One major change induced by infection is the recruitment of ER-derived vesicles to the surface of the vacuole, where they fuse with the vacuole membrane and prevent it from becoming an acidified, degradative compartment. However, the recruitment of mitochondria to the region of the vacuole has also been suggested by ultrastructural studies. In order to test this idea in a controlled and quantitative experimental system, and to lay the groundwork for a genome-wide screen for factors involved in mitochondrial recruitment, we examined the behavior of mitochondria during the early stages of Legionella pneumophila infection of Drosophila S2 cells. We found that the density of mitochondria near vacuoles formed by infection with wild type Legionella was not different from that found in dotA(- mutant-infected cells during the first 4 hours after infection. We then examined 4 parameters of mitochondrial motility in infected cells: velocity of movement, duty cycle of movement, directional persistence and net direction. In the 4 hours following infection, most of these measures were indistinguishable between wild type and dotA(-.infection. However, wild type Legionella did induce a modest shift in the velocity distribution toward faster movement compared dotA(- infection, and a small downward shift in the duty cycle distribution. In addition, wild type infection produced mitochondrial movement that was biased in the direction of the bacterial vacuole relative to dotA-, although not enough to cause a significant accumulation within 10 um of the vacuole. We conclude that in this host cell, mitochondria are not strongly recruited to the vacuole, nor is their motility

  18. Failure of Clindamycin To Eradicate Infection with Beta-Hemolytic Streptococci Inducibly Resistant to Clindamycin in an Animal Model and in Human Infections

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, James S.; Lepak, Alex J.; Thompson, George R.; Craig, William A.; Andes, David R.; Sabol-Dzintars, Kathryn E.; Jorgensen, James H.

    2014-01-01

    Inducible clindamycin resistance in beta-hemolytic streptococci remains an underrecognized phenomenon of unknown clinical significance. We performed an evaluation of inducible clindamycin resistance using an animal model as well as retrospectively reviewing the charts of patients treated with clindamycin monotherapy who were infected with beta-hemolytic streptococci inducibly resistant to clindamycin. The neutropenic mouse thigh model of infection was used to evaluate the in vivo activity of ...

  19. Leishmania major infection in humanized mice induces systemic infection and provokes a nonprotective human immune response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Kathrin Wege

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Leishmania (L. species are the causative agent of leishmaniasis. Due to the lack of efficient vaccine candidates, drug therapies are the only option to deal with cutaneous leishmaniasis. Unfortunately, chemotherapeutic interventions show high toxicity in addition to an increased risk of dissemination of drug-resistant parasites. An appropriate laboratory animal based model is still missing which allows testing of new drug strategies in the context of human immune cells in vivo. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Humanized mice were infected subcutaneously with stationary phase promastigote L. major into the footpad. The human immune response against the pathogen and the parasite host interactions were analyzed. In addition we proved the versatility of this new model to conduct drug research studies by the inclusion of orally given Miltefosine. We show that inflammatory human macrophages get infected with Leishmania parasites at the site of infection. Furthermore, a Leishmania-specific human-derived T cell response is initiated. However, the human immune system is not able to prevent systemic infection. Thus, we treated the mice with Miltefosine to reduce the parasitic load. Notably, this chemotherapy resulted in a reduction of the parasite load in distinct organs. Comparable to some Miltefosine treated patients, humanized mice developed severe side effects, which are not detectable in the classical murine model of experimental leishmaniasis. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study describes for the first time L. major infection in humanized mice, characterizes the disease development, the induction of human adaptive and innate immune response including cytokine production and the efficiency of Miltefosine treatment in these animals. In summary, humanized mice might be beneficial for future preclinical chemotherapeutic studies in systemic (visceral leishmaniasis allowing the investigation of human immune response, side effects of the drug

  20. Capillaria hepatica-induced hepatic fibrosis in rats: paradoxical effect of repeated infections

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira Ludmila; Souza Márcia Maria de; Andrade Zilton A

    2004-01-01

    Multiple exposures to parasitic agents are considered an important factor in the genesis of the most severe forms of the diseases they cause. Capillaria hepatica-induced septal fibrosis of the liver in rats usually runs without signs of portal hypertension or hepatic failure. After determining the hepatic profile of 15 animals during the course of a single infection, we submitted 20 rats to multiple Capillaria hepatica infections to determine whether repeated exposures would augment fibrosis ...

  1. Differential infection properties of three inducible prophages from an epidemic strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Chloe E

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the most common bacterial pathogen infecting the lungs of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF. The Liverpool Epidemic Strain (LES is transmissible, capable of superseding other P. aeruginosa populations and is associated with increased morbidity. Previously, multiple inducible prophages have been found to coexist in the LES chromosome and to constitute a major component of the accessory genome not found in other sequenced P. aerugionosa strains. LES phages confer a competitive advantage in a rat model of chronic lung infection and may, therefore underpin LES prevalence. Here the infective properties of three LES phages were characterised. Results This study focuses on three of the five active prophages (LESφ2, LESφ3 and LESφ4 that are members of the Siphoviridae. All were induced from LESB58 by norfloxacin. Lytic production of LESφ2 was considerably higher than that of LESφ3 and LESφ4. Each phage was capable of both lytic and lysogenic infection of the susceptible P. aeruginosa host, PAO1, producing phage-specific plaque morphologies. In the PAO1 host background, the LESφ2 prophage conferred immunity against LESφ3 infection and reduced susceptibility to LESφ4 infection. Each prophage was less stable in the PAO1 chromosome with substantially higher rates of spontaneous phage production than when residing in the native LESB58 host. We show that LES phages are capable of horizontal gene transfer by infecting P. aeruginosa strains from different sources and that type IV pili are required for infection by all three phages. Conclusions Multiple inducible prophages with diverse infection properties have been maintained in the LES genome. Our data suggest that LESφ2 is more sensitive to induction into the lytic cycle or has a more efficient replicative cycle than the other LES phages.

  2. Atypical Papular Purpuric Eruption Induced by Parvovirus B19 Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şeyma Kayalı

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Parvovirus B19 infection’s most common dermatological manifestation is erythema infectiosum as also known the fifth disease. Rare clinical presentations of parvovirus B 19 like papulopurpuric gloves and socks syndrome and acropetechial syndrome has also been described re­cently. This study presents report of a case with atypical feature and distribution of rash due to parvovirus B19 in­fection. We want to emphasize that pediatricians should consider parvovirus B19 infection of any patient who has leukopenia presenting with petechial/purpuric eruption of an unclear origin.

  3. Histone deacetylase inhibitors suppress RSV infection and alleviate virus-induced airway inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Qiuqin; Su, Zhonglan; Song, Shiyu; Χu, Hui; Zhang, Bin; Yi, Long; Tian, Man; Wang, Hongwei

    2016-09-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of lower respiratory tract infections in infants and young children. However, the majority of RSV-infected patients only show mild symptoms. Different severities of infection and responses among the RSV-infected population indicate that epigenetic regulation as well as personal genetic background may affect RSV infectivity. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) is an important epigenetic regulator in lung diseases. The present study aimed to explore the possible connection between HDAC expression and RSV-induced lung inflammation. To address this question, RSV-infected airway epithelial cells (BEAS‑2B) were prepared and a mouse model of RSV infection was established, and then treated with various concentrations of HDAC inhibitors (HDACis), namely trichostatin A (TSA) and suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA). Viral replication and markers of virus-induced airway inflammation or oxidative stress were assessed. The activation of the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling pathways was evaluated by western blot analysis. Our results showed that RSV infection in airway epithelial cells (AECs) significantly decreased histone acetylation levels by altering HDAC2 expression. The treatment of RSV-infected AECs with HDACis significantly restricted RSV replication by upregulating the interferon-α (IFN-α) related signaling pathways. The treatment of RSV-infected AECs with HDACis also significantly inhibited RSV-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine release [interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8] and oxidative stress-related molecule production [malondialdehyde (MDA), and nitrogen monoxide (NO)]. The activation of NF-κB, COX-2, MAPK and Stat3, which orchestrate pro‑inflammatory gene expression and oxidative stress injury, was also significantly inhibited. Our in vivo study using a mouse model of

  4. TRENDS OF SELF MEDICATION IN PATIENTS WITH ACNE VULGARIS

    OpenAIRE

    Tanzeela Khalid; Tariq Iqbal

    2010-01-01

    Back ground:Self medication is a norm in our country. One factor probably contributing to this phenomenonis over the counter sale of almost all medication without any regulation. In our dermatologypractice, we frequently encounter patients with acne vulgaris deteriorated by topical use of selfmedication. However, there is very little data to support this in our set up.Objective:To determine the percentage of acne patients using self medication in our population.Design:A cross-sectional survey...

  5. Efficacy of diode laser for treating acne keloidalis nuchae

    OpenAIRE

    Shah Girish

    2005-01-01

    Acne keloidalis nuchae is usually treated with oral antibiotics, local antiseptics or intralesional steroids but with limited success. I assessed the efficacy of diode laser for treating the inflammatory and keloidal papules of acne keloidalis nuchae in two cases. The lesions in both the cases showed about 90 to 95% clearance after 4 treatment sessions at one to one and half month intervals. No new lesions were observed during the follow up period of six months after the last laser tre...

  6. An update on the management of acne vulgaris

    OpenAIRE

    Shiman,

    2009-01-01

    Jonette Keri1,2, Michael Shiman11Department of Dermatology and Cutaneous Surgery, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USA; 2Dermatology Service, Miami VA Hospital, FL, USAAbstract: Acne vulgaris is a common skin disorder that can affect individuals from childhood to adulthood, most often occurring in the teenage years. Acne can have a significant physical, emotional, and social impact on an individual. Many different treatment options are available for the treatment of a...

  7. A Family Physician's Approach to the Treatment of Acne

    OpenAIRE

    Rockerbie, Neil R.

    1988-01-01

    Acne vulgaris is a condition seen commonly in family practice. It is well recognized by physicians but, in general, poorly treated. An understanding of the disease process and of the medications used is essential to proper treatment. Moreover each case must be treated individually with a specific treatment regimen, depending on the type and severity of acne. The author of this paper deals with the disease process and medications, and suggests a treatment strategy useful for the primary care p...

  8. Profiling and Hormonal Therapy for Acne in Women

    OpenAIRE

    Sangita Ghosh; Soumik Chaudhuri; Vijay Kumar Jain; Kamal Aggarwal

    2014-01-01

    Acne vulgaris is the most common condition treated by physicians worldwide. Though most acne patients remit spontaneously, for the ones that do not or are unresponsive to conventional therapy or have obvious cutaneous signs of hyperandrogenism, hormonal therapy is the next option in the therapeutic ladder. It is not strictly indicated for only those patients who have cutaneous or biochemical evidence of hyperandrogenism, but can be used even without any evidence of hyperandrogenism, for thera...

  9. Turning acne on/off via mTORC1

    OpenAIRE

    Danby, F. William

    2013-01-01

    Over the past 10 years, the increase in comprehension of the mechanisms behind acne has been truly exponential. Starting with the ethnological work of Cordain, accelerated by the epidemiological work of Adebamowo, supported by the clinical trials of Smith and Mann, Kwon, DiLandro and others, the interface of diet and acne is coming into focus. Melnik now presents an exceptional pair of papers that illustrate for dermatologists what translational research is all about. The Western diet, the ro...

  10. Neutrophil chemotaxis by Propionibacterium acnes lipase and its inhibition.

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, W. L.; Shalita, A R; Suntharalingam, K; Fikrig, S M

    1982-01-01

    The chemoattraction of Propionibacterium acnes lipase for neutrophils and the effect of lipase inhibitor and two antibiotic agents on the chemotaxis were evaluated. Of the various fractions tested, partially purified lipase (fraction 2c) was the most active cytotaxin produced by P. acnes. Serum mediators were not required for the generation of chemotaxis by lipase in vitro. Diisopropyl phosphofluoridate at low concentration (10(-4) mM) completely inhibited lipase activity as well as polymorph...

  11. Over-the-counter treatments for acne and rosacea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosamilia, Lorraine Larsen

    2016-06-01

    Acne and rosacea are common inflammatory processes historically classified in the same disease category, but evolving understanding of their disparate pathophysiology and exacerbating factors have generated an enormous armamentarium of therapeutic possibilities. Patients seek over-the-counter therapies first when managing cutaneous disease; therefore, this review defines ingredients considered to be effective over-the-counter acne and rosacea products, their mechanisms, and safe formulations, including botanical components, oral supplements, and other anecdotal options in this vast skin care domain. PMID:27416314

  12. Multimodal Management of Atrophic Acne Scarring in the Aging Face

    OpenAIRE

    Gerald O’Daniel, T.

    2011-01-01

    Atrophic facial acne scarring is a widely prevalent condition that can have a negative impact on a patient’s quality of life. The appearance of these scars is often worsened by the normal effects of aging. A number of options are available for the treatment of acne scarring, including chemical peeling, dermabrasion, ablative or nonablative laser resurfacing, dermal fillers, and surgical techniques such as subcision or punch excision. Depending on the type and extent of scarring, a multimodal ...

  13. Body Image Disturbance in Patients with Acne Vulgaris

    OpenAIRE

    Bowe, Whitney P; Doyle, Amanda K.; Crerand, Canice E.; Margolis, David J.; Shalita, Alan R.

    2011-01-01

    Psychosocial outcome measures, which attempt to examine acne from the patient's perspective, have become increasingly important in dermatology research. One such measure is the Body Image Disturbance Questionnaire. The authors' primary aim was to determine the validity and internal consistency of the Body Image Disturbance Questionnaire in patients with acne vulgaris. The secondary aim was to investigate the relationship between body image disturbance and quality of life. This cross-sectional...

  14. Physical and psychosocial impact of acne in adult females

    OpenAIRE

    Gavneet K Pruthi; Nandita Babu

    2012-01-01

    Background : Acne, the most common problem that presents to dermatologists, can persist beyond teen years. Although its physical and psychosocial impact is studied in teen years, it is poorly understood in the Indian adult population. Aim : To study the physical and psychosocial impact of acne in adult females. Settings and Design : This exploratory study was done in the university setting. Materials and Methods : Eleven adult, unmarried females, between the age group of 18 and 25 years, havi...

  15. Guidelines of care for the management of acne vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaenglein, Andrea L; Pathy, Arun L; Schlosser, Bethanee J; Alikhan, Ali; Baldwin, Hilary E; Berson, Diane S; Bowe, Whitney P; Graber, Emmy M; Harper, Julie C; Kang, Sewon; Keri, Jonette E; Leyden, James J; Reynolds, Rachel V; Silverberg, Nanette B; Stein Gold, Linda F; Tollefson, Megha M; Weiss, Jonathan S; Dolan, Nancy C; Sagan, Andrew A; Stern, Mackenzie; Boyer, Kevin M; Bhushan, Reva

    2016-05-01

    Acne is one of the most common disorders treated by dermatologists and other health care providers. While it most often affects adolescents, it is not uncommon in adults and can also be seen in children. This evidence-based guideline addresses important clinical questions that arise in its management. Issues from grading of acne to the topical and systemic management of the disease are reviewed. Suggestions on use are provided based on available evidence.

  16. Virus Infections Incite Pain Hypersensitivity by Inducing Indoleamine 2,3 Dioxygenase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Huang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Increased pain sensitivity is a comorbidity associated with many clinical diseases, though the underlying causes are poorly understood. Recently, chronic pain hypersensitivity in rodents treated to induce chronic inflammation in peripheral tissues was linked to enhanced tryptophan catabolism in brain mediated by indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase (IDO. Here we show that acute influenza A virus (IAV and chronic murine leukemia retrovirus (MuLV infections, which stimulate robust IDO expression in lungs and lymphoid tissues, induced acute or chronic pain hypersensitivity, respectively. In contrast, virus-induced pain hypersensitivity did not manifest in mice lacking intact IDO1 genes. Spleen IDO activity increased markedly as MuLV infections progressed, while IDO1 expression was not elevated significantly in brain or spinal cord (CNS tissues. Moreover, kynurenine (Kyn, a tryptophan catabolite made by cells expressing IDO, incited pain hypersensitivity in uninfected IDO1-deficient mice and Kyn potentiated pain hypersensitivity due to MuLV infection. MuLV infection stimulated selective IDO expression by a discreet population of spleen cells expressing both B cell (CD19 and dendritic cell (CD11c markers (CD19+ DCs. CD19+ DCs were more susceptible to MuLV infection than B cells or conventional (CD19neg DCs, proliferated faster than B cells from early stages of MuLV infection and exhibited mature antigen presenting cell (APC phenotypes, unlike conventional (CD19neg DCs. Moreover, interactions with CD4 T cells were necessary to sustain functional IDO expression by CD19+ DCs in vitro and in vivo. Splenocytes from MuLV-infected IDO1-sufficient mice induced pain hypersensitivity in uninfected IDO1-deficient recipient mice, while selective in vivo depletion of DCs alleviated pain hypersensitivity in MuLV-infected IDO1-sufficient mice and led to rapid reduction in splenomegaly, a hallmark of MuLV immune pathogenesis. These findings reveal critical roles for CD19

  17. Virus Infections Incite Pain Hypersensitivity by Inducing Indoleamine 2,3 Dioxygenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lei; Ou, Rong; Rabelo de Souza, Guilherme; Cunha, Thiago M; Lemos, Henrique; Mohamed, Eslam; Li, Lingqian; Pacholczyk, Gabriela; Randall, Janice; Munn, David H; Mellor, Andrew L

    2016-05-01

    Increased pain sensitivity is a comorbidity associated with many clinical diseases, though the underlying causes are poorly understood. Recently, chronic pain hypersensitivity in rodents treated to induce chronic inflammation in peripheral tissues was linked to enhanced tryptophan catabolism in brain mediated by indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase (IDO). Here we show that acute influenza A virus (IAV) and chronic murine leukemia retrovirus (MuLV) infections, which stimulate robust IDO expression in lungs and lymphoid tissues, induced acute or chronic pain hypersensitivity, respectively. In contrast, virus-induced pain hypersensitivity did not manifest in mice lacking intact IDO1 genes. Spleen IDO activity increased markedly as MuLV infections progressed, while IDO1 expression was not elevated significantly in brain or spinal cord (CNS) tissues. Moreover, kynurenine (Kyn), a tryptophan catabolite made by cells expressing IDO, incited pain hypersensitivity in uninfected IDO1-deficient mice and Kyn potentiated pain hypersensitivity due to MuLV infection. MuLV infection stimulated selective IDO expression by a discreet population of spleen cells expressing both B cell (CD19) and dendritic cell (CD11c) markers (CD19+ DCs). CD19+ DCs were more susceptible to MuLV infection than B cells or conventional (CD19neg) DCs, proliferated faster than B cells from early stages of MuLV infection and exhibited mature antigen presenting cell (APC) phenotypes, unlike conventional (CD19neg) DCs. Moreover, interactions with CD4 T cells were necessary to sustain functional IDO expression by CD19+ DCs in vitro and in vivo. Splenocytes from MuLV-infected IDO1-sufficient mice induced pain hypersensitivity in uninfected IDO1-deficient recipient mice, while selective in vivo depletion of DCs alleviated pain hypersensitivity in MuLV-infected IDO1-sufficient mice and led to rapid reduction in splenomegaly, a hallmark of MuLV immune pathogenesis. These findings reveal critical roles for CD19+ DCs

  18. Activation-induced apoptosis in peripheral blood mononuclear cells during hepatosplenic Schistosoma mansoni infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoneim, H M; Demian, S R; Heshmat, M G; Ismail, N S; El-Sayed, Laila H

    2008-01-01

    It is well established that programmed cell death (apoptosis) is an important regulator of host responses during infection with a variety of intra- and extra-cellular pathogens. The present work aimed at assessment of in vitro spontaneous and phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-induced apoptosis in mononuclear cells isolated from patients with hepatosplenic form of S. mansoni infections. Cell death data were correlated to the degree of lymphoproliferative responses to PHA as well as to the serum anti-schistosomal antibody titers. A markedly significant increase in PHA-induced apoptosis in lymphocytes isolated from S. mansoni-infected patients was seen when compared to the corresponding healthy controls. However, a slight difference was recorded between the two studied groups regarding the spontaneous apoptosis. This was accompanied with a significant impairment of in vitro PHA-induced lymphoproliferation of T cells from S. mansoni patients. Data of the present study supports the hypothesis that activation-induced cell death (AICD) is a potentially contributing factor in T helper (Th) cell regulation during chronic stages of schistosomiasis, which represents a critically determinant factor in the host-parasite interaction and might influence the destiny of parasitic infections either towards establishment of chronic infection or towards host death. PMID:20306689

  19. Activation-induced apoptosis in peripheral blood mononuclear cells during hepatosplenic Schistosoma mansoni infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoneim, H M; Demian, S R; Heshmat, M G; Ismail, N S; El-Sayed, Laila H

    2008-01-01

    It is well established that programmed cell death (apoptosis) is an important regulator of host responses during infection with a variety of intra- and extra-cellular pathogens. The present work aimed at assessment of in vitro spontaneous and phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-induced apoptosis in mononuclear cells isolated from patients with hepatosplenic form of S. mansoni infections. Cell death data were correlated to the degree of lymphoproliferative responses to PHA as well as to the serum anti-schistosomal antibody titers. A markedly significant increase in PHA-induced apoptosis in lymphocytes isolated from S. mansoni-infected patients was seen when compared to the corresponding healthy controls. However, a slight difference was recorded between the two studied groups regarding the spontaneous apoptosis. This was accompanied with a significant impairment of in vitro PHA-induced lymphoproliferation of T cells from S. mansoni patients. Data of the present study supports the hypothesis that activation-induced cell death (AICD) is a potentially contributing factor in T helper (Th) cell regulation during chronic stages of schistosomiasis, which represents a critically determinant factor in the host-parasite interaction and might influence the destiny of parasitic infections either towards establishment of chronic infection or towards host death.

  20. Radiotherapy of acne - a literature survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review is part of a feasibility study on a follow-up survey of patients having undergone dermatologic X-ray therapy. Its main purpose is to bring up to date the knowledge on the long-term effects of the radiotherapy of seborrheic diseases and to collect any historical data contributing to the interpretation of the results of a future survey in this field. The older and modern physiopathogenic ideas on acne are first stated, and both the radiological protocols and the therapeutic associations set forth by roentgenologists in the years 1930-1960 are then described. A dosimetric and health assessment is made and the modalities of an epidemiological survey are considered

  1. Virus-Induced Type I Interferon Deteriorates Control of Systemic Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Merches

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Type I interferon (IFN-I predisposes to bacterial superinfections, an important problem during viral infection or treatment with interferon-alpha (IFN-α. IFN-I-induced neutropenia is one reason for the impaired bacterial control; however there is evidence that more frequent bacterial infections during IFN-α-treatment occur independently of neutropenia. Methods: We analyzed in a mouse model, whether Pseudomonas aeruginosa control is influenced by co-infection with the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV. Bacterial titers, numbers of neutrophils and the gene-expression of liver-lysozyme-2 were determined during a 24 hours systemic infection with P. aeruginosa in wild-type and Ifnar-/- mice under the influence of LCMV or poly(I:C. Results: Virus-induced IFN-I impaired the control of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This was associated with neutropenia and loss of lysozyme-2-expression in the liver, which had captured P. aeruginosa. A lower release of IFN-I by poly(I:C-injection also impaired the bacterial control in the liver and reduced the expression of liver-lysozyme-2. Low concentration of IFN-I after infection with a virulent strain of P. aeruginosa alone impaired the bacterial control and reduced lysozyme-2-expression in the liver as well. Conclusion: We found that during systemic infection with P. aeruginosa Kupffer cells quickly controlled the bacteria in cooperation with neutrophils. Upon LCMV-infection this cooperation was disturbed.

  2. The New World arenavirus Tacaribe virus induces caspase-dependent apoptosis in infected cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Svenja; Groseth, Allison; Meyer, Bjoern; Jackson, David; Strecker, Thomas; Kaufmann, Andreas; Becker, Stephan

    2016-04-01

    The Arenaviridae is a diverse and growing family of viruses that already includes more than 25 distinct species. While some of these viruses have a significant impact on public health, others appear to be non-pathogenic. At present little is known about the host cell responses to infection with different arenaviruses, particularly those found in the New World; however, apoptosis is known to play an important role in controlling infection of many viruses. Here we show that infection with Tacaribe virus (TCRV), which is widely considered the prototype for non-pathogenic arenaviruses, leads to stronger induction of apoptosis than does infection with its human-pathogenic relative Junín virus. TCRV-induced apoptosis occurred in several cell types during late stages of infection and was shown to be caspase-dependent, involving the activation of caspases 3, 7, 8 and 9. Further, UV-inactivated TCRV did not induce apoptosis, indicating that the activation of this process is dependent on active viral replication/transcription. Interestingly, when apoptosis was inhibited, growth of TCRV was not enhanced, indicating that apoptosis does not have a direct negative effect on TCRV infection in vitro. Taken together, our data identify and characterize an important virus-host cell interaction of the prototypic, non-pathogenic arenavirus TCRV, which provides important insight into the growing field of arenavirus research aimed at better understanding the diversity in responses to different arenavirus infections and their functional consequences.

  3. Taenia crassiceps Infection Attenuates Multiple Low-Dose Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlett Espinoza-Jiménez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Taenia crassiceps, like other helminths, can exert regulatory effects on the immune system of its host. This study investigates the effect of chronic T. crassiceps infection on the outcome of Multiple Low Dose Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes (MLDS. Healthy or previously T. crassiceps-infected mice received MLDS and type 1 diabetes (T1D symptoms were evaluated for 6 weeks following the induction of MLDS. T. crassiceps-infected mice displayed lower blood glucose levels throughout the study. A significantly lower percentage of T. crassiceps-infected mice (40% developed T1D compared to the uninfected group (100%. Insulitis was remarkably absent in T. crassiceps-infected mice, which had normal pancreatic insulin content, whereas uninfected mice showed a dramatic reduction in pancreatic insulin. Infected mice that received MLDS did not show an increase in their regulatory T cell population, however, they had a greater number of alternatively activated macrophages, higher levels of the cytokine IL-4, and lower levels of TNF-α. Therefore, infection with T. crassiceps causes an immunomodulation that modifies the incidence and development of MLDS-induced autoimmune diabetes.

  4. Human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived models to investigate human cytomegalovirus infection in neural cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo D'Aiuto

    Full Text Available Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV infection is one of the leading prenatal causes of congenital mental retardation and deformities world-wide. Access to cultured human neuronal lineages, necessary to understand the species specific pathogenic effects of HCMV, has been limited by difficulties in sustaining primary human neuronal cultures. Human induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells now provide an opportunity for such research. We derived iPS cells from human adult fibroblasts and induced neural lineages to investigate their susceptibility to infection with HCMV strain Ad169. Analysis of iPS cells, iPS-derived neural stem cells (NSCs, neural progenitor cells (NPCs and neurons suggests that (i iPS cells are not permissive to HCMV infection, i.e., they do not permit a full viral replication cycle; (ii Neural stem cells have impaired differentiation when infected by HCMV; (iii NPCs are fully permissive for HCMV infection; altered expression of genes related to neural metabolism or neuronal differentiation is also observed; (iv most iPS-derived neurons are not permissive to HCMV infection; and (v infected neurons have impaired calcium influx in response to glutamate.

  5. Sacroiliitis after use of oral isotretinoin - association with acne fulminans or adverse effect?*

    OpenAIRE

    Geller, Ariane Silva Bastos; Alagia, Roberta Ferreira Nazareth

    2013-01-01

    Acne fulminans is a rare and severe form of acne that may evolve from acne vulgaris, especially in male adolescents, or occur as an adverse effect of oral isotretinoin. Arthritis is a serious clinical manifestation when the musculoskeletal system is compromised by AF and has been reported as a rare adverse effect of isotretinoin. Involvement of the sacroiliac joints occurs in 21% of acne fulminans cases. We present the case of a 18-year-old male patient in whom acne fulminans evolved from acn...

  6. Differential effectiveness of selected non-psychotropic phytocannabinoids on human sebocyte functions implicates their introduction in dry/seborrhoeic skin and acne treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oláh, Attila; Markovics, Arnold; Szabó-Papp, Judit; Szabó, Pálma Tímea; Stott, Colin; Zouboulis, Christos C; Bíró, Tamás

    2016-09-01

    Acne is a common skin disease characterized by elevated sebum production and inflammation of the sebaceous glands. We have previously shown that a non-psychotropic phytocannabinoid ((-)-cannabidiol [CBD]) exerted complex anti-acne effects by normalizing 'pro-acne agents'-induced excessive sebaceous lipid production, reducing proliferation and alleviating inflammation in human SZ95 sebocytes. Therefore, in this study we aimed to explore the putative anti-acne effects of further non-psychotropic phytocannabinoids ((-)-cannabichromene [CBC], (-)-cannabidivarin [CBDV], (-)-cannabigerol [CBG], (-)-cannabigerovarin [CBGV] and (-)-Δ(9) -tetrahydrocannabivarin [THCV]). Viability and proliferation of human SZ95 sebocytes were investigated by MTT and CyQUANT assays; cell death and lipid synthesis were monitored by DilC1 (5)-SYTOX Green labelling and Nile Red staining, respectively. Inflammatory responses were investigated by monitoring expressions of selected cytokines upon lipopolysaccharide treatment (RT-qPCR, ELISA). Up to 10 μm, the phytocannabinoids only negligibly altered the viability of the sebocytes, whereas high doses (≥50 μm) induced apoptosis. Interestingly, basal sebaceous lipid synthesis was differentially modulated by the substances: CBC and THCV suppressed it, and CBDV had only minor effects, whereas CBG and CBGV increased it. Importantly, CBC, CBDV and THCV significantly reduced arachidonic acid (AA)-induced 'acne-like' lipogenesis. Moreover, THCV suppressed proliferation, and all phytocannabinoids exerted remarkable anti-inflammatory actions. Our data suggest that CBG and CBGV may have potential in the treatment of dry-skin syndrome, whereas CBC, CBDV and especially THCV show promise to become highly efficient, novel anti-acne agents. Moreover, based on their remarkable anti-inflammatory actions, phytocannabinoids could be efficient, yet safe novel tools in the management of cutaneous inflammations. PMID:27094344

  7. Phenotypic and Functional Alterations of Dendritic Cells Induced by Human Herpesvirus 6 Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Kakimoto, Miki; Hasegawa, Atsuhiko; Fujita, Shigeru; Yasukawa, Masaki

    2002-01-01

    Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) has a tropism for T lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages, suggesting that HHV-6 infection affects the immunosurveillance system. In the present study, we investigated the HHV-6-induced phenotypic and functional alterations of dendritic cells (DCs), which are professional antigen-presenting cells. HHV-6 infection of monocyte-derived immature DCs appeared to induce the up-regulation of CD80, CD83, CD86, and HLA class I and class II molecules, suggesting that HHV-6 i...

  8. An update on the management of acne vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonette Keri

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Jonette Keri1,2, Michael Shiman11Department of Dermatology and Cutaneous Surgery, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USA; 2Dermatology Service, Miami VA Hospital, FL, USAAbstract: Acne vulgaris is a common skin disorder that can affect individuals from childhood to adulthood, most often occurring in the teenage years. Acne can have a significant physical, emotional, and social impact on an individual. Many different treatment options are available for the treatment of acne vulgaris. Commonly used topical treatments include benzoyl peroxide, antibiotics, sulfur and sodium sulfacetamide, azelaic acid, and retinoids. Systemic treatment is frequently used and includes the use of systemic antibiotics, oral contraceptives, antiandrogens, and retinoids. Other treatment modalities exist such as the use of superficial chemical peels as well as using laser and light devices for the treatment of acne. With the multitude of treatment options and the rapidly expanding newer technologies available to clinicians, it is important to review and be aware of the current literature and studies regarding the treatment of acne vulgaris.Keywords: acne vulgaris, treatment, benzoyl peroxide, antibiotics, retinoids, lasers

  9. Acne vulgaris: diagnosis and management by the family physician

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Margarida Ferreira da Silva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acne vulgaris is the most common skin disease worldwide. It affects 85-100% of the population at any point in life. Consequently, it is a frequent reason for primary care visits. It usually begins at puberty, reaching its peak between the age of 14-17 in girls, and 16-19 in boys, and it is more severe and prevalent in males. Although widely discussed, Acne vulgaris still requires constant updating. We conducted a survey of clinical guidelines, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses published over the past 15 years, concerning acne vulgaris and its treatment. Acne vulgaris is usually divided in three clinical types: comedonal, papulopustular, and nodular. The diagnosis is based on clinical signs; however, other conditions should be considered. There are several pharmacological therapies available, especially retinoids, antimicrobials, and hormone therapy, which should be used after considering its indications (type of acne and its severity and side effects. Thus, the family physician plays a leading role in addressing acne vulgaris, from diagnosis to management of therapeutic options. 

  10. The role of topical dermocosmetics in acne vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araviiskaia, E; Dréno, B

    2016-06-01

    Acne is a common chronic inflammatory disease and treatment modalities based on acne severity are well established. The role of dermocosmetics in dermatology, and in particular acne, is becoming more important as more research elucidates the mechanisms of action of products in the pathogenesis of acne. Dermocosmetics have the potential to be used as monotherapy or in combination with medical treatment. Therefore, it has become important for dermatologists to understand dermocosmetics to effectively and appropriately advise patients on their use. The objective of this review was to provide new insights into the role of traditional and novel ingredients in dermocosmetics for the treatment of acne, based on the authors' objective assessment of the published literature. The type of products discussed include: those which have a sebostatic effect, such as topical antioxidants and niacinamide; agents targeting abnormal keratinization, such as salicylic acid, lipo-hydroxy acid, alpha-hydroxy acids, retinol-based products and linoleic acid; agents targeting Propionibacterium acnes, such as lauric acid; and anti-inflammatory agents such as nicotinamide, alpha-linolenic acid and zinc salts. Despite the scientific advances in understanding these cosmetic ingredients, there still remains a lack of rigorous controlled studies in this area. PMID:26916232

  11. Rosmarinus officinalis Extract Suppresses Propionibacterium acnes–Induced Inflammatory Responses

    OpenAIRE

    Tsai, Tsung-Hsien; Chuang, Lu-Te; Lien, Tsung-Jung; Liing, Yau-Rong; Chen, Wei-Yu; Tsai, Po-Jung

    2013-01-01

    Propionibacterium acnes is a key pathogen involved in the progression of acne inflammation. The development of a new agent possessing antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activity against P. acnes is therefore of interest. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) extract on P. acnes–induced inflammation in vitro and in vivo. The results showed that ethanolic rosemary extract (ERE) significantly suppressed the secretion and mRNA expression of pro...

  12. Infection of corn ears by Fusarium spp. induces the emission of volatile sesquiterpenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Eva-Maria; Herrfurth, Cornelia; Irmisch, Sandra; Köllner, Tobias G; Feussner, Ivo; Karlovsky, Petr; Splivallo, Richard

    2014-06-01

    Infection of corn (Zea mays L.) ears with fungal pathogens of the Fusarium genus might result in yield losses and in the accumulation of mycotoxins. The aim of this study was to investigate whether volatile profiles could be used to identify Fusarium-infected corn ears. The volatiles released by corn ears infected by Fusarium graminearum, Fusarium verticillioides, and Fusarium subglutinans were studied. Volatile emission was recorded at 24 days postinoculation (dpi) and in a time series (from 4 to 24 dpi). Twenty-two volatiles were differentially emitted from Fusarium-infected versus healthy corn ears. These included C6-C8 compounds and sesquiterpenoids. All volatiles indicative of Fusarium infection were detectable as early as 4-8 dpi and continued to be produced to the final sampling time (early milk maturity stage). The induced emission of β-macrocarpene and β-bisabolene correlated with an increased transcript accumulation of corn terpene synthase 6/11 (tps6/11). Additionally, the modification of volatile profiles after Fusarium infection was accompanied by the induction of plant defense compounds such as zealexins and oxylipins. Together, these results reveal a broad metabolic response of the plant to pathogen attack. Volatile biomarkers of Fusarium infection are promising indicators for the early detection of fungal infection before disease symptoms become visible.

  13. Influenza Virus Infection Induces Platelet-Endothelial Adhesion Which Contributes to Lung Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Michael G; Gamage, Asela; Zyla, Roman; Armstrong, Susan M; Advani, Suzanne; Advani, Andrew; Wang, Changsen; Lee, Warren L

    2015-12-04

    Lung injury after influenza infection is characterized by increased permeability of the lung microvasculature, culminating in acute respiratory failure. Platelets interact with activated endothelial cells and have been implicated in the pathogenesis of some forms of acute lung injury. Autopsy studies have revealed pulmonary microthrombi after influenza infection, and epidemiological studies suggest that influenza vaccination is protective against pulmonary thromboembolism; however, the effect of influenza infection on platelet-endothelial interactions is unclear. We demonstrate that endothelial infection with both laboratory and clinical strains of influenza virus increased the adhesion of human platelets to primary human lung microvascular endothelial cells. Platelets adhered to infected cells as well as to neighboring cells, suggesting a paracrine effect. Influenza infection caused the upregulation of von Willebrand factor and ICAM-1, but blocking these receptors did not prevent platelet-endothelial adhesion. Instead, platelet adhesion was inhibited by both RGDS peptide and a blocking antibody to platelet integrin α5β1, implicating endothelial fibronectin. Concordantly, lung histology from infected mice revealed viral dose-dependent colocalization of viral nucleoprotein and the endothelial marker PECAM-1, while platelet adhesion and fibronectin deposition also were observed in the lungs of influenza-infected mice. Inhibition of platelets using acetylsalicylic acid significantly improved survival, a finding confirmed using a second antiplatelet agent. Thus, influenza infection induces platelet-lung endothelial adhesion via fibronectin, contributing to mortality from acute lung injury. The inhibition of platelets may constitute a practical adjunctive strategy to the treatment of severe infections with influenza.IMPORTANCE There is growing appreciation of the involvement of the lung endothelium in the pathogenesis of severe infections with influenza virus. We have

  14. Influenza Virus Infection Induces Platelet-Endothelial Adhesion Which Contributes to Lung Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Michael G; Gamage, Asela; Zyla, Roman; Armstrong, Susan M; Advani, Suzanne; Advani, Andrew; Wang, Changsen; Lee, Warren L

    2016-02-01

    Lung injury after influenza infection is characterized by increased permeability of the lung microvasculature, culminating in acute respiratory failure. Platelets interact with activated endothelial cells and have been implicated in the pathogenesis of some forms of acute lung injury. Autopsy studies have revealed pulmonary microthrombi after influenza infection, and epidemiological studies suggest that influenza vaccination is protective against pulmonary thromboembolism; however, the effect of influenza infection on platelet-endothelial interactions is unclear. We demonstrate that endothelial infection with both laboratory and clinical strains of influenza virus increased the adhesion of human platelets to primary human lung microvascular endothelial cells. Platelets adhered to infected cells as well as to neighboring cells, suggesting a paracrine effect. Influenza infection caused the upregulation of von Willebrand factor and ICAM-1, but blocking these receptors did not prevent platelet-endothelial adhesion. Instead, platelet adhesion was inhibited by both RGDS peptide and a blocking antibody to platelet integrin α5β1, implicating endothelial fibronectin. Concordantly, lung histology from infected mice revealed viral dose-dependent colocalization of viral nucleoprotein and the endothelial marker PECAM-1, while platelet adhesion and fibronectin deposition also were observed in the lungs of influenza-infected mice. Inhibition of platelets using acetylsalicylic acid significantly improved survival, a finding confirmed using a second antiplatelet agent. Thus, influenza infection induces platelet-lung endothelial adhesion via fibronectin, contributing to mortality from acute lung injury. The inhibition of platelets may constitute a practical adjunctive strategy to the treatment of severe infections with influenza.IMPORTANCE There is growing appreciation of the involvement of the lung endothelium in the pathogenesis of severe infections with influenza virus. We have

  15. Influence of adjuvants on protection induced by a recombinant fusion protein against malarial infection.

    OpenAIRE

    Daly, T M; Long, C A

    1996-01-01

    Previously, we described a protective immune response induced by the carboxyl-terminal region of the merozoite surface protein-1 (MSP-1) from the rodent malarial parasite Plasmodium yoelii yoelii 17XL, expressed as a fusion protein and designated glutathione S-transferase (GST)-PYC2. We also demonstrated that the humoral response induced by GST-PYC2 was the primary mechanism by which immunized animals controlled their blood-stage infections. We have now examined the influence of several adjuv...

  16. Aging aggravates ischemic stroke-induced brain damage in mice with chronic peripheral infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhungana, Hiramani; Malm, Tarja; Denes, Adam; Valonen, Piia; Wojciechowski, Sara; Magga, Johanna; Savchenko, Ekaterina; Humphreys, Neil; Grencis, Richard; Rothwell, Nancy; Koistinaho, Jari

    2013-10-01

    Ischemic stroke is confounded by conditions such as atherosclerosis, diabetes, and infection, all of which alter peripheral inflammatory processes with concomitant impact on stroke outcome. The majority of the stroke patients are elderly, but the impact of interactions between aging and inflammation on stroke remains unknown. We thus investigated the influence of age on the outcome of stroke in animals predisposed to systemic chronic infection. Th1-polarized chronic systemic infection was induced in 18-22 month and 4-month-old C57BL/6j mice by administration of Trichuris muris (gut parasite). One month after infection, mice underwent permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion and infarct size, brain gliosis, and brain and plasma cytokine profiles were analyzed. Chronic infection increased the infarct size in aged but not in young mice at 24 h. Aged, ischemic mice showed altered plasma and brain cytokine responses, while the lesion size correlated with plasma prestroke levels of RANTES. Moreover, the old, infected mice exhibited significantly increased neutrophil recruitment and upregulation of both plasma interleukin-17α and tumor necrosis factor-α levels. Neither age nor infection status alone or in combination altered the ischemia-induced brain microgliosis. Our results show that chronic peripheral infection in aged animals renders the brain more vulnerable to ischemic insults, possibly by increasing the invasion of neutrophils and altering the inflammation status in the blood and brain. Understanding the interactions between age and infections is crucial for developing a better therapeutic regimen for ischemic stroke and when modeling it as a disease of the elderly.

  17. Primary EBV infection induces an expression profile distinct from other viruses but similar to hemophagocytic syndromes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha K Dunmire

    Full Text Available Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV causes infectious mononucleosis and establishes lifelong infection associated with cancer and autoimmune disease. To better understand immunity to EBV, we performed a prospective study of natural infection in healthy humans. Transcriptome analysis defined a striking and reproducible expression profile during acute infection but no lasting gene changes were apparent during latent infection. Comparing the EBV response profile to multiple other acute viral infections, including influenza A (influenza, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV, human rhinovirus (HRV, attenuated yellow fever virus (YFV, and Dengue fever virus (DENV, revealed similarity only to DENV. The signature shared by EBV and DENV was also present in patients with hemophagocytic syndromes, suggesting these two viruses cause uncontrolled inflammatory responses. Interestingly, while EBV induced a strong type I interferon response, a subset of interferon induced genes, including MX1, HERC5, and OAS1, were not upregulated, suggesting a mechanism by which viral antagonism of immunity results in a profound inflammatory response. These data provide an important first description of the response to a natural herpesvirus infection in humans.

  18. Identification of Francisella novicida mutants that fail to induce prostaglandin E2 synthesis by infected macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Dale Woolard

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Francisella tularensis is the causative agent of tularemia. We have previously shown that infection with F. tularensis Live Vaccine Strain (LVS induces macrophages to synthesize prostaglandin E2 (PGE2. Synthesis of PGE2 by F. tularensis infected macrophages results in decreased T cell proliferation in vitro and increased bacterial survival in vivo. Although we understand some of the biological consequences of F. tularensis induced PGE2 synthesis by macrophages, we do not understand the cellular pathways (neither host nor bacterial that result in up-regulation of the PGE2 biosynthetic pathway in F. tularensis infected macrophages. We took a genetic approach to begin to understand the molecular mechanisms of bacterial induction of PGE2 synthesis from infected macrophages. To identify F. tularensis genes necessary for the induction of PGE2 in primary macrophages, we infected cells with individual mutants from the closely related strain Francisella tularensis subspecies novicida U112 (U112 two allele mutant library. Twenty genes were identified that when disrupted resulted in U112 mutant strains unable to induce the synthesis of PGE2 by infected macrophages. Fourteen of the genes identified are located within the Francisella pathogenicity island (FPI. Genes in the FPI are required for F. tularensis to escape from the phagosome and replicate in the cytosol, which might account for the failure of U112 with transposon insertions within the FPI to induce PGE2. This implies that U112 mutant strains that do not grow intracellularly would also not induce PGE2. We found that U112 clpB::Tn grows within macrophages yet fails to induce PGE2, while U112 pdpA::Tn does not grow yet does induce PGE2. We also found that U112 iglC::Tn neither grows nor induces PGE2. These findings indicate that there is dissociation between intracellular growth and the ability of F. tularensis to induce PGE2 synthesis. These mutants provide a critical entrée into the pathways used

  19. Detection of cysteine protease in Taenia solium-induced brain granulomas in naturally infected pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mkupasi, Ernatus Martin; Sikasunge, Chummy Sikalizyo; Ngowi, Helena Aminiel;

    2013-01-01

    In order to further characterize the immune response around the viable or degenerating Taenia solium cysts in the pig brain, the involvement of cysteine protease in the immune evasion was assessed. Brain tissues from 30 adult pigs naturally infected with T. solium cysticercosis were subjected...... protease may play a role in inducing immune evasion through apoptosis around viable T. solium cysts....

  20. Minocycline-induced acute eosinophilic pneumonia: A case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon W. Hung

    2015-01-01

    Minocycline is commonly used for pneumonia, acute bronchitis, urinary tract infections, and acne and is likely the cause of AEP in our patient. There are 26 case reports of minocycline-induced AEP. In most cases, outcomes were favorable and symptoms rapidly resolved upon discontinuation of minocycline, with 11 cases employing steroids, one case twelve hours of CPAP and another 5 days of intubation. None resulted in mortality. Although it is difficult to evaluate without further studies, steroids should be recommended for minocycline-induced AEP, especially for those with severe or persistent symptoms.

  1. Metastatic basal cell carcinoma caused by carcinoma misdiagnosed as acne - case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Dogu; Hölmich, Lisbet Rosenkrantz; Jakobsen, Linda P

    2016-06-01

    Basal cell carcinoma can be misdiagnosed as acne; thus, carcinoma should be considered in treatment-resistant acne. Although rare, neglected basal cell carcinoma increases the risk of metastasis. PMID:27398205

  2. Metastatic basal cell carcinoma caused by carcinoma misdiagnosed as acne – case report and literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Aydin, Dogu; Hölmich, Lisbet Rosenkrantz; Jakobsen, Linda P.

    2016-01-01

    Key Clinical Message Basal cell carcinoma can be misdiagnosed as acne; thus, carcinoma should be considered in treatment‐resistant acne. Although rare, neglected basal cell carcinoma increases the risk of metastasis.

  3. Electron microscopic visualization of autophagosomes induced by infection of human papillomavirus pseudovirions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishii, Yoshiyuki, E-mail: yishii@nih.go.jp

    2013-04-19

    Highlights: •HPV16 pseudovirions (16PsVs) infection induces an autophagy response. •The autophagy was analyzed by transmission electron microscope (TEM). •TEM showed the double-membrane vesicles in HeLa cells inoculated with 16PsVs. •These vesicles incorporated 16PsVs particles in the lumen. •These results imply that autophagosomes are generated from the plasma membrane. -- Abstract: Autophagy is a bulk degradation process for subcellular proteins and organelles to manage cell starvation. Autophagy is associated with the formation of autophagosomes and further functions as a defense mechanism against infection by various pathogens. Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection induces an autophagy response, such as up-regulation of marker proteins for autophagy, in host keratinocytes. However, direct microscopic evidence for autophagy induction by HPV infection is still lacking. Here, I report an electron microscopic analysis of autophagosomes elicited by the entry of HPV pseudovirions (PsVs). HeLa cells showed enhanced infectivity for PsVs of HPV type 16 (16PsVs) when treated with an autophagy inhibitor, suggesting the involvement of autophagy in HPV infection. In HeLa cells inoculated with 16PsVs, transmission electron microscopy showed the presence of cup-shaped, double-membrane vesicles (phagophores) and double-membrane-bound vesicles, which are typical structures of autophagosomes. These double-membrane vesicles displayed a large lumen volume and incorporated 10–50 16PsVs particles in the lumen. These results demonstrate that autophagy is indeed induced during the HPV16 entry process and imply that autophagosomes are generated from the plasma membrane by HPV infection.

  4. Immunization-induced anaplasma marginale-specific T lymphocyte reponses impaired by A. marginale infection are restored after eliminating the infection with tetracycline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infection of cattle with Anaplasma marginale fails to prime sustained effector/memory T-cell responses, and high bacterial load may induce antigen-specific CD4 T exhaustion and deletion. We tested the hypothesis that clearance of persistent infection restores the exhausted T-cell response. We show t...

  5. Acne: effect of hormones on pathogenesis and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, James C

    2002-01-01

    In the pathogenesis of acne, androgen hormones play a crucial role. In the treatment of acne, hormonal therapies provide valuable alternatives to standard modalities in selected women. Although numerous factors contribute to the development of acne, the requirement for androgens is absolute and is one that allows for effective treatments in women through inhibition of androgen expression. The two prerequisites for androgen expression at the level of the pilosebaceous unit are the presence of androgen in the form of either testosterone or dihydrotestosterone; and functioning androgen receptors. A third component may be the metabolism of androgen precursors to active androgens within pilosebaceous units. Hormonal treatment of hyperandrogenism (acne, hirsutism, androgenetic alopecia) such as that seen in polycystic ovary syndrome, centers on reduction of circulating androgen levels and androgen receptor blockade. Combination oral contraceptives represent the primary treatment modality for reducing circulating androgens from ovarian and, to a lesser degree, adrenal sources. Newer formulations may also have clinically significant androgen receptor blocking and 5alpha-reductase inhibiting effects. Newer oral contraceptives have high safety profiles and are used widely internationally for this purpose. Androgen receptor blockers currently in use include spironolactone, cyproterone acetate, and flutamide. Androgen receptor blockers are frequently combined with oral contraceptives to achieve optimal results in selected women. In women with adrenal hyperplasia, low-dose corticosteroids may be added to reduce adrenal androgen precursors. Inhibition of enzymes of androgen metabolism in the pilosebaceous unit remain largely investigational in the treatment of acne, although the benefit of 5alpha-reductase (type 2) inhibition is established in androgenetic alopecia in men. This article reviews the essentials of hormonal influence in acne pathogenesis, discusses the hormonal

  6. Curcumin inhibits gastric inflammation induced by Helicobacter pylori infection in a mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, António M; Lopes, Teresa; Oleastro, Mónica; Gato, Inês Vale; Floch, Pauline; Benejat, Lucie; Chaves, Paula; Pereira, Teresa; Seixas, Elsa; Machado, Jorge; Guerreiro, António S

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection triggers a sequence of gastric alterations starting with an inflammation of the gastric mucosa that, in some cases, evolves to gastric cancer. Efficient vaccination has not been achieved, thus it is essential to find alternative therapies, particularly in the nutritional field. The current study evaluated whether curcumin could attenuate inflammation of the gastric mucosa due to H. pylori infection. Twenty-eight C57BL/6 mice, were inoculated with the H. pylori SS1 strain; ten non-infected mice were used as controls. H. pylori infection in live mice was followed-up using a modified 13C-Urea Breath Test (13C-UBT) and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Histologically confirmed, gastritis was observed in 42% of infected non-treated mice at both 6 and 18 weeks post-infection. These mice showed an up-regulation of the expression of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, as well as of toll-like receptors (TLRs) and MyD88, at both time points. Treatment with curcumin decreased the expression of all these mediators. No inflammation was observed by histology in this group. Curcumin treatment exerted a significant anti-inflammatory effect in H. pylori-infected mucosa, pointing to the promising role of a nutritional approach in the prevention of H. pylori induced deleterious inflammation while the eradication or prevention of colonization by effective vaccine is not available. PMID:25569625

  7. Curcumin Inhibits Gastric Inflammation Induced by Helicobacter Pylori Infection in a Mouse Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    António M. Santos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori infection triggers a sequence of gastric alterations starting with an inflammation of the gastric mucosa that, in some cases, evolves to gastric cancer. Efficient vaccination has not been achieved, thus it is essential to find alternative therapies, particularly in the nutritional field. The current study evaluated whether curcumin could attenuate inflammation of the gastric mucosa due to H. pylori infection. Twenty-eight C57BL/6 mice, were inoculated with the H. pylori SS1 strain; ten non-infected mice were used as controls. H. pylori infection in live mice was followed-up using a modified 13C-Urea Breath Test (13C-UBT and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Histologically confirmed, gastritis was observed in 42% of infected non-treated mice at both 6 and 18 weeks post-infection. These mice showed an up-regulation of the expression of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, as well as of toll-like receptors (TLRs and MyD88, at both time points. Treatment with curcumin decreased the expression of all these mediators. No inflammation was observed by histology in this group. Curcumin treatment exerted a significant anti-inflammatory effect in H. pylori-infected mucosa, pointing to the promising role of a nutritional approach in the prevention of H. pylori induced deleterious inflammation while the eradication or prevention of colonization by effective vaccine is not available.

  8. Gastric Helicobacter infection induces iron deficiency in the INS-GAS mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie J Thomson

    Full Text Available There is increasing evidence from clinical and population studies for a role of H. pylori infection in the aetiology of iron deficiency. Rodent models of Helicobacter infection are helpful for investigating any causal links and mechanisms of iron deficiency in the host. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of gastric Helicobacter infection on iron deficiency and host iron metabolism/transport gene expression in hypergastrinemic INS-GAS mice. INS-GAS mice were infected with Helicobacter felis for 3, 6 and 9 months. At post mortem, blood was taken for assessment of iron status and gastric mucosa for pathology, immunohistology and analysis of gene expression. Chronic Helicobacter infection of INS- GAS mice resulted in decreased serum iron, transferrin saturation and hypoferritinemia and increased Total iron binding capacity (TIBC. Decreased serum iron concentrations were associated with a concomitant reduction in the number of parietal cells, strengthening the association between hypochlorhydria and gastric Helicobacter-induced iron deficiency. Infection with H. felis for nine months was associated with decreased gastric expression of iron metabolism regulators hepcidin, Bmp4 and Bmp6 but increased expression of Ferroportin 1, the iron efflux protein, iron absorption genes such as Divalent metal transporter 1, Transferrin receptor 1 and also Lcn2 a siderophore-binding protein. The INS-GAS mouse is therefore a useful model for studying Helicobacter-induced iron deficiency. Furthermore, the marked changes in expression of gastric iron transporters following Helicobacter infection may be relevant to the more rapid development of carcinogenesis in the Helicobacter infected INS-GAS model.

  9. Programmed Death Ligand 1 Promotes Early-Life Chlamydia Respiratory Infection-Induced Severe Allergic Airway Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starkey, Malcolm R; Nguyen, Duc H; Brown, Alexandra C; Essilfie, Ama-Tawiah; Kim, Richard Y; Yagita, Hideo; Horvat, Jay C; Hansbro, Philip M

    2016-04-01

    Chlamydia infections are frequent causes of respiratory illness, particularly pneumonia in infants, and are linked to permanent reductions in lung function and the induction of asthma. However, the immune responses that protect against early-life infection and the mechanisms that lead to chronic lung disease are incompletely understood. In the current study, we investigated the role of programmed death (PD)-1 and its ligands PD-L1 and PD-L2 in promoting early-life Chlamydia respiratory infection, and infection-induced airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and severe allergic airway disease in later life. Infection increased PD-1 and PD-L1, but not PD-L2, mRNA expression in the lung. Flow cytometric analysis of whole lung homogenates identified monocytes, dendritic cells, CD4(+), and CD8(+) T cells as major sources of PD-1 and PD-L1. Inhibition of PD-1 and PD-L1, but not PD-L2, during infection ablated infection-induced AHR in later life. Given that PD-L1 was the most highly up-regulated and its targeting prevented infection-induced AHR, subsequent analyses focused on this ligand. Inhibition of PD-L1 had no effect on Chlamydia load but suppressed infection-induced pulmonary inflammation. Infection decreased the levels of the IL-13 decoy receptor in the lung, which were restored to baseline levels by inhibition of PD-L1. Finally, inhibition of PD-L1 during infection prevented subsequent infection-induced severe allergic airways disease in later life by decreasing IL-13 levels, Gob-5 expression, mucus production, and AHR. Thus, early-life Chlamydia respiratory infection-induced PD-L1 promotes severe inflammation during infection, permanent reductions in lung function, and the development of more severe allergic airway disease in later life.

  10. Treatment-Seeking Behaviors and Related Epidemiological Features in Korean Acne Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Suh, Dae Hun; Shin, Jung Won; Min, Seong Uk; Lee, Dong Hun; Yoon, Mi Young; Kim, Nack In; Kye, Young Chul; Lee, Eil Soo; Ro, Young Suck; Kim, Kwang Joong

    2008-01-01

    Little is known about the treatment-seeking behaviors of acne patients, especially Asian acne patients. This study was performed to obtain detailed information about the treatment-seeking behaviors in Korean acne patients. Patients who visited the dermatology departments at 17 university hospitals completed a self-administered questionnaire. Most patients obtained information about acne from doctors or the Internet. The most important criteria for selecting a treatment method or choosing a pa...

  11. Practical Evaluation and Management of Atrophic Acne Scars: Tips for the General Dermatologist

    OpenAIRE

    Fife, Douglas

    2011-01-01

    Atrophic acne scarring is an unfortunate, permanent complication of acne vulgaris, which may be associated with significant psychological distress. General dermatologists are frequently presented with the challenge of evaluating and providing treatment recommendations to patients with acne scars. This article reviews a practical, step-by-step approach to evaluating the patient with atrophic acne scars. An algorithm for providing treatment options is presented, along with pitfalls to avoid. A ...

  12. Adherence to acne treatment guidelines in the military environment - a descriptive, serial cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Fleischmann, Chen; Cohen, Lior; Adams, Elimelech; Hartal, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Background Acne vulgaris, a common skin disease, affects up to 80 % of the population. Moderate to severe acne requires treatment with a combination of topical and oral drugs such as antibiotics, hormones and retinoids. Retinoids have many contraindications and adverse effects requiring close monitoring. The study’s objectives were to describe prescribing trends in acne medication over time in a military setting, and assess physician adherence to guidelines for acne treatment, including drug ...

  13. Efficacy of an Unani Formulation in Reducing Post Inflammatory Acne Hyperpigmentation Marks- A Clinical Study

    OpenAIRE

    Shabiya Sultana; Shah nawaz; Abdul Haseeb Ansari; Mohd. Zulkifle

    2015-01-01

    There is no single malady which causes supplementary psychic disturbance and more general insecurity and feeling of inferiority than acne vulgaris with post inflammatory acne pigmentation marks does. It is strongly associated with depression and anxiety. In addition to individuals with little objective evidence acne with post inflammatory acne hyperpigmentation marks may endure severe subjective impairment, greatly affecting their health related quality of life. Unani System of Medicine conta...

  14. Comparison of Red and Infrared Low-level Laser Therapy in the Treatment of Acne Vulgaris

    OpenAIRE

    Mir Hadi Aziz-Jalali; Seyed Mehdi Tabaie; Gholamreza Esmaeeli Djavid

    2012-01-01

    Background/Purpose : Acne vulgaris is a very prevalent skin disorder and remains a main problem in practice. Recently, phototherapy with various light spectrums for acne has been used. There are some evidences that low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has beneficial effect in the treatment of acne lesions. In this study, two different wavelengths of LLLT (630 and 890 nm) were evaluated in treatment of acne vulgaris. Materials and Methods: This study was a single-blind randomized clinical trial. Pat...

  15. Deciphering the effect of novel bacterial exopolysaccharide-based nanoparticle cream against Propionibacterium acnes

    OpenAIRE

    Karlapudi, Abraham P.; Kodali, Vidya P.; Kota, Krishna P.; Shaik, Sabiha S.; Sampath Kumar, N. S.; Vijaya R. Dirisala

    2016-01-01

    Acne vulgaris (acne) is a chronic inflammatory disease prevalent among adolescents and adults, with significant psychological effects. The aetiology of acne is multifactorial. Several pathophysiological associations have been identified in which Propionibacterium acnes plays a major role. This bacteria primarily affects areas containing oil glands including the face, back and trunk, where it causes the formation of seborrhoea and inflammatory lesions. The treatment methods currently in place ...

  16. Apoptotic Signaling Pathway Activated by Helicobacter pylori Infection and Increase of Apoptosis-Inducing Activity under Serum-Starved Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Shibayama, Keigo; Doi, Yohei; Shibata, Naohiro; Yagi, Tetsuya; Nada, Toshi; Iinuma, Yoshitsugu; Arakawa, Yoshichika

    2001-01-01

    The enhanced gastric epithelial cell apoptosis observed during infection with Helicobacter pylori has been suggested to be of significance in the etiology of gastritis, peptic ulcers, and neoplasia. To investigate the cell death signaling induced by H. pylori infection, human gastric epithelial cells were incubated with H. pylori for up to 72 h. H. pylori infection induced the activation of caspase -8, -9, and -3 and the expression of the proapoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins Bad and Bid. The pe...

  17. Interferon-inducible GTPase: a novel viral response protein involved in rabies virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ling; Wang, Hualei; Jin, Hongli; Cao, Zengguo; Feng, Na; Zhao, Yongkun; Zheng, Xuexing; Wang, Jianzhong; Li, Qian; Zhao, Guoxing; Yan, Feihu; Wang, Lina; Wang, Tiecheng; Gao, Yuwei; Tu, Changchun; Yang, Songtao; Xia, Xianzhu

    2016-05-01

    Rabies virus infection is a major public health concern because of its wide host-interference spectrum and nearly 100 % lethality. However, the interactions between host and virus remain unclear. To decipher the authentic response in the central nervous system after rabies virus infection, a dynamic analysis of brain proteome alteration was performed. In this study, 104 significantly differentially expressed proteins were identified, and intermediate filament, interferon-inducible GTPases, and leucine-rich repeat-containing protein 16C were the three outstanding groups among these proteins. Interferon-inducible GTPases were prominent because of their strong upregulation. Moreover, quantitative real-time PCR showed distinct upregulation of interferon-inducible GTPases at the level of transcription. Several studies have shown that interferon-inducible GTPases are involved in many biological processes, such as viral infection, endoplasmic reticulum stress response, and autophagy. These findings indicate that interferon-inducible GTPases are likely to be a potential target involved in rabies pathogenesis or the antiviral process.

  18. Effect of oral administration of Propionibacterium acnes on growth performance, DTH response and anti-OVA titers in goat kids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Miguel Ferrer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Immunostimulants are susbstances that stimuli the response of effector cells to activate the immune response such as antigen uptake, cytokine release or antibody response. These substances can increase resistence to infection by different types of microorganisms, reducing dependence of antibiotics used in livestock animals. Recent reports have demonstrated the positive effect of Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes to control animal diseases. In this study, we evaluated the effect of the non-specific immunostimulant P. acnes on immunological functions and growth performance in goat kids. Twenty five goat kids served as control group (A and another 25 animals received P. acnes being the experimental group (B. Kids were challenged with ovalbumin (OVA to assess humoral immunity. To assess in vivo cell immunity, delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH test with phytohemagglutinin (PHA was used, clinical signs and body weight were recorded each week until 9 weeks of age when the experiment ended. Blood samples were obtained to analyze serum proteins fractions and anti-OVA specific antibodies. No clinical signs of disease and no differences (p>0.05 on body weight between groups were recorded (7.32±0.81 kg in group A, 7.13±0.65 kg in group B. Goat kids from group B had more total protein (59.8±5g/l and albumin levels (32.8±3.3g/l than goat kids from group A (56.6±5.7 g/l, 29.6±3.9 g/l respectively (p<0.05. DTH response in goat kids from group B on day 42 was higher (p<0.05 than group A. At day 63, goat kids from group receiving P. acnes had higher percentage (85.4 of anti-OVA IgM titers (p<0.05 than control group (57.7. In conclusion, the results showed that oral administration of P. acnes to goat kids improved some aspects of the immune system of the animals and it could be used to control goat diseases.

  19. Albendazole therapy for experimentally induced Paragonimus kellicotti infection in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Hoover, E A; Stromberg, P C; Toussant, M J

    1978-06-01

    The effect of albendazole therapy was studied in 6 cats with pulmonary paragonimiasis induced by experimental inoculation of metacercariae (25/cat) of Paragonimus kellicotti. At 76 to 101 days after they were inoculated, 5 cats were administered an oral aqueous suspension of albendazole in 2 divided doses totaling 20 mg (2 cats), 50 mg (1 cat), or 100 mg (2 cats)/kg of body weight each day for 14 to 21 days. The 6th cat (control) was not administered albendazole. Nine days after cats were given the 50- and 100-mg/kg dosages, Paragonimus ova were not seen in the feces of 3 cats. There was marked reduction in ova production in the feces of the 2 cats administered 20 mg/kg of albendazole. Live flukes were not recovered from the lungs of 3 cats necropsied 4 or 5 weeks after dosing with 50 or 100 mg/kg, but the lungs of the 2 cats administered 20 mg of albendazole/kg yielded 9 and 7 apparently viable flukes. Seventeen live flukes were recovered from the control cat not treated with albendazole. In 4 noninoculated normal cats administered 20 mg (1 cat), 100 mg (1 cat), and 200 mg (2 cats) of albendazole/kg of body weight each day for 14 days, there were no gross or microscopic lesions attributable to the drug. PMID:666077

  20. Modulation of Th1/Th2 Immune Responses by Killed Propionibacterium acnes and Its Soluble Polysaccharide Fraction in a Type I Hypersensitivity Murine Model: Induction of Different Activation Status of Antigen-Presenting Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mussalem, Juliana Sekeres; Ishimura, Mayari Eika; Longo-Maugéri, Ieda Maria

    2015-01-01

    Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) is a gram-positive anaerobic bacillus present in normal human skin microbiota, which exerts important immunomodulatory effects, when used as heat- or phenol-killed suspensions. We previously demonstrated that heat-killed P. acnes or its soluble polysaccharide (PS), extracted from the bacterium cell wall, suppressed or potentiated the Th2 response to ovalbumin (OVA) in an immediate hypersensitivity model, depending on the treatment protocol. Herein, we investigated the mechanisms responsible for these effects, using the same model and focusing on the activation status of antigen-presenting cells (APCs). We verified that higher numbers of APCs expressing costimulatory molecules and higher expression levels of these molecules are probably related to potentiation of the Th2 response to OVA induced by P. acnes or PS, while higher expression of toll-like receptors (TLRs) seems to be related to Th2 suppression. In vitro cytokines production in cocultures of dendritic cells and T lymphocytes indicated that P. acnes and PS seem to perform their effects by acting directly on APCs. Our data suggest that P. acnes and PS directly act on APCs, modulating the expression of costimulatory molecules and TLRs, and these differently activated APCs drive distinct T helper patterns to OVA in our model. PMID:25973430

  1. 2010 American Conference on Neutron Scattering (ACNS 2010)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billinge, Simon

    2011-06-17

    The ACNS provides a focal point for the national neutron user community to strengthen ties within this diverse group, while at the same time promoting neutron research among colleagues in related disciplines identified as “would-be” neutron users. The American Conference on Neutron Scattering thus serves a dual role as a national user meeting and a scientific meeting. As a venue for scientific exchange, the ACNS showcases recent results and provides forums for scientific discussion of neutron research in diverse fields such as hard and soft condensed matter, liquids, biology, magnetism, engineering materials, chemical spectroscopy, crystal structure, and elementary excitations, fundamental physics and development of neutron instrumentation through a combination of invited talks, contributed talks and poster sessions. As a “super-user” meeting, the ACNS fulfills the main objectives of users' meetings previously held periodically at individual national neutron facilities, with the advantage of a larger and more diverse audience. To this end, each of the major national neutron facilities (NIST, LANSCE, HFIR and SNS) have an opportunity to exchange information and update users, and potential users, of their facility. This is also an appropriate forum for users to raise issues that relate to the facilities. For many of the national facilities, this super-user meeting should obviate the need for separate user meetings that tax the time, energy and budgets of facility staff and the users alike, at least in years when the ACNS is held. We rely upon strong participation from the national facilities. The NSSA intends that the American Conference on Neutron Scattering (ACNS) will occur approximately every two years, but not in years that coincide with the International or European Conferences on Neutron Scattering. The ACNS is to be held in association with one of the national neutron centers in a rotating sequence, with the host facility providing local

  2. Identifying acne treatment uncertainties via a James Lind Alliance Priority Setting Partnership

    OpenAIRE

    Layton, Alison; Eady, E. Anne; Peat, Maggie; Whitehouse, Heather; Levell, Nick; Ridd, Matthew; Cowdell, Fiona; Patel, Mahendra; Andrews, Stephen; Oxnard, Christine; Fenton, Mark; Firkins, Lester

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The Acne Priority Setting Partnership (PSP) was set up to identify and rank treatment uncertainties by bringing together people with acne, and professionals providing care within and beyond the National Health Service (NHS). Setting: The UK with international participation. Participants: Teenagers and adults with acne, parents, partners, nurses, clinicians, pharmacists, private practitioners. Methods: Treatment uncertainties were collected via separat...

  3. Body Image Disturbance in Patients with Acne Vulgaris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowe, Whitney P.; Crerand, Canice E.; Margolis, David J.; Shalita, Alan R.

    2011-01-01

    Psychosocial outcome measures, which attempt to examine acne from the patient's perspective, have become increasingly important in dermatology research. One such measure is the Body Image Disturbance Questionnaire. The authors' primary aim was to determine the validity and internal consistency of the Body Image Disturbance Questionnaire in patients with acne vulgaris. The secondary aim was to investigate the relationship between body image disturbance and quality of life. This cross-sectional investigation included 52 consecutive acne patients presenting to an outpatient dermatology clinic. Subjects completed the Body Image Disturbance Questionnaire, Skindex-16, and other body image and psychosocial functioning measures. An objective assessment of acne was performed. The Body Image Disturbance Questionnaire was internally consistent and converged with other known body image indices. Body Image Disturbance Questionnaire scores also correlated with Skindex-16 scores, confirming that quality of life and body image are related psychosocial constructs. The Body Image Disturbance Questionnaire appears to be an accurate instrument that can assess appearance-related concern and impairment in patients with acne vulgaris. Limitations include a small sample size and the cross-sectional design. PMID:21779418

  4. Body image disturbance in patients with acne vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowe, Whitney P; Doyle, Amanda K; Crerand, Canice E; Margolis, David J; Shalita, Alan R

    2011-07-01

    Psychosocial outcome measures, which attempt to examine acne from the patient's perspective, have become increasingly important in dermatology research. One such measure is the Body Image Disturbance Questionnaire. The authors' primary aim was to determine the validity and internal consistency of the Body Image Disturbance Questionnaire in patients with acne vulgaris. The secondary aim was to investigate the relationship between body image disturbance and quality of life. This cross-sectional investigation included 52 consecutive acne patients presenting to an outpatient dermatology clinic. Subjects completed the Body Image Disturbance Questionnaire, Skindex-16, and other body image and psychosocial functioning measures. An objective assessment of acne was performed. The Body Image Disturbance Questionnaire was internally consistent and converged with other known body image indices. Body Image Disturbance Questionnaire scores also correlated with Skindex-16 scores, confirming that quality of life and body image are related psychosocial constructs. The Body Image Disturbance Questionnaire appears to be an accurate instrument that can assess appearance-related concern and impairment in patients with acne vulgaris. Limitations include a small sample size and the cross-sectional design. PMID:21779418

  5. Profile of acne vulgaris-A hospital-based study from South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adityan Balaji

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acne vulgaris is believed to be the most common disease of the skin. There is no Indian study on the profile of acne vulgaris, markers of severe forms of acne vulgaris and a possible correlation between acne vulgaris and markers of androgenicity in females. Aim: To study the profile of acne vulgaris, its seasonal variation, relationship with smoking and possible correlation between acne vulgaris and markers of androgenicity in females. Methods: The study was conducted between August 2006 and June 2008. All patients with acne vulgaris who consented to participate in the study were included. The parameters evaluated included age, gender, age of onset, duration of lesions, site of lesions, grade, relation with menstrual cycle, markers of androgenicity, number of acne lesions such as comedones, papules pustules and nodules, number and site of post-acne scarring, post-acne hyperpigmentation, seasonal variation and history of smoking. Results: A total of 309 patients with acne vulgaris were included in the study. The frequency of acne vulgaris in our study was 1.068%. Mean age of the study group was 19.78 years. Male to female ratio was 1.25:1. The most common age group involved was 16 to 20 years (59.8%. Mean age of onset was 15.97 years. Face was involved in all the patients, followed by back (28.2%, chest (20.1%, neck (9.4% and arms (10%. In the older age groups, women were more likely to report having acne vulgaris than men ( P = 0.01. The closed comedones outnumbered open comedones by a factor of 4.9:1. A total of 186 patients (60.2% had grade 1 acne vulgaris, 85 (27.5% had grade 2 acne, 8 (2.6% had grade 3 acne and 30 (9.7% had grade 4 acne vulgaris. There was a higher incidence of scarring (39.5% and post-acne hyperpigmentation (24.6% in our study. In female patients, 57.7% had premenstrual flare and 12.4% had cutaneous markers of androgenicity. There was no association between severity of acne vulgaris and other markers of

  6. Listeriolysin O is necessary and sufficient to induce autophagy during Listeria monocytogenes infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Meyer-Morse

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent studies have suggested that autophagy is utilized by cells as a protective mechanism against Listeria monocytogenes infection. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: However we find autophagy has no measurable role in vacuolar escape and intracellular growth in primary cultured bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDMs deficient for autophagy (atg5-/-. Nevertheless, we provide evidence that the pore forming activity of the cholesterol-dependent cytolysin listeriolysin O (LLO can induce autophagy subsequent to infection by L. monocytogenes. Infection of BMDMs with L. monocytogenes induced microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3 lipidation, consistent with autophagy activation, whereas a mutant lacking LLO did not. Infection of BMDMs that express LC3-GFP demonstrated that wild-type L. monocytogenes was encapsulated by LC3-GFP, consistent with autophagy activation, whereas a mutant lacking LLO was not. Bacillus subtilis expressing either LLO or a related cytolysin, perfringolysin O (PFO, induced LC3 colocalization and LC3 lipidation. Further, LLO-containing liposomes also recruited LC3-GFP, indicating that LLO was sufficient to induce targeted autophagy in the absence of infection. The role of autophagy had variable effects depending on the cell type assayed. In atg5-/- mouse embryonic fibroblasts, L. monocytogenes had a primary vacuole escape defect. However, the bacteria escaped and grew normally in atg5-/- BMDMs. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We propose that membrane damage, such as that caused by LLO, triggers bacterial-targeted autophagy, although autophagy does not affect the fate of wild-type intracellular L. monocytogenes in primary BMDMs.

  7. Infection with influenza a virus leads to flu antigen-induced cutaneous anaphylaxis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunewald, Susanne M; Hahn, Christian; Wohlleben, Gisela; Teufel, Martin; Major, Tamas; Moll, Heidrun; Bröcker, Eva-B; Erb, Klaus J

    2002-04-01

    It is well established, that viral infections may trigger urticaria or allergic asthma; however, as viral infections induce T helper 1 polarized responses, which lead to the inhibition of T helper 2 cell development, the opposite would be plausible. We wanted to investigate how viral infections may mediate allergic symptoms in a mouse model; therefore, we infected BALB/C mice with influenza A virus intranasally. Histologic analyses of lung sections and bronchoalveolar lavages were performed. In addition, cells from the mediastinal lymph nodes were restimulated in vitro to analyze which types of cytokines were induced by the flu infection. Furthermore, flu-specific antibody titers were determined and local anaphylaxis was measured after rechallenge with flu antigen. We found that airways inflammation consisted predominately of macrophages and lymphocytes, whereas only a few eosinophils were observed. interferon-gamma but no interleukin-4 and little interleukin-5 could be detected in the culture supernatants from in vitro restimulated T cells from the draining lymph nodes. The antibody response was characterized by high levels of virus-specific IgG2a, IgG2b, and IgG1 and, surprisingly, low levels of virus-specific IgE antibodies. Interestingly, flu-infected mice developed active and passive cutaneous anaphylaxis after rechallenge with flu-antigen. As the passive cutaneous anaphylaxis reaction persisted over 48 h and was significantly lower after passive transfer of the serum, which was IgE depleted, local anaphylaxis seemed to be mediated predominately by specific IgE antibodies. Taken together, our results demonstrate that mice infected with flu virus develop virus-specific mast cell degranulation in the skin. Our results may also have implications for the pathogenesis of urticaria or other atopic disorders in humans. PMID:11918711

  8. Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus microRNAs induce metabolic transformation of infected cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohad Yogev

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Altered cell metabolism is inherently connected with pathological conditions including cancer and viral infections. Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV is the etiological agent of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS. KS tumour cells display features of lymphatic endothelial differentiation and in their vast majority are latently infected with KSHV, while a small number are lytically infected, producing virions. Latently infected cells express only a subset of viral genes, mainly located within the latency-associated region, among them 12 microRNAs. Notably, the metabolic properties of KSHV-infected cells closely resemble the metabolic hallmarks of cancer cells. However, how and why KSHV alters host cell metabolism remains poorly understood. Here, we investigated the effect of KSHV infection on the metabolic profile of primary dermal microvascular lymphatic endothelial cells (LEC and the functional relevance of this effect. We found that the KSHV microRNAs within the oncogenic cluster collaborate to decrease mitochondria biogenesis and to induce aerobic glycolysis in infected cells. KSHV microRNAs expression decreases oxygen consumption, increase lactate secretion and glucose uptake, stabilize HIF1α and decreases mitochondria copy number. Importantly this metabolic shift is important for latency maintenance and provides a growth advantage. Mechanistically we show that KSHV alters host cell energy metabolism through microRNA-mediated down regulation of EGLN2 and HSPA9. Our data suggest that the KSHV microRNAs induce a metabolic transformation by concurrent regulation of two independent pathways; transcriptional reprograming via HIF1 activation and reduction of mitochondria biogenesis through down regulation of the mitochondrial import machinery. These findings implicate viral microRNAs in the regulation of the cellular metabolism and highlight new potential avenues to inhibit viral latency.

  9. Porcine parvovirus infection induces apoptosis in PK-15 cells through activation of p53 and mitochondria-mediated pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Hongling; Huang, Yong; Du, Qian; Luo, Xiaomao; Zhang, Liang; Zhao, Xiaomin; Tong, Dewen, E-mail: dwtong@nwsuaf.edu.cn

    2015-01-09

    Highlights: • PPV reduces PK-15 cells viability by inducing apoptosis. • PPV infection induces apoptosis through mitochondria-mediated pathway. • PPV infection activates p53 to regulate the mitochondria apoptotic signaling. - Abstract: Porcine parvovirus (PPV) infection has been reported to induce the cytopathic effects (CPE) in some special host cells and contribute the occurrence of porcine parvovirus disease, but the molecular mechanisms underlying PPV-induced CPE are not clear. In this study, we investigated the morphological and molecular changes of porcine kidney cell line (PK-15 cells) infected with PPV. The results showed that PPV infection inhibited the viability of PK-15 cells in a time and concentration dependent manner. PPV infection induced typical apoptotic features including chromatin condensation, apoptotic body formation, nuclear fragmentation, and Annexin V-binding activity. Further studies showed that Bax was increased and translocated to mitochondria, whereas Bcl-2 was decreased in PPV-infected cells, which caused mitochondrial outer-membrane permeabilization, resulting in the release of mitochondrial cytochrome c, followed by caspase-9 and caspase-3 activation. However, the expression of Fas and Fas ligand (FasL) did not appear significant changes in the process of PPV-induced apoptosis. Moreover, PPV infection activated p53 signaling, which was involved in the activation of apoptotic signaling induced by PPV infection via regulation of Bax and Bcl-2. Taken together, our results demonstrated that PPV infection induced apoptosis in PK-15 cells through activation of p53 and mitochondria-mediated apoptosis pathway. This study may contribute to shed light on the molecular pathogenesis of PPV infection.

  10. Porcine parvovirus infection induces apoptosis in PK-15 cells through activation of p53 and mitochondria-mediated pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • PPV reduces PK-15 cells viability by inducing apoptosis. • PPV infection induces apoptosis through mitochondria-mediated pathway. • PPV infection activates p53 to regulate the mitochondria apoptotic signaling. - Abstract: Porcine parvovirus (PPV) infection has been reported to induce the cytopathic effects (CPE) in some special host cells and contribute the occurrence of porcine parvovirus disease, but the molecular mechanisms underlying PPV-induced CPE are not clear. In this study, we investigated the morphological and molecular changes of porcine kidney cell line (PK-15 cells) infected with PPV. The results showed that PPV infection inhibited the viability of PK-15 cells in a time and concentration dependent manner. PPV infection induced typical apoptotic features including chromatin condensation, apoptotic body formation, nuclear fragmentation, and Annexin V-binding activity. Further studies showed that Bax was increased and translocated to mitochondria, whereas Bcl-2 was decreased in PPV-infected cells, which caused mitochondrial outer-membrane permeabilization, resulting in the release of mitochondrial cytochrome c, followed by caspase-9 and caspase-3 activation. However, the expression of Fas and Fas ligand (FasL) did not appear significant changes in the process of PPV-induced apoptosis. Moreover, PPV infection activated p53 signaling, which was involved in the activation of apoptotic signaling induced by PPV infection via regulation of Bax and Bcl-2. Taken together, our results demonstrated that PPV infection induced apoptosis in PK-15 cells through activation of p53 and mitochondria-mediated apoptosis pathway. This study may contribute to shed light on the molecular pathogenesis of PPV infection

  11. Disruption of the transmembrane pH gradient--a possible mechanism for the antibacterial action of azelaic acid in Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojar, R A; Cunliffe, W J; Holland, K T

    1994-09-01

    The effect of the topical acne treatment azelaic acid on the transmembrane proton gradient (delta pH) of Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis was studied in vitro at external pH values found on human skin (pH 4.0-6.0). Bacteria were grown in defined media using continuous culture and delta pH was estimated by measuring the accumulation of [14C] benzoic by the cells using flow dialysis. In both P. acnes and S. epidermidis the addition of 30 mM azelaic acid and the membrane active inhibitors nigericin (150 microM) and CCCP (150 microM) resulted in a rapid release of [14C] label into the dialysate indicating the dissipation of delta pH between external pH values of 4.0-6.0. The addition of 60 mM NaCl as an iso-osmotic control and 150 microM valinomycin did not induce the release of [14C] label. The addition of 30 mM azelaic acid reduced the delta pH of P. acnes by 44% at external pH 4.0 and 28% at external pH 6.0. In S. epidermidis 30 mM azelaic acid reduced delta pH by 88% at external pH 5.0 and 20% at external pH 6.0. Rapid loss of viability occurred in suspensions of P. acnes and S. epidermidis containing 30 mM azelaic acid at pH 4.0 with no viable cells recovered after 60 min incubation. At pH 6.0 little change in viable numbers of P. acnes and S. epidermidis were observed over a 2 h incubation period. The results indicate that the antibacterial activity of azelaic acid is associated with the perturbation of intracellular pH.

  12. Effects of Experimental Sarcocystis neurona-Induced Infection on Immunity in an Equine Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Rochelle Lewis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sarcocystis neurona is the most common cause of Equine Protozoal Myeloencephalitis (EPM, affecting 0.5–1% horses in the United States during their lifetimes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the equine immune responses in an experimentally induced Sarcocystis neurona infection model. Neurologic parameters were recorded prior to and throughout the 70-day study by blinded investigators. Recombinant SnSAG1 ELISA for serum and CSF were used to confirm and track disease progression. All experimentally infected horses displayed neurologic signs after infection. Neutrophils, monocytes, and lymphocytes from infected horses displayed significantly delayed apoptosis at some time points. Cell proliferation was significantly increased in S. neurona-infected horses when stimulated nonspecifically with PMA/I but significantly decreased when stimulated with S. neurona compared to controls. Collectively, our results suggest that horses experimentally infected with S. neurona manifest impaired antigen specific response to S. neurona, which could be a function of altered antigen presentation, lack of antigen recognition, or both.

  13. Effects of Experimental Sarcocystis neurona-Induced Infection on Immunity in an Equine Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, S Rochelle; Ellison, Siobhan P; Dascanio, John J; Lindsay, David S; Gogal, Robert M; Werre, Stephen R; Surendran, Naveen; Breen, Meghan E; Heid, Bettina M; Andrews, Frank M; Buechner-Maxwell, Virginia A; Witonsky, Sharon G

    2014-01-01

    Sarcocystis neurona is the most common cause of Equine Protozoal Myeloencephalitis (EPM), affecting 0.5-1% horses in the United States during their lifetimes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the equine immune responses in an experimentally induced Sarcocystis neurona infection model. Neurologic parameters were recorded prior to and throughout the 70-day study by blinded investigators. Recombinant SnSAG1 ELISA for serum and CSF were used to confirm and track disease progression. All experimentally infected horses displayed neurologic signs after infection. Neutrophils, monocytes, and lymphocytes from infected horses displayed significantly delayed apoptosis at some time points. Cell proliferation was significantly increased in S. neurona-infected horses when stimulated nonspecifically with PMA/I but significantly decreased when stimulated with S. neurona compared to controls. Collectively, our results suggest that horses experimentally infected with S. neurona manifest impaired antigen specific response to S. neurona, which could be a function of altered antigen presentation, lack of antigen recognition, or both. PMID:26464923

  14. Spinal cord injury-induced immune deficiency syndrome enhances infection susceptibility dependent on lesion level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brommer, Benedikt; Engel, Odilo; Kopp, Marcel A; Watzlawick, Ralf; Müller, Susanne; Prüss, Harald; Chen, Yuying; DeVivo, Michael J; Finkenstaedt, Felix W; Dirnagl, Ulrich; Liebscher, Thomas; Meisel, Andreas; Schwab, Jan M

    2016-03-01

    Pneumonia is the leading cause of death after acute spinal cord injury and is associated with poor neurological outcome. In contrast to the current understanding, attributing enhanced infection susceptibility solely to the patient's environment and motor dysfunction, we investigate whether a secondary functional neurogenic immune deficiency (spinal cord injury-induced immune deficiency syndrome, SCI-IDS) may account for the enhanced infection susceptibility. We applied a clinically relevant model of experimental induced pneumonia to investigate whether the systemic SCI-IDS is functional sufficient to cause pneumonia dependent on spinal cord injury lesion level and investigated whether findings are mirrored in a large prospective cohort study after human spinal cord injury. In a mouse model of inducible pneumonia, high thoracic lesions that interrupt sympathetic innervation to major immune organs, but not low thoracic lesions, significantly increased bacterial load in lungs. The ability to clear the bacterial load from the lung remained preserved in sham animals. Propagated immune susceptibility depended on injury of central pre-ganglionic but not peripheral postganglionic sympathetic innervation to the spleen. Thoracic spinal cord injury level was confirmed as an independent increased risk factor of pneumonia in patients after motor complete spinal cord injury (odds ratio = 1.35, P paralysis, spinal cord injury also induces a functional SCI-IDS ('immune paralysis'), sufficient to propagate clinically relevant infection in an injury level dependent manner. PMID:26754788

  15. Prevalence of Truncal Acne in High School Students: A Community Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.Noormohammadpoor

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acne is one of the most common skin diseases especially in adolescence. Different studies have reported unequal rates of facial acne prevalence in different countries and populations. Only a few cases of acne in the trunk area (back and chest have been reported in literature. Although our clinical experience shows lower prevalence of truncal acne in comparison with facial acne, a community based study is needed to support this experience. Methods: A total number of 1001 high school students, selected randomly from 5 out of 20 education-ministry subdivisions of Tehran, were included. In each area two high schools (one for boys and one for girls with almost 100 students per high school were selected. Demographic data, family history and clinical findings were recorded in the questionnaires. Consensus Conference on Acne Classification was used for acne grading. Results: One thousand one high school students, 503 girls and 498 boys ,were included. Prevalence of acne was 91.1% for face (95%CI: 83-99%, 93.4% in boys and 88.6% in girls. It was 53.4% for back (95%CI: 46-62.2%, 58.5% in boys and 36.9% in girls. Whereas for chest the prevalence was 36% (95%CI: 27-45%, 34.9% in boys and 36.9% in girls. Mean age of the students with truncal acne was 16.1 years where as 15.9 in others. This difference was significant (P<0.05. Positive family history was higher in students with truncal acne (P<0.001. Conclusion: Truncal acne is less prevalent than facial acne. Acne on the back is significantly higher in boys than girls (P=0.002. Severe forms of acne in back may be more prevalent in boys. Positive family history can increase the risk of truncal acne.

  16. Chlamydia pneumoniae infection induced allergic airway sensitization is controlled by regulatory T-cells and plasmacytoid dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crother, Timothy R; Schröder, Nicolas W J; Karlin, Justin; Chen, Shuang; Shimada, Kenichi; Slepenkin, Anatoly; Alsabeh, Randa; Peterson, Ellena; Arditi, Moshe

    2011-01-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniae (CP) is associated with induction and exacerbation of asthma. CP infection can induce allergic airway sensitization in mice in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Allergen exposure 5 days after a low dose (mild-moderate), but not a high dose (severe) CP infection induces antigen sensitization in mice. Innate immune signals play a critical role in controlling CP infection induced allergic airway sensitization, however these mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. Wild-type, TLR2-/-, and TLR4-/- mice were infected intranasally (i.n.) with a low dose of CP, followed by i.n. exposure to human serum albumin (HSA) and challenged with HSA 2 weeks later. Airway inflammation, immunoglobulins, eosinophils, and goblet cells were measured. Low dose CP infection induced allergic sensitization in TLR2-/- mice, but not in TLR4-/- mice, due to differential Treg responses in these genotypes. TLR2-/- mice had reduced numbers of Tregs in the lung during CP infection while TLR4-/- mice had increased numbers. High dose CP infection resulted in an increase in Tregs and pDCs in lungs, which prevented antigen sensitization in WT mice. Depletion of Tregs or pDCs resulted in allergic airway sensitization. We conclude that Tregs and pDCs are critical determinants regulating CP infection-induced allergic sensitization. Furthermore, TLR2 and TLR4 signaling during CP infection may play a regulatory role through the modulation of Tregs. PMID:21695198

  17. Chlamydia pneumoniae infection induced allergic airway sensitization is controlled by regulatory T-cells and plasmacytoid dendritic cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy R Crother

    Full Text Available Chlamydia pneumoniae (CP is associated with induction and exacerbation of asthma. CP infection can induce allergic airway sensitization in mice in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Allergen exposure 5 days after a low dose (mild-moderate, but not a high dose (severe CP infection induces antigen sensitization in mice. Innate immune signals play a critical role in controlling CP infection induced allergic airway sensitization, however these mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. Wild-type, TLR2-/-, and TLR4-/- mice were infected intranasally (i.n. with a low dose of CP, followed by i.n. exposure to human serum albumin (HSA and challenged with HSA 2 weeks later. Airway inflammation, immunoglobulins, eosinophils, and goblet cells were measured. Low dose CP infection induced allergic sensitization in TLR2-/- mice, but not in TLR4-/- mice, due to differential Treg responses in these genotypes. TLR2-/- mice had reduced numbers of Tregs in the lung during CP infection while TLR4-/- mice had increased numbers. High dose CP infection resulted in an increase in Tregs and pDCs in lungs, which prevented antigen sensitization in WT mice. Depletion of Tregs or pDCs resulted in allergic airway sensitization. We conclude that Tregs and pDCs are critical determinants regulating CP infection-induced allergic sensitization. Furthermore, TLR2 and TLR4 signaling during CP infection may play a regulatory role through the modulation of Tregs.

  18. Newer approaches to the treatment of acne vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonart, Thierry

    2012-12-01

    The multifactorial etiology of acne vulgaris makes it challenging to treat. Current treatments include topical retinoids, benzoyl peroxide, topical and systemic antibiotics, azelaic acid, and systemic isotretinoin. Adjunctive and/or emerging approaches include topical dapsone, taurine bromamine, resveratrol, chemical peels, optical treatments, as well as complementary and alternative medications. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the therapies available for acne and their latest developments, including new treatment strategies (i.e. re-evaluation of the use of oral antibiotics and avoidance of topical antibiotic monotherapy, use of subantimicrobial antibiotic dosing, use of low-dose isotretinoin, optical treatments), new formulations (microsponges, liposomes, nanoemulsions, aerosol foams), new combinations (fixed-combination products of topical retinoids and topical antibiotics [essentially clindamycin] or benzoyl peroxide), new agents (topical dapsone, taurine bromamine, resveratrol) and their rationale and likely place in treatment. Acne vaccines, topical natural antimicrobial peptides, and lauric acid represent other promising therapies. PMID:22920095

  19. Fractional Carbon Dioxide Laser in Treatment of Acne Scars

    OpenAIRE

    Andrej Petrov; Vesna Pljakovska

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Scars appear as a result of skin damage during the process of the skin healing. There are two types of acne scars, depending on whether there is a loss or accumulation of collagen: atrophic and hypertrophic. In 80-90% it comes to scars with loss of collagen compared to smaller number of hypertrophic scars and keloids. AIM: The aim of the study was to determine efficiency and safety of fractional carbon dioxide laser in the treatment of acne scars. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The...

  20. Use of tazarotene foam for the treatment of acne vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregoriou S

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Stamatis Gregoriou, Eleftheria Kritsotaki, Alexandros Katoulis, Dimitris RigopoulosSecond Department of Dermatology and Venereology, Attikon Hospital, University of Athens Medical School, Athens, GreeceAbstract: Acne vulgaris is a common inflammatory chronic disease of the pilosebaceous unit. It often requires long-term treatment, resulting in increased demand for topical medications that are popular with patients in order to achieve long-term compliance. Tazarotene foam 1% is a novel formulation of tazarotene. We review efficacy and tolerability studies of the new formulation, and suggest a possible place for the product in the management of acne vulgaris.Keywords: retinoids, efficacy, safety, tolerability

  1. Turning acne on/off via mTORC1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danby, F William

    2013-07-01

    Over the past 10 years, the increase in comprehension of the mechanisms behind acne has been truly exponential. Starting with the ethnological work of Cordain, accelerated by the epidemiological work of Adebamowo, supported by the clinical trials of Smith and Mann, Kwon, DiLandro and others, the interface of diet and acne is coming into focus. Melnik now presents an exceptional pair of papers that illustrate for dermatologists what translational research is all about. The Western diet, the role of dairy, FoxO1 and mTORC1, the interplay of agonists and antagonists, therapeutics present and future - the jigsaw puzzle is coming together. PMID:23800069

  2. The epidemiology of acne vulgaris in late adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn DD

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Darren D Lynn,1 Tamara Umari,1 Cory A Dunnick,2,3 Robert P Dellavalle2–4 1Department of Dermatology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, 2Department of Dermatology, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, 3Dermatology Service, US Department of Veterans Affairs, Eastern Colorado Health Care System, Denver, 4Department of Epidemiology, Colorado School of Public Health, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO, USA Importance: Acne vulgaris is the most common skin condition affecting late adolescents across the globe. Although prior studies have evaluated epidemiologic patterns of acne vulgaris in various ethnicities and regions, adequate understanding of the worldwide burden of the disease associated with patients in their late adolescence (15–19-year olds remains lacking. Objective: To assess the global burden of the disease associated with acne vulgaris for late adolescents (15–19-year olds and provide an overview of the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and treatment options for acne in this population. Design: Database summary study. Setting: Global Burden of Disease Study 2010 database. Participants: Global Burden of Disease regions comprised countries with prevalence of acne vulgaris between the ages of 15 and 19 years. Main outcomes and measures: Geographic region-level disability-adjusted life year rates (per 100,000 persons associated with acne vulgaris in years 1990 through 2010. Median percentage change in disability-adjusted life year rates was estimated for each region across the specified study period. Conclusion and relevance: Acne vulgaris-associated disease burden exhibits global distribution and has continued to grow in prevalence over time within this population. This continued growth suggests an unmet dermatologic need worldwide for this disorder and potential opportunities for improved access and delivery of dermatologic care. Our analysis of the literature reveals numerous

  3. Induced release of a plant-defense volatile 'deceptively' attracts insect vectors to plants infected with a bacterial pathogen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajinder S Mann

    Full Text Available Transmission of plant pathogens by insect vectors is a complex biological process involving interactions between the plant, insect, and pathogen. Pathogen-induced plant responses can include changes in volatile and nonvolatile secondary metabolites as well as major plant nutrients. Experiments were conducted to understand how a plant pathogenic bacterium, Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las, affects host preference behavior of its psyllid (Diaphorina citri Kuwayama vector. D. citri were attracted to volatiles from pathogen-infected plants more than to those from non-infected counterparts. Las-infected plants were more attractive to D. citri adults than non-infected plants initially; however after feeding, psyllids subsequently dispersed to non-infected rather than infected plants as their preferred settling point. Experiments with Las-infected and non-infected plants under complete darkness yielded similar results to those recorded under light. The behavior of psyllids in response to infected versus non-infected plants was not influenced by whether or not they were carriers of the pathogen. Quantification of volatile release from non-infected and infected plants supported the hypothesis that odorants mediate psyllid preference. Significantly more methyl salicylate, yet less methyl anthranilate and D-limonene, was released by infected than non-infected plants. Methyl salicylate was attractive to psyllids, while methyl anthranilate did not affect their behavior. Feeding on citrus by D. citri adults also induced release of methyl salicylate, suggesting that it may be a cue revealing location of conspecifics on host plants. Infected plants were characterized by lower levels of nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur, zinc, and iron, as well as, higher levels of potassium and boron than non-infected plants. Collectively, our results suggest that host selection behavior of D. citri may be modified by bacterial infection of plants, which alters release of

  4. Thermal injury induces impaired function in polymorphonuclear neutrophil granulocytes and reduced control of burn wound infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calum, H.; Moser, C.; Jensen, P. O.;

    2009-01-01

    Severe thermal injury induces immunosuppression, involving all parts of the immune system, especially when large fractions of the total body surface area are affected. An animal model was established to characterize the burn-induced immunosuppression. In our novel mouse model a 6% third-degree burn...... of mice with burn wound. The reduction was ascribed to the decline in concentration of polymorphonuclear neutrophil leucocytes and monocytes. When infecting the skin with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a dissemination of bacteria was observed only in the burn wound group. Histological characterization...

  5. Club cells surviving influenza A virus infection induce temporary nonspecific antiviral immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Jennifer R; Sachs, David; Lim, Jean K; Langlois, Ryan A; Palese, Peter; Heaton, Nicholas S

    2016-04-01

    A brief window of antigen-nonspecific protection has been observed after influenza A virus (IAV) infection. Although this temporary immunity has been assumed to be the result of residual nonspecific inflammation, this period of induced immunity has not been fully studied. Because IAV has long been characterized as a cytopathic virus (based on its ability to rapidly lyse most cell types in culture), it has been a forgone conclusion that directly infected cells could not be contributing to this effect. Using a Cre recombinase-expressing IAV, we have previously shown that club cells can survive direct viral infection. We show here not only that these cells can eliminate all traces of the virus and survive but also that they acquire a heightened antiviral response phenotype after surviving. Moreover, we experimentally demonstrate temporary nonspecific viral immunity after IAV infection and show that surviving cells are required for this phenotype. This work characterizes a virally induced modulation of the innate immune response that may represent a new mechanism to prevent viral diseases.

  6. Retinoic acid and glycolic acid combination in the treatment of acne scars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B S Chandrashekar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Acne is a prevalent condition in society affecting nearly 80-90% of adolescents often resulting in secondary damage in the form of scarring. Retinoic acid (RA is said to improve acne scars and reduce postinflammatory hyperpigmentation while glycolic acid (GA is known for its keratolytic properties and its ability to reduce atrophic acne scars. There are studies exploring the combined effect of retinaldehyde and GA combination with positive results while the efficacy of retinoic acid and GA (RAGA combination remains unexplored. Aim: The aim of this study remains to retrospectively assess the efficacy of RAGA combination on acne scars in patients previously treated for active acne. Materials and Methods: A retrospective assessment of 35 patients using topical RAGA combination on acne scars was done. The subjects were 17-34 years old and previously treated for active acne. Case records and photographs of each patient were assessed and the acne scars were graded as per Goodman and Baron′s global scarring grading system (GSGS, before the start and after 12 weeks of RAGA treatment. The differences in the scar grades were noted to assess the improvement. Results: At the end of 12 weeks, significant improvement in acne scars was noticed in 91.4% of the patients. Conclusion: The RAGA combination shows efficacy in treating acne scars in the majority of patients, minimizing the need of procedural treatment for acne scars.

  7. Varicella-zoster virus glycoprotein expression differentially induces the unfolded protein response in infected cells

    OpenAIRE

    Carpenter, John E.; Grose, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is a human herpesvirus that spreads to children as varicella or chicken pox. The virus then establishes latency in the nervous system and re-emerges, typically decades later, as zoster or shingles. We have reported previously that VZV induces autophagy in infected cells as well as exhibiting evidence of the Unfolded Protein Response (UPR): XBP1 splicing, a greatly expanded Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) and CHOP expression. Herein we report the results of a UPR specif...

  8. Varicella-Zoster Virus glycoprotein expression differentially induces the unfolded protein response in infected cells.

    OpenAIRE

    John Earl Carpenter; Charles eGrose

    2014-01-01

    Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is a human herpesvirus that spreads to children as varicella or chicken pox. The virus then establishes latency in the nervous system and re-emerges, typically decades later, as zoster or shingles. We have reported previously that VZV induces autophagy in infected cells as well as exhibiting evidence of the Unfolded Protein Response (UPR): XBP1 splicing, a greatly expanded Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) and CHOP expression. Herein we report the results of a UPR specif...

  9. Porphyromonas gingivalis oral infection exacerbates the development and severity of collagen-induced arthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Marchesan, Julie Teresa; Gerow, Elizabeth Ann; Schaff, Riley; Taut, Andrei Dan; Shin, Seung-Yun; Sugai, James; Brand, David; Burberry, Aaron; Jorns, Julie; Lundy, Steven Karl; Nuñez, Gabriel; Fox, David A; Giannobile, William V.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Clinical studies suggest a direct influence of periodontal disease (PD) on serum inflammatory markers and disease assessment of patients with established rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, the influence of PD on arthritis development remains unclear. This investigation was undertaken to determine the contribution of chronic PD to immune activation and development of joint inflammation using the collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) model. Methods DBA1/J mice orally infected with Porp...

  10. Effects of Experimental Sarcocystis neurona-Induced Infection on Immunity in an Equine Model

    OpenAIRE

    S. Rochelle Lewis; Ellison, Siobhan P.; Dascanio, John J.; Lindsay, David S.; Gogal, Robert M.; Werre, Stephen R.; Naveen Surendran; Breen, Meghan E.; Bettina M. Heid; Andrews, Frank M; Virginia A. Buechner-Maxwell; Witonsky, Sharon G.

    2014-01-01

    Sarcocystis neurona is the most common cause of Equine Protozoal Myeloencephalitis (EPM), affecting 0.5–1% horses in the United States during their lifetimes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the equine immune responses in an experimentally induced Sarcocystis neurona infection model. Neurologic parameters were recorded prior to and throughout the 70-day study by blinded investigators. Recombinant SnSAG1 ELISA for serum and CSF were used to confirm and track disease progression. Al...

  11. Cosmeceuticals based on Rhealba(®) Oat plantlet extract for the treatment of acne vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabbrocini, G; Saint Aroman, M

    2014-12-01

    Recent evidence suggests that acne vulgaris begins as an inflammation in and around the sebaceous gland and alterations in the lipid content of sebum, which drive hyperproliferation and increased desquamation of keratinocytes within sebaceous follicles. This prevents sebum drainage, causing the formation of microcomedones, which spontaneously regress or become acne lesions when the pilosebaceous unit is further blocked by the accumulation of corneocytes. These conditions are favourable for the proliferation of Propionibacterium acnes, which further aggravates acne by enhancing abnormal desquamation, sebum production and inflammation. Also, skin fragility due to inflammation or irritation by anti-comedogenic agents can worsen the situation. Rhealba(®) Oat plantlet extract (Pierre Fabre Dermo Cosmetique) soothes and restores fragile skin in acne by reducing inflammation and inhibits bacterial adhesion of Propionibacterium acnes. Cosmeceuticals combining Rhealba(®) Oat plantlet extract and hydro-compensating actives, which are available with or without anti-comedogenic hydroxy acids, provide a balanced, multifaceted approach for acne patients.

  12. Treatment considerations for inflammatory acne: clinical evidence for adapalene 0.1% in combination therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiboutot, Diane M; Gollnick, Harald P

    2006-09-01

    Acne vulgaris is an exceptionally common, chronic, and recurring disease. It involves multiple etiological factors including follicular hyperkeratinization, increased sebum production, Propionibacterium acnes proliferation, and inflammation. Presently, oral isotretinoin is the only single agent that is effective against all 4 major pathophysiologic features. However, this drug is also responsible for several serious side effects, including teratogenicity. Therefore, it should be used in only the most severe cases and alternative treatment approaches for inflammatory acne, such as initial combination therapy, should be considered first. Combination therapy in inflammatory acne simultaneously targets multiple pathogenic factors. Current guidelines recommend early initiation of combination therapy with a topical retinoid and antimicrobials for mild to moderate inflammatory acne and topical retinoids with oral antibiotics (with or without the use of benzoyl peroxide) for moderate to severe cases of acne, followed by maintenance therapy with topical retinoids. This review evaluates the rationale and clinical evidence for the use of adapalene in combination therapy for inflammatory acne. PMID:16989194

  13. Impact of acne vulgaris on quality of life and self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosthota, Abhineetha; Bondade, Swapna; Basavaraja, Vinay

    2016-08-01

    The psychological impact of acne is determined by various factors including age, sex, personality, grade of disease, scarring, and environmental and ethnic background. Apart from managing the clinical manifestations of acne, clinicians also have to deal with the psychological aspects of the disease by assessing patients' quality of life (QOL) and self-esteem. These measures will aid in better management of acne patients. This study examined the relationship between acne and QOL and self-esteem. The results showed that acne severity may have a considerable adverse impact on QOL and self-esteem. Dermatologists need to emphasize the psychosocial sequelae of acne through awareness programs and encourage medical treatment along with basic psychosomatic remedies in the management of acne. PMID:27622255

  14. Impact of acne vulgaris on quality of life and self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosthota, Abhineetha; Bondade, Swapna; Basavaraja, Vinay

    2016-08-01

    The psychological impact of acne is determined by various factors including age, sex, personality, grade of disease, scarring, and environmental and ethnic background. Apart from managing the clinical manifestations of acne, clinicians also have to deal with the psychological aspects of the disease by assessing patients' quality of life (QOL) and self-esteem. These measures will aid in better management of acne patients. This study examined the relationship between acne and QOL and self-esteem. The results showed that acne severity may have a considerable adverse impact on QOL and self-esteem. Dermatologists need to emphasize the psychosocial sequelae of acne through awareness programs and encourage medical treatment along with basic psychosomatic remedies in the management of acne.

  15. Formulation of cosmetic products for the treatment of acne containing tea tree oil and salicyclic acid / Susanna Jacoba Swanepoel

    OpenAIRE

    Swanepoel, Susanna Jacoba

    2005-01-01

    Acne is a skin disease that affects most adolescents and young adults. There are four abnormalities in acne namely, sebum production, inflammation, hyperkeratosis and the presence of Propionobacterium acnes. To treat acne effectively it has been proved that combinational therapy is essential to be able to eliminate all four abnormalities. Both salicylic acid and tea tree oil have the properties to eliminate the four abnormalities of acne. These active ingredients were therefore...

  16. Glycolic acid chemical peeling improves inflammatory acne eruptions through its inhibitory and bactericidal effects on Propionibacterium acnes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takenaka, Yuko; Hayashi, Nobukazu; Takeda, Mikiko; Ashikaga, Sayaka; Kawashima, Makoto

    2012-04-01

    Glycolic acid chemical peeling is effective for treating comedones, and some clinical data show that it also improves inflammatory eruptions. The purpose of this study was to identify the mechanism of glycolic acid chemical peeling to improve inflammatory acne. To assess growth inhibitory and bactericidal effects of glycolic acid on Propionibacterium acnes in vitro, we used an agar diffusion method and a time-kill method. To reveal bactericidal effects in vivo, we established an agar-attached method which correlated well with the ordinary swab-wash method, and we used the agar-attached method to compare the numbers of propionibacteria on the cheek treated with glycolic acid chemical peeling. Our results show that 30% glycolic acid (at pH 1.5, 3.5 and 5.5) formed growth inhibitory circles in the agar diffusion method, but the diameters of those circles were smaller than with 1% nadifloxacin lotion or 1% clindamycin gel. In the time-kill method, 30% glycolic acid (at pH 1.5 and 3.5) or 1% nadifloxacin lotion reduced the number of P. acnes to less than 100 CFU/mL within 5 min. In contrast, in 30% glycolic acid (at pH 5.5) or in 1% clindamycin gel, P. acnes survived for more than 4 h. Chemical peeling with 35% glycolic acid (at pH 1.2) decreased the number of propionibacteria on the cheeks of patients compared with untreated controls (P glycolic acid has moderate growth inhibitory and bactericidal effects on P. acnes, and that chemical peeling with glycolic acid works on inflammatory acne via those effects.

  17. Depletion of alveolar macrophages ameliorates virus-induced disease following a pulmonary coronavirus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacey M Hartwig

    Full Text Available Coronaviruses cause respiratory disease in humans that can range from mild to severe. However, the pathogenesis of pulmonary coronavirus infections is poorly understood. Mouse hepatitis virus type 1 (MHV-1 is a group 2 coronavirus capable of causing severe morbidity and mortality in highly susceptible C3H/HeJ mice. We have previously shown that both CD4 and CD8 T cells play a critical role in mediating MHV-1-induced disease. Here we evaluated the role of alveolar macrophages (AM in modulating the adaptive immune response and subsequent disease. Depletion of AM using clodronate liposomes administered prior to MHV-1 infection was associated with a significant amelioration of MHV-1-induced morbidity and mortality. AM depletion resulted in a decreased number of virus-specific CD4 T cells in the lung airways. In addition, a significant increase in the frequency and total number of Tregs in the lung tissue and lung airways was observed following MHV-1 infection in mice depleted of AM. Our results indicate that AM play a critical role in modulating MHV-1-induced morbidity and mortality.

  18. Starvation reveals the cause of infection-induced castration and gigantism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cressler, Clayton E; Nelson, William A; Day, Troy; McCauley, Edward

    2014-10-01

    Parasites often induce life-history changes in their hosts. In many cases, these infection-induced life-history changes are driven by changes in the pattern of energy allocation and utilization within the host. Because these processes will affect both host and parasite fitness, it can be challenging to determine who benefits from them. Determining the causes and consequences of infection-induced life-history changes requires the ability to experimentally manipulate life history and a framework for connecting life history to host and parasite fitness. Here, we combine a novel starvation manipulation with energy budget models to provide new insights into castration and gigantism in the Daphnia magna-Pasteuria ramosa host-parasite system. Our results show that starvation primarily affects investment in reproduction, and increasing starvation stress reduces gigantism and parasite fitness without affecting castration. These results are consistent with an energetic structure where the parasite uses growth energy as a resource. This finding gives us new understanding of the role of castration and gigantism in this system, and how life-history variation will affect infection outcome and epidemiological dynamics. The approach of combining targeted life-history manipulations with energy budget models can be adapted to understand life-history changes in other disease systems.

  19. Equine torovirus (BEV induces caspase-mediated apoptosis in infected cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M Maestre

    Full Text Available Toroviruses are gastroenteritis causing agents that infect different animal species and humans. To date, very little is known about how toroviruses cause disease. Here, we describe for the first time that the prototype member of this genus, the equine torovirus Berne virus (BEV, induces apoptosis in infected cells at late times postinfection. Observation of BEV infected cells by electron microscopy revealed that by 24 hours postinfection some cells exhibited morphological characteristics of apoptotic cells. Based on this finding, we analyzed several apoptotic markers, and observed protein synthesis inhibition, rRNA and DNA degradation, nuclear fragmentation, caspase-mediated cleavage of PARP and eIF4GI, and PKR and eIF2α phosphorylation, all these processes taking place after peak virus production. We also determined that both cell death receptor and mitochondrial pathways are involved in the apoptosis process induced by BEV. BEV-induced apoptosis at late times postinfection, once viral progeny are produced, could facilitate viral dissemination in vivo and contribute to viral pathogenesis.

  20. Starvation reveals the cause of infection-induced castration and gigantism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cressler, Clayton E; Nelson, William A; Day, Troy; McCauley, Edward

    2014-10-01

    Parasites often induce life-history changes in their hosts. In many cases, these infection-induced life-history changes are driven by changes in the pattern of energy allocation and utilization within the host. Because these processes will affect both host and parasite fitness, it can be challenging to determine who benefits from them. Determining the causes and consequences of infection-induced life-history changes requires the ability to experimentally manipulate life history and a framework for connecting life history to host and parasite fitness. Here, we combine a novel starvation manipulation with energy budget models to provide new insights into castration and gigantism in the Daphnia magna-Pasteuria ramosa host-parasite system. Our results show that starvation primarily affects investment in reproduction, and increasing starvation stress reduces gigantism and parasite fitness without affecting castration. These results are consistent with an energetic structure where the parasite uses growth energy as a resource. This finding gives us new understanding of the role of castration and gigantism in this system, and how life-history variation will affect infection outcome and epidemiological dynamics. The approach of combining targeted life-history manipulations with energy budget models can be adapted to understand life-history changes in other disease systems. PMID:25143034

  1. Aspergillus flavus infection induces transcriptional and physical changes in developing maize kernels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea L Dolezal

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Maize kernels are susceptible to infection by the opportunistic pathogen Aspergillus flavus. Infection results in reduction of grain quality and contamination of kernels with the highly carcinogenic mycotoxin, aflatoxin. To understanding host response to infection by the fungus, transcription of approximately 9,000 maize genes were monitored during the host-pathogen interaction with a custom designed Affymetrix GeneChip® DNA array. More than 1,000 maize genes were found differentially expressed at a fold change of 2 or greater. This included the up regulation of defense related genes and signaling pathways. Transcriptional changes also were observed in primary metabolism genes. Starch biosynthetic genes were down regulated during infection, while genes encoding maize hydrolytic enzymes, presumably involved in the degradation of host reserves, were up regulated. These data indicate that infection of the maize kernel by A. flavus induced metabolic changes in the kernel, including the production of a defense response, as well as a disruption in kernel development.

  2. Photodynamic therapy can induce non-specific protective immunity against a bacterial infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Masamitsu; Mroz, Pawel; Dai, Tianhong; Kinoshita, Manabu; Morimoto, Yuji; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2012-03-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) for cancer is known to induce an immune response against the tumor, in addition to its well-known direct cell-killing and vascular destructive effects. PDT is becoming increasingly used as a therapy for localized infections. However there has not to date been a convincing report of an immune response being generated against a microbial pathogen after PDT in an animal model. We have studied PDT as a therapy for bacterial arthritis caused by Staphylococcus aureus infection in the mouse knee. We had previously found that PDT of an infection caused by injection of MRSA (5X107 CFU) into the mouse knee followed 3 days later by 1 μg of Photofrin and 635- nm diode laser illumination with a range of fluences within 5 minutes, gave a biphasic dose response. The greatest reduction of MRSA CFU was seen with a fluence of 20 J/cm2, whereas lower antibacterial efficacy was observed with fluences that were either lower or higher. We then tested the hypothesis that the host immune response mediated by neutrophils was responsible for most of the beneficial antibacterial effect. We used bioluminescence imaging of luciferase expressing bacteria to follow the progress of the infection in real time. We found similar results using intra-articular methylene blue and red light, and more importantly, that carrying out PDT of the noninfected joint and subsequently injecting bacteria after PDT led to a significant protection from infection. Taken together with substantial data from studies using blocking antibodies we believe that the pre-conditioning PDT regimen recruits and stimulates neutrophils into the infected joint which can then destroy bacteria that are subsequently injected and prevent infection.

  3. Fasciola hepatica induces eosinophil apoptosis in the migratory and biliary stages of infection in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escamilla, A; Bautista, M J; Zafra, R; Pacheco, I L; Ruiz, M T; Martínez-Cruz, S; Méndez, A; Martínez-Moreno, A; Molina-Hernández, V; Pérez, J

    2016-01-30

    The aim of the present work was to evaluate the number of apoptotic eosinophils in the livers of sheep experimentally infected with Fasciola hepatica during the migratory and biliary stages of infection. Four groups (n=5) of sheep were used; groups 1-3 were orally infected with 200 metacercariae (mc) and sacrificed at 8 and 28 days post-infection (dpi), and 17 weeks post-infection (wpi), respectively. Group 4 was used as an uninfected control. Apoptosis was detected using immunohistochemistry with a polyclonal antibody against anti-active caspase-3, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Eosinophils were identified using the Hansel stain in serial sections for caspase-3, and by ultrastructural features using TEM. At 8 and 28 dpi, numerous caspase-3(+) eosinophils were mainly found at the periphery of acute hepatic necrotic foci. The percentage of caspase -3(+) apoptotic eosinophils in the periphery of necrotic foci was high (46.1-53.9) at 8 and 28 dpi, respectively, and decreased in granulomas found at 28 dpi (6%). Transmission electron microscopy confirmed the presence of apoptotic eosinophils in hepatic lesions at 8 and 28 dpi. At 17 wpi, apoptotic eosinophils were detected in the infiltrate surrounding some enlarged bile ducts containing adult flukes. This is the first report of apoptosis induced by F. hepatica in sheep and the first study reporting apoptosis in eosinophils in hepatic inflammatory infiltrates in vivo. The high number of apoptotic eosinophils in acute necrotic tracts during the migratory and biliary stages of infection suggests that eosinophil apoptosis may play a role in F. hepatica survival during different stages of infection.

  4. Evaluation and Treatment of Acne Patients – Part II: Topical, Systemic and Surgical Treatments, Acne Treatment in Pregnancy, Treatment Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    A. Figueiredo; Massa, A; Picoto, A; Soares, AP; Lopes, C; Resende, C; Rebelo, C; Brandão, FM; Marques-Pinto, G; Schonenberger de Oliveira, H; Selores, M.; Gonçalo, M; Bello, RT

    2011-01-01

    O Portuguese Acne Advisory Board (PAAB), grupo de dermatologistas portugueses que, à semelhança de grupos congéneres internacionais, tem dedicado particular atenção à definição de linhas de orientação para o tratamento da acne, pretende que o presente documento constitua uma ferramenta útil na abordagem dos doentes com esta patologia. Elaborou-se um dossier, para educação médica contínua, subdividido em 2 partes: Parte I – etiopatogenia e clínica; Parte II – abordagem terapêutica. Nesta P...

  5. Epidemic Keratoconjunctivitis-Causing Adenoviruses Induce MUC16 Ectodomain Release To Infect Ocular Surface Epithelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Balaraj B; Zhou, Xiaohong; Spurr-Michaud, Sandra; Rajaiya, Jaya; Chodosh, James; Gipson, Ilene K

    2016-01-01

    Human adenoviruses (HAdV), species D in particular (HAdV-D), are frequently associated with epidemic keratoconjunctivitis (EKC). Although the infection originates at the ocular surface epithelium, the mechanisms by which HAdV-Ds bypass the membrane-associated mucin (MAM)-rich glycocalyx of the ocular surface epithelium to trigger infection and inflammation remain unknown. Here, we report that an EKC-causing adenovirus (HAdV-D37), but not a non-EKC-causing one (HAdV-D19p), induces ectodomain release of MUC16-a MAM with barrier functions at the ocular surface-from cultured human corneal and conjunctival epithelial cells. HAdV-D37, but not HAdV-D19p, is also found to decrease the glycocalyx barrier function of corneal epithelial cells, as determined by rose bengal dye penetrance assays. Furthermore, results from quantitative PCR (qPCR) amplification of viral genomic DNA using primers specific to a conserved region of the E1B gene show that, in comparison to infection by HAdV-D19p, infection by HAdV-D37 is significantly increased in corneal epithelial cells. Collectively, these results point to a MUC16 ectodomain release-dependent mechanism utilized by the EKC-causing HAdV-D37 to initiate infection at the ocular surface. These findings are important in terms of understanding the pathogenesis of adenoviral keratoconjunctivitis. Similar MAM ectodomain release mechanisms may be prevalent across other mucosal epithelia in the body (e.g., the airway epithelium) that are prone to adenoviral infection. IMPORTANCE Human adenoviruses (HAdVs) are double-stranded DNA viruses that cause infections across all mucosal tissues in the body. At the ocular surface, HAdVs cause keratoconjunctivitis (E. Ford, K. E. Nelson, and D. Warren, Epidemiol Rev 9:244-261, 1987, and C. M. Robinson, D. Seto, M. S. Jones, D. W. Dyer, and J. Chodosh, Infect Genet Evol 11:1208-1217, 2011, doi:10.1016/j.meegid.2011.04.031)-a highly contagious infection that accounts for nearly 60% of conjunctivitis cases

  6. A synergistic approach of adapalene-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers, and vitamin C co-administration for treating acne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Ashay; Garg, Neeraj K; Jain, Atul; Kesharwani, Prashant; Jain, Amit Kumar; Nirbhavane, Pradip; Tyagi, Rajeev K

    2016-06-01

    The present study documents the fabrication and characterization of a topically applicable gel loaded with nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) of adapalene (ADA) and vitamin C (ascorbyl-6-palmitate [AP]). The NLCs were prepared by high pressure homogenization (HPH) method followed by incorporation into AP loaded gel. The fabricated system was characterized for size, poly dispersity index, entrapment efficiency (EE) and in vitro drug release properties, and was further investigated for skin compliance, skin transport characteristics (skin permeation and bio-distribution), rheological behavior, texture profile analysis and anti-acne therapeutic potential against testosterone-induced acne in male Wistar rats. The NLC-based formulation improved targeting of the skin epidermal layer and reducing systemic penetration. The co-administration of vitamin C led to an adjunct effect in acne therapy in physiological conditions. In brief, the present results suggest the potential of NLCs as a novel carrier for the dermal delivery of ADA and also the synergistic effect of vitamin C in topical therapeutics. PMID:26577703

  7. Unexpected positive cultures including isolation of Propionibacterium acnes in revision shoulder arthroplasty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Seung Ju Kim; Jong Hun Kim

    2014-01-01

    Objective Little information is available to guide treatment strategies regarding patients with unexpected positive cultures (UPC),including Propionibacterium acnes (PA),without overt signs of infection in revision shoulder arthroplasty (RSA).The purpose of our study was to analyze the prevalence,clinical meaning,treatment and prognosis of UPC in RSA.Data sources and study selection We performed a systematic review of the literature between 1950 and 2013 for all studies reporting on UPC for PA.Studies with the prevalence and prognosis of patients with UPC in RSA were analyzed.Results Six studies meeting our inclusion criteria yielded data for 1 402 patients who underwent a total of 1405 RSA.Based on the available data,following RSA 235 shoulders had UPCs with a pooled percentage of 16.7% (235/1405).The most commonly isolated bacteria from shoulders following RSA with UPCs was PA with pooled percentages of 63.4% (149/235).Occurrence of true infection from UPCs after RSA was seen in 24 shoulders (24/235,10.2%).Antibiotic use did not influence the rate of the occurrence of true infection from UPCs (P=0.498).Conclusions Our study showed a low risk of having a true infection from UPCs after RSA without clinical signs of preoperative infection at the time of the surgery.Therefore,prolonged antibiotic therapy may not be necessary in these patients.

  8. Route of Infection That Induces a High Intensity of Gamma Interferon-Secreting T Cells in the Genital Tract Produces Optimal Protection against Chlamydia trachomatis Infection in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Igietseme, Joseph U.; Uriri, Ijindah M.; Kumar, Shantha N.; Ananaba, Godwin A.; Ojior, Omegbhai O.; Momodu, Inua A.; Candal, Debra H.; Black, Carolyn M.

    1998-01-01

    The induction of local T helper type 1 (Th1)-mediated cellular immunity is crucial for resistance of mice to genital infection by the obligate intracellular bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis. We tested the hypothesis that the route of immunization that elicits relatively high numbers of chlamydia-specific, gamma interferon (IFN-γ)-secreting T lymphocytes (ISTLs) in the genital tract would induce optimal protective immunity against reinfection. Female BALB/c mice were infected intravaginally (i....

  9. Evaluation of Corneal Topography and Biomechanical Parameters after Use of Systemic Isotretinoin in Acne Vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Yildirim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. We report the effect of isotretinoin on corneal topography, corneal thickness, and biomechanical parameters in patients with acne vulgaris. Method. Fifty-four eyes of 54 patients who received oral isotretinoin for treatment of acne vulgaris were evaluated. All patients underwent a corneal topographical evaluation with a Scheimpflug camera combined with Placido-disk (Sirius, ultrasonic pachymetry measurements, and corneal biomechanical evaluation with an ocular response analyzer at baseline, in the 1st, 3rd, and 6th months of treatment, and 6 months after isotretinoin discontinuation. Results. The thinnest corneal thickness measured with Sirius differed significantly in the 1st, 3rd, and 6th months compared with the baseline measurement; there was no significant change in ultrasonic central corneal thickness measurements and biomechanical parameters (corneal hysteresis and corneal resistance factor throughout the study. Average simulated keratometry and surface asymmetry index increased significantly only in the first month of treatment according to the baseline. All changes disappeared 6 months after the end of treatment. Conclusion. Basal tear secretion and corneal morphologic properties were significantly influenced during the systemic isotretinoin treatment and the changes were reversible after discontinuation. No statistical important biomechanical differences were found to be induced by isotretinoin.

  10. A novel mechanism inducing genome instability in Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus infected cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian R Jackson

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV is an oncogenic herpesvirus associated with multiple AIDS-related malignancies. Like other herpesviruses, KSHV has a biphasic life cycle and both the lytic and latent phases are required for tumorigenesis. Evidence suggests that KSHV lytic replication can cause genome instability in KSHV-infected cells, although no mechanism has thus far been described. A surprising link has recently been suggested between mRNA export, genome instability and cancer development. Notably, aberrations in the cellular transcription and export complex (hTREX proteins have been identified in high-grade tumours and these defects contribute to genome instability. We have previously shown that the lytically expressed KSHV ORF57 protein interacts with the complete hTREX complex; therefore, we investigated the possible intriguing link between ORF57, hTREX and KSHV-induced genome instability. Herein, we show that lytically active KSHV infected cells induce a DNA damage response and, importantly, we demonstrate directly that this is due to DNA strand breaks. Furthermore, we show that sequestration of the hTREX complex by the KSHV ORF57 protein leads to this double strand break response and significant DNA damage. Moreover, we describe a novel mechanism showing that the genetic instability observed is a consequence of R-loop formation. Importantly, the link between hTREX sequestration and DNA damage may be a common feature in herpesvirus infection, as a similar phenotype was observed with the herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1 ICP27 protein. Our data provide a model of R-loop induced DNA damage in KSHV infected cells and describes a novel system for studying genome instability caused by aberrant hTREX.

  11. TRENDS OF SELF MEDICATION IN PATIENTS WITH ACNE VULGARIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanzeela Khalid

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Back ground:Self medication is a norm in our country. One factor probably contributing to this phenomenonis over the counter sale of almost all medication without any regulation. In our dermatologypractice, we frequently encounter patients with acne vulgaris deteriorated by topical use of selfmedication. However, there is very little data to support this in our set up.Objective:To determine the percentage of acne patients using self medication in our population.Design:A cross-sectional survey.Patients and methods:One hundred and fifty patients, of any age and either sex, presenting at outpatient dermatologyclinics (Madina Teaching Hospital and Faisal Hospital, Faisalabad, from June to September2009, for the treatment of acne vulgaris were included. An in-person interview using aquestionnaire was conducted. They were asked about the use of self medication for theirdisease. Details of type of medication, its effects on disease and the source of advice were alsonoted. Objective assessment of acne grade was done by trained dermatology personnel.Data was analyzed using micro software SPSS version 17.Results:Show that 115(77% patients had used self medication. Potent topical steroids were used by72(48% patients. Majority of the patients received the advice about self medication from theirfriends (31% or relatives (27%. Temporary improvement was noticed by 47% of those whoused self medication.Conclusion:A significantly high percentage of patients (77% in our population use self medication for acnevulgaris.

  12. Physical and psychosocial impact of acne in adult females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavneet K Pruthi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Acne, the most common problem that presents to dermatologists, can persist beyond teen years. Although its physical and psychosocial impact is studied in teen years, it is poorly understood in the Indian adult population. Aim : To study the physical and psychosocial impact of acne in adult females. Settings and Design : This exploratory study was done in the university setting. Materials and Methods : Eleven adult, unmarried females, between the age group of 18 and 25 years, having (mild-to-moderate, acne, for two consecutive years, were interviewed using a semi-structured clinical interview of the Skindex, a quality-of-life measure for patients with skin disease, developed by Chren et al., along with some open-ended questions. Both qualitative and quantitative analysis was done to analyze the data. Results : The results indicated a higher level of emotional and social impairment, in terms of the feelings of physical discomfort, anger, and the intermingling impact of these, among the participants. Conclusions : Acne is a common problem among adults and appears to have a considerable impact on the mental health, therefore, for the treatment to be successful, a sympathetic approach by doctors and significant others, with the basic psychosomatic treatment, are necessary.

  13. Dr. Sun Shidao's Experience in TCM Treatment of Acne

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Yaoping; Xu Zhaodong; Zhou Shaorong; Sun Shidao

    2006-01-01

    @@ Although small,acne in always a puzzle to innumerable young people.Besides the itching and burning and distending pain sensations in the face,it also makes the patients feel worried and anxious about the harm in may make to their facial appearance,leading the self-abased,depression and disturbance in social commumication.

  14. Role of antiviral antibodies in resistance against coxsackievirus B3 infection: interaction between preexisting antibodies and an interferon inducer.

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, C T; Feng, K. K.; McCarthy, V P; Lenahan, M F

    1982-01-01

    An experimental model of coxsackievirus B3 infection in newborn mice was utilized to examine the protective role of antiviral antibodies and an interferon inducer, polyinosinic acid-polycytidylic acid [poly(I:C)]. Subcutaneous administration to the infected mice of specific antiviral antibodies resulted in significant protection against coxsackievirus B3 infection. Antibody-treated animals had shortened viremia, early clearance of virus from tissues, and a reduced mortality rate. Dose respons...

  15. 痤疮丙酸杆菌在痤疮发病机制中的进展%Propionibacterium acnes in the pathogenesis of acne

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗敏; 石磊; 张玲琳; 王秀丽

    2016-01-01

    痤疮丙酸杆菌在痤疮发病机制中的作用受到越来越多的关注.研究发现,痤疮丙酸杆菌在痤疮患者及健康志愿者皮肤中分布具有菌株差异性,其中痤疮患者主要是Ⅰ型,而健康志愿者主要是Ⅱ、Ⅲ型,痤疮丙酸杆菌的这种菌株差异性在其发病机制中有所体现.不同类型痤疮丙酸杆菌基因具有差异性.其中Ⅰ型缺乏完整的具有防御作用的CRISPR系统,具有某些致病基因特性,其致病能力较Ⅱ型强,Ⅰ、Ⅱ型之间可能存在竞争关系,最终优势菌群的不同在痤疮是否发病中可能占有重要作用,为进一步研究痤疮丙酸杆菌的发病机制及痤疮的诊治带来了新的视角.%The role of Propionibacterium acnes in the pathogenesis of acne has attracted more and more attention.Recent studies have demonstrated that there is a significant difference in the type of Propionibacterium acnes distributed in the skin between acne patients and healthy volunteers.Propionibacterium acnes type Ⅰ exists most frequently in patients with acne, while types Ⅱ and Ⅲ exist in healthy volunteers.This difference in Propionibacterium acnes strains is also reflected in the pathogenesis of acne.In addition, the genome sequences are different between different types of Propionibacterium acnes.Due to the lack of the intact defense system CRISPR, Propionibacterium acnes type Ⅰ show characteristics of some pathogenic genes, and have a stronger pathogenecity than the type Ⅱ strains.Moreover, there may be competitions between Propionibacterium acnes types Ⅰ and Ⅱ, and the dominant type may determine whether acne occurs.These findings may offer new ideas for further studies on the role of Propionibacterium acnes in the pathogenesis of acne and for acne treatment.

  16. Evaluation of pulmonary dysfunctions and acid–base imbalances induced by Chlamydia psittaci in a bovine model of respiratory infection

    OpenAIRE

    Ostermann, Carola; Linde, Susanna; Siegling-Vlitakis, Christiane; Reinhold, Petra

    2014-01-01

    Background Chlamydia psittaci (Cp) is a respiratory pathogen capable of inducing acute pulmonary zoonotic disease (psittacosis) or persistent infection. To elucidate the pathogenesis of this infection, a translational large animal model was recently introduced by our group. This study aims at quantifying and differentiating pulmonary dysfunction and acid–base imbalances induced by Cp. Methods Forty-two calves were grouped in (i) animals inoculated with Cp (n = 21) and (ii) controls sham-inocu...

  17. Recent advances in the use of adapalene 0.1%/benzoyl peroxide 2.5% to treat patients with moderate to severe acne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyden, James

    2016-01-01

    The central role of inflammation in acne is now more clearly understood. Adapalene, a third-generation topical retinoid, down-regulates toll-like receptor 2 expression and inhibits activator protein-1 activity. In a fixed-dose combination, adapalene and benzoyl peroxide (BPO) act synergistically on inflammatory patterns through regulation of innate immunity. In addition to reducing inflammatory and non-inflammatory lesions, adapalene/BPO helps prevent lesion and microcomedone formation. The combination of a topical retinoid and antimicrobial agent remains the preferred approach for almost all patients with acne. In cases of more severe disease, there is a clinical benefit in combining adapalene/BPO with an oral antibiotic for 12 weeks. Most recently, adapalene/BPO plus doxycycline 200 mg was found to be highly effective when compared with isotretinoin in the treatment of patients with severe acne with nodules. Long-term maintenance therapy is needed for most patients. Retinoids are the preferred agents, with BPO added in patients with more severe disease if needed. Adapalene is anticomedogenic, reduces comedones and has anti-inflammatory properties, while BPO is a unique antimicrobial agent not shown to induce microbial resistance after more than 50 years of use. Maintenance therapy for 6 months with adapalene/BPO prevents relapse among patients with severe acne and continues to reduce disease symptoms.

  18. Frequency and characteristics of acne-related post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad-Casintahan, Flordeliz; Chow, Steven Kim Weng; Goh, Chee Leok; Kubba, Raj; Hayashi, Nobukazu; Noppakun, Nopadon; See, JoAnn; Suh, Dae Hun; Xiang, Li Hong Flora; Kang, Sewon

    2016-07-01

    In patients with darker skin types (Fitzpatrick phototypes III-VI), acne is often accompanied by post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation (PIH). Further, acne-related pigmentation can pose a greater concern for the patient than the acne lesions. There has been little formal study of this acne-related PIH. Recently, the Asian Acne Board - an international group of dermatologists with interest in acne research - made a preliminary evaluation of the frequency and characteristics of PIH in seven Asian countries. A total of 324 sequential acne subjects were evaluated for the presence of PIH. The majority (80.2%) of subjects had mild to moderate acne and there were more females than males (63.0% vs 37.0%). In this population of patients consulting a dermatologist for acne, 58.2% (188/324) had PIH. The results also showed that pigmentation problems are often long lasting: at least 1 year for more than half of subjects and 5 years or longer in 22.3%. In accordance with our clinical experience, patients reported that PIH is quite bothersome, often as bothersome or more so than the acne itself and sometimes more problematic. Excoriation was commonly reported by patients, and may represent a modifiable risk factor that could potentially be improved by patient education. PMID:26813513

  19. Efficacy of an Unani Formulation in Reducing Post Inflammatory Acne Hyperpigmentation Marks- A Clinical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabiya Sultana

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available There is no single malady which causes supplementary psychic disturbance and more general insecurity and feeling of inferiority than acne vulgaris with post inflammatory acne pigmentation marks does. It is strongly associated with depression and anxiety. In addition to individuals with little objective evidence acne with post inflammatory acne hyperpigmentation marks may endure severe subjective impairment, greatly affecting their health related quality of life. Unani System of Medicine contains treatise of basic and compound formulations that can be administered orally and locally in improving post inflammatory acne hyperpigmentation marks. To evaluate the efficacy of a poly herbal Unani formulation in improving post inflammatory acne hyperpigmentation marks. The study was observational self-comparison before and after treatment on 32 female patients. The separate powders of drugs; Shūnīz, Būra Armanī, Naushādar sieved and mixed with Sirka (vinegar and prepared a Unani formulation and were applied topically. All the patients were assessed for change in pigmentation marks of face by using “Visual arbitrary scale for acne hyperpigmentation marks”. In present study out of 32 acne patients 20 (62.5% reported decrease in acne hyperpigmentation marks. The effect of drug was significant (p<0.01 statistically and clinically both. In the present study it was concluded that the used Unani formulation was much effective in improving post inflammatory acne hyperpigmentation marks.

  20. Toxoplasma gondii infection induces dendritic retraction in basolateral amygdala accompanied by reduced corticosterone secretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupshi Mitra

    2013-03-01

    Pathological anxiety is thought to reflect a maladaptive state characterized by exaggerated fear. Naturally occurring perturbations that reduce fear can be crucial in the search for new treatments. The protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii invades rat brain and removes the fear that rats have of cat odors, a change believed to be parasitic manipulation of host behavior aimed at increasing parasite transmission. It is likely that mechanisms employed by T. gondii can be used as a heuristic tool to understand possible means of fear reduction in clinical settings. Male Long-Evans rats were infected with T. gondii and compared with sham-infected animals 8 weeks after infection. The amount of circulating plasma corticosterone and dendritic arborization of basolateral amygdala principal neurons were quantified. Previous studies have shown that corticosterone, acting within the basolateral amygdala, enhances the fear response to environmental stimuli. Here we show that T. gondii infection causes a dendritic retraction in basolateral amygdala neurons. Such dendritic retraction is accompanied by lower amounts of circulating corticosterone, both at baseline and when induced by an aversive cat odor. The concerted effects of parasitism on two pivotal physiological nodes of the fear response provide an animal model relevant to interactions between stress hormones and amygdalar plasticity.

  1. Inducible nitric oxide synthase in duodenum of children with Giardia lamblia infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Kolasa

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The investigation were performed on children with Giardia lamblia infection, diagnosed on the basis of positive stool tests for Giardia antigen (Elisa or by microscopical detection of trophozoites in duodenal fluid. In duodenal biopsies morphological studies and immunohistochemical reaction for inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS were performed. The control group was made up of duodenal tissue of children with excluded giardiasis and inflammation of the upper part of gastrointestinal tract. The duodenal biopsies from children without Giardia lamblia infection were found to have a high immunoreactivity for iNOS in enterocytes, the cells of intestinal crypts, endothelial cells of vessels and connective tissue cells of lamina propria. In children with giardiasis: in some biopsies the expression of iNOS was as high as in control group, in others was weaker detectable and the shortening of intestinal villi was seen. There were also duodenal biopsies with the lack of immunoreactivity for iNOS, with shorter villi and a large amount of mucus in the intestinal epithelium. Beside of goblet cells, also enterocytes were loaded with mucus. The pathological changes may cause malabsorption and also may have a negative influence on the defense of the intestinal wall against Giardia lamblia infection. The different morphological and immunohistochemical results in the duodenum of children with giardiasis can elucidate a variety of clinical symptoms from asymptomatic to severe infection.

  2. Toxoplasma gondii infection induces suppression in a mouse model of allergic airway inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio M Fenoy

    Full Text Available Allergic asthma is an inflammatory disorder characterized by infiltration of the airway wall with inflammatory cells driven mostly by activation of Th2-lymphocytes, eosinophils and mast cells. There is a link between increased allergy and a reduction of some infections in Western countries. Epidemiological data also show that respiratory allergy is less frequent in people exposed to orofecal and foodborne microbes such as Toxoplasma gondii. We previously showed that both acute and chronic parasite T. gondii infection substantially blocked development of airway inflammation in adult BALB/c mice. Based on the high levels of IFN-γ along with the reduction of Th2 phenotype, we hypothesized that the protective effect might be related to the strong Th1 immune response elicited against the parasite. However, other mechanisms could also be implicated. The possibility that regulatory T cells inhibit allergic diseases has received growing support from both animal and human studies. Here we investigated the cellular mechanisms involved in T. gondii induced protection against allergy. Our results show for the first time that thoracic lymph node cells from mice sensitized during chronic T. gondii infection have suppressor activity. Suppression was detected both in vitro, on allergen specific T cell proliferation and in vivo, on allergic lung inflammation after adoptive transference from infected/sensitized mice to previously sensitized animals. This ability was found to be contact-independent and correlated with high levels of TGF-β and CD4(+FoxP3(+ cells.

  3. Species-specific immunity induced by infection with Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba moshkovskii in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimokawa, Chikako; Culleton, Richard; Imai, Takashi; Suzue, Kazutomo; Hirai, Makoto; Taniguchi, Tomoyo; Kobayashi, Seiki; Hisaeda, Hajime; Hamano, Shinjiro

    2013-01-01

    Entamoeba histolytica, the parasitic amoeba responsible for amoebiasis, causes approximately 100,000 deaths every year. There is currently no vaccine against this parasite. We have previously shown that intracecal inoculation of E. histolytica trophozoites leads to chronic and non-healing cecitis in mice. Entamoeba moshkovskii, a closely related amoeba, also causes diarrhea and other intestinal disorders in this model. Here, we investigated the effect of infection followed by drug-cure of these species on the induction of immunity against homologous or heterologous species challenge. Mice were infected with E. histolytica or E. moshkovskii and treated with metronidazole 14 days later. Re-challenge with E. histolytica or E. moshkovskii was conducted seven or 28 days following confirmation of the clearance of amoebae, and the degree of protection compared to non-exposed control mice was evaluated. We show that primary infection with these amoebae induces a species-specific immune response which protects against challenge with the homologous, but not a heterologous species. These findings pave the way, therefore, for the identification of novel amoebae antigens that may become the targets of vaccines and provide a useful platform to investigate host protective immunity to Entamoeba infections.

  4. Complement-related proteins control the flavivirus infection of Aedes aegypti by inducing antimicrobial peptides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoping Xiao

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The complement system functions during the early phase of infection and directly mediates pathogen elimination. The recent identification of complement-like factors in arthropods indicates that this system shares common ancestry in vertebrates and invertebrates as an immune defense mechanism. Thioester (TE-containing proteins (TEPs, which show high similarity to mammalian complement C3, are thought to play a key role in innate immunity in arthropods. Herein, we report that a viral recognition cascade composed of two complement-related proteins limits the flaviviral infection of Aedes aegypti. An A. aegypti macroglobulin complement-related factor (AaMCR, belonging to the insect TEP family, is a crucial effector in opposing the flaviviral infection of A. aegypti. However, AaMCR does not directly interact with DENV, and its antiviral effect requires an A. aegypti homologue of scavenger receptor-C (AaSR-C, which interacts with DENV and AaMCR simultaneously in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, recognition of DENV by the AaSR-C/AaMCR axis regulates the expression of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs, which exerts potent anti-DENV activity. Our results both demonstrate the existence of a viral recognition pathway that controls the flaviviral infection by inducing AMPs and offer insights into a previously unappreciated antiviral function of the complement-like system in arthropods.

  5. Cytomegalovirus infection induces a stem cell phenotype in human primary glioblastoma cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fornara, O; Rahbar, A; Odeberg, J;

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is associated with poor prognosis despite aggressive surgical resection, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy. Unfortunately, this standard therapy does not target glioma cancer stem cells (GCSCs), a subpopulation of GBM cells that can give rise to recurrent tumors. GBMs express...... human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) proteins, and previously we found that the level of expression of HCMV immediate-early (IE) protein in GBMs is a prognostic factor for poor patient survival. In this study, we investigated the relation between HCMV infection of GBM cells and the presence of GCSCs. Primary...... GBMs were characterized by their expression of HCMV-IE and GCSCs marker CD133 and by patient survival. The extent to which HCMV infection of primary GBM cells induced a GCSC phenotype was evaluated in vitro. In primary GBMs, a large fraction of CD133-positive cells expressed HCMV-IE, and higher co...

  6. Early-life viral infection and allergen exposure interact to induce an asthmatic phenotype in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asquith Kelly L

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early-life respiratory viral infections, notably with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV, increase the risk of subsequent development of childhood asthma. The purpose of this study was to assess whether early-life infection with a species-specific model of RSV and subsequent allergen exposure predisposed to the development of features of asthma. Methods We employed a unique combination of animal models in which BALB/c mice were neonatally infected with pneumonia virus of mice (PVM, which replicates severe RSV disease in human infants and following recovery, were intranasally sensitised with ovalbumin. Animals received low-level challenge with aerosolised antigen for 4 weeks to elicit changes of chronic asthma, followed by a single moderate-level challenge to induce an exacerbation of inflammation. We then assessed airway inflammation, epithelial changes characteristic of remodelling, airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR and host immunological responses. Results Allergic airway inflammation, including recruitment of eosinophils, was prominent only in animals that had recovered from neonatal infection with PVM and then been sensitised and chronically challenged with antigen. Furthermore, only these mice exhibited an augmented Th2-biased immune response, including elevated serum levels of anti-ovalbumin IgE and IgG1 as well as increased relative expression of Th2-associated cytokines IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13. By comparison, development of AHR and mucous cell change were associated with recovery from PVM infection, regardless of subsequent allergen challenge. Increased expression of IL-25, which could contribute to induction of a Th2 response, was demonstrable in the lung following PVM infection. Signalling via the IL-4 receptor α chain was crucial to the development of allergic inflammation, mucous cell change and AHR, because all of these were absent in receptor-deficient mice. In contrast, changes of remodelling were evident in mice

  7. Caenorhabditis elegans star formation and negative chemotaxis induced by infection with corynebacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, Camila Azevedo; Clark, Laura; Wanuske, Marie-Therès; Hacker, Elena; Ott, Lisa; Simpson-Louredo, Liliane; de Luna, Maria das Gracas; Hirata, Raphael; Mattos-Guaraldi, Ana Luíza; Hodgkin, Jonathan; Burkovski, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Caenorhabditis elegans is one of the major model systems in biology based on advantageous properties such as short life span, transparency, genetic tractability and ease of culture using an Escherichia coli diet. In its natural habitat, compost and rotting plant material, this nematode lives on bacteria. However, C. elegans is a predator of bacteria, but can also be infected by nematopathogenic coryneform bacteria such Microbacterium and Leucobacter species, which display intriguing and diverse modes of pathogenicity. Depending on the nematode pathogen, aggregates of worms, termed worm-stars, can be formed, or severe rectal swelling, so-called Dar formation, can be induced. Using the human and animal pathogens Corynebacterium diphtheriae and Corynebacterium ulcerans as well as the non-pathogenic species Corynebacterium glutamicum, we show that these coryneform bacteria can also induce star formation slowly in worms, as well as a severe tail-swelling phenotype. While C. glutamicum had a significant, but minor influence on survival of C. elegans, nematodes were killed after infection with C. diphtheriae and C. ulcerans. The two pathogenic species were avoided by the nematodes and induced aversive learning in C. elegans. PMID:26490043

  8. 2-deoxy-D-glucose-induced metabolic stress enhances resistance to Listeria monocytogenes infection in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, E. S.; Bates, R. A.; Koebel, D. A.; Fuchs, B. B.; Sonnenfeld, G.

    1998-01-01

    Exposure to different forms of psychological and physiological stress can elicit a host stress response, which alters normal parameters of neuroendocrine homeostasis. The present study evaluated the influence of the metabolic stressor 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG; a glucose analog, which when administered to rodents, induces acute periods of metabolic stress) on the capacity of mice to resist infection with the facultative intracellular bacterial pathogen Listeria monocytogenes. Female BDF1 mice were injected with 2-DG (500 mg/kg b. wt.) once every 48 h prior to, concurrent with, or after the onset of a sublethal dose of virulent L. monocytogenes. Kinetics of bacterial growth in mice were not altered if 2-DG was applied concurrently or after the start of the infection. In contrast, mice exposed to 2-DG prior to infection demonstrated an enhanced resistance to the listeria challenge. The enhanced bacterial clearance in vivo could not be explained by 2-DG exerting a toxic effect on the listeria, based on the results of two experiments. First, 2-DG did not inhibit listeria replication in trypticase soy broth. Second, replication of L. monocytogenes was not inhibited in bone marrow-derived macrophage cultures exposed to 2-DG. Production of neopterin and lysozyme, indicators of macrophage activation, were enhanced following exposure to 2-DG, which correlated with the increased resistance to L. monocytogenes. These results support the contention that the host response to 2-DG-induced metabolic stress can influence the capacity of the immune system to resist infection by certain classes of microbial pathogens.

  9. MLST typing of antimicrobial-resistant Propionibacterium acnes isolates from patients with moderate to severe acne vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannopoulos, Lambros; Papaparaskevas, Joseph; Refene, Eirini; Daikos, Georgios; Stavrianeas, Nikolaos; Tsakris, Athanassios

    2015-02-01

    Molecular typing data on antimicrobial-resistant Propionibacterium strains are limited in the literature. We examined antimicrobial resistance profiles and the underlying resistance mechanisms in Propionibacterium spp. isolates recovered from patients with moderate to severe acne vulgaris in Greece. The clonallity of the resistant Propionibacterium acnes isolates was also investigated. Propionibacterium spp. isolates were detected using Tryptone-Yeast Extract-Glucose (TYG) agar plates supplemented with 4% furazolidone. Erythromycin, clindamycin, vancomycin, penicillin, co-trimoxazole, doxycycline, minocycline and ciprofloxacin MICs were determined using the gradient strip method. Erythromycin, clindamycin and tetracycline mechanisms of resistance were determined using PCR and sequencing of the domain V of 23S rRNA and 16S rRNA, as well as the presence of the ermX gene. Typing was performed using the multi locus sequence typing (MLST) methodology. Seventy nine isolates from 76 patients were collected. Twenty-three isolates (29.1%) exhibited resistance to erythromycin and clindamycin, while two additional isolates (2.5%) were resistant only to erythromycin. Resistance to tetracycline was not detected. The underlying molecular mechanisms were point mutations A2059G and A2058G. MLST typing of the P. acnes resistant isolates revealed that lineage type IA1 (ST-1, 3 and 52) prevailed (12/18; 66.7%), whilst lineage type IA2 (ST-2 and 22) accounted for five more isolates (27.8%). Susceptible isolates were more evenly distributed between ST types. Propionibacterium spp. from moderate to severe acne vulgaris in Greece are frequently resistant to erythromycin/clindamycin but not to tetracyclines, mainly due to the point mutations A2059G and A2058G. P. acnes resistant isolates were more clonally related than susceptible ones and belonged to a limited number of MLST types.

  10. Wolbachia symbiont infections induce strong cytoplasmic incompatibility in the tsetse fly Glossina morsitans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uzma Alam

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Tsetse flies are vectors of the protozoan parasite African trypanosomes, which cause sleeping sickness disease in humans and nagana in livestock. Although there are no effective vaccines and efficacious drugs against this parasite, vector reduction methods have been successful in curbing the disease, especially for nagana. Potential vector control methods that do not involve use of chemicals is a genetic modification approach where flies engineered to be parasite resistant are allowed to replace their susceptible natural counterparts, and Sterile Insect technique (SIT where males sterilized by chemical means are released to suppress female fecundity. The success of genetic modification approaches requires identification of strong drive systems to spread the desirable traits and the efficacy of SIT can be enhanced by identification of natural mating incompatibility. One such drive mechanism results from the cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI phenomenon induced by the symbiont Wolbachia. CI can also be used to induce natural mating incompatibility between release males and natural populations. Although Wolbachia infections have been reported in tsetse, it has been a challenge to understand their functional biology as attempts to cure tsetse of Wolbachia infections by antibiotic treatment damages the obligate mutualistic symbiont (Wigglesworthia, without which the flies are sterile. Here, we developed aposymbiotic (symbiont-free and fertile tsetse lines by dietary provisioning of tetracycline supplemented blood meals with yeast extract, which rescues Wigglesworthia-induced sterility. Our results reveal that Wolbachia infections confer strong CI during embryogenesis in Wolbachia-free (Gmm(Apo females when mated with Wolbachia-infected (Gmm(Wt males. These results are the first demonstration of the biological significance of Wolbachia infections in tsetse. Furthermore, when incorporated into a mathematical model, our results confirm that Wolbachia can

  11. Wolbachia symbiont infections induce strong cytoplasmic incompatibility in the tsetse fly Glossina morsitans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Uzma; Medlock, Jan; Brelsfoard, Corey; Pais, Roshan; Lohs, Claudia; Balmand, Séverine; Carnogursky, Jozef; Heddi, Abdelaziz; Takac, Peter; Galvani, Alison; Aksoy, Serap

    2011-12-01

    Tsetse flies are vectors of the protozoan parasite African trypanosomes, which cause sleeping sickness disease in humans and nagana in livestock. Although there are no effective vaccines and efficacious drugs against this parasite, vector reduction methods have been successful in curbing the disease, especially for nagana. Potential vector control methods that do not involve use of chemicals is a genetic modification approach where flies engineered to be parasite resistant are allowed to replace their susceptible natural counterparts, and Sterile Insect technique (SIT) where males sterilized by chemical means are released to suppress female fecundity. The success of genetic modification approaches requires identification of strong drive systems to spread the desirable traits and the efficacy of SIT can be enhanced by identification of natural mating incompatibility. One such drive mechanism results from the cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) phenomenon induced by the symbiont Wolbachia. CI can also be used to induce natural mating incompatibility between release males and natural populations. Although Wolbachia infections have been reported in tsetse, it has been a challenge to understand their functional biology as attempts to cure tsetse of Wolbachia infections by antibiotic treatment damages the obligate mutualistic symbiont (Wigglesworthia), without which the flies are sterile. Here, we developed aposymbiotic (symbiont-free) and fertile tsetse lines by dietary provisioning of tetracycline supplemented blood meals with yeast extract, which rescues Wigglesworthia-induced sterility. Our results reveal that Wolbachia infections confer strong CI during embryogenesis in Wolbachia-free (Gmm(Apo)) females when mated with Wolbachia-infected (Gmm(Wt)) males. These results are the first demonstration of the biological significance of Wolbachia infections in tsetse. Furthermore, when incorporated into a mathematical model, our results confirm that Wolbachia can be used

  12. UV-induced alkaline labile DNA damage in human adenovirus and its repair after infection of human cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    UV-induced alkaline labile viral DNA damage was detected following irradiation of adenovirus type 2 and found to be repaired following the infection of human KB cells. Human adenovirus type 2 was irradiated with various doses of UV and subsequently used to infect human KB cells in tissue culture at approximately 2 x 103 particles per cell. Before, and at various times after infection, the viral DNA was examined on alkaline sucrose gradients. Irradiated free virus DNA showed a dose dependent decrease in molecular weight compared to unirradiated virus DNA, indicating the presence of UV-induced alkaline labile lesions. Furthermore, an increase in the molecular weight of the irradiated virus DNA was found after infection indicating that alkaline labile lesions were removed from the viral DNA by a host mediated repair mechanism. After infection, the molecular weight of the irradiated virus DNA reached a value similar to that of unirradiated virus DNA for all the UV doses studied. (author)

  13. Functional characterization of the infection-inducible peptide Edin in Drosophila melanogaster.

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    Leena-Maija Vanha-Aho

    Full Text Available Drosophila is a well-established model organism for studying innate immunity because of its high resistance against microbial infections and lack of adaptive immunity. In addition, the immune signaling cascades found in Drosophila are evolutionarily conserved. Upon infection, activation of the immune signaling pathways, Toll and Imd, leads to the expression of multiple immune response genes, such as the antimicrobial peptides (AMPs. Previously, we identified an uncharacterized gene edin among the genes, which were strongly induced upon stimulation with Escherichia coli in Drosophila S2 cells. Edin has been associated with resistance against Listeria monocytogenes, but its role in Drosophila immunity remains elusive. In this study, we examined the role of Edin in the immune response of Drosophila both in vitro and in vivo. We report that edin expression is dependent on the Imd-pathway NF-κB transcription factor Relish and that it is expressed upon infection both in vitro and in vivo. Edin encodes a pro-protein, which is further processed in S2 cells. In our experiments, Edin did not bind microbes, nor did it possess antimicrobial activity to tested microbial strains in vitro or in vivo. Furthermore, edin RNAi did not significantly affect the expression of AMPs in vitro or in vivo. However, edin RNAi flies showed modestly impaired resistance to E. faecalis infection. We conclude that Edin has no potent antimicrobial properties but it appears to be important for E. faecalis infection via an uncharacterized mechanism. Further studies are still required to elucidate the exact role of Edin in the Drosophila immune response.

  14. Context-dependent effects of induced resistance under co-infection in a plant-pathogen interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laine, Anna-Liisa

    2011-09-01

    The ability of a parasite strain to establish and grow on its host may be drastically altered by simultaneous infection by other parasite strains, and dynamics under multiple infection have been suggested to be a major force driving pathogen evolution. Here, I studied whether hosts' induced defenses mediate dynamics of multiple infection of the fungal pathogen, Podosphaera plantaginis, infecting Plantago lanceolata. A laboratory study of sequential infections, where interaction between pathogen strains was prevented, showed that ability to establish remained unaffected, but prior infection elevates the host's resistance to the degree that subsequent infection development is significantly reduced. However, when inoculated plants and their healthy controls were planted back into their natural populations, hosts with prior infection became more heavily infected by the subsequent infections than the initially healthy plants. Hence, a controlled short-term laboratory study is a poor predictor of the host's ability to mediate multiple infection during the course of natural epidemics. These results have applied implications for priming where the plants' defenses are elicited to provide protection against further attack, highlighting the importance of testing priming under natural conditions for relevant time scales. PMID:25568016

  15. A brief primer on acne therapy for adolescents with skin of color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverberg, Nanette B

    2013-07-01

    The majority of adolescents with skin of color in the United States and other westernized civilizations develop acne vulgaris. Indigenous populations of children and teenagers with skin of color may not develop acne when raised on a paleolithic diet, suggesting the Western diet is the rudiment of acne vulgaris. Differences exist in the presentation of and therapy for acne in teenagers with skin of color, largely due to the increased risk for hyperpigmentation, scarring, and keloid formation, as well as style- and skin care-related exacerbating factors. The primary goal of acne therapy in adolescents with skin of color is the prevention of long-term sequelae such as keloid formation. This article provides a brief overview of the treatment of acne vulgaris in adolescents with skin of color. PMID:23961520

  16. The psychosocial impact of acne, vitiligo, and psoriasis: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen CM

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Catherine M Nguyen,1 Kourosh Beroukhim,2 Melissa J Danesh,3 Aline Babikian,4 John Koo,3 Argentina Leon3 1University of California, Irvine School of Medicine, Irvine, 2David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, 3Department of Dermatology, University of California San Francisco School of Medicine, San Francisco, 4Touro University College of Osteopathic Medicine, Vallejo, CA, USA Introduction: Chronic skin conditions have been well reported to affect a patient's quality of life on multiple dimensions, including the psychosocial domain. Psychosocial is defined as the interrelation of social factors with an individual's thoughts and behavior. The assessment of the psychosocial impact of skin disease on a patient can help direct the dermatologists' treatment goals. To evaluate the psychosocial impact of skin disease, we conducted a review of the literature on three skin conditions with onsets at various stages of life: acne, vitiligo, and psoriasis. Methods: A PubMed search was conducted in March 2015 using the terms “psychosocial” AND “acne”, “psychosocial” AND “vitiligo”, and “psychosocial” AND “psoriasis”. The results were limited to articles published in English in the past 5 years studying patients of all ages. Results and their references were evaluated for relevance according to their discussion of psychosocial qualities in their patients and the validity of psychosocial assessments. The search for acne yielded 51 results, and eleven were found to be relevant; vitiligo yielded 30 results with ten found to be relevant; and psoriasis yielded 70 results with seven found to be relevant. Results: According to the articles evaluated, 19.2% of adolescent patients with acne were affected in their personal and social lives. Social phobia was present in 45% of patients with acne compared to 18% of control subjects. Race and sex played a role in self-consciousness and social perceptions of the disease. Vitiligo

  17. A review of the use of adapalene for the treatment of acne vulgaris

    OpenAIRE

    Piskin, Suleyman; Uzunali, Erol

    2007-01-01

    Acne is a disease of the pilosebaceous unit with involving abnormalities in sebum production, microbial flora changes, abnormal keratinization, and inflammation. There are several therapeutic options like topical and systemic retinoids, antibiotics, and systemic hormonal drugs. The topical retinoids a play very important role in the treatment of acne vulgaris. However, their use is limited due to skin irritation. A new generation product, adapalene is a good choice in the treatment of acne vu...

  18. Tretinoin: A Review of Its Anti-inflammatory Properties in the Treatment of Acne

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Nicholas; Gans, Eugene H.

    2011-01-01

    Tretinoin has been primarily used for the early stages of acne because of its proven comedolytic end benefits. This article reviews and updates the collective body of evidence of tretinoin in the treatment of acne, which suggests that this drug also possesses a broad range of acne-related immunomodulating properties that are capable of disrupting and hindering the various stages of the inflammatory cascade and the production of proinflammatory factors associated with it.

  19. Effect of a Polyherbal Unani formulation in acne vulgaris: A preliminary study

    OpenAIRE

    Azad Hussain Lone; Shahida Habib; Tanzeel Ahmad; Mohd Anwar

    2012-01-01

    Acne vulgaris is the most common disorder treated by dermatologists. Acne is a disease of pilosebaceous units characterized by the formation of the open and closed comedones, papules, pustules, nodules and cysts. A preliminary trial was conducted in the department of Medicine, National Institute of Unani Medicine, Bangalore, India, to assess the safety and efficacy of a Polyherbal Unani Formulation (PHUF) in the management of Acne Vulgaris on scientific parameters. Twenty five patients, diagn...

  20. A Four-question Approach to Determining the Impact of Acne Treatment on Quality of Life

    OpenAIRE

    Saitta, Peter; Grekin, Steven K.

    2012-01-01

    Facial acne vulgaris can have profound effects on health-related quality of life. In some studies, patients with acne vulgaris reported results similar to those noted with other chronic diseases, such as asthma, arthritis, or diabetes. Clinical objective assessments alone do not adequately capture the impact of acne vulgaris severity from a patient’s perspective. Health-related quality-of-life assessment is important in order to fully characterize the overall burden of disease and effectivene...

  1. Quality of life in adult patients with acne vulgaris before and after treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Hikmet Akyazı; Davut Baltacı; Köksal Alpay; Çiçek Hocaoğlu

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate effect of acne treatment on quality of life in patients with acne vulgaris.Materials and methods: The study was prospective and conducted in a university hospital, enrolling the previously untreated patients with acne vulgaris. Before treatment, dermatology life quality index (DLQI) was applied to all participants of both study and control group. After 3rd and 6th months of treatment administration, DLQI tool was applied to patients in the study group, and scores we...

  2. Retinoic acid and glycolic acid combination in the treatment of acne scars

    OpenAIRE

    B S Chandrashekar; K R Ashwini; Vani Vasanth; Shreya Navale

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Acne is a prevalent condition in society affecting nearly 80-90% of adolescents often resulting in secondary damage in the form of scarring. Retinoic acid (RA) is said to improve acne scars and reduce postinflammatory hyperpigmentation while glycolic acid (GA) is known for its keratolytic properties and its ability to reduce atrophic acne scars. There are studies exploring the combined effect of retinaldehyde and GA combination with positive results while the efficacy of retinoi...

  3. Treatment of Active Acne Vulgaris by Chemical Peeling Using 88% Lactic Acid

    OpenAIRE

    Khalifa E Sharquie; Adil A Noaimi; Entesar A. Al-Janabi

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The etiopathogenesis of acne vulgaris is multifactorial, and its therapy is prolonged course that might be not accepted by many patients. Most recently TCA 35% one session peeling gave complete clearance and full remission for active acne vulgaris. Lactic acid has been used effectively as therapeutic topical agents for many skin diseases. Aim: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of chemical peeling using 88% lactic acid solution in the treatment of active acne vulgaris. ...

  4. Evaluation of hyperandrogenemia and metabolic risk profile in women with postadolescent acne

    OpenAIRE

    Leyla Baykal Selçuk; Deniz Aksu Arıca; Savaş Yaylı

    2016-01-01

    Background and Design: Postadolescent acne is a disease with relapses frequently seen in women. Treatment is difficult. In our study, we aimed to investigate the clinical and biochemical characteristics of hyperandrogenism and the prevalence of metabolic disorders, such as metabolic syndrome (MS) and dyslipidemia in women with postadolescent acne. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 50 women who attended our department with the complaint of postadolescent acne between July 2014...

  5. Oxidant/antioxidant status in obese adolescent females with acne vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abulnaja Khalid

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Acne vulgaris is a distressing skin condition, which can carry with it significant psychological disability. Oxidant/antioxidant imbalance leads to increased production of free radicals, that cause many diseases. Some nutrients, along with systemic oxidative stress, have been implicated in acne vulgaris. The goal of the present study was to assess oxidant and antioxidant status in correlation with the incidence of acne vulgaris in adolescent obese females. Materials and Methods: A total of 60 adolescent females (age 16-22 years were divided into four groups (15 each as follows: The first included obese females with acne; the second included obese females without acne; the third included non obese with acne and the fourth included non obese without acne. Fasting serum Malondialdehyde (MDA, β-carotene, and Vitamins A, E, and C were measured. In addition, platelet monoamineoxidase (MAO, and erythrocyte catechol-o-methyltransferase (COMT activities were determined. Results: It was found that serum MDA was statistically significantly decreased in obese and non obese subjects with acne, as compared to those without acne ( P < 0.05, P < 0.001 respectively. In contrast, the levels of β-carotene, vitamins A, E and C and the activity of MAO were significantly decreased in the obese and non obese with acne, as against the obese and non obese without acne. Interpretation: In obese subjects, increased fat content facilitates free radical production and lipid peroxidation, as indicated by increased MDA level, which is scavenged by the antioxidant vitamins. The decreased activity of MAO may be inhibited by free radicals and this causes psychological depression in adolescents. However there were non significant changes in the activity of COMT among the studied groups. Conclusion: The nutritional factors and a weakened antioxidant defense system may interplay, to increase the risk of psychological sequelae in acne vulgaris.

  6. Medicinal Plants for the Treatment of Acne Vulgaris: A Review of Recent Evidences

    OpenAIRE

    Nasri, Hamid; Bahmani, Mahmoud; Shahinfard, Najmeh; Moradi Nafchi, Atefeh; Saberianpour, Shirin; Rafieian Kopaei, Mahmoud

    2015-01-01

    Context: Acne vulgaris affects about 85% of teenagers and may continue to adulthood. There are about two million visits to physicians per year for teenagers and the direct cost of acne treatment in the US exceeds $1 billion per year. Evidence Acquisition: A wide variety of treatment regimens exist for acne vulgaris including benzoil peroxide, retinoids, isotretinoids, keratolytic soaps, alpha hydroxy acids, azelaic acid, salicilic acid as well as hormonal, anti-androgen or antiseborrheic trea...

  7. OXIDANT/ANTIOXIDANT STATUS IN OBESE ADOLESCENT FEMALES WITH ACNE VULGARIS

    OpenAIRE

    Abulnaja Khalid

    2009-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Acne vulgaris is a distressing skin condition, which can carry with it significant psychological disability. Oxidant/antioxidant imbalance leads to increased production of free radicals, that cause many diseases. Some nutrients, along with systemic oxidative stress, have been implicated in acne vulgaris. The goal of the present study was to assess oxidant and antioxidant status in correlation with the incidence of acne vulgaris in adolescent obese females. Materia...

  8. Cultural adaptation of the Cardiff Acne Disability Index to a hindi speaking population: A pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Aayush Gupta; Yugal K Sharma; K Dash; Sampurna Verma

    2015-01-01

    Background: Acne vulgaris is known to impair many aspects of the quality of life (QoL) of its patients. Aim: To translate the Cardiff Acne Disability Index (CADI) from English into Hindi and to assess its validity and reliability in Hindi speaking patients with acne from India. Methods: Hindi version of CADI, translated and linguistically validated as per published international guidelines, along with a previously translated Hindi version of dermatology life quality index (DLQI) and a demogra...

  9. Use of radiofrequency in cosmetic dermatology: focus on nonablative treatment of acne scars

    OpenAIRE

    Simmons BJ; Griffith RD; Falto-Aizpurua LA; Nouri K

    2014-01-01

    Brian J Simmons, Robert D Griffith, Leyre A Falto-Aizpurua, Keyvan Nouri Department of Dermatology and Cutaneous Surgery, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami, FL, USA Abstract: Acne is a common affliction among many teens and some adults that usually resolves over time. However, the severe sequela of acne scarring can lead to long-term psychological and psychiatric problems. There exists a multitude of modalities to treat acne scars such as more invasive...

  10. Randomised controlled trial of topical kanuka honey for the treatment of acne

    OpenAIRE

    Semprini, Alex; Braithwaite, Irene; Corin, Andrew; Sheahan, Davitt; Tofield, Christopher; Helm, Colin; Montgomery, Barney; Fingleton, James; Weatherall, Mark; Beasley, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the efficacy of Honevo, a topical 90% medical-grade kanuka honey, and 10% glycerine (honey product) as a treatment for facial acne. Design Randomised controlled trial with single blind assessment of primary outcome variable. Setting Outpatient primary care from 3 New Zealand localities. Participants Of 136 participants aged between 16 and 40 years with a diagnosis of acne and baseline Investigator's Global Assessment (IGA) for acne score of ≥2.68, participants were ra...

  11. Association between smoking habits and acne vulgaris. A case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Mannocci

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: acne vulgaris, is one of the most common skin disorder. Previous studies about the role of smoke in the pathogenesis of acne reported contradictory results. The aim of this study was to conduct a case-control study investigating the relationship between tobacco smoking and acne.

    Methods: a case-control study was performed during the period September 2009 - February 2010. A questionnaire was administrated to each participant, to assess the association acne - smoke. Cases were outpatients of the Dermatologic Ambulatory of the “Fiorini” Hospital, Sapienza University of Rome (Italy. Controls were age and gender-matched to the cases. The ratio cases-controls was 1:2. A univariate and a multiple logistic regression analysis were conducted; Odds Ratio (OR and the relative 95% confidence interval (95%CI were assessed. The statistical significance was set at p < 0.05.

    Results: crude OR for the association acne - smoke was 7.26 (IC=2.27-23.18; adjusted OR for sex and age was 5.47 (IC=1.67-17.97. Of 93 cases, 6 had a severe grade of acne (6.5%, 19 had an intermediate grade of acne (20.4%, and 68 had a mild grade of acne (73.1%. No one of the smokers had a severe grade of acne, one had an intermediate grade of acne and 11 had mild acne; these differences are not statistically significant.

    Conclusions: the association between acne and smoke shows an increased risk (OR=7.26 with a statistically significant CI. Moreover, people ≥ 18 years of age have twice the risk compared to persons < 18 years of age (OR=2.31.

  12. Fermentation of Propionibacterium acnes, a commensal bacterium in the human skin microbiome, as skin probiotics against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muya Shu

    Full Text Available Bacterial interference creates an ecological competition between commensal and pathogenic bacteria. Through fermentation of milk with gut-friendly bacteria, yogurt is an excellent aid to balance the bacteriological ecosystem in the human intestine. Here, we demonstrate that fermentation of glycerol with Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes, a skin commensal bacterium, can function as a skin probiotic for in vitro and in vivo growth suppression of USA300, the most prevalent community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA. We also promote the notion that inappropriate use of antibiotics may eliminate the skin commensals, making it more difficult to fight pathogen infection. This study warrants further investigation to better understand the role of fermentation of skin commensals in infectious disease and the importance of the human skin microbiome in skin health.

  13. Infection with Wolbachia protects mosquitoes against Plasmodium-induced mortality in a natural system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zélé, F; Nicot, A; Duron, O; Rivero, A

    2012-07-01

    In recent years, there has been a shift in the one host-one parasite paradigm with the realization that, in the field, most hosts are coinfected with multiple parasites. Coinfections are particularly relevant when the host is a vector of diseases, because multiple infections can have drastic consequences for parasite transmission at both the ecological and evolutionary timescales. Wolbachia pipientis is the most common parasitic microorganism in insects, and as such, it is of special interest for understanding the role of coinfections in the outcome of parasite infections. Here, we investigate whether Wolbachia can modulate the effect of Plasmodium on what is, arguably, the most important component of the vectorial capacity of mosquitoes: their longevity. For this purpose, and in contrast to recent studies that have focused on mosquito-Plasmodium and/or mosquito-Wolbachia combinations not found in nature, we work on a Wolbachia-mosquito-Plasmodium triad with a common evolutionary history. Our results show that Wolbachia protects mosquitoes from Plasmodium-induced mortality. The results are consistent across two different strains of Wolbachia and repeatable across two different experimental blocks. To our knowledge, this is the first time that such an effect has been shown for Plasmodium-infected mosquitoes and, in particular, in a natural Wolbachia-host combination. We discuss different mechanistic and evolutionary explanations for these results as well as their consequences for Plasmodium transmission. PMID:22533729

  14. [THE INFECTION INDUCED BY STREPTOCOCCUS OF SEROGROUP B IN PREGNANT WOMEN, PUERPERA AND NEWBORNS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumkina, E V; Abrosimova, O A; Pakhalkova, E V; Rogatikh, N A; Mironov A Yu

    2016-02-01

    The streptococci of serogroup B (Streptococcus agalactiae) are one of major etiologic agents responsible for occurrence of severe perinatal infections in puerpera and newborns. The prevalence of streptococci of group B is analyzed in various categories of women (stage of preconception training, pregnancy, puerpera) and newborns transferred for particular reasons to second stage of raising. The data of microbiological monitoring during four years was involved. It is established that prevalence of carriage of streptococci of serogroup B in genital tracts of women of reproductive age on territory of Omsk consists 6-8% in different categories of female patients and has no tendency to decrease. In most cases, high or moderate level of dissemination, association with other opportunistic microorganisms. The perinatal infection of premature newborns with low body mass at birth with S. agalactiae results in clinical manifestation of generalized infectious process. The infection of healthy premature newborns most often does not result in severe infectious pathology. However; in the half of all cases development of local (significantly more rarely - generalized) pyoinflammatory induced by S. agalactiae as both isolated and in association with other opportunistic microorganisms. The relatively high rate of realization of potential of agent in newborns of risk group requires attention to the issues of diagnostic of carriage of streptococci group B in pregnant women, inclusion of this type of analysis into standards of observation for given category of female patients with purpose of timely sanitation, development and elaboration of standards of laboratory analysis on this agent. PMID:27455565

  15. Myeloid derived hypoxia inducible factor 1-alpha is required for protection against pulmonary Aspergillus fumigatus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly M Shepardson

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Hypoxia inducible factor 1α (HIF1α is the mammalian transcriptional factor that controls metabolism, survival, and innate immunity in response to inflammation and low oxygen. Previous work established that generation of hypoxic microenvironments occurs within the lung during infection with the human fungal pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus. Here we demonstrate that A. fumigatus stabilizes HIF1α protein early after pulmonary challenge that is inhibited by treatment of mice with the steroid triamcinolone. Utilizing myeloid deficient HIF1α mice, we observed that HIF1α is required for survival and fungal clearance early following pulmonary challenge with A. fumigatus. Unlike previously reported research with bacterial pathogens, HIF1α deficient neutrophils and macrophages were surprisingly not defective in fungal conidial killing. The increase in susceptibility of the myeloid deficient HIF1α mice to A. fumigatus was in part due to decreased early production of the chemokine CXCL1 (KC and increased neutrophil apoptosis at the site of infection, resulting in decreased neutrophil numbers in the lung. Addition of recombinant CXCL1 restored neutrophil survival and numbers, murine survival, and fungal clearance. These results suggest that there are unique HIF1α mediated mechanisms employed by the host for protection and defense against fungal pathogen growth and invasion in the lung. Additionally, this work supports the strategy of exploring HIF1α as a therapeutic target in specific immunosuppressed populations with fungal infections.

  16. Myeloid derived hypoxia inducible factor 1-alpha is required for protection against pulmonary Aspergillus fumigatus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepardson, Kelly M; Jhingran, Anupam; Caffrey, Alayna; Obar, Joshua J; Suratt, Benjamin T; Berwin, Brent L; Hohl, Tobias M; Cramer, Robert A

    2014-09-01

    Hypoxia inducible factor 1α (HIF1α) is the mammalian transcriptional factor that controls metabolism, survival, and innate immunity in response to inflammation and low oxygen. Previous work established that generation of hypoxic microenvironments occurs within the lung during infection with the human fungal pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus. Here we demonstrate that A. fumigatus stabilizes HIF1α protein early after pulmonary challenge that is inhibited by treatment of mice with the steroid triamcinolone. Utilizing myeloid deficient HIF1α mice, we observed that HIF1α is required for survival and fungal clearance early following pulmonary challenge with A. fumigatus. Unlike previously reported research with bacterial pathogens, HIF1α deficient neutrophils and macrophages were surprisingly not defective in fungal conidial killing. The increase in susceptibility of the myeloid deficient HIF1α mice to A. fumigatus was in part due to decreased early production of the chemokine CXCL1 (KC) and increased neutrophil apoptosis at the site of infection, resulting in decreased neutrophil numbers in the lung. Addition of recombinant CXCL1 restored neutrophil survival and numbers, murine survival, and fungal clearance. These results suggest that there are unique HIF1α mediated mechanisms employed by the host for protection and defense against fungal pathogen growth and invasion in the lung. Additionally, this work supports the strategy of exploring HIF1α as a therapeutic target in specific immunosuppressed populations with fungal infections.

  17. Maternal Antibody Protected Chicks from Growth Retardation and Immunosuppression Induced by Early Reticuloendotheliosis Virus Infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Shu-hong; GUI Zhi-zhong; QU Li-xin

    2007-01-01

    To determine if the maternal antibody from breeders vaccinated with cell culture-adapted reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) could protect chicks from early REV infection, one-day-old chicks with or without anti-REV maternal antibodies were inoculated with REV, and then their growth rates and antibody tilers to Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and avian influenza virus (AIV), after vaccination with inactivated vaccines, were compared. This study indicated that REV infection could cause growth retardation and severely inhibit immune reactions to inactivated vaccines against NDV and Avian influenza virus (AIV, H9 and H5) in one-day-old broilers without maternal antibodies specific to REV. Maternal antibody from breeders vaccinated with an attenuated REV vaccine effectively protected REV-challenged birds from growth retardation and immunosuppression on antibody reactions to NDV and AIV vaccines. Four weeks after vaccination, the HI liters to NDV, AIV-H9, and AIV-H5 in maternal antibody positive and negative groups were 3.36±2.04 versus 1.58±1.69 (P<0.01), 6.27±3.87 versus 0.71±1.60(P<0.01), and 6.72 versus 0.54±1.44(p<0.01). Maternal antibodies from breeders vaccinated with REV vaccine could successfully protect chicks from REV infection and effectively prevent REV-induced growth retardation and immunosuppression in antibody responses to NDV and AIV.

  18. Characterization of a tomato protein kinase gene induced by infection by Potato spindle tuber viroid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, R W; Zhao, Y

    2000-09-01

    Viroids--covalently closed, circular RNA molecules in the size range of 250 to 450 nucleotides-are the smallest known infectious agents and cause a number of diseases of crop plants. Viroids do not encode proteins and replicate within the nucleus without a helper virus. In many cases, viroid infection results in symptoms of stunting, epinasty, and vein clearing. In our study of the molecular basis of the response of tomato cv. Rutgers to infection by Potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd), we have identified a specific protein kinase gene, pkv, that is transcriptionally activated in plants infected with either the intermediate or severe strain of PSTVd, at a lower level in plants inoculated with a mild strain, and not detectable in mock-inoculated plants. A full-length copy of the gene encoding the 55-kDa PKV (protein kinase viroid)-induced protein has been isolated and sequence analysis revealed significant homologies to cyclic nucleotide-dependent protein kinases. Although the sequence motifs in the catalytic domain suggest that it is a serine/threonine protein kinase, the recombinant PKV protein autophosphorylates in vitro on serine and tyrosine residues, suggesting that it is a putative member of the class of dual-specificity protein kinases. PMID:10975647

  19. CXCR3 blockade protects against Listeria monocytogenes infection-induced fetal wastage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Vandana; Ertelt, James M; Jiang, Tony T; Kinder, Jeremy M; Xin, Lijun; Owens, Kathryn J; Jones, Helen N; Way, Sing Sing

    2015-04-01

    Mammalian pregnancy requires protection against immunological rejection of the developing fetus bearing discordant paternal antigens. Immune evasion in this developmental context entails silenced expression of chemoattractant proteins (chemokines), thereby preventing harmful immune cells from penetrating the maternal-fetal interface. Here, we demonstrate that fetal wastage triggered by prenatal Listeria monocytogenes infection is driven by placental recruitment of CXCL9-producing inflammatory neutrophils and macrophages that promote infiltration of fetal-specific T cells into the decidua. Maternal CD8+ T cells with fetal specificity upregulated expression of the chemokine receptor CXCR3 and, together with neutrophils and macrophages, were essential for L. monocytogenes-induced fetal resorption. Conversely, decidual accumulation of maternal T cells with fetal specificity and fetal wastage were extinguished by CXCR3 blockade or in CXCR3-deficient mice. Remarkably, protection against fetal wastage and in utero L. monocytogenes invasion was maintained even when CXCR3 neutralization was initiated after infection, and this protective effect extended to fetal resorption triggered by partial ablation of immune-suppressive maternal Tregs, which expand during pregnancy to sustain fetal tolerance. Together, our results indicate that functionally overriding chemokine silencing at the maternal-fetal interface promotes the pathogenesis of prenatal infection and suggest that therapeutically reinforcing this pathway represents a universal approach for mitigating immune-mediated pregnancy complications. PMID:25751061

  20. Trichoderma harzianum T-22 Induces Systemic Resistance in Tomato Infected by Cucumber mosaic virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitti, Antonella; Pellegrini, Elisa; Nali, Cristina; Lovelli, Stella; Sofo, Adriano; Valerio, Maria; Scopa, Antonio; Nuzzaci, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the induction of plant defenses against viruses using biocontrol agents is essential for developing new strategies against these pathogens, given the ineffectiveness of chemical treatments. The ability of Trichoderma harzianum, strain T-22 (T22) to control Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) in Solanum lycopersicum var. cerasiforme plants and the changes in the physiology of tomato treated/infected with T22/CMV were examined. Plant growth-promoting effects, photosynthetic performance, reactive oxygen species scavenging enzymes, and phytohormones were investigated. T22 improved tomato growth in terms of plant height and improved photosynthesis, total chlorophyll content and plant gas exchange. In contrast, CMV induced a negative effect on dry matter accumulation and inhibited the photosynthetic capacity. The analysis of plant hormones demonstrated that treating with T22 before or simultaneously to CMV infection, led to a systemic resistance by jasmonic acid/ethylene and salicylic acid signaling pathways. Conversely, systemic resistance was abscissic acid-dependent when T22 treatment was administered after the CMV infection. In conclusion, the data reported here indicate that the T22-based strategy may be the most effective measure against CMV. PMID:27777581