First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Acknowledgements. Graduate students-. Promita Ghosh Dastidar, Chandrama Mukherjee and Shubhra Majumder. Funds- Department of Biotechnology, Govt of India and FIRCA, NIH, USA. Kothari Centre for Gastroenterology, Kolkata for axenic cultures of E32 and ...
Caty Ribas Segura
Full Text Available ACKNOWLEDGMENTS FROM THE EDITOR Coolabah 1 is a dream come true. When Dr. Susan Ballyn invited me to be the guest editor of this volume, I accepted without hesitation: I felt honoured and wanted this issue to be special. Susan explained the editing process and we started to work. During the process I had Dr Ballyn’s and Dr. Morera de la Vall´s invaluable guidance and support, which I deeply appreciate: they read, commented and improved the final version of Coolabah 1: This Foreign Country and allowed me the freedom to decide, organise and edit this publication. I would also like to thank Dr. Helen Nickas for her works, which are a constant stimulation for me and have been an inspiration whilst editing this issue. I wish to thank all contributors to Coolabah 1, former exchange students to Australia from the Universitat de Barcelona, for their fabulous pieces of writing, generous time and enthusiasm in participating in this publication. The process of working with each one of you has been a pleasure. On a personal note, I thank my mother, Mª José, my father, Rafael, my sister, Bárbara, and my friends for their constant support and love throughout all the changes in my life: they give me the freedom to be myself and the space to grow. Needless to say, the mistakes in the editing process are my entire responsibility and the copyright of each contribution remains with its author, unless otherwise stated. I hope all the contributors and readers enjoy the final version of Coolabah 1: This Foreign Country and take pleasure in reading the different approaches to this “foreign country”. Thank you.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS. Journal of Earth System Science wishes to place on record the valuable assistance received from the ... Ravi Bhushan, Physical Research Laboratory, Ahmedabad. Dan Blumberg, Ben Gurion ... L Kannan, Centre of Advanced Study in Marine Biology, Parangipettai. Halil Karahan, Pamukkale ...
First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Acknowledgement. Financial support by Department of Atomic Energy, Government of India, under Young Scientist Research Award Scheme. IIT Kanpur Initiation Grant for a Young Faculty. Experimental work was carried out by: Mr. Ranjith Kumar Reddy G.
Trolley, Barbara C.; And Others
Families who adopt children internationally are faced with not only the acknowledgement of the adoption but also the recognition of the child's birth culture. Thirty-four families were surveyed to assess issues regarding the relevance, frequency, and means of acknowledgement of the adoption and of the birth culture. Findings suggest ways adoption…
Full Text Available Abstract Background Aboriginal Australians experience poorer outcomes, and are 2.5 times more likely to die from cancer than non-Aboriginal people, even after adjustment for stage of diagnosis, cancer treatment and comorbidities. They are also less likely to present early as a result of symptoms and to access treatment. Psycho-social factors affect Aboriginal people's willingness and ability to participate in cancer-related screening and treatment services, but little exploration of this has occurred within Australia to date. The current research adopted a phenomenological qualitative approach to understand and explore the lived experiences of Aboriginal Australians with cancer and their beliefs and understanding around this disease in Western Australia (WA. This paper details considerations in the design and process of conducting the research. Methods/Design The National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC guidelines for ethical conduct of Aboriginal research were followed. Researchers acknowledged the past negative experiences of Aboriginal people with research and were keen to build trust and relationships prior to conducting research with them. Thirty in-depth interviews with Aboriginal people affected by cancer and twenty with health service providers were carried out in urban, rural and remote areas of WA. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and coded independently by two researchers. NVivo7 software was used to assist data management and analysis. Participants' narratives were divided into broad categories to allow identification of key themes and discussed by the research team. Discussion and conclusion Key issues specific to Aboriginal research include the need for the research process to be relationship-based, respectful, culturally appropriate and inclusive of Aboriginal people. Researchers are accountable to both participants and the wider community for reporting their findings and for research translation so
Ly, Catherine L; Chun, Maria B J
Although cultural competency is not a new concept in healthcare, it has only recently been formally embraced as important in the field of surgery. All physicians, including and especially surgeons, must acknowledge the potential influence of culture in order to provide effective and equitable care for patients of all backgrounds. The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) recognizes cultural competency as a component of "patient care," "professionalism," and "interpersonal and communication skills." A systematic literature search was conducted using the MEDLINE, EBSCOhost, Web of Science, and Google Scholar databases. All publications focusing on surgical residents and the assessment of patient care, professionalism, interpersonal and communication skills, or specifically cultural competency and/or were considered. This initial search resulted in 12 articles. To further refine the review, publications discussing curricula in residencies other than surgery, the assessment of technical, or clinical skills and/or without any explicit focus on cultural competency were excluded. Based on the specified inclusion and exclusion criteria, 5 articles were selected. These studies utilized various methods to improve surgical residents' cultural competency, including lectures, Objective Structural Clinical Examinations (OSCE), and written exercises and evaluations. A number of surgical residency programs have made promising strides in training culturally competent surgeons. Ultimately, in order to maximize our collective efforts to improve the quality of health care, the development of cultural competency curricula must be made a priority and such training should be a requirement for all trainees in surgical residency programs. Copyright © 2013 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The concern in Australian universities about the prevalence of plagiarism has led to the development of policies about academic integrity and in turn focused attention on the need to inform students about how to avoid plagiarism and how to properly acknowledge. Teaching students how to avoid plagiarism can appear to be straightforward if based on…
De La Mare, Danielle M.
Social identity is central to communication and culture, and while many intercultural communication textbooks devote much more space to the topic than they have in the past, undergraduate students continue to understand social identity in largely superficial terms. In order for them to grasp its complexity and its relationship to communication,…
The topic for this thesis is the business culture differences in communication between Finland and Tunisia. The business world is increasingly international which means that the business men and women should acknowledge the cultural differences which they are facing when conducting business in a foreign culture. The objective of this thesis was to identify business culture differences between Finland and Tunisia. By identifying the culture differences this thesis was able to find answers...
Brady, Laura M; Germano, Adriana L; Fryberg, Stephanie A
This paper theorizes that academic interventions will be maximally effective when they are culturally grounded. Culturally grounded interventions acknowledge cultural differences and validate multiple cultural models in a given context. This review highlights the importance of considering culture in academic interventions and draws upon the culture cycle framework to provide a blueprint for those interested in building more efficacious interventions. Specifically, the paper reviews literature in education and psychology to argue: first, when working-class and racial minority students' cultural models are not valued in mainstream academic domains, these students underperform; and second, many current academic interventions intended to improve working-class and racial minority students' academic outcomes could be further enhanced by cultural grounding. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Jonasson, Charlotte; Lauring, Jakob
corporation. This illustrates how individuals and groups may essentialize cultural differences during intercultural business encounters and how this fixation of cultural traits can be used in social stratification. Originality/value - Originality: Only scant extant research has focused on the active use...
Full Text Available This paper analyses one by one the neo-liberalism, social-democracy, radicalism and political-islamism, as four typical socio-political and economic attitudes toward individualism and collectivism as cultural dimensions in the contemporary socio-political and economic contex of globalization. The paper points out principal differences between these four standpoints, and after that, makes conclusions and points out some problematic questions in the conection with the cultural and systemic differences. Their comparative analysis is in the connection with new sociological theories of culture: functionalistic orientation, marxistic and postmodernistic.
Full Text Available We compared South Koreans with Australians in order to characterize cultural differences in attitudes and choices regarding risk, at both the individual and group levels. Our results showed that Australians, when assessed individually, consistently self-reported higher preference for risk than South Koreans, regardless of gender. The data revealed that South Koreans, regardless of gender composition, were willing to take greater risks when making decisions in group decision-making situations than when they were alone. This is a different pattern from that seen in the Australian sample, in which a risky shift was noted only among males. This difference was attributed to the influence of various cultural orientations (independent vs. interdependent relationship styles. This study also provides a discussion of the implications of these results in terms of cultural differences in attitudes and decisions regarding risk.
Stevens, Gillian; de Vera, Manuel
The article describes the experience of forming a set in a higher education institution and offers some observations and insights gained from the perspectives of the role of the set adviser, cultural differences and the challenges of attempting to align theory, practice and experience.
Damsgaard, Janne Brammer; Bastrup, Lene; Norlyk, Annelise
and reluctant to speak out. Therefore, telling about experiences and perceptions is important for back patients in order to feel accepted and acknowledged. The health professionals must incorporate the patients’ narratives as an integral part of the care and treatment. Conclusions: In order to acknowledge...
Anacleto, Junia c
Cultural differences play a very important role in matching ICT in- teraction to the expectations of users from different national and cultural back- grounds. But to date, there has been few research as to the extent of such differ- ences, and how to produce software that takes into account these differences. Considering the third wave of HCI research on context, involving the intangible aspects of the interaction with users and ICT solutions, like culture, we are studying these issues using ...
• Regina Celia Baptista Belluzzo (Universidade Estadual Paulista - UNESP, Brasil In the same way our acknowledge to University Library System (University of Pittsburgh - PITTS, USA by constant technical support and advice for our journal.
Modern consumer is inhabitant of a "Global Village" as well as of its own national culture which largely influences his creation of a system of values, beliefs and style of life in general. According to adopted values and styles, consumers from different cultures have different buying behavior, different needs and preferences related to a product and they have their favorite advertising styles. As advertising reflects culture, symbols and rituals which are used are even more emphasized and st...
In the first half of this paper it is argued that cultural geography is a dynamic and diverse field that extends well beyond a single branch of human geography. The boundaries between it and other sub-disciplines are often blurred. People have «different» encounters with cultural geography depending on their sub-disciplinary convergences. People also have different encounters with cultural geography depending on where they live and work. «Place matters» in the construction, production and rep...
• Zapopan Martín Muela Meza (Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León - UANL, México In the same way our acknowledge to University Library System (University of Pittsburgh - PITTS, USA by constant technical support and advice for our journal.
Full Text Available Modern consumer is inhabitant of a "Global Village" as well as of its own national culture which largely influences his creation of a system of values, beliefs and style of life in general. According to adopted values and styles, consumers from different cultures have different buying behavior, different needs and preferences related to a product and they have their favorite advertising styles. As advertising reflects culture, symbols and rituals which are used are even more emphasized and strengthen cultural values, which are then used as a strong advertising style characteristic. Global advertisers are increasingly faced with different environment meaning. A fact that has been proved in practice is that standardized approach to advertising does not transmit values in a correct way, so the advertisers that want to achieve long term success must differentiate their brands to competitors'. In modern market environment strategy "Think globally, act locally" proved to be adequate for advertising in modern international market.
Angelica-Nicoleta NECULĂESEI (ONEA
Full Text Available Culture influences thinking, language and human behaviour. The social environment, in which individuals are born and live, shapes their attitudinal, emotional and behavioural reactions and the perceptions about what is happening around. The same applies in the case of assigned/assumed roles in society based on gender. Cultural dimensions that reflect differences in gender roles, but also elements related to the ethics of sexual difference were highlighted by many researchers. The presentation of these issues from the interdisciplinary perspective is the subject of this article. Briefly, the article refers to: importance of communication in transmission of roles of those two sexes, cultural dimensions that reflect role differences invarious cultures, discrimination issues and ethics of sexual difference.
Angelica-Nicoleta NECULĂESEI (ONEA)
Culture influences thinking, language and human behaviour. The social environment, in which individuals are born and live, shapes their attitudinal, emotional and behavioural reactions and the perceptions about what is happening around. The same applies in the case of assigned/assumed roles in society based on gender. Cultural dimensions that reflect differences in gender roles, but also elements related to the ethics of sexual difference were highlighted by many researchers. The presentation...
Damsgaard, Janne Brammer; Bastrup Jørgensen, Lene; Norlyk, Annelise
, Silkeborg Regional Hospital, Regional Hospital Central Jutland, Silkeborg, Denmark 2. Health, Section for Nursing, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark 3. University of Southern Denmark & Vejle Sygehus, Vejle, Denmark keywords:Back Patient, Narrative, Biomedical, Marginalisation, Self-Identity, Ethical......#296 Acknowledging The Back Patient. A Thematic Synthesis Of Qualitative Research. A Systematic Literature Review. Janne Brammer Damsgaard1, Lene Bastrup Jørgensen1, Annelise Norlyk2, Regner Birkelund3 1. Health, Section for Nursing, Aarhus University & Research Unit, Elective Surgery Centre....... Therefore, telling about experiences and perceptions is important for back patients in order to feel accepted and acknowledged. But selfhood cannot be reduced to narrative identity since the identity of the self is only fully revealed the moment we include the ethical dimension including certain norms...
Full Text Available Biblios wish to acknowledge the support of the following professionals who participated in the review process of submissions for our issue 60.ReviewersAndré Ancona Lopez (Universidade de Brasília - UnB, BrasilGildenir Carolino Santos (Universidade Estadual de Campinas - UNICAMP, BrasilJacira Gil Bernardes (Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul - UFRGS, BrasilRodrigo Donoso Vegas (Universidad de Chile - UCHILE, ChileSaúl Hiram Souto Fuentes (Universidad de Monterrey - UDEM, MéxicoReviewers invitedAlejandro Uribe Tirado (Universidad de Antioquia - UDEA, ColombiaFernanda Passini Moreno (Universidade de Brasília - UnB, BrasilJosé Bernal Rivas Fernández (Universidad de Costa Rica - UCR, Costa RicaMarta Lígia Pomim Valentim (Universidade Estadual Paulista - UNESP, BrasilOrlando Corzo Cauracurí (Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos - UNMSM, PerúTerezinha Elisabeth da Silva (Universidade Estadual de Londrina - UEL, BrasilZaira Regina Zafalon (Universidade Federal de São Carlos - UFSCAR, BrasilIn the same way our acknowledge to University Library System (University of Pittsburgh - PITTS, USA by constant technical support and advice for our journal.
• Saúl Hiram Souto Fuentes (Universidad de Monterrey - UDEM, México Reviewers invited • Deborah Ribeiro Carvalho (Universidade Federal do Paraná - UFPR, Brasil • Fabiano Ferreira de Castro (Universidade Federal de São Carlos - UFSCAR, Brasil • Isa Maria Freire (Universidade Federal de Paraiba - UFPB, Brasil • Luciano Antonio Digiampietri (Universidade de São Paulo - USP, Brasil • Maria Inês Tomaél (Universidade Estadual de Londrina - UEL, Brasil • Murilo Bastos da Cunha (Universidade de Brasília - UnB, Brasil • Orlando Corzo Cauracurí (Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos - UNMSM, Perú • Thais Batista Zaninelli (Universidade Estadual de Londrina - UEL, Brasil In the same way our acknowledge to University Library System (University of Pittsburgh - PITTS, USA by constant technical support and advice for our journal.
• Andrés Vuotto (Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata - MDP, Argentina • Pedro Jorge Dimitri (Instituto Nacional de la Administración Pública, Argentina Reviewers invited • Adilson Luiz Pinto (Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina - UFSC, Brasil • Carlos Francisco Bitencourt Jorge (Universidade Estadual Paulista Júlio de Mesquita Filho - UNESP, Brasil • Jayme Leyro Vilan Filho (Universidade de Brasília - UnB, Brasil • Murilo Bastos da Cunha (Universidade de Brasília - UnB, Brasil • Silvana Vilodre Goellner (Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul - UFRGS, Brasil In the same way our acknowledge to University Library System (University of Pittsburgh - PITTS, USA by constant technical support and advice for our journal.
Language is a part of culture, and plays a very important role in the development of the culture. Some sociologists consider it as the keystone of culture. They believe, without language, culture would not be available. At the same time, language is influenced and shaped by culture, it reflects culture. Therefore, culture plays a very important…
Findings from a four-year action research project at a highly diverse, West Coast U.S. university reveal that a large percentage of white students cannot trace their identities to a particular nation in Europe and are, as a result, unable to name the shared meanings of a particular ethnic culture. Each time Latino, Asian American, and African…
Damsgaard, Janne Brammer; Bastrup, Lene; Norlyk, Annelise
the back patient the narrative must be complemented by a different perspective that includes the issue of ethical responsibility. It is therefore also a question of adopting certain norms as binding; to be bound by obligation or loyalty. Thus, the literature review argues for a more process......-oriented patient approach that incorporates patients' narratives as an integral and ethical part of the care and treatment....
This article analyzes the relationship of cultural differences on international business negotiations. And also, it emphases on the importance of understanding and mastering cultural differences in international business negotiations.
Bliss, Lynn S.; McCabe, Allyssa
A study was conducted to examine the misdiagnosis of cultural difference deficits and how mistaking deficits in narrative production for cultural differences can be avoided. Findings reveal the implications for intervention.
Both English and Chinese are abound with idioms. Idioms are an important part of the hnguage and culture of a society. English and Chinese idioms carved with cultural characteristics account for a great part in the tramlation. This paper studies the translation of idioms concerning their cultural similarities, cultural differences and transhtion principles.
R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22
P K Gupta, Roorkee. Boris Gurevich, Australia. Simon Harley, Edinburgh, Scotland. Anand K Inamdar, California. A Jayaraman, Ahmedabad. K N Khattri, Dehradun. Ralf Kretz, Canada. S Krishnaswami, Ahmedabad. R K Lal, Varanasi. D C Mishra, Hyderabad. Asoke Mookherjee, Kolkata. Dhruba Mukhopadhyay, Kolkata.
Behera Mukunda, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur. Bera M K, Indian Institutes ... Das Subrata, Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology, Pune. Das Trupti ... Deb Sanjib Kumar, Space Applications Centre, Ahmedabad. Delire Christine ...
This book is the product of a seminar series funded by the UK Economic and Social Research Council entitled ‘Security in Scotland, with or without constitutional change’, which ran from 2013–2015 at the University of Edinburgh (grant reference ES/L00139X/1). The Reports from this seminar series can be found on the title page on the Open Book Publishers website, http://www.openbookpublishers.com/product/524#resources The editor and principal investigator Andrew W. Neal would like to thank his ...
... Raha, Soumen Basak , Amitava Majumder, Mousumi Basu, Smarajit Polley, Raja Bhattacharya, and all other lab members. OUR COLLABORATORS: Prof. S. Roy, Bose Institute, Kolkata. Prof.M.S.Shaila, IISC, Bangalore. GRANTING AGENCIES: Dept. of Science and Technology. All India Council for Technical Education.
Aavudai Anandhi, City University of New York, New York City, United States. Acharyya ... Collins Waylon, National Weather Service, Corpus Christi, United States ..... Smith Anne Mhairi, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Lethdbridge, Canada.
Journal of Earth System Science wishes to place on record the valuable assistance received from ... Abhijit Basu, Indiana University, Bloomington, United States .... Manoj Jaiswal, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Kolkata.
The Meeting was sponsored by the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), the Società Italiana di Fisica (SIF), the European Physics Society (EPS), the University of Pisa and the University of Siena.
Chen Xingyuan Lorraine, University of California, Berkeley, United States ... Das Kaushik, Bengal Engineering and Science University, Kolkata de Boyer ..... Samborska Katarzyna, Institute for Ecology of Industrial Areas, Katowice, Poland.
fishes whose members appear to fill very similar ecological roles in ... ways and also provided us with a great deal of interesting information. .... lakes. Verh. into Verein. Iheor. angew. Limnol. 17: 303 - 322. FRYER, G. 1972. ... Evolulion 23:.
Khayat Saied. Hsu Shu-Lu. Huang Chenn-Jung. Huang Baoshan. Hussain R. Jahir. Ibrahim A ... Lin Tao. Liu W.K.. Liu Jiming. Liu J. Lohani Bharat. Lucey Anthony. M Venkataramana. Madhu Kumar S D. Madria Sanjay. Mahadevappa Manjunatha.
Dr. B. Rajakumar, D. Anandaraj, Janardan Kundu, Harish Chakravarty (Ph.D. students). D.S.S. Hembram, Mukesh Agrawal, Vijayanand Chandrasekharan, Naga Boopathy, Sharath (Project Assistants). Dr. Dinesh Bilehal and Dr. Amit Pathak (Postdocs). Knowledge and Wisdom (Yellow is color of wisdom: Google). Profs.
. Dipankar Nandi, Bangalore. Vidyanand Nanjundiah, Bangalore. Sankar Narayanan, Hyderabad. Laxmi Charan Padhy, Mumbai. Gopal Pande, Hyderabad. H N Pandey, Nirjuli. Ashwani Pareek, New Delhi. Veena K Parnaik, Hyderabad.
All the team of the Théodora Foundation and the members of its Board warmly thank everyone who contributed to the collection organized after the death of our colleague and friend Hubert Muller Created 11 years ago, the Théodora Foundation's goal was to relieve the suffering of hospitalized children through laughter. Thanks to your gift of 850 CHF, hospitalized children will receive a tender and funny visit from one of the Théodora Foundation's Dream Doctors. The Foundation dedicates to everyone who participated the magic moments of joy and happiness lived by each small patient during one of these visits. We express here our deep gratitude to Hubert's family for this gesture and hope that they find comfort in knowing that Hubert's memory will live through these children, for whom this sum will help to relieve the difficulty of their every day lives. In the name of the Safety Commission
C T Achutankutty, National Institute of Oceanography, Goa. Rajesh Agnihotri, Max Planck Institute For Chemistry, Germany. S Ahmed, National Geophysical Research Institute, Hyderabad. B R Arora, Wadia Institute of Himalayan Geology, Dehradun. K Balakrishna, National Institute of Technology Karnataka, Surathkal.
Parkash B, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee. Parthasarathy G, National Geophysical Research Institute, Hyderabad. Parvez Imtiyaz, CSIR Centre for ... Raman Sethu, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, USA. Ramana M V, National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa. Ramana Muvva, Scripps Institution ...
Azamathulla Hazi Mohammad, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Nibong Tebal, Pulau Pinang, ... Bai Chao-Ying, Chang'an University, Chang'an, Xi'an, China ..... Sikdar Pradip, Indian Institute of Social Welfare and Business Management, Kolkata.
R.Narasimhan(krishtel emaging)1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22
J M Bull, Southampton, UK. Chaofang Zhao, China. D Chandrasekharan, Mumbai, India. R Cullers, Kansas, USA. Danling Tang, Japan. A C Das, Ahmedabad, India. S K Dash, Delhi, India. Don Olson, USA, India. Dev Niyogi, Raleigh, NC, USA. Edward Monahan, USA. G Ekstrom, Cambridge, USA. Elgar Desa, Goa, India.
Starren, A.; Drupsteen, L.
In this article we describe cross-cultural aspects in the context of safety management. When working abroad, cross-cultural differences ask for other competencies to enhance safe behaviour than at home due to cultural and language differences. In this wiki some guidance is given on aspects of
Soong, Hannah; Lee, Richard; John, George
Justificatory reasoning, the ability to justify one's beliefs and actions, is an important goal of education. We develop a scale to measure the three forms of justificatory reasoning--absolutism, relativism, and evaluativism--before validating the scale across two cultures and domains. The results show that the scale possessed validity and…
Creeden, Jack; Kelly-Aguirre, Eileen; Visser, Aric
Many high school and university students return home from global programs and often report they have changed as a result of the experience. Global educators assume the act of participating in global education programs (such as high school study abroad) will open students' eyes to the complexities of another culture because students have been…
cultural differences affect the management behavior and management style.Participatory management style in the United States and instructional management style in China has a deep cultural roots.In terms of the type of management style,they are equal.As long as management style is consistent with its culture accordingly,the leadership will be effective.
Mathieu, David; Finger, Juliane; Dias, Patrcia
Part of the stakeholder consultation addressed strategies that media audiences are developing to cope with pressures and intrusions in a changing media environment, characterised by digitalisation and interactive possibilities. We interviewed ten stakeholders representing interests such as content...... production, media literacy, media regulation, and activism. Consulting with these stakeholders left the impression that pressures and intrusions from media lack widespread acknowledgement, and that little is known about audiences’ strategies to cope with media. Even when intrusions are acknowledged, we find...... no consensual motivation, nor any clear avenue for action. Therefore, we have analysed different discursive positions that prevent acknowledging or taking action upon the pressures and intrusions that we presented to these stakeholders. The discursive positions are outlined below....
Full Text Available Australia continues to develop as a multicultural society with levels of immigration increasing significantly over recent years as a result of government policies. More recently, the new period of financial turmoil, continuing threats from terrorism and environmental concerns, have all exacerbated the challenges of dealing with difference in our society. In response, schools continue to face the challenges of the impact of a range of different cultures, languages and religions among their student and school communities. How effectively schools deal with difference and how well they are supported in their endeavours to build culturally response classrooms is a perennial issue for both teachers and educators. A major challenge for teachers is to at a minimum, understand cultural differences as they manifest in their particular school settings and to draw on approaches that support student learning in culturally appropriate ways so to assist them to better realise their full potential. In this paper we will consider cultural diversity in the context of recent school policies, highlight a number of frameworks for addressing cultural diversity in the classroom, in particular the approaches by Kalantzis and Cope’s (1999 and Hickling-Hudson (2003. We also draw on the findings from a recent qualitative study of representations of cultural diversity in a number of Sydney metropolitan schools to discuss the need for more greater resource and policy support for progressive teaching approaches that support the development of a more tolerant and inclusive multicultural society. Key words: cultural diversity, schools, teacher education, classroom practice, social inclusion
Ybema, S.B.; Buyn, H.
In this article we integrate findings from interviews and ethnographic case studies to explore issues of culture and identity in Japanese-Dutch work relations in two different contexts: Japanese firms in the Netherlands and Dutch firms in Japan. It is suggested that cultural identities do not carry
Kelly, David J.; Liu, Shaoying; Rodger, Helen; Miellet, Sebastien; Ge, Liezhong; Caldara, Roberto
Perception and eye movements are affected by culture. Adults from Eastern societies (e.g. China) display a disposition to process information "holistically," whereas individuals from Western societies (e.g. Britain) process information "analytically." Recently, this pattern of cultural differences has been extended to face…
Culture may be thought of as a causal agent that affects the evolutionary process by uniquely human means. Religion, on the other hand, is considered a process of revelation and contains the concept of the "faithful" who receive the message of revelation. Culture permits the "self-conscious evaluation of human possibilities" and therefore presents a device for increasing human control over species change. There are dangers, however, in accepting cultural relativism without any constraint, such as respect for human life and dignity. In this article, the author attempts to clarify the boundaries between religion and culture and acknowledges that further research is needed on the religion/culture dichotomy.
Effects of different culture conditions (photoautotrophic, photomixotrophic) and the auxin indole-butyric acid on the in vitro acclimatization of papaya ( Carica papaya L. var. Red Maradol) plants using zeolite as support.
Thuesen, Christian; Rasmussen, Christian K. S.
a number of characteristics and challenges related to the cultural context have been identified highlighting a central issue in existing and future construction practices due to the globalization and thereby increasing importance of cultural understanding in project-based organizing. The empirical findings......This paper presents in-depth case studies of construction practices with a specific focus on understanding the emergent and dynamic nature of construction management in different cultural contexts. The cases are based on actual working-experiences by the author as an assistant project manager...... participating in the construction management on site working for three different contractors in different cultural contexts: (1) Construir Futuro S.A. in Quito, Ecuador; (2) Anker Hansen & co. A/S in Copenhagen, Denmark; and (3) E. Pihl & Soen A/S in Stockholm, Sweden. Based on these explorative case studies...
I discuss cultural factors and how they may influence sociotechnical system operations. Investigations of several major transportation accidents suggest that cultural factors may have played a role in the causes of the accidents. However, research has not fully addressed how cultural factors can influence sociotechnical systems. I review literature on cultural differences in general and cultural factors in sociotechnical systems and discuss how these differences can affect team performance in sociotechnical systems. Cultural differences have been observed in social and interpersonal dimensions and in cognitive and perceptual styles; these differences can affect multioperator team performance. Cultural factors may account for team errors in sociotechnical systems, most likely during high-workload, high-stress operational phases. However, much of the research on cultural factors has methodological and interpretive shortcomings that limit their applicability to sociotechnical systems. Although some research has been conducted on the role of cultural differences on team performance in sociotechnical system operations, considerable work remains to be done before the effects of these differences can be fully understood. I propose a model that illustrates how culture can interact with sociotechnical system operations and suggest avenues of future research. Given methodological challenges in measuring cultural differences and team performance in sociotechnical system operations, research in these systems should use a variety of methodologies to better understand how culture can affect multioperator team performance in these systems.
Boiger, Michael; Ceulemans, Eva; De Leersnyder, Jozefien; Uchida, Yukiko; Norasakkunkit, Vinai; Mesquita, Batja
The current research offers an alternative to essentialism for studying cultural variation in emotional experience. Rather than assuming that individuals always experience an emotion in the same way, our starting point was that the experience of an emotion like anger or shame may vary from one instance to another. We expected to find different anger and shame experience types, that is, groups of people who differ in the instances of anger and shame that they experience. We proposed that studying cultural differences in emotional experience means studying differences in the distribution of these types across cultural contexts: There should be systematic differences in the types that are most common in each culture. Students from the United States, Japan, and Belgium (N = 928) indicated their emotional experiences in terms of appraisals and action tendencies in response to 15 hypothetical anger or shame situations. Using an inductive clustering approach, we identified anger and shame types who were characterized by different patterns of anger and shame experience. As expected, we found that the distribution of these types differed across the three cultural contexts: Of the two anger types, one was common in Japan and one in the United States and Belgium; the three shame types were each most prevalent in a different cultural context. Participants' anger and shame types were primarily predicted by their culture of origin (with an accuracy of 72.3% for anger and 74.0% for shame) and not, or much less, by their ethnic origin, socioeconomic status, gender, self-construal, or personality. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Hemert, D.A. van; Vijver, F.J.R. van de; Vingerhoets, A.J.J.M.
Results of a cross-cultural study of adult crying across 37 countries are presented. Analyses focused on country differences in recency of last crying episode and crying proneness and relationships with country characteristics. Three hypotheses on the nature of country differences in crying were
Gerry M. Lanuza
Full Text Available Primary schools are supposed to provide a haven for young people to learn respect for individual differences and cultural diversity. However, schools often do not acknowledge cultural differences among their pupils or do not consciously consider the dynamics of these cultural differences in the school, which may lead to a simmering violence. This paper is an attempt to document the ways in which minority Muslim pupils in a primary public school develop different strategies of accommodation, assimilation, and resistance to the mainstream culture of the school.
Teunis, Teun; Janssen, Stein; Guitton, Thierry G; Ring, David; Parisien, Robert
of experience. Two hundred forty-two (34%) members completed the survey. We found no differences between responders and nonresponders. Each survey item measured its own trait better than any of the other traits. Recognition of uncertainty (0.70) and confidence bias (0.75) had relatively high Cronbach alpha levels, meaning that the questions making up these traits are closely related and probably measure the same construct. This was lower for statistical understanding (0.48) and trust in the orthopaedic evidence base (0.37). Subsequently, combining each trait's individual questions, we calculated a 0 to 10 score for each trait. The mean recognition of uncertainty score was 3.2 ± 1.4. Recognition of uncertainty in daily practice did not vary by years in practice (0-5 years, 3.2 ± 1.3; 6-10 years, 2.9 ± 1.3; 11-20 years, 3.2 ± 1.4; 21-30 years, 3.3 ± 1.6 years; p = 0.51), but overconfidence bias did correlate with years in practice (0-5 years, 6.2 ± 1.4; 6-10 years, 7.1 ± 1.3; 11-20 years, 7.4 ± 1.4; 21-30 years, 7.1 ± 1.2 years; p < 0.001). Accounting for a potential interaction of variables using multivariable analysis, less recognition of uncertainty was independently but weakly associated with working in a multispecialty group compared with academic practice (β regression coefficient, -0.53; 95% confidence interval [CI], -1.0 to -0.055; partial R(2), 0.021; p = 0.029), belief in God or any other deity/deities (β, -0.57; 95% CI, -1.0 to -0.11; partial R(2), 0.026; p = 0.015), greater confidence bias (β, -0.26; 95% CI, -0.37 to -0.14; partial R(2), 0.084; p < 0.001), and greater trust in the orthopaedic evidence base (β, -0.16; 95% CI, -0.26 to -0.058; partial R(2), 0.040; p = 0.002). Better statistical understanding was independently, and more strongly, associated with greater recognition of uncertainty (β, 0.25; 95% CI, 0.17-0.34; partial R(2), 0.13; p < 0.001). Our full model accounted for 29% of the variability in recognition of uncertainty (adjusted
Saulton, Aurelie; Bülthoff, Heinrich H; de la Rosa, Stephan; Dodds, Trevor J
Cultural differences in spatial perception have been little investigated, which gives rise to the impression that spatial cognitive processes might be universal. Contrary to this idea, we demonstrate cultural differences in spatial volume perception of computer generated rooms between Germans and South Koreans. We used a psychophysical task in which participants had to judge whether a rectangular room was larger or smaller than a square room of reference. We systematically varied the room rectangularity (depth to width aspect ratio) and the viewpoint (middle of the short wall vs. long wall) from which the room was viewed. South Koreans were significantly less biased by room rectangularity and viewpoint than their German counterparts. These results are in line with previous notions of general cognitive processing strategies being more context dependent in East Asian societies than Western ones. We point to the necessity of considering culturally-specific cognitive processing strategies in visual spatial cognition research.
Full Text Available Cultural differences in spatial perception have been little investigated, which gives rise to the impression that spatial cognitive processes might be universal. Contrary to this idea, we demonstrate cultural differences in spatial volume perception of computer generated rooms between Germans and South Koreans. We used a psychophysical task in which participants had to judge whether a rectangular room was larger or smaller than a square room of reference. We systematically varied the room rectangularity (depth to width aspect ratio and the viewpoint (middle of the short wall vs. long wall from which the room was viewed. South Koreans were significantly less biased by room rectangularity and viewpoint than their German counterparts. These results are in line with previous notions of general cognitive processing strategies being more context dependent in East Asian societies than Western ones. We point to the necessity of considering culturally-specific cognitive processing strategies in visual spatial cognition research.
Kiyokawa, Sachiko; Dienes, Zoltan; Tanaka, Daisuke; Yamada, Ayumi; Crowe, Louise
Previous studies have indicated cross cultural differences in conscious processes, such that Asians have a global preference and Westerners a more analytical one. We investigated whether these biases also apply to unconscious knowledge. In Experiment 1, Japanese and UK participants memorized strings of large (global) letters made out of small…
Rofess, Sakander; Mahmood, Muhammad Asim
This paper investigates Pakistani doctoral thesis acknowledgements from genre analysis perspective. A corpus of 235 PhD thesis acknowledgements written in English was taken from Pakistani doctoral theses collected from eight different disciplines. HEC Research Repository of Pakistan was used as a data sources. The theses written by Pakistani…
Full Text Available An experiment of algal culture was conducted in natural light and temperature conditions at a balcony of a room at the 2nd floor of Fisheries Faculty Building facing the north. The experiment was done to evaluate the growth of Chlorella ellipsoidea in four different media, viz, medium I (inorganic, medium II (organic, whole pulse powder extract, medium III (organic, whole lentil powder extract and medium IV (organic, whole gram powder extract under natural environment conditions during January-June, 2015. Growth rates of the algal species in four different media were found not significantly different. The alga, C. ellipsoidea attained maximum cell density of 28.89×106 cell ml-1 in the 15th day in medium I, of 30.69×106 cell ml-1 in the 13th day in medium II, of 26.18×106 cell ml-1 in the 15th day in medium III and of 21.12×106 cell ml-1 in the 13th day in medium IV. The ranges of air temperature, water temperature and light intensity were 21°C to 38°C, 23°C to 36°C and 2.28×103to 9.60×103 Lux respectively during the culture period. The average sunshine period was 5.87±2.82 hrs. Total alkalinity, free CO2, pH , NO3-N and PO4-P of algal culture media I, II, III and IV were 128, 540, 554 and 322 mgL-1; 32, 162, 102, 70 mgL-1; 7.4, 8, 7.9 and 7.9; 180, 36.6, 62.4 and 150 mgL-1, and 25.2, 48.2, 42.4 and 45.6 mgL-1, respectively. According to ANOVA of cell densities of cultures of C. ellipsoidea under treatments are not significantly different (F=1.441077. It is clear that differences between them are not significant i.e. mean algal cell densities are more or less same as differences between treatments are less than 20%.
Wang, Yan; Tang, Yi-Yuan; Wang, Jinjun
Decisions to help those in need are essential for human development and survival. Previous studies have demonstrated the "identified effect", in which one identifiable individual typically invokes stronger feelings of compassion and receives greater aid than statistical victim. However, this preference might be influenced by cultural differences. In the current study, Chinese respondents' ratings of distress and sympathy and their willingness to contribute are greater for a group of sick children than an individual. In the U.S., greater willingness to help and sympathy are elicited by an identified victim in comparison with an unidentified one. The different results may demonstrate the importance of cultural differences when trying to understand people's prosocial behavior.
Kempe, Marius; Lycett, Stephen J; Mesoudi, Alex
Diverse species exhibit cultural traditions, i.e. population-specific profiles of socially learned traits, from songbird dialects to primate tool-use behaviours. However, only humans appear to possess cumulative culture, in which cultural traits increase in complexity over successive generations. Theoretically, it is currently unclear what factors give rise to these phenomena, and consequently why cultural traditions are found in several species but cumulative culture in only one. Here, we address this by constructing and analysing cultural evolutionary models of both phenomena that replicate empirically attestable levels of cultural variation and complexity in chimpanzees and humans. In our model of cultural traditions (Model 1), we find that realistic cultural variation between populations can be maintained even when individuals in different populations invent the same traits and migration between populations is frequent, and under a range of levels of social learning accuracy. This lends support to claims that putative cultural traditions are indeed cultural (rather than genetic) in origin, and suggests that cultural traditions should be widespread in species capable of social learning. Our model of cumulative culture (Model 2) indicates that both the accuracy of social learning and the number of cultural demonstrators interact to determine the complexity of a trait that can be maintained in a population. Combining these models (Model 3) creates two qualitatively distinct regimes in which there are either a few, simple traits, or many, complex traits. We suggest that these regimes correspond to nonhuman and human cultures, respectively. The rarity of cumulative culture in nature may result from this interaction between social learning accuracy and number of demonstrators. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ulmer, Francis F; Sharara-Chami, Rana; Lakissian, Zavi; Stocker, Martin; Scott, Ella; Dieckmann, Peter
Culture is believed to play a role in education, safety, and patient outcome in healthcare. Hofstede's culture analysis permits a quantitative comparison between countries, along different culture dimensions, including power distance (PD). Power distance index (PDI) is a value reflecting social hierarchy in a country. We sought to explore the relation between PDI and self-reported behavior patterns of debriefers during simulation debriefings. We determined six culture-relevant debriefing characteristics and formulated six hypotheses on how these characteristics correlate with national PDIs. Low-PDI countries have a PDI of 50 or less, and high-PDI countries have a PDI of 51 or greater as defined by Hofstede. Interviews with simulation debriefers were used to investigate culture-relevant debriefing characteristics: debriefer/participant talking time, debriefer/participant interaction pattern, debriefer/participant interaction style, debriefer/participant initiative for interactions, debriefing content, and difficulty with which nontechnical skills can be discussed. During debriefing, in low-PDI countries, debriefers talked less and used more open-ended questions and focused more on nontechnical issues than on medical knowledge and simulation participants initiated most interactions. In low-PDI countries, debriefers felt that participants interacted more with each other and found it easier to address nontechnical skills such as speaking-up. Our results supported our hypotheses. National culture is related to debriefing practice. There is a clear relation between PDI and debriefer-participant behavior patterns as described by debriefers. The higher the PDI of a country, the more the debriefer determines the course of the debriefing and the more difficult it becomes to address nontechnical skills.
Full Text Available According to recent cross-cultural studies there exist culturally based differences between visual perception and the related cognitive processes (attention, memory. According to current research, East Asians and Westerners percieve and think about the world in very different ways. Westerners are inclined to attend to some focal object (a salient object within a perception field that is relatively big in size, fast moving, colourful focusing on and analyzing its attributes. East Asians on the other hand are more likely to attend to a broad perceptual field, noticing relationships and changes. In this paper we want to describe the recent findings in the field and propose some directions for future research.
Kim, Kyungil; Markman, Arthur B
Previous research suggests that members of East Asian cultures show a greater preference for dialectical thinking than do Westerners. This paper attempts to account for these differences in cognition using individual difference variables that may explain variation in performance both within and across cultures. Especially, we propose that the abovementioned cultural differences are rooted in a greater fear of isolation (FOI) in East Asians than in Westerners. To support this hypothesis, in Experiment 1, we manipulated FOI in American participants before having them resolve two conflicts: an interpersonal conflict and a conflict between an individual and an institution. We found that the Americans among whom a high level of FOI had been induced were more likely to look for a dialectical resolution than those among whom a low level had been prompted. The relationship between conflict resolution and FOI was further investigated in Experiment 2, in which FOI was not manipulated. The results indicated that Koreans had higher chronic FOI on average than did the Americans. Compared to the Americans, the Koreans were more likely to resolve the interpersonal conflict dialectically, but did not show the same bias in resolving the person-institution conflict. The differences in the preference for dialectical resolution between FOI conditions in Experiment 1 and cultural groups in Experiment 2 were mediated by FOI. These findings bolster previous research on FOI in showing that chronic levels of FOI are positively related to both preference for dialectical sentences and sensitivity to context. They provide clearer insight into how differences in FOI affect attention and thereby higher-level reasoning such as dialectic description and conflict resolution.
Kalender, Beste; Trehub, Sandra E; Schellenberg, E Glenn
We examined the influence of incidental exposure to varied metrical patterns from different musical cultures on the perception of complex metrical structures from an unfamiliar musical culture. Adults who were familiar with Western music only (i.e., simple meters) and those who also had limited familiarity with non-Western music were tested on their perception of metrical organization in unfamiliar (Turkish) music with simple and complex meters. Adults who were familiar with Western music detected meter-violating changes in Turkish music with simple meter but not in Turkish music with complex meter. Adults with some exposure to non-Western music that was unmetered or metrically complex detected meter-violating changes in Turkish music with both simple and complex meters, but they performed better on patterns with a simple meter. The implication is that familiarity with varied metrical structures, including those with a non-isochronous tactus, enhances sensitivity to the metrical organization of unfamiliar music.
Summary of thesis “Different cultures, different selves? Suppression of emotions and reactions to transgressions across cultures”, Sylvia Huwaë People can differ in how they respond to everyday situations. For example, when treated unfairly by someone, some people may express their anger and find it
Full Text Available Previous research has found cultural differences in the frequency of support seeking. Asians and Asian Americans report seeking support from their close others to deal with their stress less often compared to European Americans. Similarly, other research on professional help seeking has shown that Asians and Asian Americans are less likely than European Americans to seek professional psychological help. Previous studies link this difference to multitude of factors, such as cultural stigma and reliance on informal social networks. The present research examined another explanation for cultural differences in professional help seeking. We predicted that the observed cultural difference in professional help seeking is an extension of culture-specific interpersonal relationship patterns. In the present research, undergraduate students in Japan and the United States completed the Inventory of Attitudes toward Seeking Mental Health Services (IASMHS, which measures professional help seeking propensity, psychological openness to acknowledging psychological problems, and indifference to the stigma of seeking professional help. The results showed that Japanese reported greater reluctance to seek professional help compared to Americans. Moreover, the relationship between culture and professional help seeking attitudes was partially mediated by use of social support seeking among close others. The implications of cultural differences in professional help seeking and the relationship between support seeking and professional help seeking are discussed.
Na, Jinkyung; Grossmann, Igor; Varnum, Michael E W; Kitayama, Shinobu; Gonzalez, Richard; Nisbett, Richard E
We show that differences in social orientation and in cognition that exist between cultures and social classes do not necessarily have counterparts in individual differences within those groups. Evidence comes from a large-scale study conducted with 10 measures of independent vs. interdependent social orientation and 10 measures of analytic vs. holistic cognitive style. The social measures successfully distinguish between interdependence (viewing oneself as embedded in relations with others) and independence (viewing oneself as disconnected from others) at the group level. However, the correlations among the measures were negligible. Similar results were obtained for the cognitive measures, for which there are no coherent individual differences despite the validity of the construct at the group level. We conclude that behavioral constructs that distinguish among groups need not be valid as measures of individual differences.
Zhang, Ning; Ji, Li-Jun; Li, Ye
Two studies were conducted to investigate cultural differences in opportunity cost consideration between Chinese and Euro-Canadians. Opportunity cost is defined as the cost of a benefit that must be forgone in order to pursue a better alternative (Becker et al., 1974). In both studies, participants read about hypothetical purchase scenarios, and then decided whether they would buy a certain product. Opportunity cost consideration was measured in two ways: (1) participants' thoughts pertaining to other (nonfocal) products while making decisions; (2) participants' decisions not to buy a focal product (Study 1) or a more expensive product (Study 2). Across both indexes, we found that after controlling for individual difference variables and amount of pocket money, Chinese participants in China considered financial opportunity cost more than Euro-Canadians in Study 1. Similar results were observed in Study 2 when comparing Chinese in Canada with Euro-Canadians However, the cultural effect on opportunity cost consideration was confounded by family income in Study 2. Implications for resource management, limitations of the current research and directions for future research are discussed.
Huwae, Sylvia; Schaafsma, Juliëtte
Previous research suggests that in collectivistic cultures, people tend to suppress their emotions more than in individualistic cultures. Little research, however, has explored cross-cultural differences in emotion regulation in everyday interactions. Using a daily social interaction method, we
Cross-cultural communication refers to the communication between peoples of different cultural backgrounds. To solve and avoid the cultural conflicts and blocks, it is high time to enhance the actual skills of cross-cultural communication. This paper gives a comparative analysis of the concrete representations of differences between Chinese and western culture in cross-cultural communication. And it gives some communication principles on the cross-cultural communication.
Kleijkers, Sander H M; Eijssen, Lars M T; Coonen, Edith; Derhaag, Josien G; Mantikou, Eleni; Jonker, Martijs J; Mastenbroek, Sebastiaan; Repping, Sjoerd; Evers, Johannes L H; Dumoulin, John C M; van Montfoort, Aafke P A
Is gene expression in human preimplantation embryos affected by the medium used for embryo culture in vitro during an IVF treatment? Six days of in vitro culture of human preimplantation embryos resulted in medium-dependent differences in expression level of genes involved in apoptosis, protein degradation, metabolism and cell-cycle regulation. Several human studies have shown an effect of culture medium on embryo development, pregnancy outcome and birthweight. However, the underlying mechanisms in human embryos are still unknown. In animal models of human development, it has been demonstrated that culture of preimplantation embryos in vitro affects gene expression. In humans, it has been found that culture medium affects gene expression of cryopreserved embryos that, after thawing, were cultured in two different media for 2 more days. In a multicenter trial, women were randomly assigned to two culture medium groups [G5 and human tubal fluid (HTF)]. Data on embryonic development were collected for all embryos. In one center, embryos originating from two pronuclei (2PN) zygotes that were not selected for transfer or cryopreservation on Day 2 or 3 because of lower morphological quality, were cultured until Day 6 and used in this study, if couples consented. Ten blastocysts each from the G5 and HTF study groups, matched for fertilization method, maternal age and blastocyst quality, were selected and their mRNA was isolated and amplified. Embryos were examined individually for genome-wide gene expression using Agilent microarrays and PathVisio was used to identify the pathways that showed a culture medium-dependent activity. Expression of 951 genes differed significantly (P differences observed between the study groups are caused by factors that we did not investigate. Extrapolation of these results to embryos used for transfer demands caution as in the present study embryos that were not selected for either embryo transfer or cryopreservation have been used for the
Scientific Projects today have increased in complexity, requiring multidisciplinarity, and requiring a mix of diverse individuals from different countries who must be integrated into an effective project. Effective team building is one of the prime responsibilities of the project manager. When the project is supported by a funding, the integration and the implication of the different partners are quite easy. Particularly when partners are developing high-performing teams. However, management of research project requires further skills when the budget is not very high and/or when partners are from non-European countries and are not using the same vocabulary. The various cultures, values, beliefs and social usages, particularly with Mediterranean countries cause a special style of communication for an individual or group of individuals. This communication style participates in the success of the project and encompasses a lot of diplomatic skills which will be highlighted.
Fischer, Agneta H; Rodriguez Mosquera, Patricia M; van Vianen, Annelies E M; Manstead, Antony S R
In this article, the authors report a secondary analysis on a cross-cultural dataset on gender differences in 6 emotions, collected in 37 countries all over the world. The aim was to test the universality of the gender-specific pattern found in studies with Western respondents, namely that men report more powerful emotions (e.g., anger), whereas women report more powerless emotions (e.g., sadness, fear). The authors expected the strength of these gender differences to depend on women's status and roles in their respective countries, as operationalized by the Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM; United Nations Development Programme Human Development Report 2002). Overall, the gender-specific pattern of women reporting to experience and express more powerless emotions and men more powerful emotions was replicated, and only some interactions with the GEM were found.
Hojer, Maja; Hasse, Cathrine
The articles in this book share a dedication to broadening and stretching the scholarly field of feminist citizenship studies and invite the reader to reflect on the many different ways citizenship is formed in contemporary Europe. They do so by stretching the concept of citizenship itself, going...
Language is an important part of culture,each language belong to a certain culture.Language and culture are interdependent from each other.So,language teaching must be concerned with teaching the culture which it belongs to.Language teaching should pay more attention to the cultural differences.
Palmer, Cecelia Nails
"Cultural relativism" exists when individuals can choose the values and responsible life styles that afford the natural and best vehicles of productive and positive expression. This paper suggests a strategy for accomplishing this kind of cultural acceptance in the present educational system. It calls for the transmission of basic, unbiased data…
Information in general is congruent with cultural values because a culture consists of transmitted social knowledge. Cross-cultural research demonstrates that audiences who are fostered by different cultures may have different understandings of information. This research represents a comprehensive cross-cultural study using an experimental method,…
Swierczek, Fredric William; Bechter, Clemens; Chankiew, Jeerawan
Corporate cultural values have a major influence on learning. For learning to be effective it must be adapted to the cultural context in which it takes place. E-learning neither eliminates cultural differences nor is it culture free. This study focuses on two major Indian IT companies with different Corporate Cultures sharing the same expected…
Madan, Ira; Reading, Isabel; Palmer, Keith T; Coggon, David
To test the hypothesis that cultural factors such as health beliefs and expectations have an important influence on common musculoskeletal symptoms and associated disability, we compared prevalence rates in groups of workers carrying out similar physical activities in different cultural settings. We conducted a cross-sectional survey at factories and offices in Mumbai, India and in the UK. A questionnaire about symptoms, disability and risk factors was administered at interview to six occupational groups: three groups of office workers who regularly used computer keyboards (165 Indian, 67 UK of Indian subcontinental origin and 172 UK white), and three groups of workers carrying out repetitive manual tasks with the hands or arms (178 Indian, 73 UK of Indian subcontinental origin and 159 UK white). Modified Cox regression was used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) for the prevalence of symptoms and disability by occupational group, adjusted for differences in sex, age, mental health and job satisfaction. Reported occupational activities were similar in the three groups of office workers (frequent use of keyboards) and in the three groups of manual workers (frequent movements of the wrist or fingers, bending of the elbow, work with the hands above shoulder height and work with the neck twisted). In comparison with the Indian manual workers, the prevalence of back, neck and arm pain was substantially higher in all of the other five occupational groups. The difference was greatest for arm pain lasting >30 days in the past year in UK white manual workers (HR 17.8, 95% CI 5.4-59.1) and UK manual workers of Indian subcontinental origin (HR 20.5, 95% CI 5.7-73.1). Office workers in India had lower rates of pain in the wrist and hand than office workers in the UK. Only 1% of the Indian manual workers and 16% of the Indian office workers had ever heard of 'RSI' or similar terms, as compared with 80% of the UK workers. Our findings support the hypothesized impact of cultural
青岛大学音乐学院，山东 青岛 266000
Because of the differences in environment and products, different cultures may be formed in east and west, the social characteristics of material and spiritual life integrated embodiment through Chinese and west food cultures. The author focuses on analysis and comparison in cross-cultural differences of diet idea, diet object and way of eating in China and western countries, the deep-seated causation which induces the differences in food cultures is revealed. Under the background of western economic and cultural integration, communication in food cultures increased, which will certain accelerate Chinese food cultures developed and spread al over the world.
Klein, Helen Altman; Lin, Mei-Hua; Radford, Mark; Masuda, Takahiko; Choi, Incheol; Lien, Yunnwen; Yeh, Yeiyuh; Boff, Kenneth R
Cultural differences in cognition are important during multinational commercial, military, and humanitarian operations. The Rosetta Project addresses definition and measurement of key cognitive dimensions. Six potential diagnostic measures related to Analytic-Holistic reasoning were assessed: the Exclusion Task, the Attribution Complexity Scale, the Syllogism Task, Categorization, the Framed Line Test, and the Facial Expression Task. 379 participants' ages ranged from 17 to 24 years (M = 19.8, SD = 1.4). 64.6% were women; Eastern Asian groups (Japan, Korea, and Taiwan) were assumed to have Holistic reasoning tendencies, and those from a Western group (USA) were assumed to have Analytic tendencies. Participants were recruited from subject pools in psychology using the procedures of each university. Results on the Exclusion and Categorization Tasks confirmed hypothesized differences in Analytic-Holistic reasoning. The Attribution Complex-ity Scale and the Facial Expression Task identified important differences among the four groups. Outcomes on the final two tasks were confounded by unrelated group differences, making comparisons difficult. Building on this exploratory study, Rosetta Phase II will include additional groups and cognitive tasks. Measures of complex cognition are also incorporated to link findings to the naturalistic contexts.
Language and culture are interacting. Learning a language must understand the culture. The lack of cultural knowledge will lead to students’mistakes in daily English,therefore,in English teaching,the cultural differences between Chinese and Western as an important question is put forward. Then,from the cultural differences between Chinese and western,I discuss the reasons for mistakes in daily English and then how to teaching.
When talking about differences between Eastern and Western culture,we should first think of the eating cultural differences.There are many differences in Eastern and Western food cultures,in this paper it will introduce the different food concepts,the different eating goals,the different eating habits,etc.A comparison study of Chinese and Western food culture still makes sense through the analysis of cultural differences between Chinese and Western food,we can understand their own cultural traditions in China and the West.At the same time it is able to carry out improvement and innovation of Chinese culture.Throughout the comparisons,coupled with the differences of the concept of Western food culture,objects,methods,ownership and nature,it studies these differences,identifies areas for mastery of the place,promotes cultural exchange.Thus it enables China to the world,and to make the world know China better.
When talking about differences between Eastern and Western culture,we should first think of the eating cultural differences.There are many differences in Eastern and Western food cultures,in this paper it will introduce the different food concepts,the different eating goals,the different eating habits,etc. A comparison study of Chinese and Western food culture still makes sense through the analysis of cultural differences between Chinese and Western food,we can understand their own cultural traditions in China and the West.At the same time it is able to carry out improvement and innovation of Chinese culture. Throughout the comparisons,coupled with the differences of the concept of Western food culture,objects,methods,ownership and nature,it studies these differences,identifies areas for mastery of the place,promotes cultural exchange.Thus it enables China to the world,and to make the world know China better.
This paper sets out to evaluate a proposed twelve-month programme of development aimed at academic staff at a new university in the Kurdistan region of Iraq. The author uses a model of cultural difference proposed by Dutch social psychologist Geert Hofstede as her starting point. Reference is also made to the work of other researchers and to the views of a number of people with first-hand experience of education in Iraqi Kurdistan. Cultural differences between the Kurdish participants on the proposed programme and its British facilitator are a likely challenge in this kind of project, in particular those associated with collectivist vs. individualist traditions. Focusing on this divide, some marked differences emerge in terms of how learning is viewed and approached in the two different countries. Whilst acknowledging that cultural difference is not confined to national boundaries, the author argues that the degree of collectivism or individualism within a society can be regarded as one of the many significant components of the complex concept of "culture". She does not attempt to offer any empirical evidence to support a "best way" to approach international educational encounters. Rather, the author's aim is to draw some conclusions to inform and facilitate the design and delivery of the proposed programme. At the same time, this paper may also offer some useful insights to those who find themselves in similar situations requiring them to deliver programmes in environments which are culturally removed from their own.
Full Text Available Increasingly, advertising examples are being analyzed and used as yet another form of communication, on account of their ubiquity (e.g. billboards, Internet, television, magazines. Designed to compel us to purchase products, advertisements have the potential to greatly impact our lives. They show current trends in social preferences, they reveal cultural values and norms of the target audience and, finally, they can be the mirror of the times people live in. The purpose of this paper is to give a brief overview of the findings in previously carried–out research relating to cross–cultural content analysis of advertisements. The reports have addressed both linguistic and extra–linguistic features and trends in advertising and emphasized language– and culture–specific elements. This paper also gives ideas for future studies, since nowadays, due to international marketing and increasing globalization there are more cultural transfers to be explored, as cultures are coming in contact far more frequently.
Purcell-Gates, Victoria; Lenters, Kimberly; McTavish, Marianne; Anderson, Jim
Rogoff (2003) argues that "Human development is a cultural process….People develop as participants in cultural communities" (p. 3). Children develop within families, and different cultures reflect differences in how they structure activity for this development. For example, middle class North American families generally would not permit…
Cultural difference is an important topic of discussion in second language education. Yet cultural difference is often conceptualized as fixed, objective, and apolitical based on an essentialist and normative understanding of culture. This article challenges such conceptualizations by examining and politicizing multiple and conflicting meanings of…
Heffernan, Troy; Morrison, Mark; Basu, Parikshit; Sweeney, Arthur
Australian universities have been active participants in the transnational education market over the past twenty years. Many Australian universities have structured various forms of franchising arrangements with universities and other education providers, particularly with educational institutions in China. However, the cultural differences…
Farmanyan, S. V.; Mickaelian, A. M.
The Sun symbol is found in many cultures throughout history, it has played an important role in shaping our life on Earth since the dawn of time. Since the beginning of human existence, civilisations have established religious beliefs that involved the Sun's significance to some extent. As new civilisations and religions developed, many spiritual beliefs were based on those from the past so that there has been an evolution of the Sun's significance throughout cultural development. For comparing and finding the origin of the Sun we made a table of 66 languages and compared the roots of the words. For finding out from where these roots came from, we also made a table of 21 Sun Gods and Goddesses and proved the direct crossing of language and mythology.
Concept of Beauty Courtship Practices Nature of Friendship Notions of Leadership Tempo of Work Patterns of Handling Emotions ...cultural taste (just like Christian Churches vary significantly). Muslims also believe in a day of judgement (Qiyãmah) and the bodily Chapter 2 - Key...include visual representation and diagramming such as: • Mapping (with paper and pen or sticks on the ground) - to identify existing resources and
Chung, Hyun Soo; Dieckmann, Peter; Issenberg, Saul Barry
Debriefing plays a critical role in facilitated reflection of simulation after the experiential component of simulation-based learning. The concept of framing and reflective learning in a debriefing session has emanated primarily from Western cultures. However, non-Western cultures have significant...... debriefing sessions. Our goal was to raise awareness of cultural differences and stimulate work to make progress in this regard....
Williams, Tracy Rundstrom
One of the most commonly cited reasons students choose to study abroad is to experience a new culture. However, most students and, perhaps, most people do not fully recognize what culture is and the span of its influences. The pervasiveness and seeming incomprehensiveness of cultural differences often surprise and unsettle the traveler, and his or…
This paper wrote about the cultural differences. There are four dimensions: power distance, uncertainty avoidance, individualism and masculinity. After that, paper talked about the intercultural communication, which contains language, non-verbal communication, time and space concept. Then talked different cultures do cause problems in business. To avoid misunderstanding and clashes, the international managers should realize and understand the different cultures, adapt themselves to fit into the business environment in order to get the best achievement in business.
For this commentary, the author went back and read most of her own writings on graduate education. Having only just retired but still working with supervisees and doing research, she reflects on supervision and culture. She has four questions for authors and readers: (1) What is supervision?; (2) What are the implications of "sameness" and…
Color relates to people very closely; with the development of society and culture, people’s understanding of color is not confided to the visual characteristics of color itself, besides, people give color cultural connotation and actual meanings. In language, the unique glamour that the color words demonstrate makes people regard them with special esteem. Color words describe colors of nature with different cultural implications. They have unique linguistic functions and symbolic connotations. Colors play an indispensable part in our life and it's an effective way to learn the different culture. There is an increase in mis-understanding and communicative barriers because of frequent cross-cultural communication. Chinese and English color words possess different cultural meanings and connotation due to the difference in customs and habits, history and traditions, religions and beliefs, geographic locations, national psychology and ways of thinking. Thus, it’s easy to make mistakes on understanding and comprehension. The methods used in the research procedure are like this: collect some representative color words both from Chinese and English and take them as samples, then make a comparison between cultural connotations. According to the comparison, make a summary about the differences of color words between China and England. This thesis brings a discussion of cultural differences between English and Chinese color words. Color words in learning English is very important. It can help us t make a better understanding of the culture difference of both nations, and achieve the effective cross-culture communication.
An accurate and agreed upon evaluation of preschoolers' behavior is crucial for young children's positive development. This study explores possible cultural differences in cross-informants' evaluations. The premise is that informants who are from different cultures tend to give different evaluations of preschoolers' adjustment and/or that the…
In this article, the controversy of divergent findings in research on parental socialization effects in different cultures is addressed. Three explanations intended to address divergent findings of socialization effects in different cultures, as advanced by researchers who emphasize cultural differences, are discussed. These include cultural differences in socialization values and goals of parents, parental emotional and cognitive characteristics associated with parenting styles, and adolescents' interpretations or evaluations of their parents' parenting styles. The empirical evidence for and against each of these arguments is examined and an alternative paradigm for understanding and empirical study of developmental outcomes associated with parenting styles in different cultures is suggested. Baumrind's directive parenting style is presented as an alternative to the authoritarian parenting style in understanding the positive developmental effects associated with "strict" parenting in cultures said to have a collectivist orientation. Directions for research on the three explanations are mentioned.
Osman, Suzanne L
Two studies examined rape victim empathy based on personal rape victimization and acknowledgment labeling. Female undergraduates (Study 1, n = 267; Study 2, n = 381) from a Northeast U.S. midsize public university completed the Rape-Victim Empathy Scale and Sexual Experiences Survey. As predicted, both studies found that acknowledged "rape" victims reported greater empathy than unacknowledged victims and nonvictims. Unexpectedly, these latter two groups did not differ. Study 1 also found that acknowledged "rape" victims reported greater empathy than victims who acknowledged being "sexually victimized." Findings suggest that being raped and acknowledging "rape" together may facilitate rape victim empathy. © The Author(s) 2015.
Abstract The purpose of this study is to investigate cultural differences in coordination decisions in a coordination game with considering IDS context. IDS context is introduced into a coordination game since it recently draws more and more people’s attention. The concepts of individualism/collectivism as the key aspects of culture variability are introduced into the cultural differences study. It is assumed that Chinese people are more collectivistic and more likely to coordinate each ot...
Anastasiou, Dimitris; Kauffman, James M.
This article critiques the treatment of disability as cultural difference by the theorists of the "social model" and "minority group model" of disability. Both models include all of the various disabling conditions under one term--disability--and fail to distinguish disabilities from cultural differences (e.g., race, ethnicity, or gender…
Berg, Paul Conrad
Language differences peculiar to the disadvantaged are discussed as they relate to reading. Linguistic differences, including the interdependence among language, operant feedback, thought, and experience, and the power of these to reconstruct and reassociate through reading constitute one barrier. Another is the effects of language on the total…
Wanner, Manfred; Seidl-Lampa, Barbara; Höhn, Axel; Puppe, Daniel; Meisterfeld, Ralf; Sommer, Michael
Testate amoebae with self-secreted siliceous shell platelets ("idiosomes") play an important role in terrestrial silicon (Si) cycles. In this context, Si-dependent culture growth dynamics of idiosomic testate amoebae are of interest. Clonal cultures of idiosomic testate amoebae were analyzed under three different Si concentrations: low (50μmolL -1 ), moderate/site-specific (150μmolL -1 ) and high Si supply (500μmolL -1 ). Food (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) was provided in surplus. (i) Shell size of four different clones of idiosomic testate amoebae either decreased (Trinema galeata, Euglypha filifera cf.), increased (E. rotunda cf.), or did not change (E. rotunda) under the lowest Si concentration (50μmolSiL -1 ). (ii) Culture growth of idiosomic Euglypha rotunda was dependent on Si concentration. The more Si available in the culture medium, the earlier the entry into exponential growth phase. (iii) Culture growth of idiosomic Euglypha rotunda was dependent on origin of inoculum. Amoebae previously cultured under a moderate Si concentration revealed highest sustainability in consecutive cultures. Amoebae derived from cultures with high Si concentrations showed rapid culture growth which finished early in consecutive cultures. (iv) Si (diluted in the culture medium) was absorbed by amoebae and fixed in the amoeba shells resulting in decreased Si concentrations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Damsgaard, Janne Brammer; Jørgensen, Lene Bastrup; Norlyk, Annelise
Rationale and aims: Research shows that back patients’ illness experiences affect their interaction with the healthcare system. It is important to examine the exact nature of these experiences in order to shed valuable light on how back patients perceive their illness and hospitalisation. The aim...... and translates into a certain way of perceiving and explaining illnesses and symptoms. Results: The thematic analysis shows that it is through experiences and memories that we create our identity and consciousness. Ignoring the illness experiences can therefore be seen as disregarding, the patient as a human...... of the included studies demonstrates the need for healthcare professionals to pay attention to back patients’ narratives in order to acknowledge them as human beings. This acknowledgement involves an ethical dimension and a sense of responsibility, manifested as respectful inclusion of the patient’s experiences...
Full Text Available Contributing reviewers We and the Editorial Board acknowledge and thank all reviewers for their active participation and contribution during 2012. We greatly appreciate their dedication and behind the scenes contribution. It is largely due to their support and expertise that we have been able to publish high-standard manuscripts. We would also like to thank authors for choosing Nutrition & Metabolism and contributing their cherished work.
P. B. Armstrong
Full Text Available Heart of Darkness has a long history of disagreement about whether to regard it as a daring attack on imperialism or a reactionary purveyor of colonial stereotypes. Taking Achebe’s now famous indictment and Clifford's recent praise that Conrad was an exemplary anthropologist, this article argues that Conrad is neither a racist nor an exemplary anthropologist hut a skeptical dramatist of epistemological processes. The novella has received these divergent responses because its enactment of the dilemmas entailed in understanding cultural otherness is inherently double and strategically ambiguous. The article argues that the novella is a calculated failure to depict achieved cross-cultural understanding presented to the reader through textual strategies which oscillate between affirming and denying the possibility of understanding otherness. The article acknowledges that charges such as that made by Achebe are extremely valuable because they break the aura of the text and establish reciprocity between it and its interpreters by putting them on equal terms, and concludes that a recognition of how unsettingly ambiguous the text is about the ideals of reciprocity and mutual understanding will empower us to engage in a sort of dialogue with it which Marlow never achieves with Africans or anyone else.
"You are what you eat." Nutrition experts often use this saying to promote better eating habits. What we put in our mouths does become a part of us. But we can look at this statement another way. What we eat reflects who we are——as people and as a culture. Thus food culture has become a special cultural phenomenon. Under this phenomenon, people in different countries have different concepts of food, share different food structures and enjoy different flavors and styles of dishes.
Leung, Angela K-Y; Cohen, Dov
The CuPS (Culture × Person × Situation) approach attempts to jointly consider culture and individual differences, without treating either as noise and without reducing one to the other. Culture is important because it helps define psychological situations and create meaningful clusters of behavior according to particular logics. Individual differences are important because individuals vary in the extent to which they endorse or reject a culture's ideals. Further, because different cultures are organized by different logics, individual differences mean something different in each. Central to these studies are concepts of honor-related violence and individual worth as being inalienable versus socially conferred. We illustrate our argument with 2 experiments involving participants from honor, face, and dignity cultures. The studies showed that the same "type" of person who was most helpful, honest, and likely to behave with integrity in one culture was the "type" of person least likely to do so in another culture. We discuss how CuPS can provide a rudimentary but integrated approach to understanding both within- and between-culture variation. (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved
Advertising is not only a kind of business activity,but also a means of cultural communication.?When it comes to interpreting advertising language,different cultures and traditions are taken into consideration.Meanwhile distinct features are represented in Chinese and western advertisements.
<正>Values are the most important issue in identifying one particular culture.Social values are the feelings people have about what is important,worthwhile,and just.In this paper,the differences between British and American values are discussed in two aspects which mainly lie respectively in the comparisons of values and characteristics in both cultures.
Liu, Xiaojing; Liu, Shijuan; Lee, Seung-hee; Magjuka, Richard J.
This article reports the findings of a case study that investigated the perceptions of international students regarding the impact of cultural differences on their learning experiences in an online MBA program. The study also revealed that online instructors need to design courses in such a way as to remove potential cultural barriers, including…
Priscila Petian Anchieta
Full Text Available The present work discusses how aspects such as identity, culture and difference are important aspects in for language teaching and learning environments. Using Woodward's (2011 definition that identity is marked by difference, we considered these aspects in foreign language teaching and learning contexts when we learn the laguage of others. In addition, we present a proficiency exam called EPPLE, aimed at language teachers, and we suggest the implementation of a task that addresses cultural issues, because we need to prepare language teachers that search not only for their linguistic and pedagogical knowledge construction, but also for their understanding about culture, identity and difference.
Bardi, Anat; Guerra, V. M.
Three studies establish the relations between cultural values and coping using multicultural samples of international students. Study 1 established the cross-cultural measurement invariance of subscales of the Cope inventory (Carver, Scheier, & Weintraub, 1989) used in the paper. The cultural value dimensions of embeddedness vs. autonomy and hierarchy vs. egalitarianism predicted how international students from 28 (Study 2) and 38 (Study 3) countries coped with adapting to living in a new cou...
Fung, Helene H; Ho, Yuan Wan; Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Xin; Noels, Kimberly A; Tam, Kim-Pong
Prior studies on value development across adulthood have generally shown that as people age, they espouse communal values more strongly and agentic values less strongly. Two studies investigated whether these age differences in personal values might differ according to cultural values. Study 1 examined whether these age differences in personal values, and their associations with subjective well-being, showed the same pattern across countries that differed in individualism-collectivism. Study 2 compared age differences in personal values in the Canadian culture that emphasized agentic values more and the Chinese culture that emphasized communal values more. Personal and cultural values of each individual were directly measured, and their congruence were calculated and compared across age and cultures. Findings revealed that across cultures, older people had lower endorsement of agentic personal values and higher endorsement of communal personal values than did younger people. These age differences, and their associations with subjective well-being, were generally not influenced by cultural values. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Torkilsheyggi, Arnvør Martinsdottir á; Hertzum, Morten
At the studied hospital, physicians from the Medical and Surgical Departments work some of their shifts in the Emergency Department (ED). Though icons showing the blood-test process were introduced on electronic whiteboards in the ED, these icons did not lead to increased attention to test acknow...... acknowledgement. Rather, the physicians, trans-ferred work practices from their own departments, which did not have electronic white-boards, to the ED. This finding suggests a challenge to the cross-disciplinary work and norms for how to follow up on blood-test results in the ED....
Schwartz, Aliza J; Boduroglu, Aysecan; Gutchess, Angela H
Cultural differences occur in the use of categories to aid accurate recall of information. This study investigated whether culture also contributed to false (erroneous) memories, and extended cross-cultural memory research to Turkish culture, which is shaped by Eastern and Western influences. Americans and Turks viewed word pairs, half of which were categorically related and half unrelated. Participants then attempted to recall the second word from the pair in response to the first word cue. Responses were coded as correct, as blanks, or as different types of errors. Americans committed more categorical errors than did Turks, and Turks mistakenly recalled more non-categorically related list words than did Americans. These results support the idea that Americans use categories either to organize information in memory or to support retrieval strategies to a greater extent than Turks and suggest that culture shapes not only accurate recall but also erroneous distortions of memory. © 2014 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.
Great opportunities together with great challenges are brought to the development of Chinese economy with the glo-balization of the world economy. Foreign businessmen want to share the market of China, while Chinese enterprisers with a broader sight have been thinking about selling products to international markets. Languages and cultures of different nations have their own characteristics. In order to communicate with each other, human beings must make use of the methods of translation. Thus, it shows that translation, which is a social activity of inter-language, inter-culture and inter-community, is linked closely to culture. Meanwhile, the features of translation represent similarly in advertising translation. Generally speaking, when doing ad-vertising translation, it can not only focus on language differences between the two sides, but also pay attention to cultural differ-ences. Or else it would be difficult to translate satisfying advertisements.By taking examples from Chinese-English and English-Chinese, this paper compares the different aspects between Chinese and Western thinking sets, traditional ideas and values in order to reflect differences of advertising translation based on different cultures. Finally, it will sum up some strategies of inter-cultural advertising translation.
Matsumoto, David; Grissom, Robert J.; Dinnel, Dale L.
Recommends four measures of cultural effect size appropriate for cross-cultural research (standardized difference between two sample means, probabilistic superiority effect size measure, Cohen's U1, and point biserial correlation), demonstrating their efficacy on two data sets from previously published studies and arguing for their use in future…
Heinrichs, Nina; Rapee, Ronald M; Alden, Lynn A; Bögels, Susan; Hofmann, Stefan G; Oh, Kyung Ja; Sakano, Yuji
Cultural considerations in social anxiety are a rarely investigated topic although it seems likely that differences between countries in social norms may relate to the extent of social anxiety. The present study investigated individuals' personal and perceived cultural norms and their relation to social anxiety and fear of blushing. A total of 909 participants from eight countries completed vignettes describing social situations and evaluated the social acceptability of the behavior of the main actor both from their own, personal perspective as well as from a cultural viewpoint. Personal and cultural norms showed somewhat different patterns in comparison between types of countries (individualistic/collectivistic). According to reported cultural norms, collectivistic countries were more accepting toward socially reticent and withdrawn behaviors than was the case in individualistic countries. In contrast, there was no difference between individualistic and collectivistic countries on individuals' personal perspectives regarding socially withdrawn behavior. Collectivistic countries also reported greater levels of social anxiety and more fear of blushing than individualistic countries. Significant positive relations occurred between the extent to which attention-avoiding behaviors are accepted in a culture and the level of social anxiety or fear of blushing symptoms. These results provide initial evidence that social anxiety may be related to different cultural norms across countries.
... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Acknowledgment of risk. 1601.33 Section... TSP FUNDS Contribution Allocations and Interfund Transfer Requests § 1601.33 Acknowledgment of risk... acknowledgment of risk for that fund. If a required acknowledgment of risk has not been executed, no transactions...
Wilson, Laura C; Miller, Katherine E; Leheney, Emma K; Ballman, Alesha D; Scarpa, Angela
Although the majority of rape survivors do not label their experiences as rape (i.e., unacknowledged rape), the literature is mixed in terms of how this affects survivors' psychological functioning. To elucidate the discrepancies, the present study examined the interaction between rape acknowledgement and ambivalent sexism in relation to depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. The analyzed sample included 128 female rape survivors who were drawn from a larger college sample of 1,595 participants. The participants completed measures of sexual assault experiences, ambivalent sexism, and depression and PTSD symptoms. The results supported a significant interaction between acknowledgement status and benevolent sexism in relation to both depression and PTSD symptoms. Conversely, the present study failed to find support for an interaction between acknowledgment status and hostile sexism. The clinical implications suggest that rather than seeing acknowledging rape as essential to the recovery process, clinicians should assess for and take into account other factors that may contribute to psychological functioning. Additionally, the findings support that more complex models of trauma recovery should be investigated with the goal of working toward a more comprehensive understanding of the longitudinal process of rape acknowledgment. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Kozleski, Elizabeth B.; Engelbrecht, Petra; Hess, Robyn; Swart, Estelle; Eloff, Irma; Oswald, Marietjie; Molina, Amy; Jain, Swati
U.S. education policy acknowledges the troubling differential rates of special education identification and placement for students who are culturally and linguistically diverse by requiring states to review annually student identification data from all local education agencies to identify and address disproportionate representation. Yet, little is…
Many learning institutions are now designed to cater to the needs of students and staff from different cultures. The United States International University (USIU) in. Kenya is no different. It provides learning opportunities to learners from different nations and regions of the world. When these learners and other staff come into ...
IntroductionFood culture is the sum of human dietary behavior,conception,technology and its products.It shows human natural choiceand dietary way of life that is suited to special geographical environment and humane environment through common practice.Cultural differences between
With the emergence of the intercultural approach to L2 teaching, several studies investigated teachers' attitudes and beliefs concerning the cultural dimension of L2 teaching in different foreign language settings. This study explored teachers' perceptions of the relationship between teaching English and culture in Tunisia, an EFL setting where…
Full Text Available Employee benefits are all forms of counter services granted by anentity in return to services given by the employees. This category includes onlythe benefits covered by the entity, not those from the state or the employee onthe payroll. The employer counting and presenting all the benefits of theemployees, including those provided on the basis of official programs or otherofficial contracts between the entity and the individual employees, groups ofemployees or their representatives, those established on the basis of legalprovisions or by contracts at the level of activity sector, through which theentities are required to contribute to national programs, as well as thoseresulting from unofficial practices give rise to an implicit obligation.Acknowledging and especially assessing these benefits are issues demandingspecial attention.
In this paper I introduce the outlines of our new type of theoretical framework named 'Cultural psychology of Differences' for understanding cultural others and dialogically reconstructing interactions among cultural others. In order to understand cultural others, it is necessary for us to reconstruct a new concept which enables us to analyze dynamic generation processes of culture. We propose the concept of Expanded Mediational Structure, EMS, as an elementary unit for understanding human social interactions. EMS is composed of subjects who interacts each other using objects of some kind as mediators, and a normative mediator, NM, which mediates their interactions. It is necessary to generate, share and adjust a NM to keep social interactions stable, and culture will appear when interaction malfunction is attributed to a gaps of NMs. The concept of EMS helps us to understand how culture is functionally substantialized in the plane of collective (or communal) intersubjectivity and how cultural conflicts develop and intensify. Focusing on the generation process of culture through interactions provides us with another option to understand cultural others through dialogical interactions with them.
Huwaë, Sylvia; Schaafsma, Juliette
Previous research suggests that in collectivistic cultures, people tend to suppress their emotions more than in individualistic cultures. Little research, however, has explored cross-cultural differences in emotion regulation in everyday interactions. Using a daily social interaction method, we examined whether people from collectivistic backgrounds (Chinese exchange students and immigrants from the Moluccas, Indonesia) living in the Netherlands differed from those from individualistic backgrounds (Dutch natives) in emotion suppression during everyday interactions. We also examined whether this depended on their relationship with the interaction partner(s). We found that Chinese participants suppressed positive and negative emotions more than Dutch and Moluccan participants and that this was related to differences in interdependent and independent self-construal across the samples. We also found that Chinese participants suppressed positive emotions less in interactions with close others, whereas Dutch participants suppressed negative emotions more with non-close others. No such differences were found for Moluccans. Our findings support the idea that people from collectivistic cultures suppress emotions more than those from individualistic cultures, but they also suggest that this depends on who the interaction partner is. Furthermore, they suggest that emotion suppression may change when people with collectivistic backgrounds have been raised in individualistic cultures. © 2016 International Union of Psychological Science.
Mohamed Idris Alshelmani
Full Text Available Nine aerobic cellulolytic bacterial cultures were obtained from the Leibniz Institute DSMZ-German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Culture (DSMZ and the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC. The objectives of this study were to characterize the cellulolytic bacteria and to determine the optimum moisture ratio required for solid state fermentation (SSF of palm kernel cake (PKC. The bacteria cultures were grown on reconstituted nutrient broth, incubated at 30∘C and agitated at 200 rpm. Carboxymethyl cellulase, xylanase, and mannanase activities were determined using different substrates and after SSF of PKC. The SSF was conducted for 4 and 7 days with inoculum size of 10% (v/w on different PKC concentration-to-moisture ratios: 1 : 0.2, 1 : 0.3, 1 : 0.4, and 1 : 0.5. Results showed that Bacillus amyloliquefaciens 1067 DSMZ, Bacillus megaterium 9885 ATCC, Paenibacillus curdlanolyticus 10248 DSMZ, and Paenibacillus polymyxa 842 ATCC produced higher enzyme activities as compared to other bacterial cultures grown on different substrates. The cultures mentioned above also produced higher enzyme activities when they were incubated under SSF using PKC as a substrate in different PKC-to-moisture ratios after 4 days of incubation, indicating that these cellulolytic bacteria can be used to degrade and improve the nutrient quality of PKC.
Purpose of this study was to conduct cultural energy analyses of dairy cows receiving different levels of concentrate. Data were acquired by conducting a survey on 132 dairy farms selected by the stratified random sampling method. Dairy cattle farms were divided into three groups according to concentrate level and were analyzed. Accordingly concentrate levels were assigned as low (LLC) ( 50%, 44 farms). Cultural energy used for feed for cows was calculated by multiplying each ingredient with corresponding values of ingredients from literature. Transportation energy was also included in the analysis. Total cultural energy expended was highest for LLC (P < 0.05). Cultural energy expended for feed constituted more than half of the total cultural energy and was highest for LLC (P < 0.05). Cultural energy expended per kg milk and per Mcal protein energy was higher for LLC (P < 0.05). Efficiency defined as Mcal input/Mcal output was better for ILC and was worse for LLC (P < 0.05) and HLC was intermediate thus not differing from other groups. Results show that cultural energy use efficiency does not linearly increases as concentrate level increases and increasing concentrate level does not necessarily mean better efficiency. Thus optimum concentrate level not interfering cows performance should be sought for sustainable dairy production.
Full Text Available During the past few years, there have been tremendous efforts on leadership style and various aspects of different leadership style. Some firms can achieve effective business performance by developing strong organizational culture and effective leadership while many studies indicate that firms can achieve effective business performance by developing strong organizational culture and effective leadership. This paper reviews recent advances on leadership style and various aspects of organizational cultures completed during the past few years. The paper concentrates on recently published articles appeared in the world.
Sorokowski, Piotr; Sorokowska, Agnieszka; Witzel, Christoph
At first glance, color preferences might seem to be the most subjective and context-dependent aspects of color cognition. Yet they are not. The present study compares color preferences of women and men from an industrialized and a remote, nonindustrialized culture. In particular, we investigated preferences in observers from Poland and from the Yali in Papua, respectively. Not surprisingly, we found that color preferences clearly differed between the two communities and also between sexes. However, despite the pronounced cultural differences, the way in which men and women differed from each other was almost the same in both cultures. At the same time, this sexual contrast was not specific to biological components of color vision. Our results reveal a pattern of sexual dimorphism that transcends extreme differences in culture and ecology. They point toward strong cross-cultural constraints beyond the biological predispositions of nature and the cultural particularities of nurture.
Mitani, Hiroshi; Egami, Nobuo; Kobayashi, Hiromu.
The radiosensitivity of primary cultured goldfish cells (Carassius auratus) was investigated by colony formation assay. The radiosensitivity of cells from two varieties of goldfish, which show different sensitivity to lethal effect of ionizing radiation in vivo, was almost identical. Primary cultured cells from diploid, triploid and tetraploid fish retained their DNA content as measured by microfluorometry, and the nuclear size increases as ploidy increases. However, radiosensitivity was not related to ploidy. (author)
Mostafa Emami; Mohammad Javad Esfahani; Mahmoud Malmir
During the past few years, there have been tremendous efforts on leadership style and various aspects of different leadership style. Some firms can achieve effective business performance by developing strong organizational culture and effective leadership while many studies indicate that firms can achieve effective business performance by developing strong organizational culture and effective leadership. This paper reviews recent advances on leadership style and various aspects of organizatio...
Edit Feher-Toma; Kenneth Agu Obinna; Maria Fekete Farkas
Financing business is the most difficult question in our days. The flow of capital became essential not only in political and economical level, but also determines the social welfare. The working capital became more careful in selection its destination, while different business cultures and adaptation ability have special role. One of the most significant challenges facing managers is the increasing nature of cultural diversity in our business environment. Many companies are using “remote” ac...
Norbury, Courtenay Frazier; Sparks, Alison
Developmental disorders, such as autism spectrum disorder and specific language impairment, are biologically based disorders that currently rely on behaviorally defined criteria for diagnosis and treatment. Specific behaviors that are included in diagnostic frameworks and the point at which individual differences in behavior constitute abnormality are largely arbitrary decisions. Such decisions are therefore likely to be strongly influenced by cultural values and expectations. This is evident in the dramatically different prevalence rates of autism spectrum disorder across countries and across different ethnic groups within the same country. In this article, we critically evaluate the understanding of developmental disorders from a cultural perspective. We specifically consider the challenges of applying diagnostic methods across cultural contexts, the influence of cultural values and expectations on the identification and treatment of children with suspected disorders, and how cross-cultural studies can help to refine cognitive theories of disorder that have been derived exclusively from Western North American and European investigations. Our review synthesizes clinical, cultural, and theoretical work in this area, highlighting potential universals of disorder and concluding with recommendations for future research and practice.
can extend boundaries beyond our single perspectives and experiences to the varying perspectives of others. This becomes particularly important for teachers of young children who may have very different life experiences from those of the children they teach. In this project, we examined storytelling as a way to cross-cultural boundaries and of harnessing the diverse worlds of South African citizens pedagogically. We asked fourth year students in a Foundation Phase teacher education programme to identify a person from a different cultural and linguistic group; and to have that person share a story with them to discover how the experience of listening to stories from different cultures, languages, and belief systems might influence their attitudes towards teaching children with those characteristic differences.
Seng, Alice Seok Hoon; Tan, Lee Choo
This study reports on cultural and gender differences in the spatial abilities of children based on the Water Level Task. The Piagetian theory of age-related developmental differences in performance on the Water Level Task was explored with Chinese and Malay children living in Singapore. Results indicate that children in this study did not perform…
Gutchess, Angela; Boduroglu, Aysecan
This cross-sectional experiment examined the influence of aging on cross-cultural differences in memory errors. Previous research revealed that Americans committed more categorical memory errors than Turks; we tested whether the cognitive constraints associated with aging impacted the pattern of memory errors across cultures. Furthermore, older adults are vulnerable to memory errors for semantically-related information, and we assessed whether this tendency occurs across cultures. Younger and older adults from the US and Turkey studied word pairs, with some pairs sharing a categorical relationship and some unrelated. Participants then completed a cued recall test, generating the word that was paired with the first. These responses were scored for correct responses or different types of errors, including categorical and semantic. The tendency for Americans to commit more categorical memory errors emerged for both younger and older adults. In addition, older adults across cultures committed more memory errors, and these were for semantically-related information (including both categorical and other types of semantic errors). Heightened vulnerability to memory errors with age extends across cultural groups, and Americans' proneness to commit categorical memory errors occurs across ages. The findings indicate some robustness in the ways that age and culture influence memory errors.
Cochran, Donald; Saleem, Sarosh; Khowaja-Punjwani, Sumaira; Lantos, John D
There are more migrants, refugees, and immigrants adrift in the world today than at any time in the recent past. Doctors and hospitals must care for people from many different cultures, countries, and religious backgrounds. We sometimes find our own deeply held beliefs and values challenged. In this "Ethics Rounds," we present a case in which a Pakistani immigrant family faces a tragic medical situation and wants to deal with it in ways that might be normative in their own culture but are aberrant in ours. We asked the American doctors and 2 Pakistani health professionals to think through the issues. We also invited the father to talk about his own experience and preferences. We conclude that strict adherence to Western ethical norms may not always be the best choice. Instead, an approach based on cultural humility may often allow people on both sides of a cultural divide to learn from one another. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Full Text Available This research paper analyses the organizational culture of small enterprises and largeenterprises, and highlights the common elements and the main differences. The results of the studyshow significant differences in terms of organizational culture between the two types oforganizations. Employees working in small size enterprises are oriented towards innovation,whereas the ones working in large enterprises are more aware of social responsibility. In addition,small organizations are perceived to have a more supportive organizational culture than largeenterprises. Furthermore, the study reveals differences in management and leadership styles whenanalyzing the small and large enterprises. Considering the flatter organizational structure of smallenterprises, the managers have a personal relationship with the employees and they motivate thembetter and align their goals with the ones of the enterprise. In large organizations, the managersneed to have a tighter control, as more procedures have to be followed.
Hugo César Bueno Nunes
Full Text Available The current time is contingent, plural, decentralized, free of old identities and permeated by the noise of voices that have never been heard. Inserted in such context, the school tries to overcome traces of the past and face the struggles of the present. Regarding physical education, the cultural curriculum seems to contribute with the new era mentality by questioning the hegemony of body practices and meanings of the privileged groups to promote the pedagogy of difference. This study analyzed the most important works on this proposal, identifying teaching principles and procedures that characterize it and submitted them to the confrontation with the notion of pure difference by Gilles Deleuze. The results indicate that the cultural curriculum takes the features of a lesser (physical education when it listens what the „different ones‟ have to say and pays attention to the cultural body repertoire that students can access
Becker, Maja; Vignoles, Vivian L; Owe, Ellinor; Easterbrook, Matthew J; Brown, Rupert; Smith, Peter B; Bond, Michael Harris; Regalia, Camillo; Manzi, Claudia; Brambilla, Maria; Aldhafri, Said; González, Roberto; Carrasco, Diego; Paz Cadena, Maria; Lay, Siugmin; Schweiger Gallo, Inge; Torres, Ana; Camino, Leoncio; Özgen, Emre; Güner, Ülkü E; Yamakoğlu, Nil; Silveira Lemos, Flávia Cristina; Trujillo, Elvia Vargas; Balanta, Paola; Macapagal, Ma Elizabeth J; Cristina Ferreira, M; Herman, Ginette; de Sauvage, Isabelle; Bourguignon, David; Wang, Qian; Fülöp, Márta; Harb, Charles; Chybicka, Aneta; Mekonnen, Kassahun Habtamu; Martin, Mariana; Nizharadze, George; Gavreliuc, Alin; Buitendach, Johanna; Valk, Aune; Koller, Silvia H
Several theories propose that self-esteem, or positive self-regard, results from fulfilling the value priorities of one's surrounding culture. Yet, surprisingly little evidence exists for this assertion, and theories differ about whether individuals must personally endorse the value priorities involved. We compared the influence of four bases for self-evaluation (controlling one's life, doing one's duty, benefitting others, achieving social status) among 4,852 adolescents across 20 cultural samples, using an implicit, within-person measurement technique to avoid cultural response biases. Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses showed that participants generally derived feelings of self-esteem from all four bases, but especially from those that were most consistent with the value priorities of others in their cultural context. Multilevel analyses confirmed that the bases of positive self-regard are sustained collectively: They are predictably moderated by culturally normative values but show little systematic variation with personally endorsed values.
/Building Surveyors in relation to the Services Procurement Directive of the European Union. It is recommended that further studies be undertaken in order to develop a cultural profiling model and methods for the building sector to help identify areas of potential conflicts. The report is aimed at construction......This report presents the results of an investigation into cultural differences between professional members of the construction sector of Denmark and the United Kingdom. In particular it refers to differences between Arkitekter/Architects, Civilingeniører/Civil Engineers and Bygningskonstruktører...
Mu, Yan; Kitayama, Shinobu; Han, Shihui; Gelfand, Michele J
Humans are unique among all species in their ability to develop and enforce social norms, but there is wide variation in the strength of social norms across human societies. Despite this fundamental aspect of human nature, there has been surprisingly little research on how social norm violations are detected at the neurobiological level. Building on the emerging field of cultural neuroscience, we combine noninvasive electroencephalography (EEG) with a new social norm violation paradigm to examine the neural mechanisms underlying the detection of norm violations and how they vary across cultures. EEG recordings from Chinese and US participants (n = 50) showed consistent negative deflection of event-related potential around 400 ms (N400) over the central and parietal regions that served as a culture-general neural marker of detecting norm violations. The N400 at the frontal and temporal regions, however, was only observed among Chinese but not US participants, illustrating culture-specific neural substrates of the detection of norm violations. Further, the frontal N400 predicted a variety of behavioral and attitudinal measurements related to the strength of social norms that have been found at the national and state levels, including higher culture superiority and self-control but lower creativity. There were no cultural differences in the N400 induced by semantic violation, suggesting a unique cultural influence on social norm violation detection. In all, these findings provided the first evidence, to our knowledge, for the neurobiological foundations of social norm violation detection and its variation across cultures.
Full Text Available Research on generic structures of acknowledgements in dissertations has gradually drawn attention in various contexts. However, there is relatively scant research on the ways in which acknowledgements are written by authors with mutually similar cultural backgrounds but in two different academic environments and language contexts. To fill this gap, this study compared 60 PhD dissertation acknowledgements written by Taiwanese postgraduates in Taiwan, an EFL context, with another 60 written by Taiwanese scholars who obtained their doctorates in the United States, an ESL context. The focus was on the generic structures and linguistic features of the writing styles of the two groups. The study aimed to investigate whether divergences existed in the two different academic and language settings, but with the writers sharing the same cultural and language background. If such divergences did exist, the likely causes would be explored. The results revealed that firstly, the participants in both contexts generally followed a three-tier structure when writing their dissertation acknowledgements, namely, reflecting, thanking, and announcing moves. However, academic conventions, institutional preferences and the language context, together with socio-cultural factors, affected their construction of moves/steps and their choice of linguistic elements. It was found that the rhetorical language in both corpora was relatively direct, emotional and precise.
Gierlach, Elaine; Belsher, Bradley E; Beutler, Larry E
Public risk perceptions of mass disasters carry considerable influences, both psychologically and economically, despite their oft-times imprecise nature. Prior research has identified the presence of an optimistic bias that affects risk perception, but there is a dearth of literature examining how these perceptions differ among cultures-particularly with regard to mass disasters. The present study explores differences among Japanese, Argentinean, and North American mental health workers in their rates of the optimistic bias in risk perceptions as contrasted between natural disasters and terrorist events. The results indicate a significant difference among cultures in levels of perceived risk that do not correspond to actual exposure rates. Japanese groups had the highest risk perceptions for both types of hazards and North Americans and Argentineans had the lowest risk perceptions for terrorism. Additionally, participants across all cultures rated risk to self as lower than risk to others (optimistic bias) across all disaster types. These findings suggest that cultural factors may have a greater influence on risk perception than social exposure, and that the belief that one is more immune to disasters compared to others may be a cross-cultural phenomenon. © 2010 Society for Risk Analysis.
Miyamoto, Yuri; Ma, Xiaoming; Petermann, Amelia G
Beliefs about emotions can influence how people regulate their emotions. The present research examined whether Eastern dialectical beliefs about negative emotions lead to cultural differences in how people regulate their emotions after experiencing a negative event. We hypothesized that, because of dialectical beliefs about negative emotions prevalent in Eastern culture, Easterners are less motivated than Westerners to engage in hedonic emotion regulation-up-regulation of positive emotions and down-regulation of negative emotions. By assessing online reactions to a recent negative event, Study 1 found that European Americans are more motivated to engage in hedonic emotion regulation. Furthermore, consistent with the reported motivation to regulate emotion hedonically, European Americans show a steeper decline in negative emotions 1 day later than do Asians. By examining retrospective memory of reactions to a past negative event, Study 2 further showed that cultural differences in hedonic emotion regulation are mediated by cultural differences in dialectical beliefs about motivational and cognitive utility of negative emotions, but not by personal deservingness or self-efficacy beliefs. These findings demonstrate the role of cultural beliefs in shaping emotion regulation and emotional experiences.
Luncz, Lydia V; Mundry, Roger; Boesch, Christophe
The majority of evidence for cultural behavior in animals has come from comparisons between populations separated by large geographical distances that often inhabit different environments. The difficulty of excluding ecological and genetic variation as potential explanations for observed behaviors has led some researchers to challenge the idea of animal culture. Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) in the Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire, crack Coula edulis nuts using stone and wooden hammers and tree root anvils. In this study, we compare for the first time hammer selection for nut cracking across three neighboring chimpanzee communities that live in the same forest habitat, which reduces the likelihood of ecological variation. Furthermore, the study communities experience frequent dispersal of females at maturity, which eliminates significant genetic variation. We compared key ecological factors, such as hammer availability and nut hardness, between the three neighboring communities and found striking differences in group-specific hammer selection among communities despite similar ecological conditions. Differences were found in the selection of hammer material and hammer size in response to changes in nut resistance over time. Our findings highlight the subtleties of cultural differences in wild chimpanzees and illustrate how cultural knowledge is able to shape behavior, creating differences among neighboring social groups. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Varnum, Michael E W; Hampton, Ryan S
The present study (N = 55) used an event-related potential paradigm to investigate whether cultures differ in the ability to upregulate affective responses. Using stimuli selected from the International Affective Picture System, we found that European-Americans (N = 29) enhanced central-parietal late positive potential (LPP) (400-800 ms post-stimulus) responses to affective stimuli when instructed to do so, whereas East Asians (N = 26) did not. We observed cultural differences in the ability to enhance central-parietal LPP responses for both positively and negativelyvalenced stimuli, and the ability to enhance these two types of responses was positively correlated for Americans but negatively for East Asians. These results are consistent with the notion that cultural variations in norms and values regarding affective expression and experiences shape how the brain regulates emotions.
My 2001 article provided a critical review of one of the most popular constructs in international business, and in the management and business literature as a whole, namely cultural distance. It listed various illusions, implicit yet unsubstantiated and refutable assumptions that underpinned a construct set to capture the essence of cultural differences. The paper questioned the validity of the measure; the resultant findings obtained in such international business applications as foreign dir...
Brown, Paula D.; Finch, Kim S.; MacGregor, Cynthia
This study compared relevant data and information about leadership and learning cultures in different sizes and types of high schools. Research was conducted using a quantitative design with a qualitative element. Quantitative data were gathered using a researcher-created survey. Independent sample t-tests were conducted to analyze the means of…
the gastrointestinal or genitourinary injuries or were known to have diabetes, peripheral vascular disease or immunosuppression. Informed consent was obtained. Early Bacterial Cultures from Open Fractures -. Differences Before and After Debridement. Fred Chuma Sitati1, Philip Ogutu Mosi2, Joseph Cege Mwangi1. 1.
Whalon, Constance; Karr-Kidwell, PJ
A multicultural framework for school curricula directed toward the culturally different was developed for implementation of court ordered multicultural education goals at the H. S. Thompson Learning Center of the Dallas (Texas) Independent School District. The philosophy of multicultural education suggests that ethnic diversity and cultural…
Fitzhugh, William P.
This unit of study, intended for intermediate grade students, focuses on comparing students from different cultures: Germany and the United States. The unit addresses National Social Studies Standards (NCSS) standards; presents an introduction, such as purpose/rationale; cites a recommended grade level; states objectives; provides a time…
Carter, John W.; Pak, Jenny H.; Goodyear, Rodney K.
Study tested whether general differences between Asian and European-American cultures (interdependent vs. independent orientation, levels of self-disclosure and conflict in social relationships) would have an effect on the supervisory process of counseling trainees. On the context of weekly group supervision, first-year counseling trainees were…
Giebels, Ellen; Taylor, Paul J; Taylor, Paul J.
This research examines cultural differences in negotiators' responses to persuasive arguments in crisis (hostage) negotiations over time. Using a new method of examining cue-response patterns, the authors examined 25 crisis negotiations in which police negotiators interacted with perpetrators from
Scholtens, B.; Dam, L.
We analyze ethical policies of firms in industrialized countries and try to find out whether culture is a factor that plays a significant role in explaining country differences. We look into the firm's human rights policy, its governance of bribery and corruption, and the comprehensiveness,
Gelfand, M.J.; Raver, R.L.; Nishii, L.; Leslie, L.M.; Lun, J.; Lim, B.C.; Van de Vliert, E.
With data from 33 nations, we illustrate the differences between cultures that are tight (have many strong norms and a low tolerance of deviant behavior) versus loose (have weak social norms and a high tolerance of deviant behavior). Tightness-looseness is part of a complex, loosely integrated
Thoring, K.C.; Luippold, C.; Mueller, R.M.
Design thinking is a specific method to develop innovative solutions to wicked problems in multidisciplinary teams. The fact that people with different disciplinary and often also cultural backgrounds work together, makes it quite a challenge to compensate for deficits in common understanding of
J. Kloeg (Julien)
textabstractIn ‘Cultural Difference and Human Rights’, Julien Kloeg claims, with Pablo Gilabert, that theoretical attempts to justify human rights should move beyond the dichotomy of providing either a humanist or a political justification. Kloeg demonstrates how philosophical anthropology could
With increasing changes in our demographic populations and new immigrants settling in the US, there is an increasing need for visual communications that address the diversity of our populations. This paper draws from the results of the researcher's several past research and teaching projects that worked with different cultural populations. These…
Kail, Robert V.; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Ferrer, Emilio; Cho, Jeung-Ryeul; Shu, Hua
The aim of the present work was to examine cultural differences in the development of speed of information processing. Four samples of US children ("N" = 509) and four samples of East Asian children ("N" = 661) completed psychometric measures of processing speed on two occasions. Analyses of the longitudinal data indicated…
Pedersen, Elsebet Frydendal
presentation of the Danish construction industry is given highlighting well known safety risks and finally three cases dealing with different aspects of the working environment are presented; one dealing with prevention of accidents, another with prevention of muscular skeleton diseases and finally a case......This article intends to discuss safety culture in the Danish construction industry and aims to demonstrate the value of this understanding in relation to preventive activities in the everyday working environment. The article discusses how safety culture is defined and understood. A short...
Yoon, C; Hasher, L; Feinberg, F; Rahhal, T A; Winocur, G
The extent to which cultural stereotypes about aging contribute to age differences in memory performance is investigated by comparing younger and older Anglophone Canadians to demographically matched Chinese Canadians, who tend to hold more positive views of aging. Four memory tests were administered. In contrast to B. Levy and E. Langer's (1994) findings, younger adults in both cultural groups outperformed their older comparison group on all memory tests. For 2 tests, which made use of visual stimuli resembling ideographic characters in written Chinese, the older Chinese Canadians approached, but did not reach, the performance achieved by their younger counterparts, as well as outperformed the older Anglophone Canadians. However, on the other two tests, which assess memory for complex figures and abstract designs, no differences were observed between the older Chinese and Anglophone Canadians. Path analysis results suggest that this pattern of findings is not easily attributed to a wholly culturally based account of age differences in memory performance.
Fu, Qiufang; Dienes, Zoltan; Shang, Junchen; Fu, Xiaolan
Background It is well documented that East Asians differ from Westerners in conscious perception and attention. However, few studies have explored cultural differences in unconscious processes such as implicit learning. Methodology/Principal Findings The global-local Navon letters were adopted in the serial reaction time (SRT) task, during which Chinese and British participants were instructed to respond to global or local letters, to investigate whether culture influences what people acquire in implicit sequence learning. Our results showed that from the beginning British expressed a greater local bias in perception than Chinese, confirming a cultural difference in perception. Further, over extended exposure, the Chinese learned the target regularity better than the British when the targets were global, indicating a global advantage for Chinese in implicit learning. Moreover, Chinese participants acquired greater unconscious knowledge of an irrelevant regularity than British participants, indicating that the Chinese were more sensitive to contextual regularities than the British. Conclusions/Significance The results suggest that cultural biases can profoundly influence both what people consciously perceive and unconsciously learn. PMID:23940773
Koopmann-Holm, Birgit; Tsai, Jeanne L
Feeling concern about the suffering of others is considered a basic human response, and yet we know surprisingly little about the cultural factors that shape how people respond to the suffering of another person. To this end, we conducted 4 studies that tested the hypothesis that American expressions of sympathy focus on the negative less and positive more than German expressions of sympathy, in part because Americans want to avoid negative states more than Germans do. In Study 1, we demonstrate that American sympathy cards contain less negative and more positive content than German sympathy cards. In Study 2, we show that European Americans want to avoid negative states more than Germans do. In Study 3, we demonstrate that these cultural differences in "avoided negative affect" mediate cultural differences in how comfortable Americans and Germans feel focusing on the negative (vs. positive) when expressing sympathy for the hypothetical death of an acquaintance's father. To examine whether greater avoided negative affect results in lesser focus on the negative and greater focus on the positive when responding to another person's suffering, in Study 4, American and German participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 conditions: (a) to "push negative images away" (i.e., increasing desire to avoid negative affect) from or (b) to "pull negative images closer" (i.e., decreasing desire to avoid negative affect) to themselves. Participants were then asked to pick a card to send to an acquaintance whose father had hypothetically just died. Across cultures, participants in the "push negative away" condition were less likely to choose sympathy cards with negative (vs. positive) content than were those in the "pull negative closer" condition. Together, these studies suggest that cultures differ in their desire to avoid negative affect and that these differences influence the degree to which expressions of sympathy focus on the negative (vs. positive). We discuss the
Paul-Hus, A.; DiazFaes, A.; Desrochers, N.; Costas, R.; Sainte-Marie, M.; Macaluso, B.; Lariviere, V.
Funding acknowledgements found in scientific publications have been used for decades to study the role of funding in science production. However, beyond funding information, acknowledgements convey the indebtedness of authors to individuals, institutions and organizations that contributed, in some way, to the research that lead to publication. The objective of this paper is to explore the different types of contributions acknowledged in WoS funding acknowledgement (FA) texts. The Correspondence Analysis performed in this study reveals that FAs offer a unique window on research and collaborative practices, credit distribution, and how these vary across disciplines. FAs thus contribute to make the traditionally “invisible contributions” visible to the scientific community. Results presented in this study go further in demonstrating that acknowledgements are not confined to credit attribution, as they include disclosures of conflict of interest. (Author)
Pfundmair, Michaela; Graupmann, Verena; Du, Hongfei; Frey, Dieter; Aydin, Nilüfer
In the current research, we examined whether re-inclusion (i.e. the change from a previous state of exclusion to a new state of inclusion) was perceived differently by people with individualistic and collectivistic cultural backgrounds. Individualists (German and Austrian participants) but not collectivists (Chinese participants) experienced re-inclusion differently than continued inclusion: While collectivistic participants did not differentiate between both kinds of inclusion, individualistic participants showed reduced fulfilment of their psychological needs under re-inclusion compared to continued inclusion. The results moreover revealed that only participants from individualistic cultures expressed more feelings of exclusion when re-included than when continually included. These exclusionary feelings partially mediated the relationship between the different states of inclusion and basic need fulfilment. © 2014 International Union of Psychological Science.
King, Ronnel B.; McInerney, Dennis M.; Nasser, Ramzi
Goals are important predictors of key educational outcomes. However, most of the research on goal theory has been conducted in Western societies. In this study we examine how different types of goals (mastery, performance, social, and extrinsic) derived from personal investment theory are associated with key learning outcomes across nine cultural…
Simenc, Janez; Lipnik-Stangelj, Metoda
Astroglial cells are frequently involved in malignant transformation. Besides apoptosis, necroptosis, a different form of regulated cell death, seems to be related with glioblastoma genesis, proliferation, angiogenesis and invasion. In the present work we elucidated mechanisms of necroptosis in cultured astrocytes, and compared them with apoptosis, caused by staurosporine. Cultured rat cortical astrocytes were used for a cell death studies. Cell death was induced by different concentrations of staurosporine, and modified by inhibitors of apoptosis (z-vad-fmk) and necroptosis (nec-1). Different forms of a cell death were detected using flow cytometry. We showed that staurosporine, depending on concentration, induces both, apoptosis as well as necroptosis. Treatment with 10 −7 M staurosporine increased apoptosis of astrocytes after the regeneration in a staurosporine free medium. When caspases were inhibited, apoptosis was attenuated, while necroptosis was slightly increased. Treatment with 10 −6 M staurosporine induced necroptosis that occurred after the regeneration of astrocytes in a staurosporine free medium, as well as without regeneration period. Necroptosis was significantly attenuated by nec-1 which inhibits RIP1 kinase. On the other hand, the inhibition of caspases had no effect on necroptosis. Furthermore, staurosporine activated RIP1 kinase increased the production of reactive oxygen species, while an antioxidant BHA significantly attenuated necroptosis. Staurosporine can induce apoptosis and/or necroptosis in cultured astrocytes via different signalling pathways. Distinction between different forms of cell death is crucial in the studies of therapy-induced necroptosis
Seo, Dong-Chul; Torabi, Mohammad R; Jiang, Nan; Fernandez-Rojas, Xinia; Park, Bock-Hee
This study examined cross-cultural differences in personal and behavioral determinants of vigorous-intensity and moderate-intensity physical activity (PA) among college students living in distinctly different cultures, that is, the United States, Costa Rica, India, and South Korea. Participants of this study were recruited from randomly chosen public universities in the 4 countries during the 2006-2007 academic year. A total of 4685 students participated in the study (response rate 90%). Vigorous-intensity PA was measured by asking on how many of the past 7 days the participants participated in PA for at least 20 minutes that made them sweat or breathe hard. For moderate-intensity PA, participants were asked on how many of the past 7 days they participated in PA for at least 30 minutes that did not make them sweat or breathe hard. Findings indicate that whereas perceived overweight and fruit and vegetable consumption are relatively culture-free predictors of PA, gender and TV/video watching are culture-specific predictors. Binge drinking was not predictive of meeting the vigorous-intensity and moderate-intensity PA guidelines in any of the 4 countries.
Since the terrorist attacks on the U.S. on September 11th, 2001, Nuclear Security has been focused on and treated as a global issue in the international community and it has also been discussed as a real and serious threat to nuclear power plants in the world since 'The Great East Japan Earthquake' in March, 2011. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) issued a document including Nuclear Security Recommendations (INFCIRC/225/Rev.5) (NSS 13) in the Nuclear Security Series and emphasized the necessity of fostering Nuclear Security Culture. Nuclear Security Culture has been frequently discussed at various kinds of seminars and events. Since the officials in charge of Nuclear Security are familiar with the area of Nuclear Safety, the relationships between Nuclear Safety Culture and Nuclear Security Culture have been the point in controversy. This paper clarifies relevance between Nuclear Safety and Security, considers resemblances and differences of their concepts and lessons learned for each culture from nuclear power plant accidents, and promotes deeper understanding of Nuclear Safety and Nuclear Security Culture. (author)
Luomala, Harri; Kumar, Rajesh; Worm, Verner
This paper seeks to examine cross cultural differences in the ways people regulate their mood states with special emphasis put on the role of consumption. This issue is virtually unexplored in the extant literature. After briefly introducing the essence of mood regulation and culture we integrate...... these discussions in order to produce six research hypothesis for testing. These hypothesis concern the differences in the nature, perceived ease of initiating, and emotional outcomes of mood regulatory activities. The empirical evidence suggests that mood regulatory activities are less consumption oriented, have...... more socially based emotional consequences, and are more easily pursued and are more effective in collectivistic as opposed to individualistic cultures. The paper concludes by outlining the theoretical and managerial implications of the results and spelling out a few research suggestions....
Huwaë, Sylvia; Schaafsma, Juliëtte
Recently, researchers have begun to explore people’s motives to forgive those who have offended them. Using a recall method, we examined whether such motives (relationship-, offender- or self-focused) differ between and within cultures that are more collectivistic (Moluccan Islands in Indonesia) or
Roth, Benjamin S.
This study explored whether university internal audit directors' views of culture and measuring achievement differences between their institutions and a business were related to how they viewed internal auditing priorities and uses. The Carnegie Classification system's 283 Doctorate-granting Universities were the target population.…
Beugelsdijk, S.; van Schaik, A.B.T.M.
Economic development is linked with systematic changes in basic values, but cultural change is path dependent.This is known as Inglehart's thesis.In this paper we build on his thesis and try to explain value differences across European regions.This is relevant as it fits in the ongoing discussion of
I introduce here the principles I use in my investigation of intercultural marketing and management. I explain how I discovered them, and show how they spring from a theoretical understanding of the dynamic of cultural differences. One of the basic methodological principles for my analysis...
Full Text Available Sensory consequences resulting from own movements receive different neural processing compared to externally generated sensory consequences (e.g., by a computer, leading to sensory attenuation, i.e., a reduction in perceived loudness or brain evoked responses. However, discrepant findings exist from different cultural regions about whether sensory attenuation is also present for sensory consequences generated by others. In this study, we performed a cross culture (between Chinese and British comparison on the processing of sensory consequences (perceived loudness from self and others compared to an external source in the auditory domain. We found a cultural difference in processing sensory consequences generated by others, with only Chinese and not British showing the sensory attenuation effect. Sensory attenuation in this case was correlated with independent self-construal scores. The sensory attenuation effect for self-generated sensory consequences was not replicated. However, a correlation with delusional ideation was observed for British. These findings are discussed with respects to mechanisms of sensory attenuation.
Kwon, Hoin; Yoon, K Lira; Joormann, Jutta; Kwon, Jung-Hye
In the last decade, studies have shown that the use of specific emotion regulation strategies contributes to an increased risk for depression. Past research, however, has overlooked potential cultural and gender differences in emotion regulation. The present study examined the relation between the use of emotion regulation strategies and depressive symptoms among college students in two different cultures (n=380 in Seoul, Korea; n=384 in Miami, USA). Koreans, compared with American students, reported more frequent use of brooding, whereas Americans reported more anger suppression than Koreans. Women were more likely than men to use both types of rumination (i.e., reflective pondering and brooding) and anger suppression in both countries, but these gender differences disappeared once levels of depressive symptoms were controlled for. In addition, the association between the use of reappraisal and depressive symptoms was significantly stronger in the Korean compared to the US sample. In contrast, the association between anger suppression and depressive symptoms was significantly stronger in the American compared to the Korean sample. These findings highlight the importance of considering the role of culture in emotion regulation.
Major routes to identifying individual differences (in diverse species) include studies of behaviour patterns as represented in language and neurophysiology. But results from these approaches appear not to converge on some major dimensions. Identifying dimensions of human variation least applicable to non-human species may help to partition human-specific individual differences of recent evolutionary origin from those shared across species. Human culture includes learned, enforced social-norm systems that are symbolically reinforced and referenced in displays signalling adherence. At a key juncture in human evolution bullying aggression and deception-based cheating apparently became censured in the language of a moral community, enabling mutual observation coordinated in gossip, associated with external sanctions. That still-conserved cultural paradigm moralistically regulates selfish advantage-taking, with shared semantics and explicit rules. Ethics and moral codes remain critical and universal components of human culture and have a stronger imprint in language than most aspects of the currently popular Big-Five taxonomy, a model that sets out five major lines of individual-differences variation in human personality. In other species (e.g. chimpanzees), human observers might see apparent individual differences in morality-relevant traits, but not because the animals have human-analogue sanctioning systems. Removing the moral dimension of personality and other human-specific manifestations (e.g. religion) may aid in identifying those other bases of individual differences more ubiquitous across species.This article is part of the theme issue 'Diverse perspectives on diversity: multi-disciplinary approaches to taxonomies of individual differences'. © 2018 The Author(s).
Gregory, Michelle L.; Engel, David W.; Bell, Eric B.; Mcgrath, Liam R.
We have developed methods to identify online communities, or groups, using a combination of structural information variables and content information variables from weblog posts and their comments to build a characteristic footprint for groups. We have worked with both explicitly connected groups and 'abstract' groups, in which the connection between individuals is in interest (as determined by content based features) and behavior (metadata based features) as opposed to explicit links. We find that these variables do a good job at identifying groups, placing members within a group, and helping determine the appropriate granularity for group boundaries. The group footprint can then be used to identify differences between the online groups. In the work described here we are interested in determining how an individual's online behavior is influenced by their membership in more than one group. For example, individuals belong to a certain culture; they may belong as well to a demographic group, and other 'chosen' groups such as churches or clubs. There is a plethora of evidence surrounding the culturally sensitive adoption, use, and behavior on the Internet. In this work we begin to investigate how culturally defined internet behaviors may influence behaviors of subgroups. We do this through a series of experiments in which we analyze the interaction between culturally defined behaviors and the behaviors of the subgroups. Our goal is to (a) identify if our features can capture cultural distinctions in internet use, and (b) determine what kinds of interaction there are between levels and types of groups.
Elizur, Dov; Kantor, Jeffrey; Yaniv, Eyal; Sagie, Abraham
This study assessed the role of individualism and collectivism in the shaping of personal values of Canadians, Israelis, and Palestinians. Based on Sagie and Elizur's (1996) multifaceted approach, we distinguished personal values that are individual centered (i.e., associated with one's home, family, or work) from collective-centered values (i.e., associated with the religion, sports, or politics). The magnitude of the difference between both value types differs according to cultural orientation. As compared with Palestinians, we predicted that Canadians and Israelis would rank individual-centered values higher and collective-centered values lower. Data obtained from samples of Palestinians, Israelis, and Canadians supported this hypothesis.
Ojeda, Natalia; Aretouli, Eleni; Peña, Javier; Schretlen, David J
Ethnicity and cultural experience can affect neuropsychological performance, but they are rarely assessed in historical context. Attention measures are considered strongly biologically determined and therefore potentially culture-fair. In this study, we assessed the cross-cultural equivalence of Spanish and English versions of the Trail Making Test (TMT; Reitan, 1958, Perceptual and Motor Skills, 8, 271-276) and the Brief Test of Attention (BTA; Schretlen et al., 1996, The Clinical Neuropsychologist, 10, 80-89) in two large samples of Americans (N = 203) and Spaniards (N = 213), divided into younger and older subgroups. The older Spaniards lived under Franco's political regime (1936-1975), whereas the Americans never experienced such repression. Overall, TMT performance was culture-sensitive, whereas BTA performance was not. However, when both groups were stratified by age, cultural differences in TMT performance were restricted to older participants, suggesting that historical experience across generations might have contributed to the observed differences in cognitive performance. Even such basic cognitive processes as attention, working memory, and resource sharing might be shaped to some degree by historical experiences that contribute to cultural differences. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Neuropsychology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Psychological Society.
Mindell, Jodi A; Sadeh, Avi; Kwon, Robert; Goh, Daniel Y T
The aim of our study was to characterize cross-cultural sleep patterns and sleep problems in a large sample of preschool children ages 3-6years in multiple predominantly Asian (P-A) and predominantly Caucasian (P-C) countries/regions. Parents of 2590 preschool-aged children (P-A countries/regions: China, Hong Kong, India, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand; P-C countries: Australia-New Zealand, Canada, United Kingdom, United States) completed an Internet-based expanded version of the Brief Child Sleep Questionnaire (BCSQ). Overall, children from P-A countries had significantly later bedtimes, shorter nighttime sleep, and increased parental perception of sleep problems compared with those from P-C countries. Bedtimes varied from as early as 7:43pm in Australia and New Zealand to as late as 10:26pm in India, a span of almost 3h. There also were significant differences in daytime sleep with the majority of children in P-A countries continuing to nap, resulting in no differences in 24-h total sleep times (TST) across culture and minimal differences across specific countries. Bed sharing and room sharing are common in P-A countries, with no change across the preschool years. There also were a significant percentage of parents who perceived that their child had a sleep problem (15% in Korea to 44% in China). Overall, our results indicate significant cross-cultural differences in sleep patterns, sleeping arrangements, and parent-reported sleep problems in preschool-aged children. Further studies are needed to understand the underlying bases for these differences and especially for contributors to parents' perceptions of sleep problems. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Kim, Bokyung; Sung, Young Shin; McClure, Samuel M
People generally prefer to receive rewarding outcomes sooner rather than later. Such preferences result from delay discounting, or the process by which outcomes are devalued for the expected delay until their receipt. We investigated cultural differences in delay discounting by contrasting behaviour and brain activity in separate cohorts of Western (American) and Eastern (Korean) subjects. Consistent with previous reports, we find a dramatic difference in discounting behaviour, with Americans displaying much greater present bias and elevated discount rates. Recent neuroimaging findings suggest that differences in discounting may arise from differential involvement of either brain reward areas or regions in the prefrontal and parietal cortices associated with cognitive control. We find that the ventral striatum is more greatly recruited in Americans relative to Koreans when discounting future rewards, but there is no difference in prefrontal or parietal activity. This suggests that a cultural difference in emotional responsivity underlies the observed behavioural effect. We discuss the implications of this research for strategic interrelations between Easterners and Westerners.
Giebels, Ellen; Taylor, Paul J
This research examines cultural differences in negotiators' responses to persuasive arguments in crisis (hostage) negotiations over time. Using a new method of examining cue-response patterns, the authors examined 25 crisis negotiations in which police negotiators interacted with perpetrators from low-context (LC) or high-context (HC) cultures. Compared with HC perpetrators, LC perpetrators were found to use more persuasive arguments, to reciprocate persuasive arguments in the second half of negotiations, and to respond to persuasive arguments in a compromising way. Further analyses found that LC perpetrators were more likely to communicate threats, especially in the first half of the negotiations, but that HC perpetrators were more likely to reciprocate them. The implications of these findings for our understanding of intercultural interaction are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved).
Andersen, Steffen; Ertac, Seda; Gneezy, Uri
We study how culture and social structure influence bargaining behavior across gender, by exploring the negotiation culture in matrilineal and patriarchal societies using data from a laboratory experiment and a natural field experiment. One interesting result is that in both the actual marketplace...... and in the laboratory bargaining game, women in the matrilineal society earn more than men, at odds with years of evidence observed in the western world. We find that this result is critically driven by which side of the market the person is occupying: female (male) sellers in the matrilineal (patriarchal) society...... extract more of the bargaining surplus than male (female) sellers. In the buyer role, however, we observe no significant differences across societies....
Koopmann-Holm, Birgit; Tsai, Jeanne L.
Feeling concern about the suffering of others is considered a basic human response, and yet, we know surprisingly little about the cultural factors that shape how people respond to the suffering of another person. To this end, we conducted four studies that tested the hypothesis that American expressions of sympathy focus on the negative less and positive more than German expressions of sympathy, in part because Americans want to avoid negative states more than Germans do. In Study 1, we demonstrate that American sympathy cards contained less negative and more positive content than German sympathy cards. In Study 2, we show that European Americans want to avoid negative states more than Germans do. In Study 3, we demonstrate that these cultural differences in “avoided negative affect” mediate cultural differences in how comfortable Americans and Germans felt focusing on the negative (vs. positive) when expressing sympathy for the hypothetical death of an acquaintance's father. To examine whether greater avoided negative affect results in lesser focus on the negative and greater focus on the positive when responding to another person's suffering, in Study 4, American and German participants were randomly assigned to one of two conditions: (1) to “push negative images away” (i.e., increasing desire to avoid negative affect), or (2) to “pull negative images closer” to themselves (i.e., decreasing desire to avoid negative affect). Participants were then asked to pick a card to send to an acquaintance whose father had hypothetically just died. Across cultures, participants in the “push negative away” condition were less likely to choose sympathy cards with negative (vs. positive) content than were those in the “pull negative closer” condition. Together, these studies suggest that cultures differ in their desire to avoid negative affect, and that these differences influence the degree to which expressions of sympathy focus on the negative (vs
Full Text Available In Belgium, the authority over cultural diversity policies resulting from immigration has been devolved from the central state to the regions since 1970. Consequently, Flanders and Francophone Belgium have progressively developed divergent policy tools. By describing the divergent evolution of Francophone and Flemish cultural diversity policies, our paper demonstrates the existence of a “Belgian Cultural Diversity Paradox”, namely the existence of more multicultural minority rights in the region that has most experienced electoral success by an extreme-right anti-immigrant party (Flanders, and a more colour blind and radical secular approach in the region where anti-immigrant politicization is barely a factor (Francophone Belgium. This finding is counter-intuitive because an important strand of immigrant policy research has emphasized the relationship between the politicization of immigration and restrictive immigrant citizenship rights. Our paper demonstrates that the different degrees of politicization of immigration in Flanders and Francophone Belgium cannot fully account for divergent cultural diversity policies. By insisting on the historical path dependency of the linguistic and religious cleavages in Belgium and their overlap, this paper offers an addendum to the politicization approach. The historical linguistic and religious differences of the Belgian regions clearly mediate the impact of the politicization of immigration on both sides of the linguistic border.
The legal provisions governing the acknowledgment of test results are most frequently applied by administrative orders (design and qualification approvals or specimen testing and approval) and are thus claimable and voidable in accordance with general administrative law. The acknowledgment of test certificates requires a legal basis. Test results, however, can be acknowledged also by administrative bodies. Recently, the Federal Government began to delegate more of its legal authority in this field to private institutions, allowing test results to be acknowledged and test certificates to be issued by government controlled private institutions. (orig.) [de
Amer, Tarek; Ngo, K W Joan; Hasher, Lynn
We investigated differences between participants of East Asian and Western descent in attention to and implicit memory for irrelevant words which participants were instructed to ignore while completing a target task (a Stroop Task in Experiment 1 and a 1-back task on pictures in Experiment 2). Implicit memory was measured using two conceptual priming tasks (category generation in Experiment 1 and general knowledge in Experiment 2). Participants of East Asian descent showed reliable implicit memory for previous distractors relative to those of Western descent with no evidence of differences on target task performance. We also found differences in a Corsi Block spatial memory task in both studies, with superior performance by the East Asian group. Our findings suggest that cultural differences in attention extend to task-irrelevant background information, and demonstrate for the first time that such information can boost performance when it becomes relevant on a subsequent task. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.
Tsai, Jeanne L; Ang, Jen Ying Zhen; Blevins, Elizabeth; Goernandt, Julia; Fung, Helene H; Jiang, Da; Elliott, Julian; Kölzer, Anna; Uchida, Yukiko; Lee, Yi-Chen; Lin, Yicheng; Zhang, Xiulan; Govindama, Yolande; Haddouk, Lise
Cultures differ in the emotions they teach their members to value ("ideal affect"). We conducted 3 studies to examine whether leaders' smiles reflect these cultural differences in ideal affect. In Study 1, we compared the smiles of top-ranked American and Chinese government leaders, chief executive officers, and university presidents in their official photos. Consistent with findings that Americans value excitement and other high-arousal positive states more than Chinese, American top-ranked leaders (N = 98) showed more excited smiles than Chinese top-ranked leaders (N = 91) across occupations. In Study 2, we compared the smiles of winning versus losing political candidates and higher versus lower ranking chief executive officers and university presidents in the United States and Taiwan/China. American leaders (N = 223) showed more excited smiles than Taiwanese/Chinese leaders (N = 266), regardless of election outcome or ranking. In Study 3, we administered self-report measures of ideal affect in college student samples from 10 different nations (N = 1,267) and then 8 years later, coded the smiles that legislators from those nations showed in their official photos (N = 3,372). The more nations valued excitement and other high arousal positive states, the more their leaders showed excited smiles; similarly, the more nations valued calm and other low-arousal positive states, the more their leaders showed calm smiles. These results held after controlling for national differences in democratization, human development, and gross domestic product per capita. Together, these findings suggest that leaders' smiles reflect the affective states valued by their cultures. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Tsai, Jeanne L.; Ang, Jen Ying Zhen; Blevins, Elizabeth; Goernandt, Julia; Fung, Helene H.; Jiang, Da; Elliott, Julian; Kölzer, Anna; Uchida, Yukiko; Lee, Yi-Chen; Lin, Yicheng; Zhang, Xiulan; Govindama, Yolande; Haddouk, Lise
Cultures differ in the emotions they teach their members to value (“ideal affect”). We conducted three studies to examine whether leaders’ smiles reflect these cultural differences in ideal affect. In Study 1, we compared the smiles of top ranked American and Chinese government leaders, chief-executive-officers (CEOs), and university presidents in their official photos. Consistent with findings that Americans value excitement and other high arousal positive states more than Chinese, American top ranked leaders (N = 98) showed more excited smiles than Chinese top ranked leaders (N = 91) across occupations. In Study 2, we compared the smiles of winning vs. losing political candidates and higher vs. lower ranking CEOs and university presidents in the US and Taiwan/China. American leaders (N = 223) showed more excited smiles than Taiwanese/Chinese leaders (N =266), regardless of election outcome or ranking. In Study 3, we administered self-report measures of ideal affect in college student samples from 10 different nations (N = 1,267) and then eight years later, coded the smiles that legislators from those nations showed in their official photos (N = 3,372). The more nations valued excitement and other high arousal positive states, the more their leaders showed excited smiles; similarly, the more nations valued calm and other low arousal positive states, the more their leaders showed calm smiles. These results held after controlling for national differences in GDP per capita, democratization, and human development. Together, these findings suggest that leaders’ smiles reflect the affective states valued by their cultures. PMID:26751631
Full Text Available Welcome to Night Vale (2012– is an intertextual podcast in the tradition of popular horror and weird tales. Listeners are meant to be part of a (fictional community, listening to the radio in the small desert town of Night Vale in the Southwestern United States, although neither the state nor the exact time are specified. We follow the host of the program, Cecil Palmer, as he describes the town's community life, although the events presented in the show are far from normal. The first episode was published online June 15, 2012, with no marketing to accompany the event. Many had first heard about Welcome to Night Vale through fan art available via social media, including Tumblr, Soup.io, blog communities, Facebook groups, and deviantArt. Although the production is available in English only, it has a Polish fandom. We describe the difference in perception of this popular text based on differences in the cultural background and literary knowledge of the listeners. We also attend to fan practices such as fan art surrounding Welcome to Night Vale because their content correlates with the creator's culture of origin, as well as the issue of funding the free podcast among fans from different countries and different economies.
Corriveau, Kathleen H; DiYanni, Cara J; Clegg, Jennifer M; Min, Grace; Chin, Jason; Nasrini, Jad
Across two studies, we explored cultural differences in children's imitation and transmission of inefficient actions. Chinese American and Caucasian American preschoolers (N=115) viewed either one or three models using two inefficient tools to perform two different tasks. In the video, when the model(s) performed the task, only the inefficient tool was available; thus, their choice to use that tool could be considered rational. Next, children were invited to complete the task with either the inefficient tool or an efficient alternative. Whereas the two cultural groups imitated a single model at similar rates, Chinese American children imitated significantly more than Caucasian American children after viewing a consensus. Similar results were found when exploring differences in information transmission. The Chinese American children were significantly more likely than their Caucasian American peers to instruct using an inefficient tool when they had initially viewed a consensus demonstrate it. We discuss these findings with respect to differences in children's use of social versus task-specific cues for learning and teaching. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Luo, Ke; Jung, Samuel; Park, Kyu-Hwan; Kim, Young-Rok
Microbial biosynthesis of metal nanoparticles has been extensively studied for the applications in biomedical sciences and engineering. However, the mechanism for their synthesis through microorganism is not completely understood. In this study, several culture media were investigated for their roles in the microbial biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). The size and morphology of the synthesized AgNPs were analyzed by UV-vis spectroscopy, Fourier-transform-infrared (FT-IR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and dynamic light scattering (DLS). The results demonstrated that nutrient broth (NB) and Mueller-Hinton broth (MHB) among tested media effectively reduced silver ions to form AgNPs with different particle size and shape. Although the involved microorganism enhanced the reduction of silver ions, the size and shape of the particles were shown to mainly depend on the culture media. Our findings suggest that the growth media of bacterial culture play an important role in the synthesis of metallic nanoparticles with regard to their size and shape. We believe our findings would provide useful information for further exploration of microbial biosynthesis of AgNPs and their biomedical applications.
Full Text Available Whether emotion is universal or social is a recurrent issue in the history of emotion study among psychologists. Some researchers view emotion as a universal construct, and that a large part of emotional experience is biologically based. However, emotion is not only biologically determined, but is also influenced by the environment. Therefore, cultural differences exist in some aspects of emotions, one such important aspect of emotion being emotional arousal level. All affective states are systematically represented as two bipolar dimensions, valence and arousal. Arousal level of actual and ideal emotions has consistently been found to have cross-cultural differences. In Western or individualist culture, high arousal emotions are valued and promoted more than low arousal emotions. Moreover, Westerners experience high arousal emotions more than low arousal emotions. By contrast, in Eastern or collectivist culture, low arousal emotions are valued more than high arousal emotions. Moreover, people in the East actually experience and prefer to experience low arousal emotions more than high arousal emotions. Mechanism of these cross-cultural differences and implications are also discussed.
Whether emotion is universal or social is a recurrent issue in the history of emotion study among psychologists. Some researchers view emotion as a universal construct, and that a large part of emotional experience is biologically based. However, emotion is not only biologically determined, but is also influenced by the environment. Therefore, cultural differences exist in some aspects of emotions, one such important aspect of emotion being emotional arousal level. All affective states are systematically represented as two bipolar dimensions, valence and arousal. Arousal level of actual and ideal emotions has consistently been found to have cross-cultural differences. In Western or individualist culture, high arousal emotions are valued and promoted more than low arousal emotions. Moreover, Westerners experience high arousal emotions more than low arousal emotions. By contrast, in Eastern or collectivist culture, low arousal emotions are valued more than high arousal emotions. Moreover, people in the East actually experience and prefer to experience low arousal emotions more than high arousal emotions. Mechanism of these cross-cultural differences and implications are also discussed.
Cohen, Adam B.
Responds to comments by H. Takooshian and J. K. Tebes on the current author's original article, "Many forms of culture". The current author argued that psychologists tend to focus on too narrow a set of cultures (ethnic and national cultures) and some dimensions of those cultures (individualism-collectivism, independence-interdependence). He then…
Telzer, Eva H; Qu, Yang; Lin, Lynda C
Self-improvement motivation, which occurs when individuals seek to improve upon their competence by gaining new knowledge and improving upon their skills, is critical for cognitive, social, and educational adjustment. While many studies have delineated the neural mechanisms supporting extrinsic motivation induced by monetary rewards, less work has examined the neural processes that support intrinsically motivated behaviors, such as self-improvement motivation. Because cultural groups traditionally vary in terms of their self-improvement motivation, we examined cultural differences in the behavioral and neural processes underlying motivated behaviors during cognitive persistence in the absence of extrinsic rewards. In Study 1, 71 American (47 females, M=19.68 years) and 68 Chinese (38 females, M=19.37 years) students completed a behavioral cognitive control task that required cognitive persistence across time. In Study 2, 14 American and 15 Chinese students completed the same cognitive persistence task during an fMRI scan. Across both studies, American students showed significant declines in cognitive performance across time, whereas Chinese participants demonstrated effective cognitive persistence. These behavioral effects were explained by cultural differences in self-improvement motivation and paralleled by increasing activation and functional coupling between the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and ventral striatum (VS) across the task among Chinese participants, neural activation and coupling that remained low in American participants. These findings suggest a potential neural mechanism by which the VS and IFG work in concert to promote cognitive persistence in the absence of extrinsic rewards. Thus, frontostriatal circuitry may be a neurobiological signal representing intrinsic motivation for self-improvement that serves an adaptive function, increasing Chinese students' motivation to engage in cognitive persistence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights
Noguchi, Kenji; Kamada, Akiko; Shrira, Ilan
Previous work has shown there are robust differences in how North Americans and East Asians form impressions of people. The present research examines whether the tendency to weigh initial information more heavily-the primacy effect-may be another component of these cultural differences. Specifically, we tested whether Americans would be more likely to use first impressions to guide person perception, compared to Japanese participants. In this experiment, participants read a vignette that described a target person's behaviour, then rated the target's personality. Before reading the vignette, some trait information was given to create an expectation about the target's personality. The data revealed that Americans used this initial information to guide their judgments of the target, whereas the Japanese sample based their judgments on all the information more evenly. Thus, Americans showed a stronger primacy effect in their impression formation than Japanese participants, who engaged in more data-driven processing. © 2013 International Union of Psychological Science.
change in different contexts. Two organisations in Thailand and one organisation in The Netherlands were selected to serve as case studies. The impact of culture was explored as a contextual background. Research methods Based on literature review an overview of performance measurement systems and measures has been developed. The list of corporate real estate performance measures has been classified in six categories according to Bradley (2002 and subsequently compared with the findings from the case studies. The six categories include: 1 stakeholder perception, 2 financial health, 3 organisational development, 4 productivity, 5 environmental responsibility and 6 cost efficiency. The impact of workplace change was examined using the work environment diagnosis instrument (WODI questionnaire which evaluates employees’ responses to the changed work environment in three areas: employee satisfaction, perceived productivity support and prioritised aspects (Maarleveld, et al., 2009. The Organisational Culture Assessment Instrument (OCAI; Cameron and Quinn, 2006 was used to assess organisational culture. National culture was measured by using the Value Survey Module 94 (VSM94; Hofstede, 1997. Research findings The conceptual framework that came to the fore from the literature review showed to be useful for both theoretical understanding of performance measurement and practical applications. Proposed performance measures have been applied in all three case studies but in different ways. The three case studies showed that performance measurement of an organisation is multi-dimensional. It includes several performance criteria and performance measures beyond cost efficiency. All seven performance criteria mentioned by Sink and Tuttle (1989 have been applied in all three cases including effectiveness, efficiency, quality, productivity, quality of worklife, innovation and profitability. The four perspectives of the Balanced Scorecard (financial, customer, internal business process
Lemmen, Josephine Gabriela; Pinborg, Anja; Rasmussen, S
IS KNOWN ALREADY: Studies on human ART singletons have reported a difference in birthweight in singletons following IVF culture in different culture media. However, other studies comparing different culture media have not shown any significant differences in birthweight. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION......: This study was a retrospective comparison of birthweights in IVF/ICSI singletons conceived after fresh embryo transfer following embryo culture in Cook or Medicult medium and in a national cohort of naturally conceived singletons in nulliparous women. The study compares four independent groups consisting...... of singletons in nulliparous women from Cook-d2: 2-day culture in Cook medium at Rigshospitalet (n = 974), Medicult-d2: 2-day culture in Medicult EmbryoAssist medium at Rigshospitalet (n = 147), Medicult-d3: 3-day culture in Medicult EmbryoAssist medium with and without added GM-CSF (n = 204), and DK...
Huijbregts, S.K.; Leseman, P.P.M.; Tavecchio, L.W.C.
The present study investigated the cultural childrearing beliefs of 116 caregivers from different cultural communities in the Netherlands (Dutch, Caribbean-Dutch, and Mediterranean-Dutch), working with 2-4-year-olds in daycare centers. Cultural childrearing beliefs were assessed with standard
Huijbregts, S. K.; Leseman, P. P. M.; Tavecchio, L. W. C.
The present study investigated the cultural childrearing beliefs of 116 caregivers from different cultural communities in the Netherlands (Dutch, Caribbean-Dutch, and Mediterranean-Dutch), working with 2-4-year-olds in daycare centers. Cultural childrearing beliefs were assessed with standard questionnaires, focusing on general and…
Castelli, Germano; Galante, Antonella; Lo Verde, Vincenza; Migliazzo, Antonella; Reale, Stefano; Lupo, Tiziana; Piazza, Maria; Vitale, Fabrizio; Bruno, Federica
The aim of this study is to improve the cultivation of Leishmania promastigotes without the use of common, semisolid culture media such as Evans' modified Tobie's medium (EMTM), liquid RPMI 1640, and Peptone-yeast extract medium (P-Y). Although EMTM medium permits the growth of a high number of parasites, it is technically difficult to prepare as it requires the use of fresh rabbit blood from animals bred on farms, while RPMI 1640 and P-Y show lower growth rates than the EMTM. There is, therefore, a need to develop new blood-free and time-saving culture systems. The aim of this paper is to propose new modified microbiological media, named RPMI-PY and Tobie-PY, to isolate Leishmania and cultivate parasites for research and diagnostic purposes. This study compares classic culture media to the new media, RPMI-PY and Tobie-PY, and demonstrates that the new media have superior performance in terms of time and parasitic load. The growth rate of the parasite was significantly higher at 24, 48, and 72 hr cultivation, based on counts using Bürker's chambers, when compared to classic media. This study was carried out at the National References Centre for Leishmaniasis (C.Re.Na.L.) where the isolation procedures are conducted daily from a number of different biological matrices.
Mindell, Jodi A; Sadeh, Avi; Wiegand, Benjamin; How, Ti Hwei; Goh, Daniel Y T
To characterize cross-cultural sleep patterns and sleep problems in a large sample of children ages birth to 36 months in multiple predominantly-Asian (P-A) and predominantly-Caucasian (P-C) countries. Parents of 29,287 infants and toddlers (predominantly-Asian countries/regions: China, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Korea, Japan, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam; predominantly-Caucasian countries: Australia, Canada, New Zealand, United Kingdom, United States) completed an internet-based expanded version of the Brief Infant Sleep Questionnaire. Overall, children from P-A countries had significantly later bedtimes, shorter total sleep times, increased parental perception of sleep problems, and were more likely to both bed-share and room-share than children from P-C countries, p<.001. Bedtimes ranged from 19:27 (New Zealand) to 22:17 (Hong Kong) and total sleep time from 11.6 (Japan) to 13.3 (New Zealand) hours, p<.0001. There were limited differences in daytime sleep. Bed-sharing with parents ranged from 5.8% in New Zealand to 83.2% in Vietnam. There was also a wide range in the percentage of parents who perceived that their child had a sleep problem (11% in Thailand to 76% in China). Overall, children from predominantly-Asian countries had significantly later bedtimes, shorter total sleep times, increased parental perception of sleep problems, and were more likely to room-share than children from predominantly-Caucasian countries/regions. These results indicate substantial differences in sleep patterns in young children across culturally diverse countries/regions. Further studies are needed to understand the basis for and impact of these interesting differences. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Luijters, Kyra; van der Zee, Karen I.; Otten, Sabine
The present research investigated the role of perceived similarity in cultural values (associated with diversity in cultural backgrounds) and an intercultural group climate in predicting identification with both the organization and the work team. The relevance of perceived similarity in cultural
Kalwar, Santosh Kumar
This work conceptualizes human behavior on the Internet. The study was conducted with 10 university participants representing two different cultural backgrounds, Asian and Western. The participants were asked to visit any Web page on the Internet for 15 minutes, for 30 minutes, and for 1 hour. The results showed that participants displayed no signs of anxiousness during the 15-minute task and very little anxiousness during the 30-minute task. Western participants showed overall more anxiousness than Asian participants. However, all participants showed anxiousness during the 1-hour task. Data on comparative human anxiety were collected on the basis of a literature review of social fun, online belonging, and community on the Internet. Only the limited set of data of the participant is discussed in this article.
Evans, Bronwynne C
Eight instruments to evaluate grant interventions aimed at increasing recruitment and retention of Hispanic/Latino and American Indian nurses were developed for a Nursing Workforce Diversity Grant. This article compares expert reviewer responses during content validation of these instruments with (a) current literature and (b) seven filmed intervals of Hispanic/Latino and American Indian nurses speaking about their educational experiences. White reviewers responded differently to certain items than did Hispanic/Latino and American Indian reviewers (or reviewers closely affiliated with such persons). Responses of Hispanic/Latino and American Indian experts were aligned with one another but not aligned with the responses of White experts, who also agreed with one another, prompting literature and film comparisons with their responses. Faculty development may be needed to help teachers uncover their assumptions about students of color, acquire knowledge about cultural perspectives, recognize institutional racism, and attain the skills necessary to develop and implement a curriculum of inclusion.
Luo, Shi-Jian; Dong, Ye-Nan
Inspiration plays an important role in the design activities and design education. This paper describes "ancient cultural artefacts" as "cultural inspiration," consisting of two types called "cultural-pictorial inspiration" (CPI) and "cultural-textual inspiration" (CTI). This study aims to test the important…
Wallén Warner, Henriette; Ozkan, Türker; Lajunen, Timo
The aim of the present study was to examine if there are any cross-cultural differences between Swedish and Turkish drivers' rating of the variables in the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) with regard to complying with the speed limit. A sample of 219 Swedish and 252 Turkish drivers completed a questionnaire including questions based on the theory of planned behaviour (i.e. regarding attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioural control, intention and behaviour). The results show that country differences in drivers' intention to comply with the speed limit as well as their self-reported compliance could be explained by differences found in their attitude, subjective norm and perceived behavioural control. Furthermore, drivers who live in a country with fewer road traffic fatalities (i.e. Sweden), compared with drivers who live in a country with more road traffic fatalities (i.e. Turkey), reported a more positive attitude towards complying with the speed limit, a more positive subjective norm, a higher perceived behavioural control, a higher intention and a larger proportion of the time spent complying.
Mijakoski, Dragan; Karadzinska-Bislimovska, Jovanka; Basarovska, Vera; Montgomery, Anthony; Panagopoulou, Efharis; Stoleski, Sasho; Minov, Jordan
Burnout results from a prolonged response to chronic emotional and interpersonal workplace stressors. The focus of research has been widened to job engagement. Purpose of the study was to examine associations between burnout, job engagement, work demands, and organisational culture (OC) and to demonstrate differences between physicians and nurses working in general hospital in Skopje, Republic of Macedonia. Maslach Burnout Inventory and Utrecht Work Engagement Scale were used for assessment of burnout and job engagement. Work demands and OC were measured with Hospital Experience Scale and Competing Values Framework, respectively. Higher scores of dedication, hierarchy OC, and organizational work demands were found in physicians. Nurses demonstrated higher scores of clan OC. Burnout negatively correlated with clan and market OC in physicians and nurses. Job engagement positively correlated with clan and market OC in nurses. Different work demands were related to different dimensions of burnout and/or job engagement. Our findings support job demands-resources (JD-R) model (Demerouti and Bakker). Data obtained can be used in implementation of specific organizational interventions in the hospital setting. Providing adequate JD-R interaction can lead to prevention of burnout in health professionals (HPs) and contribute positively to better job engagement in HPs and higher quality of patient care.
... Ownership Operations Operational Control § 91.1013 Operational control briefing and acknowledgment. (a) Upon...) Liability risk in the event of a flight-related occurrence that causes personal injury or property damage...
AKDENİZ, Defne; AYTEMİZ SEYMEN, Oya
This study aimed to test whether national culture and organizational cultures were isomorphic in accommodation establishments, through Hofstede’s cultural dimensions. Based on data from a survey of 142 employees from multinational hotels in Istanbul, the existence and degree of difference between national and organizational culture were tested. The new culture scores were calculated by calculation formulas derived from the mean scores of each culture dimension. The most important result of th...
Yang, Dazhi; Olesova, Larissa; Richardson, Jennifer C.
Being aware of cultural differences and knowing how to deal with related differences is critical for the success of online learning and training that involves learners from multiple countries and cultures. This study examines the perceived differences of participants from two different cultures on (1) students' participation behaviors; (2)…
With the increase of culturally diverse people residing in Denmark, it has become imperative to provide student nurses with knowledge and skills that will enable them to become culturally sensitive in order interact effectively with clients from culturally diverse backgrounds. The aim of this study...... was to explore whether student nurses develop cultural sensitivity as a consequence of living and studying in a culture that is different from their own. Seven Danish student nurses who had participated in student exchanges in Jamaica, Australia, Malta and Greenland took part in this study. A qualitative...
Whether emotion is universal or social is a recurrent issue in the history of emotion study among psychologists. Some researchers view emotion as a universal construct, and that a large part of emotional experience is biologically based. However, emotion is not only biologically determined, but is also influenced by the environment. Therefore, cultural differences exist in some aspects of emotions, one such important aspect of emotion being emotional arousal level. All affective states are sy...
Full Text Available This paper is based on data collected as part of a research study which looks at how different social and cultural groups frame, and respond to, the risk of income and/or job loss. Writers like LASH, DOUGLAS and LUPTON have placed an emphasis on the importance of group membership and social categories in structuring response to different types of risk preferring to talk about "risk cultures" rather than "risk society". However, the writers acknowledge that there is little empirical research which explores this. As the first stage of our research, focus groups in two parts of the UK explored the relationship between risk and social difference with an emphasis on the risk of job or income loss. The groups were comprised of lesbian, gay and bisexual people; people from Black and Minority Ethnic backgrounds; Disabled people; and, people who actively practice a religion. Participants did not see strong links between their sexuality, race, or religion and their perceptions of, or responses to, risk. Income, and attitudinal factors were cited as being more important. Disabled people however were much more likely to make connections between being disabled and a range of barriers to responding to risky situations. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0601160
Kroon, D.P.; Noorderhaven, N.G.; Leufkens, A.S.; Cooper, C.; Finkelstein, S.
Postmerger integration processes have been studied from the perspectives of organizational identity and organizational culture, but these two perspectives have rarely been integrated. We argue that organizational identification and organizational culture differences give rise to two different sets
Drobna, Zuzana; Walton, Felecia S.; Harmon, Anne W.; Thomas, David J.; Styblo, Miroslav
Biomethylation is the major pathway for the metabolism of inorganic arsenic (iAs) in many mammalian species, including the human. However, significant interspecies differences have been reported in the rate of in vivo metabolism of iAs and in yields of iAs metabolites found in urine. Liver is considered the primary site for the methylation of iAs and arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase (As3mt) is the key enzyme in this pathway. Thus, the As3mt-catalyzed methylation of iAs in the liver determines in part the rate and the pattern of iAs metabolism in various species. We examined kinetics and concentration-response patterns for iAs methylation by cultured primary hepatocytes derived from human, rat, mice, dog, rabbit, and rhesus monkey. Hepatocytes were exposed to [ 73 As]arsenite (iAs III ; 0.3, 0.9, 3.0, 9.0 or 30 nmol As/mg protein) for 24 h and radiolabeled metabolites were analyzed in cells and culture media. Hepatocytes from all six species methylated iAs III to methylarsenic (MAs) and dimethylarsenic (DMAs). Notably, dog, rat and monkey hepatocytes were considerably more efficient methylators of iAs III than mouse, rabbit or human hepatocytes. The low efficiency of mouse, rabbit and human hepatocytes to methylate iAs III was associated with inhibition of DMAs production by moderate concentrations of iAs III and with retention of iAs and MAs in cells. No significant correlations were found between the rate of iAs methylation and the thioredoxin reductase activity or glutathione concentration, two factors that modulate the activity of recombinant As3mt. No associations between the rates of iAs methylation and As3mt protein structures were found for the six species examined. Immunoblot analyses indicate that the superior arsenic methylation capacities of dog, rat and monkey hepatocytes examined in this study may be associated with a higher As3mt expression. However, factors other than As3mt expression may also contribute to the interspecies differences
While current conceptualisations of the inextricable connection between language and culture in English language education are largely informed by complex sociocultural theories that view culture as constructed in and through social practices among people, classroom practices continue to be influenced by mainstream discourses of culture that…
Gonzalez-Mena, Janet; Bhavnagri, Navaz Peshotan
Discusses cultural differences in sleeping practices, focusing on how child caregivers can provide developmentally appropriate and culturally sensitive care. Describes co-sleeping as an accepted practice in many cultures with several benefits. Discusses the role of cultural values, beliefs, priorities, and goals and the importance of…
Chang, Lei; Mak, Miranda C. K.; Li, Tong; Wu, Bao Pei; Chen, Bin Bin; Lu, Hui Jing
Much research has been conducted to document and sometimes to provide proximate explanations (e.g., Confucianism vs. Western philosophy) for East-West cultural differences. The ultimate evolutionary mechanisms underlying these cross-cultural differences have not been addressed. We propose in this review that East-West cultural differences (e.g.,…
Kawakami, Tomoya; Koike, Atsushi; Amano, Fumio
The role of activated macrophages in the host defense against pathogens or tumor cells has been investigated extensively. Many researchers have been using various culture media in in vitro experiments using macrophages. We previously reported that J774.1/JA-4 macrophage-like cells showed great differences in their activated macrophage phenotypes, such as production of reactive oxygen, nitric oxide (NO) or cytokines depending on the culture medium used, either F-12 (Ham's F-12 nutrient mixture) or Dulbecco modified Eagle's medium (DMEM). To examine whether a difference in the culture medium would influence the functions of primary macrophages, we used BALB/c mouse peritoneal macrophages in this study. Among the activated macrophage phenotypes, the expression of inducible NO synthase in LPS- and/or IFN-γ-treated peritoneal macrophages showed the most remarkable differences between F-12 and DMEM; i.e., NO production by LPS- and/or IFN-γ-treated cells was far lower in DMEM than in F-12. Similar results were obtained with C57BL mouse peritoneal macrophages. Besides, dilution of F-12 medium with saline resulted in a slight decrease in NO production, whereas that of DMEM with saline resulted in a significant increase, suggesting the possibility that DMEM contained some inhibitory factor(s) for NO production. However, such a difference in NO production was not observed when macrophage-like cell lines were examined. These results suggest that phenotypes of primary macrophages could be changed significantly with respect to host inflammatory responses by the surrounding environment including nutritional factors and that these altered macrophage phenotypes might influence the biological host defense.
Lichtenstein, Ann H; Berger, Ann; Cheng, M Jennifer
For centuries healing has been embedded in non-Western cultures. Traditional cultures believe that healing is derived from the divine and utilize a holistic approach to healing including the body, mind, and spirit. The community and environment are key elements in individual healing along with herbal remedies and ceremonies. Western cultures have accepted some traditional methods of relaxation and exercise, such as yoga and tai chi. In this paper we will examine some similar themes of traditional practices to better understand traditional patients' healing paradigm and find new tools as practitioners of Western medicine.
Svendsen, Anne Sakseide
Culture is an important business element which can make the difference between success and failure for businesses that will expand abroad. The differences between two cultures do not have to vary to a large extent, but they still have to be considered. Hence knowledge about culture plays an important role in a company's decision making process. This master thesis is focused on selected aspects of cultural differences and their influence on the international marketing mix. The first part of th...
Herrmann, Douglas J.; Raybeck, Douglas
Employed multidimensional scaling to investigate semantic domains. Studied two semantic categories that varied in abstractness (animals and emotions) in six cultures (Greece, Haiti, Hong Kong, Spain, United States, and Vietnam). (Author/MK)
Bentwich, Miriam Ethel; Dickman, Nomy; Oberman, Amitai
A key message in the World Health Organization report on dementia (2012) emphasizes this disease as a top priority in public health and the need to improve professional attitudes to patients with dementia, while acknowledging that the workforce in dementia care is becoming increasingly diverse culturally. To trace whether there are substantial gaps between formal caretakers from different cultural groups (Israeli born Jews [Sabras], Israeli Arabs [Arabs] and migrants from Russia [Russians]) regarding their stances on the human dignity and autonomy of patients with dementia, as well as understand the meaning of these gaps. quantitative analysis utilizing questionnaires that were filled-out by approximately 200 caretakers from the different cultural groups, working in a nursing home or a hospital. In nursing homes, substantial differences were found in the attitudes to human dignity and autonomy of patients with dementia between Russian and Arab as well as Sabra caretakers. In the hospital, there was no influence for the ethno-culture variable on dignity or autonomy. Contrary to past research, in nursing homes, significant differences were found between certain ethno-cultural groups (Arabs and Russians) regarding their stance towards the dignity of patients with dementia. Arab caretakers hold a conception of dignity and autonomy that resonates strongly with person-centered care and outweighs institutional settings as well as may be related to the fostering of virtues. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
The main purpose of this thesis is to demonstrate how culture and cultural differences influence on the international marketing. Also, it demonstrates how international companies deal with cross-cultural issues and problems. First, the importance of culture and two models of cultural dimensions like Hofstede and Trompenaars will be analyzed and discussed. Second, the marketing activities of two international corporations- McDonald's and Red Bull will be discussed and analyzed. The research wi...
Dimitrijevic, Bojana M.
In Serbian context many of the teachers are faced with a challenge of diversifying classrooms regarding the cultural background of the students. According to intercultural theory the way that people perceive cultural differences and their competence to effectively act in situations that involve different cultures is influenced by the intercultural…
Juncker, Beth; Balling, Gitte
Ever since the earliest forms of mass media, the dichotomy of mass culture/popular arts and high culture/fine art has been a topic of debate. The discussion has focused on the value and use of different art forms and on different notions on and attitudes to the purpose of art. The concept...... of cultural democracy has developed as a way to acknowledge and support a variety of cultural activities. Despite attempts to develop a broader understanding of culture and to acknowledge different ways of participating in and experiencing and valuing art and culture, cultural policy still seems to reproduce...... the dichotomies between high and popular culture, and to value the first over the latter. Art and culture are rarely understood as an independent way to experiences, meaning creation and values in everyday life. In this article, we would argue for an expanded understanding of cultural democracy, which not only...
Hook, Joshua N; Watkins, C Edward
Comments on the original article by Christopher et al. (see record 2014-20055-001) regarding cultural and folk psychologies. As noted by Christopher, Wendt, Marecek, and Goodman (2014), "U.S. psychology remains not only overwhelmingly U.S.- centric but also largely unaware of how its cultural roots shape theory and research. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Psathyrella atroumbonata, an indigenous mushroom species, was cultured on six different media that were inoculated separately with three different grain spawns and amended with six different oils at five different rates. The results revealed that the interaction of the various oils with the different culture media produced a ...
Rayner, Keith; Castelhano, Monica S.; Yang, Jinmian
Recent studies have suggested that eye movement patterns while viewing scenes differ for people from different cultural backgrounds and that these differences in how scenes are viewed are due to differences in the prioritization of information (background or foreground). The current study examined whether there are cultural differences in how…
Helms-Lorenz, M; Van de Vijver, FJR; Poortinga, YH
Common tests of Spearman's hypothesis, according to which performance differences between cultural groups on cognitive tests increase with their g loadings, confound cognitive complexity and verbal-cultural aspects. The present study attempts to disentangle these components. Two intelligence
Jaakkola, Maarit; Hellman, Heikki; Koljonen, Kari; Väliverronen, Jari
Reflecting a change from high to liquid modern culture, journalism is said to be encountering a transformation from high toward liquid modernity. Cultural journalism, however, has been found to be "journalism with a difference". Due to this distinctive character, the principles of general journalism do not directly apply to cultural journalism. Consequently, the manifestations and consequences of the high and liquid modern ethos appear differently in cultural journalism. Proposing a theoretic...
Lemmen, J G; Pinborg, A; Rasmussen, S; Ziebe, S
Is there a difference in birthweight distribution in ART singletons born after IVF culture in two different culture media? There is no effect of culture media on both crude and adjusted birthweight distributions in ART singletons from nulliparous mothers. Studies on human ART singletons have reported a difference in birthweight in singletons following IVF culture in different culture media. However, other studies comparing different culture media have not shown any significant differences in birthweight. This study was a retrospective comparison of birthweights in IVF/ICSI singletons conceived after fresh embryo transfer following embryo culture in Cook or Medicult medium and in a national cohort of naturally conceived singletons in nulliparous women. The study compares four independent groups consisting of singletons in nulliparous women from Cook-d2: 2-day culture in Cook medium at Rigshospitalet (n = 974), Medicult-d2: 2-day culture in Medicult EmbryoAssist medium at Rigshospitalet (n = 147), Medicult-d3: 3-day culture in Medicult EmbryoAssist medium with and without added GM-CSF (n = 204), and DK: pregnancies from the Danish birth registry (n = 106842). The study compares the birthweights of singletons from nulliparous women in the four independent groups mentioned above; Cook-d2: Medicult-d2: Medicult-d3: and DK. In addition, distributions of large and small for gestational age infants were compared between the groups and a multiple linear regression analysis was used to determine which factors determined birthweight. We found no significant difference in the crude birthweight distributions between singletons born after culture in Cook-d2 or Medicult-groups. Singleton girls from the Cook-d2 group weighed 3302 ± 28 g, versus 3252 ± 76 in the Medicult-d2 group (difference 50 g; P = 0.547). Singleton boys from the Cook-d2 group weighed 3430 ± 27 g, versus 3354 ± 56 in the Medicult-d2 group (difference 76 g; P = 0.279). In the background population, mean
Stigberg, Sara; Guittar, Michelle; Morse, Geoffrey
Assessment and supporting data have become of increasing interest in librarianship. In this paper, we describe the development and implementation of the Northwestern University Library Acknowledgments Database tool, which gathers and documents qualitative data, as well as its component reporting function. This collaborative project and resulting…
Lee, Kyungjae; Manning, Walter H.
Given the well-documented understanding that stuttering behavior elicits stereotypically negative responses from listeners, two experiments explored the equivocal results of earlier investigations concerning the potential for self-acknowledgment and modification of stuttering to elicit positive responses from naive (unfamiliar with stuttering)…
Full Text Available The practice of acknowledgement in scholarly communication is widespread and growing. Acknowledgements define a variety of cognitive and social relationships between researchers within and across disciplines, and could thus be used to map networks of influence. We explore the relationship between authorship, acknowledgement and citation -the «Reward Triangle»- in the context of the academic audit process. We also consider the case for using acknowledgement data conjointly with established bibliometric indicators, such as citations, in performance assessment.
El uso del agradecimiento está muy extendido en la comunicación académica y tiende a aumentar. El agradecimiento sirve para definir una serie de relaciones sociales y de conocimiento entre investigadores de una disciplina, así como vinculación con otras áreas del saber y, por eso, puede utilizarse para hacer un diseño de redes de influencia. En este artículo se explora la relación entre autores, agradecimientos y citas -el «triángulo del reconocimiento»- en el contexto de la evaluación académica. Los autores también consideran la posible utilización de datos procedentes del agradecimiento conjuntamente con otros indicadores bibliométricos, tales como las citas, en las evaluaciones.
Implementing relationships-based pedagogies in infant and toddler settings might assume that teachers' experiences of emotional labour will be acknowledged. This assumption may be complicated by assessment practices that both rely on and detract from relationship-building opportunities with infants and toddlers. Assessment also relies on…
Somfai, Tamás; Inaba, Yasushi; Aikawa, Yoshio; Ohtake, Masaki; Kobayashi, Shuji; Konishi, Kazuyuki; Nagai, Takashi; Imai, Kei
The aim of the present study was to optimise the culture conditions for the in vitro production of bovine embryos. The development of in vitro fertilised bovine oocytes in CR1aa supplemented with 5% calf serum and IVD101 culture media were compared using traditional microdrops and Well of the Well (WOW) culture systems either under 5% or 20% oxygen tension. After 7 days of culture, a significantly higher blastocyst formation rate was obtained for embryos cultured in CR1aa medium compared to those cultured in IVD101, irrespective of O2 tensions and culture systems. The blastocyst formation in IVD101 was suppressed under 20% O2 compared to 5% O2 . Despite their similar total cell numbers, higher rates of inner cell mass (ICM) cells were observed in blastocysts developed in IVD101 medium than in those developed in CR1aa, irrespective of O2 tensions. There was no significant difference in blastocyst formation, total, ICM and trophectoderm (TE) cell numbers between embryos obtained by microdrop and WOW culture systems irrespective of the culture media and O2 tensions used. In conclusion, CR1aa resulted in higher blastocyst formation rates irrespective of O2 tension, whereas IVD101 supported blastocyst formation only under low O2 levels but enhanced the proliferation of ICM cells.
Cheng, Winnie; Warren, Martin
This paper presents an analysis of the potential problems of importing media communication in the form of a television programme from another culture. In Hong Kong, as elsewhere in the world, the local television companies frequently buy successful television programmes from, for example, the USA or Britain with the expectation that they will be…
Chen, Jacqueline M; Kim, Heejung S; Sherman, David K; Hashimoto, Takeshi
Emotional expression is highly valued in individualistic cultures, whereas emotional restraint is prioritized in collectivistic cultures. We hypothesized that high-quality relationships in these cultures would exhibit the forms of support provision congruent with their respective expectations. Study 1 examined support transactions among friends in response to a laboratory stressor and found that objectively judged relationship quality (RQ) more strongly positively predicted emotion-focused support provision behaviors by European Americans than by Asian Americans. Study 2, a questionnaire study, found that self-reported RQ predicted emotion-focused support provision more strongly among European Americans than among Japanese. Study 3 investigated more indirect forms of support and found that RQ more strongly predicted worrying about and monitoring close others enduring stressors and spending time with them without talking about the stressor among Asian Americans compared with European Americans. These findings suggest that RQ is expressed in terms of support provision in culturally normative ways. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.
Chen, Chaona; Jack, Rachael E
Understanding the cultural commonalities and specificities of facial expressions of emotion remains a central goal of Psychology. However, recent progress has been stayed by dichotomous debates (e.g. nature versus nurture) that have created silos of empirical and theoretical knowledge. Now, an emerging interdisciplinary scientific culture is broadening the focus of research to provide a more unified and refined account of facial expressions within and across cultures. Specifically, data-driven approaches allow a wider, more objective exploration of face movement patterns that provide detailed information ontologies of their cultural commonalities and specificities. Similarly, a wider exploration of the social messages perceived from face movements diversifies knowledge of their functional roles (e.g. the 'fear' face used as a threat display). Together, these new approaches promise to diversify, deepen, and refine knowledge of facial expressions, and deliver the next major milestones for a functional theory of human social communication that is transferable to social robotics. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Carter, Prudence L.
Background/Context: One of the most critical functions of a well-integrated school is the development of "culturally flexible" students who, over the course of their social development, effectively navigate diverse social environs such as the workplace, communities, and neighborhoods. Most studies, albeit with some exceptions, have…
Richland, Lindsey Engle; Chan, Tsz-Kit; Morrison, Robert G.; Au, Terry Kit-Fong
A cross-cultural comparison between U.S. and Hong Kong preschoolers examined factors responsible for young children's analogical reasoning errors. On a scene analogy task, both groups had adequate prerequisite knowledge of the key relations, were the same age, and showed similar baseline performance, yet Chinese children outperformed U.S. children…
Casinader, Niranjan R.; Walsh, Lucas
The increasing cultural diversity of students in Australia's schools is one of the salient changes in education over the last 30 years. In 2011, nearly half of all Australians had one or more parents born overseas, with migration from China, the Indian subcontinent and Africa increasing during the early 2000s (Australian Bureau of Statistics,…
Grutters, Janneke P C; Sculpher, Mark; Briggs, Andrew H; Severens, Johan L; Candel, Math J; Stahl, James E; De Ruysscher, Dirk; Boer, Albert; Ramaekers, Bram L T; Joore, Manuela A
Patient heterogeneity is the part of variability that can be explained by certain patient characteristics (e.g. age, disease stage). Population reimbursement decisions that acknowledge patient heterogeneity could potentially save money and increase population health. To date, however, economic evaluations pay only limited attention to patient heterogeneity. The objective of the present paper is to provide a comprehensive overview of the current knowledge regarding patient heterogeneity within economic evaluation of healthcare programmes. A systematic literature review was performed to identify methodological papers on the topic of patient heterogeneity in economic evaluation. Data were obtained using a keyword search of the PubMed database and manual searches. Handbooks were also included. Relevant data were extracted regarding potential sources of patient heterogeneity, in which of the input parameters of an economic evaluation these occur, methods to acknowledge patient heterogeneity and specific concerns associated with this acknowledgement. A total of 20 articles and five handbooks were included. The relevant sources of patient heterogeneity (demographics, preferences and clinical characteristics) and the input parameters where they occurred (baseline risk, treatment effect, health state utility and resource utilization) were combined in a framework. Methods were derived for the design, analysis and presentation phases of an economic evaluation. Concerns related mainly to the danger of false-positive results and equity issues. By systematically reviewing current knowledge regarding patient heterogeneity within economic evaluations of healthcare programmes, we provide guidance for future economic evaluations. Guidance is provided on which sources of patient heterogeneity to consider, how to acknowledge them in economic evaluation and potential concerns. The improved acknowledgement of patient heterogeneity in future economic evaluations may well improve the
Wilkes, Rima; Duong, Aaron; Kesler, Linc; Ramos, Howard
At many Canadian universities it is now common to publicly acknowledge Indigenous lands, treaties, and peoples. Yet, this practice has yet to be considered as a subject of scholarly inquiry. How does this practice vary and why? In this paper we describe the content and practice of acknowledgment, linking this content to treaty relationships (or lack thereof). We show that acknowledgment tends to be one of five general types: of land and title (British Columbia), of specific treaties and political relationships (Prairies), of multiculturalism and heterogeneity (Ontario), of no practice (most of Quebec), and of people, territory, and openness to doing more (Atlantic). Based on these results, we conclude that the fluidity of acknowledgment as a practice, including changing meanings depending on the positionality of the acknowledger, need to be taken into account. Plusieurs universités Canadien pratique une reconnaissance des territoires, des traités, et des peoples autochtone en publique. Cette pratique, cependant, n'a jamais été considérée comme une enquête savante. Dans ce projet nous regardons comment les reconnaissances varie par institution et pourquoi. Nous trouvons qu'il y a un lien entre le contenu des reconnaissances et les relations traité. On démontre cinq forme des reconnaissances: territoire et titre (Colombie britannique); traité spécifique and les relations politiques (Prairies); multiculturalisme et hétérogénéité (Ontario); l'absence (la majorité du Québec); et des peoples, territoire et volonté a plus faire (Atlantique). Nous concluons que la fluidité de la reconnaissance, comme pratique, est fluide et doit prendre en considération la position de la personne qui le fait. © 2017 Canadian Sociological Association/La Société canadienne de sociologie.
Cultural distance is a widely used construct in international business, where it has been applied to foreign investment expansion, entry mode choice, and the performance of foreign invested affiliates, among others. The present paper presents a critical review of the cultural distance construct, outlining its hidden assumptions and challenging its theoretical and methodological properties. A comprehensive framework for the treatment of the construct is developed and concrete steps aimed at en...
Knox, Paul C; Wolohan, Felicity D A
A central claim of cultural neuroscience is that the culture to which an individual belongs plays a key role in shaping basic cognitive processes and behaviours, including eye movement behaviour. We previously reported a robust difference in saccade behaviour between Chinese and Caucasian participants; Chinese participants are much more likely to execute low latency express saccades, in circumstances in which these are normally discouraged. To assess the extent to which this is the product of culture we compared a group of 70 Chinese overseas students (whose primary cultural exposure was that of mainland China), a group of 45 participants whose parents were Chinese but who themselves were brought up in the UK (whose primary cultural exposure was western European) and a group of 70 Caucasian participants. Results from the Schwartz Value Survey confirmed that the UK-Chinese group were culturally similar to the Caucasian group. However, their patterns of saccade latency were identical to the mainland Chinese group, and different to the Caucasian group. We conclude that at least for the relatively simple reflexive saccade behaviour we have investigated, culture cannot explain the observed differences in behaviour.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of leader- member exchange to burnout syndrome in different organizational cultures. Sample of the study is constituted by 183 participants who work in life insurance companies which represent organic organizational culture and non-life insurance companies which represent mechanical organizational culture. As a result of regression and correlation analysis, it is determined that leader-member exchange in organic organizational culture affects organizational culture negatively and in higher level compared to mechanical organizational cultures.
Hameed, Nazia; Shaikh, Maqbool Uddin; Hameed, Fozia; Shamim, Azra
Rapid development of Internet and information technologies has gifted us with a new and diverse mode of learning known as e-learning. In the current era, e-learning has made rapid, influential, universal, interactive, vibrant, and economic development. Now e-learning has become a global mode of education. E-learning means the use of internet, computer and communications technologies to acquire education. Learners with diverse social, cultural, economic, linguistic, and religious backgrounds f...
Ng, Reuben; Levy, Becca
Although pettiness, defined as the tendency to get agitated over trivial matters, is a facet of neuroticism which has negative health implications, no measure exists. The goal of the current study was to develop, and validate a short pettiness scale. In Study 1 (N = 2136), Exploratory Factor Analysis distilled a one-factor model with five items. Convergent validity was established using the Big Five Inventory, DASS, Satisfaction with Life Scale, and Conner-Davidson Resilience Scale. As predicted, pettiness was positively associated with neuroticism, depression, anxiety and stress but negatively related to extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, openness, life satisfaction and resilience. Also, as predicted, pettiness was not significantly related to physical functioning, or blind and constructive patriotism, indicating discriminant validity. Confirmatory Factor Analysis in Study 2 (N = 734) revealed a stable one-factor model of pettiness. In Study 3 (N = 532), the scale, which showed a similar factor structure in the USA and Singapore, also reflected predicted cross-cultural patterns: Pettiness was found to be significantly lower in the United States, a culture categorized as "looser" than in Singapore, a culture classified as "tighter" in terms of Gelfand and colleagues' framework of national tendencies to oppose social deviance. Results suggest that this brief 5-item tool is a reliable and valid measure of pettiness, and its use in health research is encouraged.
Claramita, Mora; Nugraheni, Mubarika D F; van Dalen, Jan; van der Vleuten, Cees
Studies of doctor-patient communication generally advocate a partnership communication style. However, in Southeast Asian settings, we often see a more one-way style with little input from the patient. We investigated factors underlying the use of a one-way consultation style by doctors in a Southeast Asian setting. We conducted a qualitative study based on principles of grounded theory. Twenty residents and specialists and 20 patients of a low or high educational level were interviewed in internal medicine outpatient clinics of an Indonesian teaching hospital and two affiliated hospitals. During 26 weeks we engaged in an iterative interview and coding process to identify emergent factors. Patients were generally dissatisfied with doctors' communication style. The doctors indicated that they did not deliberately use a one-way style. Communication style appeared to be associated with characteristics of Southeast Asian culture, the health care setting and medical education. Doctor-patient communication appeared to be affected by cultural characteristics which fell into two broad categories representing key features of Southeast Asian culture, "social distance" and "closeness of relationships", and to characteristics categorized as "specific clinical context". Consideration of these characteristics could be helpful in promoting the use of a partnership communication style.
Paik, Jae H.; van Gelderen, Loes; Gonzales, Manuel; de Jong, Peter F.; Hayes, Michael
East Asian children have consistently outperformed children from other nations on mathematical tests. However, most previous cross-cultural studies mainly compared East Asian countries and the United States and have largely ignored cultures from other parts of the world. The present study explored cultural differences in young children's early…
Describes examples of simulations and strategies for teaching about psychology that were developed in Indonesia and Malaysia to incorporate and address controversies related to cultural differences. A model that simulates the influence of a client's cultural context in counseling is explained, and developing stereotyped synthetic cultures is…
Clark, Stephen A; Lekshmi, Aiswarya; Lucidarme, Jay; Hao, Li; Tsao, How; Lee-Jones, Lisa; Jansen, Kathrin U; Newbold, Lynne S; Anderson, Annaliesa S; Borrow, Ray
To compare the distribution of capsular groups and factor H-binding protein (fHBP) variants among meningococcal isolates and non-culture clinical specimens and to assess the representativeness of group B isolates amongst group B cases as a whole. A PCR sequencing assay was used to characterise fHBP from non-culture cases confirmed from January 2011 to December 2013. These were compared to genotypic data derived from whole genome analysis of isolates received during the same period. Group W and Y strains were more common among isolates than non-culture strains. The distribution of fHBP variants among group B non-culture cases generally reflected that seen in the corresponding isolates. Nonetheless, the non-culture subset contained a greater proportion of fHBP variant 15/B44, associated with the ST-269 cluster sublineage. Differences in capsular group and fHBP distribution among culture and non-culture cases may be indicative of variation in strain viability, diagnostic practice, disease severity and/or clinical presentation. Future analyses combining clinical case information with laboratory data may help to further explore these differences. Group B isolates provide a good representation of group B disease in E&W and, therefore, can reliably be used in fHBP strain coverage predictions of recently-licensed vaccines. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Matić, Jennifer L.
Research has clearly established that culture affects the application of management theories and practices. Work values, in particular, are an important part of cross-cultural understanding in that they are themselves measures of cultural dimensions, and also have strong implications for many areas of management, from employee motivation to organizational communication. In order to successfully implement management practices originating in a different culture, it is necessary to first ide...
In the different definitions and approaches to creativity, motivation has an important status. Using the social psychology's view of creativity this essay has investigated the role of cultural differences in creative thinking based on the principal of motivation. This research examined the role motivation on creativity; The role of culture on creativity and the role motivation on creativity with regard to cultural differences. The current study was a qualitative reseach by Analytical --descr...
In anticipation of the steady expansion of nuclear power in Asia, all organizations involved in operating nuclear facilities are emphasizing the importance of regional cooperation in the development and enhancement of a safety culture. This paper, based on employees' attitudinal surveys, provides some lessons learned from the experiences of Japanese electric utilities in developing and enhancing a sound safety culture within the organizations which are operating nuclear power plants and related facilities, and discusses approaches for cooperation in Asia, taking into account the different socio-cultural environments. (author)
Gjersoe, Nathalia L; Newman, George E; Chituc, Vladimir; Hood, Bruce
The current studies examine how valuation of authentic items varies as a function of culture. We find that U.S. respondents value authentic items associated with individual persons (a sweater or an artwork) more than Indian respondents, but that both cultures value authentic objects not associated with persons (a dinosaur bone or a moon rock) equally. These differences cannot be attributed to more general cultural differences in the value assigned to authenticity. Rather, the results support the hypothesis that individualistic cultures place a greater value on objects associated with unique persons and in so doing, offer the first evidence for how valuation of certain authentic items may vary cross-culturally.
Helmich, Esther; Yeh, Huei-Ming; Kalet, Adina; Al-Eraky, Mohamed
Becoming a doctor is fundamentally about developing a new, professional identity as a physician, which in and of itself may evoke many emotions. Additionally, medical trainees are increasingly moving from one cultural context to another and are challenged with navigating the resulting shifts in their professional identify. In this Article, the authors aim to address medical professional identity formation from a polyvocal, multidisciplinary, cross-cultural perspective. They delineate the cultural approaches to medical professionalism, reflect on professional identity formation in different cultures and on different theories of identity development, and advocate for a context-specific approach to professional identity formation. In doing so, the authors aim to broaden the developing professional identity formation discourse to include non-Western approaches and notions.
Duarte, Otto Carlos M. B.; de Lima, Heliomar Medeiros
The performances of two finite buffer error recovery strategies are analyzed. In both strategies the retransmission request decision between selective repeat and continuous retransmission is based on an imminent buffer overflow condition. These are accumulative acknowledgment schemes, but in the second strategy the selective-repeat control frame is uniquely an individual negative acknowledgment. The two strategies take advantage of the availability of a greater buffer capacity, making the most of the selective repeat, postponing the sending of a continuous retransmission request. Numerical results show a better performance very close to the ideal, but it does not integrally conform to the high-level data link control (HDLC) procedures. It is shown that these strategies are well suited for high-speed data transfer in the high-error-rate satellite environment.
Investigated culture and gender differences in a self-regulation task. College students in Singapore and Israel completed anagram-solving task that let them select levels of difficulty to maximize achievement. There were cultural differences in attained scores. Women preferred significantly easier tasks, though there was no gender difference in…
Townley, Greg; Kloos, Bret; Green, Eric P; Franco, Margarita M
Sense of community (SOC) is one of the most widely used and studied constructs in community psychology. As proposed by Sarason in (The Psychological sense of community: prospects for a community psychology, Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, 1974), SOC represents the strength of bonding among community members. It is a valuable component of community life, and it has been linked to positive mental health outcomes, citizen participation, and community connectedness. However, promotion of SOC can become problematic in community psychology praxis when it conflicts with other core values proposed to define the field, namely values of human diversity, cultural relativity, and heterogeneity of experience and perspective. Several commentators have noted that promotion of SOC can conflict with multicultural diversity because it tends to emphasize group member similarity and appears to be higher in homogeneous communities. In this paper, we introduce the idea of a community-diversity dialectic as part of praxis and research in community psychology. We argue that systematic consideration of cultural psychology perspectives can guide efforts to address a community-diversity dialectic and revise SOC formulations that ultimately will invigorate community research and action. We provide a working agenda for addressing this dialectic, proposing that systematic consideration of the creative tension between SOC and diversity can be beneficial to community psychology.
Luomala, Harri; Kumar, Rajesh; Worm, Verner
more socially based emotional consequences, and are more easily pursued and are more effective in collectivistic as opposed to individualistic cultures. The paper concludes by outlining the theoretical and managerial implications of the results and spelling out a few research suggestions....
Klein, Helen A; Lin, Mei-Hua; Peng, Kaiping; Bhal, Kanika; Radford, Mark H; Choi, Incheol; Mohd Noor, Noraini; Khalid, Halimahtun M; Chan, David
.... We have taken advantage of developments in cognitive psychology to expand the test battery. This has allowed us to gain a richer picture of national differences in cognition and to capture cognitive differences important in naturalistic setting...
Malmi, Teemu; Ax, Christian; Bedford, David
perceive compensation as important purpose, whereas Germanic and Nordic SBUs emphasize attention direction and learning. Budgets and performance measurement systems are used interactively to a larger extent by Anglo-Saxon and Germanic compared to Nordic SBUs. Rewards are based on achievement of financial...... targets more in Anglo than in Germanic SBUs. Reward and compensation in Anglo SBUs is more subjective, individual based and relies also on non-financial rewards to a larger extent than in Germanic and Nordic SBUs. Regarding cultural controls, Anglo SBUs value recruitment within organization more highly...... than Nordic SBUs and Anglo SBUs use various socialization practices to a larger extent than Germanic and Nordic SBUs do. Implications of these and other findings for both theory development and practice are discussed....
Katiuscia Vaccarini; Barbara Pojaghi
Drawing upon social psychology and international business literature the aim of this paper is to raise international managers and entrepreneurs’ awareness on the opportunity to capitalize on cultural differences and diversity in international business settings. Following our quantitative and qualitative data collection based on managers’ perceptions on cultural differences, we propose and illustrate the sociocognitive value of a group cultural laboratory as a potential “structured business pr...
Kuntsche, Emmanuel; Wicki, Matthias; Windlin, Béat; Roberts, Chris; Gabhainn, Saoirse Nic; van der Sluijs, Winfried; Aasvee, Katrin; Gaspar de Matos, Margarida; Dankulincová, Zuzana; Hublet, Anne; Tynjälä, Jorma; Välimaa, Raili; Bendtsen, Pernille; Vieno, Alessio; Mazur, Joanna; Farkas, Judith; Demetrovics, Zsolt
To test whether differences in alcohol use between boys and girls and between northern and southern/central Europe are mediated by social, enhancement, coping, and conformity motives. Cross-sectional school-based surveys were conducted among 33,813 alcohol-using 11- to 19-year-olds from northern Europe (Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Ireland, Poland, Scotland, and Wales) and southern/central Europe (Belgium, Hungary, Italy, Portugal, Slovakia, and Switzerland). Particularly in late adolescence and early adulthood, boys drank more frequently and were more often drunk than girls. Instead of mediation, gender-specific motive paths were found; 14- to 16-year-old girls drank more because of higher levels of coping motives and lower levels of conformity motives, whereas 14- to 19-year-old boys drank more because of higher levels of social and enhancement motives. Geographical analyses confirmed that adolescents from southern/central European countries drank more frequently, but those from northern Europe reported being drunk more often. The strong indirect effects demonstrate that some of the cultural differences in drinking are because of higher levels of social, enhancement, and coping motives in northern than in southern/central Europe. The results from the largest drinking motive study conducted to date suggest that gender-specific prevention should take differences in the motivational pathways toward (heavy) drinking into account, that is, positive reinforcement seems to be more important for boys and negative reinforcement for girls. Preventive action targeting social and enhancement motives and taking drinking circumstances into account could contribute to tackling underage drinking in northern Europe. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available This article examines the issue of the acceptance of technology across two cultures. To do this an extended technology acceptance model was tested in China and the US. Over one hundred participants, across both cultures, were surveyed as to their perceptions regarding technology acceptance. Cultural values were also measured for each group. Structural equation modeling was used to assess the research model. In general, the model explained a more than adequate amount of variance and achieved acceptable levels of significance. Differences across the two cultures were explained utilizing the cultural values of the participants. Implications for both research and practice were provided
van de Vijver, Fons J. R.
A set of 5 reaction time tests of increasing cognitive complexity were administered to 35 secondary school pupils in Zimbabwe and The Netherlands at 4 consecutive school days in order to explore the existence and nature of cross-cultural differences on reaction time tests measuring basic cognitive operations. No cross-cultural differences were…
Canali, Chiara; Mohanty, Soumyaranjan; Heiskanen, Arto
We present the application of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) as a method for discriminating between different polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) scaffolds for three-dimensional (3D) cell cultures. The validity of EIS characterisation for scaffolds having different degree of porosity...... serve as means of single-frequency measurements for fast scaffold characterization combined with in vitro monitoring of 3D cell cultures....
H.G. Barkema (Harry); G.A.M. Vermeulen (Freek)
textabstractAn international joint venture implies that a firm has to cooperate with a partner with a different cultural background. In this study, hypotheses about which differences in national culture are most disruptive for international joint ventures were developed and tested using Hofstede's
Kostelijk, Erik Jan; Alsem, Karel Jan; Ali, Semra
Values motivate consumer behaviour. The objective of this research is to show the impact of cultural differences on the consumer value system. The Netherlands and Chile were compared to identify to what extent differences between both cultures have an effect on what consumers value, and how this
The objective of this paper is to understand the impact of cultural differences on mobile learning adoption through identifying key adoption characteristics in Canada and Turkey, which have markedly different cultural backgrounds. A multi-group analysis was employed to test the hypothesised relationships based on the data collected by means of…
Nelson, Gayle L.
Peer response groups contribute to students' effectiveness as writers in any field, but cultural differences in communication affect interactions within the group. Culture-based dimensions on which communication may differ include individualism/collectivism, power distance, concept of "face," and communication style. Recommendations are…
Oct 27, 2011 ... dry matter accumulation at different growing stages in 2004-2005, yield and yield components in harvest in both years were deter- mined. The data were subjected to analyses of variance (ANOVA) to determine the effects of treatments, and the mean differences were adjudged by Duncan multiple range test ...
Cheung, Wing-Yee; Maio, Gregory R; Rees, Kerry J; Kamble, Shanmukh; Mane, Sangeetha
Three studies tested whether individualism-collectivism moderates the extent to which values are endorsed as ideal self-guides and ought self-guides, and the consequences for regulatory focus and emotion. Across Studies 1 and 2, individualists endorsed values that are relatively central to the self as stronger ideals than oughts, whereas collectivists endorsed them as ideals and oughts to a similar degree. Study 2 found that individualists justified central values using reasons that were more promotion focused than prevention focused, whereas collectivists used similar amount of prevention-focused and promotion-focused reasons. In Study 3, individualists felt more dejected after violating a central (vs. peripheral) value and more agitated after violating a peripheral (vs. central) value. Collectivists felt a similar amount of dejection regardless of values centrality and more agitation after violating central (vs. peripheral) values. Overall, culture has important implications for how we regulate values that are central or peripheral to our self-concept. © 2016 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.
Indira Maria Estolano Macedo
Full Text Available The entomophagy understands the consumption of insects for the human beings. In spite of exotic appearance it is practiced enough in many countries, mainly in Asia, Africa and Latin America, contributing so to the food security and models of subsistence. In Brazil, in special, in the northeast region the insects are food resources of considerable importance, because of being abundant, of easy collection and offer of nutritious ones. The objective of this inquiry valued the knowledge and the intention of practicing the entomofagia near the students of courses made a list to the extent of the food, located in the Metropolitan Region of Recife and Zona da Mata de Pernambuco. It was observed that most of the interviewed already have the habit in the consumption of ants (Tanajura, in the perspective of the maintenance and cultural tradition of the northeastern one. For 82,4 % of the interviewed ones, in spite of informing that the insects are not composing the usual diet, these showed the thought of including the entomophagy in the food, since they understand like a protein quality alternative.
A gender difference in color preference among British participants has been repeatedly reported, in which both males and females show a preference for blue-green colors, while females express an additional preference for pink-purple colors6,10,12. To investigate the robustness of gender difference in color preference in a different culture, we tested 81 young adult Indians from a school of Design and compared them to 80 young British students in Psychology. A 35-item International Personality...
Mejia, Anilena; Leijten, Patty; Lachman, Jamie M; Parra-Cardona, José Ruben
Relevant achievements have been accomplished in prevention science with regard to disseminating efficacious parenting interventions among underserved populations. However, widespread disparities in availability of parenting services continue to negatively impact diverse populations in high-income countries (e.g., the USA) and low- and middle-income countries. As a result, a scholarly debate on cultural adaptation has evolved over the years. Specifically, some scholars have argued that in diverse cultural contexts, existing evidence-based parenting interventions should be delivered with strict fidelity to ensure effectiveness. Others have emphasized the need for cultural adaptations of interventions when disseminated among diverse populations. In this paper, we propose that discussions on cultural adaptation should be conceptualized as a "both-and," rather than an "either-or" process. To justify this stance, we describe three distinct parenting intervention projects to illustrate how cultural adaptation and efficacy of evidence-based interventions can be achieved using contrasting approaches and frameworks, depending on cultural preferences and available resources of local contexts. Further, we suggest the need to develop guidelines for consistent reporting of cultural adaptation procedures as a critical component of future investigations. This discussion is relevant for the broader public health field and prevention science.
differences, influences the quality of students' learning in a Life Skills module ... Studies reveal that real-world experiences will allow students to activate .... comprised 78 female students of whom 69 were Afrikaans-speaking and nine English-.
Full Text Available Modern societies are multicultural. This is a simple statement on a complex situation which poses many questions. One of the basic questions – how are relations between different cultures in society regulated – is the theme of this paper. By focusing on two pluralistic approaches to regulating relations between cultures – the multicultural and the intercultural approach – the author attempts to indicate the complexity of problems linked to the regulation of cultural differences in modern society. As it turns out, policies on the acceptance of cultural and ethnic differences have some common points, their concepts intertwine, but there are also significant differences between them. It also appears that one and the same policy can show different faces when it comes to its implementation in reality. By stressing interactions as a key trait of culture and cultural identity, the author wishes to emphasize their importance in cultural policies, since only by introducing interactions would these policies mean the acceptance of the real nature of cultural and social relations. The paper deals with this basic intent. In the first part, it presents the basic traits of culture and cultural identity as laid out in basic theories and their reception. Various processes and phenomena linked to them are mentioned in passing. In the second part, an overview of cultural policies is given – from assimilationist policies to pluralist ones (discussion focuses on assimilation, the “melting pot”, integration and multiculturalism and interculturalism. Concepts are treated defined critically and a partial review and evaluation of cultural policies is given. The reason for concentrating on concepts is the assumption that they imply a worldview and therefore it is not insignificant how social phenomena are defined and what names are attached to them.
Full Text Available Cultural differences in the perception of positive affect intensity within an advertising context were investigated among American, Japanese and Russian participants. Participants were asked to rate the intensity of facial expressions of positive emotions, which displayed either subtle, low intensity or salient, high intensity expressions of positive affect. In agreement with previous findings from cross-cultural psychological research, current results demonstrate both cross-cultural agreement and differences in the perception of positive affect intensity across the three cultures. Specifically, American participants perceived high arousal images as significantly less calm than participants from the other two cultures, while the Japanese participants perceived low arousal images as significantly more excited than participants from the other cultures. The underlying mechanisms of these cultural differences were further investigated through difference scores that probed for cultural differences in perception and categorization of positive emotions. Findings indicate that rating differences are due to (1 perceptual differences in the extent to which high arousal images were discriminated from low arousal images, and (2 categorization differences in the extent to which facial expressions were grouped into affect intensity categories. Specifically, American participants revealed significantly higher perceptual differentiation between arousal levels of facial expressions in high and intermediate intensity categories. Japanese participants, on the other hand, did not discriminate between high and low arousal affect categories to the same extent as did the American and Russian participants. These findings indicate the presence of cultural differences in underlying decoding mechanisms of facial expressions of positive affect intensity. Implications of these results for cross-cultural communication and global advertising are discussed.
Full Text Available Cultural differences influence the behavior of companies, including management styles, relationships with employees, stake- and shareholders or social responsibility. Obviously, the concept of corporate governance encompassing the Internal Audit Function (IAF is seen differently in different cultures. Therefore, conformance with the globally effective “International Professional Practice Framework” (IPPF for Internal Auditors presuming a culture-free, completely homogeneous IAF with uniform working standards worldwide, seems more than difficult. The focus of this study is to compare the IAF characteristics in China and Germany, based on data from Chief Audit Executives (CAE from both countries. We identify more (culturally influenced differences than similarities between the German and Chinese IAF, although there can be found a number of fundamental political, economic and cultural similarities between both countries.
Ravesteyn, P.; Batenburg, R.
In this paper we present the results of an international comparative research conducted through a special web survey, i.e. an online ‘game’ to rate and classify Critical Success Factors (CFSs) for BPMS implementations. The survey was completed by 39 respondents from 11 different countries. Central
Norbury, Courtenay Frazier; Sparks, Alison
Developmental disorders, such as autism spectrum disorder and specific language impairment, are biologically based disorders that currently rely on behaviorally defined criteria for diagnosis and treatment. Specific behaviors that are included in diagnostic frameworks and the point at which individual differences in behavior constitute abnormality…
Two different types of mice mastocitomas - solid and/or ascitic - are analysed in detail using a methodology based mainly in azarose gel microelectrophoresis and degradation by specific mucopolysaccharidases. Sulfated mucopolysaccharides are assayed in both types of tumors in cells cultivated in vitro. Radioactive precursors and autoradiographic techniques are used in the research. (M.A.) [pt
J.P.P. Ravesteijn; Ronald Batenburg
In this paper we present the results of an international comparative research conducted through a special web survey, i.e. an online 'game' to rate and classify Critical Success Factors (CFSs) for BPMS implementations. The survey was completed by 39 respondents from 11 different countries. Central
In 1964, Werner Leibbrand (1896-1974) was the first German medical historian to present, in Sudhoffs Archiv, a review of the work of Michel Foucault (1926-1984). This paper examines some of the reasons leading to the fact that Leibbrand's own generation refused to acknowledge the importance of Foucault's ideas, while, later on, younger German medical historians, although impressed with Foucault's writings, failed to acknowledge, first, the close relationship between Leibbrand's and Foucault's world views, and, second, Leibbrand's attempts at introducing Foucault to German medical historians. Leibbrand with his Jewish wife had survived the Nazi period partly in hiding. His attempts at clearing post-war German psychiatry and medical historiography of NS-sympathizers isolated him among his colleagues, many of whom had begun their career during the Third Reich. Leibbrand enjoyed the support by the Swiss medical historian and avowed Communist Erwin Ackerknecht (1906-1988), but later turned against him, possibly because Acknerknecht had called Leibbrand's writings "unscientific". Leibbrand was unable to overcome his antagonisms with his contemporaries. At the same time, opposition to Ackerknecht made him appear a respresentative of the past in the eyes of the younger generation. Thus, when Foucault was accepted by the latter, they were not prepared to examine the work of Leibbrand and realize how close some of the ideas developed by Leibbrand and Foucault had been.
Radosh, Alice; Simkin, Linda
Despite increasing awareness of the importance of sexuality for older adults, research and popular literature rarely acknowledge what we term "sexual bereavement" - mourning the loss of sexual intimacy when predeceased. The reluctance to acknowledge sexual bereavement may create "disenfranchised grief" leaving the bereaved unsupported in coping with this aspect of mourning. This preliminary study focuses on women in the United States and sought to determine whether they anticipate missing sex if predeceased, whether they would want to talk about this loss, and identified factors associated with communicating about sexual bereavement. Findings from our survey of 104 women, 55 years and older, most of whom were heterosexual, revealed that a large majority (72%) anticipates missing sex with their partner and 67% would want to initiate a discussion about this. An even higher percentage would want friends to initiate the topic. Yet, 57% of participants report it would not occur to them to initiate a discussion with a widowed friend about the friend's loss. Disenfranchised grief can have negative emotional and physical consequences. This paper suggests a role for friends and professionals in addressing this neglected issue. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Customer relationship management (CRM) is a strategic approach aiming to create and improve shareholder value by creating and managing suitable relationships with their corresponding customer segments. As national culture is one of the fundamental factors that distinguishes customers from one country to another, the objective of this study is to explore how cultural factors influence CRM. Empirically, this study tests how different cultural dimensions from Belgium, the United States, and Chin...
Doughty, Julie; Baker, Gus A; Jacoby, Ann; Lavaud, Virginie
To study how much people with epilepsy in Europe know and understand about their condition and how this might affect their lives. Clinical, demographic, psychosocial details and information assessing knowledge were collected by using self-completion questionnaires mailed to members of epilepsy support groups. Data were collected from 6,156 people with epilepsy from ten European countries. There were significant between-country differences in all variables considered. Overall levels of knowledge were acceptable when measured by the epilepsy knowledge questionnaire (EKQ, medical items). However, there were some gaps in knowledge, particularly in issues relating to medication and cause of epilepsy. This is the largest study of its kind to date. Results clearly highlighted that levels of knowledge differed significantly between countries. Overall, people with epilepsy are reasonably well informed about epilepsy, although some gaps in knowledge were evident.
Full Text Available The objective of the study was to compare two different embryo culture methods in the course of in vitro fertilization program by means of fertilization rate, embryo development, total time and cost. 98 patients undergoing assisted reproduction procedures due to infertility were analyzed. The inclusion criteria for the study: first IVF-ET program, at least 10 MII oocytes, no indications for ICSI. Oocytes were divided into two study groups: group A- open culture (oocytes placed in four-well dishes together, then inseminated and cultured in successive wells and group B - a closed culture (oocytes placed in microdroplets, each embryo cultured separately. The fertilization rate was assessed around 18 hours from insemination. The embryos were classified into four classes. The best embryos were chosen for transfer. In the group A the fertilization rate obtained was lower than in group B (68% vs. 78%, respectively. The microdroplet culture required more time on the insemination day and on the second day of culture, while the four-well dish method required more time on the first day of culture and on the day of transfer. On analyzing the total cost of the above procedures (MI medium and oil costs it occurred that the microdroplet culture was more expensive than the four-well dish method (due to the intake of paraffin oil. However, the difference was of no practical importance. In the conclusion, microdroplet culture gives a higher fertilization rate than four-well dish culture, probably due to a homogenous sperm distribution. Despite the differences in time outside the incubator and laboratory expenses (which are after all insignificant microdroplet culture allows a better control over the embryo development. The embryos of best developmental potential can therefore be chosen for ET.
Endrass, Birgit; André, Elisabeth; Rehm, Matthias
Integrating culture as a parameter into the behavioral models of virtual characters in order to simulate cultural differences is becoming more and more popular. But do these differences affect the user's perception? In the work described in this paper, we integrated aspects of non-verbal behavior...... as well as communication management behavior into the behavior of virtual characters for the two cultures of Germany and Japan. We give a literature review pointing out the expected differences in these two cultures and describe the analysis of a multi-modal corpus including video recordings of German...... and Japanese interlocutors. After integrating our findings into a demonstrator featuring a German and a Japanese scenario, we presented the virtual scenarios to human observers of the two target cultures in order to find out their preferences....
Pogosyan, Marianna; Engelmann, Jan B
Cultural differences in the perception of positive affect intensity within an advertising context were investigated among American, Japanese, and Russian participants. Participants were asked to rate the intensity of facial expressions of positive emotions, which displayed either subtle, low intensity, or salient, high intensity expressions of positive affect. In agreement with previous findings from cross-cultural psychological research, current results demonstrate both cross-cultural agreement and differences in the perception of positive affect intensity across the three cultures. Specifically, American participants perceived high arousal (HA) images as significantly less calm than participants from the other two cultures, while the Japanese participants perceived low arousal (LA) images as significantly more excited than participants from the other cultures. The underlying mechanisms of these cultural differences were further investigated through difference scores that probed for cultural differences in perception and categorization of positive emotions. Findings indicate that rating differences are due to (1) perceptual differences in the extent to which HA images were discriminated from LA images, and (2) categorization differences in the extent to which facial expressions were grouped into affect intensity categories. Specifically, American participants revealed significantly higher perceptual differentiation between arousal levels of facial expressions in high and intermediate intensity categories. Japanese participants, on the other hand, did not discriminate between high and low arousal affect categories to the same extent as did the American and Russian participants. These findings indicate the presence of cultural differences in underlying decoding mechanisms of facial expressions of positive affect intensity. Implications of these results for global advertising are discussed.
Differences between patients' and physicians' perceptions of illness can result in poor communication and unsatisfactory treatment results. These differences are more likely when the patient's cultural background is different from the physician's. This article provides a case history of a cultural conflict between a patient, the patient's family, and the medical care system. The beliefs and practices of people unfamiliar with the North American health care system are discussed, and physicians...
Modiba, Maropeng; Van Rensburg, Wilhelm
Cultural literacy is considered as crucial in the process of redress, and of equal recognition, affirmation and nurturing of different cultural symbols and other forms of expression within South Africa. In this paper we reflect conceptually on what the new curriculum policy in Arts and Culture education proposes with regard to acknowledging and…
Wang Cailian; Shen Mei; Xu Gang; Zhao Kongnan
The dormant seeds (with 13% moisture) of 47 barley varieties were irradiated with various doses (0-40 krad) of 137 Cs γ-rays. The radiosensitivities of naked barley was significantly higher than that of hulled barley. The sensitive coefficients of seedling height were 0.04945 and 0.03667 for naked barley and hulled barley, respectively. The radiosensitivity of four-row naked barley was significantly higher than that of two-row hulled barley and six-row hulled barley. 47 varieties studied could be divided into five types with different radiosensitivities, i.e. extreme resistant, resistant, intermediate, sensitive and extreme sensitive. It was also found that the dose-effect curves of cell nucleus volume had a peal at 30 krad
Buist, K.L.; Metindogan, A.; Coban, S.; Watve, S.; Paranipe, A.; Koot, Hans M.; Van Lier, P.; Branje, Susan; Meeus, W.H.J.
We examined cross-cultural differences in (1) sibling power balance and (2) the associations between sibling power balance and internalizing and externalizing problems in three separate cross-cultural studies (early childhood, late childhood, and adolescence). The early childhood samples consisted
Sonke, C.J.; Boxtel, van G.J.M.; Griesel, R.D.; Poortinga, Y.H.
Interpretations of cross-cultural differences in performance on cognitive tasks tend to rely on broad concepts, such as general intelligence or cultural modes of thinking. In this study, the authors examine two proximate parameters, stimulus complexity and task exposure, using reaction time (RT) and
Buist, Kirsten L.; Metindogan, Aysegül; Coban, Selma; Watve, Sujala; Paranjpe, Analpa; Koot, Hans M.; van Lier, Pol; Branje, Susan J. T.; Meeus, Wim H. J.
We examined cross-cultural differences in (1) sibling power balance and (2) the associations between sibling power balance and internalizing and externalizing problems in three separate cross-cultural studies (early childhood, late childhood, and adolescence). The "early childhood samples" consisted of 123 Turkish and 128 Dutch mothers…
This paper describes the prerequisites for development in the area of cross-cultural multimedia didactics. This approach is based on research studies of differences between mentalities, ways of working with educational information, culturally-specific teaching methods and teaching techniques that determine differentiated approaches to the choice…
van Osch, Y.M.J.; Breugelmans, S.M.; Zeelenberg, M.; Bölük, P.
Masculine honor has been found to explain the relationship between insults and aggression in the USA. However, detailed accounts of Mediterranean honor cultures suggest that family honor may be more important in explaining cross-cultural differences in aggression. Two studies revealed that people
Lysaker, Judith; Sedberry, Tiffany
In racially and culturally homogeneous school settings, opportunities for children to interact with those who are unlike themselves are not always available. Picture book retellings provide contexts within which students are exposed to racial and cultural differences by allowing them to engage in vicarious events with people they might not…
This dissertation addressed the popularity of domestic cultural consumption. It aimed at describing and explaining the extent to which the popularity of domestic cultural consumption differs between countries and over time. We studied the popularity of domestic versus foreign film productions, the
Tomico Plasencia, O.; Karapanos, E.; Levy, P.D.; Mizutani, N.; Yamanaka, T.
Culture is typically approached in the field of design through generic, cross-domain constructs. In this paper we provide an alternative methodological approach to exploring cross-cultural differences by studying the idiosyncratic views of individuals with regard to existing products. We
I A Novikova
Full Text Available The article deals with peculiarities of non-verbal communication as a factor of cross-cultural intercourse and adaptation of representatives of different cultures. The possibility of studying of ethnic stereotypes concerning non-verbal communication is considered. The results of empiric research of stereotypes about non-verbal communication of Russian and Chinese students are presented.
van Osch, Yvette; Breugelmans, Seger M.; Zeelenberg, Marcel; Bölük, Pinar
Masculine honor has been found to explain the relationship between insults and aggression in the USA. However, detailed accounts of Mediterranean honor cultures suggest that family honor may be more important in explaining cross-cultural differences in aggression. Two studies revealed that people
Patrick T. Maher; Tom G. Potter
This study explored the cultural differences and motivations to climb of elite, male mountaineers. The purpose of the study was to first determine the motivations of elite male mountaineers and then link these motivations to the culture in which the mountaineer lives or grew up in. Five co-researchers participated in the study: two Canadians, two Americans, and one...
Harrison, C.J.; Konings, K.D.; Dannefer, E.F.; Schuwirth, L.W.; Wass, V.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der
INTRODUCTION: Feedback after assessment is essential to support the development of optimal performance, but often fails to reach its potential. Although different assessment cultures have been proposed, the impact of these cultures on students' receptivity to feedback is unclear. This study aimed to
The caçari (Myrciaria dubia) is a native fruit tree from Amazon with high concentrations of vitamin C. This study aimed to adjust a culture medium that meets the nutritional needs for the in vitro development of caçari, evaluating the effect of different concentrations and nutritive culture media, antioxidant, and levels of agar and ...
Full Text Available Hijab is a sign, a sign of cultural differences which has various emergences in different communities. In this article the Islamic veil among Muslims in the West is discussed as an “Islamic Identity” and as a phenomenon of “Cultural Difference” with the Western societies. This sign has represented the Muslim not only as a religious group, a minority which belongs to the East, and a group of people that their culture is different with the dominant culture of the West, but also is different from Westerners how does not accept the culture of veil for women in general. Furthermore, it is emerging different cultural and religious discourses in the Western societies which could be assumed as a challenge to the dominant culture of freedom, liberalism and feminism discourse. This paper aims to clarify the approaches of cultural semiotics, especially, the cultural policy of difference as a new approach to strengthen the neo-orientalism and neo-colonialism approaches and how the discourse of the veil and the otherness is developed in the Western societies. Discourse analysis of various news and reports in Western Media demonstrate the emergence of new methods of discourse on issues related to Islam and Muslims in general and the “Islamic veil” as a special way of life to put the “Islamic Identity” in opposition to the “Western Identity” which is affected by the orientalism discourse on its old and new approaches. This new way of discourse is trying to institutionalize the idea of “I and the other” based on the new understanding of “otherness” and “the cultural policies of difference”.
Vala, Jorge; Pereira, Cícero; Costa-Lopes, Rui
The social psychological literature considers two main perspectives on the study of perceived cultural differences between majorities and minorities: one proposes that perception of cultural differences is an antecedent of prejudice and another states that the attribution of cultural differences to minorities is already a hidden expression of racial prejudice. This paper offers further support to this latter perspective. One hundred and ninety-four participants answered a questionnaire measuring (1) general racist belief; (2) cultural differences attributed to Black people (hetero-ethnicization); (3) the asymmetric attribution of secondary and primary emotions to the in-group and to Black people (infra-humanization); (4) the asymmetric attribution of natural and cultural traits to in-group members and to Black people (ontologization); and (5) negative evaluation of this social category. The general racist belief scale was not anchored in a specific group and measured the belief in the inferiority of certain social groups or peoples based on biological or cultural factors. Relationships between the scales were analysed through a set of Structural Equation Models. According to the predictions, results showed that the attribution of cultural differences is a dimension of prejudice. Results also showed that attribution of cultural differences, negative evaluation of Black people, ontologization, and infra-humanization were different dimensions of a common latent factor that can be identified as racial prejudice; and that prejudice was predicted by general racist belief. Results are discussed in the light of the study of the impact of perceived cultural differences on intergroup relations and in the light of the "new racism" approaches.
Hughes Halbert, Chanita; Barg, Frances K; Weathers, Benita; Delmoor, Ernestine; Coyne, James; Wileyto, E Paul; Arocho, Justin; Mahler, Brandon; Malkowicz, S Bruce
Although cultural values are increasingly being recognized as important determinants of psychological and behavioral outcomes following cancer diagnosis and treatment, empirical data are not available on cultural values among men. This study evaluated differences in cultural values related to religiosity, temporal orientation, and collectivism among African American and European American men. Participants were 119 African American and European American men who were newly diagnosed with early-stage and locally advanced prostate cancer. Cultural values were evaluated by self-report using standardized instruments during a structured telephone interview. After controlling for sociodemographic characteristics, African American men reported significantly greater levels of religiosity (Beta = 24.44, P cultural values, clinical experiences with prostate cancer may also be important. This underscores the importance of evaluating the effects of both ethnicity and clinical factors in research on the influence of cultural values on cancer prevention and control.
De Leersnyder, Jozefien; Mesquita, Batja; Kim, Heejung; Eom, Kimin; Choi, Hyewon
There is increasing evidence for emotional fit in couples and groups, but also within cultures. In the current research, we investigated the consequences of emotional fit at the cultural level. Given that emotions reflect people's view on the world, and that shared views are associated with good social relationships, we expected that an individual's fit to the average cultural patterns of emotion would be associated with relational well-being. Using an implicit measure of cultural fit of emotions, we found across 3 different cultural contexts (United States, Belgium, and Korea) that (1) individuals' emotional fit is associated with their level of relational well-being, and that (2) the link between emotional fit and relational well-being is particularly strong when emotional fit is measured for situations pertaining to relationships (rather than for situations that are self-focused). Together, the current studies suggest that people may benefit from emotionally "fitting in" to their culture.
Full Text Available Political developments in Turkey have sparked unprecedented international media attention after the failed coup d'état in July 2016. Coverage tends to focus on the draconic crackdown and restrictions that include academic work and cultural production. This article highlights articulations of dissensus from among the vivid community of cultural producers and takes a look at the uneasy relation between cultural politics, cultural policies and Kulturkampf. Drawing on work by Paul Gilroy, Homi Bhabha, Jacques Rancière and Cornel West, I attempt to discuss the theoretical dimensions of a new cultural politics of difference in Turkey that seeks to negotiate alterity and work towards a culture of conviviality in the face of ever-increasing adversities.
Currie, Thomas E; Mace, Ruth
A fundamental issue in understanding human diversity is whether or not there are regular patterns and processes involved in cultural change. Theoretical and mathematical models of cultural evolution have been developed and are increasingly being used and assessed in empirical analyses. Here, we test the hypothesis that the rates of change of features of human socio-cultural organization are governed by general rules. One prediction of this hypothesis is that different cultural traits will tend to evolve at similar relative rates in different world regions, despite the unique historical backgrounds of groups inhabiting these regions. We used phylogenetic comparative methods and systematic cross-cultural data to assess how different socio-cultural traits changed in (i) island southeast Asia and the Pacific, and (ii) sub-Saharan Africa. The relative rates of change in these two regions are significantly correlated. Furthermore, cultural traits that are more directly related to external environmental conditions evolve more slowly than traits related to social structures. This is consistent with the idea that a form of purifying selection is acting with greater strength on these more environmentally linked traits. These results suggest that despite contingent historical events and the role of humans as active agents in the historical process, culture does indeed evolve in ways that can be predicted from general principles.
Weber, E U; Hsee, C K
In this article, we describe a multistudy project designed to explain observed cross-national differences in risk taking between respondents from the People's Republic of China and the United States. Using this example, we develop the following recommendations for cross-cultural investigations. First, like all psychological research, cross-cultural studies should be model based. Investigators should commit themselves to a model of the behavior under study that explicitly specifies possible causal constructs or variables hypothesized to influence the behavior, as well as the relationship between those variables, and allows for individual, group, or cultural differences in the value of these variables or in the relationship between them. This moves the focus from a simple demonstration of cross-national differences toward a prediction of the behavior, including its cross-national variation. Ideally, the causal construct hypothesized and shown to differ between cultures should be demonstrated to serve as a moderator or a mediator between culture and observed behavioral differences. Second, investigators should look for converging evidence for hypothesized cultural effects on behavior by looking at multiple dependent variables and using multiple methodological approaches. Thus, the data collection that will allow for the establishment of conclusive causal connections between a cultural variable and some target behavior can be compared with the creation of a mosaic.
Paige, Laura E; Amado, Selen; Gutchess, Angela H
Prior cross-cultural research has reported cultural variations in memory. One study revealed that Americans remembered images with more perceptual detail than East Asians (Millar et al. in Cult Brain 1(2-4):138-157, 2013). However, in a later study, this expected pattern was not replicated, possibly due to differences in encoding instructions (Paige et al. in Cortex 91:250-261, 2017). The present study sought to examine when cultural variation in memory-related decisions occur and the role of instructions. American and East Asian participants viewed images of objects while making a Purchase decision or an Approach decision and later completed a surprise recognition test. Results revealed Americans had higher hit rates for specific memory, regardless of instruction type, and a less stringent response criterion relative to East Asians. Additionally, a pattern emerged where the Approach decision enhanced hit rates for specific memory relative to the Purchase decision only when administered first; this pattern did not differ across cultures. Results suggest encoding instructions do not magnify cross-cultural differences in memory. Ultimately, cross-cultural differences in response bias, rather than memory sensitivity per se, may account for findings of cultural differences in memory specificity.
Forster, R.M.; Martin-Jézéquel, V.R.
Microphytobenthic diatoms have great ecological importance in estuarine and coastal marine ecosystenis, yet many aspects of their physiology have not been investigated under controlled conditions. This work describes patterns in growth rates and photosynthesis in different types of culture for
Zoetelief, J.; Dingjan-Hirschi, E.S.; Hasper, J.; Janse, H.C.; Barendsen, G.W.
The induction of chromosome aberrations has been investigated in two lines of cultured cells for different types of radiation. The obtained results are compared with information on induction of cell reproductive death and malignant transformation. (Auth.)
Felson, Richard B.; Pare, Paul-Philippe
We use the National Violence against Women (and Men) Survey to examine the effects of region and race on the tendency to carry weapons for protection. We find that Southern and Western whites are much more likely than Northern whites to carry guns for self-protection, controlling for their risk of victimization. The difference between Southern and…
Lin, Shan; Chen, Lihong; Han, Ruwang
The aim of this study is to investigate the knowledge and the attitude of registered nursing students regarding elderly sexuality, in order to raise the awareness of sexual needs of the aging. This study also aims to identify attitude towards elderly sexuality among registered nursing students from different cultural backgrounds. The research questions of this thesis are: What is the attitude towards elderly sexuality among students from different cultural backgrounds? To what extent does reg...
Cultural differences in educational practices can be regarded as one of the major causes of struggle and failure. If these practices take place in foreign language settings where the medium of communication is carried out solely in the foreign language, the severity of the struggle on the part of the students rises significantly. In this study, cultural differences in educational practices are examined through the experiences of a Korean graduate student who studies in a north-eastern America...
Nejat Anbarci; Mustafa Caglayan
This paper empirically investigates the role of institutions, income inequality, cultural differences and health expenditures on cadaveric versus total kidney transplants scrutinizing information gathered from 63 countries over the period 1998-2002. We show that improvements in income equality and the rule of law encourage cadaveric kidney transplants in low-income countries. We find that cultural differences affect the number of cadaveric kidney transplants both in low- and high-income count...
van den Ban, Els F; Souverein, Patrick C; van Engeland, Herman; Swaab, Hanna; Egberts, Toine C G; Heerdink, Eibert R
Differences in incidence and prevalence of ADHD medication use between ethnic groups have been reported. Goal of this study was to determine whether there are also differences in usage patterns of ADHD medication among native Dutch children and adolescents and those with a Moroccan, Turkish and Surinam cultural background in the Netherlands between 1999 and 2010. In a cohort of ADHD patients cultural background never used ADHD medication compared to Dutch natives (21 %). One-fifth of native Dutch and Turkish patients already used ADHD medication before the ADHD diagnosis date. Discontinuation of ADHD medication within 5 years was significantly higher in Moroccan [HR 2.4 (95 % CI 1.8-3.1)] and Turkish [HR 1.7 (95 % CI 1.1-2.6)] patients. A sensitivity analysis with a zip code-matched comparison between Dutch natives and non-natives showed similar results, suggesting this effect is probably not explained by socio-economic status (SES). Differences are found in prescribing and use of ADHD medication between patients with a different cultural background. Native Dutch and Turkish patients start more frequently with ADHD medication before the ADHD diagnose date, which can be an indication of differences in either referral patterns and/or access to care. A higher percentage of patients with a Moroccan and Turkish cultural background never start using ADHD medication at all and discontinuation rate is higher compared to Dutch natives and Surinamese.
Full Text Available Cultural differences in educational practices can be regarded as one of the major causes of struggle and failure. If these practices take place in foreign language settings where the medium of communication is carried out solely in the foreign language, the severity of the struggle on the part of the students rises significantly. In this study, cultural differences in educational practices are examined through the experiences of a Korean graduate student who studies in a north-eastern American university. The data is collected through in-depth face-to-face interviews which yielded to significant implications. Classroom activities, power relations, and expectations are presented through cultural lenses and how the differences in cultures affect the success of a foreign student are presented.
This paper introduces the special section "Cultural differences in questionnaire responding" and discusses central topics in the research on response biases in cross-cultural survey research. Based on current conceptions of acquiescent, extreme, and socially desirable responding, the author considers current data on the correlated nature of response biases and the conditions under which different response styles they emerge. Based on evidence relating different response styles to the cultural dimension of individualism-collectivism, the paper explores how research presented as part of this special section might help resolves some tensions in this literature. The paper concludes by arguing that response styles should not be treated merely as measurement error, but as cultural behaviors in themselves. © 2016 International Union of Psychological Science.
Lloyd, E.L.; Henning, C.B.; Mackevicius, F.
Cell cultures derived from seven human osteosarcomas have been characterized with respect to their pattern of growth and cell morphology using light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. Other characteristics studied included growth rates, chromosomal abnormalities, and ability to grow in low serum concentrations and on a semisolid substrate. Normal human fibroblasts in culture have also been examined by the same methods. The results show many differences both between individual osteosarcoma cultures and normal fibroblasts. Two of the osteosarcoma cultures were epithelium-like, and five had a more fibroblastic appearance when viewed by the light microscope. Examination by electron microscopy showed a wide variety of cells in each culture. Many of the features exhibited in the fibroblast-like tumor cells were different from those seen with the normal fibroblast cultures. Growth rates differed widely with characteristic doubling times varying between 1 and 7 days from the osteosarcoma cultures, compared to 3 to 4 days for normal fibroblasts. Unlike normal mouse fibroblasts, which grow poorly or not at all in low serum concentrations, the normal human fibroblasts tested grew almost as well in media with 1 percent serum as with 15 percent serum
Shui' er Han
Full Text Available Whereas the use of discrete pitch intervals is characteristic of most musical traditions, the size of the intervals and the way in which they are used is culturally specific. Here we examine the hypothesis that these differences arise because of a link between the tonal characteristics of a culture's music and its speech. We tested this idea by comparing pitch intervals in the traditional music of three tone language cultures (Chinese, Thai and Vietnamese and three non-tone language cultures (American, French and German with pitch intervals between voiced speech segments. Changes in pitch direction occur more frequently and pitch intervals are larger in the music of tone compared to non-tone language cultures. More frequent changes in pitch direction and larger pitch intervals are also apparent in the speech of tone compared to non-tone language cultures. These observations suggest that the different tonal preferences apparent in music across cultures are closely related to the differences in the tonal characteristics of voiced speech.
Bleidorn, Wiebke; Arslan, Ruben C; Denissen, Jaap J A; Rentfrow, Peter J; Gebauer, Jochen E; Potter, Jeff; Gosling, Samuel D
Research and theorizing on gender and age differences in self-esteem have played a prominent role in psychology over the past 20 years. However, virtually all empirical research has been undertaken in the United States or other Western industrialized countries, providing a narrow empirical base from which to draw conclusions and develop theory. To broaden the empirical base, the present research uses a large Internet sample (N = 985,937) to provide the first large-scale systematic cross-cultural examination of gender and age differences in self-esteem. Across 48 nations, and consistent with previous research, we found age-related increases in self-esteem from late adolescence to middle adulthood and significant gender gaps, with males consistently reporting higher self-esteem than females. Despite these broad cross-cultural similarities, the cultures differed significantly in the magnitude of gender, age, and Gender × Age effects on self-esteem. These differences were associated with cultural differences in socioeconomic, sociodemographic, gender-equality, and cultural value indicators. Discussion focuses on the theoretical implications of cross-cultural research on self-esteem. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Imada, Toshie; Ellsworth, Phoebe C
Appraisal theories of emotion propose that the emotions people experience correspond to their appraisals of their situation. In other words, individual differences in emotional experiences reflect differing interpretations of the situation. We hypothesized that in similar situations, people in individualist and collectivist cultures experience different emotions because of culturally divergent causal attributions for success and failure (i.e., agency appraisals). In a test of this hypothesis, American and Japanese participants recalled a personal experience (Study 1) or imagined themselves to be in a situation (Study 2) in which they succeeded or failed, and then reported their agency appraisals and emotions. Supporting our hypothesis, cultural differences in emotions corresponded to differences in attributions. For example, in success situations, Americans reported stronger self-agency emotions (e.g., proud) than did Japanese, whereas Japanese reported a stronger situation-agency emotion (lucky). Also, cultural differences in attribution and emotion were largely explained by differences in self-enhancing motivation. When Japanese and Americans were induced to make the same attribution (Study 2), cultural differences in emotions became either nonsignificant or were markedly reduced. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved.
The goal of the current project was to examine whether engagement in intellectual/cultural activities explains the long-term effects of education on cognitive abilities throughout adulthood, and whether it compensates for educational differences in cognitive abilities throughout adulthood. Participants between 18 and 96 years of age completed a comprehensive questionnaire about intellectual/cultural activities that they participated in and performed a wide variety of cognitive tests. There were no mediation effects of engagement in intellectual/cultural activities on the relationship between education and cognitive functioning. In contrast, engagement in intellectual/cultural activities was found to moderate the relations between education and the level of fluid ability, working memory, speed of processing, and episodic memory. Findings suggest that the risk of cognitive decline in people with less education can be reduced via engagement in intellectual and cultural activities throughout adulthood.
Chu Zhenwei; Yang Tao; Wang Luhuan; Hao Xiuhua; Yan Guangtao
Objective: To study the effect of three stress factors high glucose (HG), lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) on the expression of culture supernatant IL-6 (IL-6) and leptin contents of HELA cell line. Methods: HELA cell culture models of severe inflammatory response syndrome were prepared with cultures treated with 50 mmol/L glucose (HG), 4 μg/ ml LPS and 100 μmol/L H 2 O 2 respectively and supernatant contents of IL-6 and leptin were measured with RIA at 1h, 6h and 24h. Results: Generally speaking, the culture supernatant contents of IL-6 gradually increased and leptin contents gradually decreased with significant differences from those in cultures not treated with either stress factor at 6h and 12h (P<0.05). Conclusion: Leptin as a possible anti-inflammatory cytokine might plays an important protective role in severe inflammatory response. (authors)
Broekhuizen, T.L.J.; Delre, S.A.; Torres, A.
This paper uses a mixed method approach to show how cross-cultural differences in social influences can explain differences in distributions of market shares in different markets. First, we develop a realistic agent-based model that mimics the behavior of movie visitors and incorporates the social
R. Veenhoven (Ruut); P. Ouweneel (Piet)
textabstractThere are sizeable differences in happiness between countries. These differences are consistent across indicators and quite stable through time. There is a little support for the view that these differences are due to "cultural bias". In test performed here do not suggest that a great
Helo, Sevann; Moulton, Carol-Anne E
Errors are inherent in medicine due to the imperfectness of human nature. Health care providers may have a difficult time accepting their fallibility, acknowledging mistakes, and disclosing errors. Fear of litigation, shame, blame, and concern about reputation are just some of the barriers preventing physicians from being more candid with their patients, despite the supporting body of evidence that patients cite poor communication and lack of transparency as primary drivers to file a lawsuit in the wake of a medical complication. Proper error disclosure includes a timely explanation of what happened, who was involved, why the error occurred, and how it will be prevented in the future. Medical mistakes afford the opportunity for individuals and institutions to be candid about their weaknesses while improving patient care processes. When a physician takes the Hippocratic Oath they take on a tremendous sense of responsibility for the care of their patients, and often bear the burden of their mistakes in isolation. Physicians may struggle with guilt, shame, and a crisis of confidence, which may thwart efforts to identify areas for improvement that can lead to meaningful change. Coping strategies for providers include discussing the event with others, seeking professional counseling, and implementing quality improvement projects. Physicians and health care organizations need to find adaptive ways to deal with complications that will benefit patients, providers, and their institutions.
Raghuveera Rao, P.; Sailaja, B.; Desiraju, Subrahmanyam; Nageswara Rao, D.; Voleti, S.R.; Satyanarayana Reddy, P.; Sudarsana Rao, G.V.
Variation in radiation use efficiency (RUE) amongst 81 rice cultures was assessed at Hyderabad, Maruteru and Pattambi locations. The RUE was computed for each culture at panicle initiation stage (RUE p i) and at physiological maturity (RUE m ) for each location. RUE p i and RUE m differed significantly amongst cultures and also between locations. The interaction between location and cultures was also found to be highly significant. The mean RUE p i for all the cultures was 1.08, 0.56 and 1.22 g MJ -1 , respectively, for HYD, MTU and PTB. The average RUE m estimated was 0.37, 0.60 and 0.93, respectively, for HYD, MTU and PTB. Out of the 81 rice cultures, very few entries consistently showed high RUE at all the three locations and at both the stages. The cultures lET 21023 and lET 20986 recorded higher, though not the highest, RUE, at panicle initiation and maturity stages at all the three locations and produced TDM and grain yield higher than the mean TDM and grain yield for all the test cultures. (author)
Arraras, Juan Ignacio; Greimel, Eva; Chie, Wei-Chu; Sezer, Orhan; Bergenmar, Mia; Costantini, Anna; Young, Teresa; Vlasic, Karin Kuljanic; Velikova, Galina
Informational needs among cancer patients are similar, but the degree of information disclosure in different cultural areas varies. In this paper, we present the results of a cross-cultural study on information received. The EORTC information questionnaire, EORTC QLQ-INFO25, was administered during the treatment process. This questionnaire evaluates the information that patients report they have received. Cross-cultural differences in information have been evaluated using statistical tests such as Kruskall-Wallis and multivariate models with covariates to account for differences in clinical and demographic characteristics across areas. Four hundred and fifty-one patients from three cultural areas, North-Middle Europe, South Europe, and Taiwan, were included in the study. Significant differences among the three cultural areas appeared in eight QLQ-INFO25 dimensions: information about the disease; medical tests; places of care; written information; information on CD/tape/video; satisfaction; wish for more information; and information helpfulness. North-Middle Europe patients received more written information (mean = 67.2 (North) and 33.8 (South)) and South Europe patients received more information on different places of care (mean = 24.7 (North) and 35.0 (South)). Patients from North-Middle Europe and South Europe received more information than patients from Taiwan about the disease (mean = 57.9, 60.6, and 47.1, respectively) and medical tests (70.9, 70.4, and 54.5), showed more satisfaction (64.8, 70.2, and 35.0), and considered the information more helpful (71.9, 73.9, and 50.4). These results were confirmed when adjusting for age, education, and disease stage. There are cross-cultural differences in information received. Some of these differences are based on the characteristics of each culture. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Yuki, Masaki; Maddux, William W; Brewer, Marilynn B; Takemura, Kosuke
Two experiments explored differences in depersonalized trust (trust toward a relatively unknown target person) across cultures. Based on a recent theoretical framework that postulates predominantly different bases for group behaviors in Western cultures versus Eastern cultures, it was predicted that Americans would tend to trust people primarily based on whether they shared category memberships; however, trust for Japanese was expected to be based on the likelihood of sharing direct or indirect interpersonal links. Results supported these predictions. In both Study 1 (questionnaire study) and Study 2 (online money allocation game), Americans trusted ingroup members more than outgroup members; however, the existence of a potential indirect relationship link increased trust for outgroup members more for Japanese than for Americans. Implications for understanding group processes across cultures are discussed.
Lockwood, Penelope; Marshall, Tara C; Sadler, Pamela
In two studies, cross-cultural differences in reactions to positive and negative role models were examined. The authors predicted that individuals from collectivistic cultures, who have a stronger prevention orientation, would be most motivated by negative role models, who highlight a strategy of avoiding failure; individuals from individualistic cultures, who have a stronger promotion focus, would be most motivated by positive role models, who highlight a strategy of pursuing success. In Study 1, the authors examined participants' reported preferences for positive and negative role models. Asian Canadian participants reported finding negative models more motivating than did European Canadians; self-construals and regulatory focus mediated cultural differences in reactions to role models. In Study 2, the authors examined the impact of role models on the academic motivation of Asian Canadian and European Canadian participants. Asian Canadians were motivated only by a negative model, and European Canadians were motivated only by a positive model.
Niño, Alba; Kissil, Karni; Davey, Maureen P
With the growing diversity in the United States among both clinicians and clients, many therapeutic encounters are cross-cultural, requiring providers to connect across cultural differences. Foreign-born therapists have many areas of differences to work through. Thus, exploring how foreign-born family therapists in the United States connect to their clients can uncover helpful strategies that all therapists can use to establish stronger cross-cultural therapeutic connections. A thematic analysis was conducted to understand strategies 13 foreign-born therapists used during therapeutic encounters. Four themes were identified: making therapy a human-to-human connection, dealing with stereotypes, what really matters, and flexibility. Findings suggest that developing a deep therapeutic connection using emotional attunement and human-to-human engagement is crucial for successful cross-cultural therapy. Clinical and training implications are provided. © 2015 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.
Graham, Jesse; Meindl, Peter; Beall, Erica; Johnson, Kate M; Zhang, Li
We review contemporary work on cultural factors affecting moral judgments and values, and those affecting moral behaviors. In both cases, we highlight examples of within-societal cultural differences in morality, to show that these can be as substantial and important as cross-societal differences. Whether between or within nations and societies, cultures vary substantially in their promotion and transmission of a multitude of moral judgments and behaviors. Cultural factors contributing to this variation include religion, social ecology (weather, crop conditions, population density, pathogen prevalence, residential mobility), and regulatory social institutions such as kinship structures and economic markets. This variability raises questions for normative theories of morality, but also holds promise for future descriptive work on moral thought and behavior. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gómez-Benito, Juana; Van de Vijver, Fons J R; Balluerka, Nekane; Caterino, Linda
This study explored the effect of cultural and gender differences in ADHD among Spanish, African American, Hispanic American, and European American young adults. Structural equivalence between the four groups was examined by Tucker's phi coefficient. A MANCOVA was carried out with cultural groups and gender as factors and age as covariate. Structural equivalence was observed across all groups, and no differential item functioning was found. No significant effect was found for gender, although, with the exception of the Hispanic group, males scored higher than females. Furthermore, small, though significant, cultural differences were found. The lowest levels of ADHD were observed in the European American group and the highest in the Hispanic American group. ADHD symptoms, notably inattention, showed some decline with age. Findings extend existing data and suggest a relationship between culture and the development of ADHD, which might be mediated by parenting style. © The Author(s) 2015.
Full Text Available Introduction: Broccoli is one of the valuable vegetables among brassicas which has received great attention throughout the world and is cultivated both in soil and soilless culture. Currently, we face restriction in high quality of the soils and water resources as two essential inputs in agriculture. Like other parts of the world, Iran is losing hundred hectares of its arable and fertile land annually due to salinity, alkalinity and waterlogging. One of the important strategies to overcome these adverse conditions is soilless culture systems. Among the different methods of soilless culture, substrate culture is more common and cheaper than others. Different kinds of organic and inorganic substances are used in soilless culture system, but the optimum mixture of growing medium is still a challenging issue. Physical and chemical characteristics of growing media can potentially affect the yield and product quality in direct and indirect ways. A good medium for soilless culture should have easy drainage, appropriate aeration, high water holding capacity and low price, as well as no weed seeds and pathogens. Therefore, this research was aimed to evaluate different prevalent growing media in broccoli soilless culture system. Materials and Methods: This experiment was conducted as an outdoor soilless culture system in outdoor hydroponic site in Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Recourses University (SANRU. To begin with, broccoli seeds were sown in transplanting tray, and after five weeks, the developed transplants were cultivated in growing bags in a soilless system. In this work, different mixtures of culture media were evaluated for yield component and mineral elements of broccoli. Ten kinds of different media comprising of cocopeat, perlite, sand, sawdust, sand+sawdust, sand+vermicompost, cocopeat+perlite, cocopeat+LECA, cocopeat+ pumice, and cocopeat+perlite+ vermicompost were compared in completely randomized design with tree replications
Sibilla Di Guida; Ido Erev; Davide Marchiori
This paper examines the effects of different cultural backgrounds on decisions from experience. In Experiment 1, participants from Denmark, Israel, and Taiwan faced each of six binary choice problems for 200 trials. The participants did not receive prior description of the payoff distributions, but obtained complete feedback after each choice. Comparison of choice behavior across cultural groups reveals similar overall choice rates, and similar indications of underweighting of rare events and...
In this dissertation, I investigated how the brand and consumption choices across cultures vary in meaning. In particular, I examined how self-expression through choice varies between the Western and East Asian cultural contexts due to the difference in how the self is viewed. Specifically, Westerners express self-consistency because they view themselves as independent and consistent regardless of the context. In contrast, East Asians express through self-improvement efforts because they view...
Brink-Muinen, A. van den; Meeuwesen, L.
Aims: In medical encounters, good doctor-patient communication is of utmost importance in the health care process. The influence of doctor, patients and organizational charactersitics has been showed in many studies. Scarce studies have indicated the importance of cultural characteristics on communication. Cultural differences find their expression along important dimensions (Hofstede 1991), as power distance and masculinity versus femininity. It was studied how theirs dimensions were reflect...
Wang, Zhiyun; Perrez, Meinrad
Conflicting work and family demands can lead to individual and interpersonal stress in close relationships. The literature suggests that individuals from various cultural contexts differ in how they organize domestic work in the family and in the support they receive from other persons. At the same time, past findings suggest effects of culture on individuals’ emotional behaviors and expression, and on the regulation of negative emotions. Although these topics are likely strongly interconnect...
Schug, Joanna; Yuki, Masaki; Maddux, William W.
The current research proposes a novel explanation for previously demonstrated findings that East Asians disclose less personal information to others than do Westerners. We propose that both between- and within-culture differences in self-disclosure toward close friends may be explained by the construct of "relational mobility" - the general degree to which individuals in the society have the opportunities to form new and terminate old relationships. In Study 1, we found that cross-cultural di...
Gruber, Thibaud; Singleton, Ian; van Schaik, Carel
Animal cultures are controversial because the method used to isolate culture in animals aims at excluding genetic and environmental influences rather than demonstrating social learning. Here, we analyzed these factors in parallel in captivity to determine their influences on tool use. We exposed Sumatran orangutan (Pongo abelii) orphans from tool-using and non-tool-using regions (western swamps and eastern Langkat, respectively) that differed in both genetic and cultural backgrounds to a raking task and a honey-dipping task to assess their understanding of stick use. Orangutans from both regions were equally successful in raking; however, swamp orangutans were more successful than Langkat orangutans in honey dipping, where previously acquired knowledge was required. A larger analysis suggested that the Alas River could constitute a geographical barrier to the spread of this cultural trait. Finally, honey-dipping individuals were on average less than 4 years old, but this behavior is not observed in the wild before 6 years of age. Our results suggest first that genetic differences between wild Sumatran populations cannot explain their differences in stick use; however, their performances in honey dipping support a cultural differentiation in stick knowledge. Second, the results suggest that the honey-dippers were too young when arriving at the quarantine center to have possibly mastered the behavior in the wild individually, suggesting that they arrived with preestablished mental representations of stick use or, simply put, "cultural ideas." Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
This study examined the gender and culture differences in relation to the quality of life among Americans and Koreans with atrial fibrillation. It employed secondary data analysis and a descriptive comparative design. The settings were the cardiology outpatient clinics and the outpatient clinic in two urban hospitals in the USA and one university hospital in Korea. The quality of life was measured by the Short-Form Health Survey. The data from 129 subjects were analyzed by two-way ANCOVA and a post-hoc test. In relation to physical function, there was a statistically significant effect shown by gender, but no significant differences were found by the main effect of culture and the interaction effect of gender and culture. The significant interaction effect of gender and culture on mental health was shown. In conclusion, gender differences in the quality of life perceived by patients with atrial fibrillation varied with their cultural background. Thus, patients' cultural background should be considered in nursing practice.
Summarizes cross-cultural studies of cognitive skills, emotions, and self-images found in responses to drawing tasks by children, adolescents, and adults. Its aim is to find out whether cultural differences in scores on the Silver Drawing Test can illuminate cultural preferences and contribute to cultural practices. (Contains 21 references.) (GCP)
Smith, Timothy B; Rodríguez, Melanie Domenech; Bernal, Guillermo
This article summarizes the definitions, means, and research of adapting psychotherapy to clients' cultural backgrounds. We begin by reviewing the prevailing definitions of cultural adaptation and providing a clinical example. We present an original meta-analysis of 65 experimental and quasi-experimental studies involving 8,620 participants. The omnibus effect size of d = .46 indicates that treatments specifically adapted for clients of color were moderately more effective with that clientele than traditional treatments. The most effective treatments tended to be those with greater numbers of cultural adaptations. Mental health services targeted to a specific cultural group were several times more effective than those provided to clients from a variety of cultural backgrounds. We recommend a series of research-supported therapeutic practices that account for clients' culture, with culture-specific treatments being more effective than generally culture-sensitive treatments. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available The workforce of an enterprise consists of employees of various ages with different personality types. Members of each generation differ not only in their behaviour, but also in their attitudes and opinions. A manager should identify generational differences. Subsequently, the management style, leadership and employee motivation should be adapted forasmuch as well-motivated employees are able to affect the efficiency of enterprise processes in right way. The objective of the paper is to identify differences in perception of the preferred level of corporate culture in terms of various generations. Preferred level of corporate culture in six areas is evaluated using a questionnaire consisting of 24 questions. Sixty-four European transport enterprises are engaged in the survey. Following the outcomes, we find that all generations of respondents working in the European transport enterprises prefer clan corporate culture in the course of five years. This culture puts emphasis on employees, customers and traditions. Loyalty and teamwork are considered to be the essential tools for business success. Following the statistical verification using the ANOVA test, we can state that the hypothesis regarding the existence of generational differences in the perception of corporate culture was not confirmed.
Chandratilake, Madawa; McAleer, Sean; Gibson, John
Over the last two decades, many medical educators have sought to define professionalism. Initial attempts to do so were focused on defining professionalism in a manner that allowed for universal agreement. This quest was later transformed into an effort to 'understand professionalism' as many researchers realised that professionalism is a social construct and is culture-sensitive. The determination of cultural differences in the understanding of professionalism, however, has been subject to very little research, possibly because of the practical difficulties of doing so. In this multi-region study, we illustrate the universal and culture-specific aspects of medical professionalism as it is perceived by medical practitioners. Forty-six professional attributes were identified by reviewing the literature. A total of 584 medical practitioners, representing the UK, Europe, North America and Asia, participated in a survey in which they indicated the importance of each of these attributes. We determined the 'essentialness' of each attribute in different geographic regions using the content validity index, supplemented with kappa statistics. With acceptable levels of consensus, all regional groups identified 29 attributes as 'essential', thereby indicating the universality of these professional attributes, and six attributes as non-essential. The essentialness of the rest varied by regional group. This study has helped to identify regional similarities and dissimilarities in understandings of professionalism, most of which can be explained by cultural differences in line with the theories of cultural dimensions and cultural value. However, certain dissonances among regions may well be attributable to socio-economic factors. Some of the responses appear to be counter-cultural and demonstrate practitioners' keenness to overcome cultural barriers in order to provide better patient care. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2012.
Hoxha, Eneda; Hatala, Mark N.
Cross-cultural differences in romantic attitudes are often taken for granted and accepted. However, very little research has been conducted to clearly state how much and how different Albanian and American college students are in the way they love. Results indicate that Americans are more romantic than Albanians. In addition, Americans are more…
Idioms is a special culture which is shaped in the daily lives of the local people, particularly the idioms of diet has a close relation with various elements, such as the eating custom, history, fairy tales, geographic situations. Also, different ways of translation on different diet idioms in English and Chinese will be analyzed in this article.…
Like several scientists, Isaac Newton has been represented many times over many different periods, and portraits of Newton were often commissioned by the scientist himself. These portraits tell us a lot about the scientist, the artist and the cultural context. This article examines two very different portraits of Newton that were realized more…
Kuwabara, Megumi; Smith, Linda B.
Growing evidence indicates a suite of generalized differences in the attentional and cognitive processing of adults from Eastern and Western cultures. Cognition in Eastern adults is often more relational and in Western adults is more object focused. Three experiments examined whether these differences characterize the cognition of preschool…
Paik, Susan J.; Rahman, Zaynah; Kula, Stacy M.; Saito, L. Erika; Witenstein, Matthew A.
Based on 11 diverse Asian American (AA) communities, this article discusses the similarities and differences across East, South, and Southeast Asians. Of two parts in this journal issue, Part 1 presents a review of literature and census data to understand the cultural and structural factors of different types of coethnic communities (strong, weak,…
Posada, German; Trumbell, Jill; Noblega, Magaly; Plata, Sandra; Peña, Paola; Carbonell, Olga A.; Lu, Ting
This study tested whether maternal sensitivity and child security are related during early childhood and whether such an association is found in different cultural and social contexts. Mother-child dyads (N = 237) from four different countries (Colombia, Mexico, Peru, and the United States) were observed in naturalistic settings when children were…
Teo, Timothy; Kam, Chester
The 10-item General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSES) was developed to assess an individual's beliefs to cope with a variety of situations in life. Despite the GSES being used in numerous research from researchers in different countries and presented in different languages, little is known about the use of its validity in an Asian culture. The aim of the…
Chatterjee, J.; Hossain, Z.; Mandal, A.K.A.; Datta, S.K.
Chromotoxic effect of different in vitro culture medium compositions were studied on aseptically grown root tip cells of Allium cepa and compared with gamma ray treated Allium cepa bulbs. Different types of chromosomal abnormalities were recorded in all medium composition as normally observed in Allium test with other chemicals and mutagens treated experiment. Different chromosomal abnormalities developed due to different medium components and gamma ray treatment are comparable. (author)
Khan, A.N.M.A.I.; Islam, M.R.; Habib, M.A.B.; Hossain, M.S.; Miah, M.I.
Chlarella vulgaris was cultured in four different dilutions of sugar mill effluent media (SMEM). Bold's basal medium (BBM) was used as the control under laboratory conditions. Maximum cell growth and chlorophyll-a content were obtained on 10th day of the culture in 50% diluted SMEM, followed by those grown in BBM, and 75, 25 and 100% SMEM at stationary phase. The specific growth rate (mu g/day) of cells and chlorophyll-a of C. vulgaris grown in 50% SMEM varied significantly (p < 0.0 I) from those of C. vulgaris cultured in BBM, followed by other SMEM concentrations. Total biomass of C. vulgaris. cultured in 50% SMEM, was found to be significantly higher (p < 0.0 I) than that of C. vulgaris cultured in BBM, and 25, 75 and 100% SMEM concentrations. Similar trend was also observed in the case of optical density. Cell number and chlorophyll-a of C. vulgaris were highly (p < 0.01) and directly correlated with chlorophyll-a (r2 = 0.991) of C. vulgaris and optical density (r2 = 0.989) for the culture media containing C. vulgaris, respectively. Crude proteins and crude lipids of C. vulgaris. grown in 50% SMEM, were significantly (p < 0.01) higher than those of C. vulgaris cultured in other SMEM concentrations. Due to good growth performance exhibited in the 50% SMEM dilution, the sugar mill effluent may be used for efficient cultivation of C. vulgaris and possibly other micro algae. (author)
Full Text Available Using a combination of qualitative and quantitative methods, this study seeks to explore the diversity of culture amongst the staff of a business school in Hungary and then examine how this diversity may impact upon the organisation’s orientations towards three aspects of market orientation: interfunctional cooperation; competition and the student orientation. The diversity of culture is found through the identification of five subcultures. These subcultures exhibit signs of both heterogeneity and homogeneity as two pairs of subcultures are divided not by differences in values themselves but by the expressed strength of values. The empirical findings indicate that each subculture varies in perception of the dominant cultures of the organisation and its particular market orientation in relation to culture type. Furthermore, some subcultures perceive themselves as enhancing, when this may not be the case and others perceive themselves as counter cultures. The qualitative study confirms that subcultures have both homogenous and heterogeneous aspects in relation to other subcultures as well as the perceived dominant culture. This greater complexity gives an extension to the existing perspectives taken on organisation culture, although this would need to be confirmed with generalizable research.
Koops, Kathelijne; Schöning, Caspar; Isaji, Mina; Hashimoto, Chie
Cultural variation has been identified in a growing number of animal species ranging from primates to cetaceans. The principal method used to establish the presence of culture in wild populations is the method of exclusion. This method is problematic, since it cannot rule out the influence of genetics and ecology in geographically distant populations. A new approach to the study of culture compares neighbouring groups belonging to the same population. We applied this new approach by comparing ant-dipping tool length between two neighbouring communities of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) in the Kalinzu Forest, Uganda. Ant-dipping tool length varies across chimpanzee study sites in relation to army ant species (Dorylus spp.) and dipping location (nest vs. trail). We compared the availability of army ant species and dipping tool length between the two communities. M-group tools were significantly longer than S-group tools, despite identical army ant target species availabilities. Moreover, tool length in S-group was shorter than at all other sites where chimpanzees prey on epigaeic ants at nests. Considering the lack of ecological differences between the two communities, the tool length difference appears to be cultural. Our findings highlight how cultural knowledge can generate small-scale cultural diversification in neighbouring chimpanzee communities.
Dell'Aversana, Giuseppina; Bruno, Andreina
Cultural competence (CC) for professionals and organizations has been recognized as a key strategy to reduce health care inequalities for migrants and to promote responsiveness to diversity. For decades its main aim has been matching health services to the cultural needs of migrant users. Otherwise literature highlighted the need to find a pragmatic middle way between the 'static' and the 'dynamic' views of culture that are recognizable in CC approaches. A pragmatic middle way to CC will be proposed as the way to respect diversity, even responding to cultural issues, without stereotyping or discriminating. To understand conditions that favor this pragmatic middle way this study aims to explore: (1) perceptions of healthcare providers in managing diversity; (2) strategies used to meet health needs at a professional and organizational level. A qualitative case study was conducted in a healthcare service renowned for its engagement in migrant sensitive care. Four different professional figures involved in CC strategies at different levels, both managerial and non-managerial, were interviewed. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis. Findings indicated that dealing with diversity poses challenges for healthcare providers, by confronting them with multilevel barriers to quality of care. A pragmatic middle way to CC seems to rely on complex understanding of the interaction between patients social conditions and the capacity of the institutional system to promote equity. Professional and organizational strategies, such as inter-professional and intersectional collaboration, cultural food adaptation and professional training can enhance quality of care, patient compliance responding to social and cultural needs.
Li, Jincai; Liu, Longgen; Chalmers, Elizabeth; Snedeker, Jesse
Past work has shown systematic differences between Easterners' and Westerners' intuitions about the reference of proper names. Understanding when these differences emerge in development will help us understand their origins. In the present study, we investigate the referential intuitions of English- and Chinese-speaking children and adults in the U.S. and China. Using a truth-value judgment task modeled on Kripke's classic Gödel case, we find that the cross-cultural differences are already in place at age seven. Thus, these differences cannot be attributed to later education or enculturation. Instead, they must stem from differences that are present in early childhood. We consider alternate theories of reference that are compatible with these findings and discuss the possibility that the cross-cultural differences reflect differences in perspective-taking strategies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Thomas, Tami L; Yarandi, Hossein N; Dalmida, Safiya George; Frados, Andrew; Klienert, Kathleen
The authors examined population-specific risk factors that increase emerging adults' risk of acquiring sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including the human papillomavirus (HPV). A cross-sectional sample of 335 diverse, emerging adults ages 18 to 24 years was recruited from a health center at a large university in the Southeastern United States. The mean age was 20.6 ± 1.9 years, majority were females (74.0%), and 61.0% were Hispanic. Findings revealed inconsistent condom use, reasons for not using condoms, and a need for more culturally specific intervention strategies. Healthcare providers should identify culturally specific reasons for inconsistent condom use, examine cultural and geographic differences in sexual risk behaviors among groups and communities, and modify communication, educational programs, and interventions accordingly. By adopting a multicultural approach to the control of STIs, nurses can address specific cultural attitudes and behaviors that may influence exposure to STIs, including HPV. © The Author(s) 2014.
Ma-Kellams, Christine; Spencer-Rodgers, Julie; Peng, Kaiping
The authors proposed a novel explanation for cultural differences in ingroup favoritism (dialecticism) and tested this hypothesis across cultures/ethnicities, domains, and levels of analysis (explicit vs. implicit, cognitive vs. affective). Dialecticism refers to the cognitive tendency to tolerate contradiction and is more frequently found among East Asian than North American cultures. In Study 1, Chinese were significantly less positive, compared to European Americans, in their explicit judgments of family members. Study 2 investigated ingroup attitudes among Chinese, Latinos, and European Americans. Only Chinese participants showed significant in-group derogation, relative to the other groups, and dialecticism (Dialectical Self Scale) was associated with participants' in group attitudes. Study 3 manipulated dialectical versus linear lay beliefs; participants primed with dialecticism showed more negative, explicit ingroup attitudes. Although ingroup disfavoring tendencies were more prevalent among Chinese across studies, they may be a reflection of one's culturally based lay beliefs rather than deep-rooted negative feelings toward one's ingroup.
Alotaibi, Albandri; Underwood, Geoffrey; Smith, Alastair D
Individual differences in visual attention have been linked to thinking style: analytic thinking (common in individualistic cultures) is thought to promote attention to detail and focus on the most important part of a scene, whereas holistic thinking (common in collectivist cultures) promotes attention to the global structure of a scene and the relationship between its parts. However, this theory is primarily based on relatively simple judgement tasks. We compared groups from Great Britain (an individualist culture) and Saudi Arabia (a collectivist culture) on a more complex comparative visual search task, using simple natural scenes. A higher overall number of fixations for Saudi participants, along with longer search times, indicated less efficient search behaviour than British participants. Furthermore, intra-group comparisons of scan-path for Saudi participants revealed less similarity than within the British group. Together, these findings suggest that there is a positive relationship between an analytic cognitive style and controlled attention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
José M. Lavín
Full Text Available The studies on cultural tourism have determinate a series of profiles for cultural tourism. However, in recent times, the specifications on variants existing within cultural tourism make these profiles may not be very useful when defining and conceptualize this type of tourism. To verify this emptiness, we have studied a religious festivity in Patate, central zone of the Ecuadorian sierra of the Andes, very popular in all the country, to measure the reliability of the standards of the tourist profiles. To this end, a survey was conducted among religious tourists who attended the Lord of Earthquake celebrations on the profile and patterns chosen for the study. The conclusions indicate that the profile of both types of tourist is different, and that measurements on the profile of the cultural tourist should be modified and expanded in this case.
Bubrick, P.; Galun, M.; Ben-Yaacov, M.; Frensdorff, A.
Lichen phycobionts are known to undergo a series of morphological, physiological, and biochemical changes as a result of lichenization. A number of modifications in the cell wall of lichen algae have also been described. Using the phycobiont of Xanthoria parietina as a study organism. The authors have shown that concanavalin A bound to the cell wall of lichen algae cultured in vitro, but not to the same algae in the symbiotic form (freshly isolated from the lichen). They have also isolated a crude protein fraction from the lichen, a component(s) of which bound to the cell wall of cultured, but not freshly isolated algae. Binding was correlated to cytochemical features present only on the cell wall of cultured algae. With the aid of a newly-developed solid-phase radioimmunoassay, the authors show that there are also detectable antigenic differences, as well as similarities, between freshly isolated and cultured phycobionts from X. parietina. (Auth.)
Bubrick, P; Galun, M [Tel Aviv Univ. (Israel). Dept. of Botany; Ben-Yaacov, M; Frensdorff, A [Tel-Aviv Univ. (Israel). Dept. of Microbiology
Lichen phycobionts are known to undergo a series of morphological, physiological, and biochemical changes as a result of lichenization. A number of modifications in the cell wall of lichen algae have also been described. Using the phycobiont of Xanthoria parietina as a study organism. The authors have shown that concanavalin A bound to the cell wall of lichen algae cultured in vitro, but not to the same algae in the symbiotic form (freshly isolated from the lichen). They have also isolated a crude protein fraction from the lichen, a component(s) of which bound to the cell wall of cultured, but not freshly isolated algae. Binding was correlated to cytochemical features present only on the cell wall of cultured algae. With the aid of a newly-developed solid-phase radioimmunoassay, the authors show that there are also detectable antigenic differences, as well as similarities, between freshly isolated and cultured phycobionts from X. parietina.
Full Text Available Emotional processing and social problem-solving are important for mental well-being. For example, impaired emotional processing is linked with depression and psychosomatic problems. However, little is known about crosscultural differences in emotional processing and social problem-solving and whether these constructs are linked. This study examines whether emotional processing and social problem-solving differs between Western (British and Eastern European (Polish cultures. Participants (N = 172 completed questionnaires assessing both constructs. Emotional processing did not differ according to culture, but Polish participants reported more effective social problem-solving abilities than British participants. Poorer emotional processing was also found to relate to poorer social problem-solving. Possible societal reasons for the findings and the implications of the findings for culture and clinical practice are discussed.
Fonseca, Cátia; Planchon, Sébastien; Serra, Tânia; Chander, Subhash; Saibo, Nelson J M; Renaut, Jenny; Oliveira, M Margarida; Batista, Rita
Identification of differences between genetically modified plants and their original counterparts plays a central role in risk assessment strategy. Our main goal was to better understand the relevance of transgene presence, genetic, and epigenetic changes induced by transgene insertion, and in vitro culture in putative unintended differences between a transgenic and its comparator. Thus, we have used multiplex fluorescence 2DE coupled with MS to characterize the proteome of three different rice lines (Oryza sativa L. ssp. japonica cv. Nipponbare): a control conventional line (C), an Agrobacterium-transformed transgenic line (Ta) and a negative segregant (NSb). We observed that Ta and NSb appeared identical (with only one spot differentially abundant--fold difference ≥ 1.5), contrasting with the control (49 spots with fold difference ≥ 1.5, in both Ta and NSb vs. control). Given that in vitro culture was the only event in common between Ta and NSb, we hypothesize that in vitro culture stress was the most relevant condition contributing for the observed proteomic differences. MS protein identification support our hypothesis, indicating that Ta and NSb lines adjusted their metabolic pathways and altered the abundance of several stress related proteins in order to cope with in vitro culture. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Palinkas, Lawrence A; Johnson, Jeffrey C; Boster, James S; Rakusa-Suszczewski, Stanislaw; Klopov, Valeri P; Fu, Xue Quan; Sachdeva, Usha
Differences in patterns of psychosocial adaptation under conditions of prolonged isolation and confinement in Antarctica were examined to determine the extent to which they were influenced by national culture in general and the individualist-collectivist orientation of national cultures in particular. The Profile of Mood States and measures of structural and functional social support were administered over an 8-mo period (March through October) to 13 winter-over crews from 5 nations operating research stations in the Antarctic: United States (3 crews, n = 77), Poland (3 crews, n = 40), Russia (3 crews, n = 34), China (3 crews, n = 40), and India (1 crew, n = 26). Americans at South Pole Station reported significant increases in fatigue and anxiety and a significant decrease in vigor over the winter. During the same period, Russians at Vostok Station reported significant decreases in depression, anxiety, and confusion, and Indians at Maitri Station reported a significant decrease in anger. A significant decrease in social interaction with fellow crewmembers occurred at South Pole Station, Vostok Station, and Poland's Arctowski Station. Several differences were also observed between the five stations in correlations between mood scores and measures of structural and functional social support. An individualistic cultural orientation was significantly associated with low social support and low negative mood. Cultural background is associated with mood and social support as well as changes in these measures during the austral winter. Cultural differences in patterns of psychosocial adaptation must be considered in the formation and training of multinational crews for long duration missions in space.
Aron, Arthur; Ketay, Sarah; Hedden, Trey; Aron, Elaine N; Rose Markus, Hazel; Gabrieli, John D E
This study focused on a possible temperament-by-culture interaction. Specifically, it explored whether a basic temperament/personality trait (sensory processing sensitivity; SPS), perhaps having a genetic component, might moderate a previously established cultural difference in neural responses when making context-dependent vs context-independent judgments of simple visual stimuli. SPS has been hypothesized to underlie what has been called inhibitedness or reactivity in infants, introversion in adults, and reactivity or responsivness in diverse animal species. Some biologists view the trait as one of two innate strategies-observing carefully before acting vs being first to act. Thus the central characteristic of SPS is hypothesized to be a deep processing of information. Here, 10 European-Americans and 10 East Asians underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing simple visuospatial tasks emphasizing judgments that were either context independent (typically easier for Americans) or context dependent (typically easier for Asians). As reported elsewhere, each group exhibited greater activation for the culturally non-preferred task in frontal and parietal regions associated with greater effort in attention and working memory. However, further analyses, reported here for the first time, provided preliminary support for moderation by SPS. Consistent with the careful-processing theory, high-SPS individuals showed little cultural difference; low-SPS, strong culture differences.
Huang, Chih-Hsuan; Wu, Hsin-Hung; Lee, Yii-Ching
In order to pursue a better patient safety culture and provide a superior medical service for patients, this study aims to respectively investigate the perceptions of patient safety from the viewpoints of physicians and nurses in Taiwan. Little knowledge has clearly identified the difference of perceptions between physicians and nurses in patient safety culture. Understanding physicians and nurses' attitudes toward patient safety is a critical issue for healthcare organizations to improve medical quality. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) is used to verify the structure of data (e.g. reliability and validity), and Pearson's correlation analysis is conducted to demonstrate the relationships among seven patient safety culture dimensions. Research results illustrate that more teamwork is exhibited among team members, the more safety of a patient is committed. Perceptions of management and emotional exhaustion are important components that contribute to a better patient safety. More importantly, working conditions and stress recognition are found to be negatively related from the perceptions of nurses. Compared to physicians, nurses reported higher stress and challenges which result from multi-task working conditions in the hospital. This study focused on the contribution of a better patient safety culture from different viewpoints of physicians and nurses for healthcare organizations in Taiwan. A different attitudes toward patient safety is found between physicians and nurses. The results enable the hospital management to realize and design appropriate implications for hospital staffs to establish a better patient safety culture. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Razavi, Pooya; Zhang, Jia Wei; Hekiert, Daniela; Yoo, Seung Hee; Howell, Ryan T
Current research on awe is limited to Western cultures. Thus, whether the measurement, frequency, and consequences of awe will replicate across non-Western cultures remains unanswered. To address this gap, we validated the dispositional awe scale (Shiota, Keltner, & John, 2006) in 4 countries (United States, Iran, Malaysia, and Poland; N = 1,173) with extensive variations in cultural values (i.e., power distance) and personality profiles (i.e., extraversion and openness). Multigroup factor analyses demonstrated that, across all cultures, a 3-factor model that treats awe, amusement, and pride as 3 unique emotions is superior to a single-factor model that clusters all 3 emotions together. Structurally, the scales of awe, amusement and pride were invariant across all countries. Furthermore, we found significant country-level differences in dispositional awe, with the largest discrepancy between the United States and Iran (d = 0.79); these differences are not likely due to cultural response biases. Results are discussed in terms of possible explanations for country-level differences and suggestions for future research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Koski-Jännes, Anja; Pennonen, Marjo; Simmat-Durand, Laurence
The treatment of alcohol abusers in different cultural contexts does not depend only on the methods used but also on the ways in which treatment providers perceive the problem and relate to their clients. This study compares treatment professionals' basic beliefs about alcohol use disorders in two culturally different European countries to find out to what extent these ideas are shaped by the respondents' socio-cultural context, profession, and other background variables. Similar postal surveys were conducted among professionals working in specialized addiction treatment units in Finland (n = 520) and France (n = 472). The data were analyzed by descriptive statistical methods and logistic regression analysis. Consistent cultural differences were found in almost all the questions asked and they remained significant even after controlling for the other background factors. The French professionals emphasized the addictiveness of alcohol more than their Finnish colleagues. They also believed less in the chances of recovery and attributed more responsibility for the problem to external factors, while the Finns emphasized individual responsibility. Profession, gender and some other background variables also modified beliefs about specific questions. Cultural factors shape the ways in which alcohol use disorders are perceived more pervasively than the other background variables. The French professionals' low trust in treatment and the Finnish professionals' lack of concern for the addiction potential of alcohol and stronger tendency to regard the person as responsible for the problem could be seen as potential impediments to effective ways of helping alcohol abusers in these countries.
Han, Shihui; Ma, Yina
Psychologists have been trying to understand differences in cognition and behavior between East Asian and Western cultures within a single cognitive framework such as holistic versus analytic or interdependent versus independent processes. However, it remains unclear whether cultural differences in multiple psychological processes correspond to the same or different neural networks. We conducted a quantitative meta-analysis of 35 functional MRI studies to examine cultural differences in brain activity engaged in social and non-social processes. We showed that social cognitive processes are characterized by stronger activity in the dorsal medial prefrontal cortex, lateral frontal cortex and temporoparietal junction in East Asians but stronger activity in the anterior cingulate, ventral medial prefrontal cortex and bilateral insula in Westerners. Social affective processes are associated with stronger activity in the right dorsal lateral frontal cortex in East Asians but greater activity in the left insula and right temporal pole in Westerners. Non-social processes induce stronger activity in the left inferior parietal cortex, left middle occipital and left superior parietal cortex in East Asians but greater activations in the right lingual gyrus, right inferior parietal cortex and precuneus in Westerners. The results suggest that cultural differences in social and non-social processes are mediated by distinct neural networks. Moreover, East Asian cultures are associated with increased neural activity in the brain regions related to inference of others' mind and emotion regulation whereas Western cultures are associated with enhanced neural activity in the brain areas related to self-relevance encoding and emotional responses during social cognitive/affective processes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The new emerging markets are becoming significant players in global market in recent decade. This study follows current pace in employing institutional theory to explore the specific pressures and factors makes networking essential in Human Resource Management in different countries. The study is a detailed qualitative analysis of networking and cultural differences in Kazakhstan, a country with very different value and government structure. Contrary to simplistic expectations, Kazakhstan sho...
Ottsen, Christina Lundsgaard; Berntsen, Dorthe
Mental time travel is the ability to remember past events and imagine future events. Here, 124 Middle Easterners and 128 Scandinavians generated important past and future events. These different societies present a unique opportunity to examine effects of culture. Findings indicate stronger influence of normative schemas and greater use of mental time travel to teach, inform and direct behaviour in the Middle East compared with Scandinavia. The Middle Easterners generated more events that corresponded to their cultural life script and that contained religious words, whereas the Scandinavians reported events with a more positive mood impact. Effects of gender were mainly found in the Middle East. Main effects of time orientation largely replicated recent findings showing that simulation of future and past events are not necessarily parallel processes. In accordance with the notion that future simulations rely on schema-based construction, important future events showed a higher overlap with life script events than past events in both cultures. In general, cross-cultural discrepancies were larger in future compared with past events. Notably, the high focus in the Middle East on sharing future events to give cultural guidance is consistent with the increased adherence to normative scripts found in this culture. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Franck O P Stefani
Full Text Available Bioremediation is a cost-effective and sustainable approach for treating polluted soils, but our ability to improve on current bioremediation strategies depends on our ability to isolate microorganisms from these soils. Although culturing is widely used in bioremediation research and applications, it is unknown whether the composition of cultured isolates closely mirrors the indigenous microbial community from contaminated soils. To assess this, we paired culture-independent (454-pyrosequencing of total soil DNA with culture-dependent (isolation using seven different growth media techniques to analyse the bacterial and fungal communities from hydrocarbon-contaminated soils. Although bacterial and fungal rarefaction curves were saturated for both methods, only 2.4% and 8.2% of the bacterial and fungal OTUs, respectively, were shared between datasets. Isolated taxa increased the total recovered species richness by only 2% for bacteria and 5% for fungi. Interestingly, none of the bacteria that we isolated were representative of the major bacterial OTUs recovered by 454-pyrosequencing. Isolation of fungi was moderately more effective at capturing the dominant OTUs observed by culture-independent analysis, as 3 of 31 cultured fungal strains ranked among the 20 most abundant fungal OTUs in the 454-pyrosequencing dataset. This study is one of the most comprehensive comparisons of microbial communities from hydrocarbon-contaminated soils using both isolation and high-throughput sequencing methods.
Stefani, Franck O P; Bell, Terrence H; Marchand, Charlotte; de la Providencia, Ivan E; El Yassimi, Abdel; St-Arnaud, Marc; Hijri, Mohamed
Bioremediation is a cost-effective and sustainable approach for treating polluted soils, but our ability to improve on current bioremediation strategies depends on our ability to isolate microorganisms from these soils. Although culturing is widely used in bioremediation research and applications, it is unknown whether the composition of cultured isolates closely mirrors the indigenous microbial community from contaminated soils. To assess this, we paired culture-independent (454-pyrosequencing of total soil DNA) with culture-dependent (isolation using seven different growth media) techniques to analyse the bacterial and fungal communities from hydrocarbon-contaminated soils. Although bacterial and fungal rarefaction curves were saturated for both methods, only 2.4% and 8.2% of the bacterial and fungal OTUs, respectively, were shared between datasets. Isolated taxa increased the total recovered species richness by only 2% for bacteria and 5% for fungi. Interestingly, none of the bacteria that we isolated were representative of the major bacterial OTUs recovered by 454-pyrosequencing. Isolation of fungi was moderately more effective at capturing the dominant OTUs observed by culture-independent analysis, as 3 of 31 cultured fungal strains ranked among the 20 most abundant fungal OTUs in the 454-pyrosequencing dataset. This study is one of the most comprehensive comparisons of microbial communities from hydrocarbon-contaminated soils using both isolation and high-throughput sequencing methods.
Kuntsche, Emmanuel; Wicki, Matthias; Windlin, Béat
, and coping motives in northern than in southern/central Europe. CONCLUSIONS: The results from the largest drinking motive study conducted to date suggest that gender-specific prevention should take differences in the motivational pathways toward (heavy) drinking into account, that is, positive reinforcement...... seems to be more important for boys and negative reinforcement for girls. Preventive action targeting social and enhancement motives and taking drinking circumstances into account could contribute to tackling underage drinking in northern Europe....
Full Text Available Background. Embodied finger counting has been shown to have cross-cultural differences in previous studies (Lindemann, Alipour, & Fisher, 2011; Soto & Lalain, 2008. However, their results were contradictory in reference to Western populations with regard to the hand preferred: The first study showed that in Western countries — Europe and the United States — participants preferred to start with the left hand (whereas in the Middle East — Iran — they used the right hand; the second study showed that participants in France preferred the right hand. Objective. Our study aimed to observe these differences in two countries, Spain (Western Europe and Russia (Eastern Europe part, although taking into account the variety of cultural or ethnic groups who live there. Design. The observational/descriptive study, together with correlational analysis of the finger-counting pattern (from 1 to 10 used by children aged 10 to 12 who had not been taught to use their fingers for counting, considered factors of cultural origin and hand dominance. The possible effects of this action on cognition — in our case, math achievement — were considered also. Results and conclusion. The differences in the frequency of the finger-counting patterns might suggest cultural-individual differences in performance; however, the correlational analysis did not reveal that these differences were statistically significant, either for gender or for mark in math. However, hand dominance was a significant predictor of the preferred hand with which to start counting.
Yan, Xiaoqian; Young, Andrew W; Andrews, Timothy J
The aim of this study was to investigate the causes of the own-race advantage in facial expression perception. In Experiment 1, we investigated Western Caucasian and Chinese participants' perception and categorization of facial expressions of six basic emotions that included two pairs of confusable expressions (fear and surprise; anger and disgust). People were slightly better at identifying facial expressions posed by own-race members (mainly in anger and disgust). In Experiment 2, we asked whether the own-race advantage was due to differences in the holistic processing of facial expressions. Participants viewed composite faces in which the upper part of one expression was combined with the lower part of a different expression. The upper and lower parts of the composite faces were either aligned or misaligned. Both Chinese and Caucasian participants were better at identifying the facial expressions from the misaligned images, showing interference on recognizing the parts of the expressions created by holistic perception of the aligned composite images. However, this interference from holistic processing was equivalent across expressions of own-race and other-race faces in both groups of participants. Whilst the own-race advantage in recognizing facial expressions does seem to reflect the confusability of certain emotions, it cannot be explained by differences in holistic processing.
Evans, G W; Lepore, S J; Allen, K M
It is widely believed that cultures vary in their tolerance for crowding. There is, however, little evidence to substantiate this belief, coupled with serious shortcomings in the extant literature. Tolerance for crowding has been confused with cultural differences in personal space preferences along with perceived crowding. Furthermore, the few studies that have examined cultural variability in reactions to crowding have compared subgroup correlations, which is not equivalent to a statistical interaction. Although the authors found a statistical interaction indicating that Asian Americans and Latin Americans differ in the way they perceive crowding in comparison to their fellow Anglo-American and African American citizens, all four ethnic groups suffer similar, negative psychological distress sequelae of high-density housing. These results hold independently of household income.
Maister, Lara; Tsakiris, Manos
Body-awareness is produced by an integration of both interoceptive and exteroceptive bodily signals. However, previous investigations into cultural differences in bodily self-awareness have only studied these two aspects in isolation. We investigated the interaction between interoceptive and exteroceptive self-processing in East Asian and Western participants. During an interoceptive awareness task, self-face observation improved performance of those with initially low awareness in the Western group, but did not benefit the East Asian participants. These results suggest that the integrated, coherent experience of the body differs between East Asian and Western cultures. For Western participants, viewing one's own face may activate a bodily self-awareness which enhances processing of other bodily information, such as interoceptive signals. Instead, for East Asian individuals, the external appearance of the self may activate higher-level, social aspects of self-identity, reflecting the importance of the sociocultural construct of "face" in East Asian cultures.
Tsai, Jeanne L; Miao, Felicity F; Seppala, Emma; Fung, Helene H; Yeung, Dannii Y
Previous studies have found that in American culture high-arousal positive states (HAP) such as excitement are valued more and low-arousal positive states (LAP) such as calm are valued less than they are in Chinese culture. What specific factors account for these differences? The authors predicted that when people and cultures aimed to influence others (i.e., assert personal needs and change others' behaviors to meet those needs), they would value HAP more and LAP less than when they aimed to adjust to others (i.e., suppress personal needs and change their own behaviors to meet others' needs). They test these predictions in 1 survey and 3 experimental studies. The findings suggest that within and across American and Chinese contexts, differences in ideal affect are due to specific interpersonal goals. (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved.
Full Text Available The aim of this article was to identify the cause of the negative attitude of Slovak population towards visitors by comparing the differences in national cultures on six primary Hofstede’s dimensions: power distance, individualism, masculinity, uncertainty avoidance, long-term orientation and indulgence and provide comparison with Slovakia. The results revealed high score on power distance and masculinity. The high score of this two dimensions′ correlates with elements of expressions of superiority and negatively affects not only the way of communication between people from the same cultural and linguistic group, but also with individuals that come from a different cultural environment. Based on these results, it is necessary to develop a smarter marketing approach - strive for innovation and unique marketing activities for a more efficient communication.
This study explores the proposer behaviour in an ultimatum game (UG) frame under anonymous and non-anonymous conditions among a Korean and German subject pool (n = 590) in comparison. Whereas the anonymous condition is represented by the standard UG, the non-anonymous condition integrates an aggregate of the Korean cultural context variables university affiliation, regional origin and seniority. The latter, a classic Confucian context variable, is measured by age differentials. The former two are impactful components of so-called Yongo networks, a unique Korean informal institution identical to Chinese Guanxi ties. Yongo networks, yet underrepresented in research, are said to be a central context variable to explain Korean social ties and decision-making behaviour. We observe significant differences between the offer behaviours of Korean and German subjects when exposing selected cultural variables. We argue that the behavioural differences observed are in fact due to culture not anonymity. © 2015 International Union of Psychological Science.
Chung, Joanne M; Robins, Richard W
Recent research suggests that the self-conscious emotions of embarrassment, shame, and pride have distinct, nonverbal expressions that can be recognized in the United States at above-chance levels. However, few studies have examined the recognition of these emotions in other cultures, and little research has been conducted in Asia. Consequently the cross-cultural generalizability of self-conscious emotions has not been firmly established. Additionally, there is no research that examines cultural variability in the recognition of the self-conscious emotions. Cultural values and exposure to Western culture have been identified as contributors to variability in recognition rates for the basic emotions; we sought to examine this for the self-conscious emotions using the University of California, Davis Set of Emotion Expressions (UCDSEE). The present research examined recognition of the self-conscious emotion expressions in South Korean college students and found that recognition rates were very high for pride, low but above chance for shame, and near zero for embarrassment. To examine what might be underlying the recognition rates we found in South Korea, recognition of self-conscious emotions and several cultural values were examined in a U.S. college student sample of European Americans, Asian Americans, and Asian-born individuals. Emotion recognition rates were generally similar between the European Americans and Asian Americans, and higher than emotion recognition rates for Asian-born individuals. These differences were not explained by cultural values in an interpretable manner, suggesting that exposure to Western culture is a more important mediator than values.
Joanne M Chung
Full Text Available Recent research suggests that the self-conscious emotions of embarrassment, shame, and pride have distinct, nonverbal expressions that can be recognized in the United States at above-chance levels. However, few studies have examined the recognition of these emotions in other cultures, and little research has been conducted in Asia. Consequently the cross-cultural generalizability of self-conscious emotions has not been firmly established. Additionally, there is no research that examines cultural variability in the recognition of the self-conscious emotions. Cultural values and exposure to Western culture have been identified as contributors to variability in recognition rates for the basic emotions; we sought to examine this for the self-conscious emotions using the University of California, Davis Set of Emotion Expressions (UCDSEE. The present research examined recognition of the self-conscious emotion expressions in South Korean college students and found that recognition rates were very high for pride, low but above chance for shame, and near zero for embarrassment. To examine what might be underlying the recognition rates we found in South Korea, recognition of self-conscious emotions and several cultural values were examined in a U.S. college student sample of European Americans, Asian Americans, and Asian-born individuals. Emotion recognition rates were generally similar between the European Americans and Asian Americans, and higher than emotion recognition rates for Asian-born individuals. These differences were not explained by cultural values in an interpretable manner, suggesting that exposure to Western culture is a more important mediator than values.
Chung, Joanne M.; Robins, Richard W.
Recent research suggests that the self-conscious emotions of embarrassment, shame, and pride have distinct, nonverbal expressions that can be recognized in the United States at above-chance levels. However, few studies have examined the recognition of these emotions in other cultures, and little research has been conducted in Asia. Consequently the cross-cultural generalizability of self-conscious emotions has not been firmly established. Additionally, there is no research that examines cultural variability in the recognition of the self-conscious emotions. Cultural values and exposure to Western culture have been identified as contributors to variability in recognition rates for the basic emotions; we sought to examine this for the self-conscious emotions using the University of California, Davis Set of Emotion Expressions (UCDSEE). The present research examined recognition of the self-conscious emotion expressions in South Korean college students and found that recognition rates were very high for pride, low but above chance for shame, and near zero for embarrassment. To examine what might be underlying the recognition rates we found in South Korea, recognition of self-conscious emotions and several cultural values were examined in a U.S. college student sample of European Americans, Asian Americans, and Asian-born individuals. Emotion recognition rates were generally similar between the European Americans and Asian Americans, and higher than emotion recognition rates for Asian-born individuals. These differences were not explained by cultural values in an interpretable manner, suggesting that exposure to Western culture is a more important mediator than values. PMID:26309215
Chen, Peng; Nagai, Akiko; Tsutsumi, Yusuke; Ashida, Maki; Doi, Hisashi; Hanawa, Takao
In this study, osteogenic differentiation and calcification of preosteoblast (MC3T3-E1) cultured on sputter-deposited titanium (Ti), zirconium (Zr), and gold (Au) on cover glasses were evaluated to understand the differences in bone formation ability among these three metals; these metals show the same high corrosion resistance, but Ti and Zr are covered by surface passive oxide film while Au is not covered by the oxide film. Ti and Zr promoted cellular proliferation without osteogenic differentiation. Cells cultured on Ti and Zr expressed higher levels of Runx2, Col1α1, and Akp2 at an earlier stage, which indicated faster promotion of osteogenic differentiation, as compared to those cultured on Au. Moreover, after 21 days of culture, the Bglap1 and Ifitm5 expression peaks in cells cultured on Ti and Zr were higher than those in cells cultured on Au, which indicated faster promotion of calcification. Cells cultured on Ti showed an advantage in osteogenic differentiation at an early stage, while cells on Zr showed better calcification promotion with a long-term culture. The amount of extracellular calcified deposits was in good agreement with the gene expression results. On the other hand, the intracellular calcium content of cells on Au specimens was higher than that of cells on Ti and Zr specimens. The results indicate that preosteoblasts on Ti and Zr showed faster osteogenic differentiation and calcification than those on Au, whereas Au improved the intracellular calcium content. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 104A: 639-651, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Like other species of the Phaseoleae tribe, common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. has the potential to establish symbiosis with rhizobia and to fix the atmospheric dinitrogen (N2 for its N nutrition. Common bean has also the potential to establish symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF that improves the uptake of low mobile nutrients such as phosphorus, from the soil. Both rhizobial and mycorrhizal symbioses can act synergistically in benefits on plant. Results The tripartite symbiosis of common bean with rhizobia and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF was assessed in hydroaeroponic culture with common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L., by comparing the effects of three fungi spp. on growth, nodulation and mycorrhization of the roots under sufficient versus deficient P supplies, after transfer from initial sand culture. Although Glomus intraradices Schenck & Smith colonized intensely the roots of common bean in both sand and hydroaeroponic cultures, Gigaspora rosea Nicolson & Schenck only established well under sand culture conditions, and no root-colonization was found with Acaulospora mellea Spain & Schenck under either culture conditions. Interestingly, mycorrhization by Glomus was also obtained by contact with mycorrhized Stylosanthes guianensis (Aubl. sw in sand culture under deficient P before transfer into hydroaeroponic culture. The effect of bean genotype on both rhizobial and mycorrhizal symbioses with Glomus was subsequently assessed with the common bean recombinant inbreed line 7, 28, 83, 115 and 147, and the cultivar Flamingo. Significant differences among colonization and nodulation of the roots and growth among genotypes were found. Conclusion The hydroaeroponic culture is a valuable tool for further scrutinizing the physiological interactions and nutrient partitioning within the tripartite symbiosis.
Full Text Available Fibroblasts are important in the atrial fibrillation (AF substrate resulting from congestive heart failure (CHF. We previously noted changes in in vivo indices of fibroblast function in a CHF dog model, but could not detect changes in isolated cells. This study assessed CHF-induced changes in the phenotype of fibroblasts freshly isolated from control versus CHF dogs, and examined effects of cell culture on these differences.Left-atrial fibroblasts were isolated from control and CHF dogs (ventricular tachypacing 240 bpm × 2 weeks. Freshly-isolated fibroblasts were compared to fibroblasts in primary culture. Extracellular-matrix (ECM gene-expression was assessed by qPCR, protein by Western blot, fibroblast morphology with immunocytochemistry, and K(+-current with patch-clamp. Freshly-isolated CHF fibroblasts had increased expression-levels of collagen-1 (10-fold, collagen-3 (5-fold, and fibronectin-1 (3-fold vs. control, along with increased cell diameter (13.4 ± 0.4 µm vs control 8.4 ± 0.3 µm and cell spreading (shape factor 0.81 ± 0.02 vs. control 0.87 ± 0.02, consistent with an activated phenotype. Freshly-isolated control fibroblasts displayed robust tetraethylammonium (TEA-sensitive K(+-currents that were strongly downregulated in CHF. The TEA-sensitive K(+-current differences between control and CHF fibroblasts were attenuated after 2-day culture and eliminated after 7 days. Similarly, cell-culture eliminated the ECM protein-expression and shape differences between control and CHF fibroblasts.Freshly-isolated CHF and control atrial fibroblasts display distinct ECM-gene and morphological differences consistent with in vivo pathology. Culture for as little as 48 hours activates fibroblasts and obscures the effects of CHF. These results demonstrate potentially-important atrial-fibroblast phenotype changes in CHF and emphasize the need for caution in relating properties of cultured fibroblasts to in vivo systems.
Lama K Farran
Full Text Available Infant-directed speech (IDS provides an environment that appears to play a significant role in the origins of language in the human infant. Differences have been reported in the use of IDS across cultures, suggesting different styles of infant language-learning. Importantly, both cross-cultural and intra-cultural research suggest there may be a positive relationship between the use of IDS and rates of language development, underscoring the need to investigate cultural differences more deeply. The majority of studies, however, have conceptualized IDS monolithically, granting little attention to a potentially key distinction in how IDS manifests across cultures during the first two years. This study examines and quantifies for the first time differences within IDS in the use of baby register (IDS/BR, an acoustically identifiable type of IDS that includes features such as high pitch, long duration, and smooth intonation (the register that is usually assumed to occur in IDS, and adult register (IDS/AR, the type of IDS that does not include such features and thus sounds as if it could have been addressed to an adult. We studied IDS across 19 American and 19 Lebanese mother-infant dyads, with particular focus on the differential use of registers within IDS as mothers interacted with their infants ages 0-24 months. Our results showed considerable usage of IDS/AR (>30% of utterances and a tendency for Lebanese mothers to use more IDS than American mothers. Implications for future research on IDS and its role in elucidating how language evolves across cultures are explored.
Att, Wael; Kubo, Katsutoshi; Yamada, Masahiro; Maeda, Hatsuhiko; Ogawa, Takahiro
This study evaluated the biomechanical properties of periosteum-derived mineralized culture on different surface topographies of titanium. Titanium surfaces modified by machining or by acid etching were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Rat mandibular periosteum-derived cells were cultured on either of the titanium surfaces. Cell proliferation was evaluated by cell counts, and gene expression was analyzed using a reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) stain assay was employed to evaluate osteoblastic activity. Matrix mineralization was examined via von Kossa stain assay, total calcium deposition, and SEM. The hardness and elastic modulus of mineralized cultures were measured using a nano-indenter. The machined surface demonstrated a flat topographic configuration, while the acid-etched surface revealed a uniform micron-scale roughness. Both cell density and ALP activity were significantly higher on the machined surface than on the acid-etched surface. The expression of bone-related genes was up-regulated or enhanced on the acid-etched surface compared to the machined surface. Von Kossa stain showed significantly greater positive areas for the machined surface compared to the acid-etched surface, while total calcium deposition was statistically similar. Mineralized culture on the acid-etched surface was characterized by denser calcium deposition, more mature collagen deposition on the superficial layer, and larger and denser globular matrices inside the matrix than the culture on the machined surface. The mineralized matrix on the acid-etched surface was two times harder than on the machined surface, whereas the elastic modulus was comparable between the two surfaces. The design of this study can be used as a model to evaluate the effect of implant surface topography on the biomechanical properties of periosteum-derived mineralized culture. The results suggest that mandibular periosteal cells respond to different
Molzahn, Anita E; Kalfoss, Mary; Schick Makaroff, Kara; Skevington, Suzanne M
there is limited research examining the relative importance of aspects of quality of life (QOL) to older adults across cultures. to examine the relative importance of 31 internationally agreed areas of QOL to older adults in 22 countries in relation to health status, age and level of economic development. a survey quota sampling design was used to collect cross-cultural data. This study reports a secondary analysis of WHOQOL-OLD pilot study, which was collected simultaneously in 22 centres. a variety of community, primary, secondary and tertiary health care settings located in Australia, France, Switzerland, England, Scotland, USA, Israel, Spain, Japan, China (mainland and Hong Kong), Turkey, Lithuania, Czech Republic, Hungary, Canada, Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Germany, Brazil and Uruguay. the total sample contained 7,401 people over 60 years with a mean age of 73.1 years; 57.8% were women and 70.1% considered themselves 'healthy'. there were significant differences in the importance given to various aspects of QOL for people living in medium and high-development countries. Culture explained 15.9% of the variance in the importance ratings of QOL. However, the interaction showed that cultural differences were reduced once health status, gender and age were taken into account. The importance of QOL to age bands in different cultures was not significantly affected by whether or not participants perceived themselves to be healthy. understanding the self-reported importance of diverse aspects of QOL for different cultures and for healthy and less healthy people may assist national and international policy makers to decide on priorities for the development of programmes for the ageing population.
Yu, Haiping; Peng, Youqing; Hung, Yunying; Zhou, Lin
To explore the experiences of immigrant nurses working in Shanghai, China. With the development of China, population growth has been accelerating. Simultaneously, the number of immigrant nurses in Shanghai has been increasing dramatically. Meanwhile, their turnover rate is abnormally high, primarily because of job concerns stemming from cultural differences. An understanding of immigrant nurses' job concerns caused by cultural differences can be used to help them to work more efficiently and cohesively. We aimed to investigate immigrant nurses' lived experiences regarding job concerns caused by cultural differences in Shanghai, China. This is a phenomenological study. In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with fifteen immigrant nurses from January-July 2016. Data were collected using audio-taped face-to-face interviews; the narratives were then transcribed verbatim and analysed thematically. The following three major themes emerged from the data: "communication difficulties," "work adjustment difficulties" and "life adjustment difficulties." The eight sub-themes within these were as follows: (i) language barrier, (ii) inability to integrate oneself with the local culture, (iii) feelings of unfairness, (iv) difficulty asking for leave, (v) feeling stressed, (vi) not being acclimatised, (vii) feeling helpless and (viii) feeling guilt at being unable to take care of their family. It is important to implement appropriate training programmes on language and cultural adaptation for immigrant nurses. To enhance integrate immigrant nurses into Shanghai's society, more support needs to be provided. Administrators in hospitals should pay attention to immigrant nurses' job concerns that are caused by cultural differences and provide timely and effective assistance. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Farran, Lama K; Lee, Chia-Cheng; Yoo, Hyunjoo; Oller, D Kimbrough
Infant-directed speech (IDS) provides an environment that appears to play a significant role in the origins of language in the human infant. Differences have been reported in the use of IDS across cultures, suggesting different styles of infant language-learning. Importantly, both cross-cultural and intra-cultural research suggest there may be a positive relationship between the use of IDS and rates of language development, underscoring the need to investigate cultural differences more deeply. The majority of studies, however, have conceptualized IDS monolithically, granting little attention to a potentially key distinction in how IDS manifests across cultures during the first two years. This study examines and quantifies for the first time differences within IDS in the use of baby register (IDS/BR), an acoustically identifiable type of IDS that includes features such as high pitch, long duration, and smooth intonation (the register that is usually assumed to occur in IDS), and adult register (IDS/AR), the type of IDS that does not include such features and thus sounds as if it could have been addressed to an adult. We studied IDS across 19 American and 19 Lebanese mother-infant dyads, with particular focus on the differential use of registers within IDS as mothers interacted with their infants ages 0-24 months. Our results showed considerable usage of IDS/AR (>30% of utterances) and a tendency for Lebanese mothers to use more IDS than American mothers. Implications for future research on IDS and its role in elucidating how language evolves across cultures are explored.
Dobre Ovidiu Iliuta
Full Text Available Turnover rates for hospital personnel (nurses, doctors and auxiliary staff have been increasing in recent years, especially in the public sector, being the result of a couple of factors. I believe that one of the main causes is related to organizational culture aspects. This research analyses if dated facilities, unpleasant work environment and lack of personnel contribute to a low job satisfaction and involvement. The study also compares the results obtained from persons working in the public sectors with the results given by respondents from private clinics. An organization’s culture could be strong or weak, being dependent to cohesiveness, value consensus and individual commitment to collective goals. Effective cultures help organizations anticipate and adapt to environment changes, thus proactive cultures should enhance and support profitability on the long-run. This research also investigates strength of the occupational culture by comparing the results obtained in the public sector with results from private sector. My study is developed on 63 professionals working in the medical system and it is based mainly on quantitative methods. The instrument of the research is the structured questionnaire. The main goal of the study is to highlight the significant cultural differences between the state-owned and public-owned hospitals and to assess if they have a greater influence to the institutions, as compared to common occupational values and norms. The implications of my research for the field of organizational behavior refers to the fact that I have identified the organizational elements that are common to both public and private hospitals, influenced by a strong occupational culture, and those that differ significantly, being the result of underfunding and poor management. As a conclusion, I consider that this is a great starting point for further research in the field and I plan to enlarge the investigation on a greater number or
Shifrer, Dara; Sutton, April
People with internal rather than external locus of control experience better outcomes in multiple domains. Previous studies on spatial differences in control within America only focused on the South, relied on aggregate level data or historical evidence, or did not account for other confounding regional distinctions (such as variation in urbanicity). Using data from the National Education Longitudinal Study, we find differences in adolescents' loci of control depending on their region and urbanicity are largely attributable to differences in their social background, and only minimally to structural differences (i.e., differences in the qualities of adolescents' schools). Differences that persist net of differences across adolescents and their schools suggest the less internal control of rural Southern adolescents, and the more internal control of rural and urban Northeastern adolescents, may be due to cultural distinctions in those areas. Results indicate region is more closely associated than urbanicity with differences in locus of control, with Western and Northeastern cultures seemingly fostering more internal control than Midwestern and Southern cultures. These findings contribute to research on spatial variation in a variety of psychological traits.
Cuddy, Amy J. C.; Fiske, Susan T.; Kwan, Virginia S. Y.; Glick, Peter; Demoulin, Stéphanie; Leyens, Jacques-Philippe; Bond, Michael Harris; Croizet, Jean-Claude; Ellemers, Naomi; Sleebos, Ed; Htun, Tin Tin; Kim, Hyun-Jeong; Maio, Greg; Perry, Judi; Petkova, Kristina; Todorov, Valery; Rodríguez-Bailón, Rosa; Morales, Elena; Moya, Miguel; Palacios, Marisol; Smith, Vanessa; Perez, Rolando; Vala, Jorge; Ziegler, Rene
The stereotype content model (SCM) proposes potentially universal principles of societal stereotypes and their relation to social structure. Here, the SCM reveals theoretically grounded, cross-cultural, cross-groups similarities and one difference across 10 non-US nations. Seven European (individualist) and three East Asian (collectivist) nations (N = 1, 028) support three hypothesized cross-cultural similarities: (a) perceived warmth and competence reliably differentiate societal group stereotypes; (b) many out-groups receive ambivalent stereotypes (high on one dimension; low on the other); and (c) high status groups stereotypically are competent, whereas competitive groups stereotypically lack warmth. Data uncover one consequential cross-cultural difference: (d) the more collectivist cultures do not locate reference groups (in-groups and societal prototype groups) in the most positive cluster (high-competence/high-warmth), unlike individualist cultures. This demonstrates out-group derogation without obvious reference-group favouritism. The SCM can serve as a pancultural tool for predicting group stereotypes from structural relations with other groups in society, and comparing across societies. PMID:19178758
A great deal of ethnographic research describes different communicative styles in Asian and Western countries. Asian cultures emphasise the listener's role in assuring successful communication, whereas Western cultures place the responsibility primarily on the speaker. This pattern suggests that Asian children may develop higher-level receptive skills and Western children may develop higher-level expressive skills. However, the language of children in formal education may develop in certain ways regardless of cultural influences. The present study quantifies the cultural and school-grade differences in language abilities reflected in middle-class Korean and white American children's story-telling and story-listening activities. Thirty-two Korean first- and fourth-grade children and their American counterparts were individually asked to perform two tasks: one producing a story from a series of pictures, and one involving listening to and then retelling a story. The individual interview was transcribed in their native languages and analysed in terms of ambiguity of reference, the number of causal connectors, the amount of information, and the number of central and peripheral idea units that were included in the story retelling. The data provided some empirical evidence for the effects of culture and school education in children's language acquisition.
Long, Susan Orpett
Japan and the United States are both post-industrial societies, characterised by distinct trajectories of dying. Both contain multiple "cultural scripts" of the good death. Seale (Constructing Death: the Sociology of Dying and Bereavement, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1998) has identified at least four "cultural scripts", or ways to die well, that are found in contemporary anglophone countries: modern medicine, revivalism, an anti-revivalist script and a religious script. Although these scripts can also be found in Japan, different historical experiences and religious traditions provide a context in which their content and interpretation sometimes differ from those of the anglophone countries. To understand ordinary people's ideas about dying well and dying poorly, we must recognise not only that post-industrial society offers multiple scripts and varying interpretive frameworks, but also that people actively select from among them in making decisions and explaining their views. Moreover, ideas and metaphors may be based on multiple scripts simultaneously or may offer different interpretations for different social contexts. Based on ethnographic fieldwork in both countries, this paper explores the metaphors that ordinary patients and caregivers draw upon as they use, modify, combine or ignore these cultural scripts of dying. Ideas about choice, time, place and personhood, elements of a good death that were derived inductively from interviews, are described. These Japanese and American data suggest somewhat different concerns and assumptions about human life and the relation of the person to the wider social world, but indicate similar concerns about the process of medicalised dying and the creation of meaning for those involved. While cultural differences do exist, they cannot be explained by reference to 'an American' and 'a Japanese' way to die. Rather, the process of creating and maintaining cultural scripts requires the active participation of
Paige, Laura E; Ksander, John C; Johndro, Hunter A; Gutchess, Angela H
Research suggests that culture influences how people perceive the world, which extends to memory specificity, or how much perceptual detail is remembered. The present study investigated cross-cultural differences (Americans vs East Asians) at the time of encoding in the neural correlates of specific versus general memory formation. Participants encoded photos of everyday items in the scanner and 48 h later completed a surprise recognition test. The recognition test consisted of same (i.e., previously seen in scanner), similar (i.e., same name, different features), or new photos (i.e., items not previously seen in scanner). For Americans compared to East Asians, we predicted greater activation in the hippocampus and right fusiform for specific memory at recognition, as these regions were implicated previously in encoding perceptual details. Results revealed that East Asians activated the left fusiform and left hippocampus more than Americans for specific versus general memory. Follow-up analyses ruled out alternative explanations of retrieval difficulty and familiarity for this pattern of cross-cultural differences at encoding. Results overall suggest that culture should be considered as another individual difference that affects memory specificity and modulates neural regions underlying these processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Baloglu, Mustafa; Deniz, M. Engin; Kesici, Sahin
The present study investigated individual and cross-cultural differences in statistics anxiety among 223 Turkish and 237 American college students. A 2 x 2 between-subjects factorial multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) was performed on the six dependent variables which are the six subscales of the Statistical Anxiety Rating Scale.…
Stankov, Lazar; Lee, Jihyun
We investigated the factorial structure of four major domains in social psychology (personality traits, social attitudes, values, and social norms) with an emphasis on cross-cultural differences. Three distinctive approaches--pancultural, multigroup, and multilevel--were applied to the data based on 22 measures that were collected from 2029…
Ditunno, P L; Patrick, M; Stineman, M; Morganti, B; Townson, A F; Ditunno, J F
Direct observation of a constrained consensus-building process in three culturally independent five-person panels of rehabilitation professionals from the US, Italy and Canada. To illustrate cultural differences in belief among rehabilitation professionals about the relative importance of alternative functional goals during spinal cord injury (SCI) rehabilitation. Spinal Cord Injury Units in Philadelphia-USA, Rome-Italy and Vancouver-Canada. Each of the three panels came to independent consensus about recovery priorities in SCI utilizing the features resource trade-off game. The procedure involves trading imagined levels of independence (resources) across different functional items (features) assuming different stages of recovery. Sphincter management was of primary importance to all three groups. The Italian and Canadian rehabilitation professionals, however, showed preference for walking over wheelchair mobility at lower stages of assumed recovery, whereas the US professionals set wheelchair independence at a higher priority than walking. These preliminary results suggest cross-cultural recovery priority differences among SCI rehabilitation professionals. These dissimilarities in preference may reflect disparities in values, cultural expectations and health care policies.
Fu, Genyue; Xu, Fen; Cameron, Catherine Ann; Leyman, Gail; Lee, Kang
This study examined cross-cultural differences and similarities in children's moral understanding of individual- or collective-oriented lies and truths. Seven-, 9-, and 11-year-old Canadian and Chinese children were read stories about story characters facing moral dilemmas about whether to lie or tell the truth to help a group but harm an…
Clayton, Berwyn; Fisher, Thea; Harris, Roger; Bateman, Andrea; Brown, Mike
This document supports the report "A Study in Difference: Structures and Cultures in Registered Training Organisations." The first section outlines the methodology used to undertake the research and covers the design of the research, sample details, the data collection process and the strategy for data analysis and reporting. The…
Where words were in the vocabulary of both groups, significant differences existed in the number and range of definitions, with many clinically significant discordances of definition being apparent. Some common examples relevant to paediatric respiratory problems are presented. Three culture-specific explanatory models ...
Science has traditionally played an important role in sharing knowledge among people. Particle Physics, with its large experiments, has shown that one not only can share the knowledge among different cultures, but that one can also work together to achieve this knowledge. The present article gives a few examples where this has been possible among people that are sometimes in conflict situations.
Shafa, S; Harinck, F.; Ellemers, N.
Apologies can have desirable effects on the reduction of anger and may foster forgiveness. Yet, we know little about the effectiveness of apologies across different cultures. In this research, we distinguished two important components of apologies: admission of blame by the self and the expression
Ohtomo, S.; Hirose, Y.; Midden, C.J.H.
This study investigated the cultural differences of a dual-motivation model of unhealthy risk behaviour in the Netherlands and Japan. Our model assumes dual motivations involved in unhealthy eating behaviour, a behavioural willingness that leads behaviour unintentionally or subconsciously and a
Weber, Yaakov; Drori, Israel
A model focusing on the role of the individual in national and corporate culture clash situations, during post-merger integration, is presented. The theory of psychological contract is adapted to explain different individual expectations in domestic versus international mergers and acquisitions
Kelley, Michelle L.; Tseng, Hui-Mei
Studies cultural differences in child rearing practices of 38 middle-class Chinese immigrant mothers and 38 middle-class Caucasian-American mothers of 3-8 year olds. Results suggest similarity in child-rearing goals of both groups, although Chinese-American immigrant mothers rely on traditional Chinese methods of socialization to achieve these…
Hendel, Tova; Kagan, Ilya
To examine the association between perceived organisational values and organisational commitment among Israeli nurses in relation to their ethno-cultural background. Differences and the discrepancy between individuals' organisational values and those of their organisational culture are a potential source of adjustment difficulties. Organisational values are considered to be the bond of the individual to their organisation. In multicultural societies, such as Israel, the differences in perception of organisational values and organisational commitment may be reflected within workgroups. Data were collected using a questionnaire among 106 hospital nurses. About 59.8% of the sample were Israeli-born. A positive correlation was found between organisational values and organisational commitment. Significant differences were found in organisational values and organisational commitment between Israeli-born-, USSR-born- and Ethiopian-born nurses. The socio-demographic profile modified the effect of organisational values on organisational commitment: when the nurse was male, Muslim, religiously orthodox and without academic education, the effect of organisational values on organisational commitment was higher. Findings confirm the role of culture and ethnicity in the perception of organisational values and the level of organisational commitment among nurses. Assessing ethno-cultural differences in organisational values and organisational commitment provides a fuller understanding of nurses' ability to adjust to their work environment and helps nurse managers devise means to increase nurses' commitment. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Broeder, Peter; Rutten, Jessika
Visualization is important in online shopping. This study investigates the effect of visual product reviews in web shops, with a special interest for cultural differences between online consumers in India and the Netherlands. Two web shops were designed with the same sport shoes. One web shop showed
Moreira-dos-Santos, Frederik; El-Hani, Charbel N.
This article discusses how to deal with the relations between different cultural perspectives in classrooms, based on a proposal for considering understanding and knowledge as goals of science education, inspired by Dewey's naturalistic humanism. It thus combines educational and philosophical interests. In educational terms, our concerns relate to…
Askola, Kreetta; Atsushi, Toshimori; Huotari, Maija-Leena
Introduction: The aim of this study was to identify cultural differences in the information environment and information practices, namely active seeking and encountering, of web-based health information between Finnish and Japanese university students. Method: The data were gathered with a Web-based survey among first-year university students at…
Bitew, Getnet; Ferguson, Peter
This article investigates the effect of cultural difference on the secondary school induction and learning of Ethiopian-Australian immigrant students living in Melbourne, Australia. A qualitative methodology was employed using interviews as data-collection instruments. Secondary school students, their teachers, and parents acted as participants in…
This paper sets out to evaluate a proposed twelve-month programme of development aimed at academic staff at a new university in the Kurdistan region of Iraq. The author uses a model of cultural difference proposed by Dutch social psychologist Geert Hofstede as her starting point. Reference is also made to the work of other researchers and to the…
Thom, Jennifer S.; Blades, David
In response to a mandate to develop a more welcoming university for students, especially those of Aboriginal inheritance, we set out on a journey for ways of accommodating cultural differences in our university classrooms. Over the course of a year, we met regularly and audiotaped our conversations. By talking, transcribing, writing, and…
Garrett-Peters, Patricia T.; Fox, Nathan A.
Cross-cultural differences in emotional expressions following disappointment were examined in 59 Chinese American (CA) and 58 European American (EA) children. Children aged four or seven participated in a disappointing gift situation. Dimensions of expressive behaviors following disappointment were coded and included positive, negative, social…
Lovett, Andrew; Forbus, Kenneth
A fundamental question in human cognition is how people reason about space. We use a computational model to explore cross-cultural commonalities and differences in spatial cognition. Our model is based upon two hypotheses: (1) the structure-mapping model of analogy can explain the visual comparisons used in spatial reasoning; and (2) qualitative,…
Meeuwesen, L.; Brink, A. van den; Hofstede, G.
OBJECTIVE: This study investigated at a country level how cross-national differences in medical communication can be understood from the first four of Hofstede's cultural dimensions, i.e. power distance, uncertainty avoidance, individualism/collectivism and masculinity/femininity, together with
VanDeusen, Andrea J.
With the intent of informing music teacher education practices and developing more culturally responsive and relevant teachers, the purpose of this research was to explore pre-service music teachers' understandings of culture and diversity, and to examine the impact of a short-term cultural immersion field experience on pre-service music teachers'…
Varnum, Michael E W; Grossmann, Igor; Kitayama, Shinobu; Nisbett, Richard E
A large body of research documents cognitive differences between Westerners and East Asians. Westerners tend to be more analytic and East Asians tend to be more holistic. These findings have often been explained as being due to corresponding differences in social orientation. Westerners are more independent and Easterners are more interdependent. However, comparisons of the cognitive tendencies of Westerners and East Asians do not allow us to rule out alternative explanations for the cognitive differences, such as linguistic and genetic differences, as well as cultural differences other than social orientation. In this review we summarize recent developments which provide stronger support for the social orientation hypothesis.
Greene, A C; Tripaldi, M; Chiarelli, F; McKiernan, P; Morris, A; Newton, R; Greene, S
Glycaemic control deteriorates frequently in adolescents with diabetes. There is a considerable body of work on the effect of psychological aspects of management in this age group, but few randomized controlled trials of the effect of specific behavioural therapy and lifestyle modification on the improvement of glycaemic control. Of recent interest have been the observations from the Hvidøre Study Group on cross-cultural differences in glycaemic control. The average glycosylated haemoglobin in 22 centres, across 18 countries, varied in young people, with HbA1c levels ranging from 7.6 to 10.2%. No obvious differences in management were identified in this survey that could account for the disparities in glycaemic control. Data from the Scottish Study Group demonstrated similar variation in average glycaemic control in centres across a single culture. Using the qualitative methodology of anthropological research, some specific factors were identified that appear to influence young people's response to diabetes management and strategies employed by health professionals in their advice and care of the diabetes, particularly in relation to intensive insulin regimens. The main cultural factors influencing glycaemic control appear to be communication, reciprocal support between young people and professional heart carers and family structure within an individualistic, as against an egalitarian, society. Shared beliefs about teenage risk behaviour together with the medicalization of adolescence within medical culture also appears to be highly influential. The aim of this educational discussion group was to explore how a variety of health care professionals from distinctive cultures approach diabetes care delivery in this age group. The specific success and difficulties in different cultures in managing the young person with diabetes were investigated. Also discussed was how qualitative research methodology may generate further research in this area. Copyright 2002 S. Karger
Kim, Heejung S; Drolet, Aimee
This research examined cultural differences in the patterns of choices that reflect more social characteristics of a chooser (e.g., social status). Four studies examined the cultural difference in individuals' tendency to choose brand-name products (i.e., high-status options) over generic products (i.e., low-status options) and the underlying reasons for these differences. Compared to European Americans, Asian Americans consistently chose brand-name products. This difference was driven by Asian Americans' greater social status concerns. Self-consciousness was more strongly associated with the brand-name choices of Asian Americans (vs. European Americans), and experimentally induced social status led Asian Americans (vs. European Americans) to make more choices concordant with self-perception. These findings highlight the importance of considering external and social motivations underlying the choice-making process.
This review examines cross-cultural differences in interoception and the role of culturally bound epistemologies, historical traditions, and contemplative practices to assess four aspects of culture and interoception: (1) the extent to which members from Western and non-Western cultural groups exhibit differential levels of interoceptive accuracy and somatic awareness; (2) the mechanistic origins that can explain these cultural differences, (3) culturally bound behavioral practices that have been empirically shown to affect interoception, and (4) consequences for culturally bound psychopathologies. The following outlines the scope of the scientific review. Part 1 reviews studies on cultural variation in spontaneous somatic word use, linguistic expressions, traditional medical practices, and empirical laboratory studies to assess the evidence for cultural differences in somatic processes. Integration of these findings suggests a startling paradox: on the one hand, non-Western cultures consistently exhibit heightened somatic focus and awareness across a variety of contexts; on the other hand, non-Western cultures also exhibit less interoceptive accuracy in laboratory studies. Part 2 discusses the various mechanistic explanations that have been proposed to explain these cultural differences in somatic awareness and interoceptive accuracy, focusing on cultural schemas and epistemologies. Part 3 addresses the behavioral and contemplative practices that have been proposed as possible "interventions," or methods of cultivating bodily awareness and perceptual accuracy. Finally, Part 4 reviews the consequences of interoception for psychopathology, including somatization, body dysmorphia, eating disorders, and anxiety disorders.
Full Text Available This review examines cross-cultural differences in interoceptive processes and the role of culturally-bound epistemologies, historical traditions, and contemplative practices to assess four aspects of culture and interoception: 1 the extent to which members from Western and non-Western cultural groups exhibit differential levels of interoceptive accuracy and somatic awareness; 2 the mechanistic origins that can explain these cultural differences, 3 culturally-bound behavioral practices that have been empirically shown to affect interoception, and 4 consequences for culturally-bound psychopathologies. The following outlines the scope of the scientific review. Part 1 reviews studies on cultural variation in spontaneous somatic word use, linguistic expressions, traditional medical practices, and empirical laboratory studies to assess the evidence for cultural differences in somatic processes. Integration of these findings suggests a startling paradox: on the one hand, non-Western cultures consistently exhibit heightened somatic focus and awareness across a variety of contexts; on the other hand, non-Western cultures also exhibit less interoceptive accuracy in laboratory studies. Part 2 discusses the various mechanistic explanations that have been proposed to explain these cultural differences in somatic awareness and interoceptive accuracy, focusing on cultural schemas and epistemologies. Part 3 addresses the behavioral and contemplative practices that have been proposed as possible interventions, or methods of cultivating bodily awareness and perceptual accuracy. Finally, Part 4 reviews the consequences of interoceptive processes for psychopathology, including somatization, body dysmorphia, eating disorders, and anxiety disorders.
This review examines cross-cultural differences in interoception and the role of culturally bound epistemologies, historical traditions, and contemplative practices to assess four aspects of culture and interoception: (1) the extent to which members from Western and non-Western cultural groups exhibit differential levels of interoceptive accuracy and somatic awareness; (2) the mechanistic origins that can explain these cultural differences, (3) culturally bound behavioral practices that have been empirically shown to affect interoception, and (4) consequences for culturally bound psychopathologies. The following outlines the scope of the scientific review. Part 1 reviews studies on cultural variation in spontaneous somatic word use, linguistic expressions, traditional medical practices, and empirical laboratory studies to assess the evidence for cultural differences in somatic processes. Integration of these findings suggests a startling paradox: on the one hand, non-Western cultures consistently exhibit heightened somatic focus and awareness across a variety of contexts; on the other hand, non-Western cultures also exhibit less interoceptive accuracy in laboratory studies. Part 2 discusses the various mechanistic explanations that have been proposed to explain these cultural differences in somatic awareness and interoceptive accuracy, focusing on cultural schemas and epistemologies. Part 3 addresses the behavioral and contemplative practices that have been proposed as possible “interventions,” or methods of cultivating bodily awareness and perceptual accuracy. Finally, Part 4 reviews the consequences of interoception for psychopathology, including somatization, body dysmorphia, eating disorders, and anxiety disorders. PMID:25520688
Shavitt, Sharon; Johnson, Timothy P; Zhang, Jing
The distinction between vertical (emphasizing hierarchy) and horizontal (valuing equality) cultures yields novel predictions regarding the prevalence of advertising appeals. A content analysis of 1211 magazine advertisements in five countries (Denmark, Korea, Poland, Russia, U.S.) revealed differences in ad content that underscore the value of this distinction. Patterns in the degree to which ads emphasized status benefits and uniqueness benefits corresponded to the countries' vertical/horizontal cultural classification. These and other patterns of ad benefits are analyzed and the predictions afforded by the vertical/horizontal distinction versus the broader individualism-collectivism distinction are compared and tested.
Bruder, Martin; Haffke, Peter; Neave, Nick; Nouripanah, Nina; Imhoff, Roland
Conspiracy theories are ubiquitous when it comes to explaining political events and societal phenomena. Individuals differ not only in the degree to which they believe in specific conspiracy theories, but also in their general susceptibility to explanations based on such theories, that is, their conspiracy mentality. We present the Conspiracy Mentality Questionnaire (CMQ), an instrument designed to efficiently assess differences in the generic tendency to engage in conspiracist ideation within and across cultures. The CMQ is available in English, German, and Turkish. In four studies, we examined the CMQ’s factorial structure, reliability, measurement equivalence across cultures, and its convergent, discriminant, and predictive validity. Analyses based on a cross-cultural sample (Study 1a; N = 7,766) supported the conceptualization of conspiracy mentality as a one-dimensional construct across the three language versions of the CMQ that is stable across time (Study 1b; N = 141). Multi-group confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated cross-cultural measurement equivalence of the CMQ items. The instrument could therefore be used to examine differences in conspiracy mentality between European, North American, and Middle Eastern cultures. In Studies 2–4 (total N = 476), we report (re-)analyses of three datasets demonstrating the validity of the CMQ in student and working population samples in the UK and Germany. First, attesting to its convergent validity, the CMQ was highly correlated with another measure of generic conspiracy belief. Second, the CMQ showed patterns of meaningful associations with personality measures (e.g., Big Five dimensions, schizotypy), other generalized political attitudes (e.g., social dominance orientation and right-wing authoritarianism), and further individual differences (e.g., paranormal belief, lack of socio-political control). Finally, the CMQ predicted beliefs in specific conspiracy theories over and above other individual
Full Text Available Conspiracy theories are ubiquitous when it comes to explaining political events and societal phenomena. Individuals differ not only in the degree to which they believe in specific conspiracy theories, but also in their general susceptibility to explanations based on such theories, that is, their conspiracy mentality. We present the Conspiracy Mentality Questionnaire (CMQ, an instrument designed to efficiently assess differences in the generic tendency to engage in conspiracist ideation within and across cultures. The CMQ is available in English, German, and Turkish. In four studies, we examined the CMQ’s factorial structure, reliability, measurement equivalence across cultures, and its convergent, discriminant, and predictive validity. Analyses based on a cross-cultural sample (Study 1a; N = 7,766 supported the conceptualization of conspiracy mentality as a one-dimensional construct across the three language versions of the CMQ that is stable across time (Study 1b; N = 141. Multigroup confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated cross-cultural measurement equivalence of the CMQ items. The instrument could therefore be used to examine differences in conspiracy mentality between European, North American, and Middle Eastern cultures. In Studies 2-4 (total N = 476, we report (re-analyses of 3 datasets demonstrating the validity of the CMQ in student and working population samples in the UK and Germany. First, attesting to its convergent validity, the CMQ was highly correlated with another measure of generic conspiracy belief. Second, the CMQ showed patterns of meaningful associations with personality measures (e.g., Big Five dimensions, schizotypy, other generalized political attitudes (e.g., social dominance orientation and right-wing authoritarianism, and further individual differences (e.g., paranormal belief, lack of socio-political control. Finally, the CMQ predicted beliefs in specific conspiracy theories over and above other individual
Daryoush Davoudi Oskouei
Full Text Available Four different cryoprotective supplemented stock media were evaluated for maintaining better survival and recovery of H. pylori type strain NCTC 11637 at two different maintenance temperatures of -20°C and -80°C after one month preservation as frozen stocks. The spread plate colony count method was used to investigate the recovery rate of H. pylori from equally inoculated bacterial suspensions in differently prepared stock cultures. After the preservation of H. pylori for one month in different cryoprotectant-supplemented stock media, the recovery rates for -20°C obtained for stock cultures supplemented with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO, polyethylene glycol (PEG, glycerol and glycerol+sucrose, as well as controls with and without human serum alone were 7.13, 6.97, 7.93, 7.99, 6.95 and 0.0 log CFU/ml, respectively. Maintenance of bacteria at -80°C gave statistically higher recovery rates compared to preservation at -20°C with the values of 8.55, 8.24, 8.59, 8.66, 8.01 and 0.0 log CFU/ml for these above mentioned stock cultures. The stock cultures supplemented with glycerol+sucrose and glycerol showed the highest recovery rates, 7.99 and 7.93 for -20°C vs. 8.66 and 8.59 for -80°C respectively, which were statistically different from the others. Our study revealed that H. pylori type strain NCTC 11637 could be better preserved at -80°C than -20°C. The best stock media which supported viability or culturability of bacteria were brain heart infusion broth (BHI+glycerol+human serum and BHI+glycerol+sucrose+human serum, where the latter yielded the higher recovery rate.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Antibiotics are widely-used medicines for which a more prudent use has been advocated to minimize development of resistance. There are considerable cross-national differences that can only partially be explained by epidemiological difference and variations in health care structure. The aim of this study was to explore whether cross-national differences in use of antibiotics (prescribed and non-prescribed are associated with differences between national cultures as described in Hofstede's model of cultural dimensions (Power Distance, Individualism, Masculinity, Uncertainty Avoidance and Long-Term Orientation. Methods Country-level data of prescribed antibiotic use and self-medication with antibiotics were correlated to country-specific scores of cultural dimensions obtained from Hofstede. Data on use of antibiotics were provided by three European studies, based on different methods and/or countries: Self-medication with Antibiotics and Resistance in Europe (SAR, based on a survey in 2003 on reported use of antibiotics in 19 countries, the European Surveillance on Antimicrobial Consumption, based on distribution and reimbursement of antibiotics in ambulatory care (1997–2002, and the 2002 interview-based Eurobarometer study, asking whether respondents had taken antibiotics in the previous 12 months. These studies provided data on antibiotics use for 27 European countries in total, for which scores of cultural dimensions were also available. The SAR-study differentiated between prescribed antibiotics and self-medication with antibiotics. Results Significant positive correlations were found for Power Distance Index with use of prescribed antibiotics in the three studies (rho between 0.59 and 0.62 and with self-medication (rho = 0.54 in the SAR study. Positive significant correlations were found for the Uncertainty Avoidance Index with the use of antibiotics as reported in two studies (rho between 0.57 and 0.59; for the SAR study
Deschepper, Reginald; Grigoryan, Larissa; Lundborg, Cecilia Stålsby; Hofstede, Geert; Cohen, Joachim; Kelen, Greta Van Der; Deliens, Luc; Haaijer-Ruskamp, Flora M
Antibiotics are widely-used medicines for which a more prudent use has been advocated to minimize development of resistance. There are considerable cross-national differences that can only partially be explained by epidemiological difference and variations in health care structure. The aim of this study was to explore whether cross-national differences in use of antibiotics (prescribed and non-prescribed) are associated with differences between national cultures as described in Hofstede's model of cultural dimensions (Power Distance, Individualism, Masculinity, Uncertainty Avoidance and Long-Term Orientation). Country-level data of prescribed antibiotic use and self-medication with antibiotics were correlated to country-specific scores of cultural dimensions obtained from Hofstede. Data on use of antibiotics were provided by three European studies, based on different methods and/or countries: Self-medication with Antibiotics and Resistance in Europe (SAR), based on a survey in 2003 on reported use of antibiotics in 19 countries, the European Surveillance on Antimicrobial Consumption, based on distribution and reimbursement of antibiotics in ambulatory care (1997-2002), and the 2002 interview-based Eurobarometer study, asking whether respondents had taken antibiotics in the previous 12 months. These studies provided data on antibiotics use for 27 European countries in total, for which scores of cultural dimensions were also available. The SAR-study differentiated between prescribed antibiotics and self-medication with antibiotics. Significant positive correlations were found for Power Distance Index with use of prescribed antibiotics in the three studies (rho between 0.59 and 0.62) and with self-medication (rho = 0.54) in the SAR study. Positive significant correlations were found for the Uncertainty Avoidance Index with the use of antibiotics as reported in two studies (rho between 0.57 and 0.59; for the SAR study the correlations were insignificant). Masculinity
Fu, Genyue; Xu, Fen; Cameron, Catherine Ann; Heyman, Gail; Lee, Kang
This study examined cross-cultural differences and similarities in children’s moral understanding of individual- or collective-oriented lies and truths. Seven-, 9-, and 11-year-old Canadian and Chinese children were read stories about story characters facing moral dilemmas about whether to lie or tell the truth to help a group but harm an individual or vice versa. Participants chose to lie or to tell the truth as if they were the character (Experiments 1 and 2) and categorized and evaluated the story characters’ truthful and untruthful statements (Experiments 3 and 4). Most children in both cultures labeled lies as lies and truths as truths. The major cultural differences lay in choices and moral evaluations. Chinese children chose lying to help a collective but harm an individual, and they rated it less negatively than lying with opposite consequences. Chinese children rated truth telling to help an individual but harm a group less positively than the alternative. Canadian children did the opposite. These findings suggest that cross-cultural differences in emphasis on groups versus individuals affect children’s choices and moral judgments about truth and deception. PMID:17352539
Full Text Available The Montreal Affective Voices (MAVs consist of a database of nonverbal affect bursts portrayed by Canadian actors, and high recognitions accuracies were observed in Canadian listeners. Whether listeners from other cultures would be as accurate is unclear. We tested for cross-cultural differences in perception of the MAVs: Japanese listeners were asked to rate the MAVs on several affective dimensions and ratings were compared to those obtained by Canadian listeners. Significant Group x Emotion interactions were observed for ratings of Intensity, Valence, and Arousal. Whereas Intensity and Valence ratings did not differ across cultural groups for sad and happy vocalizations, they were significantly less intense and less negative in Japanese listeners for angry, disgusted, and fearful vocalizations. Similarly, pleased vocalizations were rated as less intense and less positive by Japanese listeners. These results demonstrate important cross-cultural differences in affective perception not just of nonverbal vocalizations expressing positive affect (Sauter et al, 2010, but also of vocalizations expressing basic negative emotions.
Yokosawa, Kazuhiko; Schloss, Karen B; Asano, Michiko; Palmer, Stephen E
We investigated cultural differences between U.S. and Japanese color preferences and the ecological factors that might influence them. Japanese and U.S. color preferences have both similarities (e.g., peaks around blue, troughs around dark-yellow, and preferences for saturated colors) and differences (Japanese participants like darker colors less than U.S. participants do). Complex gender differences were also evident that did not conform to previously reported effects. Palmer and Schloss's (2010) weighted affective valence estimate (WAVE) procedure was used to test the Ecological Valence Theory's (EVT's) prediction that within-culture WAVE-preference correlations should be higher than between-culture WAVE-preference correlations. The results supported several, but not all, predictions. In the second experiment, we tested color preferences of Japanese-U.S. multicultural participants who could read and speak both Japanese and English. Multicultural color preferences were intermediate between U.S. and Japanese preferences, consistent with the hypothesis that culturally specific personal experiences during one's lifetime influence color preferences. Copyright © 2015 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.
Chu, Joyce; Khoury, Oula; Ma, Johnson; Bahn, Francesca; Bongar, Bruce; Goldblum, Peter
The importance of cultural meanings via motives for suicide - what is considered acceptable to motivate suicide - has been advocated as a key step in understanding and preventing development of suicidal behaviors. There have been limited systematic empirical attempts to establish different cultural motives ascribed to suicide across ethnic groups. We used a mixed methods approach and grounded theory methodology to guide the analysis of qualitative data querying for meanings via motives for suicide among 232 Caucasians, Asian Americans, and Latino/a Americans with a history of suicide attempts, ideation, intent, or plan. We used subsequent logistic regression analyses to examine ethnic differences in suicide motive themes. This inductive approach of generating theory from data yielded an empirical model of 6 cultural meanings via motives for suicide themes: intrapersonal perceptions, intrapersonal emotions, intrapersonal behavior, interpersonal, mental health/medical, and external environment. Logistic regressions showed ethnic differences in intrapersonal perceptions (low endorsement by Latino/a Americans) and external environment (high endorsement by Latino/a Americans) categories. Results advance suicide research and practice by establishing 6 empirically based cultural motives for suicide themes that may represent a key intermediary step in the pathway toward suicidal behaviors. Clinicians can use these suicide meanings via motives to guide their assessment and determination of suicide risk. Emphasis on environmental stressors rather than negative perceptions like hopelessness should be considered with Latino/a clients. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Imada, Toshie; Carlson, Stephanie M; Itakura, Shoji
Accumulating evidence suggests that North Americans tend to focus on central objects whereas East Asians tend to pay more attention to contextual information in a visual scene. Although it is generally believed that such culturally divergent attention tendencies develop through socialization, existing evidence largely depends on adult samples. Moreover, no past research has investigated the relation between context-sensitivity and other domains of cognitive development. The present study examined children in the United States and Japan (N = 175, age 4-9 years) to investigate the developmental pattern in context-sensitivity and its relation to executive function. The study found that context-sensitivity increased with age across cultures. Nevertheless, Japanese children showed significantly greater context-sensitivity than American children. Also, context-sensitivity fully mediated the cultural difference in a set-shifting executive function task, which might help explain past findings that East Asian children outperformed their American counterparts on executive function. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Cho, Yohan; Otani, Hajime; Han, Kyunghee; Van Horn, K Roger
Previous studies have reported that our interpersonal knowledge shows an asymmetry; that is, we tend to believe that we know and understand other people's thoughts and feelings better than other people know and understand our own thoughts and feelings. In the present study, the authors compared American (114 men, 192 women) and Korean (99 men and 98 women) students to examine whether the asymmetry is greater in collectivistic than in individualistic culture in two types of relationships: horizontal (with best friends) and vertical (with parents). On all three items--Know, Understand, and Visibility--asymmetry was found for both horizontal and vertical relationships. Further, the Understand and Visibility items showed greater asymmetry for the Korean group than for the American group. It was concluded that asymmetry is greater in collectivistic than in individualistic culture. The cultural differences can be explained by self-consistency, sensitivity to social consequences, parent-child interaction, and living arrangement.
Tsai, William; Lau, Anna S
Reflecting on negative personal experiences has implications for mood that may vary as a function of specific domains (e.g., achievement vs. interpersonal) and cultural orientation (e.g., interdependence vs. independence). This study investigated cultural differences in the social-cognitive and affective processes undertaken as Easterners and Westerners reflected on negative interpersonal and performance experiences. One hundred Asian Americans and 92 European-American college students were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: interpersonal rejection, achievement failure, or a control condition. Results revealed that Asian Americans experienced greater distress than European Americans after self-reflecting over a failed interpersonal experience, suggesting cultural sensitivity in the relational domain. Consistent with theoretical predictions, analysis of the social cognitive and affective processes that participants engaged in during self-reflection provided some evidence that self-enhancement may buffer distress for European Americans, while emotion suppression may be adaptive for Asian Americans.
Kim, Dong-Hoon; No, Jin-Gu; Choi, Mi-Kyung; Yeom, Dong-Hyeon; Kim, Dong-Kyo; Yang, Byoung-Chul; Yoo, Jae Gyu; Kim, Min Kyu; Kim, Hong-Tea
The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of three different culture media on the development of canine somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos. Canine cloned embryos were cultured in modified synthetic oviductal fluid (mSOF), porcine zygote medium-3 (PZM-3), or G1/G2 sequential media. Our results showed that the G1/G2 media yielded significantly higher morula and blastocyst development in canine SCNT embryos (26.1% and 7.8%, respectively) compared to PZM-3 (8.5% and 0%or mSOF (2.3% and 0%) media. In conclusion, this study suggests that blastocysts can be produced more efficiently using G1/G2 media to culture canine SCNT embryos.
Doerr, Neriko Musha
Culture is not a predetermined, static, bounded unit. Both its boundaries and what is considered cultural difference are constructed through social processes. Ray McDermott and Herve Varenne (1995) argue that only certain differences are noticed, usually according to what is regarded as meaningful difference in one's own society. For example, in a…
Full Text Available Abstract Background Persons with Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS are seriously affected in their everyday life. The effect across different cultural settings of IBS on their quality of life has been little studied. The aim was to compare health-related quality of life (HRQOL of individuals suffering from IBS in two different cultural settings; Crete, Greece and Linköping, Sweden. Methods This study is a sex and age-matched case-control study, with n = 30 Cretan IBS cases and n = 90 Swedish IBS cases and a Swedish control group (n = 300 randomly selected from the general population. Health-related quality of life, measured by SF-36 and demographics, life style indicators and co-morbidity, was measured. Results Cretan IBS cases reported lower HRQOL on most dimensions of SF-36 in comparison to the Swedish IBS cases. Significant differences were found for the dimensions mental health (p Conclusion The results from this study tentatively support that the claim that similar individuals having the same disease, e.g. IBS, but living in different cultural environments could perceive their disease differently and that the disease might affect their everyday life and quality of life in a different way. The Cretan population, and especially women, are more seriously affected mentally by their disease than Swedish IBS cases. Coping with IBS in everyday life might be more problematic in the Cretan environment than in the Swedish setting.
Yan, Xiaoqian; Andrews, Timothy J; Young, Andrew W
The ability to recognize facial expressions of basic emotions is often considered a universal human ability. However, recent studies have suggested that this commonality has been overestimated and that people from different cultures use different facial signals to represent expressions (Jack, Blais, Scheepers, Schyns, & Caldara, 2009; Jack, Caldara, & Schyns, 2012). We investigated this possibility by examining similarities and differences in the perception and categorization of facial expressions between Chinese and white British participants using whole-face and partial-face images. Our results showed no cultural difference in the patterns of perceptual similarity of expressions from whole-face images. When categorizing the same expressions, however, both British and Chinese participants were slightly more accurate with whole-face images of their own ethnic group. To further investigate potential strategy differences, we repeated the perceptual similarity and categorization tasks with presentation of only the upper or lower half of each face. Again, the perceptual similarity of facial expressions was similar between Chinese and British participants for both the upper and lower face regions. However, participants were slightly better at categorizing facial expressions of their own ethnic group for the lower face regions, indicating that the way in which culture shapes the categorization of facial expressions is largely driven by differences in information decoding from this part of the face. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Na, Jinkyung; Huang, Chih-Mao; Park, Denise C.
The interaction between age and culture can have various implications for cognition as age represents the effect of biological processes whereas culture represents the effect of sustaining experiences. Nevertheless, their interaction has rarely been examined. Thus, based on the fact that Asians are more intuitive in reasoning than Americans, we examined how this cultural difference might interact with age. Young and old participants from the US and Singapore performed a categorization task (l...
This discussion acknowledges that culturally responsive teaching is relevant for international contexts. However, it needs to be nuanced to fit the specific characteristics and needs of these different settings, relative to societal dynamics, and student ethnic, cultural, racial, immigration/migration, economic, and linguistic demographics.…
Park, BoKyung; Tsai, Jeanne L; Chim, Louise; Blevins, Elizabeth; Knutson, Brian
European Americans value excitement more and calm less than Chinese. Within cultures, European Americans value excited and calm states similarly, whereas Chinese value calm more than excited states. To examine how these cultural differences influence people's immediate responses to excited vs calm facial expressions, we combined a facial rating task with functional magnetic resonance imaging. During scanning, European American (n = 19) and Chinese (n = 19) females viewed and rated faces that varied by expression (excited, calm), ethnicity (White, Asian) and gender (male, female). As predicted, European Americans showed greater activity in circuits associated with affect and reward (bilateral ventral striatum, left caudate) while viewing excited vs calm expressions than did Chinese. Within cultures, European Americans responded to excited vs calm expressions similarly, whereas Chinese showed greater activity in these circuits in response to calm vs excited expressions regardless of targets' ethnicity or gender. Across cultural groups, greater ventral striatal activity while viewing excited vs. calm expressions predicted greater preference for excited vs calm expressions months later. These findings provide neural evidence that people find viewing the specific positive facial expressions valued by their cultures to be rewarding and relevant. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Park, BoKyung; Chim, Louise; Blevins, Elizabeth; Knutson, Brian
European Americans value excitement more and calm less than Chinese. Within cultures, European Americans value excited and calm states similarly, whereas Chinese value calm more than excited states. To examine how these cultural differences influence people’s immediate responses to excited vs calm facial expressions, we combined a facial rating task with functional magnetic resonance imaging. During scanning, European American (n = 19) and Chinese (n = 19) females viewed and rated faces that varied by expression (excited, calm), ethnicity (White, Asian) and gender (male, female). As predicted, European Americans showed greater activity in circuits associated with affect and reward (bilateral ventral striatum, left caudate) while viewing excited vs calm expressions than did Chinese. Within cultures, European Americans responded to excited vs calm expressions similarly, whereas Chinese showed greater activity in these circuits in response to calm vs excited expressions regardless of targets’ ethnicity or gender. Across cultural groups, greater ventral striatal activity while viewing excited vs. calm expressions predicted greater preference for excited vs calm expressions months later. These findings provide neural evidence that people find viewing the specific positive facial expressions valued by their cultures to be rewarding and relevant. PMID:26342220
Dinorah (Dina Martinez Tyson
Full Text Available The Surgeon General's report, “Culture, Race, and Ethnicity: A Supplement to Mental Health,” points to the need for subgroup specific mental health research that explores the cultural variation and heterogeneity of the Latino population. Guided by cognitive anthropological theories of culture, we utilized ethnographic interviewing techniques to explore cultural models of depression among foreign-born Mexican (n=30, Cuban (n=30, Columbian (n=30, and island-born Puerto Ricans (n=30, who represent the largest Latino groups in Florida. Results indicate that Colombian, Cuban, Mexican, and Puerto Rican immigrants showed strong intragroup consensus in their models of depression causality, symptoms, and treatment. We found more agreement than disagreement among all four groups regarding core descriptions of depression, which was largely unexpected but can potentially be explained by their common immigrant experiences. Findings expand our understanding about Latino subgroup similarities and differences in their conceptualization of depression and can be used to inform the adaptation of culturally relevant interventions in order to better serve Latino immigrant communities.
McCright, Aaron M.; Allen, Summer; Dietz, Thomas
Scientists who perform environmental research on policy-relevant topics face challenges when communicating about how values may have influenced their research. This study examines how citizens view scientists who publicly acknowledge values. Specifically, we investigate whether it matters: if citizens share or oppose a scientist’s values, if a scientist’s conclusions seem contrary to or consistent with the scientist’s values, and if a scientist is assessing the state of the science or making a policy recommendation. We conducted two 3x2 factorial design online experiments. Experiment 1 featured a hypothetical scientist assessing the state of the science on the public-health effects of exposure to Bisphenol A (BPA), and Experiment 2 featured a scientist making a policy recommendation on use of BPA. We manipulated whether or not the scientist expressed values and whether the scientist’s conclusion appeared contrary to or consistent with the scientist’s values, and we accounted for whether or not subjects’ values aligned with the scientist’s values. We analyzed our data with ordinary least squares (OLS) regression techniques. Our results provide at least preliminary evidence that acknowledging values may reduce the perceived credibility of scientists within the general public, but this effect differs depending on whether scientists and citizens share values, whether scientists draw conclusions that run contrary to their values, and whether scientists make policy recommendations. PMID:29069087
Full Text Available The ease of deployment and the auto-configuration capabilities of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs make them very attractive in different domains like environmental, home automation or heath care applications. The use of multichannel communications in WSNs helps to improve the overall performance of the network. However, in heavy traffic scenarios, routing protocols should be adapted to allow load balancing and to avoid losing data packets due to congestion and queue overflow. In this paper, we present an Acknowledgement-Based Opportunistic Routing (ABORt protocol designed for high data rate multichannel WSNs. It is a low overhead protocol that does not rely on synchronization for control traffic exchange during the operational phase of the network. ABORt is an opportunistic protocol that relies on link layer acknowledgements to disseminate routing metrics, which helps to reduce overhead. The performance of ABORt is evaluated using the Cooja simulator and the obtained results show that ABORt has a high packet delivery ratio with reduced packet end-to-end delay compared to two single channel routing protocols and two multichannel routing protocols that use number of hops and expected transmission count as routing metrics.
Whittington, Richard J.; Marsh, Ian B.; Saunders, Vanessa; Grant, Irene R.; Juste, Ramon; Sevilla, Iker A.; Manning, Elizabeth J. B.; Whitlock, Robert H.
Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis causes paratuberculosis (Johne's disease) in ruminants in most countries. Historical data suggest substantial differences in culturability of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis isolates from small ruminants and cattle; however, a systematic comparison of culture media and isolates from different countries and hosts has not been undertaken. Here, 35 field isolates from the United States, Spain, Northern Ireland, and Australia were propagated in Bactec 12B medium and Middlebrook 7H10 agar, genomically characterized, and subcultured to Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ), Herrold's egg yolk (HEY), modified Middlebrook 7H10, Middlebrook 7H11, and Watson-Reid (WR) agars, all with and without mycobactin J and some with sodium pyruvate. Fourteen genotypes of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis were represented as determined by BstEII IS900 and IS1311 restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. There was no correlation between genotype and overall culturability, although most S strains tended to grow poorly on HEY agar. Pyruvate was inhibitory to some isolates. All strains grew on modified Middlebrook 7H10 agar but more slowly and less prolifically on LJ agar. Mycobactin J was required for growth on all media except 7H11 agar, but growth was improved by the addition of mycobactin J to 7H11 agar. WR agar supported the growth of few isolates. The differences in growth of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis that have historically been reported in diverse settings have been strongly influenced by the type of culture medium used. When an optimal culture medium, such as modified Middlebrook 7H10 agar, is used, very little difference between the growth phenotypes of diverse strains of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis was observed. This optimal medium is recommended to remove bias in the isolation and cultivation of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. PMID:21430104
Full Text Available Orientation: The use of personality tests for selection and screening has been consistently criticised resulting from the risk of socially desirable responding amongst job applicants. Research purpose: This study examined the magnitude of culture and language group meanscore differences amongst job applicants and the moderating effect of race on the relationship between social desirability and cognitive ability. Motivation for the study: The influence of cognitive ability and potential race and ethnic group differences in social desirability scale scores, which can lead to disproportional selection ratios, has not been extensively researched in South Africa. Research design, approach and method: A quantitative, cross-sectional research design, based on secondary datasets obtained from the test publisher, was employed. The dataset consisted of 1640 job applicants across industry sectors. Main findings: Moderated multiple regression analyses revealed that the relationship between social desirability and general reasoning was moderated by culture and language, with group differences in social desirability being more pronounced at the low general reasoning level. This suggests that social desirability scales may be an ambiguous indicator of faking as the scales may indicate tendency to fake, but not the ability to fake, that is likely to be connected to the level of cognitive ability of the respondent. Practical/managerial implications: Individual differences in social desirability are not fully explained by cognitive ability as cultural differences also played a role. Responding in a certain manner, reflects a level of psychological sophistication that is informed by the level of education and socio-economic status. In relation to selection practice, this study provided evidence of the potentially adverse consequences of using social desirability scales to detect response distortion. Contribution/value-add: The exploration of cross-cultural
Faresjö, Ashild; Anastasiou, Foteini; Lionis, Christos; Johansson, Saga; Wallander, Mari-Ann; Faresjö, Tomas
Persons with Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) are seriously affected in their everyday life. The effect across different cultural settings of IBS on their quality of life has been little studied. The aim was to compare health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of individuals suffering from IBS in two different cultural settings; Crete, Greece and Linköping, Sweden. This study is a sex and age-matched case-control study, with n = 30 Cretan IBS cases and n = 90 Swedish IBS cases and a Swedish control group (n = 300) randomly selected from the general population. Health-related quality of life, measured by SF-36 and demographics, life style indicators and co-morbidity, was measured. Cretan IBS cases reported lower HRQOL on most dimensions of SF-36 in comparison to the Swedish IBS cases. Significant differences were found for the dimensions mental health (p cultural environments could perceive their disease differently and that the disease might affect their everyday life and quality of life in a different way. The Cretan population, and especially women, are more seriously affected mentally by their disease than Swedish IBS cases. Coping with IBS in everyday life might be more problematic in the Cretan environment than in the Swedish setting.
Faresjö, Åshild; Anastasiou, Foteini; Lionis, Christos; Johansson, Saga; Wallander, Mari-Ann; Faresjö, Tomas
Background Persons with Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) are seriously affected in their everyday life. The effect across different cultural settings of IBS on their quality of life has been little studied. The aim was to compare health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of individuals suffering from IBS in two different cultural settings; Crete, Greece and Linköping, Sweden. Methods This study is a sex and age-matched case-control study, with n = 30 Cretan IBS cases and n = 90 Swedish IBS cases and a Swedish control group (n = 300) randomly selected from the general population. Health-related quality of life, measured by SF-36 and demographics, life style indicators and co-morbidity, was measured. Results Cretan IBS cases reported lower HRQOL on most dimensions of SF-36 in comparison to the Swedish IBS cases. Significant differences were found for the dimensions mental health (p cultural environments could perceive their disease differently and that the disease might affect their everyday life and quality of life in a different way. The Cretan population, and especially women, are more seriously affected mentally by their disease than Swedish IBS cases. Coping with IBS in everyday life might be more problematic in the Cretan environment than in the Swedish setting. PMID:16566821
Malda, Maike; van de Vijver, Fons J. R.; Temane, Q. Michael
In this study, cross-cultural differences in cognitive test scores are hypothesized to depend on a test's cultural complexity (Cultural Complexity Hypothesis: CCH), here conceptualized as its content familiarity, rather than on its cognitive complexity (Spearman's Hypothesis: SH). The content familiarity of tests assessing short-term memory,…
Teo, Tang Wee
In this forum, I extend Tao, Oliver, and Venville's paper "Chinese and Australian children's understanding of the earth: a cross cultural study of conceptual development" to discuss the different views on culture and cultural mediation. I tease out nuances in the viewpoints to suggest three ways to theoretically frame studies examining cultural…
Cohn, Neil; Taylor-Weiner, Amaro; Grossman, Suzanne
Research on visual attention has shown that Americans tend to focus more on focal objects of a scene while Asians attend to the surrounding environment. The panels of comic books – the narrative frames in sequential images – highlight aspects of a scene comparably to how attention becomes focused on parts of a spatial array. Thus, we compared panels from American and Japanese comics to explore cross-cultural cognition beyond behavioral experimentation by looking at the expressive mediums produced by individuals from these cultures. This study compared the panels of two genres of American comics (Independent and Mainstream comics) with mainstream Japanese “manga” to examine how different cultures and genres direct attention through the framing of figures and scenes in comic panels. Both genres of American comics focused on whole scenes as much as individual characters, while Japanese manga individuated characters and parts of scenes. We argue that this framing of space from American and Japanese comic books simulate a viewer’s integration of a visual scene, and is consistent with the research showing cross-cultural differences in the direction of attention. PMID:23015794
Gibbons, C J; Skevington, S M
Previous studies using the WHOQOL measures have demonstrated that the relationship between individual items and the underlying quality of life (QoL) construct may differ between cultures. If unaccounted for, these differing relationships can lead to measurement bias which, in turn, can undermine the reliability of results. We used item response theory (IRT) to assess differential item functioning (DIF) in WHOQOL data from diverse language versions collected in UK, Zimbabwe, Russia, and India (total N = 1332). Data were fitted to the partial credit 'Rasch' model. We used four item banks previously derived from the WHOQOL-100 measure, which provided excellent measurement for physical, psychological, social, and environmental quality of life domains (40 items overall). Cross-cultural differential item functioning was assessed using analysis of variance for item residuals and post hoc Tukey tests. Simulated computer-adaptive tests (CATs) were conducted to assess the efficiency and precision of the four items banks. Splitting item parameters by DIF results in four linked item banks without DIF or other breaches of IRT model assumptions. Simulated CATs were more precise and efficient than longer paper-based alternatives. Assessing differential item functioning using item response theory can identify measurement invariance between cultures which, if uncontrolled, may undermine accurate comparisons in computer-adaptive testing assessments of QoL. We demonstrate how compensating for DIF using item anchoring allowed data from all four countries to be compared on a common metric, thus facilitating assessments which were both sensitive to cultural nuance and comparable between countries.
Yan, Xiaoqian; Andrews, Timothy J; Jenkins, Rob; Young, Andrew W
Perceptual advantages for own-race compared to other-race faces have been demonstrated for the recognition of facial identity and expression. However, these effects have not been investigated in the same study with measures that can determine the extent of cross-cultural agreement as well as differences. To address this issue, we used a photo sorting task in which Chinese and Caucasian participants were asked to sort photographs of Chinese or Caucasian faces by identity or by expression. This paradigm matched the task demands of identity and expression recognition and avoided constrained forced-choice or verbal labelling requirements. Other-race effects of comparable magnitude were found across the identity and expression tasks. Caucasian participants made more confusion errors for the identities and expressions of Chinese than Caucasian faces, while Chinese participants made more confusion errors for the identities and expressions of Caucasian than Chinese faces. However, analyses of the patterns of responses across groups of participants revealed a considerable amount of underlying cross-cultural agreement. These findings suggest that widely repeated claims that members of other cultures "all look the same" overstate the cultural differences.
Tanaka, Akihiro; Koizumi, Ai; Imai, Hisato; Hiramatsu, Saori; Hiramoto, Eriko; de Gelder, Beatrice
Cultural differences in emotion perception have been reported mainly for facial expressions and to a lesser extent for vocal expressions. However, the way in which the perceiver combines auditory and visual cues may itself be subject to cultural variability. Our study investigated cultural differences between Japanese and Dutch participants in the multisensory perception of emotion. A face and a voice, expressing either congruent or incongruent emotions, were presented on each trial. Participants were instructed to judge the emotion expressed in one of the two sources. The effect of to-be-ignored voice information on facial judgments was larger in Japanese than in Dutch participants, whereas the effect of to-be-ignored face information on vocal judgments was smaller in Japanese than in Dutch participants. This result indicates that Japanese people are more attuned than Dutch people to vocal processing in the multisensory perception of emotion. Our findings provide the first evidence that multisensory integration of affective information is modulated by perceivers' cultural background.
Xella, Susanna; Marsella, Tiziana; Tagliasacchi, Daniela; Giulini, Simone; La Marca, Antonio; Tirelli, Alessandra; Volpe, Annibale
To compare the outcome of two different culture media marketed by the MediCult AS Company (Jyllinge, Denmark)-Universal IVF Medium and ISM1 Medium culture-which, in addition to glucose, pyruvate, and energy-providing components, also contain amino acids, nucleotides, vitamins, and cholesterol. Laboratory and retrospective clinical study. University teaching hospital. A total of 726 patients, undergoing IVF-intracytoplasmic sperm injection procedure, comparable in mean age range, oocyte retrieval, and infertility indication, were included in the study. Laboratory quality and standard procedures were maintained unaffected. Oocyte retrieval, different embryo culture media. Embryo quality, ongoing pregnancy, and implantation rate. The frequency of good-quality embryos (79% vs. 74%) and the percentages of ongoing pregnancy (27.5% vs. 18%) and implantation rate (15% vs. 10%) were significantly higher in the group treated with ISM1 Medium rather than Universal IVF Medium. ISM1 Medium culture seems to improve the performance of embryonic growth and development, as well as increasing the percentage of pregnancy. Copyright 2010 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Li, S P; Li, P; Dong, T T; Tsim, K W
Cordyceps, one of the well-known traditional Chinese medicines, consists of the dried fungus Cordyceps sinensis growing on the larva of the caterpillar. It is commonly used for the replenishment of body health. One of the known pharmacological effects is its anti-oxidation activity. However, there is a great variation of the quality in different sources of Cordyceps. Here, the water extracts of various sources of natural C. sinensis and cultured Cordyceps mycelia were analyzed for their anti-oxidation activity by using three different assay methods such as the xanthine oxidase assay, the induction of hemolysis assay and the lipid peroxidation assay. The results showed that Cordyceps, in general, possesses a strong anti-oxidation activity in all assays tested. However, both natural and cultured Cordyceps showed the lowest inhibition in the lipid peroxidation when compared with the other two assay methods. The cultured Cordyceps mycelia had equally strong anti-oxidation activity as compared to the natural Cordyceps. Besides, the anti-oxidation activities were increased to 10-30 folds in the partially purified polysaccharide fractions from the cultured Cordyceps mycelia, which suggested that the activity could be derived partly from Cordyceps polysaccharides.
Full Text Available Research on visual attention has shown that Americans tend to focus more on focal objects of a scene while Asians attend to the surrounding environment. The panels of comic books— the narrative frames in sequential images—highlight aspects of a scene comparably to how attention becomes focused on parts of a spatial array. Thus, we compared panels from American and Japanese comics to explore cross-cultural cognition beyond behavioral experimentation by looking at the expressive mediums produced by individuals from these cultures. This study compared the panels of two genres of American comics (Independent and Mainstream comics with mainstream Japanese manga to examine how different cultures and genres direct attention through the framing of figures and scenes in comic panels. Both genres of American comics focused on whole scenes as much as individual characters, while Japanese manga individuated characters and parts of scenes. We argue that this framing of space from American and Japanese comic books simulate a viewer’s integration of a visual scene, and is consistent with the research showing cross-cultural differences in the direction of attention.
Cohn, Neil; Taylor-Weiner, Amaro; Grossman, Suzanne
Research on visual attention has shown that Americans tend to focus more on focal objects of a scene while Asians attend to the surrounding environment. The panels of comic books - the narrative frames in sequential images - highlight aspects of a scene comparably to how attention becomes focused on parts of a spatial array. Thus, we compared panels from American and Japanese comics to explore cross-cultural cognition beyond behavioral experimentation by looking at the expressive mediums produced by individuals from these cultures. This study compared the panels of two genres of American comics (Independent and Mainstream comics) with mainstream Japanese "manga" to examine how different cultures and genres direct attention through the framing of figures and scenes in comic panels. Both genres of American comics focused on whole scenes as much as individual characters, while Japanese manga individuated characters and parts of scenes. We argue that this framing of space from American and Japanese comic books simulate a viewer's integration of a visual scene, and is consistent with the research showing cross-cultural differences in the direction of attention.
Wilson, Laura C; Newins, Amie R; White, Susan W
Little is known about how rape acknowledgment relates to posttrauma functioning; recent research suggests the effect may depend on additional factors. In the current study, the moderating effect of rape myth acceptance (RMA) on the relationships between rape acknowledgment and mental health outcomes was examined. A sample of 181 female rape survivors recruited from a university completed an online survey assessing RMA, rape acknowledgment, depression symptoms, and alcohol use. Generally, the results supported that RMA moderated the influence of rape acknowledgment on depression symptoms and average quantity per drinking episode, but not frequency of alcohol use. The findings demonstrated that when individuals endorsed high levels of RMA, acknowledged rape survivors reported worse outcomes than unacknowledged rape survivors. Among individuals low on RMA, unacknowledged rape survivors reported worse outcomes than acknowledged rape survivors. It is recommended that clinicians recognize the role of survivor beliefs, such as RMA, in the relationship between labeling sexual assault experiences and mental health consequences. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Anwar, M.; Waheed, K.A.I.; Rehman, A.
To ascertain and compare microbial growth pattern in blood culture of septic neonates who were either totally breast or formula fed. Study Design: Cross sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: The Children's Hospital Lahore, Pakistan from Feb 2012 to Dec 2012. Methodology: All clinically septic neonates, who were either exclusively breast fed or formula fed, were enrolled in the study. They were divided into two groups and studied for the type of organisms grown on blood culture. Group-A were breast fed and group-B were formula fed. Neonates who were blood culture negative or had growth of multiple organisms or had incomplete data or who died / left against medical advice before completing the required data or babies receiving milk feeding from multiple sources or no feeding at all were excluded. BACTEC technique was used for obtaining bacterial growth. SPSS version 19 was used for statistical analysis. Results: A total of 380 clinically septic neonates were enrolled. Each group consisted of 190 subjects. Incidence of culture positive sepsis in breast fed and in formula fed was 6.7% and 15.7% respectively (p-value = 0.0001). Overall, gram-negative organisms constituted the majority (16.1%). Thirty seven percent cultures grew coagulase negative Staphylococcus (CoNS) followed by Klebsiella spp (23.4%). In group A, gram-negative and gram-positive organisms were equally distributed whilst in group-B, gram-negative organisms were three times more frequent than gram-positive organisms. Predominant pattern of organisms was also different in the two groups. In group-A, CoNS was predominant while in group-B, Klebsiella spp. was most frequent. Conclusion: Culture positive sepsis is more than two times greater in formula fed babies and is caused predominantly by gram-negative organisms whilst in breast fed babies, CoNS is the commonest organism. (author)