WorldWideScience

Sample records for acknowledge cultural difference

  1. Exploration of the beliefs and experiences of Aboriginal people with cancer in Western Australia: a methodology to acknowledge cultural difference and build understanding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howat Peter

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aboriginal Australians experience poorer outcomes, and are 2.5 times more likely to die from cancer than non-Aboriginal people, even after adjustment for stage of diagnosis, cancer treatment and comorbidities. They are also less likely to present early as a result of symptoms and to access treatment. Psycho-social factors affect Aboriginal people's willingness and ability to participate in cancer-related screening and treatment services, but little exploration of this has occurred within Australia to date. The current research adopted a phenomenological qualitative approach to understand and explore the lived experiences of Aboriginal Australians with cancer and their beliefs and understanding around this disease in Western Australia (WA. This paper details considerations in the design and process of conducting the research. Methods/Design The National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC guidelines for ethical conduct of Aboriginal research were followed. Researchers acknowledged the past negative experiences of Aboriginal people with research and were keen to build trust and relationships prior to conducting research with them. Thirty in-depth interviews with Aboriginal people affected by cancer and twenty with health service providers were carried out in urban, rural and remote areas of WA. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and coded independently by two researchers. NVivo7 software was used to assist data management and analysis. Participants' narratives were divided into broad categories to allow identification of key themes and discussed by the research team. Discussion and conclusion Key issues specific to Aboriginal research include the need for the research process to be relationship-based, respectful, culturally appropriate and inclusive of Aboriginal people. Researchers are accountable to both participants and the wider community for reporting their findings and for research translation so

  2. A Study on Writing Acknowledgements of Thesis and Dissertation——Based on Genre-Based Contrastive Approach and Cultural Differences%研究生学位论文致谢写作研究——基于体裁对比分析理论和中西文化差异

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦琳

    2012-01-01

    致谢在研究生学位论文中起着非常重要的作用,是学术语篇中作者向给予过帮助的人们和机构表达谢意的唯一渠道。运用体裁对比分析法以140篇中西方研究生撰写的致谢为语料,探究致谢的体裁结构和交际功能,研究文化因素对致谢语篇的影响。试图丰富体裁分析理论和拓宽体裁研究的领域,为学术英语写作和专门用途英语教学提供启示,帮助学生撰写符合国际规范的硕博论文致谢,促进学术交流。%Acknowledgements play an important part in graduates' thesis and dissertation since they provide writers with a precious opportunity not only to convey thanks to those who helped the writers in the process of research,but also to build a harmonious relationship with public.Following theory of genre-based contrastive approach,this research attempts to explore the generic structure of acknowledgements in thesis and dissertation and also to discuss differences between cultures based on a corpus of 140 acknowledgements.It is hoped that the current research can enrich genre theory and provide pedagogical insights into academic writing and ESP teaching,helping English as a foreign language learners increase their knowledge of this academic genre and ultimately write effective acknowledgements.

  3. EPEC-O Acknowledgments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acknowledging the following contributors to EPEC™-O: Education in Palliative and End-of-Life Care – Oncology (Original Curriculum) and the EPEC™-O: Cultural Considerations When Caring for African Americans.

  4. Status, taste and distinction in consumer culture: acknowledging the symbolic dimensions of inequality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlisle, Sandra; Hanlon, Phil; Hannah, Margaret

    2008-06-01

    The relationship between social position and health has been the focus of extensive public health debate. In the UK and elsewhere, most researchers have focused on physical aspects of health, using indicators such as mortality and morbidity to draw a picture of profound and widening social inequalities. This paper draws attention to the (neglected) influence of contemporary culture on wellbeing, arguing that the social meanings created within consumer culture possess symbolic force that can add to wider inequalities. The possession of greater material and cultural resources by people of higher social status enables them to label their preferred forms of consumption and lifestyle as desirable and legitimate, thus conveying messages about superior taste and social distinction. Symbolic rather than material forms of inequality are implicated here, with consequences for the psychological wellbeing of disadvantaged people. This paper argues that analyses of inequality need broadening to include such considerations. However, there are implications for efforts to address health inequalities because this analysis suggests that if some forms of social inequality are removed, elements within society would be motivated to invent new forms to replace them. Therefore, this article suggests processes whereby people can develop the self-awareness needed to resist the glossy illusions of the good life represented by modern consumer capitalism.

  5. Culture Difference and Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何冬兰

    2012-01-01

    Culture difference is necessary to be paid attention to during the process of translating.Culture difference is caused by different history,regions,customs,religions and the modes of thinking.Having the awareness of the culture difference will make translation more accurate and successful.

  6. Dialogue across Lines of Difference: Acknowledging and Engaging Diverse Identities in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Mare, Danielle M.

    2013-01-01

    Social identity is central to communication and culture, and while many intercultural communication textbooks devote much more space to the topic than they have in the past, undergraduate students continue to understand social identity in largely superficial terms. In order for them to grasp its complexity and its relationship to communication,…

  7. Promises in Different Cultures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Holly Shi

    2001-01-01

    This paper reports a pilot study, which examines culture differences in a social function of language, i.e.,the function of promise making using Searle′s constitutive rules. It is to argue that different cultures may have the same type of speech-act such as promise, which, however, represents different cultural concepts. Evidence supporting the argument was drawn from a comparison of performance of Americans and Orientals concerning their respective concepts of promise making.

  8. Science, Spirituality and Truth: Acknowledging Difference for Spiritual Dialogue and Human Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Jacqueline

    2009-01-01

    This article seeks to explain why spiritual education must be clear about the nature of spiritual knowledge and truth and how it differs from the knowledge and truth generated by science. The author argues this is important in order that spirituality and science are equally valued, and in order that spiritual pedagogy appropriately reflects the…

  9. The Influence of Culture Difference in English Teaching Practice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨娜

    2012-01-01

    Because of different geographical environment, historical story, and psychic conditions, there exists distinct culture differences between china and western countries among varified nations. Therefore, we acknowledge that concrete understanding of the culture difference mkes the very basis of the acquisition of English language for students, and thus they are likely to have an enhancement in interpersonal ability.

  10. Cultural differences in use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonasson, Charlotte; Lauring, Jakob

    2012-01-01

    Purpose - Purpose: Intercultural communication problems are most often argued to be caused by differences in cultural values. In this exploratory paper, we argue that attention should not only be directed at national differences. Alternatively, we argue that more interest should be paid...... corporation. This illustrates how individuals and groups may essentialize cultural differences during intercultural business encounters and how this fixation of cultural traits can be used in social stratification. Originality/value - Originality: Only scant extant research has focused on the active use...... to the actual use of those differences in communication. Design/methodology/approach - Methodology: Ethnographic field study including 12 interviews and observations. Findings - Findings: We use a short case on interaction between expatriates and local managers in a Chinese subsidiary of a Danish multinational...

  11. Cultural differences in risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Do-Yeong Kim

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available We compared South Koreans with Australians in order to characterize cultural differences in attitudes and choices regarding risk, at both the individual and group levels. Our results showed that Australians, when assessed individually, consistently self-reported higher preference for risk than South Koreans, regardless of gender. The data revealed that South Koreans, regardless of gender composition, were willing to take greater risks when making decisions in group decision-making situations than when they were alone. This is a different pattern from that seen in the Australian sample, in which a risky shift was noted only among males. This difference was attributed to the influence of various cultural orientations (independent vs. interdependent relationship styles. This study also provides a discussion of the implications of these results in terms of cultural differences in attitudes and decisions regarding risk.

  12. Bilingual Cultural Differences and Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Fu-sheng; HUA Qing-liang

    2001-01-01

    For historical, regional or other reasons, there are some great differences between the Chinese and the English culture. Generally, the keynote of the western culture is the superiority of lust, while the Chinese culture stresses on reservation and compromise. The westerners emphasize individualism, while the Chinese lay stress on context. Different cultures contribute to different habits, characters and behaviors as well as different registers.Cultural differences can directly lead to information loss, information misleading, thus result in obstacles in communication. This essay will have a detailed analysis on the cultural differences and their influence on communication.

  13. Compatibility between Cultural Studies and Conceptual Change in Science Education: There Is More to Acknowledge than to Fight Straw Men!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treagust, David F.; Duit, Reinders

    2008-01-01

    In this response, we attempt to clarify our position on conceptual change, state our position on mental models being a viable construct to represent learning, indicate important issues from the social cultural perspective that can inform our work on conceptual change and lastly comment on issues that we consider to be straw men. Above all we argue…

  14. Challenging Racist Nativist Framing: Acknowledging the Community Cultural Wealth of Undocumented Chicana College Students to Reframe the Immigration Debate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez Huber, Lindsay

    2009-01-01

    Using the critical race "testimonios" of ten Chicana undergraduate students at a top-tier research university, Lindsay Perez Huber interrogates and challenges the racist nativist framing of undocumented Latina/o immigrants as problematic, burdensome, and "illegal." Specifically, a community cultural wealth framework (Yosso, 2005) is utilized and…

  15. Acknowledging the back patient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Janne Brammer; Bastrup, Lene; Norlyk, Annelise

    the back patient the narrative must be complemented by a different perspective that includes the issue of ethical responsibility. It is therefore also a question of adopting certain norms as binding; to be bound by obligation or loyalty. Thus, the literature review argues for a more process......Introduction: A thorough review of qualitative studies has revealed that telling about experiences and perceptions is important for back patients in order to feel accepted and acknowledged. Thus, it has been the aim of this qualitative literature review to investigate what it feels like...... to be a back patient and what back patients consider important when dealing with the healthcare system. Methods: The method draws on James Thomas' and Angela Hardens approach in "Methods for the thematic synthesis of qualitative research in systematic reviews" (2008). The thematic synthesis aims to systematise...

  16. Acknowledging the back patient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Janne Brammer; Bastrup Jørgensen, Lene; Norlyk, Annelise

    the back patient the narrative must be complemented by a different perspective that includes the issue of ethical responsibility. It is therefore also a question of adopting certain norms as binding; to be bound by obligation or loyalty. Thus, the literature review argue for a more process-oriented patient......#296 Acknowledging The Back Patient. A Thematic Synthesis Of Qualitative Research. A Systematic Literature Review. Janne Brammer Damsgaard1, Lene Bastrup Jørgensen1, Annelise Norlyk2, Regner Birkelund3 1. Health, Section for Nursing, Aarhus University & Research Unit, Elective Surgery Centre......, Silkeborg Regional Hospital, Regional Hospital Central Jutland, Silkeborg, Denmark 2. Health, Section for Nursing, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark 3. University of Southern Denmark & Vejle Sygehus, Vejle, Denmark keywords:Back Patient, Narrative, Biomedical, Marginalisation, Self-Identity, Ethical...

  17. Acknowledging the back patient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Janne Brammer; Bastrup, Lene; Norlyk, Annelise;

    and reluctant to speak out. Therefore, telling about experiences and perceptions is important for back patients in order to feel accepted and acknowledged. The health professionals must incorporate the patients’ narratives as an integral part of the care and treatment. Conclusions: In order to acknowledge...

  18. CULTURE AND GENDER ROLE DIFFERENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica-Nicoleta NECULĂESEI (ONEA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Culture influences thinking, language and human behaviour. The social environment, in which individuals are born and live, shapes their attitudinal, emotional and behavioural reactions and the perceptions about what is happening around. The same applies in the case of assigned/assumed roles in society based on gender. Cultural dimensions that reflect differences in gender roles, but also elements related to the ethics of sexual difference were highlighted by many researchers. The presentation of these issues from the interdisciplinary perspective is the subject of this article. Briefly, the article refers to: importance of communication in transmission of roles of those two sexes, cultural dimensions that reflect role differences invarious cultures, discrimination issues and ethics of sexual difference.

  19. Cultural Differences in Chinese and Western Festivals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱燕

    2007-01-01

    Festivals are precious cultural heritage of different countries,so differentfestivals can reflect different cultures. This article discusses cultural differences in Chinese and western festivals, aiming to promote cross-culture communication.

  20. Acknowledgements and dedication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balgooy, van M.M.J.

    1984-01-01

    Several persons have helped in compiling maps and texts, others have provided vital information. Their assistance is gratefully acknowledged. Among the overseas contributors I wish to mention especially Prof. D. J. de Laubenfels (Syracuse, U.S.A.) and Mr. D. E. Symon (Adelaide, Australia). Major con

  1. Culture Differences and English Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin

    2011-01-01

    Language is a part of culture, and plays a very important role in the development of the culture. Some sociologists consider it as the keystone of culture. They believe, without language, culture would not be available. At the same time, language is influenced and shaped by culture, it reflects culture. Therefore, culture plays a very important…

  2. Cultural Differences and English Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李毅

    2009-01-01

    ach culture in English education.This paper expounds the connotation of culture and language, points out the reasons of culture teaching in English education, and raises some suggestions and methods on English culture teaching.

  3. Acknowledgment - Issue 60

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Executive Editor

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Biblios wish to acknowledge the support of the following professionals who participated in the review process of submissions for our issue 60.ReviewersAndré Ancona Lopez (Universidade de Brasília - UnB, BrasilGildenir Carolino Santos (Universidade Estadual de Campinas - UNICAMP, BrasilJacira Gil Bernardes (Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul - UFRGS, BrasilRodrigo Donoso Vegas (Universidad de Chile - UCHILE, ChileSaúl Hiram Souto Fuentes (Universidad de Monterrey - UDEM, MéxicoReviewers invitedAlejandro Uribe Tirado (Universidad de Antioquia - UDEA, ColombiaFernanda Passini Moreno (Universidade de Brasília - UnB, BrasilJosé Bernal Rivas Fernández (Universidad de Costa Rica - UCR, Costa RicaMarta Lígia Pomim Valentim (Universidade Estadual Paulista - UNESP, BrasilOrlando Corzo Cauracurí (Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos - UNMSM, PerúTerezinha Elisabeth da Silva (Universidade Estadual de Londrina - UEL, BrasilZaira Regina Zafalon (Universidade Federal de São Carlos - UFSCAR, BrasilIn the same way our acknowledge to University Library System (University of Pittsburgh - PITTS, USA by constant technical support and advice for our journal.

  4. Acknowledgement to Reviewers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial Office

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Acknowledgement to ReviewersThe editorial board of International Journal of Cancer Therapy and Oncology (IJCTO wishes to acknowledge the help of reviewers who have generously contributed their valuable time and efforts during the period September 2013–October 2014 in the appraisal of manuscripts submitted to the IJCTO. Abdulhamid Chaikh (FranceAlok Singh (USAAnamika Basu (USAAnish Banerjee (IndiaAntonella Fogliata (SwitzerlandArun Oinam (IndiaBirendra Kumar Rout (IndiaBrindha Subramanian (AustraliaCharles Bloch (USACharles Shang (USAChee-Wai Cheng (USAChih-Yao Cheng (USADaniel Bailey (USADanijela Scepanovic (SlovakiaErsalan Hernandez (USAEsmaeel Ghasroddashti (CanadaH Sudahar (IndiaHe Wang (USAKanan Jassal (IndiaLanchun Lu (USALei Guo (USALeonardo da Silva Boia (USALuiz Antonio Ribeiro da Rosa (BrasilMaria Chan (USAMing Yan (USAMohamed Fawzy (EgyptMohammad Rafiqul Islam (USANilseia Aparecida Barbosa (BrasilNita Nair (IndiaPanayiotis Mavroidis (USAPaul Sijens (NetherlandsPaulo Roberto Fonseca (BrasilPei-Hsin Cheng (USAPrabhakar Ramachandran (AustraliaPradip Maiti (IndiaPratik Kumar (IndiaQinghui Zhang (USAQiyong Fan (USARadu Alin Vasilache (RomaniaRajesh Thiyagarajan (IndiaRanjita Shegokar (GermanyRick Sims (New ZelandSara Bresciani (ItalySaurabh Varshney (IndiaShyam Pokhrel (USASunder Goyal (IndiaSupriya Chopra (IndiaSuresh Rana (USAToks Yerokun (USATulika Seth (USAV. Kannan (IndiaWaldemar Ulmer (GermanyWaqas Shuaib (USAXiang-Ming Ding (USAYida Hu (USAYong Chen (USAYu Wang (USAYuanming Feng (USAYulin Song (USA

  5. Acknowledgment - Issue 65

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Executive Editor

    2016-12-01

    • Andrés Vuotto (Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata - MDP, Argentina • Pedro Jorge Dimitri (Instituto Nacional de la Administración Pública, Argentina Reviewers invited • Adilson Luiz Pinto (Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina - UFSC, Brasil • Carlos Francisco Bitencourt Jorge (Universidade Estadual Paulista Júlio de Mesquita Filho - UNESP, Brasil • Jayme Leyro Vilan Filho (Universidade de Brasília - UnB, Brasil • Murilo Bastos da Cunha (Universidade de Brasília - UnB, Brasil • Silvana Vilodre Goellner (Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul - UFRGS, Brasil In the same way our acknowledge to University Library System (University of Pittsburgh - PITTS, USA by constant technical support and advice for our journal.

  6. Cultural Differences and English Language Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴卞

    2011-01-01

    With the development of the cross-cultural communication,more and more people have recognized the interaction between language and culture.Each culture has its own characteristic and is different from one another.Because of cultural differences,difficulties often arise in communication between different people.In China,English is taught as a foreign language.Both teachers and students should be aware of the differences between eastern and western culture in their teaching and study.

  7. Linguistic and Cultural Differences on Advertising Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜卉

    2015-01-01

    Advertising language can be regarded as a special art which mixes cultural backgrounds and the tendency of the times.People from different regions understand advertising culture in different ways.Thus,if people want to overcome the difficulties carried by two cultural backgrounds and linguistic habits,they must make the translation fit the local linguistic and cultural characteristics.

  8. Cross-cultural difference in OSH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Starren, A.; Drupsteen, L.

    2014-01-01

    In this article we describe cross-cultural aspects in the context of safety management. When working abroad, cross-cultural differences ask for other competencies to enhance safe behaviour than at home due to cultural and language differences. In this wiki some guidance is given on aspects of cultur

  9. Exploring Several Aspects Cultural Differences Lie in

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨晓艳

    2016-01-01

    Being a good translator, knowing the cultural differences is essential. Therefore, in the paper, such aspects as certain sayings, certain affairs and behaviors ,etc about cultural difference to support the influence of culture on translation and the translation between English and Chinese will be focused on, which can help to overcome cultural barriers and try to track our brains for the close natural equivalent.

  10. Cultural Differences between China and America

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王子涵

    2013-01-01

    The Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English gives an explanation that culture is the customs, beliefs, art, music, and all the other products of human thought made by particular group of people at a particular time. Different nations have differ-ent cultures. Various cultural factors result in different language forms. China and America are distinct in languages, customs, be-haviors, values and many other aspects. It is the many differences between Chinese and Americans that constitute their own dis-tinct cultures. We can see that people bring along their culture with them and stick to their cultural norms in their daily life.

  11. Cultural Differences in International Business Negotiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹悦

    2009-01-01

    This article analyzes the relationship of cultural differences on international business negotiations. And also, it emphases on the importance of understanding and mastering cultural differences in international business negotiations.

  12. Cultural Similarities and Differences on Idiom Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄频频; 陈于全

    2010-01-01

    Both English and Chinese are abound with idioms. Idioms are an important part of the hnguage and culture of a society. English and Chinese idioms carved with cultural characteristics account for a great part in the tramlation. This paper studies the translation of idioms concerning their cultural similarities, cultural differences and transhtion principles.

  13. On Cultural Differences in Business Negotiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朴丽静

    2011-01-01

    International business negotiation is playing a more and more important role in modem society.We can see clearly that there are great differences in international business negotiation.Specially,culture can influence negotiating styles in different ways,because negotiators from another nation are different in language,beliefs,behaviors manners,and way of thinking,value and attitudes and so on.Different cultures express different ways of doing business.Even though negotiators are well prepared,it is not so easy to reach a satisfactory agreement between negotiators across cultures.Negotiations can be easily broken down due to a lack of mutual understanding of the cultures.Culture affects negotiation even before negotiators meet face to face.Therefore,learning the opponent’s culture and having a good understanding of how cultural differences affect negotiation will be critically important if one wants to succeed in cross-cultural negotiations.

  14. On the Cultural Difference in the Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN Zhao-rong

    2003-01-01

    This paper makes an analysis on the Cultural difference in the teaching. Culturaldifference can be reflected in many aspects in the teaching, so the foreign language teachersshould fill their course with cultural factors.

  15. Cultural difference on the table: food and drink and their role in multicultural team performance

    OpenAIRE

    Means, A.; MacKenzie Davey, Kate; Dewe, Philip

    2015-01-01

    Multicultural teams are increasingly common and provide a challenge to achieving the integration associated with greater effectiveness. The vague and abstract nature of many definitions of culture can make the difficulties in acknowledging and addressing difference challenging. This longitudinal study of a multicultural team follows the anthropological roots of cultural studies to focus on the material role of food and drink in team development. In an empirical, ethnographically oriented stud...

  16. Increasing Understanding of Cultural Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creeden, Jack; Kelly-Aguirre, Eileen; Visser, Aric

    2016-01-01

    Many high school and university students return home from global programs and often report they have changed as a result of the experience. Global educators assume the act of participating in global education programs (such as high school study abroad) will open students' eyes to the complexities of another culture because students have been…

  17. Impacts of Different Culture on Management Style

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈国君

    2015-01-01

    cultural differences affect the management behavior and management style.Participatory management style in the United States and instructional management style in China has a deep cultural roots.In terms of the type of management style,they are equal.As long as management style is consistent with its culture accordingly,the leadership will be effective.

  18. Cultural Differences of Etiquette in Nonverbal Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祝钰; 朱凡

    2007-01-01

    Cultural difference is one of the greatest hinders in the intercultural communication. This thesis focuses on displaying cultural differences of etiquette in nonverbal communication. It lays emphasis on the comparisons in China (mainly Han Nationality) and Western (mainly Britain and American) as well as the different culture backgrounds that bring about the etiquette variations. These comparative analyses help people smooth the paths of social intercourse and establish pleasant, comfortable, and cooperative relationships.

  19. Cultural Differences of Etiquette in Nonverbal Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祝钰; 朱凡

    2007-01-01

    Cultural difference is one of the greatest hinders in the intercultural communication. This thesis focuses on displaying cultural differences of etiquette in nonverbal communication. It lays emphasis on the comparisons in China (mainly Han Nationality)and Western (mainly Britain and American) as well as the different culture backgrounds that bring about the etiquette variations. These comparative analyses help people smooth the paths of social intercourse and establish pleasant, comfortable, and cooperative relationships.

  20. Cultural Differences and Acculturation in Dark Matter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘海梅

    2015-01-01

    The film Dark Matter, based on the actual event of Chinese student Lu Gang shooting in America, tells the protagonist Liu Xing's cultural tragedy. Through the analysis of cultural differences in Black Matter from the perspective of Hofstede's theory of cultural dimensions, this paper explores the reasons for Liu Xing's failure of across-cultural communication, which gives us thought on how to improve intercultural communication in the context of globalization.

  1. Significant differences in cross cultural negotiations

    OpenAIRE

    Luminita Vochita

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyses the importance of different factors that influences cross cultural negotiations. Learning about the components of a cross cultural negotiation process to increase negotiators’ success in avoiding barriers and failures in the international business arena is one of the most challenging achievements of the negotiators in the global environment. In the second part, the paper focuses on the one of the most important componenet of cross cultural business negotiations: difference...

  2. Acknowledgements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    Document summarizes the results of the benefits analysis of EERE’s programs, as described in the FY 2008 Budget Request. EERE estimates benefits for its overall portfolio and nine Research, Development, Demonstration, and Deployment (RD3) programs.

  3. Acknowledgement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    正Meteorological and Environmental Research[ISSN:2152-3940] is acomprehensive meteorological and environmental scientific journal contains strong technicality and high orientation in China,being published monthly in Rhode Island,USA.It has been included by Chemical Abstracts,CABI,Cambridge Scientific Abstracts,EBSCO,and CNKI.

  4. Acknowledgement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Meteorological and Environmental Research[ISSN:2152-3940] is acomprehensive meteorological and environmental scientific journal contains strong technicality and high orientation in China,being published monthly in Rhode Island,USA.It has been included by Chemical Abstracts,CABI,Cambridge Scientific Abstracts,EBSCO,and CNKI.

  5. Acknowledgements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    The Meeting was sponsored by the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), the Società Italiana di Fisica (SIF), the European Physics Society (EPS), the University of Pisa and the University of Siena.

  6. Acknowledgements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendrix, H.

    2009-01-01

    In February 2009, the University of Utrecht welcomed Claudio Magris as its first writer-in-residence, in a new and ambitious programme launched in order to bring the Utrecht academic community in close contact with some of the world’s finest and most accomplished poets and writers. While at Utrecht

  7. Acknowledgements

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    All the team of the Théodora Foundation and the members of its Board warmly thank everyone who contributed to the collection organized after the death of our colleague and friend Hubert Muller Created 11 years ago, the Théodora Foundation's goal was to relieve the suffering of hospitalized children through laughter. Thanks to your gift of 850 CHF, hospitalized children will receive a tender and funny visit from one of the Théodora Foundation's Dream Doctors. The Foundation dedicates to everyone who participated the magic moments of joy and happiness lived by each small patient during one of these visits. We express here our deep gratitude to Hubert's family for this gesture and hope that they find comfort in knowing that Hubert's memory will live through these children, for whom this sum will help to relieve the difficulty of their every day lives. In the name of the Safety Commission

  8. Dealing with Difference: Building Culturally Responsive Classrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Burridge

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Australia continues to develop as a multicultural society with levels of immigration increasing significantly over recent years as a result of government policies. More recently, the new period of financial turmoil, continuing threats from terrorism and environmental concerns, have all exacerbated the challenges of dealing with difference in our society. In response, schools continue to face the challenges of the impact of a range of different cultures, languages and religions among their student and school communities. How effectively schools deal with difference and how well they are supported in their endeavours to build culturally response classrooms is a perennial issue for both teachers and educators. A major challenge for teachers is to at a minimum, understand cultural differences as they manifest in their particular school settings and to draw on approaches that support student learning in culturally appropriate ways so to assist them to better realise their full potential. In this paper we will consider cultural diversity in the context of recent school policies, highlight a number of frameworks for addressing cultural diversity in the classroom, in particular the approaches by Kalantzis and Cope’s (1999 and Hickling-Hudson (2003. We also draw on the findings from a recent qualitative study of representations of cultural diversity in a number of Sydney metropolitan schools to discuss the need for more greater resource and policy support for progressive teaching approaches that support the development of a more tolerant and inclusive multicultural society. Key words: cultural diversity, schools, teacher education, classroom practice, social inclusion

  9. Issues of Cultural Differences in English Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张隆胜

    2008-01-01

    It is argued in this paper that it is difficult for a learner to have a good command of English in the context in China where learners are not iramersed in the Engush language because of cultural differences which are explored under four categories.The four issues of cultural differences in language learning discussed are essential in the formation of schemata which are very important in communication and language learning.

  10. Issues of Cultural Differences in English Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张隆胜

    2008-01-01

    It is argued in this paper that it is difficult for a learner to have a good command of English m the contextin China where learners are not immersed m the English language because of cultural differences which are explored under four categories. The four issues of cultural differences in language learning discussed are essential in the formation of schemata which are very important in communication and language learning.

  11. Do Cultural Differences Matter In Development Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Bebenova - Nikolova

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the impact of cultural differences on the implementation of Development Education (DE. Firstly, it presents dimensions of cultural differences and gives reasons on the selection of Hofstede’s five dimensions model to be used for comparison between national cultures. Then the article presents some findings on cultural differences based on surveyed school practitioners’ perceptions on the main issues of DE (economic, political, environmental and social. The evaluation survey, implemented in four EU countries (UK, PL, BG and Cyprus, is part of the project ‘The world from our doorstep’, funded by EuropeAid . It was based on a selfassessment questionnaire as well as on focus groups discussions, including multiple-choice activities. Using Hofstede’s model, the paper draws certain suppositions and then compares them with the survey results. Another applied approach is field observation on how DE was being implemented in the project countries. The conclusions derived from the comparison between Hofstede’s cultural dimensions and the project findings indicate some ideas on defining the content of the DE to become more culturally open and thus more effective. Building teachers’ intercultural competence and awareness of interconnectedness is timely and necessity-driven, especially under the framework of DE goals.

  12. Culture and crying : Prevalences and gender differences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemert, D.A. van; Vijver, F.J.R. van de; Vingerhoets, A.J.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Results of a cross-cultural study of adult crying across 37 countries are presented. Analyses focused on country differences in recency of last crying episode and crying proneness and relationships with country characteristics. Three hypotheses on the nature of country differences in crying were eva

  13. Business negotiations on different culture context

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐芳

    2015-01-01

    With economic globalization and China’s entry into WTO, commercial contacts among various countries are bound to be increasingly substantial. As a result, negotiation among people who come from different cultural backgrounds will certainly become a universal issue that arouses concern among people in different countries.

  14. Cultural Differences and the Construction of Meaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A. Peña

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available The relationships between student achievement, student culture and practitioners' attitudes and expectations were investigated. Student achievement was defined as academic performance but also included perceptions, rationales and explanations for student behaviors and conduct. Student culture described student's Mexican American origins, customs and beliefs. Practitioners' attitudes described how middle school personnel perceived Mexican American high and underachieving students generally, and practitioners' expectations described how personnel interacted and behaved toward Mexican American students. Results indicated that Mexican American students perceived themselves and school personnel perceived these students as different from Anglo students. Mexican American cultural traditions were also perceived as inferior and disadvantageous by high achieving Mexican American students and by personnel. Underachieving Mexican American students generally valued their cultural traditions more positively than high achieving students becoming resistant to learning when these traditions were marginalized in school. Student achievement was also related to student compliance, student appearance, styles in written and verbal communication and practitioners' perceptions about the willingness of Mexican American students to practice and support Anglo norms. These findings are congruent with theories that discuss relationships between student achievement, student culture and practitioners' attitudes and expectations. Theories about school failure occurring less frequently in minority groups that are positively oriented toward their own and the dominant culture were contradicted and not supported in this research.

  15. Cross Cultural Differences in Unconscious Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyokawa, Sachiko; Dienes, Zoltan; Tanaka, Daisuke; Yamada, Ayumi; Crowe, Louise

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated cross cultural differences in conscious processes, such that Asians have a global preference and Westerners a more analytical one. We investigated whether these biases also apply to unconscious knowledge. In Experiment 1, Japanese and UK participants memorized strings of large (global) letters made out of small…

  16. Pragmatics Study of Politeness and Cultural Difference

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐岩

    2008-01-01

    This paper aims at study the politeness in the pragmatic framework and reviews the main studies of politeness by western and Chinese scholars.Meanwhile,the writer tries to reveal the cultural difference existing in politeness by comparative study of western and Chinese language.

  17. Self Acknowledgeable Intranet Mail System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ms. Rajaprabha M N

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Intranet mail system allows members of an organization to send or receive mails among them. But the sender don’t know whether the sent mail is viewed by the receiver in time or not, the response for the mail in the receiver side and so on, unless he receive a mail or message personally from the receiver. So this Self Acknowledgeable Intranet Mail System has been designed and implemented to benefit thesender about the status of his mail. Once a mail is sent, the sender can know the receiver activity in the mail system until the mail is viewed.

  18. Cultural Differences in Donation Decision-Making.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Wang

    Full Text Available Decisions to help those in need are essential for human development and survival. Previous studies have demonstrated the "identified effect", in which one identifiable individual typically invokes stronger feelings of compassion and receives greater aid than statistical victim. However, this preference might be influenced by cultural differences. In the current study, Chinese respondents' ratings of distress and sympathy and their willingness to contribute are greater for a group of sick children than an individual. In the U.S., greater willingness to help and sympathy are elicited by an identified victim in comparison with an unidentified one. The different results may demonstrate the importance of cultural differences when trying to understand people's prosocial behavior.

  19. An Investigation of Generic Structures of Pakistani Doctoral Thesis Acknowledgements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rofess, Sakander; Mahmood, Muhammad Asim

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates Pakistani doctoral thesis acknowledgements from genre analysis perspective. A corpus of 235 PhD thesis acknowledgements written in English was taken from Pakistani doctoral theses collected from eight different disciplines. HEC Research Repository of Pakistan was used as a data sources. The theses written by Pakistani…

  20. From cultural traditions to cumulative culture: parameterizing the differences between human and nonhuman culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempe, Marius; Lycett, Stephen J; Mesoudi, Alex

    2014-10-21

    Diverse species exhibit cultural traditions, i.e. population-specific profiles of socially learned traits, from songbird dialects to primate tool-use behaviours. However, only humans appear to possess cumulative culture, in which cultural traits increase in complexity over successive generations. Theoretically, it is currently unclear what factors give rise to these phenomena, and consequently why cultural traditions are found in several species but cumulative culture in only one. Here, we address this by constructing and analysing cultural evolutionary models of both phenomena that replicate empirically attestable levels of cultural variation and complexity in chimpanzees and humans. In our model of cultural traditions (Model 1), we find that realistic cultural variation between populations can be maintained even when individuals in different populations invent the same traits and migration between populations is frequent, and under a range of levels of social learning accuracy. This lends support to claims that putative cultural traditions are indeed cultural (rather than genetic) in origin, and suggests that cultural traditions should be widespread in species capable of social learning. Our model of cumulative culture (Model 2) indicates that both the accuracy of social learning and the number of cultural demonstrators interact to determine the complexity of a trait that can be maintained in a population. Combining these models (Model 3) creates two qualitatively distinct regimes in which there are either a few, simple traits, or many, complex traits. We suggest that these regimes correspond to nonhuman and human cultures, respectively. The rarity of cumulative culture in nature may result from this interaction between social learning accuracy and number of demonstrators.

  1. Culture Differences and the Translation of English and Chinese Idioms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑明武

    2014-01-01

    Culture is a national phenomenon. English nation has its unique culture and so does Chinese nation. Idiom is an important part of language and culture. Idiom and culture are not separable. Special attention should be paid to the differences between English and Chinese cultures when translating idioms, and the translation can be perceived as a process of consideration of both English and Chinese cultures.

  2. 49 CFR 236.564 - Acknowledging time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Acknowledging time. 236.564 Section 236.564..., Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Rules and Instructions; Locomotives § 236.564 Acknowledging time. Acknowledging time of intermittent automatic train-stop device shall be not more than 30 seconds....

  3. Differences in Privacy Between Chinese and Western Cultures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶爽

    2015-01-01

    Privacy means different in both cultures.In modern information society,it deverses more attention from us.Privacy in oriental culture is quite distinctive from that in western culture. And the reasons are also not the same.

  4. Differences in Privacy Between Chinese and Western Cultures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶爽

    2015-01-01

    Privacy means different in both cultures.In modern information society,it deverses more attention from us.Privacy in oriental culture is quite distinctive from that in western culture.And the reasons are also not the same.

  5. Cultural Differences in Opportunity Cost Consideration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ning; Ji, Li-Jun; Li, Ye

    2017-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to investigate cultural differences in opportunity cost consideration between Chinese and Euro-Canadians. Opportunity cost is defined as the cost of a benefit that must be forgone in order to pursue a better alternative (Becker et al., 1974). In both studies, participants read about hypothetical purchase scenarios, and then decided whether they would buy a certain product. Opportunity cost consideration was measured in two ways: (1) participants' thoughts pertaining to other (nonfocal) products while making decisions; (2) participants' decisions not to buy a focal product (Study 1) or a more expensive product (Study 2). Across both indexes, we found that after controlling for individual difference variables and amount of pocket money, Chinese participants in China considered financial opportunity cost more than Euro-Canadians in Study 1. Similar results were observed in Study 2 when comparing Chinese in Canada with Euro-Canadians However, the cultural effect on opportunity cost consideration was confounded by family income in Study 2. Implications for resource management, limitations of the current research and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:28184202

  6. Cultural Differences in Opportunity Cost Consideration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ning; Ji, Li-Jun; Li, Ye

    2017-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to investigate cultural differences in opportunity cost consideration between Chinese and Euro-Canadians. Opportunity cost is defined as the cost of a benefit that must be forgone in order to pursue a better alternative (Becker et al., 1974). In both studies, participants read about hypothetical purchase scenarios, and then decided whether they would buy a certain product. Opportunity cost consideration was measured in two ways: (1) participants' thoughts pertaining to other (nonfocal) products while making decisions; (2) participants' decisions not to buy a focal product (Study 1) or a more expensive product (Study 2). Across both indexes, we found that after controlling for individual difference variables and amount of pocket money, Chinese participants in China considered financial opportunity cost more than Euro-Canadians in Study 1. Similar results were observed in Study 2 when comparing Chinese in Canada with Euro-Canadians However, the cultural effect on opportunity cost consideration was confounded by family income in Study 2. Implications for resource management, limitations of the current research and directions for future research are discussed.

  7. Cultural differences in Research project management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbier, Michele

    2016-04-01

    Scientific Projects today have increased in complexity, requiring multidisciplinarity, and requiring a mix of diverse individuals from different countries who must be integrated into an effective project. Effective team building is one of the prime responsibilities of the project manager. When the project is supported by a funding, the integration and the implication of the different partners are quite easy. Particularly when partners are developing high-performing teams. However, management of research project requires further skills when the budget is not very high and/or when partners are from non-European countries and are not using the same vocabulary. The various cultures, values, beliefs and social usages, particularly with Mediterranean countries cause a special style of communication for an individual or group of individuals. This communication style participates in the success of the project and encompasses a lot of diplomatic skills which will be highlighted.

  8. Study of the Relationship between Cultural differences and Language teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟庆瑜

    2014-01-01

    Language is an important part of culture,each language belong to a certain culture.Language and culture are interdependent from each other.So,language teaching must be concerned with teaching the culture which it belongs to.Language teaching should pay more attention to the cultural differences.

  9. Learner Cultures and Corporate Cultural Differences in E-Learning Behaviors in the IT Business

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swierczek, Fredric William; Bechter, Clemens; Chankiew, Jeerawan

    2012-01-01

    Corporate cultural values have a major influence on learning. For learning to be effective it must be adapted to the cultural context in which it takes place. E-learning neither eliminates cultural differences nor is it culture free. This study focuses on two major Indian IT companies with different Corporate Cultures sharing the same expected…

  10. Information and Culture: Cultural Differences in the Perception and Recall of Information from Advertisements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji-Hyun

    2012-01-01

    Information in general is congruent with cultural values because a culture consists of transmitted social knowledge. Cross-cultural research demonstrates that audiences who are fostered by different cultures may have different understandings of information. This research represents a comprehensive cross-cultural study using an experimental method,…

  11. Different Symbolic Meaning of Color in Chinese and Western Cultures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟维维; 裘瑜; 陈佳颖

    2013-01-01

    Colors are embodied with different meanings and symbols in different countries. Not only should we understand their basic and literal meanings, but also we should focus on their deep contents in symbolic meanings, because their symbolic meanings vary from culture to culture. The differences in the symbol of colors are due to different cultures and history back-grounds as well as aesthetic psychology. This paper, mainly based on the Chinese and western culture, approaches the symbols of colors represented in the two different cultures through analyzing the different understanding of colors, which can help us under-stand culture difference in colors better during intercultural com-munication.

  12. Brief Probein to Differences Between Chinese and Western Food Cultures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    青岛大学音乐学院,山东 青岛 266000

    2016-01-01

    Because of the differences in environment and products, different cultures may be formed in east and west, the social characteristics of material and spiritual life integrated embodiment through Chinese and west food cultures. The author focuses on analysis and comparison in cross-cultural differences of diet idea, diet object and way of eating in China and western countries, the deep-seated causation which induces the differences in food cultures is revealed. Under the background of western economic and cultural integration, communication in food cultures increased, which will certain accelerate Chinese food cultures developed and spread al over the world.

  13. Enactments and dissociations driven by cultural differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Etty

    2007-03-01

    Cultural differences between the analytic dyad can foster powerful transference-counter-transference feelings and potentially promote traumatic re-enactments. Those patients who are more directly affected by traumatic experiences may be able to verbalize what has happened to them only if they are convinced that their analysts are "taking in their horror, holding it for them, responding to it emotionally (reenacting) and giving it back in more modulated and containable" manner (Davies, 1997, p. 24). These mutual enactments that emerge in patients and their analysts can be understood as dissociated self-states. Clinical material is presented from the treatment of an African-American inner-city teenager and an Israeli teenage soldier to illustrate the emergence of enactments and dissociation in patient-analyst dyads.

  14. Cultural Differences in the Understanding of Modelling and Feedback as Sources of Self-Efficacy Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Hyun Seon; Usher, Ellen L.; Butz, Amanda; Bong, Mimi

    2016-01-01

    Background: The potential role of culture in the development and operation of self-efficacy has been acknowledged by researchers. Clearer understanding of this cultural impact will benefit from research that shows how the same efficacy information is evaluated across cultures. Aims: We tested whether two sources of self-efficacy information…

  15. CULTURAL DIFFERENCES IN VOCABULARY AND ENGLISH LANGUAGE TEACHING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GuanJialing

    2004-01-01

    From illustrating the significance of cultural elements in vocabulary teaching, and the ctmtparison of some major differences between English and Chinese words, this paper emphasizes the indivisible relationship between vocabulary and culture. International cultural exchange occurring more and more often, this paper attempts to guide students to better understand the cultural connotation of vocabulary, enhance their awareness towards the target culture, improve their comtprehensive language skills, and, develop their cross-cultural communicative ctmtpetence.

  16. Middle East meets West: Negotiating cultural difference in international educational encounters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodall, Helen

    2014-10-01

    This paper sets out to evaluate a proposed twelve-month programme of development aimed at academic staff at a new university in the Kurdistan region of Iraq. The author uses a model of cultural difference proposed by Dutch social psychologist Geert Hofstede as her starting point. Reference is also made to the work of other researchers and to the views of a number of people with first-hand experience of education in Iraqi Kurdistan. Cultural differences between the Kurdish participants on the proposed programme and its British facilitator are a likely challenge in this kind of project, in particular those associated with collectivist vs. individualist traditions. Focusing on this divide, some marked differences emerge in terms of how learning is viewed and approached in the two different countries. Whilst acknowledging that cultural difference is not confined to national boundaries, the author argues that the degree of collectivism or individualism within a society can be regarded as one of the many significant components of the complex concept of "culture". She does not attempt to offer any empirical evidence to support a "best way" to approach international educational encounters. Rather, the author's aim is to draw some conclusions to inform and facilitate the design and delivery of the proposed programme. At the same time, this paper may also offer some useful insights to those who find themselves in similar situations requiring them to deliver programmes in environments which are culturally removed from their own.

  17. The cultural differences in teaching between Chinese and western

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周颖

    2013-01-01

    Language and culture are interacting. Learning a language must understand the culture. The lack of cultural knowledge will lead to students’mistakes in daily English,therefore,in English teaching,the cultural differences between Chinese and Western as an important question is put forward. Then,from the cultural differences between Chinese and western,I discuss the reasons for mistakes in daily English and then how to teaching.

  18. On the Eastern and Western Cultures as Reflected in Differences in Food Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄卓; 张海南

    2015-01-01

    When talking about differences between Eastern and Western culture,we should first think of the eating cultural differences.There are many differences in Eastern and Western food cultures,in this paper it will introduce the different food concepts,the different eating goals,the different eating habits,etc. A comparison study of Chinese and Western food culture still makes sense through the analysis of cultural differences between Chinese and Western food,we can understand their own cultural traditions in China and the West.At the same time it is able to carry out improvement and innovation of Chinese culture. Throughout the comparisons,coupled with the differences of the concept of Western food culture,objects,methods,ownership and nature,it studies these differences,identifies areas for mastery of the place,promotes cultural exchange.Thus it enables China to the world,and to make the world know China better.

  19. On the Eastern and Western Cultures as Reflected in Differences in Food Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄卓; 张海南

    2015-01-01

    When talking about differences between Eastern and Western culture,we should first think of the eating cultural differences.There are many differences in Eastern and Western food cultures,in this paper it will introduce the different food concepts,the different eating goals,the different eating habits,etc.A comparison study of Chinese and Western food culture still makes sense through the analysis of cultural differences between Chinese and Western food,we can understand their own cultural traditions in China and the West.At the same time it is able to carry out improvement and innovation of Chinese culture.Throughout the comparisons,coupled with the differences of the concept of Western food culture,objects,methods,ownership and nature,it studies these differences,identifies areas for mastery of the place,promotes cultural exchange.Thus it enables China to the world,and to make the world know China better.

  20. when language,social and cultural difference face economic development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    study and research in language,society and cultural difference field is very interesting and meaningful.knowing the diversity of different culture we could get to know people from different cultural background easier and better and we could contribute a better understanding and relationship between each other.educators could make the process of teaching and facilitating much more efficient when the target learners are coming from different cultural or language background.

  1. Influence of Cultural Differences on Advertisement Translation and Trademark Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于晓玮

    2014-01-01

    Advertisement translation and trademark translation are becoming more and more prevailing and influential under the increasing development of internationalization of business. This paper attempts to analyze the influence of cultural differences on advertisement translation and trademark translation. It finds that advertisement translation and trademark translation are under the impressive influence of the differences between Chinese and Western cultures. This paper aims to stress the cultural differences in advertisement translation and trademark translation and reminds translators of the importance of noticing cultural differences and finding a proper point between foreign cultures and native cultures.

  2. On Differences Between Chinese and Western Dietary Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李本涛

    2013-01-01

    Diet is absolutely necessary in the life of mankind, and even in the existence or development It is also the one of the basic form of social life. However under the difference cultural background, having different diet idea and diet custom, then finally form the different dietary culture, Certainly, the Chinese and western dietary have a large number of difference, This paper analyzed the specific characteristic on the difference between Chinese and western dietary culture. From this paper the Chinese and western dietary culture is difference in concepts, contents, patterns, dining eti-quette, and tableware. It is still significant to study the dietary cultures of Chinese and western dietary. By the analysis of the difference between Chi-nese and western dietary cultures, we can comprehend the respective cultural tradition of Chinese and west. And we can also improve and create the culture of china.

  3. Cultural differences between English and Chinese color words

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙占红

    2008-01-01

    color words may show different cultural connotation of each language in some degree. While translating, we should handle color words appropriately according to cultural differences in both the original and target language. This paper brings a discussion of cultural differences between English and Chinese color words.

  4. Organizing Construction Practices in Different Cultural Contexts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, Christian; Rasmussen, Christian K. S.

    2013-01-01

    a number of characteristics and challenges related to the cultural context have been identified highlighting a central issue in existing and future construction practices due to the globalization and thereby increasing importance of cultural understanding in project-based organizing. The empirical findings...

  5. Cultural factors behind the different business cultures of Iceland and Norway, a comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Rostrup, Hanne Ragnhild Hjemlestad, 1976-

    2010-01-01

    Even though Iceland and Norway are both Nordic countries originating from the same culture, the countries’ business cultures have developed different characteristics over the years. In light of the increasing emigration from Iceland to Norway following the financial crisis in 2008, this study will establish the difference between Norwegian and Icelandic business cultures so that Icelanders can prepare themselves for the different national culture and business culture in Norway. Moreover th...

  6. Attitudes to motherhood in different cultures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razina N.V.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The study of motherhood is a promising and relevant field of psychology. This article represents the results of a study in which a socio-psychological analysis of reproductive attitudes and demographic behaviour was conducted. The study also shows the relationship between attitudes related to motherhood and women’s cultural affiliations. The factors that contribute to the nature of attitudes towards motherhood and the interaction between these factors were studied. According to the results of this study, we distinguished the most significant characteristics of the attitudes to motherhood that influence the nature of the relationship between a mother and her unborn child. The model of the development of attitudes to motherhood proposed by R. V. Ovcharova was detailed. We considered the influence of factors on the nature of attitudes to motherhood as well as the influence of factors on each other. The results of this study allow us to describe the psychological portraits of women with different attitudes to motherhood.

  7. Negotiations of Acknowledgement among Middle Class Residents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nina Blom

    2013-01-01

    to have their situation – their affectedness - acknowledged in interactions with others and gain considerable attention right after the accident. In addition it demonstrates how the initial acknowledgement decreased over time. In this case the axes of differentiation did not relate to questions of gender...

  8. Influences of Cultural Differences on Translation of Titles of Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈彩珍

    2014-01-01

    When translating the titles of films, translators are faced with not only different meanings of Chinese and English lan-guage, but also various cultural connotations behind the titles. Therefore, translators should take cultural differences into account in order to make the translated titles close to the connotations of the source culture. Such cultural differences as religious dissimi-larities, historical allusions and idiomatic expressions (or idioms) are major concerns when translating film titles.

  9. Acknowledging Materiality as Agential Literacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasse, Cathrine

    2008-01-01

    The articles in this book share a dedication to broadening and stretching the scholarly field of feminist citizenship studies and invite the reader to reflect on the many different ways citizenship is formed in contemporary Europe. They do so by stretching the concept of citizenship itself, going...

  10. Content Analysis of Advertisements in Different Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Lazović

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Increasingly, advertising examples are being analyzed and used as yet another form of communication, on account of their ubiquity (e.g. billboards, Internet, television, magazines. Designed to compel us to purchase products, advertisements have the potential to greatly impact our lives. They show current trends in social preferences, they reveal cultural values and norms of the target audience and, finally, they can be the mirror of the times people live in. The purpose of this paper is to give a brief overview of the findings in previously carried–out research relating to cross–cultural content analysis of advertisements. The reports have addressed both linguistic and extra–linguistic features and trends in advertising and emphasized language– and culture–specific elements. This paper also gives ideas for future studies, since nowadays, due to international marketing and increasing globalization there are more cultural transfers to be explored, as cultures are coming in contact far more frequently.

  11. Teacher-Student Interactions under the Influence of Cultural Differences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李莹

    2009-01-01

    The interactions between teachers and students are often influenced by the factor of cultural differences. The author mainly analyzes the American teacher-Chinese student interactions under the influence of cultural differences with the theory of Hofstede's four value dimensions. The author also puts forward some suggestions to promote cross-cultural communication in the classrooms.

  12. Analyses of Cultural Differences in Chinese and Western Automobile Advertising

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Di; Wang Haiyan

    2014-01-01

    This paper compares and analyzes auto advertisings between China and western countries, so as to explore the cultural differences of value orientations and thinking patterns behind them and help readers know better about auto culture in China and western countries.

  13. Cultural Differences between English and Chinese in Politeness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚默

    2014-01-01

    Politeness, as a linguistic phenomenon, pervades almost all the civilized social-cultures and languages, which works as a sort of softening agent to smoothen the course of communication. As people from different cultures may view differently on what politeness is and how to be polite, misunderstandings may arise if cultural differences are neglected in cross-cultural commu-nication. This thesis is intended to make a comparative study of cultural differences in politeness between English and Chinese, first from the disparity in their conceptions of politeness,and then proceeds to discuss the underlying psychological factor. Lastly, based on the awareness of these cultural differences and the knowledge of the cause of the differences, this paper proposes some applicable advice to achieve successful cross-cultural communication.

  14. A Review on the Study of Ethnic Minorities’ Cultural Identity Influenced by Different Cultures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Dan; Liu Yi

    2015-01-01

    Due to the rich content of cultural iden ̄tity, the research related to this aspect involves many disciplines, including anthropology, sociolo ̄gy, psychology, philosophy, literature, religion and education,etc. Based on their own academic back ̄ground,scholars have done a lot of research on va ̄rious aspects of the cultural identity of ethnic mi ̄norities. This article classifies cultural identity in ̄fluenced by different cultures, and focuses on a study of the impact and role of different cultural forms on the ethnic minorities’ cultural identity. The influences on the cultural identity of ethnic mi ̄norities include the following.

  15. Differences in Politeness Principles Between Chinese and English Cultures%Differences in Politeness Principles Between Chinese and English Cultures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈元红

    2012-01-01

    Politeness is universal but culturally specific.h shows different characteristics in different cultures.From the angle of cultural differences, this paper reviews Chinese and Western"Politeness Principles"put forward by Gu Yueguo(顾曰国)and Leech,intends to compare on some of the important differences on politeness between Chinese and western cultures. Understanding the differences can avoid the pragmatic failures and achieve success in cross- cultural communication.h can also help English learners to develop and improve their pragmatic competence.

  16. ARQ scheme reinforced with past acknowledgement signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Makoto; Takada, Yasushi

    An ARQ (automatic-repeat-request) scheme that can reduce the influence of backward channel errors for bidirectional data transmission systems is proposed. The main feature of the scheme is that both present and past acknowledgement signals are utilized to decide whether the data signals should be retransmitted or not. Throughput performance is analyzed in both go-back-N and selective-repeat ARQ. A small number of returned past acknowledgement signals are required to improve the throughput efficiency. For an ideal selective-repeat ARQ with an infinite buffer, increasing the number of returned past acknowledgement signals makes the throughput efficiency asymptotically close to the upper bound.

  17. Cultural Differences in School Education between China and Western Countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张梦娟

    2013-01-01

    Intercultural communication has become a necessary phenomenon,we should introduce some cultural background knowledge in English teaching. This essay is aimed at discussing the cultural differences in school education between China and Western countries in three aspects-the different forms of school education,the different roles of teachers in school education,the different goals of school education.

  18. 49 CFR 236.739 - Device, acknowledging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Device, acknowledging. A manually operated electric switch or pneumatic valve by means of which, on a locomotive equipped with an automatic train stop or train control device, an automatic brake application...

  19. Cross-cultural differences in emotion suppression in everyday interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huwae, Sylvia; Schaafsma, Juliëtte

    2016-01-01

    Previous research suggests that in collectivistic cultures, people tend to suppress their emotions more than in individualistic cultures. Little research, however, has explored cross-cultural differences in emotion regulation in everyday interactions. Using a daily social interaction method, we exam

  20. Sun and Sun Worship in Different Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmanyan, S. V.; Mickaelian, A. M.

    2014-10-01

    The Sun symbol is found in many cultures throughout history, it has played an important role in shaping our life on Earth since the dawn of time. Since the beginning of human existence, civilisations have established religious beliefs that involved the Sun's significance to some extent. As new civilisations and religions developed, many spiritual beliefs were based on those from the past so that there has been an evolution of the Sun's significance throughout cultural development. For comparing and finding the origin of the Sun we made a table of 66 languages and compared the roots of the words. For finding out from where these roots came from, we also made a table of 21 Sun Gods and Goddesses and proved the direct crossing of language and mythology.

  1. Psychological Dimensions of Cross-Cultural Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    individualism- collectivism , tightness-looseness, social axioms, values as per the work of Schwartz, and social norm concepts derived from work of...regularity norms, and hierarchical family values. In contrast, conventional cross-cultural variables (e.g., individualism- collectivism ) showed only moderate...source: (a) social axioms, (c) collectivism , (d) Duke religion index, (e) extremist thinking patterns, (f) family values, (g) GLOBE social norms, (h

  2. Translate the Cultural Differences on the Principle of Skopostheory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜伟

    2009-01-01

    How to deal with the cultural differences in translation has become a very important issue in translation theory. The paper intro-duces Skopostheory to cultural translation and argues that it is not only appropriate but also successful in translating the cultural differences in accordance with its corresponding purpose in each specific piece of translation. The author makes an illustration by comparing two different English translations of a fragment extracted from the Chinese novel "A Dream of Red Mansions.

  3. The most important culture differences and elements of intercultural communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张乐

    2012-01-01

    This paper wrote about the cultural differences. There are four dimensions: power distance, uncertainty avoidance, individualism and masculinity. After that, paper talked about the intercultural communication, which contains language, non-verbal communication, time and space concept. Then talked different cultures do cause problems in business. To avoid misunderstanding and clashes, the international managers should realize and understand the different cultures, adapt themselves to fit into the business environment in order to get the best achievement in business.

  4. Reasons For Culture Differences Between Sino——USA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun; Wen; Xu; Jing; Jing

    2014-01-01

    Culture is about survival of the human species.One key goal in the study of cultures is in assessing the survival and predictability of values across the history of humankind.As for China and USA,both countries have their own cultures.of course,they have a lot of difference between each other.Every culture has its own reason to exist in the world.

  5. The Pragmatic Functions and Cultural Differences of Color Words

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈俊屹

    2015-01-01

    Color relates to people very closely; with the development of society and culture, people’s understanding of color is not confided to the visual characteristics of color itself, besides, people give color cultural connotation and actual meanings. In language, the unique glamour that the color words demonstrate makes people regard them with special esteem. Color words describe colors of nature with different cultural implications. They have unique linguistic functions and symbolic connotations. Colors play an indispensable part in our life and it's an effective way to learn the different culture. There is an increase in mis-understanding and communicative barriers because of frequent cross-cultural communication. Chinese and English color words possess different cultural meanings and connotation due to the difference in customs and habits, history and traditions, religions and beliefs, geographic locations, national psychology and ways of thinking. Thus, it’s easy to make mistakes on understanding and comprehension. The methods used in the research procedure are like this: collect some representative color words both from Chinese and English and take them as samples, then make a comparison between cultural connotations. According to the comparison, make a summary about the differences of color words between China and England. This thesis brings a discussion of cultural differences between English and Chinese color words. Color words in learning English is very important. It can help us t make a better understanding of the culture difference of both nations, and achieve the effective cross-culture communication.

  6. impacts of cultural differences on intemational business negotiations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦碳

    2011-01-01

    today,the world is fast developing in the age of economic globalization.business contacts among nations get increasingly close,which has brought more and more opportunities for business field.economic interdependence is much productive to the cooperation between companies.and the successful business,to a great extent,depends on the mutually beneficial negotiation.negotiators from different countries come together and discuss their common and conflicting interests; meanwhile,they bring different cultures to the negotiating table,which have important impacts on negotiation.culture forges values and religious belief that define one' s thinking and behavior.therefore,negotiators with different cultural backgrounds employ different negotiating strategies.cultural differences will certainly result in cultural conflicts,especially for enormous differences between the eastern culture and western culture.thus,to negotiate effectively,negotiators should have a good understanding of culture and cultural differences.more importantly,they should know how negotiation is affected by culture.in doing so,negotiators can predict the process and adjust strategies in order to reach a satisfactory agreement

  7. Functional Systems and Culturally-Determined Cognitive Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiseman, Richard L.

    Noting that one means of better understanding the nature of cultural differences is to elucidate the cognitive differences between members of differing cultures, this paper examines Alexander Luria's sociohistorical theory of functional cognitive systems. The paper first describes Luria's notion of functional systems, the crux of which postulates…

  8. The Influence of Cultural Differences in Idioms Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛雷

    2008-01-01

    the translation of idioms in English and Chi-nese exists a big difference, which is affected by differ-ent cultures. According to the origin of any idiom, no matter it is Chinese idiom or English idiom, cultural background belongs to one's country must be reflected. China and Western countries both have long histories, which fertilized their own brilliant cultures, which are influenced by their individual environment, history, re-ligion and so on. In this paper, the author will analyze four cultural divergences resulting in differences in translating Chinese idioms and English idioms.

  9. Parent socialization effects in different cultures: significance of directive parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorkhabi, Nadia

    2012-06-01

    In this article, the controversy of divergent findings in research on parental socialization effects in different cultures is addressed. Three explanations intended to address divergent findings of socialization effects in different cultures, as advanced by researchers who emphasize cultural differences, are discussed. These include cultural differences in socialization values and goals of parents, parental emotional and cognitive characteristics associated with parenting styles, and adolescents' interpretations or evaluations of their parents' parenting styles. The empirical evidence for and against each of these arguments is examined and an alternative paradigm for understanding and empirical study of developmental outcomes associated with parenting styles in different cultures is suggested. Baumrind's directive parenting style is presented as an alternative to the authoritarian parenting style in understanding the positive developmental effects associated with "strict" parenting in cultures said to have a collectivist orientation. Directions for research on the three explanations are mentioned.

  10. The Media Character Acknowledge and Media Literacy Culture Education of University Students in Network Environment%网络环境下大学生媒介角色认知与媒介素养培养探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞晨怡

    2014-01-01

    It is an urgent priority for cultivating the media character acknowledge and media literacy of university students to suit the modern society progress. However,the university students still consider themselves as a “recipient” as their media character. Moreover,they also lack of speculative knowledge and moral idea. The education of media literacy should not be neglected in University and it is necessary for the students to comprehend the knowledge of media literacy and the capability of media message analysis.%如何培养大学生的媒介认知与媒介素养,已经成为高校培养适应现代社会发展需要的复合型人才的当务之急。当代大学生对自身的媒介角色仍然定位为“受众”,媒介素养不足主要表现在理论知识和道德观念两个方面。高校要高度重视媒介素养教育,将其纳入通识教育的内容,通过系统的教育,让大学生掌握媒介素养的基本知识,提高对媒介信息的鉴别、分析能力。

  11. Reconsidering the Equivalence in Translation From Cultural Differences Perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yinling

    2009-01-01

    Translation involves language as well as culture. Cultural similarities exist in languages; however cultural differences have an essential bearing upon translation. Even approximate equivalent and loan words have different implications and usages in English and Chinese. So, this challenges the traditional concept of equivalence as a constitutive feature of translation. To an author, there is no such thing as absolute equivalence in the context of E-C translation for the simple reason that Chinese and English belong to two entirely different cultural traditions. However, through careful comparative studies, relative equivalents can be achieved.

  12. It is time to consider cultural differences in debriefing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chung, Hyun Soo; Dieckmann, Peter; Issenberg, Saul Barry

    2013-01-01

    Debriefing plays a critical role in facilitated reflection of simulation after the experiential component of simulation-based learning. The concept of framing and reflective learning in a debriefing session has emanated primarily from Western cultures. However, non-Western cultures have significa...... debriefing sessions. Our goal was to raise awareness of cultural differences and stimulate work to make progress in this regard.......Debriefing plays a critical role in facilitated reflection of simulation after the experiential component of simulation-based learning. The concept of framing and reflective learning in a debriefing session has emanated primarily from Western cultures. However, non-Western cultures have significant...... characteristics that manifest themselves in teaching and learning practices substantially different from Western cultures. We need to consider how to balance standardization in debriefing with a culture-sensitive interpretation of simulation-based learning so that learners receive the maximum benefit from...

  13. Western and Eastern culture differences in commercial field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗艳萍

    2008-01-01

    The communication of people partially is the communication of cultures. Culture has a direct effect on international commercial activities in all aspects. Different conceptions about time, space, equality, law and the like, lead people to deal with things in different ways. So to know cultures of the counterpart is to facil-itate our enterprises so as to have a smooth and successful communication in commercial activity.

  14. Influences of Cultural Differences on Translation of Titles of Novels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾秀梅

    2014-01-01

    With the fast-pacing of globalization, cross-cultural communications are becoming increasingly frequent. Translation of the literary works, or novels is one of the most popular models of cultural exchange. While the translation of novel titles comes with first importance as successful translation of the titles facilitates a bird’s eye view of the whole context. However, the transla-tion of novel titles is no easy without consideration of cultural differences which directly influence people’s thoughts and under-standing. Therefore, translating novel titles requires an overall analysis of such cultural elements as religion, cultural images, way of thinking, and historical allusions.

  15. Cultural Differences and Cultivation of Cross-Cultural Communicative Competence in Chinese FLT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xiaobo

    2009-01-01

    In order to improve their abilities in cross-cultural communication, language learners should develop not only their language competence, but also communicative competence. This paper presents an understanding on the general cultural differences between the west and China by applying the cultural dimensions of Hofstede and Bond, and points out…

  16. Disability as Cultural Difference: Implications for Special Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasiou, Dimitris; Kauffman, James M.

    2012-01-01

    This article critiques the treatment of disability as cultural difference by the theorists of the "social model" and "minority group model" of disability. Both models include all of the various disabling conditions under one term--disability--and fail to distinguish disabilities from cultural differences (e.g., race, ethnicity, or gender…

  17. Different Attitudes Towards Traditional Culture in Song of Solomon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI He-qi

    2015-01-01

    Song of Solomon is Toni Morrison’s masterpiece which describes the effort of black people to find the root of their tradi⁃tional culture. Morrison shows us different attitudes of black people towards traditional culture through different characters and por⁃trays us a picture of the life of black people in that age.

  18. Comparison of Gratitude across Context Variations: A Generic Analysis of Dissertation Acknowledgements Written by Taiwanese Authors in EFL and ESL Contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenhsien Yang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Research on generic structures of acknowledgements in dissertations has gradually drawn attention in various contexts. However, there is relatively scant research on the ways in which acknowledgements are written by authors with mutually similar cultural backgrounds but in two different academic environments and language contexts. To fill this gap, this study compared 60 PhD dissertation acknowledgements written by Taiwanese postgraduates in Taiwan, an EFL context, with another 60 written by Taiwanese scholars who obtained their doctorates in the United States, an ESL context. The focus was on the generic structures and linguistic features of the writing styles of the two groups. The study aimed to investigate whether divergences existed in the two different academic and language settings, but with the writers sharing the same cultural and language background. If such divergences did exist, the likely causes would be explored. The results revealed that firstly, the participants in both contexts generally followed a three-tier structure when writing their dissertation acknowledgements, namely, reflecting, thanking, and announcing moves. However, academic conventions, institutional preferences and the language context, together with socio-cultural factors, affected their construction of moves/steps and their choice of linguistic elements. It was found that the rhetorical language in both corpora was relatively direct, emotional and precise. Keywords: genre analysis, dissertation acknowledgements, generic structure, speech acts, rhetorical choices, contextual influences, keyword analysis

  19. Heart of Darkness and the epistemology of cultural differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. B. Armstrong

    1994-05-01

    Full Text Available Heart of Darkness has a long history of disagreement about whether to regard it as a daring attack on imperialism or a reactionary purveyor of colonial stereotypes. Taking Achebe’s now famous indictment and Clifford's recent praise that Conrad was an exemplary anthropologist, this article argues that Conrad is neither a racist nor an exemplary anthropologist hut a skeptical dramatist of epistemological processes. The novella has received these divergent responses because its enactment of the dilemmas entailed in understanding cultural otherness is inherently double and strategically ambiguous. The article argues that the novella is a calculated failure to depict achieved cross-cultural understanding presented to the reader through textual strategies which oscillate between affirming and denying the possibility of understanding otherness. The article acknowledges that charges such as that made by Achebe are extremely valuable because they break the aura of the text and establish reciprocity between it and its interpreters by putting them on equal terms, and concludes that a recognition of how unsettingly ambiguous the text is about the ideals of reciprocity and mutual understanding will empower us to engage in a sort of dialogue with it which Marlow never achieves with Africans or anyone else.

  20. The Cultural Differences between English and Chinese Color Words

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王中宇

    2012-01-01

    This paper intends to analyze the cultural differences between English and Chinese color words.The differences are mainly embodied in the historical tradition,the national psychology and religion,life habits and emotional color,etc.

  1. The Use of Management Controls in Different Cultural Regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmi, Teemu; Ax, Christian; Bedford, David;

    2016-01-01

    in the comprehensiveness of plans, purposes of performance measurement and evaluation, and the importance of interactively using budgets and performance measurement systems. Furthermore, we find differences in the nature and bases of rewards and variable compensation. Regarding cultural controls, differences......) in these countries. We find differences across cultural regions with regard to how managers delegate decision rights to their subordinates, establish multidimensional reporting lines, involve subordinates in cross-functional tasks, and involve subordinates in strategic planning activities. We also find differences...

  2. On Cultural Differences between Chinese and English Idioms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵容青

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, with the rapid development of economic globalization, the desire of modern people to know foreign culture is becoming stronger and stronger. As a part of culture and an important carrier of culture, language has very close relationship with culture. Idioms, the gems of language, are fixed sentences or phrases which are concise in form and wisdom. And the proper idiom translation can not only faithfully express the content and thought of the original works but also widen people' s cultural horizon and enrich their vocabulary. However, there are a lot of harri- ers and difficulties in translating idioms because they are strongly culture-loaded. Therefore, in order to render idioms faithfully and effectively, it is a must for a translator to pay much attention to the different cultural backgrounds between China and English-speaking countries and make use of the methods of idioms translation in a flexible way.

  3. The Cultural Difference and Teaching of English Lexicoloqy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李云

    2009-01-01

    Contrast this to be adopted in terms of both language and cultural background reflected in the meaning of life,and address,social etiquette,gender,emotional,and other areas to explore differences in how English vocabulary teaching in the financial and cultural knowledge in the language,into a culture of moderation,thereby enhancing the efficiency of teaching vocabulary to the real purpose of teaching vocabulary.

  4. Analyses of Cultural Differences in Chinese and Western Automobile Advertising

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang; Di; Wang; Haiyan

    2014-01-01

    This paper compares and analyzes auto advertisings between China and western countries,so as to explore the cultural differences of value orientations and thinking patterns behind them and help readers know better about auto culture in China and western countries.

  5. The Cultural Differences in Advertisements Between the West and China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓艳

    2013-01-01

    Advertising is not only a kind of business activity,but also a means of cultural communication.?When it comes to interpreting advertising language,different cultures and traditions are taken into consideration.Meanwhile distinct features are represented in Chinese and western advertisements.

  6. Differences Between British and Americans’ Cultures in Values

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘巍巍; 戴立黎

    2008-01-01

    <正>Values are the most important issue in identifying one particular culture.Social values are the feelings people have about what is important,worthwhile,and just.In this paper,the differences between British and American values are discussed in two aspects which mainly lie respectively in the comparisons of values and characteristics in both cultures.

  7. Age differences in personal values: Universal or cultural specific?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Helene H; Ho, Yuan Wan; Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Xin; Noels, Kimberly A; Tam, Kim-Pong

    2016-05-01

    Prior studies on value development across adulthood have generally shown that as people age, they espouse communal values more strongly and agentic values less strongly. Two studies investigated whether these age differences in personal values might differ according to cultural values. Study 1 examined whether these age differences in personal values, and their associations with subjective well-being, showed the same pattern across countries that differed in individualism-collectivism. Study 2 compared age differences in personal values in the Canadian culture that emphasized agentic values more and the Chinese culture that emphasized communal values more. Personal and cultural values of each individual were directly measured, and their congruence were calculated and compared across age and cultures. Findings revealed that across cultures, older people had lower endorsement of agentic personal values and higher endorsement of communal personal values than did younger people. These age differences, and their associations with subjective well-being, were generally not influenced by cultural values. (PsycINFO Database Record

  8. Cultural values predict coping using culture as an individual difference variable in multi-cultural samples.

    OpenAIRE

    Bardi, Anat; Guerra, V. M.

    2011-01-01

    Three studies establish the relations between cultural values and coping using multicultural samples of international students. Study 1 established the cross-cultural measurement invariance of subscales of the Cope inventory (Carver, Scheier, & Weintraub, 1989) used in the paper. The cultural value dimensions of embeddedness vs. autonomy and hierarchy vs. egalitarianism predicted how international students from 28 (Study 2) and 38 (Study 3) countries coped with adapting to living in a new cou...

  9. Different Cultures Reflected in Chinese and American Advertisements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪思思

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, advertising has become an important part in human life. Advertising is not only a carrier of information, but also an important part of culture. As a kind of cultural phenomenon, advertising has permeated throughout people ’s social life. In its course of spread, it transmits cultural information and embodies different values. Thus it influences people ’s thoughts and values unconsciously, leads and changes their behaviors and patterns of consumption.In this essay, I will demonstrate the la-tent relationship between advertising and culture through analyzing different cultures reflected in Chinese and American advertise-ments. And this essay offers many solid theories and abundant examples acquired from books and periodicals of various ages.

  10. An Analysis on Cultural Differences in Advertising Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高雅

    2014-01-01

    Great opportunities together with great challenges are brought to the development of Chinese economy with the glo-balization of the world economy. Foreign businessmen want to share the market of China, while Chinese enterprisers with a broader sight have been thinking about selling products to international markets. Languages and cultures of different nations have their own characteristics. In order to communicate with each other, human beings must make use of the methods of translation. Thus, it shows that translation, which is a social activity of inter-language, inter-culture and inter-community, is linked closely to culture. Meanwhile, the features of translation represent similarly in advertising translation. Generally speaking, when doing ad-vertising translation, it can not only focus on language differences between the two sides, but also pay attention to cultural differ-ences. Or else it would be difficult to translate satisfying advertisements.By taking examples from Chinese-English and English-Chinese, this paper compares the different aspects between Chinese and Western thinking sets, traditional ideas and values in order to reflect differences of advertising translation based on different cultures. Finally, it will sum up some strategies of inter-cultural advertising translation.

  11. Different Connotations of "Modesty" Lying in Western and Eastern Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    涂艳

    2015-01-01

    as a common morality,politeness is the symbol of human civilization and a primary principle abided by people in interpersonal communication.However,the standard and the way of expression of politeness are fluctuated with different culture.This essay takes analysis on different connotations of"modesty" lying in the western culture and eastern culture deeply and explains the cause for that,for the purpose of helping people avoid pragmatic mistake in intercultural communication at the best to achieve considerable communicative effect.

  12. Cultural Preferences to Color Quality of Illumination of Different Objects

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Anqing; Žukauskas, Artūras; Vaicekauskas, Rimantas; Vitta, Prančiskas; Shur, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The preferences to color quality of illumination were investigated for American and Chinese subjects using a solid-state source of white light with the continuously tunable color saturation ability and correlated color temperature of quadrichromatic blends. Subjects were asked to identify both most natural and preferred blends. For very familiar objects, cultural differences did not affect the average of the selected blends. For less familiar objects (various paintings), cultural differences in the average selected blends depended on the level of the familiarity of the content. An unfamiliar painting also showed preferences to color temperature being dependent on the cultural background. In all cases, the American subjects exhibited noticeably wider distributions.

  13. Acknowledgement of manuscript reviewers, the underappreciated contributors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abel Lucy

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Contributing reviewers We and the Editorial Board acknowledge and thank all reviewers for their active participation and contribution during 2012. We greatly appreciate their dedication and behind the scenes contribution. It is largely due to their support and expertise that we have been able to publish high-standard manuscripts. We would also like to thank authors for choosing Nutrition & Metabolism and contributing their cherished work.

  14. Differences between Chinese and American Language Cultures from the Aspect of Food Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐桂真

    2012-01-01

    IntroductionFood culture is the sum of human dietary behavior,conception,technology and its products.It shows human natural choiceand dietary way of life that is suited to special geographical environment and humane environment through common practice.Cultural differences between

  15. An investigation on leadership styles in different cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Emami

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available During the past few years, there have been tremendous efforts on leadership style and various aspects of different leadership style. Some firms can achieve effective business performance by developing strong organizational culture and effective leadership while many studies indicate that firms can achieve effective business performance by developing strong organizational culture and effective leadership. This paper reviews recent advances on leadership style and various aspects of organizational cultures completed during the past few years. The paper concentrates on recently published articles appeared in the world.

  16. Influences of Cultural Differences on Translation of Titles of Songs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈彩珍

    2014-01-01

    A title is like an eye that reveals its character. A good title of great originality can concentrate on the main points and arouse readers’interests. The title plays a significant part especially in the times of eyeball economy. However, though short as titles are, they always contain a lot of connotations which are quite difficult to translate. Translation is substantially kind of cross-cultural information communication, and translation of song titles is no exception. Due to different origins, Chinese and Western cultures possess their own characteristics in cultural images, ways of thinking, and historical allusions, which should be considered when translating song titles.

  17. Tissue Culture Responses from Different Explants of Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiu-hong; SHI Xiang-yuan; WU Xian-jun

    2005-01-01

    Different culture explants, including anther, young panicle, young embryo, and mature embryo, from 19 rice varieties were used for callus induction and green plantlet differentiation. The culture efficiency differed significantly among the four types of explants, and varied from genotype to genotype. Callus induction frequency presented significantly positive correlation each between anther and young panicle, anther and mature embryo, and young panicle and young embryo. Green plantlet differentiation showed no relationship between different types of explants. In addition, no relationship was found between callus induction frequency and green plantlet differentiation frequency.

  18. Cultural Differences in the Traditional Chinese and Western Festivals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高娟

    2012-01-01

    The culture of world is colorful.On the soil of colorful culture,there grows different traditional festivals.They are distinctly different in their origins.Chinese festivals mainly stem from seasons and solar periods,while western festivals are mostly influenced with religious features.Another aspect is apparent different in their customs.When celebrating the festivals,the Chinese tend to focus more attention on eating and drinking,while the westerners tend to the seeking of pleasure.In the era of globaliza...

  19. Cultural differences between construction professionals in Denmark and United Kingdom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hancock, M.R.

    This report presents the results of an investigation into cultural differences between professional members of the construction sector of Denmark and the United Kingdom. In particular it refers to differences between Arkitekter/Architects, Civilingeniører/Civil Engineers and Bygningskonstruktører...

  20. Cultural and learning differences in the Judd illusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kamp, John; Withagen, Rob; de Wit, Matthieu M.

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, we examined whether individual differences in the perception of illusory Judd drawings point to variability in the pickup of informational variables. Two sources for these individual differences were addressed: culture and learning. East Asian (n = 24) and Western (n = 24) part

  1. Differences of Organizational Culture between Small and Large Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidiu-Iliuta Dobre

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This research paper analyses the organizational culture of small enterprises and large enterprises, and highlights the common elements and the main differences. The results of the study show significant differences in terms of organizational culture between the two types of organizations. Employees working in small size enterprises are oriented towards innovation, whereas the ones working in large enterprises are more aware of social responsibility. In addition, small organizations are perceived to have a more supportive organizational culture than large enterprises. Furthermore, the study reveals differences in management and leadership styles when analyzing the small and large enterprises. Considering the flatter organizational structure of small enterprises, the managers have a personal relationship with the employees and they motivate them better and align their goals with the ones of the enterprise. In large organizations, the managers need to have a tighter control, as more procedures have to be followed.

  2. Cultural bases for self-evaluation: seeing oneself positively in different cultural contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Maja; Vignoles, Vivian L; Owe, Ellinor; Easterbrook, Matthew J; Brown, Rupert; Smith, Peter B; Bond, Michael Harris; Regalia, Camillo; Manzi, Claudia; Brambilla, Maria; Aldhafri, Said; González, Roberto; Carrasco, Diego; Paz Cadena, Maria; Lay, Siugmin; Schweiger Gallo, Inge; Torres, Ana; Camino, Leoncio; Özgen, Emre; Güner, Ülkü E; Yamakoğlu, Nil; Silveira Lemos, Flávia Cristina; Trujillo, Elvia Vargas; Balanta, Paola; Macapagal, Ma Elizabeth J; Cristina Ferreira, M; Herman, Ginette; de Sauvage, Isabelle; Bourguignon, David; Wang, Qian; Fülöp, Márta; Harb, Charles; Chybicka, Aneta; Mekonnen, Kassahun Habtamu; Martin, Mariana; Nizharadze, George; Gavreliuc, Alin; Buitendach, Johanna; Valk, Aune; Koller, Silvia H

    2014-05-01

    Several theories propose that self-esteem, or positive self-regard, results from fulfilling the value priorities of one's surrounding culture. Yet, surprisingly little evidence exists for this assertion, and theories differ about whether individuals must personally endorse the value priorities involved. We compared the influence of four bases for self-evaluation (controlling one's life, doing one's duty, benefitting others, achieving social status) among 4,852 adolescents across 20 cultural samples, using an implicit, within-person measurement technique to avoid cultural response biases. Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses showed that participants generally derived feelings of self-esteem from all four bases, but especially from those that were most consistent with the value priorities of others in their cultural context. Multilevel analyses confirmed that the bases of positive self-regard are sustained collectively: They are predictably moderated by culturally normative values but show little systematic variation with personally endorsed values.

  3. Influences of Cultural Differences on Translation of Titles of Laws

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾秀梅

    2014-01-01

    For whatever kind of literary forms, the first thing that we come into contact with is the title. The title functions as not only the eye catcher but also the summary of the context. Any legal document starts with its title and a good translation of the ti-tle lays the foundation for the interpretation of follow-up terms and conditions. However, translating titles of laws is affected by different factors, especially cultural differences, such as history, diction and conventions. Anyway, cultural impact on translation of law titles can be handled tactfully.

  4. Influences of cultural differences on the translation of titles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田琦

    2007-01-01

    Every country in the world has titles since the ancient times which describe a person's social status or economic power.But because of the different cultures,there are many difficulties in the title translation.This dissertation talks about the cultural differences from these aspects: history,religion,thought,country situation,custom,and economy.And also,this dissertation gives five principles to the title translation.They are principles of levels,principles of changelessness,principles of shortness and conciseness,principles of common use,principles of exceptions.

  5. Cultural differences in hedonic emotion regulation after a negative event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Yuri; Ma, Xiaoming; Petermann, Amelia G

    2014-08-01

    Beliefs about emotions can influence how people regulate their emotions. The present research examined whether Eastern dialectical beliefs about negative emotions lead to cultural differences in how people regulate their emotions after experiencing a negative event. We hypothesized that, because of dialectical beliefs about negative emotions prevalent in Eastern culture, Easterners are less motivated than Westerners to engage in hedonic emotion regulation-up-regulation of positive emotions and down-regulation of negative emotions. By assessing online reactions to a recent negative event, Study 1 found that European Americans are more motivated to engage in hedonic emotion regulation. Furthermore, consistent with the reported motivation to regulate emotion hedonically, European Americans show a steeper decline in negative emotions 1 day later than do Asians. By examining retrospective memory of reactions to a past negative event, Study 2 further showed that cultural differences in hedonic emotion regulation are mediated by cultural differences in dialectical beliefs about motivational and cognitive utility of negative emotions, but not by personal deservingness or self-efficacy beliefs. These findings demonstrate the role of cultural beliefs in shaping emotion regulation and emotional experiences.

  6. How culture gets embrained: Cultural differences in event-related potentials of social norm violations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Yan; Kitayama, Shinobu; Han, Shihui; Gelfand, Michele J

    2015-12-15

    Humans are unique among all species in their ability to develop and enforce social norms, but there is wide variation in the strength of social norms across human societies. Despite this fundamental aspect of human nature, there has been surprisingly little research on how social norm violations are detected at the neurobiological level. Building on the emerging field of cultural neuroscience, we combine noninvasive electroencephalography (EEG) with a new social norm violation paradigm to examine the neural mechanisms underlying the detection of norm violations and how they vary across cultures. EEG recordings from Chinese and US participants (n = 50) showed consistent negative deflection of event-related potential around 400 ms (N400) over the central and parietal regions that served as a culture-general neural marker of detecting norm violations. The N400 at the frontal and temporal regions, however, was only observed among Chinese but not US participants, illustrating culture-specific neural substrates of the detection of norm violations. Further, the frontal N400 predicted a variety of behavioral and attitudinal measurements related to the strength of social norms that have been found at the national and state levels, including higher culture superiority and self-control but lower creativity. There were no cultural differences in the N400 induced by semantic violation, suggesting a unique cultural influence on social norm violation detection. In all, these findings provided the first evidence, to our knowledge, for the neurobiological foundations of social norm violation detection and its variation across cultures.

  7. Cross cultural differences in mood regulation: An empirical comparison of individualistic and collectivistic cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luomala, Harri; Kumar, Rajesh; Worm, Verner;

    2004-01-01

    This paper seeks to examine cross cultural differences in the ways people regulate their mood states with special emphasis put on the role of consumption. This issue is virtually unexplored in the extant literature. After briefly introducing the essence of mood regulation and culture we integrate...... more socially based emotional consequences, and are more easily pursued and are more effective in collectivistic as opposed to individualistic cultures. The paper concludes by outlining the theoretical and managerial implications of the results and spelling out a few research suggestions....

  8. Improving utilisation of dental services by understanding cultural difference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, J A

    1993-10-01

    There is considerable health and medical research and anecdotal evidence showing that members of different cultural groups and people from lower socio-economic status and/or disadvantaged ethnic minority groups are prone to increased morbidity and early mortality. It is also clear that similar patterns are found in terms of dental health status and dental health morbidity. New Zealand data from the Second International Collaborative Study (ICSII) clearly illustrate that poorer health status overall and poorer dental health status are experienced by certain sections and groups within the population. Data from these studies suggest that members of lower socio-economic status groups, different ethnic groups and those with different cultural affiliations experience different health status and use the health services at differential rates. Some of the factors that appear to influence this are clearly related to cultural beliefs and attitudes. Future efforts by the New Zealand health services and in particular by the New Zealand dental health services to redress the situation need to be based on a clear understanding of the many factors that limit the availability and uptake of preventive and dental health care services by high risk groups. Understanding cultural difference is a key requirement.

  9. Evidence for cultural differences between neighboring chimpanzee communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luncz, Lydia V; Mundry, Roger; Boesch, Christophe

    2012-05-22

    The majority of evidence for cultural behavior in animals has come from comparisons between populations separated by large geographical distances that often inhabit different environments. The difficulty of excluding ecological and genetic variation as potential explanations for observed behaviors has led some researchers to challenge the idea of animal culture. Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) in the Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire, crack Coula edulis nuts using stone and wooden hammers and tree root anvils. In this study, we compare for the first time hammer selection for nut cracking across three neighboring chimpanzee communities that live in the same forest habitat, which reduces the likelihood of ecological variation. Furthermore, the study communities experience frequent dispersal of females at maturity, which eliminates significant genetic variation. We compared key ecological factors, such as hammer availability and nut hardness, between the three neighboring communities and found striking differences in group-specific hammer selection among communities despite similar ecological conditions. Differences were found in the selection of hammer material and hammer size in response to changes in nut resistance over time. Our findings highlight the subtleties of cultural differences in wild chimpanzees and illustrate how cultural knowledge is able to shape behavior, creating differences among neighboring social groups.

  10. Translation of English-Chinese Idiom under Cultural Differences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王蕾

    2011-01-01

    @@ 1 Introduction "Idioms usually carry more impact than non-idiomatic expression because of their close identification with a particular language and culture ."(Nida.E.A.2001: 28).Idiom is not only handing the language down, but also handing the culture down.The characters of humor, implicit, and lively make us see the wisdom of the human beings.The cultural characters and specific features of itself hiding in idioms make our language more and more image and vivid.Besides, the fitand proper idiom is used reflects the marking of controlling the language.No matter in a speech or in a article, it will be boring without idioms.There are so great differences between English -Chinese idiom and these differences are enough to shock used completely.So, if we want to control English like a Englishman, we have to learn the English -Chinese idiom.

  11. Cultural values and international differences in business ethics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, B.; Dam, L.

    2007-01-01

    We analyze ethical policies of firms in industrialized countries and try to find out whether culture is a factor that plays a significant role in explaining country differences. We look into the firm's human rights policy, its governance of bribery and corruption, and the comprehensiveness, implemen

  12. Differences between tight and loose cultures : A 33-nation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelfand, M.J.; Raver, R.L.; Nishii, L.; Leslie, L.M.; Lun, J.; Lim, B.C.; Van de Vliert, E.

    2011-01-01

    With data from 33 nations, we illustrate the differences between cultures that are tight (have many strong norms and a low tolerance of deviant behavior) versus loose (have weak social norms and a high tolerance of deviant behavior). Tightness-looseness is part of a complex, loosely integrated multi

  13. Cultural Differences between Arabs and Americans: Individualism-Collectivism Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buda, Richard; Elsayed-Elkhouly, Sayed M.

    1998-01-01

    Cultural differences between Arabs and Americans were investigated using the individualism-collectivism survey of J. Wagner (1995). Arab subjects (n=331) were significantly more collectivist than U.S. subjects (n=102), and within the Arab group, Egyptian subjects (n=224) were significantly more individualistic than Gulf States subjects.…

  14. Interaction patterns in crisis negotiations: Persuasive arguments and cultural differences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giebels, Ellen; Taylor, Paul J.

    2009-01-01

    This research examines cultural differences in negotiators' responses to persuasive arguments in crisis (hostage) negotiations over time. Using a new method of examining cue-response patterns, the authors examined 25 crisis negotiations in which police negotiators interacted with perpetrators from l

  15. Cultural Differences in the Development of Processing Speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kail, Robert V.; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Ferrer, Emilio; Cho, Jeung-Ryeul; Shu, Hua

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to examine cultural differences in the development of speed of information processing. Four samples of US children ("N" = 509) and four samples of East Asian children ("N" = 661) completed psychometric measures of processing speed on two occasions. Analyses of the longitudinal data indicated…

  16. Awareness of Cultural Differences and Cultivation of Intercultural Communicative Competence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖攀

    2014-01-01

    <正>Ⅰ.Introduction The aim of foreign language teaching is not only to make students get familiar with the knowledge of Western countries,but also to cultivate the students’competence in intercultural communication,this paper will list some cultural differences between China and Western counrties,then present some personal opinions on how to cultivate students’competence in

  17. Cultural Traditions and Writing Differences Between English and Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲍甜美

    2014-01-01

    Writing in any language involves more than grammar, vocabulary and spelling. There are thought connections and or-ganization patterns that extend beyond sentences and go deeper than the surface meaning of sentences. This paper compares the differences between English writing and Chinese writing, and explores their cultural traditions.

  18. Design Factors Affect User Experience for Different Cultural Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Sauman

    2016-01-01

    With increasing changes in our demographic populations and new immigrants settling in the US, there is an increasing need for visual communications that address the diversity of our populations. This paper draws from the results of the researcher's several past research and teaching projects that worked with different cultural populations. These…

  19. The Impact of Cultural Differences in Design Thinking Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thoring, K.C.; Luippold, C.; Mueller, R.M.

    2014-01-01

    Design thinking is a specific method to develop innovative solutions to wicked problems in multidisciplinary teams. The fact that people with different disciplinary and often also cultural backgrounds work together, makes it quite a challenge to compensate for deficits in common understanding of ter

  20. Under the Invisibility Cloak? Teacher Understanding of Cultural Difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahon, Jennifer

    2006-01-01

    While research does exist on how teachers feel about multicultural education or bilingual education, very little data exists on how teachers cognitively construct a core concept of these educational approaches--cultural difference. This article describes the investigation of this understanding among 155 teachers in midwestern USA from rural, urban…

  1. Looking for Cultural Differences in your own Backyard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Elsebet Frydendal

    This article intends to discuss safety culture in the Danish construction industry and aims to demonstrate the value of this understanding in relation to preventive activities in the everyday working environment. The article discusses how safety culture is defined and understood. A short...... presentation of the Danish construction industry is given highlighting well known safety risks and finally three cases dealing with different aspects of the working environment are presented; one dealing with prevention of accidents, another with prevention of muscular skeleton diseases and finally a case...... demonstrating how changed aspects in using modern management’s theories can improve everyday safety on site....

  2. Measurement Invariance of Discipline in Different Cultural Contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Li; Malone, Patrick S; Lansford, Jennifer E; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Di Giunta, Laura; Bombi, Anna Silvia; Bornstein, Marc H; Chang, Lei; Dodge, Kenneth A; Oburu, Paul; Pastorelli, Concetta; Skinner, Ann T; Sorbring, Emma; Tapanya, Sombat; Tirado, Liliana Maria Uribe; Zelli, Arnaldo; Alampay, Liane; Al-Hassan, Suha M; Bacchini, Dario

    2011-07-01

    The measurement invariance of mother-reported use of 18 discipline strategies was examined in samples from 13 different ethnic/cultural groups in nine countries (China, Colombia, Italy, Jordan, Kenya, the Philippines, Sweden, Thailand, and the United States). Participants included approximately 100-120 mothers and their children aged 7 to 10 years from each group. The results of exploratory factor analyses and multigroup categorical confirmatory factor analyses (MCCFA) indicated that a seven-factor solution was feasible across the cultural groups, as shown by marginally sufficient evidence for configural and metric invariance for the mother-reported frequency on the discipline interview. This study makes a contribution on measurement invariance to the parenting literature, and establishes the mother-report aspect of the discipline interview as an instrument for use in further cross-cultural research on discipline.

  3. Differences between tight and loose cultures: a 33-nation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelfand, Michele J; Raver, Jana L; Nishii, Lisa; Leslie, Lisa M; Lun, Janetta; Lim, Beng Chong; Duan, Lili; Almaliach, Assaf; Ang, Soon; Arnadottir, Jakobina; Aycan, Zeynep; Boehnke, Klaus; Boski, Pawel; Cabecinhas, Rosa; Chan, Darius; Chhokar, Jagdeep; D'Amato, Alessia; Ferrer, Montse; Fischlmayr, Iris C; Fischer, Ronald; Fülöp, Marta; Georgas, James; Kashima, Emiko S; Kashima, Yoshishima; Kim, Kibum; Lempereur, Alain; Marquez, Patricia; Othman, Rozhan; Overlaet, Bert; Panagiotopoulou, Penny; Peltzer, Karl; Perez-Florizno, Lorena R; Ponomarenko, Larisa; Realo, Anu; Schei, Vidar; Schmitt, Manfred; Smith, Peter B; Soomro, Nazar; Szabo, Erna; Taveesin, Nalinee; Toyama, Midori; Van de Vliert, Evert; Vohra, Naharika; Ward, Colleen; Yamaguchi, Susumu

    2011-05-27

    With data from 33 nations, we illustrate the differences between cultures that are tight (have many strong norms and a low tolerance of deviant behavior) versus loose (have weak social norms and a high tolerance of deviant behavior). Tightness-looseness is part of a complex, loosely integrated multilevel system that comprises distal ecological and historical threats (e.g., high population density, resource scarcity, a history of territorial conflict, and disease and environmental threats), broad versus narrow socialization in societal institutions (e.g., autocracy, media regulations), the strength of everyday recurring situations, and micro-level psychological affordances (e.g., prevention self-guides, high regulatory strength, need for structure). This research advances knowledge that can foster cross-cultural understanding in a world of increasing global interdependence and has implications for modeling cultural change.

  4. Cultural differences in the development and characteristics of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhasz, Gabriella; Eszlari, Nora; Pap, Dorottya; Gonda, Xenia

    2012-12-01

    Depression is a highly prevalent mental illness with increasing burden for the patients, their families and society as well. In spite of its increasing importance, we still do not have complete understanding either of the phenomenology or the etiopathological background of depression, and cross-country, cross-ethnic and cross-cultural differences in the prevalence and symptomatic manifestation of depression further obscure this picture. Culturally-related features of depressive illness are gaining more importance in clinical practice with the increasing migration trends worldwide. In spite of the differences replicated in multiple studies, no exhaustive explanations are offered so far. In the present paper we describe the most consistently replicated findings concerning the most important cross-national differences in the rates and characteristics of depression with a short comment on possible background factors.

  5. Different uses of silence explained by observing high-context cultures and low-context cultures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张奕雯

    2011-01-01

    Silence, as a form of nonverbal communication, may be interpreted in various ways depending upon the culture. The pur- pose of this study is to explain misunderstanding concerned with the uses of silence in conversations situated in different cuhural backgrounds, and then give possible methods to avoid it. The explanation is mainly based on the two categories related to the context posed by Edward Hall: high-context culture & low-context culture. In this part, the study also contrasts distinct verbal styles in America & Japan, in addition, it analyses different attitudes towards silence from 3 aspects: traditional value, religion and power distance. At end, the study is concluded with 4 solutions that try to solve the problem.

  6. 45 CFR 4.4 - Acknowledgement of mailed process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Acknowledgement of mailed process. 4.4 Section 4.4 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION SERVICE OF PROCESS § 4.4 Acknowledgement of mailed process. The Department will not provide a receipt or other acknowledgement of...

  7. Academic Culture, Business Culture, and Measuring Achievement Differences: Internal Auditing Views

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Benjamin S.

    2012-01-01

    This study explored whether university internal audit directors' views of culture and measuring achievement differences between their institutions and a business were related to how they viewed internal auditing priorities and uses. The Carnegie Classification system's 283 Doctorate-granting Universities were the target population.…

  8. Embarrassment as a key to understanding cultural differences. Basic principles of cultural analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouchet, Dominique

    1995-01-01

    I introduce here the principles I use in my investigation of intercultural marketing and management. I explain how I discovered them, and show how they spring from a theoretical understanding of the dynamic of cultural differences. One of the basic methodological principles for my analysis...

  9. Culture Influence on English Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹梦琪

    2014-01-01

    It is universally acknowledged that English has gained popularity among Chinese learners since the adoption of policy of reform and opening-up. Also, Chinese government has given English priority as it is a required subject in compulsory education. Cultural conflicts may be arisen according to discrepancies in scientific outlook, education. Thereby, this essay will attach importance to analyzing cultural differences and impacts.

  10. Cultural Differences in Perceiving Sounds Generated by Others: Self Matters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liyu eCao

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Sensory consequences resulting from own movements receive different neural processing compared to externally generated sensory consequences (e.g., by a computer, leading to sensory attenuation, i.e., a reduction in perceived loudness or brain evoked responses. However, discrepant findings exist from different cultural regions about whether sensory attenuation is also present for sensory consequences generated by others. In this study, we performed a cross culture (between Chinese and British comparison on the processing of sensory consequences (perceived loudness from self and others compared to an external source in the auditory domain. We found a cultural difference in processing sensory consequences generated by others, with only Chinese and not British showing the sensory attenuation effect. Sensory attenuation in this case was correlated with independent self-construal scores. The sensory attenuation effect for self-generated sensory consequences was not replicated. However, a correlation with delusional ideation was observed for British. These findings are discussed with respects to mechanisms of sensory attenuation.

  11. Cultural differences and shame in an expressive writing alcohol intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Lindsey M; Young, Chelsie M; Neighbors, Clayton; Tou, Reese; Lu, Qian

    2016-01-01

    The present study evaluates the relationships between shame, culture, and drinking behavior in predicting drinking intentions in the context of an expressive writing intervention. Theory and empirical findings have generally found that shame is maladaptive and can lead to anxiety, depression, and problematic alcohol use. However, research on cultural differences suggests that shame may be differentially damaging to individuals of collectivist, Asian cultures. Previous research evaluating expressive writing as a brief alcohol intervention has shown promising results such as reduced drinking intentions and increased readiness to change drinking behavior. The present study tested the hypothesis that feelings of shame after writing about a negative heavy drinking event would be associated with greater alcohol use generally and that this effect would differ for Caucasian compared to Asian individuals. We also explored whether this differed for light and heavy drinkers. Two hundred sixty-four undergraduates (74% female) who drank at least one alcoholic beverage in the past month completed measures of demographics, baseline drinking, event-related shame and guilt, pre- and postwriting affect, and drinking intentions. Results revealed that, independent of affect, social desirability, and event-related guilt, shame was generally negatively associated with drinking intentions for Caucasians and light drinking Asians. However, for heavy drinking Asians, shame was associated with increased drinking intentions. Results suggest that interventions that elicit shame are differentially effective and should be targeted accordingly.

  12. Chinese and English Cultural Differences Reflected in the Color Terms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗琦

    2015-01-01

    [Abstract]Color is closely related to people's life.The color words not only express the color itself,but also imply the culture of a country. During the intercultural communication, there are many differences in the use of color words as wel as the understanding of the same color due to different living environment,social backgrounds, aesthetic levels.A comparison between them can help us to have a better understanding of these color words and improve our intercultural communication ability in case of embarrassment.

  13. Importance of life domains in different cultural groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizur, Dov; Kantor, Jeffrey; Yaniv, Eyal; Sagie, Abraham

    2008-01-01

    This study assessed the role of individualism and collectivism in the shaping of personal values of Canadians, Israelis, and Palestinians. Based on Sagie and Elizur's (1996) multifaceted approach, we distinguished personal values that are individual centered (i.e., associated with one's home, family, or work) from collective-centered values (i.e., associated with the religion, sports, or politics). The magnitude of the difference between both value types differs according to cultural orientation. As compared with Palestinians, we predicted that Canadians and Israelis would rank individual-centered values higher and collective-centered values lower. Data obtained from samples of Palestinians, Israelis, and Canadians supported this hypothesis.

  14. Identifying Differences in Cultural Behavior in Online Groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory, Michelle L.; Engel, David W.; Bell, Eric B.; Mcgrath, Liam R.

    2012-07-23

    We have developed methods to identify online communities, or groups, using a combination of structural information variables and content information variables from weblog posts and their comments to build a characteristic footprint for groups. We have worked with both explicitly connected groups and 'abstract' groups, in which the connection between individuals is in interest (as determined by content based features) and behavior (metadata based features) as opposed to explicit links. We find that these variables do a good job at identifying groups, placing members within a group, and helping determine the appropriate granularity for group boundaries. The group footprint can then be used to identify differences between the online groups. In the work described here we are interested in determining how an individual's online behavior is influenced by their membership in more than one group. For example, individuals belong to a certain culture; they may belong as well to a demographic group, and other 'chosen' groups such as churches or clubs. There is a plethora of evidence surrounding the culturally sensitive adoption, use, and behavior on the Internet. In this work we begin to investigate how culturally defined internet behaviors may influence behaviors of subgroups. We do this through a series of experiments in which we analyze the interaction between culturally defined behaviors and the behaviors of the subgroups. Our goal is to (a) identify if our features can capture cultural distinctions in internet use, and (b) determine what kinds of interaction there are between levels and types of groups.

  15. PURE CULTURE METHOD: GIARDIA LAMBLIA FROM DIFFERENT STOOL SAMPLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.A YOUSEFI

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Giardiasis is one of the health problems in the world including Iran. To determine the biochemical and biological problems and also identification of various strains, it is essential to obtain pure culture and then mass production of Giardia lamblia. The goal of this study was to isolate this protozoa purely.
    Methods. Giardia lamblia cysts were isolated from 50 stool samples by use of floating of a four - layer of sucrose method. The cysts were transfered to an inducing solution. Subsequently, they were cultured in a modified culture medium (TYIS-33. Following excystation of trophozoite and its multiplication, the parasite was caltured and purified.
    Findings. Excitation of trophozoite was observed in 40 samples (80 percent from which 22 samples (55 percent yielded pure culture. The doubling time was approximately 13hr and the peak of parasite was observed between third and fourth days.
    Conclusion. The proliferation and growth rate of Giardia lamblia have enabled us to use this method widely. Cystein and ascorbic acid which are present in the induction solution, have a key role in excystation of trophozoite. Purification and passage of samples has facilitated the culture of this parasite in vitro. Therefore this method has yielded better results in comparison with other studies. This is probably due to a decrease in the amount of bovine bile or using different strains of Giardia lamblia in the present study.

  16. On the Effects And Strategies of Cultural Differences on Business English Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许进

    2015-01-01

    Translation is the communication between two language and cultures,different ethnic groups have different culture.In business communication,the differences between different cultures have great influence on business English translation.we should not only focus on the translation skills,but also improve our cultural apprehension,only in this way can we grasp the essence of business English translation.

  17. An Analysis of Differences of Toilet Culture between China and Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王冠秋

    2014-01-01

    In an era of globalization and information explosion, culture difference has become one of those frequently-mentioned things. This paper is to make an detailed analysis of culture differences between China and Japan by paying more attention to a“not-very-decent-aspect”, namely, the toilets, and therefore, to explore the different cultural elements rooted in different toileting habits and attached cultures.

  18. Leaders' smiles reflect cultural differences in ideal affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jeanne L; Ang, Jen Ying Zhen; Blevins, Elizabeth; Goernandt, Julia; Fung, Helene H; Jiang, Da; Elliott, Julian; Kölzer, Anna; Uchida, Yukiko; Lee, Yi-Chen; Lin, Yicheng; Zhang, Xiulan; Govindama, Yolande; Haddouk, Lise

    2016-03-01

    Cultures differ in the emotions they teach their members to value ("ideal affect"). We conducted 3 studies to examine whether leaders' smiles reflect these cultural differences in ideal affect. In Study 1, we compared the smiles of top-ranked American and Chinese government leaders, chief executive officers, and university presidents in their official photos. Consistent with findings that Americans value excitement and other high-arousal positive states more than Chinese, American top-ranked leaders (N = 98) showed more excited smiles than Chinese top-ranked leaders (N = 91) across occupations. In Study 2, we compared the smiles of winning versus losing political candidates and higher versus lower ranking chief executive officers and university presidents in the United States and Taiwan/China. American leaders (N = 223) showed more excited smiles than Taiwanese/Chinese leaders (N = 266), regardless of election outcome or ranking. In Study 3, we administered self-report measures of ideal affect in college student samples from 10 different nations (N = 1,267) and then 8 years later, coded the smiles that legislators from those nations showed in their official photos (N = 3,372). The more nations valued excitement and other high arousal positive states, the more their leaders showed excited smiles; similarly, the more nations valued calm and other low-arousal positive states, the more their leaders showed calm smiles. These results held after controlling for national differences in democratization, human development, and gross domestic product per capita. Together, these findings suggest that leaders' smiles reflect the affective states valued by their cultures.

  19. Cultural differences: Polish fandom of Welcome to Night Vale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Włodarczyk

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Welcome to Night Vale (2012– is an intertextual podcast in the tradition of popular horror and weird tales. Listeners are meant to be part of a (fictional community, listening to the radio in the small desert town of Night Vale in the Southwestern United States, although neither the state nor the exact time are specified. We follow the host of the program, Cecil Palmer, as he describes the town's community life, although the events presented in the show are far from normal. The first episode was published online June 15, 2012, with no marketing to accompany the event. Many had first heard about Welcome to Night Vale through fan art available via social media, including Tumblr, Soup.io, blog communities, Facebook groups, and deviantArt. Although the production is available in English only, it has a Polish fandom. We describe the difference in perception of this popular text based on differences in the cultural background and literary knowledge of the listeners. We also attend to fan practices such as fan art surrounding Welcome to Night Vale because their content correlates with the creator's culture of origin, as well as the issue of funding the free podcast among fans from different countries and different economies.

  20. Hearing Voices in Different Cultures: A Social Kindling Hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luhrmann, Tanya M; Padmavati, R; Tharoor, Hema; Osei, Akwasi

    2015-10-01

    This study compares 20 subjects, in each of three different settings, with serious psychotic disorder (they meet inclusion criteria for schizophrenia) who hear voices, and compares their voice-hearing experience. We find that while there is much that is similar, there are notable differences in the kinds of voices that people seem to experience. In a California sample, people were more likely to describe their voices as intrusive unreal thoughts; in the South Indian sample, they were more likely to describe them as providing useful guidance; and in our West African sample, they were more likely to describe them as morally good and causally powerful. What we think we may be observing is that people who fall ill with serious psychotic disorder pay selective attention to a constant stream of many different auditory and quasi-auditory events because of different "cultural invitations"-variations in ways of thinking about minds, persons, spirits and so forth. Such a process is consistent with processes described in the cognitive psychology and psychiatric anthropology literature, but not yet described or understood with respect to cultural variations in auditory hallucinations. We call this process "social kindling."

  1. Carotenoid Production by Halophilic Archaea Under Different Culture Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calegari-Santos, Rossana; Diogo, Ricardo Alexandre; Fontana, José Domingos; Bonfim, Tania Maria Bordin

    2016-05-01

    Carotenoids are pigments that may be used as colorants and antioxidants in food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries. Since they also benefit human health, great efforts have been undertaken to search for natural sources of carotenoids, including microbial ones. The optimization of culture conditions to increase carotenoid yield is one of the strategies used to minimize the high cost of carotenoid production by microorganisms. Halophilic archaea are capable of producing carotenoids according to culture conditions. Their main carotenoid is bacterioruberin with 50 carbon atoms. In fact, the carotenoid has important biological functions since it acts as cell membrane reinforcement and it protects the microorganism against DNA damaging agents. Moreover, carotenoid extracts from halophilic archaea have shown high antioxidant capacity. Therefore, current review summarizes the effect of different culture conditions such as salt and carbon source concentrations in the medium, light incidence, and oxygen tension on carotenoid production by halophilic archaea and the strategies such as optimization methodology and two-stage cultivation already used to increase the carotenoid yield of these microorganisms.

  2. Microalgae respond differently to nitrogen availability during culturing

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Liliana G Gigova; Natalia J Ivanova

    2015-06-01

    Variations in the exogenous nitrogen level are known to significantly affect the physiological status and metabolism of microalgae. However, responses of red, green and yellow-green algae to nitrogen (N) availability have not been compared yet. Porphyridium cruentum, Scenedesmus incrassatulus and Trachydiscus minutus were cultured in the absence of N in the medium and subsequent resupply of N to the starved cells. Culture growth and in-gel changes in isoenzyme pattern and activity of glutamate synthase, glutamate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase were studied. The results demonstrated that the algae responded to the fully N-depleted and N-replete culture conditions by species-specific metabolic enzyme changes, suggesting differential regulation of both enzyme activity and cellular metabolism. Substantial differences in the activities of the antioxidant enzymes between N-depleted and N-replete cells of each species as well as between the species were also found. In the present work, besides the more general responses, such as adjustment of growth and pigmentation, we report on the involvement of specific metabolic and antioxidant enzymes and their isoforms in the mechanisms operating during N starvation and recovery in P. cruentum, T. minutus and S. incrassatulus.

  3. Birthweight distribution in ART singletons resulting from embryo culture in two different culture media compared with the national population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemmen, Josephine Gabriela; Pinborg, Anja; Rasmussen, S

    2014-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: Is there a difference in birthweight distribution in ART singletons born after IVF culture in two different culture media? SUMMARY ANSWER: There is no effect of culture media on both crude and adjusted birthweight distributions in ART singletons from nulliparous mothers. WHAT...... IS KNOWN ALREADY: Studies on human ART singletons have reported a difference in birthweight in singletons following IVF culture in different culture media. However, other studies comparing different culture media have not shown any significant differences in birthweight. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION...... culture media groups, we found the same slightly lower mean birthweight in IVF/ICSI singletons when compared with the national birth cohort as has been previously reported (Cook-d2 + Medicult-d2 + d3 versus birth cohort; girls: P

  4. Just How Many Different Forms of Culture Are There?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Adam B.

    2010-01-01

    Responds to comments by H. Takooshian and J. K. Tebes on the current author's original article, "Many forms of culture". The current author argued that psychologists tend to focus on too narrow a set of cultures (ethnic and national cultures) and some dimensions of those cultures (individualism-collectivism, independence-interdependence). He then…

  5. Understanding Different Behaviour and Different Culture International Students Studying in the UK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伊琳娜·伊力汗

    2015-01-01

    In the world, one popular country of destination is UK with its higher education environment. International students arrive in the UK from all around the world and for many students this is their first experience of living in new society. Because of culture difference, International students may face some difficulties.

  6. Performance measurement of workplace change: in two different cultural contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaiwat Riratanaphong

    2014-01-01

    in different contexts. Two organisations in Thailand and one organisation in The Netherlands were selected to serve as case studies. The impact of culture was explored as a contextual background.Research methodsBased on literature review an overview of performance measurement systems and measures has been developed. The list of corporate real estate performance measures has been classified in six categories according to Bradley (2002 and subsequently compared with the findings from the case studies. The six categories include: 1 stakeholder perception, 2 financial health, 3 organisational development, 4 productivity, 5 environmental responsibility and 6 cost efficiency. The impact of workplace change was examined using the work environment diagnosis instrument (WODI questionnaire which evaluates employees’ responses to the changed work environment in three areas: employee satisfaction, perceived productivity support and prioritised aspects (Maarleveld, et al., 2009. The Organisational Culture Assessment Instrument (OCAI; Cameron and Quinn, 2006 was used to assess organisational culture. National culture was measured by using the Value Survey Module 94 (VSM94; Hofstede, 1997.Research findingsThe conceptual framework that came to the fore from the literature review showed to be useful for both theoretical understanding of performance measurement and practical applications. Proposed performance measures have been applied in all three case studies but in different ways. The three case studies showed that performance measurement of an organisation is multi-dimensional. It includes several performance criteria and performance measures beyond cost efficiency. All seven performance criteria mentioned by Sink and Tuttle (1989 have been applied in all three cases including effectiveness, efficiency, quality, productivity, quality of worklife, innovation and profitability. The four perspectives of the Balanced Scorecard (financial, customer, internal business process

  7. Cultural Differences Reflected in English and Chinese Idioms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭辉

    2012-01-01

      Idioms can reflect a nation just like a mirror. As a special form of language, idioms carry a large amount of cultural information such as history, geography, religion, custom, nationality, psychology, etc., and therefore idioms are closely related to culture. Thus people can know much about culture by studying idioms and in turn get bet er understanding of idioms by learning the cultural background behind idioms. In order to communicate with each other fluently, the study of the relationship between the idiom and culture is significant and urgent. This paper analyzes the main causes of cultural dif erences in English and Chinese idioms and il ustrates the manifestations of cultural dif erences. The aim of this thesis is to enhance language learners' intercultural awareness of comprehending and utilizing idioms from dif erent cultures precisely and accurately.

  8. The Impact of Social and Cultural Difference in Relation to Job Loss and Financial Planning: Reflections on the Risk Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Abbott

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is based on data collected as part of a research study which looks at how different social and cultural groups frame, and respond to, the risk of income and/or job loss. Writers like LASH, DOUGLAS and LUPTON have placed an emphasis on the importance of group membership and social categories in structuring response to different types of risk preferring to talk about "risk cultures" rather than "risk society". However, the writers acknowledge that there is little empirical research which explores this. As the first stage of our research, focus groups in two parts of the UK explored the relationship between risk and social difference with an emphasis on the risk of job or income loss. The groups were comprised of lesbian, gay and bisexual people; people from Black and Minority Ethnic backgrounds; Disabled people; and, people who actively practice a religion. Participants did not see strong links between their sexuality, race, or religion and their perceptions of, or responses to, risk. Income, and attitudinal factors were cited as being more important. Disabled people however were much more likely to make connections between being disabled and a range of barriers to responding to risky situations. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0601160

  9. How Are Project Governance Principles Affected by Different National Cultures?

    OpenAIRE

    Tarragüel Pueyo, Luis Felipe; Wu, WanChun

    2014-01-01

    The relation between Culture and Business has caught researchers’ attention long ago; itis not hard to find studies relating to these topics. According to Hofstede et al. (2010, p.18), Hampden-Turner and Trompenaars (2012, p. 8), and Erez and Gati (2004, p. 5),culture can be defined in many levels, for example, organizational culture, and national culture. The field of Business also contains several disciplines, for example, International Business Management, Project Management, and Project G...

  10. Cultural diversity in organizations : Enhancing identification by valuing differences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijters, Kyra; van der Zee, Karen I.; Otten, Sabine

    2008-01-01

    The present research investigated the role of perceived similarity in cultural values (associated with diversity in cultural backgrounds) and an intercultural group climate in predicting identification with both the organization and the work team. The relevance of perceived similarity in cultural va

  11. Cultural Differences in C-E Translation of Advertisements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘畅

    2015-01-01

    As china’s reform and opening up and the gradual establishment of market economy, we have been setting up more and more contact with the whole world. However, cultural difference is an obstacle for both sides. In order to communicate more convenient with western countries, translation is a necessary tool. With translation, we can do business more directly with other countries, improving our fame and comprehensive national strength. But if you want foreigners to purchase your products you have to translate your advertisement slogan which can make foreigners understand the advantages of your products. We can find that the slogan of an ad is often composed of only few words. But what it expresses is profound and lasting. When compile slogans, many rhetoric devices are used. Such as simile、repetition、parallelism and exaggeration.

  12. 20 CFR 423.7 - Acknowledgment of mailed process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Acknowledgment of mailed process. 423.7 Section 423.7 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SERVICE OF PROCESS § 423.7 Acknowledgment of mailed process. The Social Security Administration will not provide a receipt or...

  13. Social Acknowledgments for Children with Disabilities: Effects of Service Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mader, Bonnie; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Examined the effect of service dogs on the social acknowledgment of 5 disabled children of 10-17 years in shopping malls and school playgrounds. Social acknowledgments were more frequent when a service dog was present and more pronounced in shopping malls. (RJC)

  14. Boundaries of Cultural Influence: Construct Activation as a Mechanism for Cultural Differences in Social Perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Ying-Yi; Benet-Martinez, Veronica; Chiu, Chi-Yue; Morris, Michael W.

    2003-01-01

    Examined how applicability of activated cultural knowledge would moderate cultural priming effects. Research with Chinese undergraduate students who had extensive knowledge of Chinese and western culture, and with Chinese-born students at an American university, indicated that seeing American versus Chinese cultural primes affected perception of…

  15. Student nurses' experiences of living and studying in a different culture to their own and the development of cultural sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruddock, Heidi

    With the increase of culturally diverse people residing in Denmark, it has become imperative to provide student nurses with knowledge and skills that will enable them to become culturally sensitive in order interact effectively with clients from culturally diverse backgrounds. The aim of this study...... was to explore whether student nurses develop cultural sensitivity as a consequence of living and studying in a culture that is different from their own. Seven Danish student nurses who had participated in student exchanges in Jamaica, Australia, Malta and Greenland took part in this study. A qualitative...... cultural sensitivity and growing personally. The international learning experiences as a context for developing cultural sensitivity was characterized by periods of psychological stress in the beginning of the exchange, involvement with the people in the host culture, direct patient contact, personal...

  16. DIAGNOSING NATIONAL AND ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE DIFFERENCES: A RESEARCH IN HOTEL ENTERPRISES

    OpenAIRE

    AKDENİZ, Defne; AYTEMİZ SEYMEN, Oya

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to test whether national culture and organizational cultures were isomorphic in accommodation establishments, through Hofstede’s cultural dimensions. Based on data from a survey of 142 employees from multinational hotels in Istanbul, the existence and degree of difference between national and organizational culture were tested. The new culture scores were calculated by calculation formulas derived from the mean scores of each culture dimension. The most important result of th...

  17. "Complicated Bearers of Cultural Difference" : Canadian Magazines and Trade Policy

    OpenAIRE

    McKend, Heather

    2006-01-01

    Describes the history of Canadian policy on magazines, policy designed primarily to protect Canadian culture in a market heavily dominated by U.S. magazines. Canada's traditional strategy has been to consider magazines as a "cultural exception" to trade regulations. In 2005, Canada was the country first to ratify the UNESCO Convention supporting the protection of cultural diversity as a “sovereign responsibility.”

  18. On the Effects And Strategies of Cultural Differences on Business English Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许进

    2015-01-01

    Translation is the communication between two language and cultures,different ethnic groups have different culture.In business communication,the differences between different cultures have great influence on business English translation.we should not only focus on the translation skills,but also improve our cultural apprehension,only in this way can we grasp the essence of business Engl ish translation.

  19. Acknowledging the patient with back pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Janne Brammer; Jørgensen, Lene Bastrup; Norlyk, Annelise

    2015-01-01

    of this literature review is to gain a better understanding of back patients’ illness experiences and to identify, systematise and integrate the findings of different qualitative studies that may elucidate barriers, consequences or focal points in connection with the care and treatment. Methods: The methodology......Rationale and aims: Research shows that back patients’ illness experiences affect their interaction with the healthcare system. It is important to examine the exact nature of these experiences in order to shed valuable light on how back patients perceive their illness and hospitalisation. The aim...... and translates into a certain way of perceiving and explaining illnesses and symptoms. Results: The thematic analysis shows that it is through experiences and memories that we create our identity and consciousness. Ignoring the illness experiences can therefore be seen as disregarding, the patient as a human...

  20. introduction of cultural differences between western countries and japan in new horizon college english

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    由迪思

    2011-01-01

    foreign languages teaching aims at cultivating students with both communication abilities and knowledge about different cultures.thus the introduction of differences between cultures plays a fairly significant role in english teaching.the paper has a review on the texts from new horizon college english that introduce cultural differences between western countries and japan and further analyzes the causes.

  1. A Brief Analysis of Cultural Differences between China and America in Business Negotiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄徐臻

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the influence caused by the culture differences between China and America on business negotiation has aroused enormous attention from the business negotiator. This thesis analyzes the culture differences between China and America in the business negotiation aspect and put forward the practical method to deal with the culture differences between China and America.

  2. Modes and Models for Transcending Cultural Differences in International Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hook, Steven R.

    2011-01-01

    Educators of international students are frequently challenged to cope with a clashing diversity of cultures in a classroom setting. This study examined what sorts of themes and images might resonate across nationalities and cultures, which could then be used as transcultural tools for international educators. The study employed mixed qualitative…

  3. Doing Culture, Doing Race: Everyday Discourses of "Culture" and "Cultural Difference" in the English as a Second Language Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ena

    2015-01-01

    While current conceptualisations of the inextricable connection between language and culture in English language education are largely informed by complex sociocultural theories that view culture as constructed in and through social practices among people, classroom practices continue to be influenced by mainstream discourses of culture that…

  4. Cultural Differences of Kinesics between China and America

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李亦松

    2015-01-01

    Humans' communication behaviors, in a rough way, can be classified into verbal communication and nonverbal communication. Kinesics, which is mainly concerned with postures, gestures, facial expressions, and eye contact etc, plays an important role in nonverbal communication. This paper will focus on discussing the cultural differences of Kinesics between China and America in order to increase the learners' awareness of nonverbal communication and improve their ability of intercultural communication.%人类的交际行为大致可以分为两种:言语交际和非言语交际.体态语(身势语)在非言语交际中具有重要作用,其主要涉及姿态、手势、面部表情和目光接触等.本文将主要讨论中美两国在体态语方面的文化差异,旨在增强学习者的非言语交际意识,提高他们的跨文化交际能力.

  5. Managing the multicultural laboratory, Part I: Tools for understanding cultural differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketchum, S M

    1992-01-01

    This article will help laboratory managers better manage their culturally diverse employees by explaining what is meant by "culture" and by presenting a research-based model for assessing the different values, attitudes, and behaviors exhibited by those of different cultural backgrounds. The useful cross-cultural data presented come from an exciting research analysis compiled by Dutch social psychologist and management consultant, Dr. Geert Hofstede. This multi-national corporate study compared the cultures of more than 40 nationalities using four different cultural characteristics. As members of an empirically based profession, laboratory professionals should welcome some hard data about a soft subject. This model will enable laboratory managers to understand their own cultural biases and will interpret some of the attitudes and behaviors of those with different national or ethnic backgrounds. By understanding the elementary principles of culture and by replacing outdated stereotypes with educated generalizations, clinical laboratory managers can take a vital step toward becoming effective multi-cultural managers.

  6. Acculturation: When Individuals and Groups of Different Cultural Backgrounds Meet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sam, David L; Berry, John W

    2010-07-01

    In cross-cultural psychology, one of the major sources of the development and display of human behavior is the contact between cultural populations. Such intercultural contact results in both cultural and psychological changes. At the cultural level, collective activities and social institutions become altered, and at the psychological level, there are changes in an individual's daily behavioral repertoire and sometimes in experienced stress. The two most common research findings at the individual level are that there are large variations in how people acculturate and in how well they adapt to this process. Variations in ways of acculturating have become known by the terms integration, assimilation, separation, and marginalization. Two variations in adaptation have been identified, involving psychological well-being and sociocultural competence. One important finding is that there are relationships between how individuals acculturate and how well they adapt: Often those who integrate (defined as being engaged in both their heritage culture and in the larger society) are better adapted than those who acculturate by orienting themselves to one or the other culture (by way of assimilation or separation) or to neither culture (marginalization). Implications of these findings for policy and program development and for future research are presented.

  7. Paternity acknowledgment in 2 million birth records from Michigan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Almond

    Full Text Available Out-of-wedlock childbearing is more common in the U.S. than in other countries and becoming more so. A growing share of such non-marital births identify the father, which can create a legal entitlement to child support. Relatively little is known about individual determinants of the decision to establish paternity, in part because of data limitations. In this paper, we evaluate all birth records in Michigan from 1993 to 2006, which have been merged to the paternity registry. In 2006, 30,231 Michigan children, almost one quarter of all Michigan births, were born to unmarried mothers and had paternity acknowledged. We find that births with paternity acknowledged have worse outcomes along various health and socio-economic dimensions relative to births to married parents, but better outcomes relative to births to unmarried parents without paternity acknowledgement. Furthermore, unmarried men who father sons are significantly more likely to acknowledge paternity than fathers of daughters.

  8. Evaluation for citation metrics and peer reviewer acknowledgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Bart N

    2016-10-01

    This editorial discusses the indexing systems that include the Journal of Chiropractic Education, reflects on the increased international participation in chiropractic education scholarly meetings and peer review, and acknowledges the editorial board and peer reviewers for the journal.

  9. The Different Family Values between China and America---from a Cultural Perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Na

    2014-01-01

    With the development of globalization, intercultural contact is becoming increasingly axiomatic and pervasive;however, the values and behaviors of a particular culture may not be understandable and family values may not be acceptable in another culture. Therefore, communication among people from different cultures will become more complex. This paper aims at revealing some different family values possessed by Chinese and Americans and intends to introduce that different cultures have a strong impact on the family values.

  10. Developing Alternative Frameworks for Exploring Intercultural Learning: A Critique of Hofstede's Cultural Difference Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signorini, Paola; Wiesemes, Rolf; Murphy, Roger

    2009-01-01

    Hofstede's model of cultural difference has been used widely for exploring aspects of culture in educational settings. In this paper, we review Hofstede's model and explore some of its limitations, particularly in relation to the field of higher education. These limitations include an oversimplification of cultural differences, inconsistencies…

  11. Culture, language, pedagogy : the place of culture in language teacher education

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    The principles of many international language teacher education programmes are grounded in a relatively homogenous set of ‘Western’ cultural values, even though their participants come from a wide range of different cultural backgrounds. This paper addresses some of the issues surrounding the role of culture in language teacher education and discusses the ways in which cultural phenomena are defined and recognised on such programmes. It argues that language teacher education should acknowledg...

  12. The Differences of Etiquette in Chinese and Western Culture and Oral English Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丹妮

    2014-01-01

    The relation of language to culture is a relation of part to whole. Language is the primary means by which a culture transmits its beliefs, values and norms. There exists great difference between Western culture and Chinese culture indeed. For ex-ample, the etiquette is one of the most conspicuous differences between them. In a general sense, there is different etiquette due to the factors like geographical position, human race difference, religion. This paper demonstrates the different etiquette culture be-tween Western countries and China from greeting, gratitude, compliments and farewell to guide oral English teaching so that stu-dents could cross the barrier on etiquette culture when they communicate with English speakers. The aim of this paper is to arise the attention on etiquette of different cultures for English teachers and combine it with oral English teaching.

  13. Teacher Transculturalism and Cultural Difference: Addressing Racism in Australian Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casinader, Niranjan R.; Walsh, Lucas

    2015-01-01

    The increasing cultural diversity of students in Australia's schools is one of the salient changes in education over the last 30 years. In 2011, nearly half of all Australians had one or more parents born overseas, with migration from China, the Indian subcontinent and Africa increasing during the early 2000s (Australian Bureau of Statistics,…

  14. Cultural differences and economic development of 31 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadler, Scott; Zemanek, James E

    2006-08-01

    To update and extend the empirical research of Hofstede, the influence of culture on 31 nations' economic development was examined and support for modernization theory provided. Per capita gross domestic product, literacy rates, the negative of the population growth rate, and life expectancy development data were collected from 31 countries. The pattern of correlations among measures provided partial support for Hofstede's 1980 findings.

  15. Analyze Culture Difference between China and Spain from Architectural Style

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    单梦宸

    2014-01-01

    With the development of the world, the communication between china and spain become more and more frequently. and the building style between china and spain is very diferent. in this essay, we mainly learn the diferent culture of china and spain from its builing style.

  16. Cultural diversity and saccade similarities: culture does not explain saccade latency differences between Chinese and Caucasian participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, Paul C; Wolohan, Felicity D A

    2014-01-01

    A central claim of cultural neuroscience is that the culture to which an individual belongs plays a key role in shaping basic cognitive processes and behaviours, including eye movement behaviour. We previously reported a robust difference in saccade behaviour between Chinese and Caucasian participants; Chinese participants are much more likely to execute low latency express saccades, in circumstances in which these are normally discouraged. To assess the extent to which this is the product of culture we compared a group of 70 Chinese overseas students (whose primary cultural exposure was that of mainland China), a group of 45 participants whose parents were Chinese but who themselves were brought up in the UK (whose primary cultural exposure was western European) and a group of 70 Caucasian participants. Results from the Schwartz Value Survey confirmed that the UK-Chinese group were culturally similar to the Caucasian group. However, their patterns of saccade latency were identical to the mainland Chinese group, and different to the Caucasian group. We conclude that at least for the relatively simple reflexive saccade behaviour we have investigated, culture cannot explain the observed differences in behaviour.

  17. Leader - Member Exchange in Different Organizational Cultures and Effects to Organizational Burnout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdem Kırkbeşoğlu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of leader- member exchange to burnout syndrome in different organizational cultures. Sample of the study is constituted by 183 participants who work in life insurance companies which represent organic organizational culture and non-life insurance companies which represent mechanical organizational culture. As a result of regression and correlation analysis, it is determined that leader-member exchange in organic organizational culture affects organizational culture negatively and in higher level compared to mechanical organizational cultures.

  18. Cultural differences in perceptual reorganization in US and Piraha adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer M D Yoon

    Full Text Available Visual illusions and other perceptual phenomena can be used as tools to uncover the otherwise hidden constructive processes that give rise to perception. Although many perceptual processes are assumed to be universal, variable susceptibility to certain illusions and perceptual effects across populations suggests a role for factors that vary culturally. One striking phenomenon is seen with two-tone images-photos reduced to two tones: black and white. Deficient recognition is observed in young children under conditions that trigger automatic recognition in adults. Here we show a similar lack of cue-triggered perceptual reorganization in the Pirahã, a hunter-gatherer tribe with limited exposure to modern visual media, suggesting such recognition is experience- and culture-specific.

  19. Maria Montessori and Howard Gardner : Educational development in different cultures

    OpenAIRE

    甲斐, 仁子; KIMIKO, KAI; Fuji Women's University Faculty of Human Life Science, Department of Early Childhood Care and Education

    2007-01-01

    Maria Montessori (1870-1952) proposed her own type of educational program, which she called "scientific pedagogy" because of its distinctive features. Since her first experiment at the "Children's House" in 1907 in Italy, Montessori education has been practiced for almost a century in a variety of cultures. This paper will examine the characteristics of Montessori education in the light of current research. In addition to describing the academic basis of Montessori education, the paper also c...

  20. Cultural Differences in E-Learning: Exploring New Dimensions

    OpenAIRE

    Hameed, Nazia; Shaikh, Maqbool Uddin; Hameed, Fozia; Shamim, Azra

    2016-01-01

    Rapid development of Internet and information technologies has gifted us with a new and diverse mode of learning known as e-learning. In the current era, e-learning has made rapid, influential, universal, interactive, vibrant, and economic development. Now e-learning has become a global mode of education. E-learning means the use of internet, computer and communications technologies to acquire education. Learners with diverse social, cultural, economic, linguistic, and religious backgrounds f...

  1. In vitro propagation of plant virus using different forms of plant tissue culture and modes of culture operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Sharon M-H; Doran, Pauline M

    2009-09-10

    Plant virus accumulation was investigated in vitro using three different forms of plant tissue culture. Suspended cells, hairy roots and shooty teratomas of Nicotiana benthamiana were infected with tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) using the same initial virus:biomass ratio. Viral infection did not affect tissue growth or morphology in any of the three culture systems. Average maximum virus concentrations in hairy roots and shooty teratomas were similar and about an order of magnitude higher than in suspended cells. Hairy roots were considered the preferred host because of their morphological stability in liquid medium and relative ease of culture. The average maximum virus concentration in the hairy roots was 0.82+/-0.14 mg g(-1) dry weight; viral coat protein represented a maximum of approximately 6% of total soluble protein in the biomass. Virus accumulation in hairy roots was investigated further using different modes of semi-continuous culture operation aimed at prolonging the root growth phase and providing nutrient supplementation; however, virus concentrations in the roots were not enhanced compared with simple batch culture. The relative infectivity of virus in the biomass declined by 80-90% during all the cultures tested, irrespective of the form of plant tissue used or mode of culture operation. Hairy root cultures inoculated with a transgenic TMV-based vector in batch culture accumulated green fluorescent protein (GFP); however, maximum GFP concentrations in the biomass were relatively low at 39 microg g(-1) dry weight, probably due to genetic instability of the vector. This work highlights the advantages of using hairy roots for in vitro propagation of TMV compared with shooty teratomas and suspended plant cells, and demonstrates that batch root culture is more effective than semi-continuous operations for accumulation of high virus concentrations in the biomass.

  2. An analogue study of the effects of asian cultural values and counselor multicultural competence on counseling process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lisa C; Kim, Bryan S K; O'Brien, Karen M

    2007-03-01

    One-hundred-and-sixteen Asian American college students viewed analogue videotapes in which an actress portraying a European American female "counselor" expressed cultural values that were either consistent or inconsistent with Asian culture to an actress portraying an Asian American female "client." In addition, the counselor either acknowledged racial differences or did not acknowledge racial differences with the client. The results showed that when the counselor expressed values that were inconsistent with Asian culture, the counselor who acknowledged racial differences was perceived to be more cross-culturally competent than the counselor who did not acknowledge racial differences. Also, the results showed that observer-participants' adherence to the value of conformity to norms was positively associated with their ratings of counselor credibility and crosscultural counseling competence. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Cultural Difference on College Oral English Teaching From the Perspective of EFL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张可

    2012-01-01

    New technology and information systems have created windows through which we may view other societies and cultures in the globe.It is in this.sense that people at times say,"The world seems to be shrinking?".The communication between people of different cultures,the greatest barrier lies not only in the differences of languages,but also in those of cultures,which permeate all aspects of human life.Cultural mistakes are even more serious and irritating than linguistic ones.Therefore,the importance of the target culture teaching has been drawing attention ever since.

  4. Becoming a Doctor in Different Cultures: Toward a Cross-Cultural Approach to Supporting Professional Identity Formation in Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmich, Esther; Yeh, Huei-Ming; Kalet, Adina; Al-Eraky, Mohamed

    2017-01-01

    Becoming a doctor is fundamentally about developing a new, professional identity as a physician, which in and of itself may evoke many emotions. Additionally, medical trainees are increasingly moving from one cultural context to another and are challenged with navigating the resulting shifts in their professional identify. In this Article, the authors aim to address medical professional identity formation from a polyvocal, multidisciplinary, cross-cultural perspective. They delineate the cultural approaches to medical professionalism, reflect on professional identity formation in different cultures and on different theories of identity development, and advocate for a context-specific approach to professional identity formation. In doing so, the authors aim to broaden the developing professional identity formation discourse to include non-Western approaches and notions.

  5. Cultural Differences In Politeness Principle Between China and English-speaking Countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张蕾

    2009-01-01

    Therw are many cultural differences in China and English-speaking Countries.They will cause communication problems if you don't know them.This paper states one of thenr-the differences in politeness principle.And it helps people communicate properly when you are in different cultural background.

  6. How to Deal with Sino-western Cultural Differences in Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    燕莉

    2008-01-01

    The Sino-western cuhural differences in translation are very important. Paying no regard to culture background in translating, we'llnot realize the real communication between to languages.In a word, cultural difference has abundant and complicated content. If translators want to translate excellently, they must have adept basic skillsof the two cultures, and understand differences between two kinds of culture deeply, as well as understand thoroughly the spoken and writtenlanguages of two countries.Based on this consideration, this paper is intended to analyze Sino-western ctdtural differences in four aspects: history, region, custom, religionand thus put forth several translation techniques and methods.

  7. Young Children's Attention to What's Going On: Cultural Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Katie G; Shimpi, Priya M; Rogoff, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    This chapter examines children' attention to surrounding events in which they are not directly involved, a way of learning that fits with the cultural approach of Learning by Observing and Pitching In. Research in instructional settings has found that attention to surrounding events is more common among Indigenous Guatemalan Mayan and some US Mexican-heritage children than among middle-class children from several ethnic backgrounds. We examine this phenomenon in a quasi-naturalistic setting to see if the cultural variation in young children's attention to surrounding events in which they were not directly involved extends beyond instructional settings. During a home visit focused on their younger sibling, 19 Guatemalan Mayan and 18 middle-class European American 3- to 5-year olds were nearby but not addressed, as their mother helped their toddler sibling operate novel objects. The Guatemalan Mayan children more frequently attended to this nearby interaction and other third-party activities, whereas the middle-class European American children more often attended to their own activities in which they were directly involved or they fussed or showed off. The results support the idea that in some Indigenous communities of the Americas where young children are included in a broad range of family and community endeavors, children may be especially inclined to attend to ongoing events, even if they are not directly involved or addressed, compared to European American children whose families have extensive experience in Western school ways.

  8. Reconcilable differences? Human diversity, cultural relativity, and sense of community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townley, Greg; Kloos, Bret; Green, Eric P; Franco, Margarita M

    2011-03-01

    Sense of community (SOC) is one of the most widely used and studied constructs in community psychology. As proposed by Sarason in (The Psychological sense of community: prospects for a community psychology, Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, 1974), SOC represents the strength of bonding among community members. It is a valuable component of community life, and it has been linked to positive mental health outcomes, citizen participation, and community connectedness. However, promotion of SOC can become problematic in community psychology praxis when it conflicts with other core values proposed to define the field, namely values of human diversity, cultural relativity, and heterogeneity of experience and perspective. Several commentators have noted that promotion of SOC can conflict with multicultural diversity because it tends to emphasize group member similarity and appears to be higher in homogeneous communities. In this paper, we introduce the idea of a community-diversity dialectic as part of praxis and research in community psychology. We argue that systematic consideration of cultural psychology perspectives can guide efforts to address a community-diversity dialectic and revise SOC formulations that ultimately will invigorate community research and action. We provide a working agenda for addressing this dialectic, proposing that systematic consideration of the creative tension between SOC and diversity can be beneficial to community psychology.

  9. Listener Responses According to Stuttering Self-Acknowledgment and Modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyungjae; Manning, Walter H.

    2010-01-01

    Given the well-documented understanding that stuttering behavior elicits stereotypically negative responses from listeners, two experiments explored the equivocal results of earlier investigations concerning the potential for self-acknowledgment and modification of stuttering to elicit positive responses from naive (unfamiliar with stuttering)…

  10. Capturing Qualitative Data: Northwestern University Special Libraries' Acknowledgments Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stigberg, Sara; Guittar, Michelle; Morse, Geoffrey

    2015-01-01

    Assessment and supporting data have become of increasing interest in librarianship. In this paper, we describe the development and implementation of the Northwestern University Library Acknowledgments Database tool, which gathers and documents qualitative data, as well as its component reporting function. This collaborative project and resulting…

  11. Acknowledgments to reviewers of World Journal of Biological Chemistry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rong; Shao

    2012-01-01

    We acknowledge our sincere thanks to our reviewers.Many reviewers have contributed their expertise andtime to the peer review, a critical process to ensure thequality of our World Series Journals. Both the editors ofthe journals and authors of the manuscripts submittedto the journals are grateful to the following

  12. Acknowledgments to reviewers of World Journal of Biological Chemistry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    We acknowledge our sincere thanks to our reviewers.Many reviewers have contributed their expertise and time to the peer review,a critical process to ensure the quality of our World Series Journals.Both the editors of the journals and authors of the manuscripts submitted

  13. Acknowledgments to reviewers of World Journal of Biological Chemistry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    We acknowledge our sincere thanks to our reviewers.Many reviewers have contributed their expertise and time to the peer review, a critical process to ensure the quality of our World Series Journals. Both the editors of the journals and authors of the manuscripts

  14. The praxis of acknowledgement: from bibliometrics to influmetrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cronin, B.

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available The practice of acknowledgement in scholarly communication is widespread and growing. Acknowledgements define a variety of cognitive and social relationships between researchers within and across disciplines, and could thus be used to map networks of influence. We explore the relationship between authorship, acknowledgement and citation -the «Reward Triangle»- in the context of the academic audit process. We also consider the case for using acknowledgement data conjointly with established bibliometric indicators, such as citations, in performance assessment.

    El uso del agradecimiento está muy extendido en la comunicación académica y tiende a aumentar. El agradecimiento sirve para definir una serie de relaciones sociales y de conocimiento entre investigadores de una disciplina, así como vinculación con otras áreas del saber y, por eso, puede utilizarse para hacer un diseño de redes de influencia. En este artículo se explora la relación entre autores, agradecimientos y citas -el «triángulo del reconocimiento»- en el contexto de la evaluación académica. Los autores también consideran la posible utilización de datos procedentes del agradecimiento conjuntamente con otros indicadores bibliométricos, tales como las citas, en las evaluaciones.

  15. Rate adaptation using acknowledgement feedback: Throughput upper bounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ho, C.K.; Oostveen, J.; Linnartz, J.-P.

    2008-01-01

    We consider packet-by-packet rate adaptation to maximize the throughput over a finite-state Markov channel. To limit the amount of feedback data, we use past packet acknowledgements (ACKs) and past rates as channel state information. It is known that the maximum achievable throughput is computationa

  16. The pragmatics of culture: the rhetoric of difference in psychiatric nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, S W

    1990-10-01

    Culture becomes an issue in the treatment of psychiatric patients from diverse cultural backgrounds. Inpatient psychiatry at an urban, general hospital in San Francisco, California, has developed specialized treatment programs for Hispanic, black, and Asian-Pacific patients. These patients are recognized as culturally distinct; their cultural situations must be addressed by a program of culturally sensitive nursing care. The implementation of such a program has not generally led to serious cultural analysis on the part of nurses and other caregivers but rather, to a rhetorical and strategic use of the concept of culture and a stereotyping of traits, styles, and beliefs. This article critically examines this rhetoric of cultural difference as an aspect of the rhetoric of normalization practiced in this setting.

  17. The Exploration of Differences on Politeness Between Western and Western and Chinese Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祖洁

    2008-01-01

    This paper discisses the cultural diffefences on politeness between western and Chinese by means of contrast.in-dicating that due to different culmral background,historic background,traditional customs and so on.there are many differ-ences on politeness in daily communication Today.etiquette becomes the reflection and manifestation of one country's poll-tics,economy,culture in people's social contact.And it includes the principal and moral that people should obey in daily life.So it is important for us to legrn western culture.This paper also will discuss how to leam wcsrtem culture.There are many ways for learning western culture.Therefore.It is practically useful to know and study the differences.thus promoting the cultural communication.

  18. On the Sino-British cultural differences and their Impact on English Ianguage teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周健

    2009-01-01

    language and culture are closely rdlatd,language is not only the most important human communication tools,is also a cultural carrier.All our words and deeds are,consciously or unconsciously,reflect a certain culture.Manycultural phenomena can be reflected in language.Chinese and English text is based on the basis of different languages.Chinese people should learn English well,can not be ignored in the Sino-British cultural differences.Article from the Sino-British inter-culrural differences,the sub-culrural background knowledge on the impact of language learning,the teaching in English to understand cultural differences between China and Britain to cultivate Cross-cultural communication and awarenem of the need for major route of transmission.

  19. Culture-related differences in aspects of behavior for virtual characters across Germany and Japan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Endrass, Birgit; André, Elisabeth; Rehm, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    Integrating culture as a parameter into the behavioral models of virtual characters in order to simulate cultural differences is becoming more and more popular. But do these differences affect the user's perception? In the work described in this paper, we integrated aspects of non-verbal behavior...... as well as communication management behavior into the behavior of virtual characters for the two cultures of Germany and Japan. We give a literature review pointing out the expected differences in these two cultures and describe the analysis of a multi-modal corpus including video recordings of German...

  20. Cultural Differences in Values as Self-Guides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Wing-Yee; Maio, Gregory R; Rees, Kerry J; Kamble, Shanmukh; Mane, Sangeetha

    2016-06-01

    Three studies tested whether individualism-collectivism moderates the extent to which values are endorsed as ideal self-guides and ought self-guides, and the consequences for regulatory focus and emotion. Across Studies 1 and 2, individualists endorsed values that are relatively central to the self as stronger ideals than oughts, whereas collectivists endorsed them as ideals and oughts to a similar degree. Study 2 found that individualists justified central values using reasons that were more promotion focused than prevention focused, whereas collectivists used similar amount of prevention-focused and promotion-focused reasons. In Study 3, individualists felt more dejected after violating a central (vs. peripheral) value and more agitated after violating a peripheral (vs. central) value. Collectivists felt a similar amount of dejection regardless of values centrality and more agitation after violating central (vs. peripheral) values. Overall, culture has important implications for how we regulate values that are central or peripheral to our self-concept.

  1. Cross-cultural similarities and differences in shopping for food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunsø, Karen; Grunert, Klaus G.

    1998-01-01

    This study deals with a concept called food-related life style. We define the concept of food-related life style as a mental construct explaining behaviour in relation to the product class 'foods', and describe the concept as a system of cognitive categories, scripts, and their associations, whic...... relate a set of products to a set of values. On the basis of these theoretical assumptions, a measure-ment instrument has been developed, applied and tested in a cross-culturally valid way. Udgivelsesdato: JUN......This study deals with a concept called food-related life style. We define the concept of food-related life style as a mental construct explaining behaviour in relation to the product class 'foods', and describe the concept as a system of cognitive categories, scripts, and their associations, which...

  2. Culture as an Explanation of Technology Acceptance Differences: An Empirical Investigation of Chinese and US Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Srite

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the issue of the acceptance of technology across two cultures. To do this an extended technology acceptance model was tested in China and the US. Over one hundred participants, across both cultures, were surveyed as to their perceptions regarding technology acceptance. Cultural values were also measured for each group. Structural equation modeling was used to assess the research model. In general, the model explained a more than adequate amount of variance and achieved acceptable levels of significance. Differences across the two cultures were explained utilizing the cultural values of the participants. Implications for both research and practice were provided

  3. Impedance Spectroscopic Characterisation of Porosity in 3D Cell Culture Scaffolds with Different Channel Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canali, Chiara; Mohanty, Soumyaranjan; Heiskanen, Arto

    2015-01-01

    We present the application of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) as a method for discriminating between different polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) scaffolds for three-dimensional (3D) cell cultures. The validity of EIS characterisation for scaffolds having different degree of porosity...... serve as means of single-frequency measurements for fast scaffold characterization combined with in vitro monitoring of 3D cell cultures....

  4. Differences of metaphors in Chinese and English advertising slogans-from cultural perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宁; 王永祥

    2014-01-01

    Metaphor is not only a language phenomenon but also a tool of human cog-nition and thoughts. Metaphors are widely used in advertising slogans. Because of the differences between Chinese and western cultures, the metaphors are also different. In this paper, the author will apply concep-tual metaphor theory to analyze metaphors in both Chinese and English advertising slogans from cultural perspective.

  5. What differences in the cultural backgrounds of partners are detrimental for international joint ventures?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.G. Barkema (Harry); G.A.M. Vermeulen (Freek)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractAn international joint venture implies that a firm has to cooperate with a partner with a different cultural background. In this study, hypotheses about which differences in national culture are most disruptive for international joint ventures were developed and tested using Hofstede's f

  6. A LOOK AT CULTURAL BARRIERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen A. VRÂNCEANU

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the global market allows each individual to work in foreign countries. This fact is a great opportunity for business development, but also puts into light the problem of cultural barriers. Ineffective cross-cultural communication and collaboration can harm employees, customers, and other stakeholders. A company with employees from different cultures must acknowledge and understand these barriers in order to overcome them and to obtain the desired performance. The present study aims to expose the cultural barriers encountered by foreigners in a multinational company from Romania.

  7. The Differences of Silence between Chinese and American Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    巩飞

    2015-01-01

    Language is an important means of human communication; and silence can also convey a wealth of information.This paper will interpret the different definitions of silence phenomena between China and America and two different attitudes and representations of silence.It will help us to improve the effectiveness of communication.

  8. Cultural differences in affect intensity perception in the context of advertising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna ePogosyan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Cultural differences in the perception of positive affect intensity within an advertising context were investigated among American, Japanese and Russian participants. Participants were asked to rate the intensity of facial expressions of positive emotions, which displayed either subtle, low intensity or salient, high intensity expressions of positive affect. In agreement with previous findings from cross-cultural psychological research, current results demonstrate both cross-cultural agreement and differences in the perception of positive affect intensity across the three cultures. Specifically, American participants perceived high arousal images as significantly less calm than participants from the other two cultures, while the Japanese participants perceived low arousal images as significantly more excited than participants from the other cultures. The underlying mechanisms of these cultural differences were further investigated through difference scores that probed for cultural differences in perception and categorization of positive emotions. Findings indicate that rating differences are due to (1 perceptual differences in the extent to which high arousal images were discriminated from low arousal images, and (2 categorization differences in the extent to which facial expressions were grouped into affect intensity categories. Specifically, American participants revealed significantly higher perceptual differentiation between arousal levels of facial expressions in high and intermediate intensity categories. Japanese participants, on the other hand, did not discriminate between high and low arousal affect categories to the same extent as did the American and Russian participants. These findings indicate the presence of cultural differences in underlying decoding mechanisms of facial expressions of positive affect intensity. Implications of these results for cross-cultural communication and global advertising are discussed.

  9. Welcome to Country: Acknowledgement, Belonging and White Anti-racism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Kowal

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Welcome to Country (WTC ceremony and its twin, the Acknowledgement of Traditional Owners, have become prominent anti-racist rituals in the post-settler society of Australia. These rituals are rich in meaning. They are simultaneously emblems of colonisation and dispossession; of recognition and reconciliation; and a periodic focus of political posturing. This article analyses the multiple meanings of WTC ceremonies. In particular, I explore the politics of belonging elicited by WTC and Acknowledgement rituals. Drawing on ethnography of non-Indigenous people who work in Indigenous affairs, I argue that widespread enjoyment of these rituals among White anti-racists is explained because they paradoxically experience belonging through a sense of not belonging.

  10. Cultural Differences in Business Negotiation Etiquette between China and the U.S.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶颖

    2014-01-01

    With the rapid development of economic trade between China and the U.S., business contacts of the two countries become much frequently and the importance of business negotiation etiquette becomes obvious. This paper emphasizes the cultural differences in business negotiation etiquette, makes an effort to highlight the reasons, conflicts and impacts on business negotiation. At last, the paper puts forward several suggestions in reconciling cultural differences in order to make negotiations develop smoothly. It can be concluded that the study on business etiquette between east and west from the point of cultural differences, taking China and the United States as an example, is beneficial to enhance negotiators’awareness in cultural differences, cultivation in etiquette and mutual understanding in negotiation and also is the key to successful business contacts in cross-culture.

  11. Cultural Differences Between American and Traditional Chinese Natalia Jing from DAIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    本文主要从以下几方面来分析美国文化和中国传统文化的差别:两种文化对人和自然的关系、人和人的关系、对时间的态度、以及价值观念的影响。%This paper explores the overall differences between American culture and traditional Chinese culture.The study shows that there are great distinctions between two cultures under the aspects of person-nature relationship;individualism and collectivism;assertiveness and interpersonal harmony.This paper attempts to observe the differences between American culture and traditional Chinese culture through comparing and understanding the basic value strictures in both cultures.

  12. Protocorm development of Epidendrum fulgens (Orchidaceae in response to different saline formulations and culture conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Gerent Voges

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The asymbiotic technique of orchid seeds germination is an important method of mass production of seedlings. Studies on the best culture conditions for each species are important to obtain seedlings in less time and at lower costs. Current analysis evaluates different consistencies of culture medium, saline formulations and culture conditions on the germination rate and further development of protocorms of Epidendrum fulgens. After 45 days in culture the protocorms were classified into three categories of development. The liquid saline formulation of Murashige and Skoog (1962 (MS provided the highest germination rate (83.5%, and the Knudson formulation (1946 the lowest (10.9%. The different consistencies or conditions or culture conditions did not affect the germination rate percentage, except the Knudson medium, which resulted in the highest rate in response to the gelled consistency. Protocorms cultured in liquid MS medium with or without agitation showed the fastest development.

  13. The Cultural Differences of Non-verbal Communication between Western Countries and China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周月

    2013-01-01

      Communication behavior consists of verbal and nonverbal communication. Nonverbal communication between human beings has drawn great attention to its study and research nowadays. The paper tries to show the culture differences in non-verbal communication through body language, paralanguage, object language, and environmental language. The ultimate goal of this paper is to improve such kinds of awareness and get a better understanding of cultural differences among different countries in the aspect of nonverbal communication so as to help smooth our communication barriers with people of different culture background.

  14. Spontaneous aneuploidy and clone formation in adipose tissue stem cells during different periods of culturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyanovskaya, O A; Kuleshov, N P; Nikitina, V A; Voronina, E S; Katosova, L D; Bochkov, N P

    2009-07-01

    Cytogenetic analysis of 13 mesenchymal stem cell cultures isolated from normal human adipose tissue was carried out at different stages of culturing. The incidence of chromosomes 6, 8, 11, and X aneuploidy and polyploidy was studied by fluorescent in situ hybridization. During the early passages, monosomal cells were more often detected than trisomal ones. A clone with chromosome 6 monosomy was detected in three cultures during late passages.

  15. Differences in Chinese and Western culture of color words

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洋

    2013-01-01

    Color is a kind of light visual effect through the eyes,brain and our life experiences arising. The physical characteristics of people sometimes different colors produce substances called color directly. Every day people living in the colorful environment,blue sky,white clouds (blue) (white) ,safflower (red) ,green (green) ,night (black) . . . . . . Expression of color word in the people’s daily clear and vivid description of things has a great role.

  16. Teaching "Understanding Cultural Differences for Business" in an Internet-Based Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Anthony C.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to offer a successful pedagogy in the teaching of "Understanding Culture Differences for Business" using Internet sources. The use of the pedagogy has helped the author and several faculty (in the author's University located in the U.S.) to popularize the learning of the origins of national culture and how culture…

  17. Conflicts and Methods of Handling Differences Between Chinese and American Culture in the Movie Pushing Hand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xue

    2015-01-01

    The movie Pushing Hands demonstrated the conflicts in the process of intercultural communication between China and western countries, revealing different perspectives of culture values. However, these conflicts of intercultural communication can be handled by accepting and communicating, and understanding others' cultures.

  18. The popularity of domestic cultural products: cross-national differences and the relation to globalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekhuis, H.

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation addressed the popularity of domestic cultural consumption. It aimed at describing and explaining the extent to which the popularity of domestic cultural consumption differs between countries and over time. We studied the popularity of domestic versus foreign film productions, the p

  19. A comparative Study of Cultural Differences in business Communication between China and America

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张桂玲

    2011-01-01

    This thesis reveals deep cultural differences between Chinese and Americans,through a thorough comparative analysis of the respective sources:collectivism of Chinese and individualism of Americans.Besides,it suggests many practical guidelines and information on how to conduct negotiations with Americans,to avoid cultural conflicts and to get a win-win result in the economic globalization.

  20. Choice of Appropriate Multimedia Technology and Teaching Methods for Different Culture Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taratoukhina, Julia

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the prerequisites for development in the area of cross-cultural multimedia didactics. This approach is based on research studies of differences between mentalities, ways of working with educational information, culturally-specific teaching methods and teaching techniques that determine differentiated approaches to the choice…

  1. Cultural Difference of Paralanguage Use between Chinese and American TV Talk Show Hosts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘君红

    2014-01-01

    Study of cultural difference of paralanguage use between Chinese and American TV talk show hosts is important for in⁃tercultural communication. The result shows that American TV talk show host uses more paralanguage signals than her Chinese counterpart. And American host uses more types of paralanguage signals than her Chinese counterpart. The difference of paralangue use indicates the cultural difference between China and America on the values of equality vs. hierarchy and individual⁃ism vs. collectivism. The study is significant in that it helps us to understand the hidden cultural values in TV talk shows and pro⁃motes nonverbal communication.

  2. On the Differences between Chinese and Western Culture--From Fighting Against the Flood of King Yu to Noah's Ark

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张长江

    2015-01-01

    With the increasing cross-culture communication, more and more linguists come to realize that the cultural gap is a large obstacle in cultural transition and social intercourse.This paper discusses the differences between Chinese and Western culture from King Yu combating the flood to Noah's Ark to help Chinese communicate with westerners and develop Cross-Cultural Communication smoothly.

  3. Models and mosaics: investigating cross-cultural differences in risk perception and risk preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, E U; Hsee, C K

    1999-12-01

    In this article, we describe a multistudy project designed to explain observed cross-national differences in risk taking between respondents from the People's Republic of China and the United States. Using this example, we develop the following recommendations for cross-cultural investigations. First, like all psychological research, cross-cultural studies should be model based. Investigators should commit themselves to a model of the behavior under study that explicitly specifies possible causal constructs or variables hypothesized to influence the behavior, as well as the relationship between those variables, and allows for individual, group, or cultural differences in the value of these variables or in the relationship between them. This moves the focus from a simple demonstration of cross-national differences toward a prediction of the behavior, including its cross-national variation. Ideally, the causal construct hypothesized and shown to differ between cultures should be demonstrated to serve as a moderator or a mediator between culture and observed behavioral differences. Second, investigators should look for converging evidence for hypothesized cultural effects on behavior by looking at multiple dependent variables and using multiple methodological approaches. Thus, the data collection that will allow for the establishment of conclusive causal connections between a cultural variable and some target behavior can be compared with the creation of a mosaic.

  4. Do Persian and English Dissertation Acknowledgments Accommodate Hyland’s Model: a Cross-Linguistic Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Javad Mohammadi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, genre analysis has attracted many researchers' attention. The present study was to observe the differences in generic structure of doctoral dissertation acknowledgements texts written by native speakers of Persian (NSP and native speakers of English (NSE. To this end, 80 Persian acknowledgement texts and the same number of English dissertations acknowledgement texts were selected. The model relied on in the current study was Hyland’s (2004 model. After analyzing each text the main moves and their steps were extracted and the frequencies of each one were calculated and compared. Also, chi-square test was applied to check the meaningfulness of the differences. The result revealed a high degree of match between the two groups in exploiting most moves and steps. Also, the two groups employed the reflective move and accepting responsibility step in a statistically meaningful manner. In addition, a new step called ''thanking God'' step was discovered throughout this study which the difference in using this step between NSP and NSE was statistically significant.

  5. Children in Asian cultures say yes to yes-no questions: Common and cultural differences between Vietnamese and Japanese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okanda, Mako; Itakura, Shoji

    2008-03-01

    We investigated whether children's response tendency toward yes-no questions concerning objects is a common phenomenon regardless of languages and cultures. Vietnamese and Japanese 2- to 5-year-old (N = 108) were investigated. We also examined whether familiarity with the questioning issue has any effect on Asian children's yes bias. As the result, Asian children showed a yes bias to yes-no questions. The children's response tendency changes dramatically with their age: Vietnamese and Japanese 2- and 3-year-olds showed a yes bias, but 5-year-olds did not. However, Asian 4-year-olds also showed a yes bias only in the familiar condition. Also, Asian children showed a stronger yes bias in the familiar condition than the unfamiliar condition. These two findings in Asian children were different from the previous finding investigated North American children (Fritzley & Lee, 2003). Moreover, there was a within-Asian cross-cultural difference. Japanese children showed different response tendencies, which were rarely observed in Vietnamese children. Japanese 2-year-olds and some 3-year-olds showed a "no answer" response: they tended not to respond to an interviewer's questions. Japanese 4- and 5-year-olds also showed an "I don't know" response when they were asked about unfamiliar objects. Japanese children tended to avoid a binary decision. We discussed the cross-cultural differences.

  6. CULTURAL DIFFERENCES IDENTIFICATION AND ITS EFFECT ON E-SERVICE QUALITY PERCEPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Al-Nasser

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cultural differences are one of many forces influencing consumer decision making and the effect of cultural differences on the development and use of information and communication technologies. As different companies are not taking their business outside geographic boundaries, the global activities are opened to a large degree via current communication and information technologies. The aim of the study is to determine the cultural differences identification and its effect on E-service quality perception. A quantitative research design was adopted to collect data. Multiple regression analysis method was used to conduct this study. The findings of the study will contribute to both theory and practice. The results of this study have important contributions and implications for practitioners and policy-makers. This study contributed to the field of service quality expectations relationship with online shopping in the context of developing countries. It also examined the impact of culture on the service quality consumer expectations.

  7. The views of registered nursing students from different cultures on attitude and knowledge regarding elderly sexuality

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Shan; Chen, Lihong; Han, Ruwang

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the knowledge and the attitude of registered nursing students regarding elderly sexuality, in order to raise the awareness of sexual needs of the aging. This study also aims to identify attitude towards elderly sexuality among registered nursing students from different cultural backgrounds. The research questions of this thesis are: What is the attitude towards elderly sexuality among students from different cultural backgrounds? To what extent does reg...

  8. Different Connotations of “Modesty” Lying in Western and Eastern Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    涂艳

    2015-01-01

    as a common morality,politeness is the symbol of human civilization and a primary principle abided by people in interpersonal communication.However,the standard and the way of expression of politeness are fluctuated with different culture.This essay takes analysis on different connotations of "modesty" lying in the western culture and eastern culture deeply and explains the cause for that,for the purpose of helping people avoid pragmatic mistake in intercultural communication at the best to achieve considerable communicative effect.

  9. Gun Cultures or Honor Cultures? Explaining Regional and Race Differences in Weapon Carrying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felson, Richard B.; Pare, Paul-Philippe

    2010-01-01

    We use the National Violence against Women (and Men) Survey to examine the effects of region and race on the tendency to carry weapons for protection. We find that Southern and Western whites are much more likely than Northern whites to carry guns for self-protection, controlling for their risk of victimization. The difference between Southern and…

  10. Managing the multi-cultural laboratory, Part II: Tools for managing the differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketchum, S M

    1992-01-01

    This second article provides practical advice from managers in a variety of industries who have first-hand experience as multi-cultural managers. It will help laboratory professionals make practical application of two conceptual models in managing their culturally diverse employees. The advice covers such areas as performance standards, interpersonal skills, language issues, and other management practices. The first article explained what is meant by "culture" and featured the research-based model set forth by Dutch social psychologist and management consultant, Dr. Geert Hofstede. His four dimensions of culture (Power Distance, Masculinity/Femininity, Individualism/Collectivism, and Uncertainty Avoidance) provide a useful framework for assessing the different values, attitudes, and behaviors exhibited by those of different cultural backgrounds. In this article, abbreviated reference tables are presented that make these cross-cultural data more useful for management decision making. Laboratory supervisors can use both the models and the advice to challenge their own built-in cultural biases and to meaningfully interpret some of the attitudes and behaviors of culturally diverse coworkers and employees.

  11. Cultural Differences and English Teaching--Introducing culture through Language Teaching%文化差异和英语教学

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付琼成

    2001-01-01

    中西方文化存在着很大差异.由于文化差异在交际中产生的影响和出现的问题,给英语教学带来一定的困难.因此要重视这些影响和问题在英语教学中的重要性,并相应地提出在英语教学中解决这些问题的方法和途径.%This thesis explains culture and cultural differences between China and western countries. An analysis of problcms caused in communition without knowing cultural differences is provided.The problems embody the importance of teaching culture. English must be taught with its culture.The appoaches of introducing culture in English suggest language can be learned in culture and culture should be taught in language. Meanwhile teacher's knowledge of culture is emphasized.

  12. Fresh and vitrified bovine preantral follicles have different nutritional requirements during in vitro culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, S V; Carvalho, A A; Silva, C M G; Santos, F W; Campello, C C; Figueiredo, J R; Rodrigues, A P R

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the efficiency of different media for the in vitro culturing of fresh and vitrified bovine ovarian tissues. Fragments of the ovarian cortex were subjected to vitrification and histological and viability analyses or were immediately cultured in vitro using the alfa minimum essential medium, McCoy's 5A medium (McCoy), or medium 199 (M199). Samples of different culture media were collected on days 1 (D1) and 5 (D5) for quantification of reactive oxygen species and for hormonal assays. In non-vitrified (i.e., fresh) ovarian tissue cultures, the percentage of morphologically normal follicles was significantly greater than that recorded for the other media (e.g., M199). In the case of previously vitrified tissues, the McCoy medium was significantly superior to the other media in preserving follicular morphology up until the last culture day (i.e., D5), thus maintaining a similar percentage from D1 to D5. Reactive oxygen species levels were higher in D1 vitrified cultured tissues, but there were no differences in the levels among the three media after 5 days. The hormonal assays showed that in the case of previously vitrified tissues, at D5, progesterone levels increased on culture in the M199 medium and estradiol levels increased on culture in the McCoy medium. In conclusion, our results indicate that the use of M199 would be recommended for fresh tissue cultures and of McCoy for vitrified tissue cultures.

  13. [The birth of acknowledgement: Michel Foucault and Werner Leibbrand].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mildenberger, Florian

    2006-01-01

    In 1964, Werner Leibbrand (1896-1974) was the first German medical historian to present, in Sudhoffs Archiv, a review of the work of Michel Foucault (1926-1984). This paper examines some of the reasons leading to the fact that Leibbrand's own generation refused to acknowledge the importance of Foucault's ideas, while, later on, younger German medical historians, although impressed with Foucault's writings, failed to acknowledge, first, the close relationship between Leibbrand's and Foucault's world views, and, second, Leibbrand's attempts at introducing Foucault to German medical historians. Leibbrand with his Jewish wife had survived the Nazi period partly in hiding. His attempts at clearing post-war German psychiatry and medical historiography of NS-sympathizers isolated him among his colleagues, many of whom had begun their career during the Third Reich. Leibbrand enjoyed the support by the Swiss medical historian and avowed Communist Erwin Ackerknecht (1906-1988), but later turned against him, possibly because Acknerknecht had called Leibbrand's writings "unscientific". Leibbrand was unable to overcome his antagonisms with his contemporaries. At the same time, opposition to Ackerknecht made him appear a respresentative of the past in the eyes of the younger generation. Thus, when Foucault was accepted by the latter, they were not prepared to examine the work of Leibbrand and realize how close some of the ideas developed by Leibbrand and Foucault had been.

  14. On the origins of cultural differences in conformity: four tests of the pathogen prevalence hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Damian R; Trudeau, Russell; Schaller, Mark

    2011-03-01

    What are the origins of cultural differences in conformity? The authors deduce the hypothesis that these cultural differences may reflect historical variability in the prevalence of disease-causing pathogens: Where pathogens were more prevalent, there were likely to emerge cultural norms promoting greater conformity. The authors conducted four tests of this hypothesis, using countries as units of analysis. Results support the pathogen prevalence hypothesis. Pathogen prevalence positively predicts cultural differences in effect sizes that emerge from behavioral conformity experiments (r=.49, n=17) and in the percentage of the population who prioritize obedience (r=.48, n=83). Pathogen prevalence also negatively predicted two indicators of tolerance for nonconformity: within-country dispositional variability (r=-.48, n=33) and the percentage of the population who are left-handed (r=-.73, n=20). Additional analyses address plausible alternative causal explanations. Discussion focuses on plausible underlying mechanisms (e.g., genetic, developmental, cognitive).

  15. Cultural differences in survey responding: Issues and insights in the study of response biases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemmelmeier, Markus

    2016-12-01

    This paper introduces the special section "Cultural differences in questionnaire responding" and discusses central topics in the research on response biases in cross-cultural survey research. Based on current conceptions of acquiescent, extreme, and socially desirable responding, the author considers current data on the correlated nature of response biases and the conditions under which different response styles they emerge. Based on evidence relating different response styles to the cultural dimension of individualism-collectivism, the paper explores how research presented as part of this special section might help resolves some tensions in this literature. The paper concludes by arguing that response styles should not be treated merely as measurement error, but as cultural behaviors in themselves.

  16. On the Differences between Chinese and American Dinning Cultures in the Joy Luck Club

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴婷

    2016-01-01

    In The Joy Luck Club Tan offers a new interpretation of mother-daughter relationships and culture conflicts be-tween the Chinese and American. This novel tells stories of eight women, four mothers and their American-born daughters. The mothers as the first immigrant generation abandon their mother land behind and live in a foreign land, but they still adhere to traditional Chinese values and customs. The daughters, however, born and living in America, have different values from their mothers. As a result, disparities in background and values cause cultural conflicts. Although culture differences emerge in varied aspects, this paper attempts to focus on the dining culture differences between China and America in the novel and the influences the disparities result in.

  17. The Chinese-English Cultural Differences and Impacts of Advertising Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苗贵娜

    2013-01-01

    Advertisement is not only an economic activity, but also a kind of cultural exchange. Advertisement, being a manifestation of language in action, is a widely used medium of communication in modern society. The translation of advertisement must be accurate and fluent. Accuracy in the translation of advertisement lies in pragmatic meaning. The translation of advertising English is obviously different from other styles. The translator should possess the knowledge in language, social culture, folk-custom, aesthetics, psychics, marketing economics and advertising theory and so on. Using advertising language brings various difficulties resulting from the differences in cultures and languages among countries. This paper argues that the cultural differences between Chinese and English and its impacts ,also its focuses on the theory of adaptation to do the translation well.

  18. Increasing Diversity in Computer Science: Acknowledging, yet Moving Beyond, Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Elizabeth A.; Stubbs, Margaret L.

    Lack of diversity within the computer science field has, thus far, been examined most fully through the lens of gender. This article is based on a follow-on to Margolis and Fisher's (2002) study and includes interviews with 33 Carnegie Mellon University students from the undergraduate senior class of 2002 in the School of Computer Science. We found evidence of similarities among the perceptions of these women and men on definitions of computer science, explanations for the notoriously low proportion of women in the field, characterizations of a typical computer science student, impressions of recent curricular changes, a sense of the atmosphere/culture in the program, views of the Women@SCS campus organization, and suggestions for attracting and retaining well-rounded students in computer science. We conclude that efforts to increase diversity in the computer science field will benefit from a more broad-based approach that considers, but is not limited to, notions of gender difference.

  19. Co-variation of tonality in the music and speech of different cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shui' er; Sundararajan, Janani; Bowling, Daniel Liu; Lake, Jessica; Purves, Dale

    2011-01-01

    Whereas the use of discrete pitch intervals is characteristic of most musical traditions, the size of the intervals and the way in which they are used is culturally specific. Here we examine the hypothesis that these differences arise because of a link between the tonal characteristics of a culture's music and its speech. We tested this idea by comparing pitch intervals in the traditional music of three tone language cultures (Chinese, Thai and Vietnamese) and three non-tone language cultures (American, French and German) with pitch intervals between voiced speech segments. Changes in pitch direction occur more frequently and pitch intervals are larger in the music of tone compared to non-tone language cultures. More frequent changes in pitch direction and larger pitch intervals are also apparent in the speech of tone compared to non-tone language cultures. These observations suggest that the different tonal preferences apparent in music across cultures are closely related to the differences in the tonal characteristics of voiced speech.

  20. Co-variation of tonality in the music and speech of different cultures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shui' er Han

    Full Text Available Whereas the use of discrete pitch intervals is characteristic of most musical traditions, the size of the intervals and the way in which they are used is culturally specific. Here we examine the hypothesis that these differences arise because of a link between the tonal characteristics of a culture's music and its speech. We tested this idea by comparing pitch intervals in the traditional music of three tone language cultures (Chinese, Thai and Vietnamese and three non-tone language cultures (American, French and German with pitch intervals between voiced speech segments. Changes in pitch direction occur more frequently and pitch intervals are larger in the music of tone compared to non-tone language cultures. More frequent changes in pitch direction and larger pitch intervals are also apparent in the speech of tone compared to non-tone language cultures. These observations suggest that the different tonal preferences apparent in music across cultures are closely related to the differences in the tonal characteristics of voiced speech.

  1. Proud Americans and lucky Japanese: cultural differences in appraisal and corresponding emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imada, Toshie; Ellsworth, Phoebe C

    2011-04-01

    Appraisal theories of emotion propose that the emotions people experience correspond to their appraisals of their situation. In other words, individual differences in emotional experiences reflect differing interpretations of the situation. We hypothesized that in similar situations, people in individualist and collectivist cultures experience different emotions because of culturally divergent causal attributions for success and failure (i.e., agency appraisals). In a test of this hypothesis, American and Japanese participants recalled a personal experience (Study 1) or imagined themselves to be in a situation (Study 2) in which they succeeded or failed, and then reported their agency appraisals and emotions. Supporting our hypothesis, cultural differences in emotions corresponded to differences in attributions. For example, in success situations, Americans reported stronger self-agency emotions (e.g., proud) than did Japanese, whereas Japanese reported a stronger situation-agency emotion (lucky). Also, cultural differences in attribution and emotion were largely explained by differences in self-enhancing motivation. When Japanese and Americans were induced to make the same attribution (Study 2), cultural differences in emotions became either nonsignificant or were markedly reduced.

  2. Simulating the Cinema Market : How cross-cultural differences in social influence explain box office distributions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekhuizen, T.L.J.; Delre, S.A.; Torres, A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper uses a mixed method approach to show how cross-cultural differences in social influences can explain differences in distributions of market shares in different markets. First, we develop a realistic agent-based model that mimics the behavior of movie visitors and incorporates the social i

  3. East-West Cultural Bias and Creativity: We Are Alike and We Are Different

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, James C.; Lan, Lan

    2012-01-01

    Persson (2012a) correctly raises the question of how cultural biases may impact giftedness research. He alludes to East-West differences in perceptions of creativity and ways that the collectivist-individualistic approaches may lead to differences in creativity perception. In this commentary, the authors discuss different approaches, and attempt…

  4. Age and gender differences in self-esteem-A cross-cultural window.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleidorn, Wiebke; Arslan, Ruben C; Denissen, Jaap J A; Rentfrow, Peter J; Gebauer, Jochen E; Potter, Jeff; Gosling, Samuel D

    2016-09-01

    Research and theorizing on gender and age differences in self-esteem have played a prominent role in psychology over the past 20 years. However, virtually all empirical research has been undertaken in the United States or other Western industrialized countries, providing a narrow empirical base from which to draw conclusions and develop theory. To broaden the empirical base, the present research uses a large Internet sample (N = 985,937) to provide the first large-scale systematic cross-cultural examination of gender and age differences in self-esteem. Across 48 nations, and consistent with previous research, we found age-related increases in self-esteem from late adolescence to middle adulthood and significant gender gaps, with males consistently reporting higher self-esteem than females. Despite these broad cross-cultural similarities, the cultures differed significantly in the magnitude of gender, age, and Gender × Age effects on self-esteem. These differences were associated with cultural differences in socioeconomic, sociodemographic, gender-equality, and cultural value indicators. Discussion focuses on the theoretical implications of cross-cultural research on self-esteem. (PsycINFO Database Record

  5. Valuing difference in students' culture and experience in school science lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banner, Indira

    2016-08-01

    Susan Harper writes about how a cross-cultural learning community can be formed where people from different cultures are not simply assimilated into a school science community but are seen and heard. This makes learning reciprocal and meaningful for both recent refugees and the dominant population. Although maybe not refugees, students from poorer backgrounds in many countries are less likely to choose science at a post-compulsory level. This article discusses some of the potential barriers that are faced by many of these students, that prevent them from participating in school science. It suggests how people involved in school science might address these issues to allow a smoother cultural border crossing between the students' cultures and school science culture by reducing the significance of the crossing.

  6. Valuing difference in students' culture and experience in school science lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banner, Indira

    2016-12-01

    Susan Harper writes about how a cross-cultural learning community can be formed where people from different cultures are not simply assimilated into a school science community but are seen and heard. This makes learning reciprocal and meaningful for both recent refugees and the dominant population. Although maybe not refugees, students from poorer backgrounds in many countries are less likely to choose science at a post-compulsory level. This article discusses some of the potential barriers that are faced by many of these students, that prevent them from participating in school science. It suggests how people involved in school science might address these issues to allow a smoother cultural border crossing between the students' cultures and school science culture by reducing the significance of the crossing.

  7. In vitro cell cultures obtained from different explants of Corylus avellana produce Taxol and taxanes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cavalli Francesca

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Taxol is an effective antineoplastic agent, originally extracted from the bark of Taxus brevifolia with a low yield. Many attempts have been made to produce Taxol by chemical synthesis, semi-synthesis and plant tissue cultures. However, to date, the availability of this compound is not sufficient to satisfy the commercial requirements. The aim of the present work was to produce suspension cell cultures from plants not belonging to Taxus genus and to verify whether they produced Taxol and taxanes. For this purpose different explants of hazel (Corylus avellana species were used to optimize the protocol for inducing in vitro callus, an undifferentiated tissue from which suspension cell cultures were established. Results Calli were successfully induced from stems, leaves and seeds grown in various hormone concentrations and combinations. The most suitable callus to establish suspension cell cultures was obtained from seeds. Media recovered from suspension cell cultures contained taxanes, and showed antiproliferative activity on human tumour cells. Taxol, 10-deacetyltaxol and 10-deacetylbaccatin III were the main taxanes identified. The level of Taxol recovered from the media of hazel cultures was similar to that found in yew cultures. Moreover, the production of taxanes in hazel cell cultures increased when elicitors were used. Conclusion Here we show that hazel cell cultures produce Taxol and taxanes under controlled conditions. This result suggests that hazel possesses the enzymes for Taxol production, which until now was considered to be a pathway particular to Taxus genus. The main benefit of producing taxanes through hazel cell cultures is that hazel is widely available, grows at a much faster rate in vivo, and is easier to cultivate in vitro than yew. In addition, the production of callus directly from hazel seeds shortens the culture time and minimizes the probability of contamination. Therefore, hazel could become a

  8. Investigating the establishment of primary cell culture from different abalone (Haliotis midae) tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Merwe, Mathilde; Auzoux-Bordenave, Stéphanie; Niesler, Carola; Roodt-Wilding, Rouvay

    2010-07-01

    The abalone, Haliotis midae, is the most valuable commodity in South African aquaculture. The increasing demand for marine shellfish has stimulated research on the biology and physiology of target species in order to improve knowledge on growth, nutritional requirements and pathogen identification. The slow growth rate and long generation time of abalone restrict efficient design of in vivo experiments. Therefore, in vitro systems present an attractive alternative for short term experimentation. The use of marine invertebrate cell cultures as a standardised and controlled system to study growth, endocrinology and disease contributes to the understanding of the biology of economically important molluscs. This paper investigates the suitability of two different H. midae tissues, larval and haemocyte, for establishing primary cell cultures. Cell cultures are assessed in terms of culture initiation, cell yield, longevity and susceptibility to contamination. Haliotis midae haemocytes are shown to be a more feasible tissue for primary cell culture as it could be maintained without contamination more readily than larval cell cultures. The usefulness of short term primary haemocyte cultures is demonstrated here with a growth factor trial. Haemocyte cultures can furthermore be used to relate phenotypic changes at the cellular level to changes in gene expression at the molecular level.

  9. Measuring Culture Effect size Differences in Slovenian and Portuguese Leadership Practices: Cross-Cultural Leadership Universality or Contigency?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rašković Matevž

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper measures the cultural effect size across five types of leadership practices by using the Leadership Practice Inventory (LPI instrument and drawing on the GLOBE research project framework. It tests cultural universality vs. contingency in five LPI leadership practices in an East-West EU comparison, both with an ex-socialist past. It employs four different effect size statistics. The paper contributes to the narrowing of the empirical gap in researching leadership practices in a small, East-West European country context. Only two of the five leadership practices show statistically significant effect sizes. Furthermore, the leadership practice Encouraging the heart is the only one to display a relatively moderate effect size. Thus, the evidence seems to support the universalist perspective over the contingency perspective.

  10. Cross-cultural differences in relationship- and group-based trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuki, Masaki; Maddux, William W; Brewer, Marilynn B; Takemura, Kosuke

    2005-01-01

    Two experiments explored differences in depersonalized trust (trust toward a relatively unknown target person) across cultures. Based on a recent theoretical framework that postulates predominantly different bases for group behaviors in Western cultures versus Eastern cultures, it was predicted that Americans would tend to trust people primarily based on whether they shared category memberships; however, trust for Japanese was expected to be based on the likelihood of sharing direct or indirect interpersonal links. Results supported these predictions. In both Study 1 (questionnaire study) and Study 2 (online money allocation game), Americans trusted ingroup members more than outgroup members; however, the existence of a potential indirect relationship link increased trust for outgroup members more for Japanese than for Americans. Implications for understanding group processes across cultures are discussed.

  11. The Translation of Idioms of Animals and Plants in Different Cultures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈永智

    2016-01-01

    We all know that idioms which contain plants and animals play an essential role in our daily life, an idiom full of cul-tural connotation can polish one's words and make it more lively. There are a large number of animals and plants both in Chi-nese and English idioms, and the similarities and dissimilarities of figurative images between English and Chinese idioms con-taining with animals and plants can reflect different characteristics of Chinese and Western cultures. This thesis introduces the re-lation between culture and translation, and then gives some examples to illustrate the same animals and plants'similarity and dis-similarity in idioms between Chinese and English. The thesis also enumerates a lot of idioms of animals and plants which gives reader a deeper understanding to idioms and have a clear definition about the connotation of animals and plants in different cul-ture and introduces the main methods of translation.

  12. Temperament trait of sensory processing sensitivity moderates cultural differences in neural response

    OpenAIRE

    Aron, Arthur; Ketay, Sarah; Hedden, Trey; Aron, Elaine N; Rose Markus, Hazel; John D E Gabrieli

    2010-01-01

    This study focused on a possible temperament-by-culture interaction. Specifically, it explored whether a basic temperament/personality trait (sensory processing sensitivity; SPS), perhaps having a genetic component, might moderate a previously established cultural difference in neural responses when making context-dependent vs context-independent judgments of simple visual stimuli. SPS has been hypothesized to underlie what has been called inhibitedness or reactivity in infants, introversion ...

  13. The Effect of Cultural Differences between China and Occident in Eng-lish Reading Comprehension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张莹

    2013-01-01

    With the development of society, English is pushed to be a significant position as a tool of communication. In English learning, the differences between Chinese culture and Occidental culture bring a lot of difficulties in English reading comprehen-sion. And the effect mainly represents in vocabulary, grammar system, language background. This paper analyzes the effect from the three aspects to help Chinese English learners understand the effect better and give them some enlightenment in English read-ing comprehension.

  14. Gibberellic acid production by free and immobilized cells in different culture systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán-Páramo, Enrique; Molina-Jiménez, Héctor; Brito-Arias, Marco A; Robles-Martínez, Fabián

    2004-01-01

    Gibberellic acid production was studied in different fermentation systems. Free and immobilized cells of Gibberella fujikuroi cultures in shake-flask, stirred and fixed-bed reactors were evaluated for the production of gibberellic acid (GA3). Gibberellic acid production with free cells cultured in a stirred reactor reached 0.206 g/L and a yield of 0.078 g of GA3/g biomass.

  15. The Influence of Cultural Differences between English and Chinese upon Idiom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周勤

    2010-01-01

    This text analyze English-Chinese cultural difference reflected in the English-Chinese idiom, propose that should guarantee the implying meaning of original text passing on accurately in translation, give consideration to the image meaning and literal meaning in a situation that there is no cultural conflict, translate correctly out passing judgement on the meaning of the original text according to the concrete linguistic context. Therefore has set out and put forward several , concrete translation methods.

  16. Analysis of the Differences between Chinese and Western Culture from Love Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Meng

    2016-01-01

    Love is an eternal theme of world literature. Both the ancient and the modern literature tend to take marriage and love as their paramount theme;however, there is rarely any research sorting out these themes from the perspective of cultural differ-ence. Being engaged in exploring the love literature, this paper intends to make a comparison with Chinese and western perspec-tives of love and analyzes the embodied culture essences and differences from the comparative researches on their literary status, attitudes towards love, and the choice of themes.

  17. A Cross-Cultural Study of Differences in Romantic Attitudes between American and Albanian College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoxha, Eneda; Hatala, Mark N.

    2012-01-01

    Cross-cultural differences in romantic attitudes are often taken for granted and accepted. However, very little research has been conducted to clearly state how much and how different Albanian and American college students are in the way they love. Results indicate that Americans are more romantic than Albanians. In addition, Americans are more…

  18. A Measurement Invariance Analysis of the General Self-Efficacy Scale on Two Different Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Timothy; Kam, Chester

    2014-01-01

    The 10-item General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSES) was developed to assess an individual's beliefs to cope with a variety of situations in life. Despite the GSES being used in numerous research from researchers in different countries and presented in different languages, little is known about the use of its validity in an Asian culture. The aim…

  19. Being Aware of Sino-west Cultural Differences in the Teaching of English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李启东

    2007-01-01

    This is an attempt to analyse the cultural differences between China and those countries whose people speak English as their mother tongue. The analysis is made here to caution that enough emphasis should be placed on this very difference in the teaching of the English language.

  20. Cultural Differences on Chinese and English Idioms of Diet and the Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chunli

    2010-01-01

    Idioms is a special culture which is shaped in the daily lives of the local people, particularly the idioms of diet has a close relation with various elements, such as the eating custom, history, fairy tales, geographic situations. Also, different ways of translation on different diet idioms in English and Chinese will be analyzed in this article.…

  1. How Two Differing Portraits of Newton Can Teach Us about the Cultural Context of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucci, Pasquale

    2015-01-01

    Like several scientists, Isaac Newton has been represented many times over many different periods, and portraits of Newton were often commissioned by the scientist himself. These portraits tell us a lot about the scientist, the artist and the cultural context. This article examines two very different portraits of Newton that were realized more…

  2. Cross-Cultural Differences in Polite Epistemic Modal Use in American English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youmans, Madeleine

    2001-01-01

    Compared the use of selected epistemic modals in the English speech of Chicano barrio residents and Anglo visitors to the community. Transcribed conversations served as the database. Discusses the epistemic modal functions used the most disparately between groups. Differences are shown to relate to cross-culturally different uses of epistemic…

  3. In vitro culture of immature embryos of Cinnamomum tamala Nees.--the role of different factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deb, Madhabi S; Jamir, N S; Deb, Chitta Ranjan

    2014-10-01

    Seed characteristics and in vitro culture of C. tamala embryos were studied. Embryos desiccated below 50% (fresh weight) exhibited poor morphogenetic response in vitro and confirmed the recalcitrant nature of seeds. The immature embryos of various developmental ages (4-16 week after flowering, WAF) were cultured on different strengths of MS medium. Morphogenesis responses were recorded after 10 days of culture. The best culture responses were achieved from the immature embryos of 12 WAF on MS medium with sucrose (3%, w/v), polyvinyl pyrollidone (100 mg L(-1)) and benzyl adenine (12 microM). Under optimum condition -60% explants responded; and -7.3 shoots buds developed per explants after 35 days of culture initiation. The shoot buds could be converted into micro-shoots on MS medium with sucrose (3%) and kinetin (3 microM). About 5.3 micro-shoots/shoot buds sprouted per sub-culture. The micro-shoots were rooted by maintaining them on MS medium with alpha-naphthalene acetic acid (3 microM) where within 6-8 wk of culture -8-10 roots developed. The rooted plantlets were acclimatized in vitro before they were transferred to community potting mix and maintained in the poly-shade ca 75% shading. The transplants registered -70% survival after two months of transfer.

  4. Four Seasons in One Day: The Different Shades of Organisational Culture in Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balázs HEIDRICH

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Using a combination of qualitative and quantitative methods, this study seeks to explore the diversity of culture amongst the staff of a business school in Hungary and then examine how this diversity may impact upon the organisation’s orientations towards three aspects of market orientation: interfunctional cooperation; competition and the student orientation. The diversity of culture is found through the identification of five subcultures. These subcultures exhibit signs of both heterogeneity and homogeneity as two pairs of subcultures are divided not by differences in values themselves but by the expressed strength of values. The empirical findings indicate that each subculture varies in perception of the dominant cultures of the organisation and its particular market orientation in relation to culture type. Furthermore, some subcultures perceive themselves as enhancing, when this may not be the case and others perceive themselves as counter cultures. The qualitative study confirms that subcultures have both homogenous and heterogeneous aspects in relation to other subcultures as well as the perceived dominant culture. This greater complexity gives an extension to the existing perspectives taken on organisation culture, although this would need to be confirmed with generalizable research.

  5. Microcystin-Bound Protein Patterns in Different Cultures of Microcystis aeruginosa and Field Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Nian; Hu, Lili; Song, Lirong; Gan, Nanqin

    2016-01-01

    Micocystin (MC) exists in Microcystis cells in two different forms, free and protein-bound. We examined the dynamic change in extracellular free MCs, intracellular free MCs and protein-bound MCs in both batch cultures and semi-continuous cultures, using high performance liquid chromatography and Western blot. The results showed that the free MC per cell remained constant, while the quantity of protein-bound MCs increased with the growth of Microcystis cells in both kinds of culture. Significant changes in the dominant MC-bound proteins occurred in the late exponential growth phase of batch cultures, while the dominant MC-bound proteins in semi-continuous cultures remained the same. In field samples collected at different months in Lake Taihu, the dominant MC-bound proteins were shown to be similar, but the amount of protein-bound MC varied and correlated with the intracellular MC content. We identified MC-bound proteins by two-dimensional electrophoresis immunoblots and mass spectrometry. The 60 kDa chaperonin GroEL was a prominent MC-bound protein. Three essential glycolytic enzymes and ATP synthase alpha subunit were also major targets of MC-binding, which might contribute to sustained growth in semi-continuous culture. Our results indicate that protein-bound MC may be important for sustaining growth and adaptation of Microcystis sp. PMID:27754336

  6. Are there cross-cultural differences in emotional processing and social problem-solving?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwaśniewska Aneta

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Emotional processing and social problem-solving are important for mental well-being. For example, impaired emotional processing is linked with depression and psychosomatic problems. However, little is known about crosscultural differences in emotional processing and social problem-solving and whether these constructs are linked. This study examines whether emotional processing and social problem-solving differs between Western (British and Eastern European (Polish cultures. Participants (N = 172 completed questionnaires assessing both constructs. Emotional processing did not differ according to culture, but Polish participants reported more effective social problem-solving abilities than British participants. Poorer emotional processing was also found to relate to poorer social problem-solving. Possible societal reasons for the findings and the implications of the findings for culture and clinical practice are discussed.

  7. The Impacts of the Cultural Differences on Sino - US Business Negotiations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗艺婷

    2013-01-01

    With the emergence of a economic globalization and China’s enter into WTO,China has witnessed a sharp increase in foreign investment and plenty Chinese firms into the international market.Business negotiation is the most common phenomenon in business life and international trade,so understanding the behaviors of the negotiators is a vital presupposition for successful negotiations to obtain a mutually satisfactory agreement.This is still more important if the cultural backgrounds of the parties involved are different,for example,between Chinese and American parties.In fact,the larger the cultural differences,the greater barriers to communication,and the more likely misinterpretation of the negotiation.Intercultural understanding is the foundation and basic for long-term mutually beneficial cooperation,therefore,to negotiate triumphantly,cultural differences between the parties concerned must be identified and solved.This article will expound negotiation behaviors between China and America.

  8. Does Parental Mind-Mindedness Account for Cross-Cultural Differences in Preschoolers' Theory of Mind?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Claire; Devine, Rory T; Wang, Zhenlin

    2017-02-03

    This study of 241 parent-child dyads from the United Kingdom (N = 120, Mage  = 3.92, SD = 0.53) and Hong Kong (N = 121, Mage  = 3.99, SD = 0.50) breaks new ground by adopting a cross-cultural approach to investigate children's theory of mind and parental mind-mindedness. Relative to the Hong Kong sample, U.K. children showed superior theory-of-mind performance and U.K. parents showed greater levels of mind-mindedness. Within both cultures parental mind-mindedness was correlated with theory of mind. Mind-mindedness also accounted for cultural differences in preschoolers' theory of mind. We argue that children's family environments might shed light on how culture shapes children's theory of mind.

  9. Study on Young Panicle Culture in vitro From Wild Rice of Different Genomes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Researches have been made on young panicle culture in vitro from wild rice of different genomes.Main results are as follows: 1. The induction frequencies of young panicle cultured in vitro from wild rice varied largely a relation to its genome. The optimal induction period of callus is the stamen and pistil differentiation stage of young panicle development. 2. Plantlets were regenerated through two ways: first, culture method, the induced calli were transferred onto differentiation medium; second, regenerate plantlets directly from young panicles of wild rice that were cultured on the differentiation medium. 3. The regeneration rate of green plantlets that obtained through cryopreservated calli in O. meyeriana was 10 times higher than that of control.

  10. The poetics and politics of identity at the Crossroads of cultural difference and The poetics and politics of identity at the Crossroads of cultural difference and

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Walter

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente ensaio enfoca as dinâmicas da diferença cultural e da diversidade e suas representações na ficção panamericana de Gisèle Pineau, Maryse Condé, Dionne Brand, T. C. Boyle, Conceição Evaristo e Alejo Carpentier. Ao longo do texto, são abordadas e problematizadas as seguintes questões:como é constituída, produzida e encenada a identidade quando formas de opressão com base na identidade negam ou delimitam a negociação e compreensão de seus significados? Como a diferença e a diversidade designam o outro? Como são constituídos, mantidos ou descontruídos os limites da diferença e as fronteiras da diversidade? E, finalmente, se esses limites ou fronteiras constituem o espaço das relações de poder onde as identificações são performatizadas, então, quais são seus efeitos sobre a formação da identidade? Palavras-chaves: identidade cultural; diferença cultural (como separação; diversidade cultural (como relação; transculturação; espaço mangrove (mangue; fronteiras. This essay traces the relational dynamics of cultural difference and diversity as represented in Pan-American fiction by Gisèle Pineau, Maryse Condé, Dionne Brand, T. C. Boyle, Conceição Evaristo, and AlejoCarpentier. In the process, it addresses and problematizes the following questions: How is identity constituted, produced, and enacted when identity- based forms of oppression deny or delimit the negotiation and comprehension of its meanings? How do difference and diversity designate the other? How are boundaries of difference and borderlands of diversity constituted, maintained or deconstructed? And finally, if these boundaries and borderlands constitute the space of power relations where identifications are performed, then, what are their effects on the formation of identity?

  11. Characterization of the volatile oil compositions from Hypericum perforatum L. shoot cultures in different basal media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Morshedloo

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available St. John’s wort (Hypericum perforatum L. is the most important species of the genus Hypericum and produces a wide range of chemical constituents including essential oil. Regarding advantages of in vitro culture techniques in production of desired metabolites, the present study was aimed to investigate volatile constituents of H. perforatum shoots cultured in different basal media. Shoot cultures were established by culturing six nodes of aseptic plants in three liquid media including MS (Murashige and Skoog, B5 (Gamborg B-5 and half-strength B5 containing 30 g L-1 sucrose and 0.5 mg L-1 BA (6-benzyladenine. According to the results, growth and profile of volatile constituents of cultured shoots were affected by the type of medium used and shoots cultured in the B5 medium exhibited the highest growth which was reached to 42.95 g flask-1. On the other hand, 44 components were totally identified by GC-FID and GC-MS analysis of essential oils of cultured shoots. Decane (27.7%, menthol (8.9%, methyl decanoate (4.6% and β-elemene (4.6% were the major volatile constituents of the shoots cultured in MS medium, while eudesma4(15,7-dien-1-β-ol (8.1-7.5%, thymol (7-7.2% and 1,4-trans-1,7-trans-acorenone (5.2-5.5% were found as the principal components of shoots cultured in B5 and half-strength B5 media.

  12. In vitro culture may be the major contributing factor for transgenic versus nontransgenic proteomic plant differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Cátia; Planchon, Sébastien; Serra, Tânia; Chander, Subhash; Saibo, Nelson J M; Renaut, Jenny; Oliveira, M Margarida; Batista, Rita

    2015-01-01

    Identification of differences between genetically modified plants and their original counterparts plays a central role in risk assessment strategy. Our main goal was to better understand the relevance of transgene presence, genetic, and epigenetic changes induced by transgene insertion, and in vitro culture in putative unintended differences between a transgenic and its comparator. Thus, we have used multiplex fluorescence 2DE coupled with MS to characterize the proteome of three different rice lines (Oryza sativa L. ssp. japonica cv. Nipponbare): a control conventional line (C), an Agrobacterium-transformed transgenic line (Ta) and a negative segregant (NSb). We observed that Ta and NSb appeared identical (with only one spot differentially abundant--fold difference ≥ 1.5), contrasting with the control (49 spots with fold difference ≥ 1.5, in both Ta and NSb vs. control). Given that in vitro culture was the only event in common between Ta and NSb, we hypothesize that in vitro culture stress was the most relevant condition contributing for the observed proteomic differences. MS protein identification support our hypothesis, indicating that Ta and NSb lines adjusted their metabolic pathways and altered the abundance of several stress related proteins in order to cope with in vitro culture.

  13. Characterization of cell cultures in contact with different orthopedic implants biomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouenzerfi, G.; Hannoun, A.; Hassler, M.; Brizuela, L.; Youjil, S.; Bougault, C.; Trunfio-Sfarghiu, A.-M.

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study is to identify the role of biological and mechanical constraints (at the cellular level) surrounding living tissues (cartilage and bone) in the presence of different joint implant biomaterials. In this fact, cells cultures in the presence of different types of biomaterials (pyrolytic carbon, cobalt-Chromium, titanium) has been performed. These cell cultures were subjected to biological characterization tests and mechanical characterization. The obtained results correlate with the in vivo observations (a promotion of the creation of a neocartilagical tissue in contact with the Pyrolytic Carbon implants).

  14. Impact of different culture media on hairy roots growth of Valeriana officinalis L.

    OpenAIRE

    Pakdin Parizi, Ali; Farsi, Mohammad; Nematzadeh, Ghorban-Ali; Amin MIRSHAMSI

    2015-01-01

    Transformed hairy root cultures of Valeriana officinalis were established by infection with Agrobacterium rhizogenes strain ATCC 15834. To determine the effect of different media on the growth of V. officinalis hairy roots, MS, B5 media (1.0X and 0.5X strength), N6 medium and a modified MS medium without phytohormones were used. In addition, different NH4+ to NO3- ratios in MS medium were studied. The effects of these treatments were evaluated after 21 days of culture in relation to hairy roo...

  15. Temperament trait of sensory processing sensitivity moderates cultural differences in neural response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aron, Arthur; Ketay, Sarah; Hedden, Trey; Aron, Elaine N; Rose Markus, Hazel; Gabrieli, John D E

    2010-06-01

    This study focused on a possible temperament-by-culture interaction. Specifically, it explored whether a basic temperament/personality trait (sensory processing sensitivity; SPS), perhaps having a genetic component, might moderate a previously established cultural difference in neural responses when making context-dependent vs context-independent judgments of simple visual stimuli. SPS has been hypothesized to underlie what has been called inhibitedness or reactivity in infants, introversion in adults, and reactivity or responsivness in diverse animal species. Some biologists view the trait as one of two innate strategies-observing carefully before acting vs being first to act. Thus the central characteristic of SPS is hypothesized to be a deep processing of information. Here, 10 European-Americans and 10 East Asians underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing simple visuospatial tasks emphasizing judgments that were either context independent (typically easier for Americans) or context dependent (typically easier for Asians). As reported elsewhere, each group exhibited greater activation for the culturally non-preferred task in frontal and parietal regions associated with greater effort in attention and working memory. However, further analyses, reported here for the first time, provided preliminary support for moderation by SPS. Consistent with the careful-processing theory, high-SPS individuals showed little cultural difference; low-SPS, strong culture differences.

  16. Drinking motives mediate cultural differences but not gender differences in adolescent alcohol use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuntsche, E.N.; Wicki, M.; Windlin, B.; Roberts, C.; Gabhainn, S.N.; Sluijs, W. van der; Aasvee, K.; Gaspar de Matos, M.; Dankulincova, Z.; Hublet, A.; Tynjala, J.; Valimaa, R.; Bendtsen, P.; Vieno, A.; Mazur, J.; Farkas, J.; Demetrovics, Z.

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To test whether differences in alcohol use between boys and girls and between northern and southern/central Europe are mediated by social, enhancement, coping, and conformity motives. METHODS: Cross-sectional school-based surveys were conducted among 33,813 alcohol-using 11-to 19-year-olds

  17. The Impact of National Cultural Differences on Nurses' Acceptance of Hospital Information Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hsien-Cheng

    2015-06-01

    This study aims to explore the influence of national cultural differences on nurses' perceptions of their acceptance of hospital information systems. This study uses the perspective of Technology Acceptance Model; national cultural differences in terms of masculinity/femininity, individualism/collectivism, power distance, and uncertainty avoidance are incorporated into the Technology Acceptance Model as moderators, whereas time orientation is a control variable on hospital information system acceptance. A quantitative research design was used in this study; 261 participants, US and Taiwan RNs, all had hospital information system experience. Data were collected from November 2013 to February 2014 and analyzed using a t test to compare the coefficients for each moderator. The results show that individualism/collectivism, power distance, and uncertainty avoidance all exhibit significant difference on hospital information system acceptance; however, both masculinity/femininity and time orientation factors did not show significance. This study verifies that national cultural differences have significant influence on nurses' behavioral intention to use hospital information systems. Therefore, hospital information system providers should emphasize the way in which to integrate different technological functions to meet the needs of nurses from various cultural backgrounds.

  18. Drinking Motives Mediate Cultural Differences but Not Gender Differences in Adolescent Alcohol Use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuntsche, Emmanuel; Wicki, Matthias; Windlin, Béat

    2015-01-01

    , and coping motives in northern than in southern/central Europe. CONCLUSIONS: The results from the largest drinking motive study conducted to date suggest that gender-specific prevention should take differences in the motivational pathways toward (heavy) drinking into account, that is, positive reinforcement...... seems to be more important for boys and negative reinforcement for girls. Preventive action targeting social and enhancement motives and taking drinking circumstances into account could contribute to tackling underage drinking in northern Europe....

  19. Cultural differences define diagnosis and genomic medicine practice: implications for undiagnosed diseases program in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Xiaohong; Markello, Thomas; Adams, David; Toro, Camilo; Tifft, Cynthia; Gahl, William A; Boerkoel, Cornelius F

    2013-09-01

    Despite the current acceleration and increasing leadership of Chinese genetics research, genetics and its clinical application have largely been imported to China from the Occident. Neither genetics nor the scientific reductionism underpinning its clinical application is integral to the traditional Chinese worldview. Given that disease concepts and their incumbent diagnoses are historically derived and culturally meaningful, we hypothesize that the cultural expectations of genetic diagnoses and medical genetics practice differ between the Occident and China. Specifically, we suggest that an undiagnosed diseases program in China will differ from the recently established Undiagnosed Diseases Program at the United States National Institutes of Health; a culturally sensitive concept will integrate traditional Chinese understanding of disease with the scientific reductionism of Occidental medicine.

  20. My face, my heart: cultural differences in integrated bodily self-awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maister, Lara; Tsakiris, Manos

    2014-01-01

    Body-awareness is produced by an integration of both interoceptive and exteroceptive bodily signals. However, previous investigations into cultural differences in bodily self-awareness have only studied these two aspects in isolation. We investigated the interaction between interoceptive and exteroceptive self-processing in East Asian and Western participants. During an interoceptive awareness task, self-face observation improved performance of those with initially low awareness in the Western group, but did not benefit the East Asian participants. These results suggest that the integrated, coherent experience of the body differs between East Asian and Western cultures. For Western participants, viewing one's own face may activate a bodily self-awareness which enhances processing of other bodily information, such as interoceptive signals. Instead, for East Asian individuals, the external appearance of the self may activate higher-level, social aspects of self-identity, reflecting the importance of the sociocultural construct of "face" in East Asian cultures.

  1. Cultural differences between Mexico and Japan: from the perspective of Japanese people in Guadalajara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takako Nakasone

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the cultural differences between Mexico and Japan. First, a review is carried out at the three main theories of the world´s cultural values (Hofstede, Hofstede and Minkov, Inglehart and Welzel, and Schwartz focusing on the case to Mexico and Japan. After that, Berry´s technique is used to investigate the mode of acculturation of the Japanese both permanent and temporary residents in the Metropolitan Zone of Guadalajara in order to know the value of the differences that they perceive and also to find out at what level of acculturation they belong to. As a result, they maintain a strong Japanese identity and they are willing to integrate with Mexican cultural elements, which they consider positive; however, they disagree with a complete assimilation. Thus, it tends to be categorized as a "separation".

  2. Culture-Dependent and -Independent Methods Capture Different Microbial Community Fractions in Hydrocarbon-Contaminated Soils.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franck O P Stefani

    Full Text Available Bioremediation is a cost-effective and sustainable approach for treating polluted soils, but our ability to improve on current bioremediation strategies depends on our ability to isolate microorganisms from these soils. Although culturing is widely used in bioremediation research and applications, it is unknown whether the composition of cultured isolates closely mirrors the indigenous microbial community from contaminated soils. To assess this, we paired culture-independent (454-pyrosequencing of total soil DNA with culture-dependent (isolation using seven different growth media techniques to analyse the bacterial and fungal communities from hydrocarbon-contaminated soils. Although bacterial and fungal rarefaction curves were saturated for both methods, only 2.4% and 8.2% of the bacterial and fungal OTUs, respectively, were shared between datasets. Isolated taxa increased the total recovered species richness by only 2% for bacteria and 5% for fungi. Interestingly, none of the bacteria that we isolated were representative of the major bacterial OTUs recovered by 454-pyrosequencing. Isolation of fungi was moderately more effective at capturing the dominant OTUs observed by culture-independent analysis, as 3 of 31 cultured fungal strains ranked among the 20 most abundant fungal OTUs in the 454-pyrosequencing dataset. This study is one of the most comprehensive comparisons of microbial communities from hydrocarbon-contaminated soils using both isolation and high-throughput sequencing methods.

  3. Determination of cardiac glycosides and total phenols in different generations of Securigera securidaca suspension culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Tofighi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: The seeds of Securigera securidaca (L. Deg. & Dorf. (Fabaceae are used as anti-diabetic remedy in Iranian folk medicine. The aim of the present study was to establish the callus and suspension culture of S. securidaca seeds for the first time and to determine the major secondary metabolites including cardiac glycosides and total phenols. Methods: The culture of S. securidaca from seeds was initiated in hormone-supplemented MS medium containing 1 and 0.1 ppm 2, 4-D solution for solid and suspension cultures, respectively, sucrose and vitamins (B1, B2, B6, Folic acid, Biotin, Nicotinamide and Ca pantothenate at 25 °C and 12 h photoperiods. The cardiac glycosides were determined based on the calibration curve of securidaside which was isolated from the seeds extract of S. securidaca. Total phenolic compounds of different generations of suspension culture were determined using Folin Ciocalteu reagent. Results: Callus culture of S. securidaca was grown light cream to pale yellow in color and soft in texture while the cells of suspension culture grew cream to yellow with isolated cells and small aggregates. The production of cardiac glycosides in the 7th generation were more than the seeds extract (p

  4. A Critical Review of The Cultural Difference and Teaching of English Lexi-cology By LiYun

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩诺敏

    2016-01-01

    This paper critically analyses the essay"The Cultural Difference and Teaching of English Lexicology"and suggests some methods of introducing cultural factors into English teaching to truly achieve the communicative competence of words.

  5. Appreciating the ties that bind technical communication to culture: A dynamic model to help us understand differences in discourse structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastberg, Peter; Kampf, Constance

    In order to support an explicit understanding of cultural patterns as both dynamic and structured, we will examine Hofstede?s model for stabilization of cultural patterns, and use this model to explore some cultural consequences for patterns of logic and signs that influence the effectiveness...... of technical communication across cultures. In order to demonstrate the model, we will apply it to examples from different cultures, which show different patterns of logic, terminology and conventions. In light of these examples, we propose that cross-cultural technical communication studies can be situated...

  6. Exploring Cultural Differences in the Recognition of the Self-Conscious Emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Joanne M; Robins, Richard W

    2015-01-01

    Recent research suggests that the self-conscious emotions of embarrassment, shame, and pride have distinct, nonverbal expressions that can be recognized in the United States at above-chance levels. However, few studies have examined the recognition of these emotions in other cultures, and little research has been conducted in Asia. Consequently the cross-cultural generalizability of self-conscious emotions has not been firmly established. Additionally, there is no research that examines cultural variability in the recognition of the self-conscious emotions. Cultural values and exposure to Western culture have been identified as contributors to variability in recognition rates for the basic emotions; we sought to examine this for the self-conscious emotions using the University of California, Davis Set of Emotion Expressions (UCDSEE). The present research examined recognition of the self-conscious emotion expressions in South Korean college students and found that recognition rates were very high for pride, low but above chance for shame, and near zero for embarrassment. To examine what might be underlying the recognition rates we found in South Korea, recognition of self-conscious emotions and several cultural values were examined in a U.S. college student sample of European Americans, Asian Americans, and Asian-born individuals. Emotion recognition rates were generally similar between the European Americans and Asian Americans, and higher than emotion recognition rates for Asian-born individuals. These differences were not explained by cultural values in an interpretable manner, suggesting that exposure to Western culture is a more important mediator than values.

  7. Assess suitability of hydroaeroponic culture to establish tripartite symbiosis between different AMF species, beans, and rhizobia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jansa Jan

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Like other species of the Phaseoleae tribe, common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. has the potential to establish symbiosis with rhizobia and to fix the atmospheric dinitrogen (N2 for its N nutrition. Common bean has also the potential to establish symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF that improves the uptake of low mobile nutrients such as phosphorus, from the soil. Both rhizobial and mycorrhizal symbioses can act synergistically in benefits on plant. Results The tripartite symbiosis of common bean with rhizobia and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF was assessed in hydroaeroponic culture with common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L., by comparing the effects of three fungi spp. on growth, nodulation and mycorrhization of the roots under sufficient versus deficient P supplies, after transfer from initial sand culture. Although Glomus intraradices Schenck & Smith colonized intensely the roots of common bean in both sand and hydroaeroponic cultures, Gigaspora rosea Nicolson & Schenck only established well under sand culture conditions, and no root-colonization was found with Acaulospora mellea Spain & Schenck under either culture conditions. Interestingly, mycorrhization by Glomus was also obtained by contact with mycorrhized Stylosanthes guianensis (Aubl. sw in sand culture under deficient P before transfer into hydroaeroponic culture. The effect of bean genotype on both rhizobial and mycorrhizal symbioses with Glomus was subsequently assessed with the common bean recombinant inbreed line 7, 28, 83, 115 and 147, and the cultivar Flamingo. Significant differences among colonization and nodulation of the roots and growth among genotypes were found. Conclusion The hydroaeroponic culture is a valuable tool for further scrutinizing the physiological interactions and nutrient partitioning within the tripartite symbiosis.

  8. Cross-Cultural Register Differences in Infant-Directed Speech: An Initial Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lama K Farran

    Full Text Available Infant-directed speech (IDS provides an environment that appears to play a significant role in the origins of language in the human infant. Differences have been reported in the use of IDS across cultures, suggesting different styles of infant language-learning. Importantly, both cross-cultural and intra-cultural research suggest there may be a positive relationship between the use of IDS and rates of language development, underscoring the need to investigate cultural differences more deeply. The majority of studies, however, have conceptualized IDS monolithically, granting little attention to a potentially key distinction in how IDS manifests across cultures during the first two years. This study examines and quantifies for the first time differences within IDS in the use of baby register (IDS/BR, an acoustically identifiable type of IDS that includes features such as high pitch, long duration, and smooth intonation (the register that is usually assumed to occur in IDS, and adult register (IDS/AR, the type of IDS that does not include such features and thus sounds as if it could have been addressed to an adult. We studied IDS across 19 American and 19 Lebanese mother-infant dyads, with particular focus on the differential use of registers within IDS as mothers interacted with their infants ages 0-24 months. Our results showed considerable usage of IDS/AR (>30% of utterances and a tendency for Lebanese mothers to use more IDS than American mothers. Implications for future research on IDS and its role in elucidating how language evolves across cultures are explored.

  9. A STUDY ON THE CULTURAL DIFFERENCES BETWEEN PUBLIC AND PRIVATE HOSPITALS IN BUCHAREST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobre Ovidiu Iliuta

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Turnover rates for hospital personnel (nurses, doctors and auxiliary staff have been increasing in recent years, especially in the public sector, being the result of a couple of factors. I believe that one of the main causes is related to organizational culture aspects. This research analyses if dated facilities, unpleasant work environment and lack of personnel contribute to a low job satisfaction and involvement. The study also compares the results obtained from persons working in the public sectors with the results given by respondents from private clinics. An organization’s culture could be strong or weak, being dependent to cohesiveness, value consensus and individual commitment to collective goals. Effective cultures help organizations anticipate and adapt to environment changes, thus proactive cultures should enhance and support profitability on the long-run. This research also investigates strength of the occupational culture by comparing the results obtained in the public sector with results from private sector. My study is developed on 63 professionals working in the medical system and it is based mainly on quantitative methods. The instrument of the research is the structured questionnaire. The main goal of the study is to highlight the significant cultural differences between the state-owned and public-owned hospitals and to assess if they have a greater influence to the institutions, as compared to common occupational values and norms. The implications of my research for the field of organizational behavior refers to the fact that I have identified the organizational elements that are common to both public and private hospitals, influenced by a strong occupational culture, and those that differ significantly, being the result of underfunding and poor management. As a conclusion, I consider that this is a great starting point for further research in the field and I plan to enlarge the investigation on a greater number or

  10. Developing English Communication Skills in a Different Cultural Context: Matches and Mismatches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta-Mariana IFTIMIE

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available It is common knowledge that from among all the languages in the world, English has acquired the status of ‘lingua franca’, i.e., the language that is used in international communication across countries, the language that enables people of different ethnic, national and cultural backgrounds to share with others their ideas and cultures. The use of English as an international language has resulted in a growing number of people who learn and speak this language all over the world. This has important consequences for English language teaching practices, which need to aim at developing the learners’ social and professional communication skills, while catering for the dimension of intercultural communication, placed against the local cultural-educational context. This paper shares the author’s experience of developing the students’ communication skills by means of oral presentation projects in two parts of the world in which English is taught as a foreign language – Romania and Taiwan. After a brief literature review, the study compares and contrasts the two different contexts of learning. The last part of the paper presents the methodological choices made in order to reconcile the global requirement of developing the students’ communicative competence with the local issues connected to the host culture complex. While most of the studies concerned with the teaching of English as Foreign Language in the Asia Pacific region offer either the point of view of the source culture teacher or that of the target culture (native speaker of English teacher, this paper presents the perspective of a non-native teacher of English who belongs to a third culture.

  11. Evaluation of Lo"wenstein-Jensen Medium Culture,MGIT 960 Culture and Different Specimen Types inDiagnosis of Bone and Joint Tuberculosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guirong Wang[1; Weijie Dong[2; Liping Zhao[1; Xia Yu[1; Suting Chen[1; Yuhong Fu[1; Shibing Qin[1; Hairong Huang[1

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate L-J (Lo"wenstein-Jensen) medium culture, MGIT 960 culture anddifferent specimen types in diagnosis of BJTB (bone and joint tuberculosis). Methods:: Specimens of pus, caseous necrosis,tuberculous granuloma and sequestrum were collected from 52 BJTB patients. All specimens were cultured using both MGIT 960system and L-J medium; and all pus were amplified using real-time PCR to detect the presence of M. tuberculosis DNA. KeyFindings: A total of 191 specimens were collected. Granuloma had better chance to produce positive outcomes by L-J mediumculture, while for sequestrum MGIT 960 culture had higher yield, but there was no significant difference in the recovery rates amongdifferent types of specimen either by L-J culture (Z2 = 0.638, P = 0.888) or by MGIT960 culture (Z2 = 1.399, P = 0.706). MGIT960culture had significantly higher recovery rate than L-J culture, With a combined culture and PCR-based test, the recovery rate of pusspecimen was significantly higher than that of either method alone (P 〈 0.05). Conclusion: MGIT 960 culture is superior to L-Jculture in BJTB diagnosis; pus, sequestrum, granuloma and caseous necrosis are usable specimen for mycobacterial culture;combination of culture and molecular techniques can provide a better diagnostic significance.

  12. Attachment in cultural context : Differences in attachment between Eastern and Western Europeans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polek, Elzbieta

    2008-01-01

    Political changes after 1989 and resulting from the European Union enlargement increased emigration from Eastern to Western Europe. In the introductory Chapter 1 the data about migration from the Eastern to Western Europe are presented, as well as the data about cultural, social and economic differe

  13. Designing for Differences: Cultural Issues in the Design of WWW-based Course-support Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collis, Betty

    1999-01-01

    Examines factors affecting the cultural appropriateness of Web-based course-support sites. Identifies a strategy for accommodating different values of these factors in Web-based course-support systems, based on a set of 10 design guidelines. Describes and evaluates the TeleTOP Method from the University of Twente (The Netherlands) to illustrate…

  14. Particle Physics as a way to bring different cultures to work together in Science

    CERN Document Server

    Mikenberg, G

    2016-01-01

    Science has traditionally played an important role in sharing knowledge among people. Particle Physics, with its large experiments, has shown that one not only can share the knowledge among different cultures, but that one can also work together to achieve this knowledge. The present article gives a few examples where this has been possible among people that are sometimes in conflict situations.

  15. Photophysiological variability of microphytobenthic diatoms after growth in different types of culture conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forster, R.M.; Martin-Jézéquel, V.R.

    2005-01-01

    Microphytobenthic diatoms have great ecological importance in estuarine and coastal marine ecosystenis, yet many aspects of their physiology have not been investigated under controlled conditions. This work describes patterns in growth rates and photosynthesis in different types of culture for sever

  16. Developmental and Cross-Cultural Differences in the Cooperative and Competitive Behavior of Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Millard C.

    1971-01-01

    In a two-person experimental task used in the study of age and cultural differences in the cooperative-competitive behavior of children in a small Mexican town and in California, a higher level of cooperation was seen among Mexican than among Anglo children, as was also an increase in nonadaptive competition with age among the latter. (RJ)

  17. Human Airway Primary Epithelial Cells Show Distinct Architectures on Membrane Supports Under Different Culture Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Kyoung Ah; Rosania, Gus R; Shin, Meong Cheol

    2016-06-01

    To facilitate drug development for lung delivery, it is highly demanding to establish appropriate airway epithelial cell models as transport barriers to evaluate pharmacokinetic profiles of drug molecules. Besides the cancer-derived cell lines, as the primary cell model, normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells have been used for drug screenings because of physiological relevance to in vivo. Therefore, to accurately interpret drug transport data in NHBE measured by different laboratories, it is important to know biophysical characteristics of NHBE grown on membranes in different culture conditions. In this study, NHBE was grown on the polyester membrane in a different medium and its transport barrier properties as well as cell architectures were fully characterized by functional assays and confocal imaging throughout the days of cultures. Moreover, NHBE cells on inserts in a different medium were subject to either of air-interfaced culture (AIC) or liquid-covered culture (LCC) condition. Cells in the AIC condition were cultivated on the membrane with medium in the basolateral side only, whereas cells with medium in apical and basolateral sides under the LCC condition. Quantitative microscopic imaging with biophysical examination revealed distinct multilayered architectures of differentiated NHBE cells, suggesting NHBE as functional cell barriers for the lung-targeting drug transport.

  18. Native American Students' Experiences of Cultural Differences in College: Influence and Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Leslie E.

    2012-01-01

    The culture of most colleges and universities is very different for Native American students with close ties to their traditional communities. "Traditional," in a Native American sense, means multiple interconnections of emotional, physical, intellectual, and spiritual identity that combine to define expectations for the Native American…

  19. A Study in Difference: Structures and Cultures in Registered Training Organisations. Support Document 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Berwyn; Fisher, Thea; Harris, Roger; Bateman, Andrea; Brown, Mike

    2008-01-01

    This document supports the report "A Study in Difference: Structures and Cultures in Registered Training Organisations." The first section outlines the methodology used to undertake the research and covers the design of the research, sample details, the data collection process and the strategy for data analysis and reporting. The limitations of…

  20. No wilderness for immigrants: Cultural differences in images of nature and landscape preferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijs, A.E.; Elands, B.H.M.; Langers, F.

    2009-01-01

    Despite the growing cultural diversity in many European countries, nature recreation is still a very ¿white¿ activity. Immigrants hardly ever visit non-urban green areas. Prior research has suggested that different perceptions of nature and landscape may be related to this limited use. Based on 618

  1. Cross-Cultural Differences in Children's Choices, Categorizations, and Evaluations of Truths and Lies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Genyue; Xu, Fen; Cameron, Catherine Ann; Leyman, Gail; Lee, Kang

    2007-01-01

    This study examined cross-cultural differences and similarities in children's moral understanding of individual- or collective-oriented lies and truths. Seven-, 9-, and 11-year-old Canadian and Chinese children were read stories about story characters facing moral dilemmas about whether to lie or tell the truth to help a group but harm an…

  2. Cross-Cultural Differences in Somatic Awareness and Interoceptive Accuracy: A Review of the Literature and Directions for Future Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine eMa-Kellams

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This review examines cross-cultural differences in interoceptive processes and the role of culturally-bound epistemologies, historical traditions, and contemplative practices to assess four aspects of culture and interoception: 1 the extent to which members from Western and non-Western cultural groups exhibit differential levels of interoceptive accuracy and somatic awareness; 2 the mechanistic origins that can explain these cultural differences, 3 culturally-bound behavioral practices that have been empirically shown to affect interoception, and 4 consequences for culturally-bound psychopathologies. The following outlines the scope of the scientific review. Part 1 reviews studies on cultural variation in spontaneous somatic word use, linguistic expressions, traditional medical practices, and empirical laboratory studies to assess the evidence for cultural differences in somatic processes. Integration of these findings suggests a startling paradox: on the one hand, non-Western cultures consistently exhibit heightened somatic focus and awareness across a variety of contexts; on the other hand, non-Western cultures also exhibit less interoceptive accuracy in laboratory studies. Part 2 discusses the various mechanistic explanations that have been proposed to explain these cultural differences in somatic awareness and interoceptive accuracy, focusing on cultural schemas and epistemologies. Part 3 addresses the behavioral and contemplative practices that have been proposed as possible interventions, or methods of cultivating bodily awareness and perceptual accuracy. Finally, Part 4 reviews the consequences of interoceptive processes for psychopathology, including somatization, body dysmorphia, eating disorders, and anxiety disorders.

  3. Evaluation of different cryoprotective agents in maintenance of viability of Helicobacter pylori in stock culture media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daryoush Davoudi Oskouei

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Four different cryoprotective supplemented stock media were evaluated for maintaining better survival and recovery of H. pylori type strain NCTC 11637 at two different maintenance temperatures of -20°C and -80°C after one month preservation as frozen stocks. The spread plate colony count method was used to investigate the recovery rate of H. pylori from equally inoculated bacterial suspensions in differently prepared stock cultures. After the preservation of H. pylori for one month in different cryoprotectant-supplemented stock media, the recovery rates for -20°C obtained for stock cultures supplemented with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO, polyethylene glycol (PEG, glycerol and glycerol+sucrose, as well as controls with and without human serum alone were 7.13, 6.97, 7.93, 7.99, 6.95 and 0.0 log CFU/ml, respectively. Maintenance of bacteria at -80°C gave statistically higher recovery rates compared to preservation at -20°C with the values of 8.55, 8.24, 8.59, 8.66, 8.01 and 0.0 log CFU/ml for these above mentioned stock cultures. The stock cultures supplemented with glycerol+sucrose and glycerol showed the highest recovery rates, 7.99 and 7.93 for -20°C vs. 8.66 and 8.59 for -80°C respectively, which were statistically different from the others. Our study revealed that H. pylori type strain NCTC 11637 could be better preserved at -80°C than -20°C. The best stock media which supported viability or culturability of bacteria were brain heart infusion broth (BHI+glycerol+human serum and BHI+glycerol+sucrose+human serum, where the latter yielded the higher recovery rate.

  4. Measuring Individual Differences in Generic Beliefs in Conspiracy Theories Across Cultures: The Conspiracy Mentality Questionnaire (CMQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin eBruder

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Conspiracy theories are ubiquitous when it comes to explaining political events and societal phenomena. Individuals differ not only in the degree to which they believe in specific conspiracy theories, but also in their general susceptibility to explanations based on such theories, that is, their conspiracy mentality. We present the Conspiracy Mentality Questionnaire (CMQ, an instrument designed to efficiently assess differences in the generic tendency to engage in conspiracist ideation within and across cultures. The CMQ is available in English, German, and Turkish. In four studies, we examined the CMQ’s factorial structure, reliability, measurement equivalence across cultures, and its convergent, discriminant, and predictive validity. Analyses based on a cross-cultural sample (Study 1a; N = 7,766 supported the conceptualization of conspiracy mentality as a one-dimensional construct across the three language versions of the CMQ that is stable across time (Study 1b; N = 141. Multigroup confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated cross-cultural measurement equivalence of the CMQ items. The instrument could therefore be used to examine differences in conspiracy mentality between European, North American, and Middle Eastern cultures. In Studies 2-4 (total N = 476, we report (re-analyses of 3 datasets demonstrating the validity of the CMQ in student and working population samples in the UK and Germany. First, attesting to its convergent validity, the CMQ was highly correlated with another measure of generic conspiracy belief. Second, the CMQ showed patterns of meaningful associations with personality measures (e.g., Big Five dimensions, schizotypy, other generalized political attitudes (e.g., social dominance orientation and right-wing authoritarianism, and further individual differences (e.g., paranormal belief, lack of socio-political control. Finally, the CMQ predicted beliefs in specific conspiracy theories over and above other individual

  5. Measuring individual differences in generic beliefs in conspiracy theories across cultures: conspiracy mentality questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruder, Martin; Haffke, Peter; Neave, Nick; Nouripanah, Nina; Imhoff, Roland

    2013-01-01

    Conspiracy theories are ubiquitous when it comes to explaining political events and societal phenomena. Individuals differ not only in the degree to which they believe in specific conspiracy theories, but also in their general susceptibility to explanations based on such theories, that is, their conspiracy mentality. We present the Conspiracy Mentality Questionnaire (CMQ), an instrument designed to efficiently assess differences in the generic tendency to engage in conspiracist ideation within and across cultures. The CMQ is available in English, German, and Turkish. In four studies, we examined the CMQ's factorial structure, reliability, measurement equivalence across cultures, and its convergent, discriminant, and predictive validity. Analyses based on a cross-cultural sample (Study 1a; N = 7,766) supported the conceptualization of conspiracy mentality as a one-dimensional construct across the three language versions of the CMQ that is stable across time (Study 1b; N = 141). Multi-group confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated cross-cultural measurement equivalence of the CMQ items. The instrument could therefore be used to examine differences in conspiracy mentality between European, North American, and Middle Eastern cultures. In Studies 2-4 (total N = 476), we report (re-)analyses of three datasets demonstrating the validity of the CMQ in student and working population samples in the UK and Germany. First, attesting to its convergent validity, the CMQ was highly correlated with another measure of generic conspiracy belief. Second, the CMQ showed patterns of meaningful associations with personality measures (e.g., Big Five dimensions, schizotypy), other generalized political attitudes (e.g., social dominance orientation and right-wing authoritarianism), and further individual differences (e.g., paranormal belief, lack of socio-political control). Finally, the CMQ predicted beliefs in specific conspiracy theories over and above other individual

  6. Immunocytochemical and structural comparative study of committed versus multipotent stem cells cultured with different biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palumbo, Carla; Baldini, Andrea; Cavani, Francesco; Sena, Paola; Benincasa, Marta; Ferretti, Marzia; Zaffe, Davide

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this work was the comparison of the behavior of committed (human osteoblast cells - hOB - from bone biopsies) versus multipotent (human dental pulp stem cells - hDPSC - from extracted teeth) cells, cultured on shot-peened titanium surfaces, since the kind of cell model considered has been shown to be relevant in techniques widely used in studies on composition/morphology of biomaterial surfaces. The titanium surface morphology, with different roughness, and the behavior of cells were analyzed by confocal microscope (CM), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray microanalysis. The best results, in terms of hOB adhesion/distribution, were highlighted by both CM and SEM in cultured plates having 20-μm-depth cavities. On the contrary, CM and SEM results highlighted the hDPSC growth regardless the different surface morphology, arranged in overlapped layers due to their high proliferation rate, showing their unfitness in biomaterial surface test. Nevertheless, hDPSC cultured inside 3D-matrices reproduced an osteocyte-like three-dimensional network, potentially useful in the repair of critical size bone defects. The behavior of the two cell models suggests a different use in biomaterial cell cultures: committed osteoblast cells could be appropriate in selecting the best surfaces to improve osseointegration, while multipotent cells could be suitable to obtain in vitro osteocyte-like network for regenerative medicine. The originality of the present work consists in studying for the first time two different cell models (committed versus multipotent) compared in parallel different biomaterial cultures, thus suggesting distinct targets for each cellular model.

  7. Developing English Communication Skills in a Different Cultural Context: Matches and Mismatches

    OpenAIRE

    Nicoleta-Mariana IFTIMIE

    2015-01-01

    It is common knowledge that from among all the languages in the world, English has acquired the status of ‘lingua franca’, i.e., the language that is used in international communication across countries, the language that enables people of different ethnic, national and cultural backgrounds to share with others their ideas and cultures. The use of English as an international language has resulted in a growing number of people who learn and speak this language all over the world. This has impo...

  8. The Value of Art and Culture in Everyday Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juncker, Beth; Balling, Gitte

    2016-01-01

    Ever since the earliest forms of mass media, the dichotomy of mass culture/popular arts and high culture/fine art has been a topic of debate. The discussion has focused on the value and use of different art forms and on different notions on and attitudes to the purpose of art. The concept...... acknowledge different taste cultures, but also include the central perspective of giving voices and expression across interests and taste. Our goal is contribute to a new understanding of arts experience, which can serve as the point of departure for a turn of perspective of arts advocacy and cultural policy...

  9. The house of difference: gender, culture, and the subject-in-process on the American stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, L

    1993-01-01

    A lesbian woman of color is often defined by her multiple differences as "other" and/or "object." Yet these very differences can also allow her to challenge culturally held notions of gender, subjectivity, and representation. This article examines one such example, Cherríe Moraga's teatro Giving Up the Ghost where, for the first time, the issue of Chicana lesbian sexuality is addressed on the stage.

  10. Are cultural dimensions relevant for explaining cross-national differences in antibiotic use in Europe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelen Greta

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antibiotics are widely-used medicines for which a more prudent use has been advocated to minimize development of resistance. There are considerable cross-national differences that can only partially be explained by epidemiological difference and variations in health care structure. The aim of this study was to explore whether cross-national differences in use of antibiotics (prescribed and non-prescribed are associated with differences between national cultures as described in Hofstede's model of cultural dimensions (Power Distance, Individualism, Masculinity, Uncertainty Avoidance and Long-Term Orientation. Methods Country-level data of prescribed antibiotic use and self-medication with antibiotics were correlated to country-specific scores of cultural dimensions obtained from Hofstede. Data on use of antibiotics were provided by three European studies, based on different methods and/or countries: Self-medication with Antibiotics and Resistance in Europe (SAR, based on a survey in 2003 on reported use of antibiotics in 19 countries, the European Surveillance on Antimicrobial Consumption, based on distribution and reimbursement of antibiotics in ambulatory care (1997–2002, and the 2002 interview-based Eurobarometer study, asking whether respondents had taken antibiotics in the previous 12 months. These studies provided data on antibiotics use for 27 European countries in total, for which scores of cultural dimensions were also available. The SAR-study differentiated between prescribed antibiotics and self-medication with antibiotics. Results Significant positive correlations were found for Power Distance Index with use of prescribed antibiotics in the three studies (rho between 0.59 and 0.62 and with self-medication (rho = 0.54 in the SAR study. Positive significant correlations were found for the Uncertainty Avoidance Index with the use of antibiotics as reported in two studies (rho between 0.57 and 0.59; for the SAR study

  11. Interpretation of Color Terms in Different Cultures%中英文颜色术语的理解歧义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张舍茹; 陈义家

    2006-01-01

    Interpretation of some color terms is a kind of cross-cultural activity. The color terms in English and Chinese differ greatly in meanings due to physical and cultural reasons. The same color to people in different cultures leads to different associative meanings that share various cultural implications. It is indispensable to study color terms in terms of colors and society, colors and history, colors and politics, and colors and the economy on the basis of comparison and contrast, which constitute the essential elements of any culture and society.

  12. Impact of different culture media on hairy roots growth of Valeriana officinalis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali PAKDIN PARIZI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Transformed hairy root cultures of Valeriana officinalis were established by infection with Agrobacterium rhizogenes strain ATCC 15834. To determine the effect of different media on the growth of V. officinalis hairy roots, MS, B5 media (1.0X and 0.5X strength, N6 medium and a modified MS medium without phytohormones were used. In addition, different NH4+ to NO3- ratios in MS medium were studied. The effects of these treatments were evaluated after 21 days of culture in relation to hairy root growth. B5 and ½ B5 media were the best basal media for hairy root growth. MS medium supplemented with a 20:20 ratio (mM of NH4+ to NO3- displayed highest growth rates and biomass yield in hairy root cultures. The present study demonstrated that the composition of culture medium and the ratio of different nitrogen sources have significant impact on the growth of V. officinalis hairy roots.

  13. Health-related quality of life of irritable bowel syndrome patients in different cultural settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johansson Saga

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Persons with Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS are seriously affected in their everyday life. The effect across different cultural settings of IBS on their quality of life has been little studied. The aim was to compare health-related quality of life (HRQOL of individuals suffering from IBS in two different cultural settings; Crete, Greece and Linköping, Sweden. Methods This study is a sex and age-matched case-control study, with n = 30 Cretan IBS cases and n = 90 Swedish IBS cases and a Swedish control group (n = 300 randomly selected from the general population. Health-related quality of life, measured by SF-36 and demographics, life style indicators and co-morbidity, was measured. Results Cretan IBS cases reported lower HRQOL on most dimensions of SF-36 in comparison to the Swedish IBS cases. Significant differences were found for the dimensions mental health (p Conclusion The results from this study tentatively support that the claim that similar individuals having the same disease, e.g. IBS, but living in different cultural environments could perceive their disease differently and that the disease might affect their everyday life and quality of life in a different way. The Cretan population, and especially women, are more seriously affected mentally by their disease than Swedish IBS cases. Coping with IBS in everyday life might be more problematic in the Cretan environment than in the Swedish setting.

  14. Exploration of English Idioms about Fruit and the Frequent Usage in Different Language Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilan Jiao

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available English idioms are commonly found in the oral and written English, which are quite vivid, concise and carried with a large amount of information. It makes up the major part of English language. In English idioms, fruit ones are a unique expression, which are widely accepted and applied in the daily life of English-speaking countries and carried with heavy cultural connotations. This study made an exploration of the historical origins of English idioms about fruit based on Greek mythology and Bible of Christianity. Besides, it made a detailed analysis of their frequent usage from the perspective of daily life. With the deeper understanding of culture of English-speaking countries, there will be gradually enhanced skills of interpersonal communication between different cultures.

  15. Effects of different Helicobacter pylori culture filtrates on growth of gastric epithelial cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-Guo Yan; Gang Zhao; Jin-Ping Ma; Shi-Rong Cai; Wen-Hua Zhan

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To study the effects of different Helicobacter pylori (H py/orl) culture filtrates on growth of gastric epithelial cells.METHODS: Broth culture filtrates of H pylori were prepared. Gastric epithelial cells were treated with the filtrates, and cell growth was determined by growth curve and flow cytometry. DNA damage of gastric epithelial cells was measured by single-cell microgel electrophoresis.RESULTS: Gastric epithelial cells proliferated actively when treated by CagA-gene-positive broth culture filtrates, and colony formation reached 40%. The number of cells in S phase increased compared to controls. Comet assay showed 41.2% comet cells in GES-1 cells treated with CagA-positive filtrates (P<0.05).CONCLUSION: CagA-positive filtrates enhance the changes in morphology and growth characteristics of human gastric epithelial tumor cells. DNA damage maybe one of the mechanisms involved in the growth changes.

  16. More Similar than Different? Exploring Cultural Models of Depression among Latino Immigrants in Florida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinorah (Dina Martinez Tyson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Surgeon General's report, “Culture, Race, and Ethnicity: A Supplement to Mental Health,” points to the need for subgroup specific mental health research that explores the cultural variation and heterogeneity of the Latino population. Guided by cognitive anthropological theories of culture, we utilized ethnographic interviewing techniques to explore cultural models of depression among foreign-born Mexican (n=30, Cuban (n=30, Columbian (n=30, and island-born Puerto Ricans (n=30, who represent the largest Latino groups in Florida. Results indicate that Colombian, Cuban, Mexican, and Puerto Rican immigrants showed strong intragroup consensus in their models of depression causality, symptoms, and treatment. We found more agreement than disagreement among all four groups regarding core descriptions of depression, which was largely unexpected but can potentially be explained by their common immigrant experiences. Findings expand our understanding about Latino subgroup similarities and differences in their conceptualization of depression and can be used to inform the adaptation of culturally relevant interventions in order to better serve Latino immigrant communities.

  17. Difference of adherence, proliferation and osteogenesis of mesenchymal stem cells cultured on different HA/ZrO2 composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QUAN Ren-fu; TANG Yang-hua; HUANG Zhong-ming; YANG Di-sheng; LI Wei; XU Jin-wei; WU Xiao-chun

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study the adherence,proliferation and osteogenesis of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) cultured on different HA/ZrO2 composites.Methods: The simplex and graded HA/ZrO2 composites were prepared using dry-laid method.The surface topography of the composites was observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM).The MSCs were isolated from rabbits and cultured on experimental groups (simplex HA/ ZrO2 composite,graded HA/ZrO2 composite,pure HA or pure ZrO2 coatings respectively) and control group (ordinary culture plate).Then,we observed the adherence,proliferation and osteogenesis of the MSCs,detected the cellular alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities,extracted total RNA and detected the mRNA expression of collagen Ⅰ,osteocalcin and osteopontin using the reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method.Results: The SEM images confirmed that the surfaceof the simplex HA/ZrO2 composite was coverd by discontiguous HA layer with clear visualization of the partial ZrO2 matrix,while the surface of the graded HA/ZrO2 composite was fairly rough with porosity.X-ray diffraction showed that after high temperature sintering,the ZrO2 phase still remained,while the HA phase was transformed to β-Ca3 (pO4)2,α-Ca3(PO4)2 and CaZrO3 phases on the surface of both composites.Cell culture indicated that the HA/ ZrO2 composites supported cell attachment.Neither ALP expression nor mRNA expression of collagen Ⅰ,osteocalcin or osteopontin from RT-PCR results showed significant deviation among four groups.Conclusion:Among these four composites,the graded HA/ZrO2 composite promotes the MSCs proliferation and the osteogenic differentiation to a certain extent.

  18. Different Perspectives of Cultural Mediation: Implications for the Research Design on Studies Examining Its Effect on Students' Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Tang Wee

    2013-01-01

    In this forum, I extend Tao, Oliver, and Venville's paper "Chinese and Australian children's understanding of the earth: a cross cultural study of conceptual development" to discuss the different views on culture and cultural mediation. I tease out nuances in the viewpoints to suggest three ways to theoretically frame studies examining cultural…

  19. Rugby versus Soccer in South Africa: Content Familiarity Contributes to Cross-Cultural Differences in Cognitive Test Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malda, Maike; van de Vijver, Fons J. R.; Temane, Q. Michael

    2010-01-01

    In this study, cross-cultural differences in cognitive test scores are hypothesized to depend on a test's cultural complexity (Cultural Complexity Hypothesis: CCH), here conceptualized as its content familiarity, rather than on its cognitive complexity (Spearman's Hypothesis: SH). The content familiarity of tests assessing short-term memory,…

  20. Framing attention in Japanese and american comics: cross-cultural differences in attentional structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Neil; Taylor-Weiner, Amaro; Grossman, Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    Research on visual attention has shown that Americans tend to focus more on focal objects of a scene while Asians attend to the surrounding environment. The panels of comic books - the narrative frames in sequential images - highlight aspects of a scene comparably to how attention becomes focused on parts of a spatial array. Thus, we compared panels from American and Japanese comics to explore cross-cultural cognition beyond behavioral experimentation by looking at the expressive mediums produced by individuals from these cultures. This study compared the panels of two genres of American comics (Independent and Mainstream comics) with mainstream Japanese "manga" to examine how different cultures and genres direct attention through the framing of figures and scenes in comic panels. Both genres of American comics focused on whole scenes as much as individual characters, while Japanese manga individuated characters and parts of scenes. We argue that this framing of space from American and Japanese comic books simulate a viewer's integration of a visual scene, and is consistent with the research showing cross-cultural differences in the direction of attention.

  1. Framing attention in Japanese and American comics: Cross-cultural differences in attentional structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil eCohn

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Research on visual attention has shown that Americans tend to focus more on focal objects of a scene while Asians attend to the surrounding environment. The panels of comic books— the narrative frames in sequential images—highlight aspects of a scene comparably to how attention becomes focused on parts of a spatial array. Thus, we compared panels from American and Japanese comics to explore cross-cultural cognition beyond behavioral experimentation by looking at the expressive mediums produced by individuals from these cultures. This study compared the panels of two genres of American comics (Independent and Mainstream comics with mainstream Japanese manga to examine how different cultures and genres direct attention through the framing of figures and scenes in comic panels. Both genres of American comics focused on whole scenes as much as individual characters, while Japanese manga individuated characters and parts of scenes. We argue that this framing of space from American and Japanese comic books simulate a viewer’s integration of a visual scene, and is consistent with the research showing cross-cultural differences in the direction of attention.

  2. The Cultural Differences between Chinese and English Reflected by Their Languages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Qian

    2015-01-01

    社会学家告诉我们,一切文化都是独特的,互不相同的。学习一种外语不仅要掌握语音、语法、词汇和习语。实际上,学习语言与了解语言所反映的文化是分不开的。本文粗略探讨日常对话,谚语,比喻和禁忌语这些语言现象所折射出的两种语言之间存在的文化差异。%Social scientists tell us that cultures differ from one another,and each culture is unique.Learning a foreign language well means more than merely mastering the pronunciation,grammar,words and idioms.In fact,it is inseparable from learning its culture.This paper attempts to do a brief study of certain cultural differences between Chinese and English reflected by everyday conversations,proverbs,metaphor and association as well as taboos.

  3. Globalization, culture and psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melluish, Steve

    2014-10-01

    This article outlines the cultural and psychological effects of globalization. It looks at the impact of globalization on identity; ideas of privacy and intimacy; the way we understand and perceive psychological distress; and the development of the profession of psychology around the world. The article takes a critical perspective on globalization, seeing it as aligned with the spread of neoliberal capitalism, a tendency towards cultural homogenization, the imposition of dominant 'global north' ideas and the resultant growing inequalities in health and well-being. However, it also argues that the increased interconnectedness created by globalization allows for greater acknowledgement of our common humanity and for collective efforts to be developed to tackle what are increasingly global problems. This requires the development of more nuanced understandings of cultural differences and of indigenous psychologies.

  4. Cultural history and psychoanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewenberg, Peter

    2007-01-01

    There is a congruence of hermeneutic method between cultural history and psychoanalysis which includes a recognition of the subjectivity and self-reflexivity of interpretation and of the centrality of emotions in the structuring of historical motivation and action. Psychoanalysis is a humanistic discipline that offers tentative multi-causal conclusions, combining in its method both self-reflection and empiricism, but basing itself on a unique process of inquiry different from either the natural or the cultural sciences. Distinguished shapers of the historian's craft, including Dilthey, Collingwood, and Bloch, used the self as an instrument of research and insight. Freud was a cultural pessimist, as was Burckhardt whom he admired. Leading contemporary American historians, such as Williamson, foreground self-reflection as an acknowledged tool of historical discovery and cognition. The "Bauhaus," 1919-1939, is presented as a case study of creative group process utilizing Winnicott's concepts of transitional space.

  5. Differences in the stability of the plasmids of Yersinia pestis cultures in vitro: impact on virulence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TC Leal-Balbino

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Plasmid and chromosomal genes encode determinants of virulence for Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague. However, in vitro, Y. pestis genome is very plastic and several changes have been described. To evaluate the alterations in the plasmid content of the cultures in vitro and the impact of the alterations to their pathogenicity, three Y. pestis isolates were submitted to serial subculture, analysis of the plasmid content, and testing for the presence of characteristic genes in each plasmid of colonies selected after subculture. Different results were obtained with each strain. The plasmid content of one of them was shown to be stable; no apparent alteration was produced through 32 subcultures. In the other two strains, several alterations were observed. LD50 in mice of the parental strains and the derived cultures with different plasmid content were compared. No changes in the virulence plasmid content could be specifically correlated with changes in the LD50.

  6. Content of Androgen Receptor in Cultured Genital Skin Fibroblast From Different Ages of Chinese Normal Men

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢建; 何立敏; 张金山; 杨震; 周云

    1995-01-01

    A ratpid, simple, reliable method is described for assaying androgen receptor (AR) in dispersed, whole, cultured human genital skin fibroblasts (GSF) with a synthetic androgen, 3H-methyltrienolone (3H-R1881). Receptors for androgen in GSF exhiblt high affinity (Kd=3.0±0.1 nmol/L), low binding capacity and androgen specificity. The content of AR in cultured GSF from 40 normal men varying in age from 1.5—60 years u:as also investigated by this assay. Scatchard analysis and slngle plot revealed the presence of 4.500-8500 binding sites per cell, mean number of AR in GSF of these men is 6288±1082 binding sites/cell. No significant difference was observed in the content of AR in different age groups. This result showed that the content of AR in these ceils did not change with age.

  7. The Containers Approach : An Inductive Method to look at Cultural Difference in a Technological Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Zimmermann, Basile

    2008-01-01

    The main goal of this presentation is to suggest an inductive way of looking at the idea of cultural difference in a technological environment. The proposal has three characteristics 1) it blurs the gap between natural sciences and human/social sciences, 2) it is extremely simple and down-to-earth, 3) the data that illustrates the method comes from recent field research in China (August 2008) in the realm of technology studies. The broader theoretical framework is provided by recent advances ...

  8. Attachment in cultural context: Differences in attachment between Eastern and Western Europeans

    OpenAIRE

    Polek, Elzbieta

    2008-01-01

    Political changes after 1989 and resulting from the European Union enlargement increased emigration from Eastern to Western Europe. In the introductory Chapter 1 the data about migration from the Eastern to Western Europe are presented, as well as the data about cultural, social and economic differences between Russia, Hungary, the Netherlands and Poland. In this chapter we also introduce A theoretical basis of acculturation and attachment theory. In Chapter 2 we focused on the replicability ...

  9. Program for developing writing skills for bilingual or socio-culturally different students

    OpenAIRE

    Slapšak, Mirjana

    2016-01-01

    In the field of education, we are being faced with a problem of teaching bilingual and socio-culturally different students, because knowing Slovenian language represents the crucial importance for their successful integration into the new environment and for their success in school. Due to the lack of understanding Slovenian language, immigrant pupils are having a hard time showing and gaining new knowledge. When communicating with their peers they are using social language whilst during clas...

  10. Cultural differences in e-commerce: A comparison between the U.S. and Japan

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    The paper presents the characteristics and trends of the Internet and e-commerce in Japan. Then it discusses the results of a content analysis of the top 50 popular Web sites in U.S. and those in Japan conducted in November 1999 and May 2000. This study examines cultural differences in the use of the Web in each country and suggests strategies for global e-commerce.

  11. Production of mycotoxins by galactose oxidase producing Fusarium using different culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira Angela Maria

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The original isolate of the galactose oxidase producing fungus Dactylium dendroides, and other five galactose oxidase producing Fusarium isolates were cultivated in different media and conditions, in order to evaluate the production of 11 mycotoxins, which are characteristic of the genus Fusarium: moniliformin, fusaric acid, deoxynivalenol, fusarenone-X, nivalenol, 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol, neosolaniol, zearalenol, zearalenone, acetyl T-2, and iso T-2. The toxicity of the culture extracts to Artemia salina larvae was tested.

  12. Cross-cultural differences in crossmodal correspondences between basic tastes and visual features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Xiaoang; Woods, Andy T; van den Bosch, Jasper J F; McKenzie, Kirsten J; Velasco, Carlos; Spence, Charles

    2014-01-01

    We report a cross-cultural study designed to investigate crossmodal correspondences between a variety of visual features (11 colors, 15 shapes, and 2 textures) and the five basic taste terms (bitter, salty, sour, sweet, and umami). A total of 452 participants from China, India, Malaysia, and the USA viewed color patches, shapes, and textures online and had to choose the taste term that best matched the image and then rate their confidence in their choice. Across the four groups of participants, the results revealed a number of crossmodal correspondences between certain colors/shapes and bitter, sour, and sweet tastes. Crossmodal correspondences were also documented between the color white and smooth/rough textures on the one hand and the salt taste on the other. Cross-cultural differences were observed in the correspondences between certain colors, shapes, and one of the textures and the taste terms. The taste-patterns shown by the participants from the four countries tested in the present study are quite different from one another, and these differences cannot easily be attributed merely to whether a country is Eastern or Western. These findings therefore highlight the impact of cultural background on crossmodal correspondences. As such, they raise a number of interesting questions regarding the neural mechanisms underlying crossmodal correspondences.

  13. Cross-cultural differences in crossmodal correspondences between basic tastes and visual features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoang eWan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We report a cross-cultural study designed to investigate crossmodal correspondences between a variety of visual features (11 colours, 15 shapes, and 2 textures and the five basic taste terms (bitter, salty, sour, sweet, and umami. A total of 452 participants from China, India, Malaysia, and the USA viewed colour patches, shapes, and textures online and had to choose the taste term that best matched the image and then rate their confidence in their choice. Across the four groups of participants, the results revealed a number of crossmodal correspondences between certain colours/shapes and bitter, sour, and sweet tastes. Crossmodal correspondences were also documented between the colour white and smooth/rough textures on the one hand and the salt taste on the other. Cross-cultural differences were observed in the correspondences between certain colours, shapes, and one of the textures and the taste terms. The taste-patterns shown by the participants from the four countries tested in present study are quite different from one another, and these differences cannot easily be attributed merely to whether a country is Eastern or Western. These findings therefore highlight the impact of cultural background on crossmodal correspondences. As such, they raise a number of interesting questions regarding the neural mechanisms underlying crossmodal correspondences.

  14. Some empirical insights into cultural differences and management practices: the case of Denmark and Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aprila Cotič

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents field research on differences in managers’ practices and behaviour in two EU countries: Denmark and Slovenia. The theoretical foundation of the research is based on cultural dimensions proposed by Hofstede and Hall. We combined the quantitative part of the research, which was based on surveys between Danish and Slovenian managers with semi-structured interviews. We confirmed many significant differences between Danish and Slovenian management practices and values that were predominantly consequence of two of Hofstede’s cultural dimensions: Power Distance and Uncertainty Avoidance. The emphasis of the research was on the presumption that these differences are even more articulated in extreme situations, such as the current economic crises. We also implicitly sought the answer to the question of what can Slovenian managers learn from the Danish experience. The main scientific contribution of the research is the methodological platform for further research on the effects of cultural characteristics on management practices and business efficiency within the main clusters of the EU countries.

  15. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF ROMANIAN AND GERMAN NEGOTIATION STYLE BASED ON CULTURAL DIFFERENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDREA HAMBURG

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available As a result of intensified international business relations and a unified European space the cultural background of economic agents in the field of international business is getting an increasing importance and leaves to a certain extent its marks on business behaviour of these individuals. Thus from the sixties of the past century onwards the problem of cultural differences and their influence upon professional relations lie in the centre of attention of several researchers like E.T. Hall, Geert Hofstede and others. In business negotiations one may observe a double conditioning of people’s negotiation style, at one hand it is the result of individual characteristics like personality, education, experience, personal charisma, but on the other hand there is a strong impact of collective factors, too such as the mental programming of each nation known under the name of culture. In the following study we undertake a Comparative/contrastive analysis of German and Romanian – culturally conditioned – negotiation style hoping to avoid at the same time to fall into the trap of stereotypy.

  16. Cultural differences affecting euthanasia practice in Belgium: one law but different attitudes and practices in Flanders and Wallonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Joachim; Van Wesemael, Yanna; Smets, Tinne; Bilsen, Johan; Deliens, Luc

    2012-09-01

    Since 2002, Belgium has had a national law legalising euthanasia. The law prescribes several substantive due care requirements and two procedural due care requirements, i.e. consultation with an independent physician and reporting of euthanasia to a Federal Control Committee. A large discrepancy in reporting rates between the Dutch-speaking (Flanders) and the French-speaking (Wallonia) parts of Belgium has led to speculation about cultural differences affecting the practice of euthanasia in both regions. Using Belgian data from the European Values Study conducted in 2008 among a representative sample of the general public and data from a large-scale mail questionnaire survey on euthanasia of 480 physicians from Flanders and 305 from Wallonia (conducted in 2009), this study presents empirical evidence of differences between both regions in attitudes towards and practice of euthanasia. Acceptance of euthanasia by the general population was found to be slightly higher in Flanders than in Wallonia. Compared with their Flemish counterparts, Walloon physicians held more negative attitudes towards performing euthanasia and towards the reporting obligation, less often labelled hypothetical cases correctly as euthanasia, and less often defined a case of euthanasia having to be reported. A higher proportion of Flemish physicians had received a euthanasia request since the introduction of the law. In cases of a euthanasia request, Walloon physicians consulted less often with an independent physician. Requests were more often granted in Flanders than in Wallonia (51% vs 38%), and performed euthanasia cases were more often reported (73% vs 58%). The study points out some significant differences between Flanders and Wallonia in practice, knowledge and attitudes regarding euthanasia and its legal requirements which are likely to explain the discrepancy between Wallonia and Flanders in the number of euthanasia cases reported. Cultural factors seem to play an important role in the

  17. Multi-cultural network security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, D.F.

    1996-04-01

    Education and awareness are widely acknowledged to be among the fundamental issues of Internet security, but only in the sense of making Internet users more security conscious. For the Internet to achieve its promise as an information highway, however, a complementary education effort is needed. If adequate Internet security is to be achieved, we must also increase the awareness of the professional security community of the requirements, attitudes, and habits of the many different cultures that participate in the Internet. Discussions of {open_quotes}the Internet{close_quotes} encourage the misapprehension that there is a single, uniform user community instead of a loose alliance of many cultures that differ in many fundamental aspects. This is true even if we limit our consideration to ethical cultures. At this Workshop alone we have representatives of administrative and military cultures, Governmental and commercial cultures, profit-cultures and non-profit cultures, research and operational cultures. Internet cultures are united in their desire to exploit the connectivity, flexibility, and rapidity of communication provided by the net, but differ greatly in their motivations, their attitudes towards authority, their willingness to cooperate within their own communities, their interest in technical arcana, and the patience with which they will put up with - or the enthusiasm with which they will embrace - the growing list of procedures deemed necessary for acceptable security. They even differ in how they define {open_quotes}acceptable security{close_quotes}.

  18. The Cultural Differences Between China and Western Countries——From the Perspective of Analyzing Advertising Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晨

    2009-01-01

    There exists close interrelationship between language and culture: Language reflects culture and culture influences language. Based on the comparision of different advertising languages in Chinese and western cultures, their cultural differences will be investigated from three perspectives: philosophical ideology, value orientation and cultural traditions, in hope of promoting cross-cultural communciation.%语言和文化密切相关,本文拟从哲学观念、价值取向、文化传统三个方面对中西方的广告语言作一对比分析,以期从语言中探寻中西文化差异,促进跨文化交流.

  19. Survey of Attitudes towards Curriculum Reforms among Medical Teachersin Different Socio-economic and Cultural Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Mads Ronald

    2007-01-01

    towards medical curriculum reform in post-communist transition countries, but not in Western European schools, was younger age, as well as female gender in Bosnia and Herzegovina,. Factors influencing faculty attitudes may not be easy to identify and may be specific for different settings......Curriculum reforms in medical schools require cultural and conceptual changes from the faculty. We assessed attitudes towards curriculum reforms in different academic, economic, and social environments among 776 teachers from 2 Western European medical schools (Belgium and Denmark) and 7 medical...

  20. Canopy Spectral Reflectance Characteristics of Rice with Different Cultural Practices and Their Fuzzy Cluster Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The influence of major cultural practices including different nitrogen application rates, population densities, transplanting leaf ages of seedling, and water regimes on rice canopy spectral reflectance was investigated. Results showed that increased nitrogen rates, water regimes and population densities and decreased seedling ages could enhance reflectance at NIR (near infrared) bands and reduce reflectance at visible bands. Using reflectance of green, red and NIR band and ratio index of 810-560 nm could distinguish the different type of rice by fuzzy cluster analysis.

  1. Fenofibrate: metabolism and species differences for peroxisome proliferation in cultured hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornu-Chagnon, M C; Dupont, H; Edgar, A

    1995-06-01

    The hypolipidemic agent fenofibrate, which is a peroxisome proliferator in some rodents in vivo, was studied in cultured hepatocytes for its metabolism and effects on enzymatic induction related to peroxisome proliferation so as to lead to a better understanding of the mechanisms involved in peroxisome proliferation. [14C]-Fenofibrate was completely metabolized within 24 hr by primary cultures of rat hepatocytes and the metabolic pattern corresponded to that found in vivo. The main products were fenofibric acid and its glucuronidated form. Carbonyl reduction of fenofibric acid also occurred. The metabolic pattern of [14C]fenofibric acid was nearly the same as that of fenofibrate. Fenofibrate, fenofibric acid, and its reduced metabolite all induced peroxisomal (cyanide-insensitive) palmitoyl-CoA oxidation activity (PCOA) in rat hepatocytes, whereas derivatives lacking the carboxyl group were nearly inactive. The known species differences with respect to sensitivity to peroxisome proliferators in vivo was mirrored in cultured cells because fenofibric acid did not induce peroxisomal PCOA in primary culture of guinea pig hepatocytes nor in the human hepatoma cell line HepG2. The mechanistic association between the induction of CYP4A1-catalyzed lauric acid omega-hydroxylase (LAH) activity and peroxisomal PCOA induction was investigated. Fenofibric acid concomitantly induced LAH activity and peroxisomal PCOA in rat hepatocytes. Specific inhibition of LAH activity (-52%) by 10-undecynoic acid partially prevented induction of peroxisomal PCOA (-32%). The putative role of dicarboxylic acids, the oxidation product of omega-hydroxymonocarboxylic acids, in PCOA induction was further substantiated by the observed induction of peroxisomal PCOA by 1-12-dodecanedioic acid. We conclude that (1) fenofibric acid is the possible proximate peroxisome proliferator of fenofibrate in rat hepatocytes, (2) cultured hepatocytes reflect in vivo sensitivity to fenofibrate with respect to

  2. Globalization and the diffusion of ideas: why we should acknowledge the roots of mainstream ideas in global health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Emilie; Hajizadeh, Mohammad; El-Bialy, Rowan; Bidisha, Sayema Haque

    2014-06-01

    Although globalization has created ample opportunities and spaces to share experiences and information, the diffusion of ideas, especially in global health, is primarily influenced by the unequal distribution of economic, political and scientific powers around the world. These ideas in global health are generally rooted in High-Income Countries (HICs), and then reach Low- and Middle-Income Countries (LMICs). We argue that acknowledging and addressing this invisible trend would contribute to a greater degree of open discussions in global health. This is expected to favor innovative, alternative, and culturally sound solutions for persistent health problems and reducing inequities.

  3. Three Educational Values for a Multicultural Society: Difference Recognition, National Cohesion and Equality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Lawrence

    2014-01-01

    Educational aims for societies comprising multiple ethnic, cultural and racial groups should involve three different values--recognizing difference, national cohesion and equality. Recognition of difference acknowledges and respects ethnocultural identities and in educational contexts also encourages mutual engagement across difference. National…

  4. Growth, cysts and kinetics of Borrelia garinii (Spirochaetales: Spirochaetacea in different culture media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela de Oliveira

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present paper was to evaluate cyst formation and growth parameters of Borrelia garinii in a range of media differing in formulation and cost. A qualitative assessment of morphology and motility of B. garinii was conducted. All media were prepared aseptically and used in test tubes or Petri dishes. For each medium, the initial spirochete concentration was standardized to 10³ spirochets/mL. The following culture media were suitable to grow B. garinii: Barbour-Stoenner-Kelly, brain heart infusion and PMR. Growth was minimal at six weeks post-inoculation and maximum spirochete density was observed between 9-12 weeks. Often, the cultures developed cysts of different sizes, isolated or in groups, with a spiraled portion of variable sizes, mainly in unfavorable culture media. Brazilian Lyme disease-like illness, also known as Baggio-Yoshinari syndrome (BYS, is a new and interesting emerging tick-borne disease, caused by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato spirochetes, only during its cystic forms. It has been assumed that the peculiar clinical and laboratory features of BYS are consequential to the absence of a human sucker Ixodes ricinus complex tick at risk areas in Brazil, supporting the concept that the borrelia phenotypic expression pattern is modified as it is transmitted through the host.

  5. Development of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides isolated from green pepper in different culture media, temperatures, and light regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mello Alexandre Furtado Silveira

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Control of anthracnose in green pepper involves the use of resistant varieties and/or fungicides. The selection of varieties and efficient products demands great amounts of conidia as inoculum. It is thus necessary to optimize the production of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides conidia in the laboratory, establishing the best conditions for fungus development. The present study aimed at determining the most favorable culture media, temperature, and light conditions for the production of fungus inoculum. The fungus was isolated from green pepper fruits (Capsicum annuum L. and transferred to four culture media (PDA, oat, filtered pepper extract, and autoclaved pepper extract, under different temperatures (15, 20, 25, 30, and 35ºC and light conditions (24h dark, and 24h light. Colony growth was evaluated after 7 and 12 days of incubation. No differences were found between the culture media. However, the greatest number of conidia was obtained from colonies grown in oat medium at 25ºC. Temperatures of 20 and 25ºC were the most favorable for colony growth and sporulation. Higher sporulation was obtained under incubation in constant light. Cultivation of C. gloeosporioides in oat medium, at 25ºC, and constant light is recommended.

  6. Comparative study on the stem cell phenotypes of C6 cells under different culture conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Suo-jun; YE Fei; XIE Rui-fan; HU Feng; WANG Bao-feng; WAN Feng; GUO Dong-sheng; LEI Ting

    2011-01-01

    Background Glioma stem cell (GSC) hypothesis posits that a subpopulation of cells within gliomas have true clonogenic and tumorigenic potential. Significantly, a more controversial correlate to GSC is that cells in different culture conditions might display distinct stem cell properties. Considering these possibilities, we applied an approach comparing stem cell characteristics of C6 glioma cells under different culture conditions.Methods C6 cells were cultured under three different growth conditions, i.e., adherent growth in conventional 10% serum medium, non-adherent spheres growth in serum-free medium, as well as adherent growth on laminin-coated flask in serum-free medium. Growth characteristics were detected contrastively through neurosphere formation assay and cell cycle analysis. Markers were determined by immunofluorescence, relative-quantitative reverse transcription (RT)-PCR,Western blotting and flow cytometry. Side population cells were analyzed via flow cytometry. Tumor models were detected by magnetic resonance imaging and hematoxylin & eosin staining. Data analyses were performed with SPSS software (17.0).Results C6 cells (C6-Adh, C6-SC-Sph and C6-SC-Adh) showed distinctive growth patterns and proliferation capacity.Compared to suspending C6-SC-Sph, adherent C6-Adh and C6-SC-Adh displayed higher growth ratio. C6-SC-Sph and C6-SC-Adh showed enhanced capability of neurosphere formation and self-renewal. High side population ratio was detected in C6-SC-Sph and C6-SC-Adh. CD133 was not detected in all three kinds of cells. Conversely, Nestin and β-Ⅲ-tubulin were demonstrated positive, nonetheless with no statistical significance (P >0.05). Interestingly, lower expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein was demonstrated in C6-SC-Sph and C6-SC-Adh. C6-Adh, C6-SC-Sph and C6-SC-Adh were all displayed in situ oncogenicity, while statistical difference of survival time was not confirmed.Conclusions C6 glioma cell line is endowed with some GSC

  7. Mycelial Biomass Exchange in Different Growth Stage Cultures of Flammulina velutipes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Changxia; CHEN Jianhua; CAO Hui; CHEN Mingjie; WANG Hong; WANG Yan

    2014-01-01

    Mycelial DNA was used as the parameter to determine fungal biomass in the cultivation substrate during the growth of Flammulina velutipes,strain FV.Substrate DNA levels,their effect on mycelial DNA extraction,and mycelial biomass in bottle cultures,were determined using a standard curve relating mycelial biomass with DNA content.Determination of mycelial biomass in samples collected from the upper,middle and lower layers of bottle cultures at different growth stages indicated a positive correlation between biomass and the ‘age’of the mycelium (i.e.growth period from inoculation and sample testing),and that biomass levels continually increased for a certain period after the substrate had been fully colonized.Mycelial biomass in the cultivation substrate decreased during fruit body growth,and occurred earlier and more rapidly in the upper layer compared with the middle and lower layers.

  8. Transformation of organic N newly added to red soil treated with different cultural practices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhangQin-Zheng; YeQing-Fu; 等

    1998-01-01

    By using 15N tracer method,transformation of organic N,which wqas newly added to red soil treated with different cultural practices,was studied under thelaboratory incubation condition.The experimental results showed that the transformation of N from newly added organic matter and soil native pool during incubation was influenced by cultural practice treatment beforeincubation.Fallow was favorable to the mineralization of newly added organic N and soil N compared with the planting wheat treatment.Planting wheat greatly increased the loss of soil N.Application of fertilizers stimulated the mineralization of newly added organic N and application of organic matter reduced the mineralization,but stimulated microbialtransformation of newly adde4d organic N.

  9. 文化差异与和谐共处%Cultural Differences and Harmonious Coexistence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    穆怀旗

    2007-01-01

    This essay endeavors to demonstrate cultural variations and cultural gaps in different religions,countries and regions.Around that theme,it presents quite a few vivid,and some being funny,examples.The essay calls on all the peoples on the earth to live in harmonious coexistence and learn to live in the global village.%不同宗教、不同国家、不同地域间存在较大的文化差异.笔者列举了不少生动而又有趣的例子说明这些差异,并呼吁世界上的各民族和谐共生,学会在同一个地球村上生活.

  10. A Single Dynamic Metabolic Model Can Describe mAb Producing CHO Cell Batch and Fed-Batch Cultures on Different Culture Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robitaille, Julien; Chen, Jingkui; Jolicoeur, Mario

    2015-01-01

    CHO cell culture high productivity relies on optimized culture medium management under fed-batch or perfused chemostat strategies enabling high cell densities. In this work, a dynamic metabolic model for CHO cells was further developed, calibrated and challenged using datasets obtained under four different culture conditions, including two batch and two fed-batch cultures comparing two different culture media. The recombinant CHO-DXB11 cell line producing the EG2-hFc monoclonal antibody was studied. Quantification of extracellular substrates and metabolites concentration, viable cell density, monoclonal antibody concentration and intracellular concentration of metabolite intermediates of glycolysis, pentose-phosphate and TCA cycle, as well as of energetic nucleotides, were obtained for model calibration. Results suggest that a single model structure with a single set of kinetic parameter values is efficient at simulating viable cell behavior in all cases under study, estimating the time course of measured and non-measured intracellular and extracellular metabolites. Model simulations also allowed performing dynamic metabolic flux analysis, showing that the culture media and the fed-batch strategies tested had little impact on flux distribution. This work thus paves the way to an in silico platform allowing to assess the performance of different culture media and fed-batch strategies.

  11. Effects of disciplinary cultures of researchers and research trainees on the acceptability of nanocarriers for drug delivery in different contexts of use: a mixed-methods study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenel, Vanessa; Boissy, Patrick; Cloarec, Jean-Pierre; Patenaude, Johane

    2015-04-01

    The acceptability of nanomedical applications, which have the potential to generate ethical and societal impacts, is a significant factor in the deployment of nanomedicine. A lack of fit between nanomedical applications and society's values may result from a partial consideration of such impacts. New approaches for technological evaluation focused on impact perception, acceptance, and acceptability are needed to go beyond traditional technology assessment approaches used with nanotechnology, which focus mainly on toxicological and safety criteria. Using a new evaluative approach based on perceived impacts of nanotechnology, the objective of this study was to assess perceptions among researchers and research trainees familiar with emergent technologies and from different disciplinary background the scope of acceptability judgments made towards the use of nanocarriers. This mixed-methods study was based on scenarios presenting two types of drug-delivery nanocarriers (carbon, synthetic DNA) in two contexts of use (lung cancer treatment, seasonal flu treatment). Researchers and research trainees in the natural sciences and engineering, and the social sciences and the humanities were invited by email to take part in this project. An online questionnaire followed by semi-directed interviews allowed characterization of disciplinary divergences regarding to impact perception, acceptance, and acceptability of the scenarios. The results suggest that impact perception is influenced by disciplinary culture. Also, trends can be seen between respondents' profiles and variables of acceptance and acceptability, and certain components of the acceptability judgement are specific to each disciplinary culture. The acknowledgment and consideration of these disciplinary divergences could allow, among others, for opening up interdisciplinary dialogue on matters related to the acceptability of nanomedical applications and their developments.

  12. Effects of disciplinary cultures of researchers and research trainees on the acceptability of nanocarriers for drug delivery in different contexts of use: a mixed-methods study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chenel, Vanessa; Boissy, Patrick, E-mail: patrick.boissy@usherbrooke.ca [Université de Sherbrooke, Interdisciplinary Institute for Technological Innovation (3IT) (Canada); Cloarec, Jean-Pierre [Université de Sherbrooke, Laboratoire Nanotechnologies et Nanosystèmes (LN2), Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) (Canada); Patenaude, Johane [Université de Sherbrooke, Interdisciplinary Institute for Technological Innovation (3IT) (Canada)

    2015-04-15

    The acceptability of nanomedical applications, which have the potential to generate ethical and societal impacts, is a significant factor in the deployment of nanomedicine. A lack of fit between nanomedical applications and society’s values may result from a partial consideration of such impacts. New approaches for technological evaluation focused on impact perception, acceptance, and acceptability are needed to go beyond traditional technology assessment approaches used with nanotechnology, which focus mainly on toxicological and safety criteria. Using a new evaluative approach based on perceived impacts of nanotechnology, the objective of this study was to assess perceptions among researchers and research trainees familiar with emergent technologies and from different disciplinary background the scope of acceptability judgments made towards the use of nanocarriers. This mixed-methods study was based on scenarios presenting two types of drug-delivery nanocarriers (carbon, synthetic DNA) in two contexts of use (lung cancer treatment, seasonal flu treatment). Researchers and research trainees in the natural sciences and engineering, and the social sciences and the humanities were invited by email to take part in this project. An online questionnaire followed by semi-directed interviews allowed characterization of disciplinary divergences regarding to impact perception, acceptance, and acceptability of the scenarios. The results suggest that impact perception is influenced by disciplinary culture. Also, trends can be seen between respondents’ profiles and variables of acceptance and acceptability, and certain components of the acceptability judgement are specific to each disciplinary culture. The acknowledgment and consideration of these disciplinary divergences could allow, among others, for opening up interdisciplinary dialogue on matters related to the acceptability of nanomedical applications and their developments.

  13. Explaining state-to-state differences in seat belt use: A multivariate analysis of cultural variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnar, Lisa J; Eby, David W; Dasgupta, Kohinoor; Yang, Yang; Nair, Vijayan N; Pollock, Stephen M

    2012-07-01

    There is considerable variation in seat belt use within the United States despite extensive evidence that the use of seat belts saves lives. Previous studies have identified some important factors that affect belt use rates, including gender, age, race, vehicle type, seat-belt enforcement laws, and amount of fine for belt-use law violation. In this study, we examined the influence of additional socio-demographic factors on state-level use rates: education (percentage of high school educated population), racial composition (percentage White), median household income, political leaning (percentage Democrat), and a measure of religiosity. These variables, which collectively characterize the 'culture' of a state, have received little attention in seat-belt studies. The paper reports results from a multiple regression analysis of data from the 2008 Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS). Many of the use rate patterns in FARS data were consistent with those found in other data sets, suggesting that conclusions based on FARS data are likely to hold for the population-at-large. Of the five cultural factors considered in the study, three were identified as important in explaining the differences in seat belt use at the state level: religiosity, race (percentage White), and political leaning (percentage Democrat). The other two variables - income and education - were not significant. Hold-out analyses confirmed that this conclusion was consistent across different subsets of data. The findings from this study are preliminary and have to be confirmed on other data sets. Nevertheless, they demonstrate the potential usefulness of cultural factors in explaining state-to-state variation in seat belt use rates. If factors such as religiosity are indeed important, they can be used to develop culturally appropriate programs for increasing belt use.

  14. Cultural differences in sensitivity to the relationship between objects and contexts: evidence from P3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kui; Umla-Runge, Katja; Hofmann, Juliane; Ferdinand, Nicola K; Chan, Raymond C K

    2014-06-18

    Cross-cultural differences in Easterners and Westerners have been observed in different cognitive domains. Differential sensitivity to the relationship between objects and contexts might be an underlying cognitive mechanism for these differences. Twenty-one Chinese and 22 Germans participated in a three-stimulus event-related potential oddball task. They were instructed to monitor geometrical forms filled in black (targets) that were presented among a series of blank geometrical forms (standards). Novel stimuli were colored images of common objects. Robust novelty P3 and target P3 over the entire scalp were observed in both groups. As compared with the German group, Chinese participants showed larger amplitudes of novelty P3 and target P3 over frontal regions and earlier peak latency for target P3. This indicates a higher sensitivity to the relationship between contexts and objects in the Chinese as compared with the German group, which might be an underlying mechanism for cross-cultural differences reported in many cognitive domains.

  15. Different Donor Cell Culture Methods Can Influence the Developmental Ability of Cloned Sheep Embryos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LiBing Ma

    Full Text Available It was proposed that arresting nuclear donor cells in G0/G1 phase facilitates the development of embryos that are derived from somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT. Full confluency or serum starvation is commonly used to arrest in vitro cultured somatic cells in G0/G1 phase. However, it is controversial as to whether these two methods have the same efficiency in arresting somatic cells in G0/G1 phase. Moreover, it is unclear whether the cloned embryos have comparable developmental ability after somatic cells are subjected to one of these methods and then used as nuclear donors in SCNT. In the present study, in vitro cultured sheep skin fibroblasts were divided into four groups: (1 cultured to 70-80% confluency (control group, (2 cultured to full confluency, (3 starved in low serum medium for 4 d, or (4 cultured to full confluency and then further starved for 4 d. Flow cytometry was used to assay the percentage of fibroblasts in G0/G1 phase, and cell counting was used to assay the viability of the fibroblasts. Then, real-time reverse transcription PCR was used to determine the levels of expression of several cell cycle-related genes. Subsequently, the four groups of fibroblasts were separately used as nuclear donors in SCNT, and the developmental ability and the quality of the cloned embryos were compared. The results showed that the percentage of fibroblasts in G0/G1 phase, the viability of fibroblasts, and the expression levels of cell cycle-related genes was different among the four groups of fibroblasts. Moreover, the quality of the cloned embryos was comparable after these four groups of fibroblasts were separately used as nuclear donors in SCNT. However, cloned embryos derived from fibroblasts that were cultured to full confluency combined with serum starvation had the highest developmental ability. The results of the present study indicate that there are synergistic effects of full confluency and serum starvation on arresting fibroblasts in

  16. Influence of Different Carbohydrates on Flavonoid Accumulation in Hairy Root Cultures of Scutellaria baicalensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chang Ha; Kim, Young Seon; Li, Xiaohua; Kim, Haeng Hoon; Arasu, Mariadhas Valan; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Lee, Sook Young; Park, Sang Un

    2016-06-01

    Carbohydrate sources play important roles in energy and growth of plants. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the optimal carbohydrate source in hairy root cultures (HRCs) of Scutellaria baicalensis infected with Agrobacterium rhizogenes strain R1000. The hairy roots were cultured in half-strength B5 liquid medium supplemented with seven different carbohydrates sources (sucrose, fructose, glucose, galactose, sorbitol, mannitol and maltose), each at a concentration of 100 mM, in order to identify the best carbon sources for the production of major flavones, such as wogonin, baicalin and baicalein. Sucrose, galactose and fructose markedly influenced the production of major flavones and were therefore chosen for subsequent experiments. HRC growth and flavone accumulation were examined following culture with 30, 100 and 150 mM sucrose, galactose and fructose, respectively. From these data, 150 mM sucrose was found to be the optimal carbon source for the enhancement of baicalein production and growth of S. baicalensis HRCs. Fructose caused the greatest increase in baicalin accumulation. Additionally, galactose was the optimal carbon source for wogonin production. These results provide important insights into the optimal growth conditions, particularly the appropriate carbohydrate source, for S. baicalensis.

  17. Toxicity and oxidative stress of canine mesenchymal stromal cells from adipose tissue in different culture passages

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    Arícia Gomes Sprada

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Stem cells in regenerative therapy have received attention from researchers in recent decades. The culture of these cells allows studies about their behavior and metabolism. Thus, cell culture is the basis for cell therapy and tissue engineering researches. A major concern regarding the use of cultivated stem cell in human or veterinary clinical routine is the risk of carcinogenesis. Cellular activities require a balanced redox state. However, when there is an imbalance in this state, oxidative stress occurs. Oxidative stress contributes to cytotoxicity, which may result in cell death or genomic alterations, favoring the development of cancer cells. The aim of this study was to determine whether there are differences in the behavior of cultured mesenchymal stem cells from canine adipose tissue according to its site of collection (omentum and subcutaneous evaluating the rate of proliferation, viability, level of oxidative stress and cytotoxicity over six passages. For this experiment, two samples of adipose tissue from subcutaneous and omentum where taken from a female dog corpse, 13 years old, Pitbull. The results showed greater levels of oxidative stress in the first and last passages of both groups, favoring cytotoxicity and cell death.

  18. Learning Danish(ness: Constructing Cultural Difference in Danish Language Classes in Denmark

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    Sarah Casey

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The “problem of immigrant integration” is a recurrent topic in public discourse in Denmark. One attempt to manage this has been the establishment of mandatory Danish language classes, a sizeable component of a comparably extensive integration program. While language instruction is ostensibly aimed at equipping immigrants with language skills, culture, in an essentialized form, is foregrounded during instruction, where differences between Danes and foreigners are highlighted. With culture mapping neatly onto place, diversity within “a culture” is downplayed, creating homogenizing discourses regarding both Danes and immigrants, with immigrants portrayed as ill-suited for life in Denmark. This focus on culture is a prominent component of state-wide efforts to manage a group of individuals conceptualized as problematic- non-EU immigrants. Interventions aimed at altering the conduct of immigrants serve to alleviate the threat originating in what is imagined to be a risky group of individuals, thereby securing the well-being of the greater population.

  19. Different Culture Media Affect Proliferation, Surface Epitope Expression, and Differentiation of Ovine MSC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamzyk, Carina; Emonds, Tanja; Falkenstein, Julia; Tolba, René; Jahnen-Dechent, Wilhelm; Lethaus, Bernd; Neuss, Sabine

    2013-01-01

    Orthopedic implants including engineered bone tissue are commonly tested in sheep. To avoid rejection of heterologous or xenogeneic cells, autologous cells are preferably used, that is, ovine mesenchymal stem cells (oMSC). Unlike human MSC, ovine MSC are not well studied regarding isolation, expansion, and characterization. Here we investigated the impact of culture media composition on growth characteristics, differentiation, and surface antigen expression of oMSC. The culture media varied in fetal calf serum (FCS) content and in the addition of supplements and/or additional epidermal growth factor (EGF). We found that FCS strongly influenced oMSC proliferation and that specific combinations of supplemental factors (MCDB-201, ITS-plus, dexamethasone, and L-ascorbic acid) determined the expression of surface epitopes. We compared two published protocols for oMSC differentiation towards the osteogenic, adipogenic, and chondrogenic fate and found (i) considerable donor to donor variations, (ii) protocol-dependent variations, and (iii) variations resulting from the preculture medium composition. Our results indicate that the isolation and culture of oMSC in different growth media are highly variable regarding oMSC phenotype and behaviour. Furthermore, variations from donor to donor critically influence growth rate, surface marker expression, and differentiation.

  20. Recognition of depression in people of different cultures: a qualitative study

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    Mattsson Bengt

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many minority group patients who attend primary health care are depressed. To identify a depressive state when GPs see patients from other cultures than their own can be difficult because of cultural and gender differences in expressions and problems of communication. The aim of this study was to explore and analyse how GPs think and deliberate when seeing and treating patients from foreign countries who display potential depressive features. Methods The data were collected in focus groups and through individual interviews with GPs in northern Sweden and analysed by qualitative content analysis. Results In the analysis three themes, based on various categories, emerged; "Realizing the background", "Struggling for clarity" and "Optimizing management". Patients' early life events of importance were often unknown which blurred the accuracy. Reactions to trauma, cultural frictions and conflicts between the new and old gender norms made the diagnostic process difficult. The patient-doctor encounter comprised misconceptions, and social roles in the meetings were sometimes confused. GPs based their judgement mainly on clinical intuition and the established classification of depressive disorders was discussed. Tools for management and adequate action were diffuse. Conclusion Dialogue about patients' illness narratives and social context are crucial. There is a need for tools for multicultural, general practice care in the depressive spectrum. It is also essential to be aware of GPs' own conceptions in order to avoid stereotypes and not to under- or overestimate the occurrence of depressive symptoms

  1. Behavioral profile of Macrobrachium rosenbergii in mixed and monosex culture submitted to shelters of different colors

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    Daniele Bezerra Santos

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Current research analyzed the behavioral activities of Macrobrachium rosenbergii and its preference for colored shelters in male monosex, female monosex and mixed culture. Ten shrimps m-2 were maintained in eight 250-L aquaria. Three artificial shelters, colored red, black and orange, were placed in each aquarium. Four aquaria were maintained in light/dark photoperiod respectively between 6h00 am and 6h00 pm and between 6h00 pm and 6h00 am, whereas the other four aquaria were submitted to an inverted photoperiod. The animals were observed for 30 days by Focal Animal Method for 15 minutes, with instantaneous recording every 60 seconds, at six different instances within the light and dark phases. Preference for black shelters occurred in male monosex and mixed cultures, whereas red and orange shelters were the preference of female monosex. M. rosenbergii kept in the shelter mostly during the light phase in male monosex and mixed populations. Results suggest that black, red and orange shelters may improve the animals' well-being in the culture since aggressive encounters would decrease, especially during the light phase.

  2. Different Culture Media Affect Proliferation, Surface Epitope Expression, and Differentiation of Ovine MSC

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    Carina Adamzyk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Orthopedic implants including engineered bone tissue are commonly tested in sheep. To avoid rejection of heterologous or xenogeneic cells, autologous cells are preferably used, that is, ovine mesenchymal stem cells (oMSC. Unlike human MSC, ovine MSC are not well studied regarding isolation, expansion, and characterization. Here we investigated the impact of culture media composition on growth characteristics, differentiation, and surface antigen expression of oMSC. The culture media varied in fetal calf serum (FCS content and in the addition of supplements and/or additional epidermal growth factor (EGF. We found that FCS strongly influenced oMSC proliferation and that specific combinations of supplemental factors (MCDB-201, ITS-plus, dexamethasone, and L-ascorbic acid determined the expression of surface epitopes. We compared two published protocols for oMSC differentiation towards the osteogenic, adipogenic, and chondrogenic fate and found (i considerable donor to donor variations, (ii protocol-dependent variations, and (iii variations resulting from the preculture medium composition. Our results indicate that the isolation and culture of oMSC in different growth media are highly variable regarding oMSC phenotype and behaviour. Furthermore, variations from donor to donor critically influence growth rate, surface marker expression, and differentiation.

  3. The Root of the Differences between Chinese Sports Culture and Western Sports Culture%论中西体育文化差异之根源

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    杨中民

    2014-01-01

    Chinese and western sports cultures are two important branches of the world culture. With the development of history, Chinese and western sports cultures show obvious differences. This paper, using the methods of literature review and logical analysis, studies the root of the differences between Chinese and western sports cultures.%中西方体育文化是世界文化中的两个重要分支,在历史的发展中,中西方体育文化体现出明显的差异性。文章通过文献资料法、逻辑分析法对中西方体育文化存在的差异之根源进行研究。

  4. Different Effects of Therapeutic Ultrasound Parameters and Culture Conditions on Gene Transfection Efficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Zhi-yi; XIE Ming-xing; WANG Xin-fang; LU Qing

    2008-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effect of different therapeutic ultrasound(TUS)parameters and culture conditions on the cell viability and transfection efficiency of human cervical cancer cells(HeLa). Methods:HeLa cells were cultured using two different protocols(in suspension or in monolayer).Subsequently,cells were exposed to different TUS intensity(0.4 W/cm2,1.0 W/cm2,1.6 W/cm2,2.2 W/cm2),duty cycle(DC)(10%,20%,50%),exposure time(1 min or 3 min).Cell viability was analyzed by flow cytometry.Gene transfection of red fluorescent protein(DsRED)was detected. Results:TUS intensity and duty cycle had a great impact on the overall results(P<0.01).Cell injury were found to increase progressively with intensity (1.6 W/cm2,2.2 W/cm2)and duty cycle(50%)and cell detachment was accompanied by ultrasound exposure in adherent cells.Results of factorial design showed that the fashion of cell culture and the TUS parameters had interaction(P<0.0 1).The ideal conditions that cell viability above 80% producing maximum efficiency were noted to be at 1.0 W/cm2 irradiated 3 min with a duty cycle of 20% in cell suspension. Conclusion:TUS parameters and transfection conditions have a great impact on the gene transfection and cell viability.Optimal parameters could enhance cell membrane permeability,which facilitate to delivering the macromolecules into cells.

  5. What pediatricians should know about normal language development: ensuring cultural differences are not diagnosed as disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Amy L; Van Haren, Melissa S

    2003-07-01

    The roles and responsibilities of speech-language pathologists and pediatricians have become greater with the changing population demographics in the United States. In some states, the majority of the population belongs to a national cultural minority, eg, New Mexico. Even a state such as Iowa, with only a 5% nonmajority population, has a school-aged population that is almost 10% nonmajority. This growth of diversity is likely to continue. Rather than viewing sensitivity to the influence of culture on language learning and other developmental areas as an "add-on" to a practice, it may be wiser to recognize that approaching all clients with as few assumptions about their behaviors as possible will guarantee nonbiased service delivery for all. Without nonbiased service delivery, incorrect diagnoses and provision of inappropriate therapy become more likely. Fortunately, many resources are available to assist pediatricians and speech-language pathologists in learning about various cultures. Institutional review boards have become more vigilant about the inclusion of a cross-section of subject populations as participants in research studies in addition to protecting the rights of all participants. Funding agencies also have expressed as a priority the inclusion of research subjects from minority populations to add to the information available about the incidence and prevalence of disorders across the range of our potential patients. In a society in which cultural differences are not just defined by race or ethnicity, but by gender, sexual orientation, age, geographic region, and religion, belief systems about disease, disability, and treatment are dynamic entities for health professionals to take into consideration. It is a challenge that speech-language pathologists and pediatricians must meet if they are to provide the best and most appropriate services for their patients.

  6. cultural

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    Irene Kreutz

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Es un estudio cualitativo que adoptó como referencial teorico-motodológico la antropología y la etnografía. Presenta las experiencias vivenciadas por mujeres de una comunidad en el proceso salud-enfermedad, con el objetivo de comprender los determinantes sócio-culturales e históricos de las prácticas de prevención y tratamiento adoptados por el grupo cultural por medio de la entrevista semi-estructurada. Los temas que emergieron fueron: la relación entre la alimentación y lo proceso salud-enfermedad, las relaciones con el sistema de salud oficial y el proceso salud-enfermedad y lo sobrenatural. Los dados revelaron que los moradores de la comunidad investigada tienen un modo particular de explicar sus procedimientos terapéuticos. Consideramos que es papel de los profesionales de la salud en sus prácticas, la adopción de abordajes o enfoques que consideren al individuo en su dimensión sócio-cultural e histórica, considerando la enorme diversidad cultural en nuestro país.

  7. The dopamine D4 receptor gene (DRD4) moderates cultural difference in independent versus interdependent social orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitayama, Shinobu; King, Anthony; Yoon, Carolyn; Tompson, Steve; Huff, Sarah; Liberzon, Israel

    2014-06-01

    Prior research suggests that cultural groups vary on an overarching dimension of independent versus interdependent social orientation, with European Americans being more independent, or less interdependent, than Asians. Drawing on recent evidence suggesting that the dopamine D4 receptor gene (DRD4) plays a role in modulating cultural learning, we predicted that carriers of DRD4 polymorphisms linked to increased dopamine signaling (7- or 2-repeat alleles) would show higher levels of culturally dominant social orientations, compared with noncarriers. European Americans and Asian-born Asians (total N = 398) reported their social orientation on multiple scales. They were also genotyped for DRD4. As in earlier work, European Americans were more independent, and Asian-born Asians more interdependent. This cultural difference was significantly more pronounced for carriers of the 7- or 2-repeat alleles than for noncarriers. Indeed, no cultural difference was apparent among the noncarriers. Implications for potential coevolution of genes and culture are discussed.

  8. Cross-cultural differences in color preferences: implication for international film distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung Jae

    2002-06-01

    This paper proposes the necessity of manipulating colors of movie contents to fit diverse audiences around the world. Since films are highly color-dependent messages, it is critical to understand how people in different cultures respond differently to color. In recent years, the international market for filmed entertainment has grown more than the U.S. market. However, a lack of research on audience preferences shows no constant guide for the motion picture industry. The film production stage is often disregarded to deliver the appropriate visual color contents for local audience when U.S. films are distributed to foreign markets. Therefore, it is assumed that it would cause distractions for local audiences and it could result in poor ticket sales. When the U.S. produced films are distributed in Asia, colors of original films are always shown without manipulation. It is common that when a U.S. manufactured car is imported to Japan, a driver seat is installed on the right side and also other parts are modified for local customers. Film development is also significantly dependent on audience behavior, so film content also needs to be localized for the different culture. This paper will only address a hypothesis of the implementation of color marketing methodology present in motion pictures.

  9. The Exploration for Cultural Differences of Chinese and English Public Signs and Their Pragmatic Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Min

    2015-01-01

    With China’s accession to WTO, public signs are frequently seen in cities. However, there are lots of pragmatic errors and many improper translation, which we can find everywhere. In addition, this situation exerts serious side effects on our interna⁃tional image in foreign exchange. In order to regulate translation and application of public signs and even with an aim to bring about the realization of globalization, this paper discusses and analyzes some translating strategies and principles from the perspec⁃tive of cultural differences and pragmatics.

  10. Reviewer acknowledgements for Journal of Bahasa & Sastra, Vol.15, No.1, April 2015

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    Didi Sukyadi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Reviewer Acknowledgements Journal of  bahasa & sastra wishes to acknowledge the following individuals for their assistance with peer review of manuscripts for this issue. Their help and contributions in maintaining the quality of the journal are greatly appreciated.

  11. A Study of the Affect of Cultural Differences on Sino-US Communication and the Coping Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pan Fan; Li Hui

    2016-01-01

    Cross cultural business negotiation is a process involving negotiators from two or more different cultural backgrounds. This paper is an examine of the problems in the process of business negotiation and is about how to cope with these problems.Through such a study, we hope, the negotiation would be smoother and more focused on the business itself, rather than hindered and sabotaged by misconceptions caused by cultural issues.

  12. Isolation of Campylobacter from Brazilian broiler flocks using different culturing procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, C S L; Voss-Rech, D; Pozza, J S; Coldebella, A; Silva, V S

    2014-11-01

    Conventional culturing methods enable the detection of Campylobacter in broiler flocks. However, laboratory culture of Campylobacter is laborious because of its fastidious behavior and the presence of competing nontarget bacteria. This study evaluated different protocols to isolate Campylobacter from broiler litter, feces, and cloacal and drag swabs. Samples taken from commercial Brazilian broiler flocks were directly streaked onto Preston agar (PA), Campy-Line agar (CLA), and modified charcoal cefoperazone deoxycholate agar (mCCDA) and also enriched in blood-free Bolton broth (bfBB) for 24 and 48 h followed by plating onto the different selective media. Higher numbers of Campylobacter-positive cloacal and drag swab samples were observed using either direct plating or enrichment for 24 h before plating onto PA, compared with enrichment for 48 h (P Campylobacter in broiler litter and feces samples. Analysis of directly plated samples revealed that higher Campylobacter levels were detected in feces streaked onto PA (88.8%), cloacal swabs plated onto mCCDA (72.2%), drag swabs streaked onto CLA or mCCDA (69.4%), and litter samples inoculated onto PA (63.8%). Preston agar was the best agar to isolate Campylobacter from directly plated litter samples (P Campylobacter in other samples. The isolated Campylobacter strains were phenotypically identified as Campylobacter jejuni or Campylobacter coli. The predominant contaminant observed in the Campylobacter cultures was Proteus mirabilis, which was resistant to the majority of antimicrobial agents in selective media. Together, these data showed that direct plating onto PA and onto either CLA or mCCDA as the second selective agar enabled the reliable isolation of thermophilic Campylobacter species from broiler samples. Finally, Campylobacter was detected in all broiler flocks sampled.

  13. Optimally accepted salt reduction across cultures. Naturally brewed soy sauce used in three countries with different food cultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shimojo, R.; Sato, T.; Imamura, M.; Leong, L.P.; Itohiya, Y.; Kremer, S.; Mojet, J.

    2014-01-01

    To explore the influence of food-culture on partial replacement of salt by naturally brewed soy sauce, the results of a procedure, based on equivalence of overall taste intensity and pleasantness, were compared in three countries. Per country, untrained consumers assessed pleasantness and some senso

  14. Angiogenesis and collagen type IV expression in different endothelial cell culture systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahramsoltani, M; Slosarek, I; De Spiegelaere, W; Plendl, J

    2014-04-01

    In vitro angiogenesis assays constitute an important tool for studying the mechanisms of angiogenesis and for identification of pro- and anti-angiogenic substances. Therefore, endothelial cell and media systems used for in vitro angiogenesis assays are required to mimic the angiogenic process in vivo including endothelial capability to express collagen type IV as a component of the basement membrane. In this study, the expression of collagen type IV and its α chains (α1-6) was investigated in different endothelial cell culture systems in vitro qualitatively and quantitatively. These systems included four different batches of microvascular endothelial cells derived from the human skin, heart and lung, from which only two batches were found to be angiogenic and two batches were classified as non-angiogenic. Distribution of the transcripts of the α chains of collagen type IV was similar in all cell and media systems investigated. However, secretion and deposition of a stable extracellular network of collagen type IV could only be observed in the angiogenic cultures. In conclusion, the consecutive steps of the angiogenic cascade in vivo as well as in vitro depend on an increasing secretion and subsequent extracellular deposition of collagen type IV.

  15. The relationship between student cognitive functioning and curriculum diversification and ethnic culture differences

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    Saad Fathy Shawer

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the relationship between student cognitive functioning and curriculum diversification, Arabic-speaking students’ patterns of strategy use, and how Arab learners differ from other ethnic groups in their learning strategy use. The study made use of survey research (research strategy, standardized questionnaires (data collection method, and MANOVA (Lambda and ANOVA (Scheffé (data analysis techniques. Working with college EFL students, the results indicate a relationship between course diversification and student use of compensation (but not memory, cognitive, metacognitive, affective, and social strategies in favour of the scientific track of study. Arab learners were frequent users of metacognitive and social strategies but moderate users of memory, cognitive, compensation, and affective strategies. Disagreement about establishing a relationship between ethnic culture and patterns of strategy use continue. The study casts serious doubt on unmediated deterministic relationships between ethnic culture and cognitive functioning. It recommends more recognition of influential cognitive factors, including curriculum designs, instructional strategies, strategy training, and individual differences as more decisive in learning strategy use than ethnicity. Clear identification of effective cognitive strategies can guide classroom-level and school-level curriculum developments and facilitate curriculum implementation.

  16. Pollen germination of the walnut cultivar ‛Geisenheim 286’ on different culture media

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    Janković Dragan M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pollen of the walnut cultivar ‛Geisenheim 286(27.8% when the germination medium contained 0.8% of agar, 15% of sucrose, 600 ppm of ’ was cultured on germination media containing all possible combinations of sucrose (10, 15 and 20%; agar (0.6 and 0.8%; boric acid (0, 300 and 600 ppm and calcium chloride (0, 50 and 100 ppm. A total of 54 different combinations of germination media were tested in an attempt to establish a suitable culture in vitro pollen germinability The interactions of the concentrations of agar and calcium chloride, boric acid and sucrose, calcium chloride and sucrose, as well as those of boric acid, calcium chloride and sucrose were significant. Pollen germination was maximized media for studying of the walnut. Significant differences in pollen germination were observed in response to changing concentrations of sucrose, boric acid and calcium chloride, but germination was not affected by changes in agar concentration. boric acid and 50 ppm of calcium chloride.

  17. Cross-cultural differences in children's concepts of health and illness

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    Evely Boruchovitch

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: In spite of general agreement that cross-cultural research is needed in the health area, most existing investigations of children's development of health and illness-related concepts have involved samples from developed countries. The study examined the development of the concepts of health and illness as a function of subject's age, socio-economic status (SES, gender and grade level in a Brazilian sample of 96 elementary and junior high school students. METHODS: Subjects were interviewed individually and their ideas of health and illness were assessed through open-ended questions. Participants' answers were transcribed verbatim and subjected to content analysis. RESULTS: Chi-square analyses revealed significant age, school grade and SES-related differences in participants' concepts of health and illness. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: The themes employed by subjects to define both health and illness were broadly consistent with those found by previous research. The study showed a predictable relationship between subject's age and school grade level and increasingly more highly differentiated and multidimensional concepts of health and illness. This investigation suggests that, for the most part, cross-cultural similarities in children's concepts of health and illness may be more striking than the differences.

  18. Confronting the meat paradox in different cultural contexts: Reactions among Chinese and French participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Qirui; Hilton, Denis; Becker, Maja

    2016-01-01

    As a well-known source of nutrition and pleasure, meat plays an important role in most people's diet. However, awareness of the "meat paradox"-the association of liking to eat meat but not wanting to kill animals-often implies the experience of cognitive dissonance. In two studies, focusing on meat production and meat consumption respectively, we examined whether participants used reduction of willingness to eat meat and reduction of mind attribution to food animals as strategies to reduce cognitive dissonance from the meat paradox in the Chinese and French cultural contexts. Focusing on meat production (slaughtering of an animal to produce meat; Study 1, n = 520), participants reported lower willingness to eat beef in a condition that emphasized the slaughter of a cow compared to a condition that presented a diagram of a cow as meat. In addition, French but not Chinese participants attributed less mind to cows when the relation between meat and its animal origin was made salient. Focusing on meat consumption (the transformation of meat into food; Study 2, n = 518), participants reported lower willingness to eat beef and attributed less mind to cows in a condition that emphasized the animal origin of meat compared to a condition that presented a recipe. These results suggest that the use of different strategies to resolve cognitive dissonance from the meat paradox depends on different contexts of the meat-animal link as well as on cultural context.

  19. Popularity of Different Lampyrid Species in Japanese Culture as Measured by Google Search Volume

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    Kenta Takada

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available I investigated the popularity of different lampyrid species (34 species in Japanese culture as part of a study on cultural entomology. Popularity was assessed by the Google search volume for Japanese lampyrid species names in katakana and hiragana scripts, using the Keyword Tool of Google AdWords. The search volume of lampyrid species as “Genji-botaru” (Luciola cruciata Motschulsky, “Heike-botaru” (Luciola lateralis Motschulsky and “Hime-botaru” (Hotaria parvula Kiesenwetter, in either or both katakana and hiragana syllabic scripts, was enormously high relative to other lampyrid species, indicating the biased attention of Japanese to these lampyrid species. In addition, search volumes for familial or common lampyrid name (“Hotaru” was assessed and compared with that of 34 lampyrid species. This analyzing result showed that: (1 the search volumes for katakana and hiragana were 37.7 and 773.1 times higher for “Hotaru” than “Genji-botaru”, respectively; and (2 the search volume for all lampyrid species was clearly higher in katakana than hiragana, whereas the search volumes for “Hotaru” were clearly higher in hiragana than katakana. These results suggest that: (1 the Japanese public tends to perceive lampyrids with not a clear but an ambiguous taxonomic view; and (2 the attitude of the Japanese public toward lampyrids differs between those who perceive lampyrids with a clear taxonomic view (at species level and with an ambiguous taxonomic view.

  20. The Effects of Anxiety on the Recognition of Multisensory Emotional Cues with Different Cultural Familiarity

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    Ai Koizumi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Anxious individuals have been shown to interpret others' facial expressions negatively. However, whether this negative interpretation bias depends on the modality and familiarity of emotional cues remains largely unknown. We examined whether trait-anxiety affects recognition of multisensory emotional cues (ie, face and voice, which were expressed by actors from either the same or different cultural background as the participants (ie, familiar in-group and unfamiliar out-group. The dynamic face and voice cues of the same actors were synchronized, and conveyed either congruent (eg, happy face and voice or incongruent emotions (eg, happy face and angry voice. Participants were to indicate the perceived emotion in one of the cues, while ignoring the other. The results showed that when recognizing emotions of in-group actors, highly anxious individuals, compared with low anxious ones, were more likely to interpret others' emotions in a negative manner, putting more weight on the to-be-ignored angry cues. This interpretation bias was found regardless of the cue modality. However, when recognizing emotions of out-group actors, low and high anxious individuals showed no difference in the interpretation of emotions irrespective of modality. These results suggest that trait-anxiety affects recognition of emotional expressions in a modality independent yet cultural familiarity dependent manner.

  1. In vitro embryo rescue culture of F1 progenies from crosses between different ploidy grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, W; Li, G R; Luo, Y X; Ma, X H; Wang, M; Ren, R

    2015-12-29

    Crossing different ploidy grapes is an effective way to obtain new seedless cultivars. Although embryo rescue has been extensively applied in breeding seedless and triploid grapes, only a few improved cultivars have been developed. Based on preliminary studies, we set five crosses between tetraploid and diploid grape varieties to obtain new hybrid triploid germplasms. Additionally, we compared two different methods of performing in vitro embryo rescue and sowing in the development of hybrid triploid grape plants. The results showed that the germination rate of hybrid seeds was much lower (0-22.8%) than that of the self-pollinated seeds (50.9-61.2%) obtained though the same method of in vitro culture. Meanwhile, the seed germination rates of all crosses obtain through in vitro culture (0-61.2%) were higher than those obtained through sowing (0-42.0%). Identification of ploidy level confirmed that three lines obtained from the crosses of 'Ruby Seedless (2x) x Black Olympia (4x)' and 'Big black (2x) x Kyoho (4x)' were triploid, and one line from the cross of 'Big black (2x) x Kyoho (4x)' was haploid, and the others were diploid, tetraploid, or aneuploidy plants. Moreover, 4 haploid and 42 triploid surviving grape seedlings were planted in a vineyard after propagation. Therefore, an efficient system of breeding triploid seedless grapes using embryo rescue was established and 42 hybrid triploid germplasms were obtained for use in future studies.

  2. Performance Improvement of TCP by TCP Reno and SACK Acknowledgement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrs. Reena Rai

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Transmission Control Protocol (TCP is the dominating end-to-end transport layer protocol which provides secure and reliable data transfer together with some other protocols. In this review paper, we contend that existing approaches to improve TCP performance over mobile ad-hoc networks have focused only on a subset of the factors affecting TCP performance by TCP Reno, SACK and Vegas. Effective resource utilization, such as bandwidth utilization, retransmission rate and window size, is compared. for evaluate these TCP congestion control algorithms from many aspects are present and We also concern fair resource allocation from two main categories, one is fairness between different delay links, and the other is competition between different TCP congestion control algorithms

  3. The domestic cat representation in different socio-cultural settings and the connections with animal ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Clemente Machado

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The domestic cat has been symbolically represented over time in a very different way, with connotations sometimes positive and sometimes negative. It is also paradoxical the way that society historically interacts with this feline so, its symbolic representation and its direct interaction with the human seem to go together. In the present, the cat suffers a lot with cruelty acts, abandonment and death, including reduced rate of adoption. Thus, this paper aims to briefly describe the beliefs and ritual uses of cats in different cultures, reflecting on how the symbolism of this feline relates to ethical issues. Education programs and the proper implementation of the laws are identified as important factors to modify this anthropocentric and speciesist paradigm inconsistent with the animal ethics perspectives. 

  4. Adhesion and morphology of fibroblastic cells cultured on different polymeric biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombello, C B; Santos, A R; Malmonge, S M; Barbanti, S H; Wada, M L F; Duek, E A R

    2002-09-01

    Cell adhesion is influenced by the physical and chemical characteristics of the materials used as substrate for cell culturing. In this work, we evaluated the influence of the morphological and chemical characteristics of different polymeric substrates on the adhesion and morphology of fibroblastic cells. Cell growth on poly (L-lactic acid) [PLLA] membranes and poly(2-hydroxy ethyl methacrylate) [polyHEMA], poly(2-hydroxy ethyl methacrylate)-cellulose acetate [polyHEMA-CA] and poly(2-hydroxy ethyl methacrylate)-poly(methyl methacrylate-co-acrylic acid) [polyHEMA-poly(MMA-co-AA)] hydrogels of different densities and pore diameters was examined. Cells adhered preferentially to more negatively charged substrates, with polyHEMA hydrogels being more adhesive than the other substractes. The pores present in PLLA membranes did not interfere with adhesion, but the cells showed a distinctive morphology on each membrane.

  5. Cultural Education from Aspects of Cultural Difference Between East and West%中西文化差异与外语文化教学探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢美蓉

    2012-01-01

    语言是文化的重要载体,而文化是语言形式所反映的内容.任何语言都必须植根于特定的文化母体中.英汉语言方面的差异体现了中西方两种文化的差异.在外语教学中,教师不仅应指导学习者了解分属不同体系的中西方文化,更要引导学习者通过中西方文化差异的对比分析,从深层次上认识其文化差异,以利于排除以后遇到类似的文化障碍,贯彻文化教学策略.%Language lies in culture. Tile difference between two Languages reflects two kinds of cuhural diversities. The cultural differences between two languages and culture are introduced in this paper, and intercultural communicative competence is also analyzed. Based on the concerned cultural factors, the cultural awareness is focused on in order to enhance college English teaching and to develop cultural education strategies as well.

  6. Mainstreaming culture in psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Fanny M

    2012-11-01

    Despite the "awakening" to the importance of culture in psychology in America, international psychology has remained on the sidelines of psychological science. The author recounts her personal and professional experience in tandem with the stages of development in international/cross-cultural psychology. Based on her research in cross-cultural personality assessment, the author discusses the inadequacies of sole reliance on either the etic or the emic approach and points out the advantages of a combined emic-etic approach in bridging global and local human experiences in psychological science and practice. With the blurring of the boundaries between North American-European psychologies and psychology in the rest of the world, there is a need to mainstream culture in psychology's epistemological paradigm. Borrowing from the concept of gender mainstreaming that embraces both similarities and differences in promoting equal opportunities, the author discusses the parallel needs of acknowledging universals and specifics when mainstreaming culture in psychology. She calls for building a culturally informed universal knowledge base that should be incorporated in the psychology curriculum and textbooks.

  7. Atrazine degradation by fungal co-culture enzyme extracts under different soil conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan-Cupul, Wilberth; Heredia-Abarca, Gabriela; Rodríguez-Vázquez, Refugio

    2016-01-01

    This investigation was undertaken to determine the atrazine degradation by fungal enzyme extracts (FEEs) in a clay-loam soil microcosm contaminated at field application rate (5 μg g(-1)) and to study the influence of different soil microcosm conditions, including the effect of soil sterilization, water holding capacity, soil pH and type of FEEs used in atrazine degradation through a 2(4) factorial experimental design. The Trametes maxima-Paecilomyces carneus co-culture extract contained more laccase activity and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) content (laccase = 18956.0 U mg protein(-1), H2O2 = 6.2 mg L(-1)) than the T. maxima monoculture extract (laccase = 12866.7 U mg protein(-1), H2O2 = 4.0 mg L(-1)). Both extracts were able to degrade atrazine at 100%; however, the T. maxima monoculture extract (0.32 h) achieved a lower half-degradation time than its co-culture with P. carneus (1.2 h). The FEE type (p = 0.03) and soil pH (p = 0.01) significantly affected atrazine degradation. The best degradation rate was achieved by the T. maxima monoculture extract in an acid soil (pH = 4.86). This study demonstrated that both the monoculture extracts of the native strain T. maxima and its co-culture with P. carneus can efficiently and quickly degrade atrazine in clay-loam soils.

  8. Effects of different culture conditions on biological potential and metabolites production in three Penicillium isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Filipa S; Ćirić, Ana; Stojković, Dejan; Barros, Lillian; Ljaljević-Grbić, Milica; Soković, Marina; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2015-02-01

    The genus Penicillium is well known for its importance in drug and food production. Certain species are produced on an industrial scale for the production of antibiotics (e.g. penicillin) or for insertion in food (e.g. cheese). In the present work, three Penicillium species, part of the natural mycobiota growing on various food products were selected - P. ochrochloron, P. funiculosum and P. verrucosum var. cyclopium. The objective of our study was to value these species from the point of view of production of bioactive metabolites. The species were obtained after inoculation and growth in Czapek and Malt media. Both mycelia and culture media were analyzed to monitor the production of different metabolites by each fungus and their release to the culture medium. The concentrations of sugars, organic acids, phenolic acids and tocopherols were determined. Antioxidant activity of the phenolic extracts was evaluated, as also the antimicrobial activity of phenolic acids, organic acids and tocopherols extracts. Rhamnose, xylose, fructose and trehalose were found in all the mycelia and culture media; the prevailing organic acids were oxalic and fumaric acids, and protocatechuic and p-hydroxybenzoic acids were the most common phenolic acids; γ-tocopherol was the most abundant vitamin E isoform. Generally, the phenolic extracts corresponding to the mycelia samples revealed higher antioxidant activity. Concerning the antimicrobial activity there were some fluctuations, however all the studied species revealed activity against the tested strains. Therefore, the in-vitro bioprocesses can be an alternative for the production of bioactive metabolites that can be used by pharmaceutical industry.

  9. An action research study; cultural differences impact how manufacturing organizations receive continuous improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kattman, Braden R.

    National culture and organizational culture impact how continuous improvement methods are received, implemented and deployed by suppliers. Previous research emphasized the dominance of national culture over organizational culture. The countries studied included Poland, Mexico, China, Taiwan, South Korea, Estonia, India, Canada, the United States, the United Kingdom, and Japan. The research found that Canada was most receptive to continuous improvement, with China being the least receptive. The study found that organizational culture was more influential than national culture. Isomorphism and benchmarking is driving continuous-improvement language and methods to be more universally known within business. Business and management practices are taking precedence in driving change within organizations.

  10. Essential Oil Composition of the Different Parts and In Vitro Shoot Culture of Eryngium planum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kurowska

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation from the different parts (inflorescence, stalk leaves, rosette leaves and root as well as from in vitro shoot culture of Eryngium planum L. were analyzed by GC-FID-MS in respect to their chemical composition. The different parts of E. planum and in vitro shoots showed different yields. The part with higher amount was the inflorescences, followed by the stalk leaves and in vitro shoots, rosette leaves and finally roots. The essential oils obtained from rosette leaves and in vitro-derived rosettes had totally different composition. Quantitative differences were also found between compounds of intact plant organs. The main components of stalk leaf oil and rosette leaf oil were monoterpene (limonene, α- and β-pinene and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons. In inflorescence oil cis-chrysanthenyl acetate (43.2% was accompanied by other esters (propionate, butanoate, hexanoate and octanoate and numerous oxygenated sesquiterpenes. Root oil and in vitro shoot oil contained mainly (Z-falcarinol and 2,3,4-trimethylbenzaldehyde. This is the first report on the chemical composition of this species.

  11. Essential Oil Composition of the Different Parts and In Vitro Shoot Culture of Eryngium planum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiem, Barbara; Kikowska, Małgorzata; Kurowska, Anna; Kalemba, Danuta

    2011-08-19

    The essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation from the different parts (inflorescence, stalk leaves, rosette leaves and root) as well as from in vitro shoot culture of Eryngium planum L. were analyzed by GC-FID-MS in respect to their chemical composition. The different parts of E. planum and in vitro shoots showed different yields. The part with higher amount was the inflorescences, followed by the stalk leaves and in vitro shoots, rosette leaves and finally roots. The essential oils obtained from rosette leaves and in vitro-derived rosettes had totally different composition. Quantitative differences were also found between compounds of intact plant organs. The main components of stalk leaf oil and rosette leaf oil were monoterpene (limonene, α- and β-pinene) and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons. In inflorescence oil cis-chrysanthenyl acetate (43.2%) was accompanied by other esters (propionate, butanoate, hexanoate and octanoate) and numerous oxygenated sesquiterpenes. Root oil and in vitro shoot oil contained mainly (Z)-falcarinol and 2,3,4-trimethylbenzaldehyde. This is the first report on the chemical composition of this species.

  12. Cross-Cultural and Intra-Cultural Differences in Finger-Counting Habits and Number Magnitude Processing: Embodied Numerosity in Canadian and Chinese University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle Richard Morrissey

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent work in numerical cognition has shown-that number magnitude is not entirely abstract, and at least partly rooted in embodied and situated experiences, including finger-counting. The current study extends previous cross-cultural research to address within-culture individual differences in finger counting habits. Results indicated that Canadian participants demonstrated an additional cognitive load when comparing numbers that require more than one hand to represent, and this pattern of performance is further modulated by whether they typically start counting on their left hand or their right hand. Chinese students typically count on only one hand and so show no such effect, except for an increase in errors, similar to that seen in Canadians, for those whom self-identify as predominantly two-hand counters. Results suggest that the impact of finger counting habits extend beyond cultural experience and concord in predictable ways with differences in number magnitude processing for specific number-digits. We conclude that symbolic number magnitude processing is partially rooted in learned finger-counting habits, consistent with a motor simulation account of embodied numeracy and that argument is supported by both cross-cultural and within-culture differences in finger-counting habits.

  13. Understanding Cultural Difference Management through Charles Taylor’s Philosophy: Case Studies from the Food Processing Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Marleau Ouellet

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we use the work of the philosopher, Charles Taylor, to investigate the role of culture on internationalization decisions. Using parameters related to key constructs such as positive liberty, social ontology, expressivism, civic republicanism and common spaces, we look at how culture influences the decisions regarding corporate international expansion. This framework was applied in a multi-interview design in four firms from the food processing industry from France and Canada. Results showed an obvious sensitivity to cultural difference and that managerial practices surrounding this issue tended to be intuitive and emergent. These practices were not crystallized in the form of a conscious and deliberate organizational strategy for dealing with cultural difference when planning foreign market entry. Our findings triggered further reflections on managerial implications such as the importance of searching more explicitly for cultural and organizational anchors when reviewing location factors.

  14. The role of context and culture in teaching physics: The implication of disciplinary differences

    CERN Document Server

    Redish, Edward F

    2012-01-01

    The theme of the World Conference on Physics Education 2012 is "Context, Culture, and Representations." In this talk I present a brief outline of a theoretical framework that allows us to discuss these issues using a model based in psychology and sociology: the resources framework. The framework brings together a model of individual behavior based on brain function with a model of how the behavior of an individual is controlled by the individual's perception of the social context they find themselves in. This control process is the process I refer to as "framing". In the paper I give three experiments that the reader can carry out for themselves that illustrate the basic principles of the framework. I then discuss a number of specific examples showing how framing can have powerful effects leading to context dependence and cultural responses at a variety of levels and grain sizes. One such is the impact of differences between the epistemological stances of physics and biology on the creation of a reformed phys...

  15. Political Culture, Values and Economic Utility: A Different Perspective on Norwegian Party-based Euroscepticism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne S. Skinner

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Drawing on a content analysis of party manifestos and a survey of Norwegian MPs, this article examines the nuances in, and the causality of, the different Norwegian parties’ Euroscepticism. The study of the comparative party politics of Euroscepticism, which focuses on ideology and strategy, falls short of accounting for the Norwegian case, where, unlike other European countries, the parties’ Euroscepticism is exceptionally stable and appears across the political spectrum. Therefore, the article tests an alternative set of theories, drawn from the literature on opinion formation on European integration, to find a more suitable framework for analysing and explaining the motivation of Norwegian Euroscepticism. The analysis shows that Norwegian party-based Euroscepticism can be divided into three types when it comes to its strength and policy opposition, with the Centre Party and the Socialist Left Party on the ‘hardest’ end of the Euroscepticism scale, followed by the Christian Democratic Party and the Liberal Party, and finally, the Labour Party and the Progress Party. Furthermore, the analysis indicates that Norwegian Eurosceptic party stances on Europe are primarily driven by political values and political culture concerns, except for the Progress Party, which base its Eurosceptic motivation on economic utilitarianism and political culture.

  16. The Impact of Global Cultural Differences on the Pricing Strategies in United States of America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eston Kwach Odongo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to examine the impact and the extent to which global Cultural differences affects a company’s pricing decisions, a study based on Da-Wood Trading in the United States of America. Data for this study was collected through observation during a three month internship at the company, and questionnaires were later administered to respondents. Personal interview was also used to gather data from one respondent. The findings were then presented in form of tables and graphs. The data collected indicates that there are globalization factors that play a role in determining prices for services offered. Exposure to crime comes out as the most prominent global political factor while literacy rates and global oil prices stand out as the most influential cultural and economic factors, respectively. However, factors like tariffs, religion, and currency fluctuations are seen to not have a significant impact on pricing decisions. The factors that are considered and highlighted in this study therefore are seen to vary in degree of importance and in how they influence pricing decisions.

  17. Effects of different culture media on biodegradation of triclosan by Rhodotorula mucilaginosa and Penicillium sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertit Taştan, Burcu; Özdemir, Caner; Tekinay, Turgay

    Triclosan is an antimicrobial agent and a persistent pollutant. The biodegradation of triclosan is dependent on many variables including the biodegradation organism and the environmental conditions. Here, we evaluated the triclosan degradation potential of two fungi strains, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa and Penicillium sp., and the rate of its turnover to 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP). Both of these strains showed less susceptibility to triclosan when grown in minimal salt medium. In order to further evaluate the effects of environmental conditions on triclosan degradation, three different culture conditions including original thermal power plant wastewater, T6 nutrimedia and ammonium mineral salts medium were used. The maximum triclosan degradation yield was 48% for R. mucilaginosa and 82% for Penicillium sp. at 2.7 mg/L triclosan concentration. Biodegradation experiments revealed that Penicillium sp. was more tolerant to triclosan. Scanning electron microscopy micrographs also showed the morphological changes of fungus when cells were treated with triclosan. Overall, these fungi strains could be used as effective microorganisms in active uptake (degradation) and passive uptake (sorption) of triclosan and their efficiency can be increased by optimizing the culture conditions.

  18. Metabolism of fluoranthene in different plant cell cultures and intact plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolb, M.; Harms, H.

    2000-05-01

    The metabolism of fluoranthene was investigated in 11 cell cultures of different plant species using a [{sup 14}C]-labeled standard. Most species metabolized less than 5% of fluoranthene to soluble metabolites and formed less than 5% nonextractable residues during the standardized 48-h test procedure. Higher metabolic rates were observed in lettuce (Lactuca sativa, 6%), wheat (Tricitum aestivum, 9%), and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum, 15%). A special high metabolic rate of nearly 50% was determined for the rose species Paul's Scarlet. Chromatographic analysis of metabolites extracted from aseptically grown tomato plants proved that the metabolites detected in the cell cultures were also formed in the intact plants. Metabolites produced in tomato and rose cells from [{sup 14}C]-fluoranthene were conjugated with glucose, glucuronic acid, and other cell components. After acid hydrolyses, the main metabolite of both species was 1-hydroxyfluoranthene as identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection. The second metabolite formed by both species was 8-hydroxyfluoranthene. A third metabolite in tomatoes was 3-hydroxyfluoranthene.

  19. Cross-Cultural Differences and Similarities in Proneness to Shame: An Adaptationist and Ecological Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Sznycer

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available People vary in how easily they feel ashamed, that is, in their shame proneness. According to the information threat theory of shame, variation in shame proneness should, in part, be regulated by features of a person's social ecology. On this view, shame is an emotion program that evolved to mitigate the likelihood or costs of reputation-damaging information spreading to others. In social environments where there are fewer possibilities to form new relationships (i.e., low relational mobility, there are higher costs to damaging or losing existing ones. Therefore, shame proneness toward current relationship partners should increase as perceived relational mobility decreases. In contrast, individuals with whom one has little or no relationship history are easy to replace, and so shame-proneness towards them should not be modulated by relational mobility. We tested these predictions cross-culturally by measuring relational mobility and shame proneness towards friends and strangers in Japan, the United States, and the United Kingdom. Japanese subjects were more shame-prone than their British and American counterparts. Critically, lower relational mobility was associated with greater shame proneness towards friends (but not strangers, and this relationship partially mediated the cultural differences in shame proneness. Shame proneness appears tailored to respond to relevant features of one's social ecology.

  20. Developing management systems with cross-cultural fit: assessing international differences in operational systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Nancy; Roelofs, Susan

    2006-01-01

    Experiences in the Yunnan Maternal and Child Health Project, a 6-year CAN 6 million dollars bilateral initiative implemented in 10 counties (population 2.4 million) in Yunnan, China, are used to illustrate management approaches that successfully bridge cross-cultural differences in operational systems between donor and recipient countries. Donor institutions, local implementing agencies, and partner executing organizations each operate within specific assumptions about how governance structures, financial and administrative systems, human resource infrastructure, communications systems, and monitoring and reporting mechanisms function. These 'system domains' vary across cultures and countries, and become more evident as projects deal with capacity constraints, concerns about accountability, and rapid socioeconomic and political change during implementation. Management teams must be able to identify areas of poor fit among operational systems and respond appropriately. An assessment tool is offered, which management partners can use, as a basis for joint reflections on potential risks, identification of mitigation strategies, and establishing operational systems that are a fit for the funder as well as for partner agencies responsible for executing the project.

  1. Production of bacterial cellulose using different carbon sources and culture media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadkazemi, Faranak; Azin, Mehrdad; Ashori, Alireza

    2015-03-01

    In this work, the effects of carbon sources and culture media on the production and structural properties of bacterial cellulose (BC) have been studied. BC nanofibers were synthesized using Gluconacetobacter xylinus strain PTCC 1734. Media used were Hestrin-Schramm (H), Yamanaka (Y), and Zhou (Z). Five different carbon sources, namely date syrup, glucose, mannitol, sucrose, and food-grade sucrose were used in these media. All the produced BC pellicles were characterized in terms of dry weight production, biomass yield, thermal stability, crystallinity and morphology by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), x-ray diffraction (XRD), and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). The obtained results showed that mannitol lead to the highest yield, followed by sucrose. The highest production efficiency of mannitol might be due to the nitrogen source, which plays an important role. The maximum improvement on the thermal stability of the composites was achieved when mannitol was used in H medium. In addition, the crystallinity was higher in BC formed in H medium compared to other media. FE-SEM micrographs illustrated that the BC pellicles, synthesized in the culture media H and Z, were stable, unlike those in medium Y that were unstable. The micrographs of BC produced in media containing mannitol and sucrose provided evidence of the strong interfacial adhesion between the BC fibers without noticeable aggregates.

  2. Study of Arcobacter spp. contamination in fresh lettuces detected by different cultural and molecular methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Ana; Ferrús, Maria Antonia

    2011-01-31

    Arcobacters are considered potential emerging food and waterborne pathogens. However, there is no data on the presence of Arcobacter spp. in fresh vegetables. Therefore the objective of this research was to study the presence of Arcobacter spp. in fresh lettuces. Fifty fresh lettuces purchased from different local shops in Valencia (Spain) were analyzed. The assay was performed simultaneously by cultural and molecular methods. Isolates were identified by real-time, multiplex PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of PCR-amplified DNA fragment (PCR-RFLP). Finally, all the isolates were genotyped using the randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD-PCR) method. Arcobacter sp. was detected in 10 of the 50 samples (20%) by real-time PCR, being A. butzleri the unique detected species by mPCR. The detection levels obtained by conventional PCR (7 samples/50, 14%) were slightly lower. These seven samples were found to be positive also by culture isolation. All 19 obtained isolates were identified as A. butzleri by multiplex PCR and PCR-RFLP. Great genetic heterogeneity among the isolates was observed by RAPD-PCR profiling. To our knowledge, this is the first study in which Arcobacter spp. is detected in fresh vegetables such as lettuces. Although these foods are generally considered safe, given the large quantities consumed and the fact that further cooking is absent, lettuce could be a source of Arcobacters of public health concern.

  3. Different cytokine profiles of skin-derived T cell cultures from patients with atopic dermatitis and psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martel, Britta Cathrina; Dyring-Andersen, Beatrice; Skov, Lone;

    2016-01-01

    biopsies from patients with extrinsic AD (n = 6), intrinsic AD (n = 9) and psoriasis (n = 9). METHODS: Skin-derived T cell cultures were analyzed for expression of six surface markers, 11 intracellular cytokines, and three T cell subtype signature transcription factors by flow cytometry, and secreted......OBJECTIVES: To investigate differences in expression of surface markers, cytokine profiles, and presence of CD4(+)CD8(+) T cells in skin-derived T cell cultures from patients with extrinsic atopic dermatitis (AD), intrinsic AD, and psoriasis expanded in the presence of IL-2 and IL-4. MATERIAL: Skin...... cytokines by multiplex. RESULTS: A different IFN-γ profile emerged between the extrinsic AD and psoriatic T cell cultures; however, there was no difference in IL-17 profile. No differences with regard to cytokine expression were found between extrinsic AD and intrinsic AD cultures; however, cutaneous...

  4. Cultural Differences between Chinese and Western Countries in Advertisements%从广告语看中西文化差异

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石成蓉

    2007-01-01

    Cultural difference can be found in many aspects, this paper deals with the differences between Chinese culture and English culture in the perspective of advertisements. Advertising is an important part of people's life. Advertisements in a certain country attract certain consumers, so they reflect the unique culture in the given country. This paper will focus on four aspects to illustrate the cultural difference between China and Western countries found in advertising creation and advertising language aimed to help people understand cultural difference in the trend of globalization and accelerate the cross-cultural communication.

  5. The differences between Chinese and western diet cultures when east meets west

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    强琦

    2013-01-01

    Along with economical development, the diets on people’s dinning tables are so diversified that people have free choices. China and western countries have their own distinct diet cultures respectively, including dif erent diet ideas, diet objects, diet ways etc. We can find out the inner relationship in the dif erences of the two kinds of diet culture and the promoting influences on Chinese cultures, and overcome the barriers in cross-cultural communications.

  6. Learning How to "Swallow the World": Engaging with Human Difference in Culturally Diverse Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oord, Lodewijk; Corn, Ken

    2013-01-01

    The perception of culture prevailing in the literature on international and intercultural education is often too limited to be effectively utilized by educators who wish to embrace the diversity in their classrooms. Only by reimagining the notions of "culture" and "cultural diversity" and by liberating them from the rigidities of dominant…

  7. Cross-cultural differences in distributive justice: a comparison of Turkey and the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy-Berman, Virginia A; Berman, John J; Cukur, Cem Safak

    2012-01-01

    When allocators make decisions about distributing resources, they face a dilemma if the expectations for consequences that will flow from particular choices are incongruent with each other. For example, a certain allocation choice might be expected to make an allocator appear warm and likable but unfair. Previous research has found that culture can shape these perceptions and, thus, their congruence or incongruence. The present study further investigated these ideas. Differences between Turkish and U.S. students' perceptions of allocators who distributed resources on the basis of merit vs. need were investigated. Results revealed an allocation dilemma among the U.S. but not among the Turkish students. Specifically, the U.S. students perceived greater incongruence among allocation consequences for both merit and need choices than did the students from Turkey for whom perceptions of allocator's fairness were more aligned with perceptions of allocator's warmth.

  8. Tourism communication: the translator’s responsibility in the translation of cultural difference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirella Agorni

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Tourist discourse can be considered as a specialised type of cross-cultural communication. The subject of this work is the degree of intervention translators are asked to exercise in order to achieve successful communication. Their task is not that of demonstrating their knowledge on specifi c subjects, as, rather, their capacity of mediating it, so as to make it available to a type of tourist who is necessarily different from that targeted by the original work. Hence, translators should learn to dose the amount of information tourists will be able to take in. Theoretical assumptions will be illustrated by means of a comparison between a tourist text in Italian and its translation into English. It will be demonstrated that translators’ decisions at linguistic and explanatory level allow a more or less substantial degree of reader involvement, and consequently affect the promotion of tourist destinations.

  9. Beauty and the brain: culture, history and individual differences in aesthetic appreciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Thomas

    2010-02-01

    Human aesthetic processing entails the sensation-based evaluation of an entity with respect to concepts like beauty, harmony or well-formedness. Aesthetic appreciation has many determinants ranging from evolutionary, anatomical or physiological constraints to influences of culture, history and individual differences. There are a vast number of dynamically configured neural networks underlying these multifaceted processes of aesthetic appreciation. In the current challenge of successfully bridging art and science, aesthetics and neuroanatomy, the neuro-cognitive psychology of aesthetics can approach this complex topic using a framework that postulates several perspectives, which are not mutually exclusive. In this empirical approach, objective physiological data from event-related brain potentials and functional magnetic resonance imaging are combined with subjective, individual self-reports.

  10. Cultural and age differences of three groups of Taiwanese young children's creativity and drawing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Mei-Hue; Dzeng, Annie

    2013-06-01

    This study investigated the cultural and age effects on children's overall creativity and drawing. 1,055 children ages 6 to 8 from three groups--urban and rural Taiwanese children and Taiwanese children of immigrant mothers, all in public schools--were given a creativity test, a people-drawing test, and a free-drawing test. The results showed that the older Taiwanese children scored higher than the young Taiwanese children on people-drawing and free-drawing, but not overall creativity. Drawing and creativity scores increased in accordance with age. In the six-year-old group, a group difference was found only on the scale of people-drawing. Urban Taiwanese children in the eight-year-old group scored higher than the other two groups of children on creativity and free-drawing. Results are discussed in terms of educational opportunities.

  11. Abilities of cultural plants’ state indicationin agrophytocenoses by different morphology-physiological and cytogenetic indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. О. Oginova

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical models system allowing assessing the state of 7 weeds species by the allelopathic activity and some morphology-physiological and cytogenetic indices is presented. There are many morphology-physiological and cytogenetic features may be used for the bioindication of cultural plants’ state. They are height, leaf area, chlorophyll or carotenoids content, mitotic index, DNA content in the interphase nuclei of root meristem cells, somatic mutations level, truss size, pollen sterility and fertile pollen grains volume. These features essentially depend on the allelopathic activity of the weeds and different techniques of the crops management. They set up the uniform system in which every constituent may harmonize its changes with the other ones, that furthers the maintenance equilibrium in a biogeocoenosis.

  12. A Measure of Market Orientation: Development and Validation in a Different Cultural Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Miguel Ospina

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available For several decades, researchers and marketing practitioners have proclaimed that the adoption of a consumer-oriented philosophy is the key to developing and maintaining a sustainable competitive advantage for a business operating in a highly competitive environment. The interest shown has not been sufficient to dispel certain concerns about the construct’s domain, and the methodology followed for measuring it in different cultural contexts. This paper examines the reliability and validity of three scales for measuring market orientation in a Spanish-speaking international context. The results confirm those obtained from previous research efforts. The study of the three scales, when combined, suggests the existence of six dimensions that are measurable with eighteen items.

  13. Raman spectroscopy analysis of differences in composition of spent culture media of in vitro cultured preimplantation embryos isolated from normal and fat mice dams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian, Dušan; Kačmarová, Martina; Kubandová, Janka; Čikoš, Štefan; Koppel, Juraj

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare overall patterns of metabolic activity of in vitro cultured preimplantation embryos isolated from normal and fat mice dams by means of non-invasive profiling of spent culture media using Raman spectroscopy. To produce females with two different types of body condition (normal and fat), a previously established two-generation model was used, based on overfeeding of experimental mice during prenatal and early postnatal development. Embryos were isolated from spontaneously ovulating and naturally fertilized dams at the 2-cell stage of development and cultured to the blastocyst stage in synthetic oviductal medium KSOMaa. Embryos from fat mice (displaying significantly elevated body weight and fat) showed similar developmental capabilities in vitro as embryos isolated from normal control dams (displaying physiological body weight and fat). The results show that alterations in the composition of culture medium caused by the presence of developing mouse preimplantation embryos can be detected using Raman spectroscopy. Metabolic activity of embryos was reflected in evident changes in numerous band intensities in the 1620-1690cm(-1) (amide I) region and in the 1020-1140cm(-1) region of the Raman spectrum for KSOMaa. Moreover, multivariate analysis of spectral data proved that the composition of proteins and other organic compounds in spent samples obtained after the culture of embryos isolated from fat dams was different from that in spent samples obtained after the culture of embryos from control dams. This study demonstrates that metabolic activity of cultured preimplantation embryos might depend on the body condition of their donors.

  14. Discoordinate regulation of different K channels in cultured rat skeletal muscle by nerve growth factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigdor-Alboim, S; Rothman, C; Braiman, L; Bak, A; Langzam, L; Yosef, O; Sterengarz, B B; Nawrath, H; Brodie, C; Sampson, S R

    1999-05-01

    We investigated the effects of nerve growth factor (NGF) on expression of K+ channels in cultured skeletal muscle. The channels studied were (1) charybdotoxin (ChTx)-sensitive channels by using a polyclonal antibody raised in rabbits against ChTx, (2) Kv1.5 voltage-sensitive channels, and (3) apamin-sensitive (afterhyperpolarization) channels. Crude homogenates were prepared from cultures made from limb muscles of 1-2-day-old rat pups for identification of ChTx-sensitive and Kv1.5 channels by Western blotting techniques. Apamin-sensitive K+ channels were studied by measurement of specific [125I]-apamin binding by whole cell preparations. ChTx-sensitive channels display a fusion-related increase in expression, and NGF downregulates these channels in both myoblasts and myotubes. Voltage-dependent Kv1.5 channel expression is low in myoblasts and increases dramatically with fusion; NGF induces early expression of these channels and causes expression after fusion to increase even further. NGF downregulates apamin-sensitive channels. NGF increases the rate of fall of the action potential recorded intracellularly from single myotubes with intracellular microelectrodes. The results confirm and extend those of previous studies in showing a functional role for NGF in the regulation of membrane properties of skeletal muscle. Moreover, the findings demonstrate that the different K+ channels in this preparation are regulated in a discoordinate manner. The divergent effects of NGF on expression of different K+ channels, however, do not appear sufficient to explain the NGF-induced increase in the rate of fall of the action potential. The changes during the falling phase may rather be due to increases in channel properties or may result from an increased driving force on the membrane potential secondary to the NGF-induced hyperpolarization.

  15. Susceptibility of primary culture neurons from rats of different ages to encephalomyocarditis (EMC) virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Weiping; Ikegami, Hisashi; Nakayama, Yumi; Suzuki, Kazuhiko; Katayama, Kei-ichi; Nakayama, Hiroyuki; Doi, Kunio

    2003-10-01

    The changes in susceptibility of neurons to the D variant of EMC virus (EMC-D) (10(6) PFU/well) were investigated in developing hippocampal primary cultures from postnatal days of 1, 7, and 56 Fischer 344 rats (P1, P7, and P56) for up to 12 h after infection (12 HAI). The virus titer of primary culture neurons increased at 1 HAI, decreased at 2 HAI, increased at 3 HAI, peaked at 8 HAI, and decreased at 12 HAI in all age groups. The titers at 1 and 8 HAI were lowest in P56 cultures. The virus titer of neurons was always higher than that of culture media, especially at 1 HAI, in P1 cultures, whereas the former was lower than the latter from 2 to 3 HAI in P7 cultures and from 2 to 4 HAI in P56 cultures, respectively. Signals of viral RNA detected by in situ hybridization were first observed in the peripheral cytoplasm of neurons at 1 HAI in P1 and P7 cultures and at 4 HAI in P56 cultures, respectively. The signals spread to a large or whole area of cytoplasm and also to processes thereafter. The number of viral RNA-positive neurons and the amount of signals decreased with age. The present results indicated that the susceptibility of primary culture neurons to EMC-D decreased with age but viral replication still occurred in P56 cultures.

  16. Culture density influence on the photosynthetic efficiency of microalgae growing under different spectral compositions of light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kula, M; Kalaji, H M; Skoczowski, A

    2017-02-01

    A density in algal suspension causes a significant change in the intensity and spectral composition of light reaching individual cells. Measurements of chlorophyll fluorescence allow us to observe any general changes in the bioenergetic status of photosynthesis. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of cultivation density on the PSII photochemical efficiency of three species of algae (Chlorella vulgaris, Botryococcus braunii and Chlorella emersonii), each with a different rate of growth - high, medium and low - respectively. The cell density of algae in suspension differentiated through the cultivation time (2, 4, and 8days) and the spectral composition of light. The results showed that the density of cultivation led to change in the photosynthetic apparatus of algae. The differences described between each day of cultivation (2, 4, and 8) in the kinetics of chlorophyll a fluorescence intensity in cells of the algal strains under study probably resulted from the different phases of growth of these cultures. In addition the results showed the beneficial effect of far red light on the photosynthetic apparatus and the growth of biomass in investigated algal strains.

  17. Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Anaplasma marginale Elicit Different Gene Expression Responses in Cultured Tick Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zorica Zivkovic

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Anaplasma (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae includes obligate tick-transmitted intracellular organisms, Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Anaplasma marginale that multiply in both vertebrate and tick host cells. Recently, we showed that A. marginale affects the expression of tick genes that are involved in tick survival and pathogen infection and multiplication. However, the gene expression profile in A. phagocytophilum-infected tick cells is currently poorly characterized. The objectives of this study were to characterize tick gene expression profile in Ixodes scapularis ticks and cultured ISE6 cells in response to infection with A. phagocypthilum and to compare tick gene expression responses in A. phagocytophilum- and A. marginale-infected tick cells by microarray and real-time RT-PCR analyses. The results of these studies demonstrated modulation of tick gene expression by A. phagocytophilum and provided evidence of different gene expression responses in tick cells infected with A. phagocytophilum and A. marginale. These differences in Anaplasma-tick interactions may reflect differences in pathogen life cycle in the tick cells.

  18. Culture and language differences as a barrier to provision of quality care by the health workforce in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almutairi, Khalid M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To identify, synthesize, and summarize issues and challenges related to the culture and language differences of the health workforce in Saudi Arabia. Methods: A comprehensive systematic review was conducted in May 2014 to locate published articles. Two independent researchers in consultation with several experts used 4 electronic databases (ISI Web of Knowledge, Science Direct, PubMed, and Cochrane) to scrutinize articles published from January 2000 - March 2014. Each of the studies was given a quality assessment rating of weak, moderate, or strong, and was evaluated for methodological soundness using Russell and Gregory’s criteria. Results: The online literature search identified 12 studies that met the inclusion criteria. Lack of knowledge of non-Muslim nurses or culture in Saudi Arabia, difficulties in achieving cultural competence, and culture shock were documented as cultural difference factors. Issues in language difference include the clarity of language use by health care providers in giving information and providing adequate explanation regarding their activities. Conclusion: The available information provided by this review study shows that there is a communication barrier between patients and health care workers such as healthcare workers demonstrate low cultural competency. Despite the fact that the government provides programs for expatriate healthcare workers, there is a need to further improve educational and orientation programs regarding the culture and language in Saudi Arabia. PMID:25828278

  19. Culture of equine bone marrow mononuclear fraction and adipose tissue-derived stromal vascular fraction cells in different media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gesiane Ribeiro

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the culture of equine bone marrow mononuclear fraction and adipose tissue - derived stromal vascular fraction cells in two different cell culture media. Five adult horses were submitted to bone marrow aspiration from the sternum, and then from the adipose tissue of the gluteal region near the base of the tail. Mononuclear fraction and stromal vascular fraction were isolated from the samples and cultivated in DMEM medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum or in AIM-V medium. The cultures were observed once a week with an inverted microscope, to perform a qualitative analysis of the morphology of the cells as well as the general appearance of the cell culture. Colony-forming units (CFU were counted on days 5, 15 and 25 of cell culture. During the first week of culture, differences were observed between the samples from the same source maintained in different culture media. The number of colonies was significantly higher in samples of bone marrow in relation to samples of adipose tissue.

  20. Exploring cultural differences in feedback processes and perceived instructiveness during clerkships : Replicating a Dutch study in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suhoyo, Yoyo; van Hell, Elisabeth A.; Prihatiningsih, Titi S.; Kuks, Jan B. M.; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke

    2014-01-01

    Context: Cultural differences between countries may entail differences in feedback processes. Aims: By replicating a Dutch study in Indonesia, we analysed whether differences in processes influenced the perceived instructiveness of feedback. Methods: Over a two-week period, Indonesian students (n =

  1. Transformation of different barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivars by Agrobacterium tumefaciens infection of in vitro cultured ovules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holme, Inger Bæksted; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik; Lange, Mette;

    2008-01-01

    Most cultivars of higher plants display poor regeneration capacity of explants due to yet unknown genotypic determined mechanisms. This implies that technologies such as transformation often are restricted to model cultivars with good tissue characteristics. In the present paper, we add further...... evidence to our previous hypothesis that regeneration from young barley embryos derived from in vitro-cultured ovules is genotype independent. We investigated the ovule culture ability of four cultivars Femina, Salome, Corniche and Alexis, known to have poor response in other types of tissue culture...... vector pVec8-GFP harboring a hygromycin resistance gene and the green fluorescence protein (GFP) gene, was used for transformation. The results strongly indicate that the tissue culture response level in ovule culture is genotype independent. However, we did observe differences between cultivars...

  2. Acknowledgements; Preface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Valkenburg

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 180 people attended the 10th North American Caribou Workshop which was held immedi¬ately following the annual meeting of the Northwest Section of The Wildlife Society. Participants came from Canada, Greenland, Finland, Norway, Russia, Sweden, and the United States (primarily Alaska. Over 80 papers and posters were presented and about 25% of those are published here in this special edition of Rangifer. Many of the papers, including the keynote address by Dr. Gunter Weller, concerned climate change and global warming.

  3. PREFACE: Acknowledgements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    The organizers of the conference would like to thank for the support from the Physics Department and the Offce of Academic Affairs of the Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados and from the Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (Conacyt), projects 152574 and 166581.

  4. Variation of Spirulina maxima biomass production in different depths of urea-used culture medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affan, Md-Abu; Lee, Dae-Won; Al-Harbi, Salim Marzoog; Kim, Han-Jun; Abdulwassi, Najah Ibrahim; Heo, Soo-Jin; Oh, Chulhong; Park, Heung-Sik; Ma, Chae Woo; Lee, Hyeon-Yong; Kang, Do-Hyung

    2015-01-01

    Fewer studies have assessed the outdoor cultivation of Spirulina maxima compared with S. platensis, although the protein content of S. maxima is higher than S. platensis. Spirulina growth medium requires an increased amount of NaHCO3, Na2CO3, and NaNO3, which increases the production cost. Therefore, the current study used a low-cost but high-efficiency biomass production medium (Medium M-19) after testing 33 different media. The medium depth of 25 cm (group A) was sub-divided into A1 (50% cover with a black curtain (PolyMax, 12 oz ultra-blackout), A2 (25% cover), and A3 (no cover). Similarly the medium depths of 30 and 35 cm were categorized as groups B (B1, B2, and B3) and C (C1, C2, and C3), respectively, and the effects of depth and surface light availability on growth and biomass production were assessed. The highest biomass production was 2.05 g L-1 in group A2, which was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than that in all other groups and sub-groups. Spirulina maxima died in B1 and C1 on the fifth day of culture. The biochemical composition of the biomass obtained from A2 cultures, including protein, carbohydrate, lipid, moisture, and ash, was 56.59%, 14.42%, 0.94%, 5.03%, and 23.02%, respectively. Therefore, S. maxima could be grown outdoors with the highest efficiency in urea-enriched medium at a 25-cm medium depth with 25% surface cover or uncovered. PMID:26691456

  5. Variation of Spirulina maxima biomass production in different depths of urea-used culture medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md-Abu Affan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fewer studies have assessed the outdoor cultivation of Spirulina maxima compared with S. platensis, although the protein content of S. maxima is higher than S. platensis. Spirulina growth medium requires an increased amount of NaHCO3, Na2CO3, and NaNO3, which increases the production cost. Therefore, the current study used a low-cost but high-efficiency biomass production medium (Medium M-19 after testing 33 different media. The medium depth of 25 cm (group A was sub-divided into A1 (50% cover with a black curtain (PolyMax, 12 oz ultra-blackout, A2 (25% cover, and A3 (no cover. Similarly the medium depths of 30 and 35 cm were categorized as groups B (B1, B2, and B3 and C (C1, C2, and C3, respectively, and the effects of depth and surface light availability on growth and biomass production were assessed. The highest biomass production was 2.05 g L-1 in group A2, which was significantly higher (p < 0.05 than that in all other groups and sub-groups. Spirulina maxima died in B1 and C1 on the fifth day of culture. The biochemical composition of the biomass obtained from A2 cultures, including protein, carbohydrate, lipid, moisture, and ash, was 56.59%, 14.42%, 0.94%, 5.03%, and 23.02%, respectively. Therefore, S. maxima could be grown outdoors with the highest efficiency in urea-enriched medium at a 25-cm medium depth with 25% surface cover or uncovered.

  6. Emotional response to virtual reality exposure across different cultures: the role of the attribution process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorini, Alessandra; Mosso, José Luis; Mosso, Dejanira; Pineda, Erika; Ruíz, Norma Leticia; Ramíez, Miriam; Morales, José Luis; Riva, Giuseppe

    2009-12-01

    Many studies have shown the ability of media--television, movies, and virtual reality (VR) experiences--to elicit emotions. Nevertheless, it is still unclear how the different factors involved--user related and medium related--play a role in producing an emotional response during a VR experience. We investigate this issue, analyzing the role played by the cultural and technological backgrounds of the users in the emotional responses to VR. Specifically, we use the "core affect" model of emotions developed by Russell (2003) to explore how these factors influence the way in which participants experience virtual worlds. Our sample includes 20 Mexican participants: 8 living in El Tepeyac, a small rural and isolated Mexican village characterized by a very primitive culture, and 12 high civilized inhabitants of Mexico City. The "Green Valley," a noninteractive, relaxing immersive environment showing a mountain landscape around a calm lake, was used to induce relaxation in the two groups during an ambulatory surgical operation. To investigate the effects of VR on the relaxation process, we measured participants' physiological (heart rate) and emotional (VAS-A) responses before, during, and after the operation. The results show that VR significantly modified the core affect (reduced arousal) in all participants but that the final emotional response produced by this change was influenced by the attribution process: the civilized inhabitants of Mexico City, who were able to attribute the reduced arousal to the VR experience, reported a significant reduction in the self-reported level of anxiety, while people from El Tepeyac showed a reduction in their physiological reactions but not in their perceived anxiety.

  7. Effects of bone morphogenetic protein-7 stimulation on osteoblasts cultured on different biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Açil, Yahya; Springer, Ingo N G; Broek, Vanessa; Terheyden, Hendrik; Jepsen, Søren

    2002-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of an in vitro stimulation of human osteoblasts by recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-7 (rhBMP-7) on the collagen types and the quantity of the collagen cross-links synthesized in a three-dimensional culture on various biomaterials for bone replacement. Trabecular bone chips were harvested from human iliac crests, and cell cultures were established at standard conditions. One hundred and fifty nanograms per milliliter of rhBMP-7 was added. For the second passage a cell scraper was used to bring the cells into suspension, and 100 microl osteoblasts (at a density of 3.3 x 10(5)) were transferred onto nine blocks of either Bio-Oss, Tutoplast, or PepGen p-15. Blocks incubated with cells that were not treated with rhBMP-7 served as controls. Cell colonization of the biomaterials was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) after a period of 2, 4, and 6 weeks. Throughout the experiment medium, supernatants were collected and collagen was characterized by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Finally, the collagen cross-link residues hydroxylysylpyridinoline (HP) and lysylpyridinoline (LP) were quantified by HPLC. Within 4 weeks the cells became confluent on all of the studied biomaterials. All samples synthesized bone specific LP and collagen type I. However, in rhBMP-7-stimulated samples, the amount of HP and LP found was increased by 45% compared to non-stimulated samples. Cell proliferation and collagen synthesis was similar on the different biomaterials, but was consistently reduced in specimen not stimulated with rhBMP-7. In vitro stimulation of osteoblasts on Bio-Oss, Tutoplast, or PepGen p-15 with rhBMP-7 and subsequent transplantation of the constructs might lead to an enhanced osseointegration of the biomaterials in vivo.

  8. Effect of microcavitary alginate hydrogel with different pore sizes on chondrocyte culture for cartilage tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Lei; Yao, Yongchang [School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); National Engineering Research Center for Tissue Restoration and Reconstruction, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Wang, Dong-an, E-mail: DAWang@ntu.edu.sg [National Engineering Research Center for Tissue Restoration and Reconstruction, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Division of Bioengineering, School of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 637457 (Singapore); Chen, Xiaofeng, E-mail: chenxf@scut.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); National Engineering Research Center for Tissue Restoration and Reconstruction, Guangzhou 510006 (China)

    2014-01-01

    In our previous work, a novel microcavitary hydrogel was proven to be effective for proliferation of chondrocytes and maintenance of chondrocytic phenotype. In present work, we further investigated whether the size of microcavity would affect the growth and the function of chondrocytes. By changing the stirring rate, gelatin microspheres in different sizes including small size (80–120 μm), middle size (150–200 μm) and large size (250–300 μm) were prepared. And then porcine chondrocytes were encapsulated into alginate hydrogel with various sizes of gelatin microspheres. Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8), Live/dead staining and real-time PCR were used to analyze the effect of the pore size on cell proliferation and expression of specific chondrocytic genes. According to all the data, cells cultivated in microcavitary hydrogel, especially in small size, had preferable abilities of proliferation and higher expression of cartilaginous markers including type II collagen, aggrecan and cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP). Furthermore, it was shown by western blot assay that the culture of chondrocytes in microcavitary hydrogel could improve the proliferation of cells potentially by inducing the Erk1/2-MAPK pathway. Taken together, this study demonstrated that chondrocytes favored microcavitary alginate hydrogel with pore size within the range of 80–120 μm for better growth and ECM synthesis, in which Erk1/2 pathway was involved. This culture system would be promising for cartilage tissue engineering. - Highlights: • A novel model with microcavitary structure was set up to study the interaction between cells and materials. • Microcavitary alginate hydrogel could enhance the proliferation of chondrocytes and promote the expression of cartilaginous genes as compared with plain alginate hydrogel. • Cells in microcavitary alginate hydrogel with pore size within the range of 80–120 μm were capable of better growth and ECM synthesis.

  9. Exploring the Relationship of Organizational Culture and Implicit Leadership Theory to Performance Differences in the Nuclear and Fossil Energy Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravey, Kristopher J.

    Notable performance differences exist between nuclear and fossil power generation plants in areas such as safety, outage duration efficiency, and capacity factor. This study explored the relationship of organizational culture and implicit leadership theory to these performance differences. A mixed methods approach consisting of quantitative instruments, namely the Organizational Culture Assessment Instrument and the GLOBE Leadership Scales, and qualitative interviews were used in this study. Subjects were operations middle managers in a U.S. energy company that serves nuclear or fossil power plants. Results from the quantitative instruments revealed no differences between nuclear and fossil groups in regards to organizational culture types and implicit leadership theories. However, the qualitative results did reveal divergence between the two groups in regards to what is valued in the organization and how that drives behaviors and decision making. These organizational phenomenological differences seem to explain why performance differences exist between nuclear and fossil plants because, ultimately, they affect how the organization functions.

  10. Setting the agenda: Different strategies of a Mass Media in a model of cultural dissemination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Sebastián; Balenzuela, Pablo; Dorso, Claudio O.

    2016-09-01

    Day by day, people exchange opinions about news with relatives, friends, and coworkers. In most cases, they get informed about a given issue by reading newspapers, listening to the radio, or watching TV, i.e., through a Mass Media (MM). However, the importance of a given new can be stimulated by the Media by assigning newspaper's pages or time in TV programs. In this sense, we say that the Media has the power to "set the agenda", i.e., it decides which new is important and which is not. On the other hand, the Media can know people's concerns through, for instance, websites or blogs where they express their opinions, and then it can use this information in order to be more appealing to an increasing number of people. In this work, we study different scenarios in an agent-based model of cultural dissemination, in which a given Mass Media has a specific purpose: To set a particular topic of discussion and impose its point of view to as many social agents as it can. We model this by making the Media has a fixed feature, representing its point of view in the topic of discussion, while it tries to attract new consumers, by taking advantage of feedback mechanisms, represented by adaptive features. We explore different strategies that the Media can adopt in order to increase the affinity with potential consumers and then the probability to be successful in imposing this particular topic.

  11. Is there a genetic contribution to cultural differences? Collectivism, individualism and genetic markers of social sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Way, Baldwin M; Lieberman, Matthew D

    2010-06-01

    Genes and culture are often thought of as opposite ends of the nature-nurture spectrum, but here we examine possible interactions. Genetic association studies suggest that variation within the genes of central neurotransmitter systems, particularly the serotonin (5-HTTLPR, MAOA-uVNTR) and opioid (OPRM1 A118G), are associated with individual differences in social sensitivity, which reflects the degree of emotional responsivity to social events and experiences. Here, we review recent work that has demonstrated a robust cross-national correlation between the relative frequency of variants in these genes and the relative degree of individualism-collectivism in each population, suggesting that collectivism may have developed and persisted in populations with a high proportion of putative social sensitivity alleles because it was more compatible with such groups. Consistent with this notion, there was a correlation between the relative proportion of these alleles and lifetime prevalence of major depression across nations. The relationship between allele frequency and depression was partially mediated by individualism-collectivism, suggesting that reduced levels of depression in populations with a high proportion of social sensitivity alleles is due to greater collectivism. These results indicate that genetic variation may interact with ecological and social factors to influence psychocultural differences.

  12. Identifying the shared metabolic objectives of glycerol bioconversion in Klebsiella pneumoniae under different culture conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Gongxian; Li, Caixia

    2017-03-18

    This paper addresses the problem of identifying the shared metabolic objectives of glycerol bioconversion in Klebsiella pneumoniae for production of 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PD) under different culture conditions. To achieve this goal, we propose a multi-level programming model. This model includes three optimization problems, where the constraint region of the first level problem is implicitly determined by the other two optimization problems. The optimized objectives of the first and second level problems are to minimize the set of fluxes that are of major importance to glycerol metabolism and the difference between the observed fluxes and those computed by the model, respectively. The third level problem in the proposed multi-level programming simultaneously solves a set of flux balance analysis (FBA) models. A method is proposed to solve efficiently the presented multi-level programming problem. In this method, we first transform the proposed multi-level problem into a bi-level problem by applying the dual theory of linear programming to the FBA models of the third level. Next, the optimal solution of the above bi-level problem is obtained by iteratively solving a sequence of mixed integer programming problems. Optimization results reveal that the proposed method can identify the shared metabolic objectives of glycerol bioconversion in Klebsiella pneumoniae under three groups of experimental data.

  13. Heritage, sacredness and power: on different categories of historical and cultural patrimony in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Sapiezinskas Krás Borges Canani

    Full Text Available This article deals with the concept of heritage present in the public policies of cultural, artistic and historical heritage preservation, aiming to widen the apprehension of the concept. Bringing examples from my fieldwork in Venezianos Lane, in Porto Alegre, my purpose in this article is to analise the attribution of values to specific buildings, objects or processes as a way to produce new meanings within the different contexts in which it occurs, observing specially the construction of signification from the point of view of familiar heritage, heritage objects seen as sacred properties and the dimension of power involved in such process. Considering the ressignifications which resulted from the heritage acknoledgement, I analise the different categories perceived by the city inhabitants who are involved with the heritage, not in a passive way, but owning the capacity to construct new significances and to give meaning to the world around them. I try to underline the symbolic dimension present in this process in which the property acquires a meaning and comes to be considered heritage.

  14. Winter Growth of Carps under Different Semi-Intensive Culture Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Nazish* and Abdul Mateen

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was planned to observe the influence of different semi intensive culture conditions i.e. organic and inorganic fertilizer with rice polish on the growth of carps during winter season. Two earthen ponds were selected and each pond was stocked with Silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, Rohu (Labeo rohita and Mori (Cirrhinus mrigala at the ratio of 1:2:1 respectively with a total number of 44 fishes. Pond 1 was treated with poultry dropping and urea while pond 2 was treated with poultry dropping, urea and rice polish. The ponds were treated with at the rate of 0.2 g N/100g of wet body weight of fish. Fertilizers were added on weekly basis while rice polish was added daily. Total net fish production of pond 1 and pond 2 was remained 797.3 and 1033.0 kg/ha/year. The pond treated with fertilizer and artificial feed (rice polish showed 3.6% more fish production than the pond treated only with fertilizer. The physico-chemical parameters were measured on weekly basis. Temperature, light penetration, pH and planktonic biomass showed non-significant difference in both ponds. Pond 2 which was treated with poultry dropping, urea and rice polish showed 1.26 times greater fish growth than pond 1 which was treated with poultry dropping and urea.

  15. Comparison of Different Culture Mode for Long-term Expansion of Neural Stem Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    1 Introduction The mammalian central nervous system(CNS) is incredibly complex and possesses only a limited ability to recover from damage~([1]). Fortunately, the discovery of self-renewing stem cell populations within the fetal and adult CNS has opened promising lines of inquiry. Neural stem cells (NSCs) can be cultured in two modes in vitro, suspension and monolayer. Reynolds~([2]) and other groups culture NSCs as neurospheres in suspension. Alternatively Gage cultured NSCs in monolayer. There is little s...

  16. Reflections on Differences of Sino-US Culture in the Perspective of Costume

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢辉

    2009-01-01

    What makes clothing important? Clothing and acces sories is an important tool for studying popular culture and social history.The history of human costume can be seen,in a certain degree,as the development history of sensible human culture.These artifacts help tell the story of status difierences and class aspirations through the materials used and the cut of a garment.Clothing reflects cultural historical difierences and social mores that have changed over time.Clothing reflects behavior standards,manners,and the culture itself.Clothes provide examples of America's and Chinese shifting economy and clmnging producuon techmques.

  17. Cognitive socialization across ethnocultural contexts: literacy and cultural differences in intellectual performance and parent-child interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portes, P R; Cuentas, T E; Zady, M

    2000-03-01

    A comparative study of parent-child interaction and its relation to children's intellectual achievement is presented. The question of cultural continuities in cognitive development was examined. The cross-national design also illustrates some of the problems encountered when such relationships are studied across social contexts in general. The results suggest that although interaction characteristics are related to children's intellectual achievement, that relation is moderated by context factors that may operate differently in each culture. The findings are discussed in terms of how literacy mediates parents' teaching styles in ways that remain culturally ingrained. Research issues and recommendations for future research and policy are discussed.

  18. The Need for Culturally Relevant Dance Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy-Brown, Nyama

    2009-01-01

    There is a need for culturally relevant teaching in dance education. Many dance teachers have heard the buzz words "culturally relevant teaching methods." Yet these dance educators acknowledge that the "dance culture" is not always synonymous with "culturally relevant." This paper examines the issue of culturally relevant teaching methods in dance…

  19. Attitudes Toward Business Ethics in Different Contexts: a Cross-Cultural Comparison between professionals in Jordan and UK

    OpenAIRE

    Haloub, Radi; Samawi, Jamil Nazih; Refai, Deema; Beddewela, Eshani

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the attitude and perception of business professionals towards ethics, in an era of dynamic globalisation is important for investors to make strategic decisions. We explore this manifestation of business ethics across cultures in terms of ethical perceptions, moral philosophies and ethical judgments, by focusing upon the attitudes of professionals towards ethics, in two culturally and institutionally different countries: Jordan and the UK. We base our theorisation on Hofstede's T...

  20. 中西方文化差异研究%Research on Cultural Difference between China and Foreign Countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    菅娉娉; 史宏捷

    2012-01-01

    从知识体系的建构、道德与价值的诉求、信仰与社会风俗的形成等三个方面探究了社会历史发展进程中中西方文化的差异。通过对不同文化现象的科学分析,对不同文化交融和变异发展的规律就有了更为深刻的认识,这种中西文化的比较研究对不同民族乃至世界的大融合、大团结十分有益。辩证地分析各文化优劣之处,从而取长补短,以本民族传统文化为基础,不断探索构建中华民族最先进文化的新思路。%From the three aspects of the construction of knowledge system, the requirement of moral and value, and the formation of relief and social custom, this thesis probes into the cultural difference between China and western cultures in the course of historical development. Through the scientific analysis of different cultural phenomena, people can have a deeper understanding of the development of cultural interaction and alteration. It is beneficial for integration and unity of the world to learn about the cultural differences. Based on the local traditional culture, this thesis analyses the advantages and disadvantages of different cultures and probes into the new ways to construct the most advanced Chinese culture.

  1. Nursery Culture Performance of Litopenaeus vannamei with Probiotics Addition and Different C/N Ratio Under Laboratory Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WIDANARNI

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Application of bioflocs technology and probiotics has improved water quality and production of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei culture. This experiment was to verify the effect of probiotic bacteria addition and different carbon:nitrogen (C:N ratio on water quality and performance of Pacific white shrimp nursery culture. Nursery culture was carried out for 25 days in an aquarium under laboratory condition with stock density of one Post-Larvae (PL (poslarval per liter (24 PL/aquarium of PL16 shrimp. Different C:N ratio resulted a significant difference on shrimp production performance. Treatment of 10 C:N ratio demonstrated the best shrimp growth (20.37 + 0.48% per day in weight and 6.05 + 0.41% per day in length, harvesting yield (1180 + 62 g/m3 and feed efficiency (121 + 6%. There was however no significant difference observed between treatments in water quality.

  2. Tradition over trend: Neighboring chimpanzee communities maintain differences in cultural behavior despite frequent immigration of adult females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luncz, Lydia V; Boesch, Christophe

    2014-07-01

    The notion of animal culture has been well established mainly through research aiming at uncovering differences between populations. In chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus), cultural diversity has even been found in neighboring communities, where differences were observed despite frequent immigration of individuals. Female chimpanzees transfer at the onset of sexual maturity at an age, when the behavioral repertoire is fully formed. With immigrating females, behavioral variety enters the group. Little is known about the diversity and the longevity of cultural traits within a community. This study is building on previous findings of differences in hammer selection when nut cracking between neighboring communities despite similar ecological conditions. We now further investigated the diversity and maintenance of cultural traits within one chimpanzee community and were able to show high levels of uniformity in group-specific behavior. Fidelity to the behavior pattern did not vary between dispersing females and philopatric males. Furthermore, group-specific tool selection remained similar over a period of 25 years. Additionally, we present a study case on how one newly immigrant female progressively behaved more similar to her new group, suggesting that the high level of similarity in behavior is actively adopted by group members possibly even when originally expressing the behavior in another form. Taken together, our data support a cultural transmission process in adult chimpanzees, which leads to persisting cultural behavior of one community over time.

  3. Wine culture difference between China and Japan%小议中日间的酒文化差异

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙倩

    2013-01-01

    饮酒文化是世界上每个国家文化的重要组成部分之一。中日都是农耕文化的产物,两国的酒文化亦有着源远流长的历史。但由于认识形态不一,导致两国间的饮酒文化都存在着差异。本文试着从酒度、酒令、酒名、酒情等四个方面入手分析两国酒文化的特征及差异。%Drinking culture is one of the important part of each national culture in the world. Japan is a product of farming culture, the wine culture has a long history. But due to the understanding of different between the two countries, leading to the drinking culture differences. This article tries from the four aspects to analyze the characteristics and differences of wine culture between the two countries.

  4. A Corpus- based Contrastive Study of Cultural Difference-A Case Study of Passive Voice Used in English and Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康克兢

    2013-01-01

      Passive voice is a common linguistic phenomenon both in Chinese and in English, while it is used differently in each lan⁃guage system. This paper takes the grammar features of passive voice in both Chinese and English as an example, collecting corpus data of passive voice in the two languages, to comparatively analyze the cultural difference reflected from the usage of languages. Getting to know this kind of cultural difference would help us to better understand linguistic phenomena in second language acqui⁃sition, and to master them better.

  5. On Equivalence and Non-equivalence of Words and Phrases In Different Cultures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高新霞

    2008-01-01

    This paper is mainly focused on the study of the relationship among three concepts, namely, culture,psychological association and equivalence or non-equivalence of words and phrases with combination of Problems posed by my students and discuss three patterns of the relationship with an attempt to describe the importance of culture to equivalence.

  6. Myricetin and quercetin attenuate ischemic injury in glial cultures by different mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have demonstrated that polyphenols from cinnamon and green tea reduce cell swelling and mitochondrial dysfunction in C6 glial cultures following ischemic injury. We tested the protective effects of the flavonoid polyphenols, myricetin and quercetin, on key features of ischemic injury. C6 cultures...

  7. Differences in nutrient uptake between the fat body and embryonic primary cultures of silkworm (Bombyx mori)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LEILA MATINDOOST; JALAL J. SENDI; HOORIEH SOLEIMAN JAHI; KAYVAN ETEBARI

    2006-01-01

    Nutrition utilization and by-product formation in cultured insect cells has been investigated in several insect cells and has been of great interest to cell culturists and physiologists. In this research the biochemical changes in embryonic and fat body primary cultures of silkworm, Bombyx mori, have been compared. TC-100 medium supplemented with 10% and 20% FBS was used in embryonic and fat body primary cultures, respectively.Medium was renewed every week and the amount of glucose, uric acid, urea, total protein and alkaline phosphatase were measured in the samples from medium of primary cultures using spectrophotometeric methods. All biochemical macromolecules except uric acid showed significant changes. Glucose decreased in embryonic tissues, while in fat body culture its amount increased. Urea accumulation in embryonic culture was higher than in the fat body cultures. Since urea is a by-product, this accumulation could be due to higher utilization of amino acids. Total protein showed considerable changes and was consumed by embryonic culture more than the fat body' s. Alkaline phosphatase showed stronger activity in embryonic cells.

  8. Collective Pedagogical Teacher Culture and Mathematics Achievement: Differences by Race, Ethnicity, and Socioeconomic Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moller, Stephanie; Mickelson, Roslyn Arlin; Stearns, Elizabeth; Banerjee, Neena; Bottia, Martha Cecilia

    2013-01-01

    Scholars have not adequately assessed how organizational cultures in schools differentially influence students' mathematics achievement by race and socioeconomic status (SES). We focus on what we term "collective pedagogical teacher culture", highlighting the role of professional communities and teacher collaboration in influencing…

  9. Different Abilities of Eight Mixed Cultures of Methane-oxidizing Bacteria to Degrade TCE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broholm, Kim; Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Jensen, Bjørn K.

    1993-01-01

    The ability of eight mixed cultures of methane-oxidizing bacteria to degrade trichloroethylene (TCE) was examined in laboratory batch experiments. This is one of the first reported works studying TCE degradation by mixed cultures of methane-oxidizing bacteria at 10°C, a common temperature for soils...

  10. Embryonic Stem Cell Culture Conditions Support Distinct States Associated with Different Developmental Stages and Potency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin Gonzalez, Javier; Morgani, Sophie M; Bone, Robert A;

    2016-01-01

    Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are cell lines derived from the mammalian pre-implantation embryo. Here we assess the impact of derivation and culture conditions on both functional potency and ESC transcriptional identity. Individual ESCs cultured in either two small-molecule inhibitors (2i....... Conversely, the transcriptome of serum-cultured ESCs correlated with later stages of development (E4.5), at which point embryonic cells are more restricted in their developmental potential. Thus, ESC culture systems are not equivalent, but support cell types that resemble distinct developmental stages. Cells......) or with knockout serum replacement (KOSR), but not serum, can generate high-level chimeras regardless of how these cells were derived. ESCs cultured in these conditions showed a transcriptional correlation with early pre-implantation embryos (E1.5-E3.5) and contributed to development from the 2-cell stage...

  11. Team Performance and Error Management in Chinese and American Simulated Flight Crews: The Role of Cultural and Individual Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Donald D.; Bryant, Janet L.; Tedrow, Lara; Liu, Ying; Selgrade, Katherine A.; Downey, Heather J.

    2005-01-01

    This report describes results of a study conducted for NASA-Langley Research Center. This study is part of a program of research conducted for NASA-LARC that has focused on identifying the influence of national culture on the performance of flight crews. We first reviewed the literature devoted to models of teamwork and team performance, crew resource management, error management, and cross-cultural psychology. Davis (1999) reported the results of this review and presented a model that depicted how national culture could influence teamwork and performance in flight crews. The second study in this research program examined accident investigations of foreign airlines in the United States conducted by the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB). The ability of cross-cultural values to explain national differences in flight outcomes was examined. Cultural values were found to covary in a predicted way with national differences, but the absence of necessary data in the NTSB reports and limitations in the research method that was used prevented a clear understanding of the causal impact of cultural values. Moreover, individual differences such as personality traits were not examined in this study. Davis and Kuang (2001) report results of this second study. The research summarized in the current report extends this previous research by directly assessing cultural and individual differences among students from the United States and China who were trained to fly in a flight simulator using desktop computer workstations. The research design used in this study allowed delineation of the impact of national origin, cultural values, personality traits, cognitive style, shared mental model, and task workload on teamwork, error management and flight outcomes. We briefly review the literature that documents the importance of teamwork and error management and its impact on flight crew performance. We next examine teamwork and crew resource management training designed to improve

  12. Cultural differences in family, marital, and gender-role values among immigrants and majority members in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arends-Tóth, Judit; van de Vijver, Fons J R

    2009-06-01

    This study examined the size of differences in self-reported family, marital, and gender-role values in five cultural groups in the Netherlands (6338 Dutch mainstreamers and 422 Turkish, 369 Moroccan, 429 Surinamese, and 394 Antillean first- and second-generation immigrants). It was found that the three value scales were neither completely independent, nor could they be merged into a single value scale. The factor structures of all scales were identical for the five cultural groups, implying that the concepts can be compared. Age, sex, and notably education accounted for a substantial part of the cultural differences in all values. Cultural differences were larger for marital and family values than for gender-role values. Family and marital values yielded the same rank order of mean scores in the five cultural groups: Turks and Moroccans scored the lowest (having the most traditional values), followed by Surinamers, Antilleans, and Dutch mainstreamers. This rank order corresponds with the ethnic hierarchy of cultural groups that is based on the evaluation of ethnic groups by mainstreamers according to their liking of and likeness to ethnic groups. Generational differences were not found for family and gender-role values but first-generation immigrants in all groups had more traditional marital values than had second-generation immigrants. It was concluded that the theoretical framework based on a combination of three Hofstede dimensions (individualism-collectivism, power-distance, and femininity-masculinity), a model of the hierarchy of the ethnic groups in the Dutch society, and acculturation theory provided an adequate way to address family, marital, and gender-role value differences in the five cultural groups.

  13. Quantification of the aggregation of magnetic nanoparticles with different polymeric coatings in cell culture medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eberbeck, D; Zirpel, P; Trahms, L [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Abbestrasse 2-12, 10587 Berlin (Germany); Kettering, M; Hilger, I [Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Jena, Erlanger Allee 101, 07747 Jena (Germany); Bergemann, C, E-mail: dietmar.eberbeck@ptb.d [Chemicell GmbH, Eresburgstrasse 22-23, 12103 Berlin (Germany)

    2010-10-13

    The knowledge of the physico-chemical characteristics of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) is essential to enhance the efficacy of MNP-based therapeutic treatments (e.g. magnetic heating, magnetic drug targeting). According to the literature, the MNP uptake by cells may depend on the coating of MNPs, the surrounding medium as well as on the aggregation behaviour of the MNPs. Therefore, in this study, the aggregation behaviour of MNPs in various media was investigated. MNPs with different coatings were suspended in cell culture medium (CCM) containing fetal calf serum (FCS) and the distribution of the hydrodynamic sizes was measured by magnetorelaxometry (MRX). FCS as well as bovine serum albumin (BSA) buffer (phosphate buffered saline with 0.1% bovine serum albumin) may induce MNP aggregation. Its strength depends crucially on the type of coating. The degree of aggregation in CCM depends on its FCS content showing a clear, local maximum at FCS concentrations, where the IgG concentration (part of FCS) is of the order of the MNP number concentration. Thus, we attribute the observed aggregation behaviour to the mechanism of agglutination of MNPs by serum compartments as for example IgG. No aggregation was induced for MNPs coated with dextran, polyarabic acid or sodium phosphate, respectively, which were colloidally stable in CCM.

  14. 3D Culture of Chondrocytes in Gelatin Hydrogels with Different Stiffness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomeng Li

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Gelatin hydrogels can mimic the microenvironments of natural tissues and encapsulate cells homogeneously, which makes them attractive for cartilage tissue engineering. Both the mechanical and biochemical properties of hydrogels can affect the phenotype of chondrocytes. However, the influence of each property on chondrocyte phenotype is unclear due to the difficulty in separating the roles of these properties. In this study, we aimed to study the influence of hydrogel stiffness on chondrocyte phenotype while excluding the role of biochemical factors, such as adhesion site density in the hydrogels. By altering the degree of methacryloyl functionalization, gelatin hydrogels with different stiffnesses of 3.8, 17.1, and 29.9 kPa Young’s modulus were prepared from the same concentration of gelatin methacryloyl (GelMA macromers. Bovine articular chondrocytes were encapsulated in the hydrogels and cultured for 14 days. The influence of hydrogel stiffness on the cell behaviors including cell viability, cell morphology, and maintenance of chondrogenic phenotype was evaluated. GelMA hydrogels with high stiffness (29.9 kPa showed the best results on maintaining chondrogenic phenotype. These results will be useful for the design and preparation of scaffolds for cartilage tissue engineering.

  15. Grazing rates of Calanus finmarchicus on Thalassiosira weissflogii cultured under different levels of ultraviolet radiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M Fields

    Full Text Available UVB alters photosynthetic rate, fatty acid profiles and morphological characteristics of phytoplankton. Copepods, important grazers of primary production, select algal cells based upon their size, morphological traits, nutritional status, and motility. We investigated the grazing rates of the copepod Calanus finmarchicus on the diatom Thalassiosira weissflogii cultured under 3 levels of ultraviolet radiation (UVR: photosynthetically active radiation (PAR only (4 kJ-m(-2/day, and PAR supplemented with UVR radiation at two intensities (24 kJ-m(-2/day and 48 kJ-m(-2/day. There was no significant difference in grazing rates between the PAR only treatment and the lower UVR treatment. However, grazing rates were significantly (∼66% higher for copepods feeding on cells treated with the higher level of UVR. These results suggest that a short-term increase in UVR exposure results in a significant increase in the grazing rate of copepods and, thereby, potentially alters the flow rate of organic matter through this component of the ecosystem.

  16. Different culture media containing methyldopa for melanin production by Cryptococcus species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralciane de Paula Menezes

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Melanin production by species of Cryptococcus is widely used to characterize C. neoformans complex in mycology laboratories. This study aims to test the efficacy of methyldopa from pharmaceutical tablet as a substrate for melanin production, to compare the production of melanin using different agar base added with methyldopa, and to compare the melanin produced in those media with that produced in Niger seed agar and sunflower seed agar by C. neoformans, C. laurentii, and C. albidus. Two isolates of each species, C. neoformans, C. laurentii, and C. albidus, and one of Candida albicans were used to experimentally detect conditions for melanin production. METHODS: The following media were tested: Mueller-Hinton agar (MHA, brain and heart infusion agar (BHIA, blood agar base (BAB, and minimal medium agar (MMA, all added with methyldopa, and the media Niger seed agar (NSA and sunflower seed agar (SSA. RESULTS: All isolates grew in most of the culture media after 24h. Strains planted on media BAB and BHIA showed growth only after 48h. All isolates produced melanin in MMA, MHA, SSA, and NSA media. CONCLUSIONS: Methyldopa in the form pharmaceutical tablet can be used as a substrate for melanin production by Cryptococcus species; minimal medium plus methyldopa was more efficient than the BAB, MHA, and BHIA in the melanin production; and NSA and SSA, followed by MMA added with methyldopa, were more efficient than other media studied for melanin production by all strains studied.

  17. Setting the Agenda: Different strategies of a Mass Media in a model of cultural dissemination

    CERN Document Server

    Pinto, Sebastián; Dorso, Claudio O

    2015-01-01

    Day by day, people exchange opinions about a given new with relatives, friends, and coworkers. In most cases, they get informed about a given issue by reading newspapers, listening to the radio, or watching TV, i.e., through a Mass Media (MM). However, the importance of a given new can be stimulated by the Media by assigning newspaper's pages or time in TV programs. In this sense, we say that the Media has the power to "set the agenda", i.e., it decides which new is important and which is not. On the other hand, the Media can know people's concerns through, for instance, websites or blogs where they express their opinions, and then it can use this information in order to be more appealing to an increasing number of people. In this work, we study different scenarios in an agent-based model of cultural dissemination, in which a given Mass Media has a specific purpose: To set a particular topic of discussion and impose its point of view to as many social agents as it can. We model this by making the Media has a ...

  18. Primary Nutritional Content of Bio-Flocs Cultured with Different Organic Carbon Sources and Salinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JULIE EKASARI

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Application of bio-flocs technology (BFT in aquaculture offers a solution to avoid environmental impact of high nutrient discharges and to reduce the use of artificial feed. In BFT, excess of nutrients in aquaculture systems are converted into microbial biomass, which can be consumed by the cultured animals as a food source. In this experiment, upconcentrated pond water obtained from the drum filter of a freshwater tilapia farm was used for bio-flocs reactors. Two carbon sources, sugar and glycerol, were used as the first variable, and two different levels of salinity, 0 and 30 ppt, were used as the second variable. Bio-flocs with glycerol as a carbon source had higher total n-6 PUFAs (19.1 + 2.1 and 22.3 + 8.6 mg/g DW at 0 and 30 ppt, respectively than that of glucose (4.0 + 0.1 and 12.6 + 2.5 mg/g DW at 0 and 30 ppt. However, there was no effect of carbon source or salinity on crude protein, lipid, and total n-3 PUFAs contents of the bio-flocs.

  19. Individualism: a valid and important dimension of cultural differences between nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimmack, Ulrich; Oishi, Shigehiro; Diener, Ed

    2005-01-01

    Oyserman, Coon, and Kemmelmeier's (2002) meta-analysis suggested problems in the measurement of individualism and collectivism. Studies using Hofstede's individualism scores show little convergent validity with more recent measures of individualism and collectivism. We propose that the lack of convergent validity is due to national differences in response styles. Whereas Hofstede statistically controlled for response styles, Oyserman et al.'s meta-analysis relied on uncorrected ratings. Data from an international student survey demonstrated convergent validity between Hofstede's individualism dimension and horizontal individualism when response styles were statistically controlled, whereas uncorrected scores correlated highly with the individualism scores in Oyserman et al.'s meta-analysis. Uncorrected horizontal individualism scores and meta-analytic individualism scores did not correlate significantly with nations' development, whereas corrected horizontal individualism scores and Hofstede's individualism dimension were significantly correlated with development. This pattern of results suggests that individualism is a valid construct for cross-cultural comparisons, but that the measurement of this construct needs improvement.

  20. Growth response and survival of Heterobranchus longifilis cultured at different water levels in outdoor concrete tanks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony A. Nlewadim

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Thirteen-day-old hatchery-raised fry obtained from hormonally-induced spawns of mature African catfish H. longifilis brood stock were introduced to three different water levels (0.35, 0.50 and 0.65m in four replicates in 12 units of 2x2x1m3 outdoor concrete tanks. The fry were similarly stocked initially at 50 fry m-2 and later thinned down to 5 fish m-2 and cultured for 6 months. Fish were fed twice daily with commercial pellet feeds (Coppens™ while adjusting the feeding rate from 10 to 4% body weight and pellet size from 0.2 to 4.5 mm. The effects of pond water levels were evaluated in growth responses and survival. Water quality variables were similar (p > 0.05 in all compartments. Temperature, dissolved oxygen and pH were at the optimum level for fish. The results reveal significant (P H. longifilis from fry to sub-adult and from the grow-out/fattening of sub-adult to adult, respectively, in outdoor concrete tanks.