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Sample records for acipenser transmontanus enhancement

  1. Columbia River White Sturgeon (Acipenser Transmontanus) Enhancement, May 1-December 31, 1983 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brannon, E.L.

    1984-12-01

    Studies were undertaken to examine and define the early life history characteristics of Columbia River white sturgeon as a working base from which enhancement measures could be developed. Adult sturgeon were captured and held for spawning at Covert's Landing, the site of the hatchery facilities below Bonneville Dam. Pituitary hormones stimulated ovulation; ripe females were live spawned surgically and the eggs incubated in hatching jars. Larvae were either reared at the hatchery site after incubation to advanced fingerling stages or transferred to the University laboratory for more detailed study. Displacement downstream occurs as a means of distribution and can last several days before a strong substrate preference is manifested. Once bottom contact is sought by the larvae, displacement is abated, and a general preference for sandy surface appears to predominate. Since potentially extensive displacement downstream could result in the distribution of larvae in saltwater, the tolerance of young sturgeon to saltwater was examined. The responsiveness of young sturgeon to artificial feed was positive. With these results, the original concern for identifying an adequate diet and food source that would be readily accepted by fry was greatly attenuated. The readiness of young fry to initiate feeding on the artificial diet made further study on feeding stimulants unnecessary. Examination of the feeding response suggested that as long as the diet used in the present study was initiated at the proper time and with adequate frequency, the fry would feed quite well and survive. 6 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs.

  2. Final critical habitat for the Kootenai River Population of the White Sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — To provide the user with a general idea of areas where final critical habitat for White Sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) concerning the Kootenai River Population...

  3. A comparative gene index for the white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzari, Barbara; Mariani, Valentina; Malinverni, Roberto; Caprera, Andrea; Giuffra, Elisabetta

    2008-03-01

    Sturgeons are archaic fishes phylogenetically distinct from Teleosts. They represent an important niche for aquaculture, particularly for the production of caviar and high quality fillets, while many natural populations in various world areas are today threatened by extinction. Knowledge of the sturgeon genome is limited, as it is the case of many other species of interest for fishery, aquaculture and conservation. Sequences from non-normalized libraries of skin and spleen of the American sturgeon (A. transmontanus) produced in our laboratories were analysed via a bioinformatic procedure, and compared to similar resources available for three Teleost species. Data collected during the analyses were stored in a database - the Sturgeon database (db) - that can be queried via a web interface. The Sturgeon db contains a total of 16,404 sequences from Acipenser transmontanus, Ictalurus punctatus, Salmo salar and Takifugu rubripes, each specie being represented by expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from skin and spleen. Data contained in the database are the results of a number of analyses that mostly focus on sequence annotation and intra- and inter-species comparison. Putative SNP sites, tandem repeats, and sequences matching known protein patterns and motifs were also identified. The Sturgeon db is by now the only online resource dedicated to the analysis of A. transmontanus EST sequences, and represents a starting point for the investigation of the genome of sturgeons from a physiological perspective; it will be used to identify polymorphic markers to study, for example, fish pathologies or to survey fish disease resistance, and to produce gene expression arrays. Introduction of sequences from other species in the analysis pipeline allowed inter-species comparisons of transcripts distribution in Gene Ontology categories, as well as orthologs identification, despite the high sturgeon phylogenetic distance from other fish species. As a result of the EST analysis procedure

  4. Bioaccumulation and chronic toxicity of dietary L-selenomethionine in juvenile white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus)

    OpenAIRE

    Tashjian, D H; Teh, S.J.; Sogomonyan, A; Hung, SSO

    2006-01-01

    An 8-week growth trial was conducted to determine the sensitivity of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) to the toxicological effects of elevated dietary selenium (Se). Juvenile white sturgeon were fed diets supplemented with Se in the form Of L-selenomethionine (SeMet), resulting in dietary concentrations of 0.4, 9.6, 20.5, 41.7, 89.8, and 191.1 mu g Se/g diet on a dry weight basis. Effects of dietary SeMet on survival, swimming activity, growth, whole-body proximate composition, tissue...

  5. Vulnerability of young white sturgeon, Acipenser transmontanus, to predation in the presence of alternative prey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadomski, D.M.; Parsley, M.J.

    2005-01-01

    We conducted laboratory trials to test the vulnerability of young white sturgeon, Acipenser transmontanus, to predation when an alternative prey was available. In trials with two species of predators, we observed two feeding patterns. When equal numbers of white sturgeon and goldfish, Carassius auratus, were available, prickly sculpins, Cottus asper, ingested more white sturgeon. Conversely, northern pikeminnow, Ptychocheilus oregonensis, ate more juvenile coho salmon, Oncorhynchus kisutch, than white sturgeon in three out of four sets of trials, but ate more white sturgeon in one set of trials. White sturgeon size and the availability of cover did not affect the proportions of prey species ingested. Our results indicate that predation may be affecting survival of white sturgeon larvae and juveniles in the wild and could be one factor limiting recruitment of young-of-the-year white sturgeon in some locations. ?? Springer 2005.

  6. Comparison of fin ray sampling methods on white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus growth and swimming performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, P L; Jackson, Z J; Peterson, D L

    2016-02-01

    Effects of two fin-ray sampling methods on swimming performance, growth and survival were evaluated for hatchery-reared sub-adult white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus. Fish were subjected to either a notch removal treatment in which a small section was removed from an anterior marginal pectoral-fin ray, or a full removal treatment in which an entire marginal pectoral-fin ray was removed. Control fish did not have fin rays removed, but they were subjected to a sham operation. A modified 3230 l Brett-type swim tunnel was used to evaluate 10 min critical station-holding speeds (SCSH ) of A. transmontanus, immediately after the fin ray biopsies were obtained with each method. Survival and growth were evaluated over a 6 month period for a separate group of fish subjected to the same biopsy methods. Mean ± S.E. 10 min SCSH were 108·0 ± 2·3, 110·0 ± 2·6 and 115·0 ± 3·5 cm s(-1) for the notch removal group, full removal group and control group, respectively, and were not significantly different among treatments. Behavioural characteristics including tail-beat frequency and time spent hunkering were also not significantly different among treatment groups swimming at the same speeds. There were no mortalities and relative growth was similar among treatment groups. Average biopsy time for the notch removal method was lower and the wounds appeared to heal more quickly compared with the full removal method.

  7. Identification and response to metals of metallothionein in two ancient fishes: white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doering, Jon A; Beitel, Shawn C; Eisner, Bryanna K; Heide, Timon; Hollert, Henner; Giesy, John P; Hecker, Markus; Wiseman, Steve B

    2015-05-01

    White sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) are among the most sensitive species of fishes to Cu, Cd, and Zn, but there is no information about sensitivity of lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens). To begin to elucidate molecular mechanism(s) of sensitivity of sturgeons to metals a cDNA encoding metallothionein (MT) was amplified from livers of white sturgeon (WS-MT) and lake sturgeon (LS-MT), and expression in response to Cu, Cd, or Zn was characterized in liver explants from each species. The primary structure of WS-MT and LS-MT contained 20 cysteine residues, which is the same as MTs of teleost fishes. However, the primary structure of WS-MT and LS-MT contained 63 amino acids, which is longer than any MT identified in teleost fishes. Abundance of transcripts of WS-MT in explants exposed to 0.3, 3, 30, or 100 μg/L of Cu was 1.7-, 1.7-, 2.1-, and 2.6-fold less than in controls, respectively. In contrast, abundances of transcripts of WS-MT were 3.3- and 2.4-fold greater in explants exposed to 30 μg/L of Cd and 1000 μg/L of Zn, respectively. Abundance of transcripts of LS-MT was not significantly different at any concentration of Cu, Cd, or Zn. MT is hypothesized to represent a critical mechanism for detoxification of metals. Therefore, results of this study suggest that sensitivity of sturgeons to exposure to Cu, Cd, or Zn might be a result of the relatively lesser maximal response of MT to metals. The study also suggestslake sturgeon might be more sensitive than white sturgeon to metals.

  8. Quality attributes and microbial storage stability of caviar from cultivated white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Joong-Han; Oliveira, Alexandra C M; Rasco, Barbara A

    2010-01-01

    Caviar was prepared from white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) roe by adjusting the water phase salt (WPS) to 4.0% to 6.3% by adding food grade NaCl. Fish were obtained from 2 different farms from the Inland Northwest (N = 5). Salt was absorbed at a different rate and to a different extent by roe from different fish. The lipid content in the fish roe varied from 10.2% to 14.4% (w/w), with palmitic acid and oleic acid being the most abundant saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids present, respectively. The caviar contained high levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) (35% to 37%) with docosahexanoic acid being the most abundant omega-3 long chain fatty acid. There were no significant differences in microbial storage stability for caviars from different fish stored at 3 degrees C. However, for caviar stored at 7 degrees C, there was less growth of Listeria monocytogenes (using a cocktail of ATCC 19114, 7644, 19113 strains) in 2 samples (2B46 and 0F05) until day 20. In 2 other samples (453F and 2519), which had lower initial microbial loads, less overall microbial growth was observed, indicating that culture and harvest practices result in compositional differences between fish, which may impact both product composition and storage stability.

  9. Adverse health effects and histological changes in white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) exposed to dietary selenomethionine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zee, Jenna; Patterson, Sarah; Gagnon, Danielle; Hecker, Markus

    2016-07-01

    It has been shown that selenium (Se) released to the aquatic environment can have devastating effects on local wildlife. White sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) have a life history particularly susceptible to contaminants, and their protection is of interest as they are culturally and economically important, and many populations are classified as endangered. During the present 72-d dietary study, multiple signs of decreased health and Se lethality were observed. Juvenile white sturgeon were given diets containing 1.4 μg, 5.6 μg, 22.4 μg, or 104.4 μg selenomethionine/g food (dry mass). Selenium accumulated in muscle and liver tissue in a dose-dependent manner. Edema causing exophthalmos developed within 15 d and 23 d, and lethal effects occurred in 54% and 22% of fish in the high- and medium-dose groups, respectively. Growth and hepatosomatic index were significantly lower in the high-dose group, which also had a high incidence of food avoidance. Histology of the liver revealed a dose-dependent increase in melanomacrophage aggregates and decrease of energy stores, which indicated toxicity. These results indicate that white sturgeon are susceptible to the effects of Se accumulation over relatively short time periods. This stresses the need for continued sturgeon research and studies looking into the environmental fate and regulation of released Se. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1741-1750. © 2015 SETAC.

  10. Lethal and sublethal toxicity of didecyldimethylammonium chloride in early life stages of white sturgeon, Acipenser transmontanus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, Swee Joo; Wong, Cecilia; Furtula, Vesna; Teh, Foo-Ching

    2003-09-01

    This study was conducted to describe the acute lethality and latent toxicity of didecyldimethylammonium chloride (DDAC) on early life stages of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus). Fish responses to 0, 10, 50, 100, 250, 500 microg/L concentrations of DDAC were determined using a 96-h standard static renewal method for acute toxicity testing, with three replicates per concentration. Twenty fish per replicate were tested for 3, 11, and 42-d-old larvae, and 7 fish per replicate were tested for 78-d-old juveniles. Following exposure, survival and growth were evaluated in exposed fish raised in clean water for 2 weeks. The 96-h median lethal concentration (LC50) values for DDAC were 10.0 to 50.0, 58.5, and 99.7 microg/L for 3, 11, and 42-d-old larvae and 100 to 250 microg/L for 78-d-old juveniles. Significant decreases in larval growth and survival were noted at all tested concentrations and in all sturgeon age groups. Results of this study reveal age- and concentration-dependent responses to DDAC. Among the age groups tested, the 3-d-old larvae were the most sensitive group. Results also revealed that 96-h lethality testing alone is not adequate for determining the toxicity of DDAC to white sturgeon.

  11. Fatty acid composition and volatile compounds of caviar from farmed white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caprino, Fabio; Moretti, Vittorio Maria; Bellagamba, Federica; Turchini, Giovanni Mario; Busetto, Maria Letizia; Giani, Ivan; Paleari, Maria Antonietta; Pazzaglia, Mario

    2008-06-09

    The present study was conducted to characterize caviar obtained from farmed white sturgeons (Acipenser transmontanus) subjected to different dietary treatments. Twenty caviar samples from fish fed two experimental diets containing different dietary lipid sources have been analysed for chemical composition, fatty acids and flavour volatile compounds. Fatty acid make up of caviar was only minimally influenced by dietary fatty acid composition. Irrespective of dietary treatments, palmitic acid (16:0) and oleic acid (OA, 18:1 n-9) were the most abundant fatty acid followed by docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6 n-3) and eicopentaenoic (EPA, 20:5 n-3). Thirty-three volatile compounds were isolated using simultaneous distillation-extraction (SDE) and identified by GC-MS. The largest group of volatiles were represented by aldehydes with 20 compounds, representing the 60% of the total volatiles. n-Alkanals, 2-alkenals and 2,4-alkadienals are largely the main responsible for a wide range of flavours in caviar from farmed white surgeon.

  12. Pericardial and pericardioperitoneal canal relationships to cardiac function in the white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Joshua A; Graham, Jeffrey B; Cech, Joseph J; Dalton, Nancy; Michaels, Jim; Chin Lai, N

    2004-06-01

    Sturgeons are primitive bony fishes and their hearts have structural features found in other primitive fishes. Sturgeons have a pericardioperitoneal canal (PPC), a one-way conduit into the peritoneum. A PPC also occurs in elasmobranchs (sharks and rays) and studies with that group demonstrate that pericardial pressure and pericardial fluid loss via the PPC affect stroke volume. A study of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) heart function was conducted to test for a comparable PPC and pericardial effects. White sturgeon-elasmobranch heart-function similarities include biphasic ventricular filling, a comparable operational pericardial pressure (-0.03 kPa), and a strongly negative pressure (-0.2 to -0.6 kPa) with complete pericardial fluid withdrawal. Differences include the white sturgeon's relatively smaller atrium and ventricle but a larger conus arteriosus. Although white sturgeon heart size is also smaller, its pericardial volume is disproportionately less (2.4 to 2.7 vs. 3.5 to 5.4 ml kg(-1) in elasmobranchs), meaning it has less scope for increasing stroke volume upon PPC fluid release. These differences may reflect the phylogenetic progression from the less complex operation of the elasmobranch heart, which lacks sympathetic innervation and has a mechanically mediated (PPC) stroke volume, to the condition in the more derived bony fishes which have sympathetic and parasympathetic regulation of both stroke volume and heart rate.

  13. Effects of Columbia River water on early life-stages of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompsett, Amber R; Vardy, David W; Higley, Eric; Doering, Jon A; Allan, Marcie; Liber, Karsten; Giesy, John P; Hecker, Markus

    2014-03-01

    The white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) population that resides in the Columbia River in British Columbia (BC), Canada, has suffered recruitment failures for more than three decades. During the summers of 2008 and 2009, studies were performed to determine whether exposure to water downstream of a metal smelter in Trail, BC affected survival or growth of early life-stages of white sturgeon through 60+ days post-fertilization (dpf). In both years, there were no significant differences in survival of fish that were exposed to water from downstream compared to water from upstream of the smelter. At 20-21dpf, average mortality was 2.4 percent and 12 percent in upstream water for 2008 and 2009, respectively, which was similar to the average mortality of 3.8 percent and 7.2 percent in downstream water for 2008 and 2009, respectively. Relatively great mortality after 20-21dpf complicated analysis of the subchronic exposure, but use of a survival analysis indicated that the average fish died at 25-29dpf, regardless of whether the water to which they were exposed came from upstream or downstream of the smelter. In addition, measured concentrations of metals in river water were less than the threshold for adverse effects on early life stages of white sturgeon. Based upon these analyses, it is not likely that current concentrations of metals in the Columbia River in southern BC are adversely affecting survival of early life stages of white sturgeon larvae.

  14. Effects of incubation substrates on hatch timing and success of White Sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsley, Michael J.; Kofoot, Eric

    2013-01-01

    The Kootenai River white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) was listed as endangered under the Endangered Species Act in 1994 because several decades of failed spawning had put the population at risk of extinction. Natural spawning is known to occur at several locations in the Kootenai River, Idaho, but there is little natural recruitment. Microhabitat where embryo incubation occurs is known to be an important factor in white sturgeon reproductive success. This study was conducted to address questions regarding the suitability of different substrates as egg attachment and incubation sites for these fish. A comparative laboratory study using six types of incubation substrates—clean river rocks, periphyton- and algae-covered rocks, waterlogged wood, sand, riparian vegetation, and clean glass plates—tested the hypothesis that survival to hatch of white sturgeon eggs differs among incubation substrates. The results showed that sand was unsuitable as an incubation substrate, as the adhesive embryos were easily dislodged. Periphyton- and algae-covered rocks had the lowest hatch success, and all other substrates had similar hatch success.

  15. Bioaccumulation and chronic toxicity of dietary L-selenomethionine in juvenile white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashjian, Diran H; Teh, Swee J; Sogomonyan, Arutyun; Hung, Silas S O

    2006-10-12

    An 8-week growth trial was conducted to determine the sensitivity of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) to the toxicological effects of elevated dietary selenium (Se). Juvenile white sturgeon were fed diets supplemented with Se in the form of L-selenomethionine (SeMet), resulting in dietary concentrations of 0.4, 9.6, 20.5, 41.7, 89.8, and 191.1 microg Se/g diet on a dry weight basis. Effects of dietary SeMet on survival, swimming activity, growth, whole-body proximate composition, tissue Se concentrations, and histopathology were determined. Sturgeon survival among treatment groups did not differ significantly with a mean survival rate of 99+/-0.43% across all groups. A significant decrease (psturgeon fed at or above 41.7 microg Se/g diet. Dietary SeMet concentrations were negatively correlated with whole-body protein and lipid content, but positively correlated with ash and moisture content. Selenium accumulated in the kidney, muscle, liver, gill, and plasma tissues in a dose-dependent manner. Histopathological alterations in the liver and kidney were observed in sturgeon fed above 20.5 microg Se/g diet. The threshold dietary Se toxicity concentration for white sturgeon was estimated to lie between 10 and 20 microg Se/g diet based on the histopathological alterations in the kidney. Research examining the consequences of elevated dietary Se concentrations on more sensitive life stages and the interactive effects of Se with other chemical or physical stressors are needed in order to determine if dietary threshold should be lowered to minimize the potential impacts of Se on white sturgeon in the San Francisco Bay-Delta.

  16. Transmission of white sturgeon iridovirus in Kootenai River white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drennan, John D; LaPatra, Scott E; Siple, Jack T; Ireland, Sue; Cain, Kenneth D

    2006-06-12

    It is thought that white sturgeon iridovirus (WSIV) is transmitted vertically from adult white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus to progeny, and that wild adults are carriers of this virus. Based on this assumption, egg disinfection trials were initiated using wild Kootenai River white sturgeon. Over 2 consecutive years, post-fertilized eggs were disinfected with iodine at concentrations ranging from 0 to 400 ppm. Eggs were incubated and progeny were reared on either de-chlorinated municipal or Kootenai River water. Juvenile sturgeon (mean weight 3.0 g) from these treatment groups were then subjected to a density stress (15 or 20 g(-1)) to manifest WSIV disease in individuals harboring the virus. In Year 1, mortality in all groups ranged from 6 to 37% and the use of municipal water was shown to significantly improve survival. However, WSIV infection was not detected in fish from any of the treatment groups or controls, and therefore did not contribute to the observed mortality. In Year 2, all treatment and control groups reared on Kootenai River water tested positive for WSIV infection and exhibited mortality ranging from 59 to 94%, but fish from groups reared on municipal water did not test positive for WSIV infection. This shows that that vertical transmission did not occur in this study. Horizontal transmission played a significant role in WSIV infection, but the lack of infection in Year 1 suggests a cyclic occurrence of the virus in the Kootenai River system. Although survival tended to be better in iodine-treated groups, the effects of iodine treatment in relation to WSIV transmission remain unknown. An important finding is that not all wild white sturgeon broodstock yield WSIV-positive progeny.

  17. White sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) acid-base regulation differs in response to different types of acidoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shartau, Ryan B; Baker, Dan W; Brauner, Colin J

    2017-03-11

    White sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) completely protect intracellular tissue pH (pHi) despite large reductions in extracellular (blood) pH (pHe), termed preferential pHi regulation, in response to elevated environmental PCO2 (hypercarbia) and in general appear to be relatively resilient to stressors. Preferential pHi regulation is thought to be associated with hypercarbia tolerance in general, but has also recently been observed to protect pHi against metabolic acidoses induced by exhaustive exercise and anoxia in a tropical air breathing catfish. We hypothesized that preferential pHi regulation may also be a general strategy of acid-base regulation in sturgeon. To address this hypothesis, severe acidoses were imposed to reduce pHe, and the presence or absence of preferential pHi regulation was assessed in red blood cells (RBC), heart, brain, liver and white muscle. A respiratory acidosis was imposed using hyperoxia, while metabolic acidoses were induced by exhaustive exercise, anoxia or air exposure. Reductions in pHe occurred following hyperoxia (0.15 units), exhaustive exercise (0.30 units), anoxia (0.10 units) and air exposure (0.35 units); all acidoses reduced RBC pHi. Following hyperoxia, heart, brain and liver pHi were preferentially regulated against the reduction in pHe, similar to hypercarbia exposure. Following all metabolic acidoses heart pHi was protected and brain pHi remained unchanged following exhaustive exercise and air exposure, however, brain pHi was reduced following anoxia. Liver and white muscle pHi were reduced following all metabolic acidoses. These results suggest preferential pHi regulation may be a general strategy during respiratory acidoses but during metabolic acidoses, the response differs between source of acidoses and tissues.

  18. White sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) passage at the Dalles Dam, Columbia River, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsley, M.J.; Wright, C.D.; Van Der Leeuw, B. K.; Kofoot, E.E.; Peery, C.A.; Moser, M.L.

    2007-01-01

    White sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) ???95 cm TL were monitored using acoustic and radio telemetry at a large hydroelectric dam (the Dalles Dam) on the Columbia River, during March 2004 through November 2005 to determine timing and routes of passage and to characterize general movements. Transmitters were surgically implanted into 148 fish during the study; 90 were released into the tailrace and 58 into the forebay. We documented 26 passage events by 19 tagged fish: eight upstream via fish ladders and 18 downstream, mostly through open spill gates. During the study 17 fish entered the two ladders one or more times; 11 entered only the east ladder, three entered only the north ladder, and three entered both ladders at sometime. Residence time within the ladders by individual fish was variable, ranging from about 1 min to nearly 6 months (median = 7.7 h). Only six fish successfully ascended the east ladder, one fish twice. We could not unequivocally determine which fish ladder one fish used to pass upstream. Differences in construction between the north and east fish ladders may account for the greater success of the east fish ladder in passing sturgeon upstream. Changes to operations at hydroelectric dams to benefit migrating anadromous salmonids may influence upstream or downstream passage by white sturgeon. Altering patterns and timing of spill discharge, altering fish ladder entrance attraction flows, and the use of lights, sound, and partial barriers to direct other species of fish to preferred passage routes have unknown effects on sturgeon passage. A better understanding of the consequences to the metapopulation of increasing or precluding upstream or downstream passage is needed. ?? 2007 The Authors.

  19. Is hepatic oxidative stress a main driver of dietary selenium toxicity in white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zee, Jenna; Patterson, Sarah; Wiseman, Steve; Hecker, Markus

    2016-11-01

    Most species of sturgeon have experienced significant population declines and poor recruitment over the past decades, leading many, including white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus), to be listed as endangered. Reasons for these declines are not yet fully understood but benthic lifestyle, longevity, and delayed sexual maturation likely render sturgeon particularly susceptible to factors such as habitat alteration and contaminant exposures. One contaminant of particular concern to white sturgeon is selenium (Se), especially in its more bioavailable form selenomethionine (SeMet), as it is known to efficiently bioaccumulate in prey items of this species. Studies have shown white sturgeon to be among the most sensitive species of fish to dietary SeMet as well as other pollutants such as metals, dioxin-like chemicals and endocrine disrupters. One of the primary hypothesized mechanisms of toxicity of SeMet in fish is oxidative stress; however, little is know about the specific mode by which SeMet affects the health of white sturgeon. Therefore, the aim of this study was to characterize oxidative stress and associated antioxidant responses as a molecular event of toxicity, and to link it with the pathological effects observed previously. Specifically, three-year-old white sturgeon were exposed for 72 days via their diet to 1.4, 5.6, 22.4 or 104.4µg Se per g feed (dm). Doses were chosen to range over a necessary Se intake level, current environmentally relevant intakes and an intake representing predicted increases of Se release. Lipid hydroperoxides, which are end products of lipid oxidation, were quantified as a marker of oxidative stress. Changes in gene expression of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione S-transferase, apoptosis inducing factor and caspase 3 were quantified as markers of the response to oxidative stress. Concentrations of lipid hydroperoxides were highly variable within dose groups and no dose response was observed

  20. Monitoring the effects of storage in caviar from farmed Acipenser transmontanus using chemical, SEM, and NMR methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gussoni, Maristella; Greco, Fulvia; Vezzoli, Alessandra; Paleari, Maria Antonietta; Moretti, Vittorio Maria; Beretta, Giuseppe; Caprino, Fabio; Lanza, Barbara; Zetta, Lucia

    2006-09-06

    The effects of storage at 4 degrees C on the quantity and quality of chemical components in the caviar from farmed Acipenser transmontanus have been analyzed by SEM, chemical methods, and NMR and MRI techniques. Particular attention has been focused on the lipid components, the distribution and mobility of which were strongly affected by the storage time. MRI and relaxation data indicated that lipids are endowed with two different mobility regimes, one slow (short T1) and one fast (long T1), both lengthening with the storage time. Chemical analysis assessed a total fat content that remained practically unchanged and a constant fatty acid composition during the total storage time. The combination of the two methods allowed one (a) to suppose that a mechanism of lipid hydrolysis (faster in unsalted than in salted eggs) is still occurring during storage of caviar at 4 degrees C for up to approximately 4 months and (b) to exclude that an intensive oxidative process is active in the same storage period.

  1. Status of White Sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus Richardson, 1863) throughout the species range, threats to survival, and prognosis for the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrand, L R; Drauch-Schreier, A; Lepla, K.; McAdam, S. O.; McLellan, J; Parsley, Michael J.; Paragamian, V L; Young, S P

    2017-01-01

    White Sturgeon, Acipenser transmontanus (WS), are distributed throughout three major river basins on the West Coast of North America: the Sacramento-San Joaquin, Columbia, and Fraser River drainages. Considered the largest North American freshwater fish, some WS use estuarine habitat and make limited marine movements between river basins. Some populations are listed by the United States or Canada as threatened or endangered (upper Columbia River above Grand Coulee Dam; Kootenai River; lower, middle and, upper Fraser River and Nechako River), while others do not warrant federal listing at this time (Sacramento-San Joaquin Rivers; Columbia River below Grand Coulee Dam; Snake River). Threats that impact WS throughout the species’ range include fishing effects and habitat alteration and degradation. Several populations suffer from recruitment limitations or collapse due to high early life mortality associated with these threats. Efforts to preserve WS populations include annual monitoring, harvest restrictions, habitat restoration, and conservation aquaculture. This paper provides a review of current knowledge on WS life history, ecology, physiology, behavior, and genetics and presents the status of WS in each drainage. Ongoing management and conservation efforts and additional research needs are identified to address present and future risks to the species.

  2. Toxicokinetics and biotransformation of p-nitrophenol in white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    TenBrook, P L; Kendall, S M; Tjeerdema, R S

    2006-07-01

    White sturgeon (Acipencer transmontanus) were exposed to 7.2 microM (1.0 ppm) 14C-labeled p-nitrophenol (PNP) in brackish water for 24 h and then allowed to depurate in clean brackish water for another 24h. Absorption, conditional uptake clearance, and conditional elimination rate constants were 0.08+/-0.04 h(-1), 8.1+/-3.6 mL g(-1) h(-1), and 0.46+/-0.21 h(-1), respectively. A whole-organism total concentration factor of 18.7+/-2.6 was determined from equilibrium tissue and water concentrations. Sturgeon depurated 89.4% of absorbed PNP within 24h, of which 53.0+/-8.3% was unmetabolized parent compound, 9.6+/-3.6% was p-nitrophenyl-beta-d-glucuronide, and 39.1+/-8.3% was p-nitrophenylsulfate.

  3. Ontogenetic behavior and dispersal of Sacramento River white sturgeon, Acipenser transmontanus, with a note on body color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kynard, B.; Parker, E.

    2005-01-01

    We studied Sacramento River white sturgeon, Acipenser transmontanus, in the laboratory to develop a conceptual model of ontogenetic behavior and provide insight into probable behavior of wild sturgeon. After hatching, free embryos initiated a low intensity, brief downstream dispersal during which fish swam near the bottom and were photonegative. The weak, short dispersal style and behavior of white sturgeon free embryos contrasts greatly with the intense, long dispersal style and behavior (photopositive and swimming far above the bottom) of dispersing free embryos of other sturgeon species. If spawned eggs are concentrated within a few kilometers downstream of a spawning site, the adaptive significance of the free embryo dispersal is likely to move fish away from the egg deposition site to avoid predation and reduce fish density prior to feeding. Larvae foraged on the open bottom, swam white sturgeon populations may be a mis-match between the innate fish dispersal and post-dispersal rearing habitat, which is now highly altered by damming and reservoirs. Sacramento River white sturgeon has a two-step downstream dispersal by the free embryo and juvenile life intervals. Diel activity of all life intervals peaked at night, whether fish were dispersing or foraging. Nocturnal behavior is likely a response to predation, which occurs during both activities. An intense black-tail body color was present on foraging larvae, but was weak or absent on the two life intervals that disperse. Black-tail color may be an adaptation for avoiding predation, signaling among aggregated larvae, or both, but not for dispersal. ?? Springer 2005.

  4. Effects of subchronic exposure of early life stages of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) to copper, cadmium, and zinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardy, David W; Tompsett, Amber R; Sigurdson, Jacinda L; Doering, Jon A; Zhang, Xiaowei; Giesy, John P; Hecker, Markus

    2011-11-01

    Populations of sturgeon (Acipenseridae) are declining in many places in the world because of several potential factors, including overharvesting, habitat alteration, and pollution. In North America, populations of the white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) have been experiencing poor annual recruitment in major river systems for more than three decades. Metal pollution has been hypothesized as a potential contributing factor to the poor recruitment in some of the water bodies. In general, little is known about the toxicity of metals such as Cu, Cd, and Zn to white sturgeon and their potential influence on survival of embryos and juveniles. The present study was conducted to establish baseline toxicity data for the subchronic exposure of early life stages of white sturgeon to Cu, Cd, and Zn that can be used in metal-related risk assessments. Embryos, larvae, and fry were exposed to increasing concentrations of dissolved Cu, Cd, or Zn for 66 d using laboratory-based flow-through exposure systems. Hatching success was greater than 79% for all controls, and no significant differences were observed among treatment groups or between treatments and controls. Chronic lethal concentrations at which 20% mortality occurred (LC20s) for Cd (1.5 µg/L), Cu (5.5 µg/L), and Zn (112 µg/L) obtained for white sturgeon in the present study were comparable to those of sensitive salmonid species. Based on LC20 values for 19 or 58 d posthatch white sturgeon, the United States national ambient water quality criteria and the Canadian water quality guidelines for the protection of aquatic life that have been established for Cd, Cu, and Zn protect white sturgeon early life stages.

  5. Physiological stress response, reflex impairment and delayed mortality of white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus exposed to simulated fisheries stressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Montana F.; Hanson, Kyle C.; Cooke, Steven J.; Hinch, Scott G.; Patterson, David A.; Nettles, Taylor L.; Litvak, Matt K.; Crossin, Glenn T.

    2016-01-01

    White sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) are the largest freshwater fish in North America and a species exposed to widespread fishing pressure. Despite the growing interest in recreational fishing for white sturgeon, little is known about the sublethal and lethal impacts of angling on released sturgeon. In summer (July 2014, mean water temperature 15.3°C) and winter (February 2015, mean water temperature 6.6°C), captive white sturgeon (n = 48) were exposed to a combination of exercise and air exposure as a method of simulating an angling event. After the stressor, sturgeon were assessed for a physiological stress response, and reflex impairments were quantified to determine overall fish vitality (i.e. capacity for survival). A physiological stress response occurred in all sturgeon exposed to a fishing-related stressor, with the magnitude of the response correlated with the duration of the stressor. Moreover, the stress from exercise was more pronounced in summer, leading to higher reflex impairment scores (mean ± SEM, 0.44 ± 0.07 and 0.25 ± 0.05 in summer and winter, respectively). Reflex impairment was also correlated with lactate concentrations (e.g. physiological stress measures related to exhaustive exercise; r = 0.53) and recovery time (r = 0.76). Two mortalities occurred >24 h after the cessation of treatment in the summer. Given that natural habitats for white sturgeon can reach much higher temperatures than those presented in our study, we caution the use of this mortality estimate for a summer season, because latent mortality could be much higher when temperatures exceed 16°C. This is the first experiment investigating the physiological disturbance and reflex impairment of capture and release at two temperatures on subadult/adult white sturgeon, and the results suggest that future research needs to examine the longer term and fitness consequences of extended play and air exposure times, because these are largely unknown for wild populations

  6. Maintaining tissue selenium species distribution as a potential defense mechanism against methylmercury toxicity in juvenile white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Susie Shih-Yin; Hung, Silas S O; Chan, Hing Man

    2014-11-01

    Selenium (Se) has been shown to antagonize mercury (Hg) toxicity. We have previously demonstrated that orally intubated selenomethionine (SeMet) and methylmercury (MeHg) reduced tissue Se accumulation, as well as blood and kidney Hg concentrations in juvenile white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus). However, the form of Se accumulated is not known. In this study, three organoseleniums: selenocysteine (Sec), Se-methyl-selenocysteine (MSeCys), and SeMet and two inorganic Se species: selenate and selenite were determined and quantified in the blood at different post-intubation periods (12, 24, 48h) and in the muscle, liver, and kidneys at 48h in white sturgeon orally intubated with a single dose of control (carrier), SeMet (500μg Se/kg body weight; BW), MeHg (850μg Hg/kg BW), and both (Se+Hg; at 500μg Se/kg and 850μg Hg/kg BW). When only SeMet was intubated, the accumulative/unmodified pathway took precedent in the blood, white muscle, liver, and kidneys. In the presence of MeHg, however, active metabolic transformation and de novo synthesis of biologically active Se forms are seen in the liver and kidneys, as indicated by a gradual increase in blood Sec:SeMet ratios and Se metabolites. In the white muscle, mobilization of endogenous Se storage by MeHg is supported by the absence of tissue SeMet and detectable levels of blood SeMet. In contrast, co-intubation with SeMet increased muscle SeMet. The high levels of unknown Se metabolites and detectable levels of selenite in the kidney reflect its role as the major excretory organ for Se. Selenium metabolism is highly regulated in the kidneys, as Se speciation was not affected by MeHg or by its co-intubation with SeMet. In the Se+Hg group, the proportion of SeMet in the liver has decreased to nearly 1/8th of that of the SeMet only group, resulting in a more similar selenocompound distribution profile to that of the MeHg only group. This is likely due to the increased need for Se metabolites necessary for Me

  7. Physiological stress response, reflex impairment and delayed mortality of white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus exposed to simulated fisheries stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Montana F; Hanson, Kyle C; Cooke, Steven J; Hinch, Scott G; Patterson, David A; Nettles, Taylor L; Litvak, Matt K; Crossin, Glenn T

    2016-01-01

    White sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) are the largest freshwater fish in North America and a species exposed to widespread fishing pressure. Despite the growing interest in recreational fishing for white sturgeon, little is known about the sublethal and lethal impacts of angling on released sturgeon. In summer (July 2014, mean water temperature 15.3°C) and winter (February 2015, mean water temperature 6.6°C), captive white sturgeon (n = 48) were exposed to a combination of exercise and air exposure as a method of simulating an angling event. After the stressor, sturgeon were assessed for a physiological stress response, and reflex impairments were quantified to determine overall fish vitality (i.e. capacity for survival). A physiological stress response occurred in all sturgeon exposed to a fishing-related stressor, with the magnitude of the response correlated with the duration of the stressor. Moreover, the stress from exercise was more pronounced in summer, leading to higher reflex impairment scores (mean ± SEM, 0.44 ± 0.07 and 0.25 ± 0.05 in summer and winter, respectively). Reflex impairment was also correlated with lactate concentrations (e.g. physiological stress measures related to exhaustive exercise; r = 0.53) and recovery time (r = 0.76). Two mortalities occurred >24 h after the cessation of treatment in the summer. Given that natural habitats for white sturgeon can reach much higher temperatures than those presented in our study, we caution the use of this mortality estimate for a summer season, because latent mortality could be much higher when temperatures exceed 16°C. This is the first experiment investigating the physiological disturbance and reflex impairment of capture and release at two temperatures on subadult/adult white sturgeon, and the results suggest that future research needs to examine the longer term and fitness consequences of extended play and air exposure times, because these are largely unknown for wild populations.

  8. Simultaneous extraction and cleanup of high-lipid organs from white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) for multiple legacy and emerging organic contaminants using QuEChERS sample preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Shane A; Sieve, Kristal K; Ratajczak, Robert E; Bringolf, Robert B; Belden, Jason B

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this research was to utilize the QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe) method to extract a broad range of persistent organic pollutants from sturgeon organs (liver and gonad) as indicators of exposure. The analyte list was prioritized to include carcinogenic polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), the most commonly occurring polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), persistent bioaccumulative and toxic chemicals (PBTs), and emergent contaminants of concern (ECCs) as indicators of human sewage exposure. White sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) were selected for this study to support a larger ecotoxicological study to monitor contaminants as an assessment of fish health. Organ tissues contained high lipid content with percentages of 15% and 34% for liver and gonad, respectively. Overall recoveries from fortified sturgeon tissues were high, 71-98% for PAHs, 60-107% for PBDEs and PCBs, 86-107% for PBT chemicals, and 88-107% for ECCs with the exception of octinoxate (28%) from liver tissues. Analyte recovery trends decreased as analyte lipophilicity and molecular weight increased. These recoveries demonstrate that extraction using QuEChERS can be used for screening of the most common bioaccumulating organic compounds in high lipid fish tissue using a single extraction and analysis.

  9. Linking Oxidative Stress and Magnitude of Compensatory Responses with Life-Stage Specific Differences in Sensitivity of White Sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) to Copper or Cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Song; Doering, Jon A; Sun, Jianxian; Beitel, Shawn C; Shekh, Kamran; Patterson, Sarah; Crawford, Sarah; Giesy, John P; Wiseman, Steve B; Hecker, Markus

    2016-09-06

    Sensitivity of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) to copper (Cu) or cadmium (Cd) has been shown to significantly differ as a function of life-stage. This study investigated oxidative stress, metal homeostasis, and associated compensatory responses as potential mechanisms of this sensitivity pattern in three early life-stages. Sturgeon were most sensitive to Cu at 15 days post hatch (dph), which was accompanied by a significant increase in lipid peroxidation (LPO). Genes involved with amelioration of oxidative stress were significantly less inducible at this stage than in older, less sensitive fry. At 48 dph, acute lethality of sturgeon exposed to Cd was greatest and body LPO was significantly induced by 3.5-fold at 5 μg Cd/L. Moreover, there was a small but significant increase in antioxidative responses. At 139 dph, sturgeon were most tolerant to Cu and Cd and accumulation of these metals was least. Also, expression of metallothionein (MT) and apoptotic genes were greatest while expression of metal transporters was reduced and concentration of LPO was not different from controls. Our results suggest that life-stage specific sensitivity of white sturgeon to metals is complex, encompassing differences in the ability to mount compensatory responses important for metal homeostasis and combating oxidative stress and concomitant damages.

  10. Effects of feeding on thermoregulatory behaviours and gut blood flow in white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) using biotelemetry in combination with standard techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gräns, A; Olsson, C; Pitsillides, K; Nelson, H E; Cech, J J; Axelsson, M

    2010-09-15

    The effects of thermoregulatory behaviours on gut blood flow in white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus before and after feeding was studied using a blood flow biotelemetry system in combination with a temperature preference chamber. This is the first study to look at cardiovascular responses to feeding in white sturgeon, and also the first time behavioural tests in fish have been combined with recordings of cardiac output, heart rate, cardiac stroke volume and gut blood flow. The results showed strong correlations between gut blood flow and temperature choice after feeding (R(2)=0.88+/-0.03, 6-8 h postprandially and R(2)=0.89+/-0.04, 8-10 h postprandially) but not prior to feeding (R(2)=0.11+/-0.05). Feeding did not affect the actual temperature preference (18.4+/-0.7 degrees C before feeding, 18.1+/-0.7 degrees C, 6-8 h postprandially and 17.5+/-0.5 degrees C, 8-10 h postprandially). Fish instrumented with a blood flow biotelemetry device, and allowed to move freely in the water, had a significantly lower resting heart rate (37.3+/-0.26 beats min(-1)) compared with the control group that was traditionally instrumented with transit-time blood flow probes and kept in a confined area in accordance with the standard procedure (43.2+/-2.1 beats min(-1)). This study shows, for the first time in fish, the correlation between body temperature and gut blood flow during behavioural thermoregulation.

  11. Steroidogenic acute regulatory protein in white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus): cDNA cloning, sites of expression and transcript abundance in corticosteroidogenic tissue after an acute stressor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusakabe, Makoto; Zuccarelli, Micah D; Nakamura, Ikumi; Young, Graham

    2009-06-01

    The white sturgeon, Acipenser transmontanus, is a primitive bony fish that is recognized as an important emerging species for aquaculture. However, many aspects of its stress and reproductive physiology remain unclear. These processes are controlled by various steroid hormones. In order to investigate the regulation of steroidogenesis associated with acute stress in sturgeon, a cDNA-encoding steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) was isolated from white sturgeon. The putative amino acid sequence of sturgeon StAR shares high homology (over 60%) with other vertebrates. Phylogenetic analysis grouped sturgeon StAR within Actinopterygii, but it was clearly segregated from teleost StARs. RT-PCR analysis revealed that transcripts were most abundant in yellow corpuscles found throughout the kidney and weaker signals were detected in gonad and kidney. Very weak signals were also detected in brain and spleen by quantitative real-time PCR. In situ hybridization revealed that StAR is expressed in the cells of yellow corpuscles. No significant changes in StAR gene expression were detected in response to an acute handling stress. These results suggest that StAR is highly conserved throughout vertebrates, but the expression of the functional protein during the stress response may be partially regulated post-transcriptionally.

  12. Ancient fish and recent invaders: white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus diet response to invasive-species-mediated changes in a benthic prey assemblage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeug, Steven C; Brodsky, Annie; Kogut, Nina; Stewart, Robin; Merz, Joe

    2014-01-01

    Invasive organisms can have significant impacts on native species, and the San Francisco Estuary (SFE), California, USA, is one of the world's most invaded estuaries. Decline of native white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus abundance in the SFE has been acknowledged, but underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Invasion by the overbite clam Potamocorbula amurensis has drastically altered the SFE benthic prey community, yet little is known about how this change has affected sturgeon diets. We investigated changes in the diet of white sturgeon following the overbite clam invasion and subsequent shift in the SFE benthic prey assemblage. Gut content analysis was used to compare white sturgeon prey composition and importance between the pre- and post-invasion periods. Additionally, stable isotope analysis was employed to estimate the assimilation of prey items to sturgeon biomass. Overbite clams dominated diets in the post-invasion period, accounting for 82 to 93% of total volume. Stable isotope analysis confirmed the importance of this prey item, although their assimilated contribution to sturgeon biomass was estimated to be less (70 to 83%) than gut contents indicated. The frequency of fish in white sturgeon guts increased in the post-invasion period, and isotope analysis indicated relatively large contributions of fish to sturgeon biomass (3.7 to 19%). The trophic adaptability of white sturgeon has allowed them to exploit this new prey source (overbite clam). Future conservation and restoration efforts must consider a potentially destabilized food web given the large importance of a single prey item.

  13. Characterization of the contents and histology of the gastrointestinal tracts of White Sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) captured from Upper Lake Roosevelt, Washington, October 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsley, Michael J.; van der Leeuw, Bjorn K.; Elliott, Diane G.

    2010-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tracts of 37 juvenile white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) captured from the upper part of Lake Roosevelt during October 2008, were examined to identify prey taxa and to determine if the fish were consuming smelter slag along with other sediments. Histological examination of the gastrointestinal tract tissues and comparison with similar tissues from hatchery-reared fish also was performed. The contents of the gastro-intestinal tracts (guts) indicated that white sturgeon were actively foraging on various benthic invertebrates and the diet was quite diverse, with more than 50 percent of the fish feeding on five or more different taxa. Slag was present in 76 percent of the guts examined. Although not all guts contained slag particles, larger fish tended to have greater amounts of slag in their guts. Histology of the gut tissues showed the presence of a chronic inflammatory response, and the severity of the response had a significant positive correlation (P = 0.01) with fish length and weight suggesting that the inflammation represented a response to long-term exposure to one or more stressors. However, additional work is needed to determine if the physical or chemical properties of slag contributed to this response.

  14. Chronic sensitivity of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to cadmium, copper, lead, or zinc in laboratory water-only exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ning; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Dorman, Rebecca A.; Brumbaugh, William G.; Mebane, Christopher A.; Kunz, James L.; Hardesty, Douglas K.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic toxicity of cadmium, copper, lead, or zinc to white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) was evaluated in water-only exposures started with newly hatched larvae or approximately 1-mo-old juveniles. The 20% effect concentration (EC20) for cadmium from the sturgeon tests was higher than the EC20 from the trout tests, whereas the EC20 for copper, lead, or zinc for the sturgeon were lower than those EC20s for the trout. When the EC20s from the present study were included in compiled toxicity databases for all freshwater species, species mean chronic value for white sturgeon was in a relatively low percentile of the species sensitivity distribution for copper (9th percentile) and in the middle percentile for cadmium (55th percentile), zinc (40th percentile), or lead (50th percentile). However, the species mean chronic value for rainbow trout was in a high percentile for copper, lead, and zinc (∼68th–82nd percentile), but in a low percentile for cadmium (23rd percentile). The trout EC20s for each of the 4 metals and the sturgeon EC20s for cadmium or lead were above US Environmental Protection Agency chronic ambient water quality criteria (AWQC) or Washington State chronic water quality standards (WQS), whereas the sturgeon EC20s for copper or zinc were approximately equal to or below the chronic AWQC and WQS. In addition, acute 50% effect concentrations (EC50s) for copper obtained in the first 4 d of the chronic sturgeon test were below the final acute value used to derive acute AWQC and below acute WQS for copper.

  15. Chronic sensitivity of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to cadmium, copper, lead, or zinc in laboratory water-only exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ning; Ingersoll, Christopher G; Dorman, Rebecca A; Brumbaugh, William G; Mebane, Christopher A; Kunz, James L; Hardesty, Doug K

    2014-10-01

    Chronic toxicity of cadmium, copper, lead, or zinc to white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) was evaluated in water-only exposures started with newly hatched larvae or approximately 1-mo-old juveniles. The 20% effect concentration (EC20) for cadmium from the sturgeon tests was higher than the EC20 from the trout tests, whereas the EC20 for copper, lead, or zinc for the sturgeon were lower than those EC20s for the trout. When the EC20s from the present study were included in compiled toxicity databases for all freshwater species, species mean chronic value for white sturgeon was in a relatively low percentile of the species sensitivity distribution for copper (9th percentile) and in the middle percentile for cadmium (55th percentile), zinc (40th percentile), or lead (50th percentile). However, the species mean chronic value for rainbow trout was in a high percentile for copper, lead, and zinc (∼68th-82nd percentile), but in a low percentile for cadmium (23rd percentile). The trout EC20s for each of the 4 metals and the sturgeon EC20s for cadmium or lead were above US Environmental Protection Agency chronic ambient water quality criteria (AWQC) or Washington State chronic water quality standards (WQS), whereas the sturgeon EC20s for copper or zinc were approximately equal to or below the chronic AWQC and WQS. In addition, acute 50% effect concentrations (EC50s) for copper obtained in the first 4 d of the chronic sturgeon test were below the final acute value used to derive acute AWQC and below acute WQS for copper.

  16. Characterization of Na(+) transport to gain insight into the mechanism of acid-base and ion regulation in white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shartau, Ryan B; Brix, Kevin V; Brauner, Colin J

    2017-02-01

    Freshwater fish actively take up ions via specific transporters to counter diffusive losses to their hypotonic environment. While much is known about the specific mechanisms employed by teleosts, almost nothing is known about the basal fishes, such as white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) which may offer insight into the evolution of osmo- and ionoregulation in fishes. We investigated Na(+) uptake in juvenile white sturgeon in the presence and absence of transporter inhibitors. We found that sturgeon acclimated to 100μmoll(-1) Na(+) have Na(+) uptake kinetics typical of teleosts and that a Na(+)/H(+) exchanger (NHE) is the predominant transporter for Na(+) uptake. White sturgeon are tolerant to hypercarbia-induced respiratory acidoses and recover blood pH (pHe) at 1.5kPa PCO2 but not at higher PCO2 (6kPa PCO2) where they preferentially regulate intracellular pH (pHi). It was hypothesized that during exposure to hypercarbia Na(+) uptake would increase at CO2 tensions at which fish were capable of pHe regulation but decrease at higher tensions when they were preferentially regulating pHi. We found that Na(+) uptake did not increase at 1.5kPa PCO2, but at 6kPa PCO2 Na(+) uptake was reduced by 95% while low water pH equivalent to 6kPa PCO2 reduced Na(+) uptake by 71%. Lastly, we measured net acid flux during hypercarbia, which indicates that net acid flux is not associated with Na(+) uptake. These findings indicate Na(+) uptake in sturgeon is not different from freshwater teleosts but is sensitive to hypercarbia and is not associated with pHe compensation during hypercarbia.

  17. Complete intracellular pH protection during extracellular pH depression is associated with hypercarbia tolerance in white sturgeon, Acipenser transmontanus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, D W; Matey, V; Huynh, K T; Wilson, J M; Morgan, J D; Brauner, C J

    2009-06-01

    Sturgeons are among the most CO2 tolerant of fishes investigated to date. However, the basis of this exceptional CO2 tolerance is unknown. Here, white sturgeon, Acipenser transmontanus, were exposed to elevated CO2 to investigate the mechanisms associated with short-term hypercarbia tolerance. During exposure to 1.5 kPa Pco2, transient blood pH [extracellular pH (pHe)] depression was compensated within 24 h and associated with net plasma HCO3- accumulation and equimolar Cl- loss, and changes in gill morphology, such as a decrease in apical surface area of mitochondrial-rich cells. These findings indicate that pHe recovery at this level of hypercarbia is accomplished in a manner similar to most freshwater teleost species studied to date, although branchial mechanisms involved may differ. White sturgeon exposed to more severe hypercarbia (3 and 6 kPa Pco2) for 48 h exhibited incomplete pH compensation in blood and red blood cells. Despite pHe depression, intracellular pH (pHi) of white muscle, heart, brain, and liver did not decrease during a transient (6 h of 1.5 kPa Pco2) or prolonged (48 h at 3 and 6 kPa Pco2 blood acidosis. This pHi protection was not due to high intrinsic buffering in tissues. Such tight active cellular regulation of pHi in the absence of pHe compensation represents a unique pattern for non-air-breathing fishes, and we hypothesize that it is the basis for the exceptional CO2 tolerance of white sturgeon and, likely, other CO2 tolerant fishes. Further research to elucidate the specific mechanisms responsible for this tremendous pH regulatory capacity in tissues of white sturgeon is warranted.

  18. Toxicity of smelter slag-contaminated sediments from Upper Lake Roosevelt and associated metals to early life stage White Sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus Richardson, 1836)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, E.E.; Calfee, R.D.; Linder, G.

    2014-01-01

    The toxicity of five smelter slag-contaminated sediments from the upper Columbia River and metals associated with those slags (cadmium, copper, zinc) was evaluated in 96-h exposures of White Sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus Richardson, 1836) at 8 and 30 days post-hatch. Leachates prepared from slag-contaminated sediments were evaluated for toxicity. Leachates yielded a maximum aqueous copper concentration of 11.8 μg L−1 observed in sediment collected at Dead Man's Eddy (DME), the sampling site nearest the smelter. All leachates were nonlethal to sturgeon that were 8 day post-hatch (dph), but leachates from three of the five sediments were toxic to fish that were 30 dph, suggesting that the latter life stage is highly vulnerable to metals exposure. Fish maintained consistent and prolonged contact with sediments and did not avoid contaminated sediments when provided a choice between contaminated and uncontaminated sediments. White Sturgeon also failed to avoid aqueous copper (1.5–20 μg L−1). In water-only 96-h exposures of 35 dph sturgeon with the three metals, similar toxicity was observed during exposure to water spiked with copper alone and in combination with cadmium and zinc. Cadmium ranging from 3.2 to 41 μg L−1 or zinc ranging from 21 to 275 μg L−1 was not lethal, but induced adverse behavioral changes including a loss of equilibrium. These results suggest that metals associated with smelter slags may pose an increased exposure risk to early life stage sturgeon if fish occupy areas contaminated by slags.

  19. Interaction of osmoregulatory and acid-base compensation in white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) during exposure to aquatic hypercarbia and elevated salinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaughnessy, Ciaran A; Baker, Dan W; Brauner, Colin J; Morgan, John D; Bystriansky, Jason S

    2015-09-01

    Migratory fishes encounter a variety of environmental conditions, including changes in salinity, temperature and dissolved gases, and it is important to understand how these fishes are able to acclimate to multiple environmental stressors. The gill is the primary site of both acid-base balance and ion regulation in fishes. Many ion transport mechanisms involved with acid-base compensation are also required for the regulation of plasma Na(+) and Cl(+), the predominant extracellular ions, potentially resulting in a strong interaction between ionoregulation and acid-base regulation. The present study examined the physiological interaction of elevated dissolved CO2 (an acid-base disturbance) on osmoregulation during seawater acclimation (an ionoregulatory disturbance) in juvenile white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus). Blood pH (pHe), plasma [HCO3 (-)], [Na(+)], [Cl(-)] and osmolality, white muscle water content, and gill Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase (NKA) and Na(+)/K(+)/2Cl(-) co-transporter (NKCC) abundance were examined over a 10 day seawater (SW) acclimation period under normocarbia (NCSW) or during prior and continued exposure to hypercarbia (HCSW), and compared with a normocarbic freshwater (NCFW) control. Hypercarbia induced a severe extracellular acidosis (from pH 7.65 to pH 7.2) in HCSW sturgeon, and these fish had a 2-fold greater rise in plasma osmolarity over NCSW by day 2 of SW exposure. Interestingly, pHe recovery in HCSW was associated more prominently with an elevation in plasma Na(+) prior to osmotic recovery and more prominently with a reduction in plasma Cl(-) following osmotic recovery, indicating a biphasic response as the requirements of osmoregulation transitioned from ion-uptake to ion-excretion throughout SW acclimation. These results imply a prioritization of osmoregulatory recovery over acid-base recovery in this period of combined exposure to acid-base and ionoregulatory disturbances.

  20. Mercury concentrations in gonad, liver, and muscle of white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus in the lower Columbia River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, M A H; Feist, G W; Fitzpatrick, M S; Foster, E P; Schreck, C B; Plumlee, M; Wong, C; Gundersen, D T

    2006-04-01

    This study determined the partitioning of total mercury in liver, gonad, and cheek muscle of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmonatus) in the lower Columbia River. The relationship between tissue mercury concentrations and various physiologic parameters was assessed. White sturgeon were captured in commercial fisheries in the estuary and Bonneville, The Dalles, and John Day Reservoirs. Condition factor (CF), relative weight (Wr), and gonadosomatic index (GSI) were determined for each fish (n = 57). Gonadal tissue was examined histologically to determine sex and stage of maturity. Liver (n = 49), gonad (n = 49), and cheek muscle (n = 57) were analyzed for total mercury using cold-vapor atomic fluorescence spectrophotometry. Tissue protein concentrations were measured by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. Plasma was analyzed for testosterone (T), 11-ketotestosterone (KT), and 17ss-estradiol (E2) using radioimmunoassay. Mean tissue mercury concentrations were higher in muscle compared with liver and gonad at all sampling locations, except Bonneville Reservoir where mean liver mercury content was the highest tissue concentration observed in the study. Significant negative correlations between plasma androgens (T and KT) and muscle mercury content and plasma E2 and liver mercury content were found. A significant positive linear relationship between white sturgeon age and liver mercury concentrations was evident. Significant negative correlations between CF and relative weight and gonad and liver mercury content were found. In addition, immature male sturgeon with increased gonad mercury content had decreased GSIs. These results suggest that mercury, in the form of methylmercury, may have an effect on the reproductive potential of white sturgeon.

  1. Acute sensitivity of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to copper, cadmium, or zinc in water-only laboratory exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calfee, Robin D; Little, Edward E; Puglis, Holly J; Scott, Erinn; Brumbaugh, William G; Mebane, Christopher A

    2014-10-01

    The acute toxicity of cadmium, copper, and zinc to white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were determined for 7 developmental life stages in flow-through water-only exposures. Metal toxicity varied by species and by life stage. Rainbow trout were more sensitive to cadmium than white sturgeon across all life stages, with median effect concentrations (hardness-normalized EC50s) ranging from 1.47 µg Cd/L to 2.62 µg Cd/L with sensitivity remaining consistent during later stages of development. Rainbow trout at 46 d posthatch (dph) ranked at the 2nd percentile of a compiled database for Cd species sensitivity distribution with an EC50 of 1.46 µg Cd/L and 72 dph sturgeon ranked at the 19th percentile (EC50 of 3.02 µg Cd/L). White sturgeon were more sensitive to copper than rainbow trout in 5 of the 7 life stages tested with biotic ligand model (BLM)-normalized EC50s ranging from 1.51 µg Cu/L to 21.9 µg Cu/L. In turn, rainbow trout at 74 dph and 95 dph were more sensitive to copper than white sturgeon at 72 dph and 89 dph, indicating sturgeon become more tolerant in older life stages, whereas older trout become more sensitive to copper exposure. White sturgeon at 2 dph, 16 dph, and 30 dph ranked in the lower percentiles of a compiled database for copper species sensitivity distribution, ranking at the 3rd (2 dph), 5th (16 dph), and 10th (30 dph) percentiles. White sturgeon were more sensitive to zinc than rainbow trout for 1 out of 7 life stages tested (2 dph with an biotic ligand model-normalized EC50 of 209 µg Zn/L) and ranked in the 1st percentile of a compiled database for zinc species sensitivity distribution.

  2. Tissue specificity of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) mediated responses and relative sensitivity of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) to an AhR agonist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doering, Jon A; Wiseman, Steve; Beitel, Shawn C; Tendler, Brett J; Giesy, John P; Hecker, Markus

    2012-06-15

    Sturgeons are endangered in some parts of the world. Due to their benthic nature and longevity sturgeon are at greater risk of exposure to bioaccumulative contaminants such as dioxin-like compounds that are associated with sediments. Despite their endangered status, little research has been conducted to characterize the relative responsiveness of sturgeon to dioxin-like compounds. In an attempt to study the biological effects and possible associated risks of exposure to dioxin-like compounds in sturgeon, the molecular and biochemical responses of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) to a model aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonist, β-naphthoflavone (βNF) were investigated. White sturgeon were injected intraperitoneally with one of three doses of βNF (0, 50, or 500mg/kg, bw). Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were used as a reference species since their responses have been well characterized in the past. Three days following injection with βNF, fish were euthanized and livers, gills, and intestines collected for biochemical and molecular analyses. White sturgeon exposed to βNF had significantly greater ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity in liver (up to 37-fold), gill (up to 41-fold), and intestine (up to 36-fold) than did unexposed controls. Rainbow trout injected with βNF exhibited EROD activity that was significantly greater in liver (88-fold), than that of controls, but was undetectable in gills or intestine. Abundance of CYP1A transcript displayed a comparable pattern of tissue-specific induction with intestine (up to 189-fold), gills (up to 53-fold), and liver (up to 21-fold). Methoxyresorufin O-deethylase (MROD) and pentoxyresorufin O-deethylase (PROD) activities were undetectable in unexposed white sturgeon tissues while exposed tissues displayed MROD activity that was only moderately greater than the activity that could be detected. Differential inducibility among liver, gill, and intestine following exposure to an AhR agonist is

  3. Acute and chronic sensitivity of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to cadmium, copper, lead, or zinc in laboratory water-only exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Contributions by Wang, Ning; Calfee, Robin D.; Beahan, Erinn; Brumbaugh, William G.; Dorman, Rebecca A.; Hardesty, Doug K.; Kunz, James L.; Little, Edward E.; Mebane, Christopher A.; Puglis, Holly J.

    2014-01-01

    White sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) are experiencing poor recruitment in the trans boundary reach of the upper Columbia River in eastern Washington State. Limited toxicity data indicated that early life stages of white sturgeon are sensitive to metals. In acute 4-day (d) exposures with larval white sturgeon, previous studies have reported that the 4-day median lethal concentrations (LC50) based on biotic ligand model (BLM) normalization for copper were below the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency national recommended acute water-quality criterion. In previously published chronic 66-d exposures starting with newly fertilized eggs of white sturgeon, 20-percent lethal effect concentrations (LC20s) for copper, cadmium, or zinc generally were within a factor of two of the chronic values of the most sensitive fish species in the databases of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency water-quality criteria (WQC) for the three metals. However, there were some uncertainties in the chronic exposures previously performed with white sturgeon, including (1) low control survival (37 percent), (2) more control fish tested in each replicate compared to other treatments, (3) limited replication of treatments (n=2), (4) lack of reported growth data (such as dry weight), and (5) wide dilution factors for exposure concentrations (6- to 8-fold dilutions). The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency concluded that additional studies are needed to generate more toxicity data to better define lethal and sublethal toxicity thresholds for metals for white sturgeon. The objective of the study was to further evaluate the acute and chronic toxicity of cadmium, copper, lead, or zinc to early life stages of white sturgeon in water-only exposures. Toxicity tests also were performed with commonly tested rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) under similar test conditions to determine the relative sensitivity between white sturgeon and rainbow trout to these metals. Toxicity data generated from

  4. Acute toxicity of copper, lead, cadmium, and zinc to early life stages of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) in laboratory and Columbia River water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardy, David W; Santore, Robert; Ryan, Adam; Giesy, John P; Hecker, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Populations of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) are in decline in North America. This is attributed, primarily, to poor recruitment, and white sturgeon are listed as threatened or endangered in several parts of British Columbia, Canada, and the United States. In the Columbia River, effects of metals have been hypothesized as possible contributing factors. Previous work has demonstrated that early life stage white sturgeon are particularly sensitive to certain metals, and concerns over the level of protectiveness of water quality standards are justified. Here we report results from acute (96-h) toxicity tests for copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), zinc (Zn), and lead (Pb) from parallel studies that were conducted in laboratory water and in the field with Columbia River water. Water effect ratios (WERs) and sensitivity parameters (i.e., median lethal accumulations, or LA50s) were calculated to assess relative bioavailability of these metals in Columbia River water compared to laboratory water, and to elucidate possible differences in sensitivity of early life stage white sturgeon to the same concentrations of metals when tested in the different water sources. For Cu and Pb, white sturgeon toxicity tests were initiated at two life stages, 8 and 40 days post-hatch (dph), and median lethal concentrations (LC50s) ranged between 9-25 μg Cu/L and 177-1,556 μg Pb/L. LC50s for 8 dph white sturgeon exposed to Cd in laboratory water and river water were 14.5 and 72 μg/L, respectively. Exposure of 8 dph white sturgeon to Zn in laboratory and river water resulted in LC50s of 150 and 625 μg/L, respectively. Threshold concentrations were consistently less in laboratory water compared with river water, and as a result, WERs were greater than 1 in all cases. In addition, LA50s were consistently greater in river water exposures compared with laboratory exposures in all paired tests. These results, in combination with results from the biotic ligand model, suggest that the observed

  5. Identification and expression of aryl hydrocarbon receptors (AhR1 and AhR2) provide insight in an evolutionary context regarding sensitivity of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) to dioxin-like compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doering, Jon A; Wiseman, Steve; Beitel, Shawn C; Giesy, John P; Hecker, Markus

    2014-05-01

    Sturgeons are ancient fishes, which are endangered in many parts of the world. Due to their benthic nature and longevity, sturgeon are at great risk of exposure to bioaccumulative contaminants such as dioxin-like compounds (DLCs). Despite their endangered status, little research has been conducted to characterize the relative sensitivity of sturgeons to DLCs. Proper assessment of risk of DLCs posed to these fishes therefore, requires a better understanding of this sensitivity and the factors that are driving it. Adverse effects associated with exposure to DLCs are mediated by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). This study identified and characterized two distinct AhRs, AhR1 and AhR2, in white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) for the first time as a first step in studying the relative sensitivities of sturgeons to DLCs. Furthermore, tissue-specific expression of both AhRs under basal conditions and in response to exposure to the model DLC, β-naphthoflavone (βNF), was determined. The sequence of amino acids of AhR1 of white sturgeon had greater similarity to AhRs of tetrapods, including amphibians, birds, and mammals, than to AhR1s of other fishes. The sequence of amino acids in the ligand binding domain of the AhR1 had greater than 80% similarity to AhRs known to bind DLCs and was less similar to AhRs not known to bind DLCs. AhR2 of white sturgeon had greatest similarity to AhR2 of other fishes. Profiles of expression of AhR1 and AhR2 in white sturgeon were distinct from those known in other fishes and appear more similar to profiles observed in birds. Expressions of both AhR1 and AhR2 of white sturgeon were greatest in liver and heart, which are target organs for DLCs. Furthermore, abundances of transcripts of AhR1 and AhR2 in all tissues from white sturgeon were greater than controls (up to 35-fold) following exposure to βNF. Based upon both AhRs having similar abundances of transcript in target organs of DLC toxicity, both AhRs being up-regulated following

  6. 高首鲟背听侧核电感受神经元在电场刺激下的反应特性%Response properties of the electrosensory neurons in hindbrain of the white sturgeon, Acipenser transmontanus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张旭光; HendrikHerzog; 宋佳坤; 王晓杰; 范纯新; 郭弘艺

    2011-01-01

    目的 软骨硬鳞鱼类的电感受是一种古老的感觉系统,它们通过电感受器官感受生物电场或非生物电场进行摄食等活动.支配电感受器的初级传入神经首先将电感受信息传递至后脑的背听侧核进行处理.本文探讨了鲟鱼背听侧核的电生理特性.方法 采用胞外记录方法记录了高首鲟背听侧核在偶极子电场刺激下的神经元反应.结果 背听侧核神经元有低频(<l0 Hz)自发放电和高频(>10 Hz)自发放电两种,在电场刺激下均产生明显的自发放电的调制和相位耦合反应,同时部分神经元对偶极子电场的方向有选择性.结论 鲟鱼的电感受神经元反应特征与其电感受的生物功能相适应.%Objective The passive electrosense is a primitive sensory modality in the Chondrostei,which include sturgeon and paddlefish.Using electroreceptors,these fish detect the weak electric fields from other animals or geoelectric sources,and use this information for prey detection or other behaviors.The primary afferent fibers innervating the electroreceptors project to a single hindbrain target called the dorsal octavolateral nucleus(DON),where the electrosensory information is first processed.Here,we investigated the electrophysiological properties of DON neurons.Methods Extracellular recording was used to investigate the response properties of DON neurons to dipole electric fields with different amplitudes and frequencies in the white sturgeon,Acipenser transmontanus.Results The DON neurons showed regular spontaneous activity and could be classified into two types:neurons with a low spontaneous rate(<10 Hz)and those with a high spontaneous rate(> 10 Hz).In response to sinusoidal electric field stimuli,DON neurons showed sinusoidally-modulated and phase-locked firing.In addition,neurons showed opposite phase responses corresponding to the different directions of the dipole.Conclusion The response properties of DON neurons match the

  7. Columbia River White Sturgeon (Acipenser Transmontanus) Early Life History and Genertics Study, August 1, 1984 to December 31, 1985 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brannon, Ernest L.

    1985-12-01

    Research on Columbia River white sturgeon has been directed at their early life history as it may apply to production and enhancement strategies for management of the species. The river environment in which sturgeon historically migrated, spawned, and reared has changed through development. Habitat changes are expected to precipitate genetic changes in the fish, as well as reduce the fitness in populations. Genetic analysis of samples taken from various locations over the length of the Columbia River have indicated that observed gene frequencies in all areas sampled were not in Hardy-Weinburg equilibrium, which could suggest that the general population is experiencing perturbation in the system. Analysis thus far has exposed few differences between samples from the lower, middle, and upper portions of the system. Allelic differences were identified in fish from the Roosevelt Lake, which may be evidence of unique characteristics among fish from that general area.

  8. Columbia River White Sturgeon (Acipenser Transmontanus) Population Genetics and Early Life History Study, January 1, 1986 to December 31, 1986, Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brannon, Ernest L.

    1986-12-01

    The 1986 Columbia River white sturgeon investigations continued to assess genetic variability of sturgeon populations isolated in various areas of the Columbia River, and to examine environmental factors in the habitat that may affect early life history success. Baseline data have been collected for three character sets. Twenty-eight loci have been analyzed for differences using electrophoresis, snout shapes were assessed for multivariate distinction, and scute counts have been examined as an index of variability. Fish that reside in the mid-Columbia and lower river have been sufficiently characterized by electrophoresis to compare with up-river areas. To date, few electrophoretic differences have been identified. However, Lake Roosevelt sturgeon sample size will be increased to determine if some of the observed differences from lower river fish are significant. Snout shape has been shown to be easily quantifiable using the digitizing technique. Scute count data initially indicate that variability exists within as well as between areas. Patterns of differentiation of one or more of these data sets may be used to formulate stock transplant guidelines essential for proper management or enhancement of this species. The historical habitat available to sturgeon in the Columbia River has changed through the development of hydroelectric projects. Dams have reduced the velocity and turbulence, and increased light penetration in the water column from less silt. These changes have affected the ability of sturgeon to feed and have made them more vulnerable to predation, which appear to have altered the ability of populations isolated in the reservoirs to sustain themselves. Present studies support the theory that both the biological and physical habitat characteristics of the Columbia River are responsible for reduced sturgeon survival, and justify consideration of enhancement initiatives above Bonneville to improve sturgeon reproductive success.

  9. 50 CFR 600.1400 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... sturgeon: Acipenser oxyrhynchus oxyrhynchus Shortnose sturgeon: Acipenser brevirostrum Gulf sturgeon: Acipenser oxyrhynchus desotoi White sturgeon: Acipenser transmontanus Green sturgeon: Acipenser...

  10. Dietary Administration of Lactobacillus plantarum Enhanced Growth Performance and Innate Immune Response of Siberian Sturgeon, Acipenser baerii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourgholam, Moheb Ali; Khara, Hossein; Safari, Reza; Sadati, Mohammad Ali Yazdani; Aramli, Mohammad Sadegh

    2016-03-01

    We investigated the effects of Lactobacillus plantarum used as a dietary supplement on the growth performance and innate immune response in juvenile Siberian sturgeon Acipenser baerii. Juvenile fish (14.6 ± 2.3 g) were fed three experimental diets prepared by supplementing a basal diet with L. plantarum at different concentrations [1 × 10(7), 1 × 10(8) and 1 × 10(9) colony-forming units (cfu) g(-1)] and a control (non-supplemented basal) diet for 8 weeks. Growth performance indices were increased in fish fed the 1 × 10(8) cfu g(-1) L. plantarum diet compared to the other groups. There was an increased innate immune response in fish fed the experimental diets. The highest levels of lysozyme activity, total immunoglobulin (IgM) and complement component 3 (C3) were observed in fish fed the diet containing L. plantarum at a concentration of 1 × 10(8) cfu g(-1), but there was no significant difference in the level of complement component 4 (C4) in fish fed the experimental diets or the control diet. The present study underlying some positive effects (growth performance and immune indices) of dietary administration of L. plantarum at a concentration of 1 × 10(8) cfu g(-1) in the Siberian sturgeon.

  11. Histopathological alterations of juvenile green (Acipenser medirostris) and white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) exposed to graded levels of dietary methylmercury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jang-Won; Kim, Jae-Won; De Riu, Nicola; Moniello, Giuseppe; Hung, Silas S O

    2012-03-01

    Triplicate groups of juvenile green and white sturgeon (average weight of 30 ± 2 g) were exposed to one of four concentrations of dietary methylmercury (MeHg; 0, 25, 50, and 100 mg MeHg/kg diet) for 8 weeks to determine and compare the sensitivity of the two sturgeon species from a histopathological perspective. After 4- and 8-week exposure, histological changes were examined in the kidney, liver, gill, skeletal muscle, and heart muscle of both species using light microscopy. Marked abnormalities were observed in the kidney and liver of both sturgeon species after each exposure period; the abnormalities showed progressive histological alterations in severity with increasing doses and duration of exposure. Renal lesions included tubular epithelium degeneration and necrosis, renal corpuscular disintegration, and interstitial tissue degeneration. The changes observed in the livers of both sturgeon species were glycogen depletion and vacuolar degeneration. In the gill and skeletal and heart muscle of green and white sturgeon fed MeHg-added diets, mild histological changes were observed but did not show pronounced difference between the two species. Although the lowest observed effect concentration in both species was the 25 mg MeHg/kg diet, the histological changes in the kidney and liver were more pronounced at all treatments groups of green sturgeon than those of white sturgeon. The current results on structural changes of kidney and liver (i.e., more severe glycogen depletion and tubular epithelium degeneration in green sturgeon) confirmed our previous results, in that green sturgeon exhibited a higher mortality, lower growth rate, and lower protein, lipid, and energy contents in their whole body than white sturgeon under the same MeHg exposures.

  12. Olfactory projections in the white sturgeon, Acipenser transmontanus: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northcutt, R Glenn

    2011-07-01

    Telencephalic evolution in ray-finned fishes shows increasing complexity from polypteriform fishes through sturgeons to teleosts. Telencephalic organization in sturgeons is thus critical to our understanding of ray-finned fish evolution, but it is poorly understood, particularly as regards the roof or pallium. Two major hypotheses exist regarding the medial part of area dorsalis (Dm): that Dm is extended; and that Dm is restricted. The extent and topography of secondary olfactory projections to the pallium are critical in evaluating these hypotheses, but there is little agreement regarding these projections. Olfactory projections in the white sturgeon were therefore examined by using the carbocyanine probe DiI, biocytin, and biotinylated dextrin amine (BDA). Both DiI and BDA revealed primary olfactory projections to the olfactory bulb and primary extrabulbar projections widely in the telencephalon and to more restricted regions of the diencephalon. Myelinated secondary olfactory fibers caused DiI to be less effective in labeling secondary olfactory projections, which terminate in all subpallial nuclei and in the pallium: sparsely in the medial pallial division (Dm); heavily in the posterior pallial division (Dp); and more lightly in the lateral pallial division (Dl). In the diencephalon, substantial secondary olfactory projections were seen to the habenular nuclei, the rostral pole of the inferior lobe, and several nuclei of the posterior tubercle. All secondary olfactory projections were bilateral but heavier ipsilaterally. Bulbopetal neurons were located in both pallial and subpallial centers and were more numerous ipsilaterally. These results corroborate an earlier experimental study on the shovelnose sturgeon and indicate a restricted Dm in sturgeons.

  13. Effects of feed restriction on salinity tolerance in white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seunghyung; Fadel, James G; Haller, Liran Y; Verhille, Christine E; Fangue, Nann A; Hung, Silas S O

    2015-10-01

    A multistressor study was conducted to investigate interactive effects of nutritional status and salinity on osmoregulation of juvenile white sturgeon. Our hypothesis was that lower nutritional status would decrease the salinity tolerance of juvenile white sturgeon. A four-week feed restriction (12.5%, 25%, 50%, 100% of optimum feeding rate: OFR defined as the rate (% body weight per day) at which growth is maximal) trial was performed, and relevant indices of nutritional status were measured. Following the trial, sturgeon were acutely exposed to various salinities (0, 8, 16, 24 ppt) for 120 h, and relevant osmoregulatory measurements were made at 12, 72, and 120 h post-salinity exposures. The feed-restriction trial resulted in a graded nutritional response with the most feed-restricted group (12.5% OFR) showing the lowest nutritional status. The salinity exposure trial showed clear evidence that lower nutritional status decreased the salinity tolerance of juvenile white sturgeon. Increasing salinities resulted in significant alterations in osmoregulatory indices of all feeding groups; however, a significantly slower acclimatory response to 24 ppt was detected in the most feed-restricted group compared to the non-feed-restricted group (100% OFR). Furthermore, evaluation of the effect of nutritional status on the relationship between osmoregulatory measurements and body size showed that there was a significant negative relationship between osmoregulatory performance and body size within the most feed-restricted group. This suggests that there is a certain body size range (200-300 g based on our finding) where juvenile white sturgeon can maximize osmoregulatory capacity at a salinity of 24 ppt.

  14. Immunohistochemical organization of the forebrain in the white sturgeon, Acipenser transmontanus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñuela, Carmen; Northcutt, R Glenn

    2007-01-01

    The distribution of substance P (SP), leucine-enkephalin (LENK), serotonin (5HT), dopamine (DA), and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) was examined in the forebrain of the white sturgeon in order to evaluate several anatomical hypotheses based on cytoarchitectonics, and to gain a better understanding of the evolution of the forebrain in ray-finned fishes. The subpallium of the telencephalon has the highest concentration of the neuropeptides SP and LENK, allowing the pallial-subpallial border to be easily distinguished. The distribution of dopamine is similar to that of serotonin in the subpallium, fibers positive for these transmitters are particularly dense in the dorsal and ventral divisions of the subpallium. In addition, a small population of DA- and 5HT-positive cell bodies--which appear to be unique to sturgeons--was identified at the level of the anterior commissure. The internal granular layer of the olfactory bulbs had large numbers of TH-positive cell bodies and fibers, as did the rostral subpallium. The occurrence of cell bodies positive for LENK in the dorsal nucleus of the rostral subpallium supports the hypothesis that this nucleus is homologous to the striatum in other vertebrates. This is further reinforced by the apparent origin of an ascending dopaminergic pathway from cells in the posterior tubercle that are likely homologous to the ventral tegmental area/substantia nigra in land vertebrates. Finally, the differential distribution of SP and TH in the pallium supports the hypothesis that the pallium, or area dorsalis, can be divided medially into a rostral division (Dm), a caudal division (Dp) that is the main pallial target of secondary olfactory projections, and a narrow lateral division (Dd+Dl) immediately adjacent to the attachment of the tela choroidea along the entire rostrocaudal length of the telencephalic hemisphere.

  15. Confirmation of ovarian homogeneity in post-vitellogenic cultured white sturgeon, Acipenser transmontanus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbott, Mariah J; Servid, Sarah A; Cavinato, Anna G; Van Eenennaam, Joel P; Doroshov, Serge I; Struffenegger, Peter; Webb, Molly A H

    2014-02-01

    Assessing stage of oocyte maturity in female sturgeon by calculating oocyte polarization index (PI) is a necessary tool for both conservation propagation managers and caviar producers to know when to hormonally induce spawning. We tested the assumption that sampling ovarian follicles from one section of one ovary is sufficient for calculating an oocyte PI representative of oocyte maturity for an individual animal. Short-wavelength near-infrared spectroscopy (SW-NIR) scans were performed on three positions per ovary for five fish prior to caviar harvest. Samples of ovarian follicles were subsequently taken from the exact location of the SW-NIR scans for calculation of oocyte PI and follicle diameter. Oocyte PI was statistically different though not biologically relevant within an ovary and between ovaries in four of five fish. Follicle diameter was statistically different but not biologically relevant within an ovary in three of five fish. There were no differences in follicle diameter between ovaries. No statistical differences were observed between SW-NIR spectra collected at different locations within an ovary or between ovaries. These results emphasize the importance of utilizing both oocyte PI measurement and progesterone-induced oocyte maturation assays while deciding when to hormonally induce spawning in sturgeon females.

  16. Identification of the origin and localization of chorion (egg envelope) proteins in an ancient fish, the white sturgeon, Acipenser transmontanus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Kenji; Conte, Fred S; McInnis, Elizabeth; Fong, Tak Hou; Cherr, Gary N

    2014-06-01

    In many modern teleost fish, chorion (egg envelope) glycoproteins are synthesized in the liver of females, and the expression of those genes is controlled by endogenous estrogen released from the ovary during maturation. However, among the classical teleosts, such as salmonid, carp, and zebrafish, the chorion glycoproteins are synthesized in the oocyte, as in higher vertebrates. Sturgeon, which are members of the subclass Chondrostei, represent an ancient lineage of ray-finned fishes that differ from other teleosts in that their sperm possess acrosomes, their eggs have numerous micropyles, and early embryo development is similar to that of amphibians. In order to understand the molecular mechanisms of chorion formation and the phylogenetic relationship between sturgeon and other teleosts, we used specific antibodies directed against the primary components of sturgeon chorion glycoproteins, using immunoblotting and immunocytochemistry approaches. The origin of each chorion glycoprotein was determined through analyses of both liver and ovary, and their localization during ovarian development was investigated. Our data indicate that the origin of the major chorion glycoproteins of sturgeon, ChG1, ChG2, and ChG4, derive not only from the oocyte itself but also from follicle cells in the ovary, as well as from hepatocytes. In the follicle cell layer, granulosa cells were found to be the primary source of ChGs during oogenesis in white sturgeon. The unique origins of chorion glycoproteins in sturgeon suggest that sturgeons are an intermediate form in the evolution of the teleost lineage.

  17. The effects of commercial diets on performance, muscle proximate composition and waste loads of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Garavello

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The rearing of sturgeons has shown a considerable increase in recent years, also in Italy (Ronyai and Varadi,1995, both for the caviar and for the meat, under increasing demand (Williot and Bourguignon,1991. There is still little information on the nutrient requirements and optimal feeding rates of white sturgeon (Hung, 1991, even if specific diets for this species are now available on market...

  18. Exceptional CO₂ tolerance in white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) is associated with protection of maximum cardiac performance during hypercapnia in situ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Daniel W; Hanson, Linda M; Farrell, Anthony P; Brauner, Colin J

    2011-01-01

    White sturgeon rank among the most CO₂-tolerant fish species examined to date. We investigated whether this exceptional CO₂ tolerance extended to the heart, an organ generally viewed as acidosis intolerant. Maximum cardiac output (Q(max)) and maximum cardiac power output (PO(max)) were assessed using a working, perfused, in situ heart preparation. Exposure to a Pco₂ of 3 kPa for 20 min had no significant effect on maximum cardiac performance, while exposure to 6-kPa Pco₂ reduced heart rate, Q(max), PO(max), and rate of ventricular force generation (F(O)) by 23%, 28%, 26%, and 18%, respectively; however, full recovery was observed in all these parameters upon return to control conditions. These modest impairments during exposure to 6-kPa Pco₂ were associated with partially compensated intracellular ventricular acidosis. Maximum adrenergic stimulation (500 nmol L⁻¹ adrenaline) during 6-kPa Pco₂ protected maximum cardiac performance via increased inotropy (force of contraction) without affecting heart rate. Exposure to higher CO₂ levels associated with morbidity in vivo (i.e., 8-kPa Pco₂) induced arrhythmia and a reduction in stroke volume during power assessment. Clearly, white sturgeon hearts are able to increase cardiac performance during severe hypercapnia that is lethal to other fishes. Future work focusing on atypical aspects of sturgeon cardiac function, including the lack of chronotropic response to adrenergic stimulation during hypercapnia, is warranted.

  19. Selenium tissue burden compartmentalization in resident white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) of the San Francisco Bay Delta estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares-Casenave, Javier; Linville, R; Van Eenennaam, J P; Muguet, J B; Doroshov, S I

    2015-01-01

    High selenium (Se) loads in the San Francisco Bay Delta are bioaccumulated and biomagnified in food webs and can impair the reproduction of resident oviparous animals such as white sturgeon. The objective of the present study was to determine the Se tissue burden in San Francisco Bay Delta-resident white sturgeon to assess Se bioaccumulation in different organs, including ovaries and liver where egg yolk precursor proteins are synthesized. The authors obtained 54 San Francisco Bay Delta-resident white sturgeon including 26 female and 28 male subadults with immature gonads, 8 females with vitellogenic eggs, and 13 males with maturing gonads. Length, weight, age, reproductive stage of development, and kidney, liver, gonad, and muscle Se concentrations were determined in all fish. Concentrations of Se in muscle, gonads, and liver significantly increased with fish size, whereas kidney Se was not correlated to body size and was at the highest level compared with other organs. There was no difference between the sexes (p > 0.05) in Se concentrations in kidney (12.83 ± 0.51 µg · g(-1) dry wt), liver (11.85 ± 1.04 µg · g(-1) dry wt), and muscle (7.09 ± 0.52 µg · g(-1) dry wt; mean ± standard error, n = 47); but Se concentration was higher in the ovary than in testis (p = 0.04). Females with vitellogenic eggs had higher Se concentrations in the ovaries (20.77 ± 4.11 µg · g(-1) dry wt vs 5.22 ± 2.50 µg · g(-1) dry wt), liver (21.84 ± 2.07 µg · g(-1) dry wt vs 8.03 ± 1.03 µg · g(-1) dry wt), and muscle (10.18 ± 1.93 µg · g(-1) dry wt vs 5.48 ± 0.64 µg · g(-1) dry wt) compared with less advanced, previtellogenic females (p white sturgeon were comparable with levels previously shown to cause reproductive toxicity in dietary Se experiments with captive white sturgeon.

  20. Effects of dietary methylmercury on growth performance and tissue burden in juvenile green (Acipenser medirostris) and white sturgeon (A. transmontanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jang-Won; De Riu, Nicola; Lee, Seunghyung; Bai, Sungchul C; Moniello, Giuseppe; Hung, Silas S O

    2011-10-01

    Triplicate groups of juvenile green and white sturgeon (30 ± 2 g) were exposed to one of the four nominal concentrations of dietary methylmercury (MeHg, 0 (control), 25, 50, and 100mg MeHg/kg diet) for 8 weeks to determine and compare the effects on growth performance and mercury (Hg) tissue burden in the two sturgeon species. Mortality, growth performance as measured by percent body weight increase per day, hepatosomatic index, proximate composition of whole body, and Hg burden in the whole body, gill, heart, liver, kidney, and white muscle were determined to assess the adverse growth effects and bioaccumulation of dietary MeHg in sturgeon. Significantly higher mortality and lower growth rate (pwhite sturgeon fed the MeHg diets compared to the controls. Green sturgeon fed the MeHg diets exhibited earlier and more severe adverse effects compared to white sturgeon. Mercury accumulated in all tissues in a dose-dependent manner regardless of species, and the highest Hg concentrations were found in the kidneys of both species. Dietary MeHg had no significant effect (p>0.05) on the whole body proximate compositions of either sturgeon species. In conclusion, green sturgeon was more susceptible to dietary MeHg toxicity than white sturgeon in our 8-week growth experiment based on the higher mortality and lower growth rate and body energy contents.

  1. Effects of thermal regime on ovarian maturation and plasma sex steroids in farmed white sturgeon, Acipenser transmontanus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, M.A.H.; Van Eenennaam, J. P.; Feist, G.W.; Linares-Casenave, J.; Fitzpatrick, M.S.; Schreck, C.B.; Doroshov, S.I.

    2001-01-01

    Recently, commercial aquaculture farms in Northern California have exposed gravid, cultured white sturgeon females to cold water (12 ?? 1??C) throughout the late phase of vitellogenesis and ovarian follicle maturation resulting in improved ovulation rates and egg quality. However, the optimum timing for transfer of broodfish to the cold water and the capacity of transferred broodfish to maintain reproductive competence over an extended time in cold water had not been evaluated. Gravid white sturgeon females that have been raised at water temperatures of 16-20??C were transported to either cold water (12 ?? 1??C; Group 1) in November 1997 or maintained in ambient water temperatures (10-19??C; Group 2) until early spring. In March 1998, half of the fish in Group 2 had regressed ovaries, but the remaining females had intact ovarian follicles and were transported to the cold water. Ovarian follicles and blood were collected from females until they reached the stage of spawning readiness (determined by germinal vesicle position and an oocyte maturation assay) or underwent ovarian regression. Exposure of gravid sturgeon females to ambient water temperatures (14.5 ?? 2.3??C, mean ?? S.D.) from October to March led to a decrease in plasma sex steroids and a high incidence of ovarian regression in fish with a more advanced stage of oocyte development. Transfer of females with intact ovarian follicles to cold water (12 ?? 1??C) in the fall or early spring resulted in normal ovarian development in the majority of females. Holding females in cold water does not seem to override their endogenous reproductive rhythms but extends their capacity to maintain oocyte maturational competence over a longer period of time. A temperature-sensitive phase in ovarian development may occur during the transition from vitellogenic growth to oocyte maturation, and the degree and timing of sensitivity to environmental temperature are dependent on the female's endogenous reproductive rhythm. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All Rights reserved.

  2. Using blood plasma for monitoring organochlorine contaminants in juvenile white sturgeon, Acipenser transmontanus, from the lower Columbia River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundersen, D T; Webb, M A H; Fink, A K; Kushner, L R; Feist, G W; Fitzpatrick, M S; Foster, E P; Schreck, C B

    2008-09-01

    Organochlorine (OC) pesticide concentrations in blood plasma samples from 88 juvenile white sturgeon collected from the lower Columbia River were measured and compared to plasma sex steroid and OC tissue levels previously measured in corresponding fish. Significant squared correlation coefficients between summation operator DDT concentrations in sturgeon plasma and gonads and livers were 0.37 and 0.32, respectively. Significant negative correlations between plasma testosterone concentration and plasma Sigma DDT concentration in male fish (r(2)=0.26), plasma 17beta estradiol concentration and plasma Sigma DDT concentration in female fish (r(2)=0.38) and condition factor and plasma Sigma DDT concentration in all fish were found (r(2)=0.17). These results suggest that blood plasma may be a suitable nondestructive method for monitoring adult sturgeon population for persistent OC contaminants.

  3. Effects of chronic exposure to dietary selenomethionine on the physiological stress response in juvenile white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Sarah; Zee, Jenna; Wiseman, Steve; Hecker, Markus

    2017-02-03

    Selenium (Se) is an essential micronutrient, but at low concentrations can be toxic to aquatic organisms. Selenomethionine (SeMeth) is the primary dietary form of Se aquatic organisms are exposed to and is an environmental concern because it persists and bioaccumulates. White sturgeon (WS) might be particularly susceptible to bioaccumulative toxicants, such as SeMeth, due to their longevity and benthic lifestyle. Se exposure is known to have adverse effects on the physiological stress response in teleosts, but these effects are unknown in WS. Therefore, the goal of this study was to determine effects of dietary SeMeth on the ability of WS to mount a stress response. Juvenile WS were administered food spiked with 1.4, 5.6, 22.4 and 104.4μg Se/g dry mass (dm) for 72days. Lower doses were chosen to represent environmentally relevant concentrations, while the high dose represented a worst case scenario exposure. On day 72, fish were subjected to a 2min handling stressor, and they were sampled at 0, 2 and 24h post-stressor. Cortisol, glucose and lactate concentrations were quantified in blood plasma and glycogen concentrations were quantified in muscle and liver. Transcript abundance of genes involved in corticosteroidogenesis and energy metabolism were determined using qPCR. Under basal conditions, WS fed 104.4μg Se/g dm had significantly greater concentrations of plasma cortisol and lactate, and significantly lower concentrations of plasma glucose and liver glycogen, compared to controls. Corticosteroid 11-beta dehydrogenase 2 (hsd11b2) abundance was lower in WS fed 22.4 and 104.4μg Se/g dm, indicating less conversion of cortisol to cortisone. Abundance of the glucocorticoid receptor (gcr) was significantly lower in high dose WS, suggesting lower tissue sensitivity to glucocorticoids. The increasing trend in phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (pepck) abundance, with increasing SeMeth exposure, was consistent with greater cortisol and glucose concentrations in high dose WS. Exposure to an acute handling stressor elicited a typical cortisol response, but the magnitude of the response appeared to be significantly lower than those typically observed in teleosts. SeMeth also did not appear to modulate the cortisol response to a secondary stressor. However, WS exposed to 22.4μg Se/g dm and sampled 2h post-stressor, had significantly higher concentrations of muscle glycogen compared to controls, indicating effects on their ability to utilize muscle glycogen for energy. Overall, the results indicate that chronic exposure to dietary SeMeth concentrations >22.4μg/g can affect cortisol dynamics and mobilization of energy substrates in juvenile WS.

  4. Metabolic changes associated with acid-base regulation during hypercarbia in the CO2-tolerant chondrostean, white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Daniel W; Brauner, Colin J

    2012-01-01

    CO(2) tolerance in white sturgeon is associated with the ability to tightly regulate intracellular pH (pHi) despite a large reduction in extracellular pH (pHe) termed preferential pHi regulation. How this regulatory response affects whole animal metabolic rate is unknown. Accordingly, we characterized oxygen consumption rate ( [Formula: see text] ) and metabolically-relevant organismal and cellular responses in white sturgeon during exposure to hypercarbia. White sturgeon were able to protect intracellular pH (pHi) in liver and white muscle as early as 6h (the earliest time period investigated) following exposure to severe (sub-lethal) hypercarbia (45 and 90 mm Hg PCO(2)). Sturgeon exposed to 15 and 30 mm Hg PCO(2) exhibited pHe compensation and significant increases in [Formula: see text] (up to 80% greater than control values). In contrast, severe hypercarbia (≥45 mm Hg PCO(2)) elicited an uncompensated reduction in pHe (up to ~1.0 pH units) and red blood cells (as great as ~0.5 pH units), and was accompanied by 30 and 60% reductions in [Formula: see text] , respectively. While behavioral, respiratory and cellular responses to hypercarbia were observed, none corresponded well with the pattern or magnitude of changes in [Formula: see text] . The findings of this research provide empirical support for the hypothesis that preferential pHi regulation is not metabolically costly, and thus may have been a strategy strongly selected for in fishes encountering short-term hypercarbia.

  5. 77 FR 5751 - Marine Recreational Fisheries of the United States; National Saltwater Angler Registry and State...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-06

    ... pacificus Dolly varden: Salvelinus malma Sheefish or inconnu: Stenodus leucichthys Atlantic sturgeon: Acipenser oxyrhynchus oxyrhynchus Shortnose sturgeon: Acipenser brevirostrum Gulf sturgeon: Acipenser oxyrhynchus desotoi White sturgeon: Acipenser transmontanus Green sturgeon: Acipenser medirostris Angler...

  6. Tandem repeat sequence variation and length heteroplasmy in the mitochondrial DNA D-loop of the threatened Gulf of Mexico sturgeon, Acipenser oxyrhynchus desotoi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miracle, A L; Campton, D E

    1995-01-01

    Genetic variability within the Suwannee River, Florida, population of Gulf of Mexico sturgeon, Acipenser oxyrhynchus desotoi, was assessed by examining sequence and length variation within the control region, or D-loop, of the mitochondrial genome. Although once abundant throughout the Gulf of Mexico, Gulf sturgeon are now listed as a threatened species by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Mitochondrial DNA was analyzed for length variation from 168 individual Gulf sturgeon by PCR amplification and visualization of PCR products using ethidium bromide-stained agarose gels. Of the 168 individual Gulf sturgeon, 31 (18.5%) were heteroplasmic for one to four copies of an 81-base pair, tandemly repeated sequence in the D-loop region. However, no individuals homoplasmic for multiple copies of the repeat sequence were observed. The existence and nature of these tandem repeats in heteroplasmic individuals was confirmed by direct sequencing of the PCR products for a subset of 22 individuals. The results are consistent with the apparent nature and mechanism of heteroplasmy observed in a congeneric species, A. transmontanus. In addition, sequences for 187 base pairs outside of the tandem repeats were identical among all 16 individuals assayed for this region. Lack of variable sequences is concordant with earlier studies involving mtDNA restriction fragment length profiles of Gulf sturgeon found in the Suwannee River. The absence of sequence variation exclusive of the tandem repeats is consistent with the hypothesis that the subspecies has undergone a population or evolutionary bottleneck.

  7. Intersex gonad differentiation in cultured Russian (Acipenser gueldenstaedtii) and Siberian (Acipenser baerii) sturgeon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzepkowska, Malgorzata; Ostaszewska, Teresa; Gibala, Monika; Roszko, Marek Lukasz

    2014-02-01

    Among sturgeons, the occurrence of individuals with gonads containing both testis and ovary components is considered pathological, and such fish are described as intersex individuals or intersexes. Intersexes are observed in both wild and cultured populations of sturgeon, usually at low frequencies. In the present study, intersex Russian (Acipenser gueldenstaedtii) and Siberian (Acipenser baerii) sturgeons constituted 30% of the studied populations. Macroscopically, intersex gonads were recognizable from 500 days posthatching (dph). Initially, gonads with predominantly male characteristics (testis-ova) were observed, but in older fish gonads with predominantly female traits (ova-testis) were more frequent. Using microscopic analysis, intersex gonads were discernible by 130-200 dph. Observations of intersex germinal epithelium development and analysis of sex distribution in the study populations indicated that feminization was occurring. Histological analysis revealed that differentiation of the germinal epithelium in such gonads was accompanied by various morphological alterations (transformations) that were described using quantitative and localization criteria. The most common type of transformations, massive subepithelial transformations, was manifested by the presence of abundant female germinal tissue located under the gonad surface epithelium in the developing testis. These transformations were identified in the early development stage (100-200 dph). In this type of transformation, differentiation of female germinal tissue at the gonad surface and male tissue at the mesorchium/mesovarium resulted in complete formation of both male and female germinal epithelia within the same gonad.

  8. Evaluation of lethal and non-lethal sampling methods for the detection of white sturgeon iridovirus infection in white sturgeon, Acipenser transmontanus (Richardson).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drennan, J D; Lapatra, S E; Samson, C A; Ireland, S; Eversman, K F; Cain, K D

    2007-06-01

    Pectoral fin tissue of white sturgeon was investigated as a potential non-lethal sample source for the detection of white sturgeon iridovirus (WSIV) infection. Histopathology and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) results using fin tissue were compared with the standard lethal histopathology sampling method that utilizes head tissue. Tissues for each of the three sampling methods were collected weekly for 8 weeks from individual sturgeon undergoing an experimental cohabitation challenge with fish infected with the Abernathy isolate of WSIV. Non-lethal fin histopathological evaluation did not reveal infection during the first 3 weeks of sampling, while non-lethal PCR and the lethal method were variable. However, all three sampling methods were equally capable of identifying infection from 4 to 8 weeks post-exposure. Of the survivors tested, all were negative by PCR and the lethal method, and only one fish was identified as being positive by non-lethal fin histopathology. In another experiment, all three sampling methods were applied to asymptomatic WSIV carriers in a case study conducted at the Kootenai Tribal Sturgeon Conservation Hatchery. Results showed that both lethal and non-lethal fin histopathology were equally effective in detecting infection, but PCR was unable to identify this strain of WSIV. Depending on the virus isolate, these results suggest that non-lethal sampling of fin tissue (histopathology or PCR) is comparable with the lethal sampling method at identifying WSIV infection once infection is established, and under certain circumstances may provide an alternative to lethal sampling.

  9. Can fatty acid and mineral compositions of sturgeon eggs distinguish between farm-raised versus wild white (Acipenser transmontanus) sturgeon origins in California? Preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePeters, Edward J; Puschner, Birgit; Taylor, Scott J; Rodzen, Jeff A

    2013-06-10

    The objective was to investigate the potential of using fatty acid and mineral compositions of sturgeon eggs to distinguish their source, either farm-raised or wild fish. Trafficking of illegally obtained wild white sturgeon eggs is a major concern to the California Department of Fish and Game, but there is no forensic method to separate wild and farm-raised white sturgeon eggs. The extension of these findings in future work will be to use the fatty acid and mineral compositions as forensic indicators of caviar produced legally from farm raised sturgeon compared with illegal caviar produced from sturgeon poached from the wild. Samples (10) of sturgeon eggs were collected from a commercial aquaculture facility in the Sacramento Valley. Eggs from wild sturgeon (9) were obtained primarily from confiscations of illegally caught sturgeon by fish and game law enforcement personnel. The total lipid content of sturgeon eggs was analyzed for fatty acid composition. The most notable difference was the higher concentration (Psturgeon (10.0 mg/kg dry weight) than farm-raised sturgeon (2.7 mg/kg dry weight). Concentrations of iron, zinc, copper, phosphorus, sulfur, calcium, and potassium did not differ between farm-raised and wild eggs. Arsenic concentration in wild eggs was 3.3mg/kg dry weight whereas arsenic was not detected in the farm-raised eggs. Fatty acid and mineral compositions of eggs differed significantly between farm-raised and wild sturgeon and these should be investigated further as biological markers for forensic identification of caviar origin.

  10. Distinguishing ovarian maturity of farmed white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy: a potential tool for caviar production management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiaonan; Webb, Molly; Talbott, Mariah; Van Eenennaam, Joel; Palumbo, Amanda; Linares-Casenave, Javier; Doroshov, Serge; Struffenegger, Peter; Rasco, Barbara

    2010-04-14

    Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, 4000-400 cm(-1)) was applied to blood plasma of farmed white sturgeon (N = 40) to differentiate and predict the stages of ovarian maturity. Spectral features of sex steroids (approximately 3000 cm(-1)) and vitellogenin (approximately 1080 cm(-1)) were identified. Clear segregation of maturity stages (previtellogenesis, vitellogenesis, postvitellogenesis, and follicular atresia) was achieved using principal component analysis (PCA). Progression of oocyte development in the late phase of vitellogenesis was also monitored using PCA based on changes in plasma concentrations of sex steroid and lipid content. The observed oocyte polarization index (PI, a measure of nuclear migration) was correlated with changes in plasma sex steroid levels revealed by FT-IR PCA results. A partial least squares (PLS) model predicted PI values within the range 0.12-0.40 (R = 0.95, SEP = 2.18%) from differences in spectral features. These results suggest that FT-IR may be a good tool for assessing ovarian maturity in farmed sturgeon and will reduce the need for the invasive ovarian biopsy required for PI determination.

  11. Characterization of serum and mucosal antibody responses in white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus Richardson) following immunization with WSIV and a protein hapten antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drennan, John D; Lapatra, Scott E; Swan, Christine M; Ireland, Sue; Cain, Kenneth D

    2007-09-01

    Serum and cutaneous mucus antibodies were monitored in white sturgeon for 15 weeks following intraperitoneal immunization. Ten fish were immunized (50 microg) with white sturgeon iridovirus (WSIV) or white sturgeon gonad (WSGO) tissue culture cells emulsified with or without FCA. An additional group was immunized with FITC:KLH+FCA. Fish were booster immunized at 6 weeks. Fish immunized with FITC:KLH+FCA produced significant serum antibodies to FITC by 6 weeks and this response peaked at 12 weeks (average titer 31,000). Mucosal antibodies to FITC were first detected at 12 weeks and significantly elevated by 15 weeks (average titer 18). Anti-WSIV antibody titers were detected in the serum by 9 weeks in fish immunized with WSIV and WSIV+FCA, but only a small number responded to immunization. At 15 weeks, four fish immunized with WSIV produced serum antibodies (average titer 838) and one fish immunized with WSIV+FCA had a serum titer of 1600. Mucosal anti-WSIV antibody titers of 8 and 16 were observed in two fish from the WSIV group at 12 weeks while four different fish from this group responded at 15 weeks (average titer 4). Western Blot using a monoclonal antibody confirmed immunoglobulin in mucus, and specificity to WSIV was further demonstrated by immunocytochemistry using serum from fish immunized with WSIV. Specific antibody was not detected in mucus of fish immunized with WSIV+FCA, WSGO, or WSGO+FCA. Collectively, these experiments demonstrate that white sturgeon can generate a specific antibody response following immunization, and is the first report showing mucosal immunoglobulin is present in this species.

  12. Reduction of vitellogenin synthesis by an aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonist in the white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontamus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palumbo, Amanda J; Denison, Michael S; Doroshov, Serge I; Tjeerdema, Ronald S

    2009-08-01

    Migrating white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontamus) may be subject to agricultural, municipal, and industrial wastewater effluents that likely contain different classes of endocrine-disrupting contaminants. Concern is mounting about the negative effects of environmental estrogens on fish reproduction; however, in environmental mixtures, the affects from estrogenic compounds may be suppressed by aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) ligands. Indeed, reductions in 17beta-estradiol-induced (0.01 and 1 mg/kg) vitellogenin (VTG) levels were observed in white sturgeon coinjected with beta-naphthoflavone (BNF; 50 mg/kg), a model for contaminants that activate the AhR. Variation in the time of injection was used to attempt to correlate VTG inhibition to ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity. No evidence was found to suggest that the inhibition of VTG is a direct result of enhanced estrogen metabolism by BNF-induced enzymes. Results of the present study are relevant for monitoring programs that measure VTG, because these results show that AhR-active environmental contaminants can repress VTG synthesis, which commonly is used as an indicator of estrogen-mimicking contaminants. Furthermore, suppression of natural estrogen signaling by AhR agonists may have significant effects on fish reproduction.

  13. 78 FR 59051 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-25

    ... (Cyprinodon macularius), green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas), and white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) for... requests a permit to take (harass by survey) pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus), white...

  14. Structural characteristics and development of ampullary organs in Acipenser naccarii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, Susana; Ostos, Maria Del Valle; Llorente, José Ignacio; Sanz, Ana; García, Manuel; Domezain, Alberto; Carmona, Ramón

    2007-09-01

    Ampullary organs of Acipenser naccarii sturgeons were examined by optical and electronic microscopy (transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy) from hatching until 1 month later when the juvenile phase is completely established. It was observed that, when A. naccarii begins to feed actively, the ultrastructural characteristics of ampullary organs already correspond to those of adult animals. These organs may, therefore, be functional and, together with taste buds, facilitate food search after exhaustion of yolk sac food reserves. Mature ampullary organs of A. naccarii are formed by an ampulla that communicates with the exterior by means of a short channel. These ampullae correspond to the sensory portion of these receptors and are formed by two cell types: receptor cells and support cells. Receptor cells present a kinocilium on their free surface and establish ribbon synapses with axon nerve endings that arise from the underlying conjunctive tissue. Support cells enclose receptor cells, bear stereocilia and occasional cilia, and are of a secretory nature. The mucus associated with ampullary organs mainly comprises neutral mucopolysaccharides, whereas mucopolysaccharides are usually acid in other fish groups.

  15. Population status of North American green sturgeon, Acipenser medirostris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, P.B.; Grimes, C.; Hightower, J.E.; Lindley, S.T.; Moser, M.L.; Parsley, M.J.

    2007-01-01

    North American green sturgeon, Acipenser medirostris, was petitioned for listing under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). The two questions that need to be answered when considering an ESA listing are; (1) Is the entity a species under the ESA and if so (2) is the "species" in danger of extinction or likely to become an endangered species in the foreseeable future throughout all or a significant portion of its range? Green sturgeon genetic analyses showed strong differentiation between northern and southern populations, and therefore, the species was divided into Northern and Southern Distinct Population Segments (DPSs). The Northern DPS includes populations in the Rogue, Klamath-Trinity, and Eel rivers, while the Southern DPS only includes a single population in the Sacramento River. The principal risk factors for green sturgeon include loss of spawning habitat, harvest, and entrainment. The Northern DPS is not considered to be in danger of extinction or likely to become an endangered species in the foreseeable future. The loss of spawning habitat is not large enough to threaten this DPS, although the Eel River has been severely impacted by sedimentation due to poor land use practices and floods. The two main spawning populations in the Rogue and Klamath-Trinity rivers occupy separate basins reducing the potential for loss of the DPS through catastrophic events. Harvest has been substantially reduced and green sturgeon in this DPS do not face substantial entrainment loss. However there are significant concerns due to lack of information, flow and temperature issues, and habitat degradation. The Southern DPS is considered likely to become an endangered species in the foreseeable future. Green sturgeon in this DPS are concentrated into one spawning area outside of their natural habitat in the Sacramento River, making them vulnerable to catastrophic extinction. Green sturgeon spawning areas have been lost from the area above Shasta Dam on the Sacramento River and

  16. In vitro selection and characterization of putative probiotics isolated from the gut of Acipenser baerii (Brandt, 1869)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geraylou, Z.; Vanhove, M.P.M.; Souffreau, C.; Rurangwa, E.; Buyse, J.; Ollevier, F.

    2014-01-01

    To select and characterize potential probiotic bacteria from the gut microbiota of Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii), 129 strains isolated from the hindgut were screened for antagonistic activity against five fish pathogens. Ten isolates showed antagonism towards three or more pathogens. Nine of

  17. Microstructure Changes in the Gill Epithelia of Second Filial Acipenser sinensis Juvenile Acclimated to Various Salinities for Different Time%不同盐度和驯养时间中华鲟子二代幼鱼鳃的显微结构变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘娟娟; 王京树; 赵繤; 杨元金

    2015-01-01

    Acipenser sinensis,a typical migratory fish,can acclimate to the very different osmotic environments of fresh water and seawater.The gills play an important role in osmotic and ionic regulation.Morphological and physi-ological changes in the organs that respond to osmotic pressure changes of Acipenseridae under different salinities have been reported and include Russian sturgeon (Acipenser gueldenstaedti),lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens), white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus)and Amur sturgeon (Acipenser schrenckii).However,only a few studies have examined the physiological changes of the first filial generation of Acipenser sinensis during seawater acclimation and no relevant research on the second filial generation.Microstructure modifications in the chloride cells of the gill epithelia of juvenile second filial Chinese sturgeon acclimated under different salinities and different time periods were examined by light microscopy and histological photomicrography.Twenty second filial Chinese sturgeon juven-iles with mean full length of 50.7 cm and mean body weight of 441 .9 g were used in the investigation.The test fish were divided into 3 groups and assigned to three circular fiberglass tanks with salinities of 0,10 and 15 g/kg,One juvenile Chinese sturgeon was selected to sample the second gill arch at times of 1,3,6,9,12,24,48,72,96, 120,144,168,192,216,240 and 264 h for the 10 g/kg salinity group and at 24,48 and 72 h for salinity 15 g/kg salinity group.The microstructure of the gill as well as the distribution and structural changes in chloride cells were examined after treatment.Results show that the gill filaments were developed with plump cells in the freshwater group and the gill lamella became wider and longer.A few chloride cells of elliptical shape were ob-served on the base of lamella.In contrast to the freshwater group,gill filaments were narrower in the 10 g/kg salin-ity group.Moreover,there was a little increase in the number and size of

  18. Surgical removal of cataracts due to Diplostomum species in Gulf sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus desotoi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakal, Robert S; Hickson, Brian H; Gilger, Brian C; Levy, Michael G; Flowers, James R; Khoo, Lester

    2005-09-01

    Twenty 6-yr-old (1995-yr-class) Gulf of Mexico sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus desotoi) were diagnosed as having bilateral cataracts. Histopathologic assessment of the lenses of two of the fish revealed the presence of a diplostomid trematode. Pharmacological treatment of the trematodes may be effective for killing the parasites, but the damage to the lenses and resulting cataracts are nonreversible. Because these animals were to be used in a subsequent study as sentinels in the natural environment, it was necessary to return the animals' vision to as close to normal as possible. Electroretinograms were performed on each fish's eyes to ensure that retinal function was present. Cataracts then were surgically removed by phacoemulsification and aspiration. The animals tolerated the surgical procedures well. This report is the first known report of surgical correction of cataracts in sturgeon species. It also is the first known attempt to correct vision problems in fish being returned to the wild.

  19. White Sturgeon Bibliography, 1985 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fickeisen, Duane H. (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA)

    1986-03-01

    This bibliography presents citations to the majority of published materials on white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus). The purpose was to assist in planning and implementing research on white sturgeon in the Columbia River system. (ACR)

  20. Endoscopic sex determination and gonadal manipulation in Gulf of Mexico sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus desotoi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Divers, Stephen J; Bakal, Robert S; Hickson, Brian H; Rawlings, Clarence A; Wilson, Heather G; Radlinsky, MaryAnn; Hernandez-Divers, Sonia M; Dover, Samuel R

    2004-12-01

    Seventeen Gulf of Mexico sturgeons (Acipenser oxyrinchus desotoi) underwent endoscopic sex determination, gonadal biopsy, and various reproductive surgeries as part of a conservation development plan. The fish were anesthetized with tricaine methanesulfonate (MS-222) buffered with sodium bicarbonate and maintained on a recirculating water anesthesia circuit. A 6-mm Ternamian EndoTip Cannula, placed through the ventral midline, midway between pectoral and pelvic fins, permitted the introduction of a 5-mm telescope. Swim bladder aspiration and CO2 insufflation of the coelomic cavity provided excellent observation. Second and third cannulae were placed under direct visual control, lateral and cranial or caudal to the telescope cannula. Sex determination was successfully performed in all fish; however, five of 17 sturgeons (29%) required endoscopic gonadal biopsy to confirm sex. Bilateral ovariectomy or orchidectomy was successfully performed in three males and four females. Unilateral ovariectomy and bilateral ligation of the müllerian ducts using an extracorporeal suturing technique was accomplished in an additional three females. No apparent morbidity was associated with the anesthesia or endoscopic surgery in any fish. The ability to safely perform minimally invasive reproductive surgery in fish may have important management and conservation benefits.

  1. Evidence of autumn spawning in Suwannee River Gulf sturgeon, Acipenser oxyrinchus desotoi (Vladykov, 1955)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, M.T.; Sulak, K.J.

    2012-01-01

    Evidence of autumn spawning of Gulf sturgeon Acipenser oxyrinchus desotoi in the Suwannee River, Florida, was compiled from multiple investigations between 1986 and 2008. Gulf sturgeon are known from egg collections to spawn in the springtime months following immigration into rivers. Evidence of autumn spawning includes multiple captures of sturgeon in September through early November that were ripe (late-development ova; motile sperm) or exhibited just-spawned characteristics, telemetry of fish that made >175 river kilometer upstream excursions to the spawning grounds in September–October, and the capture of a 9.3 cm TL age-0 Gulf sturgeon on 29 November 2000 (which would have been spawned in late September 2000). Analysis of age-at-length data indicates that ca. 20% of the Suwannee River Gulf sturgeon population may be attributable to autumn spawning. However, with the very low sampling effort expended, eggs or early life stages have not yet been captured in the autumn, which would be the conclusive proof of autumn spawning. More sampling, and sampling at previously unknown sites frequented by acoustic telemetry fish, would be required to find eggs.

  2. Unscreened water-diversion pipes pose an entrainment risk to the threatened green sturgeon, Acipenser medirostris.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy D Mussen

    Full Text Available Over 3,300 unscreened agricultural water diversion pipes line the levees and riverbanks of the Sacramento River (California watershed, where the threatened Southern Distinct Population Segment of green sturgeon, Acipenser medirostris, spawn. The number of sturgeon drawn into (entrained and killed by these pipes is greatly unknown. We examined avoidance behaviors and entrainment susceptibility of juvenile green sturgeon (35±0.6 cm mean fork length to entrainment in a large (>500-kl outdoor flume with a 0.46-m-diameter water-diversion pipe. Fish entrainment was generally high (range: 26-61%, likely due to a lack of avoidance behavior prior to entering inescapable inflow conditions. We estimated that up to 52% of green sturgeon could be entrained after passing within 1.5 m of an active water-diversion pipe three times. These data suggest that green sturgeon are vulnerable to unscreened water-diversion pipes, and that additional research is needed to determine the potential impacts of entrainment mortality on declining sturgeon populations. Data under various hydraulic conditions also suggest that entrainment-related mortality could be decreased by extracting water at lower diversion rates over longer periods of time, balancing agricultural needs with green sturgeon conservation.

  3. Unscreened water-diversion pipes pose an entrainment risk to the threatened green sturgeon, Acipenser medirostris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mussen, Timothy D; Cocherell, Dennis; Poletto, Jamilynn B; Reardon, Jon S; Hockett, Zachary; Ercan, Ali; Bandeh, Hossein; Kavvas, M Levent; Cech, Joseph J; Fangue, Nann A

    2014-01-01

    Over 3,300 unscreened agricultural water diversion pipes line the levees and riverbanks of the Sacramento River (California) watershed, where the threatened Southern Distinct Population Segment of green sturgeon, Acipenser medirostris, spawn. The number of sturgeon drawn into (entrained) and killed by these pipes is greatly unknown. We examined avoidance behaviors and entrainment susceptibility of juvenile green sturgeon (35±0.6 cm mean fork length) to entrainment in a large (>500-kl) outdoor flume with a 0.46-m-diameter water-diversion pipe. Fish entrainment was generally high (range: 26-61%), likely due to a lack of avoidance behavior prior to entering inescapable inflow conditions. We estimated that up to 52% of green sturgeon could be entrained after passing within 1.5 m of an active water-diversion pipe three times. These data suggest that green sturgeon are vulnerable to unscreened water-diversion pipes, and that additional research is needed to determine the potential impacts of entrainment mortality on declining sturgeon populations. Data under various hydraulic conditions also suggest that entrainment-related mortality could be decreased by extracting water at lower diversion rates over longer periods of time, balancing agricultural needs with green sturgeon conservation.

  4. Effects of pre-incubation of eggs in fresh water and varying sperm concentration on fertilization rate in sterlet sturgeon, Acipenser ruthenus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddique, Mohammad Abdul Momin; Butts, Ian Anthony Ernest; Psenicka, Martin; Linhart, Otomar

    2015-08-01

    Standardization of fertilization protocols for sterlet Acipenser ruthenus is crucial for improving reproductive techniques and for conservation purposes. Our objectives were to determine the number of sperm (tested 430,000:1, 43,000:1, 4300:1, 430:1 sperm to egg) required to fertilize eggs and explore how pre-incubation of eggs in freshwater for 0min, 0.5min, 1min, and 10min interacts with different sperm ratios. Fertilization success ranged from 29.7% at 430:1 to 84.2% at 430,000:1. Pre-incubation time had no effect on fertilization success at 430,000:1 and 43,000:1 sperm to egg ratios, while it was significant at the 4300:1 and 430:1 ratios. The use of adequate experimental suboptimal sperm to egg ratio revealed a positive effect of pre-incubation time, such that at the 430:1 ratio, 0.5min pre-incubation increased the fertilization rate than 10min. At 0min pre-incubation the proportion of fertilized eggs increased at the 430,000:1 ratio, while at 1min fertilization increased at the 4300:1 ratio. At the 10min pre-incubation time, fertilization increased at the 43,000:1 ratio. Moreover, at the 0.5min pre-incubation time, the 43,000:1 ratio increased the fertilization rate than the 430:1 ratio. Generally, for 430:1 ratio, the fertilization rate is lower than in control. Transmission electron microscopy showed that pre-incubation of eggs in water for sperm to egg ratio 0.5 to 1min pre-incubation of eggs in freshwater prior to fertilization can enhance fertilization rate of sterlet.

  5. Effects of pre-incubation of eggs in fresh water and varying sperm concentration on fertilization rate in sterlet sturgeon, Acipenser ruthenus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siddique, Mohammad Abdul Momin; Butts, Ian; Psěnička, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Standardization of fertilization protocols for sterlet Acipenser ruthenus is crucial for improving reproductive techniques and for conservation purposes. Our objectives were to determine the number of sperm (tested 430,000:1, 43,000:1, 4300:1, 430:1 sperm to egg) required to fertilize eggs...

  6. Effect of nutritional status on the osmoregulation of green sturgeon (Acipenser medirostris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, Liran Y; Hung, Silas S O; Lee, Seunghyung; Fadel, James G; Lee, Jun-Ho; McEnroe, Maryann; Fangue, Nann A

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic climate change is linked to food web and salinity fluctuations in estuarine environments. Both decreased nutritional status and environmental salinity influence the physiological tolerance and health of fish populations; however, limited information on the interaction of these two factors and their physiological consequences is available. The green sturgeon (Acipenser medirostris) is a species of special concern in California, and the southern distinct population segment is listed as threatened. To test the hypothesis that poor nutrition negatively affects osmoregulation, juvenile green sturgeon (222 d posthatch) were randomly assigned to four feed restriction groups (12.5%, 25%, 50%, and 100% of the optimal feeding rate for 4 wk). Fish were then acutely exposed to 0-, 8-, 16-, or 32-ppt salinities and sampled at three time points (12, 72, or 120 h). Feed restriction significantly (P lipids, and protein content as well as plasma glucose, triglycerides, and proteins. Furthermore, feed restriction, salinity concentration, and salinity exposure time had significant effects on hematological indexes (hematocrit, hemoglobin), plasma values (osmolality, Na(+), K(+), Cl(-), glucose, lactate, cortisol), enzymatic activity (gill and pyloric ceca Na(+)/K(+) ATPase), and morphology of gill mitochondria-rich cells. The largest disturbances were observed at the highest salinity treatments across all feeding regimes. In addition, the interaction between feed restriction and acute salinity exposure at the highest salinity treatment resulted in high mortality rates during the first 72 h of salinity exposure. Evaluating the interactions of these environmental stressors and their implications on green sturgeon physiological tolerance will inform restoration and management efforts in rapidly changing estuarine environments.

  7. PERMEABILITY OF STERLET SPERM MEMBRANES (ACIPENSER RUTHENUS L., 1758 FOR WATER MOLECULES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Puhovkin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The literature analysis of the results cryopreservation of different fish species highlights a variation of many parameters, in particular the sperm survival rate during the freezing and unfreezing process. The survival capability of spermatozoa may be called the main parameter, which indentifies the efficiency of the entire process of low temperature freezing of reproductive products. Therefore, the goal of this work was to investigate and find the causes of different degrees of fish sperm cryoimmunity, in particular that of starlet, which is a valuable of sturgeon (Acipenser species. We also studies the possibility to find the optimum ways to improve the efficiency of the survival rate of the defrosted spermatozoa of different fish species for their further use to produce viable offspring. Methodology. The determination of sterlet sperm membrane permeability was performed after carrying out all necessary manipulations with brood males which included: prespawning incubation, hormonal stimulation, determination of sperm maturity degree, obtaining the sperm by stripping. The measurement of sperm membrane permeability for water molecules was performed based on the technique, which had been used earlier to measure carp sperm permeability, but taking account the specific peculiarities inherent to sterlet sperm. Findings. Based on the performed measurements, we determined the sterlet sperm membrane permeability for water molecules with the use of photometric method. The received experimental data show the highest degree of sterlet sperm membrane permeability for water molecules as compared to carp sperm membrane permeability. Originality. As a result of this experiment, we determined for the first time the absolute value of sterlet sperm membrane permeability for water molecules with the use of photometric method as well as compared the results with those obtained during our work with the carp sperm. Practical value. The data obtained during

  8. Size determination of Acipenser ruthenus spermatozoa in different types of electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psenicka, Martin; Tesarová, Martina; Tesitel, Jakub; Nebesárová, Jana

    2010-07-01

    In this study three types of scanning electron microscopes were used for the size determination of spermatozoa of sterlet Acipenser ruthenus - high vacuum scanning electron microscope (SEM, JEOL 6300), environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM, Quanta 200 FEG), field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM, JEOL 7401F) with cryoattachment Alto 2500 (Gatan) and transmission electron microscope (TEM, JEOL 1010). The use of particular microscopes was tied with different specimen preparation techniques. The aim of this study was to evaluate to what degree the type of used electron microscope can influence the size of different parts of spermatozoa. For high vacuum SEM the specimen was prepared using two slightly different procedures. After chemical fixation with 2.5% glutaraldehyde in 0.1M phosphate buffer and post-fixation by 1% osmium tetroxide, the specimen was dehydrated by acetone series and dried either by critical point method or by means of t-butylalcohol. For ESEM fresh, unfixed material was used, which was dropped on microscopic copper grids. In FESEM working in cryo-mode the specimen was observed in a frozen state. Ultrathin sections from chemically fixed and Epon embedded specimens were prepared for TEM observation. Distinct parts of sterlet spermatozoa were measured in each microscope and the data obtained was statistically processed. Results confirmed that the classical chemical procedure of specimen preparation for SEM including critical point drying method led to a significant contraction of all measured values, which could deviate up to 30% in comparison with values measured on the fresh chemically untreated specimen in ESEM. Surprisingly sperm dimensions determinated on ultrathin sections by TEM are comparable with values obtained in ESEM or FESEM.

  9. Microsatellites variation in sterlet sturgeon, Acipenser ruthenus from the Lower Danube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Dudu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Sturgeons represent an ancient group of fish with an important scientific and commercial value. The economical significance of these species is due to their meat and roes that are considered to be a gastronomic delicacy. Unfortunately, precisely due to their economical value the sturgeons have been overexploited by fishing and poaching and nowadays are facing extinction. Currently, in the Ponto-Caspian region is found the greatest diversity of acipenserid species and the Lower Danube is the last refuge for the sturgeons from the Black Sea. Acipenser ruthenus (sterlet is a fresh water sturgeon species which has undergone a large population decline, but local populations are still surviving in most parts of the rivers draining to Black, Azov and Caspian Seas. In order to have successful conservation programs of this species is essential to evaluate its genetic diversity. Microsatellites represent valuable markers for genetic analyses aiming the assessment of genetic variability of population. In our study we analyzed the cross-amplification and the polymorphism in A. ruthenus population from the Lower Danube of seven microsatellite loci (LS-19, LS-34, LS-54, LS-57, LS-68, Aox23 and Aox45, originally isolated in North-American sturgeon species. Among the seven loci, three (LS57, Aox23 and Aox45 have showed a tetrasomic profile. The most polymorphic loci were LS-57 with 12 alleles in population, followed by Aox23 and Aox45 with 11 alleles and LS-68 with 10 alleles. Four loci (LS-19, LS-34 and LS-54 presented a lower level of polymorphism, only three alleles being identified for the analyzed individuals.

  10. Optimization of enzyme-assisted extraction and characterization of collagen from Chinese sturgeon (Acipenser sturio Linnaeus skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwei Feng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sturgeon (Acipenser sturio Linnaeus skin contains high amount of nutrients including unsaturated fatty acids and collagen. A pepsin-assisted extraction procedure was developed and optimized for the extraction of collagen from Chinese sturgeon (Acipenser sturio Linnaeus skins. Objective: To determine the optimum conditions with the maximum yield of the pepsin-soluble collagen (PSC extraction. Materials and Methods: The conditions of the extraction were optimized using response surface methodology. The Box-Behnken design was used to evaluate the effects of the three independent variables (extraction time, enzyme concentration, and solid-liquid ratio on the PSC yield of the sturgeon skin. Results: The optimal conditions were: solid-liquid ratio of 1:11.88, enzyme concentration of 2.42%, and extraction time of 6.45 h. The maximum yield of 86.69% of PSC was obtained under the optimal conditions. This value was not significantly different from the predicted value (87.4% of the RSM (P < 0.05. Conclusion: The results of this study indicated that the production of PSC from sturgeon skin is feasible and beneficial. The patterns of sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoretic patterns (SDS-PAGE indicated that the sturgeon skin contains type I collagen, which is made of α-chain and β-chain. The infrared spectra of the collagens also indicated that pepsin hydrolysis does not affect the secondary structure of collagen, especially triple-helical structure.

  11. Morphofunctional Adaption of the Renal Tissue of Acipenser Ruthenus (Actinopterygii, Acipenseriformes under Transformed Habitation Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koziy M. S.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Светооптическим мето- дом изучено морфофункциональное состояние мезонефроса стерляди (Acipenser ruthenus Linnaeus, 1758 из низовьев р. Днепр. Отмечены адаптивные изменения в структурно-функциональных элементах нефронов туловищной почки. К наиболее ощутимым сдвигам можно отнести очаговые кровоизлияния в ретикуломиелоидной ткани, отёчность эпителия и воспалительные процессы. Отмеченные нарушения являются ответной реакцией на негативные воздействия компонентов сточных вод.

  12. Biology and Resources Status of Amur Sturgeon(Acipenser schrenckii)%施氏鲟 Acipenser schrenckii 的生物学特性及资源状况

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李雷; 马波

    2016-01-01

    鲟类约有2亿年的历史,是现存脊椎动物中起源最早的生物类群之一,具有独特的生物学特性。近年来受水电工程建设、过度捕捞及环境污染的影响,鲟类的自然资源量日益枯竭,70%的种类被世界自然保护联盟( IU C N)列为濒危乃至极危物种。本文综述施氏鲟 Acipenser schrenckii 的生物学特性和资源状况,阐述施氏鲟的分布、地理种群、形态特征、食性、年龄与生长、繁殖、洄游、资源现状及其下降的原因,以期为施氏鲟资源的合理利用及我国珍稀濒危鲟类的保护提供参考。%The sturgeons, as the earliest existing vertebrates, about 200 million years of history, have formed unique biological charac-teristics. In recent years, the varieties of 70% sturgeons are listed as endangered species or critically endangered species by International Union for Conservation of Nature ( IUCN), as the natural resources of the sturgeons have been significantly declined with hydroelec-tricity project, overfishing and environmental pollution. In this article, biological properties and resources of Amur sturgeon( Acipenser schrenckii) are summarized, including distribution, geographic population, morphological characteristics, feeding habit, age and growth, reproduction, migration, resource status and the cause of the stock decline, in order to provide reference with both rational use of Amur sturgeon and development of sturgeon protection theory.

  13. Habitat used by juvenile lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) in the North Channel of the St. Clair River (Michigan, USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boase, James C.; Manny, Bruce A.; Donald, Katherine A.L.; Kennedy, Gregory W.; Diana, James S.; Thomas, Michael V.; Chiotti, Justin A.

    2014-01-01

    Lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) occupy the St. Clair River, part of a channel connecting lakes Huron and Erie in the Laurentian Great Lakes. In the North Channel of the St. Clair River, juvenile lake sturgeon (3–7 years old and 582–793 mm in length) were studied to determine movement patterns and habitat usage. Fourteen juveniles were implanted with ultrasonic transmitters and tracked June–August of 2004, 2005 and 2006. Telemetry data, Geographic Information System software, side-scan sonar, video images of the river bottom, scuba diving, and benthic substrate samples were used to determine the extent and composition of habitats they occupied. Juvenile lake sturgeon habitat selection was strongly related to water depth. No fish were found in 700 mm in length selected sand and gravel areas mixed with zebra mussels and areas dominated by zebra mussels, while fish < 700 mm used these habitat types in proportion to their availability.

  14. Effects of acoustic tag implantation on lake sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens: lack of evidence for changes in behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hondorp, Darryl W.; Holbrook, Christopher; Krueger, Charles C.

    2015-01-01

    An assumption of studies using acoustic telemetry is that surgical implantation of acoustic transmitters or tags does not alter behavior of tagged individuals. Evaluating the validity of this assumption can be difficult for large fish, such as adult sturgeons, not amenable to controlled laboratory experimentation. The purpose of this study was to determine if and when this assumption was valid for adult lake sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens tagged with large (34 g) acoustic transmitters and released into the St. Clair River during 2011–2014. The hypothesis that activity and reach-scale distributions of tagged and untagged lake sturgeon did not differ was tested by comparing movement frequencies, movement rates (speed-over-ground), and location-specific detection probabilities between newly-tagged lake sturgeon and presumably fully-recovered conspecifics tagged and released in prior years.

  15. PHYSICO-CHEMICAL LIMITATIVE FACTORS FOR GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT IN STERLET (ACIPENSER RUTHENUS LINNAEUS, 1758 IN EXTENSIVELY SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. DIMA

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The oldest and most common method of increasing fish is a fish breeding ponds in which the supervision of nutrition and growth of biological material. Sterlet (Acipenser ruthenus ruthenus Linnaeus 1785 is the 4th of sturgeon scale and economic importance as a share of production of these fish .Monitoring of physicochemical parameters of sturgeons ponds has a crucial role to obtain satisfactory yields both in qualitative and quantitative. Chemical characteristics of water were determined in laboratory ecosystems Chemistry of the Institute of Research and Development for Ecology Aquaculture, Fisheries and Aquaculture Galaţi for the samples have been taken of the total water. Determination of the chemical characteristics was performed by standardized methods. Physic-chemical parameters of water were determined according to norm on the classification of surface water quality in order to establish the ecological status of water (Order no. 161/2006, for Class II of quality.

  16. Optimizing the co-feeding strategy of Persian sturgeon (Acipenser persicus larvae using Artemia nauplii and formulated diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Agh

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available High mortality and labor costs are associated with first-feeding sturgeon culture, particularly during the period of dietary transition from live to formulated feed. Therefore we investigated the effects of various feeding treatments on the survival and growth of the Persian sturgeon (Acipenser persicus larvae during a 20-day culture period. Three replicate groups (250 fish/replicate of first-feeding larvae were fed according to four main feeding regimes: (1 live food (live nauplii of brine shrimp Artemia urmiana; (2 indirect transition (5 days live food followed by gradual transition to formulated diet; (3 direct transition (using different combinations of live and formulated diet from the start feeding onwards; (4 formulated feed (FD from the start feeding. Results indicated that growth and survival were higher in the indirect transition feeding regime than in other regimes. Based on our study, co-feeding of A. persicus should start five days after prior feeding with live food.

  17. Increasing of survival rate to Acipenser persicus by added Clinoptilolite zeolite in acute toxicity test of ammonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Farhangi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The experiments were done to increase the survival rate to Acipenser persicus by added Clinoptilolite zeolite in lethal concentration of ammonia. Twelve fishes with average weight 26 ± 3 g were exposed to different concentrations (5, 15, 25, 35 mg L-1 of total ammonia salt. A group of fish was considered as control. Under stable condition, the lethal concentration of total ammonia was 35 mg L-1 during 96 hours. In the lethal concentration of total ammonia different amount of 4, 8, 12 g L-1 Clinoptilolite zeolite were used. Results indicate significant differences between treatments with each other and also control (p-1 concentration of powdered zeolite, the mortality of fish could be prevented after 96 hours. Histopathological findings showed that major lesion were hemorrhage, hyperemia, hyperplasia and epithelial cells necrosis. Also observed was degenerated tubules of kidney, expansion of Bowman’s capsule and hepatocytes necrosis by observations.

  18. Effects of feeding, digestion and fasting on the respiration and swimming capability of juvenile sterlet sturgeon (Acipenser ruthenus, Linnaeus 1758).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Lu; Johnson, David; Fang, Min; Mandal, Prashant; Tu, Zhiying; Huang, Yingping

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this study is to provide information on changes in swimming capability and respiration of the sterlet sturgeon (Acipenser ruthenus, Linnaeus 1758) caused by different levels of fasting. Before testing, the four groups of sturgeon (body length: 12.1-15.4 cm, body mass: 10.0-20.2 g) fasted for 6 h, 2 days, 1 and 2 weeks, respectively. Swimming tests were then performed to measure critical swimming speed and oxygen consumption at 20 ± 0.5 °C. Results show: (1) Fasting times shorter than 2 days has little effect on swimming capability, but it decreases significantly when the fasting time is longer than a week. (2) After 2 weeks of fasting, swimming efficiency is significantly reduced. (3) Anaerobic capacity increases when digestion nears completion.

  19. Recuperación de Acipenser sturio L., 1758 en Alemania: características del crecimiento de los peces juveniles mantenidos en condiciones experimentales de interior

    OpenAIRE

    Kirschbaum, F.; Gessner, J.; Williot, P.

    2001-01-01

    The survival of the highly endangered Acipenser sturio L., 1758 depends nearly exclusively upon the establishment of captive broodstocks. Such measures were initiated in Germany in 1996, due to a transfer of 40 artificially reproduced individuals from France under a co-operation agreement. We report the results of rearing these fish for a period of 3 years under freshwater conditions. During the first year the fish being exclusively fed frozen chironomid larvae (N = 40) grew from a median of ...

  20. HEAVY METALS IN ORGANS AND TISSUES OF STERLET (ACIPENSER RUTHENUS L. IN THE DNIEPER-BUG ESTUARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. Sytnik

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose.To iInvestigate and analyze the peculiarities of the accumulation of heavy metals (Cu, Fe, Zn, Cd, Pb, Co, Ni and Mn in the organs (muscles, gills, liver, kidneys, fins, intestine and tissues of sterlet (Acipenser ruthenus Linnaeus, 1758 for detecting the patterns of their accumulation and predicting the effect of their toxicological load on the organism of sturgeons as well as for evaluating the polymetallic load on this species in the Dnieper-Bug estuary. Methodology. The material for the research was represented by 3+ – 4+ sterlet caught in the spring of 2016 in the Dnieper-Bug estuary. Organs and tissue samples were homogenized and then burned in a mixture of concentrated nitric (HNO3 and hydrochloric acid (HCl. The determination of heavy metals in organs and tissues of fish were performed by flame atomic absorption spectroscopy using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer AAS-3 and AAS-3N company "Carl Zeiss" (Jena, Germany. Findings. The distribution of heavy metals in organs and tissues of sterlet (Acipenser ruthenus L. of the Dnieper-Bug estuary in the spring of 2016 was characterized by heterogeneity and depended on their physico-chemical properties and functional characteristics of organs and tissues of the investigated fish. The highest quantities copper, zinc and iron are accumulated liver, while manganese and cobalt in gills. Toxic metals (lead and cadmium are more concentrated in gills, skin and liver. The maximum contents in the tissues and organs of sterlet were observed for iron and zinc, while the minimals ones — for cadmium and cobalt. Originality. The paper describes the actual data on the contents and peculiarities of heavy metal accumulation in the body of sterlet inhabiting the Dnieper-Bug estuary. Practical value. The paper contains the newest information on the accumulation and content of heavy metals in organs and tissues of sterlet in the Dnieper-Bug estuary. The results of the work will be used for future

  1. Quantitative assessment of benthic food resources for juvenile Gulf sturgeon, Acipenser oxyrinchus desotoi in the Suwannee River estuary, Florida, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, R.A.; Sulak, K.J.

    2005-01-01

    Gulf sturgeon, Acipenser oxyrinchus desotoi, forage extensively in the Suwannee River estuary following emigration out of the Suwannee River, Florida. While in the estuary, juvenile Gulf sturgeon primarily feed on benthic infauna. In June-July 2002 and February-April 2003, random sites within the estuary were sampled for benthic macrofauna (2002 n = 156; 2003 n = 103). A mean abundance of 2,562 ind m-2 (SE ?? 204) was found in the summer, with significantly reduced macrofaunal abundance in the winter (mean density of 1,044 ind m-2, SE ?? 117). Benthic biomass was significantly higher in the summer with an average summer sample dry weight of 5.92 g m-2 (SE ?? 0.82) compared to 3.91 g m-2 (SE ?? 0.67) in the winter. Amphipods and polychaetes were the dominant taxa collected during both sampling periods. Three different estimates of food availability were examined taking into account principal food item information and biomass estimates. All three estimates provided a slightly different view of potential resources but were consistent in indicating that food resource values for juvenile Gulf sturgeon are spatially heterogeneous within the Suwannee River estuary. ?? 2005 Estuarine Research Federation.

  2. Evaluating the function of calcium antagonist on the Cd-induced stress in sperm of Russian sturgeon, Acipenser gueldenstaedtii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Zhihua, E-mail: zhihuali06@yahoo.com [University of South Bohemia in Ceske Budejovice, Faculty of Fisheries and Protection of Waters, South Bohemian Research Center of Aquaculture and Biodiversity of Hydrocenoses, Zatisi 728/II, 389 25 Vodnany (Czech Republic); Yangtze River Fisheries Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Jingzhou 434000 (China); Li Ping [University of South Bohemia in Ceske Budejovice, Faculty of Fisheries and Protection of Waters, South Bohemian Research Center of Aquaculture and Biodiversity of Hydrocenoses, Zatisi 728/II, 389 25 Vodnany (Czech Republic); Yangtze River Fisheries Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Jingzhou 434000 (China); Rodina, Marek; Randak, Tomas [University of South Bohemia in Ceske Budejovice, Faculty of Fisheries and Protection of Waters, South Bohemian Research Center of Aquaculture and Biodiversity of Hydrocenoses, Zatisi 728/II, 389 25 Vodnany (Czech Republic)

    2010-11-15

    In the current study, the sperm of Russian sturgeon (Acipenser gueldenstaedtii) was used to evaluate the roles of Verapamil (VRP), a calcium channel blocker, against cadmium (Cd)-induced stress. Sturgeon sperm were exposed for 2 h at 50 {mu}g/L VRP, 5.0 {mu}g/L Cd, the mixture of 50 {mu}g/L VRP + 5.0 {mu}g/L Cd, 50 {mu}g/L Cd and the mixture of 50 {mu}g/L VRP + 50 {mu}g/L Cd. After exposure, the sperm motility parameters (motility and velocity), oxidative stress levels (lipid peroxidation [LPO] and carbonyl protein [CP]) and antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase [SOD], glutathione reductase [GR], glutathione peroxidase [GPx]) were measured in sturgeon sperm. Compared to the control, Cd-induced stress was apparent as reflected by depressed motility parameters, induced oxidative stress and inhibited antioxidant enzyme activities at both Cd concentrations. In the presence of VRP, Cd-induced stress was reduced in sturgeon sperm, especially all the measured parameters in the sperm exposed at 5.0 {mu}g/L Cd returned to control levels, expect for the sperm motility. The present results indicate that VRP can reduce the Cd-induced stress in sturgeon sperm and suggest that using of sperm in vitro assays may provide a novel and efficient means for evaluating the effects of residual metals in the aquatic environment of sturgeon.

  3. Evaluating the function of calcium antagonist on the Cd-induced stress in sperm of Russian sturgeon, Acipenser gueldenstaedtii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi-Hua; Li, Ping; Rodina, Marek; Randak, Tomas

    2010-11-15

    In the current study, the sperm of Russian sturgeon (Acipenser gueldenstaedtii) was used to evaluate the roles of Verapamil (VRP), a calcium channel blocker, against cadmium (Cd)-induced stress. Sturgeon sperm were exposed for 2h at 50μg/L VRP, 5.0μg/L Cd, the mixture of 50μg/L VRP+5.0μg/L Cd, 50μg/L Cd and the mixture of 50μg/L VRP+50μg/L Cd. After exposure, the sperm motility parameters (motility and velocity), oxidative stress levels (lipid peroxidation [LPO] and carbonyl protein [CP]) and antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase [SOD], glutathione reductase [GR], glutathione peroxidase [GPx]) were measured in sturgeon sperm. Compared to the control, Cd-induced stress was apparent as reflected by depressed motility parameters, induced oxidative stress and inhibited antioxidant enzyme activities at both Cd concentrations. In the presence of VRP, Cd-induced stress was reduced in sturgeon sperm, especially all the measured parameters in the sperm exposed at 5.0μg/L Cd returned to control levels, expect for the sperm motility. The present results indicate that VRP can reduce the Cd-induced stress in sturgeon sperm and suggest that using of sperm in vitro assays may provide a novel and efficient means for evaluating the effects of residual metals in the aquatic environment of sturgeon.

  4. Influence of Glutamine Supplementation on Motility and Fertilization Success of Frozen-Thawed Persian Sturgeon (Acipenser persicus) Sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aramli, M S; Golshahi, K; Nazari, R M; Golpour, A; Aramli, S

    2016-08-01

    Amino acids have an important biological role for the prevention of cell damage during cryopreservation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of glutamine on post-thaw sperm motility and fertilization success in the Persian sturgeon (Acipenser persicus). Sperm collected from six fish was cryopreserved in extenders containing different glutamine concentrations (2.5, 5 and 10 mm). Sperm samples diluted at the ratio of 1 : 1 using the extenders were subjected to cryopreservation. After dilution, the sperm suspensions were sucked into 250-μl straws; the straws were placed on the tray, frozen in nitrogen vapour and plunged into liquid nitrogen. Then, sperm were thawed in a water bath at 40°C for 5 s and used for analysis. Our results revealed that an increase in the concentration of glutamine caused a significant increase in the motility percentage, curvilinear velocity (VCL) and also fertilization success in the Persian sturgeon (p < 0.05). Comparing all concentrations of glutamine, the best concentration for sperm motility and fertilization rate was 10 mm. In addition, higher post-thaw motility percentage, VCL, and fertilization and hatching rates were obtained with the extender at the concentration of 10 mm (p < 0.05). The findings of this study showed that glutamine was of greater benefit to Persian sturgeon sperm motility during frozen-thawed process.

  5. Discovery and identification of candidate sex-related genes based on transcriptome sequencing of Russian sturgeon (Acipenser gueldenstaedtii) gonads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yadong; Xia, Yongtao; Shao, Changwei; Han, Lei; Chen, Xuejie; Yu, Mengjun; Sha, Zhenxia

    2016-07-01

    As the Russian sturgeon (Acipenser gueldenstaedtii) is an important food and is the main source of caviar, it is necessary to discover the genes associated with its sex differentiation. However, the complicated life and maturity cycles of the Russian sturgeon restrict the accurate identification of sex in early development. To generate a first look at specific sex-related genes, we sequenced the transcriptome of gonads in different development stages (1, 2, and 5 yr old stages) with next-generation RNA sequencing. We generated >60 million raw reads, and the filtered reads were assembled into 263,341 contigs, which produced 38,505 unigenes. Genes involved in signal transduction mechanisms were the most abundant, suggesting that development of sturgeon gonads is under control of signal transduction mechanisms. Differentially expressed gene analysis suggests that more genes for protein synthesis, cytochrome c oxidase subunits, and ribosomal proteins were expressed in female gonads than in male. Meanwhile, male gonads expressed more transposable element transposase, reverse transcriptase, and transposase-related genes than female. In total, 342, 782, and 7,845 genes were detected in intersex, male, and female transcriptomes, respectively. The female gonad expressed more genes than the male gonad, and more genes were involved in female gonadal development. Genes (sox9, foxl2) are differentially expressed in different sexes and may be important sex-related genes in Russian sturgeon. Sox9 genes are responsible for the development of male gonads and foxl2 for female gonads.

  6. Electronic archival tags provide first glimpse of bathythermal habitat use by free-ranging adult lake sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Andrew S.; Hondorp, Darryl W.; Quinlan, Henry R.; Boase, James C.; Mohr, Lloyd C.

    2016-01-01

    Information on lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) depth and thermal habitat use during non-spawning periods is unavailable due to the difficulty of observing lake sturgeon away from shallow water spawning sites. In 2002 and 2003, lake sturgeon captured in commercial trap nets near Sarnia, Ontario were implanted with archival tags and released back into southern Lake Huron. Five of the 40 tagged individuals were recaptured and were at large for 32, 57, 286, 301, and 880 days. Temperatures and depths recorded by archival tags ranged from 0 to 23.5 ºC and 0.1 to 42.4 m, respectively. For the three lake sturgeon that were at large for over 200 days, temperatures occupied emulated seasonal fluctuations. Two of these fish occupied deeper waters during winter than summer while the other occupied similar depths during non-spawning periods. This study provides important insight into depth and thermal habitat use of lake sturgeon throughout the calendar year along with exploring the feasibility of using archival tags to obtain important physical habitat attributes during non-spawning periods.

  7. Hemato-Immunological Responses and Disease Resistance in Siberian Sturgeon Acipenser baerii Fed on a Supplemented Diet of Lactobacillus plantarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourgholam, Moheb Ali; Khara, Hossein; Safari, Reza; Sadati, Mohammad Ali Yazdani; Aramli, Mohammad Sadegh

    2017-03-01

    A feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effects of different levels of dietary Lactobacillus plantarum on hemato-immunological parameters and resistance against Streptococcus iniae infection in juvenile Siberian sturgeon Acipenser baerii. Fish (14.6 ± 2.3 g) were fed three experimental diets prepared by supplementing a basal diet with L. plantarum at different concentrations [1 × 10(7), 1 × 10(8) and 1 × 10(9) colony-forming units (cfu) g(-1)] and a control (non-supplemented basal) diet for 8 weeks. Innate immune responses (immunoglobulin (Ig), alternative complement activity (ACH50) and lysozyme activity) were significantly higher in fish fed the 1 × 10(8) and 1 × 10(9) cfu g(-1) L. plantarum diet compared to the other groups (P white blood cell (WBC) and monocyte compared to those of the control group (P sturgeon juvenile.

  8. Comparative study of haematological, serum electrolyte and nonelectrolyte parameters of male and female Persian sturgeon (Acipenser persicus) brood stocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ADEL Milad; PALANISAMY Satheesh Kumar; SHAFIEI Shafigh; FAZLI Hasan; ZORRIEHZAHRA Mohammad Jalil

    2016-01-01

    Sturgeons are the most important principal market species in the Caspian Sea. In the present study, measurement of blood parameters was carried out with the aim of evaluating the normal value of hematological and serum biochemical parameters of brood stocksAcipenser persicus during spawning season. Blood samples were collected from 36 brood stocks ofA. persicus (18 males and 18 females) during the spawning season. Higher value of red blood cells, white blood cells, haemoglobin, haematocrit was observed in male breeders with significant differences between female breeders (p>0.05). Haemoglobin and haematocrit value in this study was within the range of 8.70 to 9.2 g/dL and 29.73% to 30.26%, respectively. The statistically significant differences between mean corpuscular volumes, mean corpuscular haemoglobin, lymphocyte and neutrophil percentages, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and creatine kinase were observed in the male and female brood stocks. It is concluded from this study, some of the hematological and serum biochemical parameters of male and female A. persicus breeders were significantly varied from each other. In comparative investigation with earlier reports, the values of red blood cells, haemoglobin and haematocrit are highly varied due to age variations of fish. However, further studies are necessary to understand the impact of sexual, age, size, length, and season and habitat variation. Serum biochemical parameters can be used for confirming the maturity ofA. persicus and monitoring any changes in the water quality parameters and soil.

  9. STUDY ABOUT CORPORAL INDICATORS IN JUVENILE OF RUSSIAN STURGEON (ACIPENSER GÜELDENSTAEDTI RAISED IN RECIRCULATING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z.T. SZELEI

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Studies were conducted on a population of Russian sturgeon (Acipenser güeldenstaedti age between 132-175 days, raised in recirculation system. Based on body weight, the population was divided into two categories: 50-100 g and 100-150 g. On the 42 individuals were performed determinations of weight, length, width, height and circumference. It was also determined the number of shields which comprise the five lines of shields, which are endowed with Russian sturgeons. On the basis of weighing and measurements taken have resulted following body indices: the index of profile (height, the index of thickness (width spinal, the fattening index (Fulton index, quality index and the index of fleshiness. At the lot of Russian sturgeons with average body weight of 127.55 ± 3.75 g, body length is 76.27% of total body length, head length is 20.11% of the total length of the body, caudal peduncle length measured 16.39% of total body length and length of snout reaches 45.56% of head length. Index of profile (height has highlighted that juvenile Russian sturgeon has an elongated body and a straight back.

  10. A nuclear DNA perspective on delineating evolutionarily significant lineages in polyploids: the case of the endangered shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Timothy L.; Henderson, Anne P.; Kynard, Boyd E.; Kieffer, Micah C.; Peterson, Douglas L.; Aunins, Aaron W.; Brown, Bonnie L.

    2014-01-01

    The shortnose sturgeon, Acipenser brevirostrum, oft considered a phylogenetic relic, is listed as an “endangered species threatened with extinction” in the US and “Vulnerable” on the IUCN Red List. Effective conservation of A. brevirostrum depends on understanding its diversity and evolutionary processes, yet challenges associated with the polyploid nature of its nuclear genome have heretofore limited population genetic analysis to maternally inherited haploid characters. We developed a suite of polysomic microsatellite DNA markers and characterized a sample of 561 shortnose sturgeon collected from major extant populations along the North American Atlantic coast. The 181 alleles observed at 11 loci were scored as binary loci and the data were subjected to multivariate ordination, Bayesian clustering, hierarchical partitioning of variance, and among-population distance metric tests. The methods uncovered moderately high levels of gene diversity suggesting population structuring across and within three metapopulations (Northeast, Mid-Atlantic, and Southeast) that encompass seven demographically discrete and evolutionarily distinct lineages. The predicted groups are consistent with previously described behavioral patterns, especially dispersal and migration, supporting the interpretation that A. brevirostrum exhibit adaptive differences based on watershed. Combined with results of prior genetic (mitochondrial DNA) and behavioral studies, the current work suggests that dispersal is an important factor in maintaining genetic diversity in A. brevirostrum and that the basic unit for conservation management is arguably the local population.

  11. Development of polysomic microsatellite markers for characterization of population structuring and phylogeography in the shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Anne P.; King, Tim L.

    2012-01-01

    Shortnose sturgeon Acipenser brevirostrum is an endangered polyploid fish species for which no nuclear DNA markers previously existed. To address this need, 86 polysomic loci were developed and characterized in 20 A. brevirostrum from five river systems and eight members (parents and six progeny) of a captive-bred family. All markers proved to be polymorphic, polysomic, and demonstrated direct inheritance when tested in a captive family. Eleven loci were included in a range-wide survey of 561 fish sampled from 17 geographic collections. Allelic diversity at these markers ranged from 7 to 24 alleles/locus and averaged 16.5 alleles/locus; sufficient diversity to produce unique multilocus genotypes. In the range-wide survey, a Mantel comparison of an ecological (1-Jaccard’s) and genetic (ΦPT; an analog to FST) distance metrics, identified a strong positive correlation (r = 0.98, P PT represents a viable metric for assessing genetic relatedness using this class of marker.

  12. Using drift nets to capture early life stages and monitor spawning of the yangtze river chinese sturgeon (Acipenser sinensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Q.W.; Kynard, B.; Yang, D.G.; Chen, X.H.; Du, H.; Shen, L.; Zhang, H.

    2009-01-01

    A sampling system for capturing sturgeon eggs using a D-shaped bottom anchored drift net was used to capture early life stages (ELS) of Chinese sturgeon, Acipenser sinensis, and monitor annual spawning success at Yichang on the Yangtze River, 1996-2004, before and just after the Three Gorges Dam began operation. Captured were 96 875 ELS (early life stages: eggs, yolk-sac larvae = eleuthero embryos, and larvae); most were eggs and only 2477 were yolk-sac larvae. Most ELS were captured in the main river channel and inside the bend at the Yichang spawning reach. Yolk-sac larvae were captured for a maximum of 3 days after hatching began, indicating quick dispersal downstream. The back-calculated day of egg fertilization over the eight years indicated a maximum spawning window of 23 days (20 October-10 November). Spawning in all years was restricted temporally, occurred mostly at night and during one or two spawning periods, each lasting several days. The brief temporal spawning window may reduce egg predation by opportunistic predators by flooding the river bottom with millions of eggs. During 1996-2002, the percentage of fertilized eggs in an annual 20-egg sample was between 63.5 to 94.1%; however, in 2003 the percentage fertilized was only 23.8%. This sudden decline may be related to the altered environmental conditions at Yichang caused by operation of the Three Gorges Dam. Further studies are needed to monitor spawning and changes in egg fertilization in this threatened population. ?? 2009 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Biomarker responses in persian sturgeon (Acipenser persicus exposed to benzo-a-pyrene and beta-naphthoflavone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karimzadeh Katayoon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Biotransformation enzymes of xenobiotics (ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase, cytochrome P4501A1 content and glutathione-S-transferase were investigated in the liver of Persian Sturgeon (Acipenser persicus after a 96-hour exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, premutagenic benzo[a]pyrene (BaP and beta-naphthoflavone (BNF. The fish were injected 10 mg/kg wet-body weight in corn oil for 96 hours every days. Ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity (EROD and glutathione s-transferase activity (GST were measured in the fish liver. Cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1 content was estimated by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. The response appeared as early as 12 hours post exposure. A time-dependent response was observed in the EROD activity, being significantly higher at 48 hours post exposure to 10 mg/kg of BaP. The greatest induction occurred in the fish treated with 10 mg/kg BaP, in which a 32.1- fold increase in EROD activity was observed. Results showed that EROD activity in A. persicus is significantly increased by BaP and BNF treatments. Both chemicals showed higher values of EROD activity compared to the liver CYP1A content. There was a rise in glutathione-S-transferase activity in fish exposed to BNF, but no increase was observed in fish treated with BaP. The results showed that hepatic CYP1A expression in terms of induction of EROD activity might be suited as a biomarker of organic contamination in aquatic environments and led to lower sensitivity of the second phase in the detoxification enzyme.

  14. Discovery and evaluation of candidate sex-determining genes and xenobiotics in the gonads of lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Matthew C; Jackson, James R; Dewoody, J Andrew

    2010-07-01

    Modern pyrosequencing has the potential to uncover many interesting aspects of genome evolution, even in lineages where genomic resources are scarce. In particular, 454 pyrosequencing of nonmodel species has been used to characterize expressed sequence tags, xenobiotics, gene ontologies, and relative levels of gene expression. Herein, we use pyrosequencing to study the evolution of genes expressed in the gonads of a polyploid fish, the lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens). Using 454 pyrosequencing of transcribed genes, we produced more than 125 MB of sequence data from 473,577 high-quality sequencing reads. Sequences that passed stringent quality control thresholds were assembled into 12,791 male contigs and 32,629 female contigs. Average depth of coverage was 4.2 x for the male assembly and 5.5x for the female assembly. Analytical rarefaction indicates that our assemblies include most of the genes expressed in lake sturgeon gonads. Over 86,700 sequencing reads were assigned gene ontologies, many to general housekeeping genes like protein, RNA, and ion binding genes. We searched specifically for sex determining genes and documented significant sex differences in the expression of two genes involved in animal sex determination, DMRT1 and TRA-1. DMRT1 is the master sex determining gene in birds and in medaka (Oryzias latipes) whereas TRA-1 helps direct sexual differentiation in nematodes. We also searched the lake sturgeon assembly for evidence of xenobiotic organisms that may exist as endosymbionts. Our results suggest that exogenous parasites (trematodes) and pathogens (protozoans) apparently have infected lake sturgeon gonads, and the trematodes have horizontally transferred some genes to the lake sturgeon genome.

  15. Expression and phylogeny of candidate genes for sex differentiation in a primitive fish species, the Siberian sturgeon, Acipenser baerii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berbejillo, Julio; Martinez-Bengochea, Anabel; Bedo, Gabriela; Brunet, Frédéric; Volff, Jean-Nicolas; Vizziano-Cantonnet, Denise

    2012-08-01

    The molecular mechanisms underlying testis differentiation in basal actinopterygian fish remains poorly understood. The sex differentiation period was investigated in the Siberian sturgeon, Acipenser baerii, by expression profiling of Sertoli cell transcription factors (dmrt1, sox9) that control testis differentiation in vertebrates; Leydig cell factors (cyp17a1, star) affecting androgen production; the androgen receptor (ar); a growth factor controlling testis development (igf1); and a gene coding for a gonadotropin hormone (lh). Two genes were characterised for the first time in the Siberian sturgeon (dmrt1, cyp17a1), while the others came from public databases. Sturgeon gonad development is very slow, with a late sexual differentiation time during their juvenile stage, and are still immature at 3 years of age. Immature fish showed a sex-dimorphic pattern; all the genes studied displayed a higher expression level in male gonads. We took advantage of the presence of juvenile fish with pre- and post-differentiated gonads (16 and 18 months old) to characterise them at the molecular level. The post-differentiated fish displayed a sex dimorphism of gene expression in their gonads for all genes studied, with the exception of sox9. The trends in undifferentiated fish lead us to propose that sturgeons undergoing male differentiation express high levels of Sertoli cell factors (dmrt1, sox9) and of genes involved in the production and receptivity of androgens (cyp17a1, star and ar) together with lh. Expression profiles and phylogenetic studies suggest that these genes are potential regulators of testis development in the Siberian sturgeon.

  16. Survival of hatchery Gulf sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus desotoi Mitchill, 1815) in the Suwannee River, Florida: a 19-year evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulak, Kenneth J.; Randall, Michael; Clugston, J.P.

    2014-01-01

    An experimental release of 1192 hatchery-reared, individually PIT tagged, 220 days old (296–337 mm TL) Gulf sturgeon, Acipenser oxyrinchus desotoi, was undertaken in 1992 in the Suwannee River, Florida. The original objectives of the 1992 release experiment were to: (1) evaluate survival rate of cultured Gulf sturgeon in the wild vs survival rate of their wild 1992 cohort counterparts, (2) determine the differential effect of release site within the river upon long-term survival, and (3) evaluate comparative growth rates of recaptured hatchery vs captured wild 1992 cohort Gulf sturgeon. The present investigation addressed those original objectives, plus an additional fourth objective: (4) evaluation of hatchery fish recapture rate change over the 19-year experiment. The primary objective was to determine efficacy of potential conservation aquaculture for this species in terms of long-term survival in the wild. Follow-up 1993–2011 gill net sampling in freshwater reaches (rkm 4–237) and the estuarine river mouth (rkm −6 to 4) yielded recaptures representing 13.0% of the total released. Mean annual hatchery fish mortality (including emigration) rate estimated for the 19-year period (1993–2011) was more than twice that for same cohort wild fish. Mark-recapture survival probability (phi) for hatchery fish, 1993–2011, was substantially lower (0.733) than for their wild counterparts (0.888). Mean annual hatchery fish recapture rate, as a percentage of all 1992 cohort fish recaptures, declined significantly after age-7, coinciding with age of onset of migration into the open Gulf of Mexico. Hypothesized causal factors may be differentially lower fitness in the marine habitat or permanent outmigration due to natal river imprinting failure. Hatchery fish recapture rates varied significantly for fish from the ten release sites, being highest near the river mouth, and lowest for the furthest upriver sites in the Suwannee River and its Santa Fe River tributary

  17. Status of scientific knowledge, recovery progress, and future research directions for the Gulf Sturgeon, Acipenser oxyrinchus desotoi Vladykov, 1955

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulak, Kenneth J.; Parauka, F; Slack, W. Todd; Ruth, T; Randall, Michael; Luke, K; Mette, M. F; Price, M. E

    2016-01-01

    The Gulf Sturgeon, Acipenser oxyrinchus desotoi, is an anadromous species of Acipenseridae and native to North America. It currently inhabits and spawns in the upper reaches of seven natal rivers along the northern coast of the Gulf of Mexico from the Suwannee River, Florida, to the Pearl River, Louisiana, during spring to autumn. Next to the Alligator Gar (Atractosteus spatula), the Gulf Sturgeon is currently the largest fish species occurring in U.S. Gulf Coast rivers, attaining a length of 2.35 m and weights exceeding 135 kg, but historically attained a substantially larger size. Historically, the spawning populations existed in additional rivers from which the species has been wholly or nearly extirpated, such as the Mobile and Ochlockonee rivers, and possibly the Rio Grande River. Most Gulf Sturgeon populations were decimated by unrestricted commercial fishing between 1895–1910. Subsequently most populations remained unrecovered or extirpated due to continued harvest until the 1970s–1980s, and the construction of dams blocking access to ancestral upriver spawning grounds. Late 20th Century harvest bans and net bans enacted by the several Gulf Coast states have stabilized several populations and enabled the Suwannee River population to rebound substantially and naturally. Hatchery supplementation has not been necessary in this regard to date. Sturgeon are resilient and adaptable fishes with a geological history of 150 million years. Research undertaken since the 1970s has addressed many aspects of Gulf Sturgeon life history, reproduction, migration, population biology, habitat requirements, and other aspects of species biology. However, many knowledge gaps remain, prominently including the life history of early developmental stages in the first year of life. Natural population recovery is evident for the Suwannee River population, but seems promising as well for at least four other populations. The Pascagoula and Pearl River populations face a challenging

  18. Temporal trends of polychlorinated biphenyls, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, and perfluorinated compounds in Chinese sturgeon (Acipenser sinensis) eggs (1984-2008).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jianxian, Sun; Hui, Peng; Jianying, Hu

    2015-02-03

    Because investigation on the temporal trends of persistent halogenated compounds (PHCs) is necessary to predict their future impacts on the environment and human health and evaluate the effectiveness of regulations on their production and usage, it is of concern to investigate annual temporal trends of PHCs in biota samples. This study examined the temporal trends of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in Chinese sturgeon (Acipenser sinensis) eggs over a period of 25 years (1984-2008), and 62 PCBs (19.2-1030 ng/g dw for total PCBs), 16 PBDEs (4.7-572 ng/g dw for total PBDEs), and 14 PFCs (26-46 ng/g dw for total PFCs) were detected. Although a decreasing temporal trend was observed for total PCBs with annual reduction rate of 3.4% (ρ = 0.005), a clear break point was observed around 1991, indicating their continuing emission in the 1980s in China. All major PBDEs showed increasing temporal trends, with annual change rates at 3.5-10.2% over the 25 years, but a sharp decreasing trend was observed after 2006, indicating a rapid response to the banning of PBDE usage in China in 2004. The greatest annual rate of increase was observed for BDE-28 (10.2%) followed by BDE-100 (7.7%), which would be due to metabolism input from higher brominated PBDEs. Significantly increasing temporal trends were observed for all PFCs, and the annual rates of increase were 7.9% and 5.9% for total perfluorinated carboxylic acids and perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), respectively. A peak concentration for PFOS was observed in 1989, which may be related to the import history of PFCs in China. The present study is the first report of systematic temporal trends of PHCs in biota samples from China and shows that regulatory policy is needed to reduce their potential health and ecological risk in China considering the increasing temporal trends of PBDEs and PFCs.

  19. Effects of diazinon on adaptation to sea-water by the endangered Persian sturgeon, Acipenser persicus, fingerlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajirezaee, Saeed; Mirvaghefi, Ali Reza; Farahmand, Hamid; Agh, Naser

    2016-11-01

    To replenish the depleting populations of sturgeon fishes especially Persian sturgeon, Acipenser persicus in the Caspian Sea, millions of Persian sturgeon fingerlings are farmed through artificial propagation and released into the Iranian river estuaries annually. Fish osmoregulation is a vital physiological process that can be affected during the release. Many Iranian river estuaries are under the influence of pesticides originating from farming activities that may affect osmoregulation. In this study, Persian sturgeon fingerlings were exposed to sublethal concentrations (0, 0.18, 0.54, 0.9mgL(-)(1)) of diazinon for 96h (short-term trial) and 12 days (long-term trial) in fresh water (FW) and then fish were exposed in brackish water (BW) for 24h. After 96h and 12 days of exposure in FW, the lower levels of plasma triidothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), Na(+), Cl(-), K(+), gill Na(+)/K(+)- ATPase activity and number of chloride cells were observed in exposed fish (0.54 and 0.9mgL(-)(1) diazinon) compared to control group and 0.18mgL(-)(1) diazinon treatment. Also, higher levels of plasma cortisol (except 0.18mgL(-)(1) diazinon treatment in long-term trial) were observed in diazinon exposed fish compared to control group. However, gill Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity and the number of chloride cells were higher in fingerlings exposed to diazinon compared than control. When fish were exposed in BW for 24h, the following changes occurred: (a) in short-term trial: increases in cortisol and Cl(-) levels (0.54mgL(-)(1) diazinon ), Na(+) (0.9mgL(-)(1) diazinon ) and gill Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity (0.18mgL(-)(1) diazinon ). In control group, cortisol, T4, Na(+), gill Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity and the number of chloride cells increased significantly. (b) In long-term trial: increases in K(+) levels in fish exposed to 0.9mgL(-)(1) diazinon, Na+ in all diazinon concentrations and decreases in chloride cells number in fish exposed to 0.18mgL(-)(1) diazinon. In control group

  20. Vertebral Development and Ossification in the Siberian Sturgeon (Acipenser Baerii), with New Insights on Bone Histology and Ultrastructure of Vertebral Elements and Scutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leprévost, Amandine; AzaÏs, Thierry; Trichet, Michael; Sire, Jean-Yves

    2017-03-01

    In order to improve our knowledge on the vertebral development, structure and mineralization in Acipenseriformes, we undertook a study in a growth series of reared Siberian sturgeons (Acipenser baerii) using in toto clear and stain specimens, histological and ultrastructural observations, X-ray micro-tomography, and solid state NMR analyses. Scutes were also studied to compare the tissue structure and mineralization of endoskeletal and dermal skeletal elements. This study completes and clarifies previous investigations on vertebral development and architecture in sturgeons, and brings original data on the structure of (i) the perichondral bone that is progressively deposited around the vertebral elements during ontogeny, (ii) the typical cartilage composing these elements, and (iii) the scutes. In addition we provide data on the mineralization process, on the nature of the bone mineral phase, and on the growth dynamics of the vertebral elements. Anat Rec, 300:437-449, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Effect of dietary macronutrient proportion on intermediate metabolism and oxidative status in sturgeon (Acipenser naccarii) and trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss): comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furné, M; García-Gallego, M; Hidalgo, M C; Sanz, A

    2016-08-01

    Three isoenergetic diets varying the proportion of dietary energy supplied by each of the macronutrients (carbohydrate, lipid, or protein) were delivered, to farmed sturgeon (Acipenser naccarii) and trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), to test the possible effects on the intermediate metabolism and oxidative status in liver, white muscle, and heart. In trout, there is an adaptive metabolic response to an increase in lipids and carbohydrates in the diet. However, this does not happen in the sturgeon. These differences may be due to different dietary habits of both species. In terms of oxidative status, only the liver displayed oxidative stress in both species, showing an increase in the lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme activities after feeding with the high-lipid and high-protein diet.

  2. Molecular cloning and functional analysis of Chinese sturgeon (Acipenser sinensis) growth hormone receptor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIAO ZhiYong; CHEN XiaoLi; WU MingJiang

    2009-01-01

    A full length cDNA encoding the growth hormone receptor (GHR) of Chinese sturgeon was cloned in order to investigate the mechanism of growth hormone in regulating the growth of Chinese sturgeon.The open reading frame of the cloned Chinese sturgeon growth hormone receptor (csGHR) cDNA encodes a trans-membrane protein of 611 amino acids containing all the characteristic motifs of GHR. By sequence alignment, substitutions of amino acid residues highly conserved in other species were identified. Using the CHO cell culture system, the function of csGHR and the biological significance of the amino acid substitution in csGHR were examined. The promoter of serine protease inhibitor 2.1(Spi2.1) was trana-activated upon stimulation of seabream GH (sbGH) in the csGHR-expressing CHO cells. Furthermore, CHO cells stably expressing csGHR were stimulated to proliferate by sbGH. In agreement with our previous report, Chinese sturgeon growth hormone-binding protein (csGHBP) was detected in the culture medium of CHO cells stably expressing csGHR. Mutation of Asp residue in the ligand binding motif in csGHR to Glu significantly enhanced csGHR's biological function, whereas mutation of Asp residue to Ala decreased its biological function. The results demonstrated that the cloned csGHR was of full biological function and the csGHBP could be generated through proteolysis of csGHR. These findings might provide new insights into thoroughly understanding the regulatory mechanism of Chinese sturgeon growth.

  3. Molecular cloning and functional analysis of Chinese sturgeon (Acipenser sinensis) growth hormone receptor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    A full length cDNA encoding the growth hormone receptor (GHR) of Chinese sturgeon was cloned in order to investigate the mechanism of growth hormone in regulating the growth of Chinese sturgeon. The open reading frame of the cloned Chinese sturgeon growth hormone receptor (csGHR) cDNA encodes a trans-membrane protein of 611 amino acids containing all the characteristic motifs of GHR. By sequence alignment, substitutions of amino acid residues highly conserved in other species were identified. Using the CHO cell culture system, the function of csGHR and the biological significance of the amino acid substitution in csGHR were examined. The promoter of serine protease inhibitor 2.1 (Spi2.1) was trans-activated upon stimulation of seabream GH (sbGH) in the csGHR-expressing CHO cells. Furthermore, CHO cells stably expressing csGHR were stimulated to proliferate by sbGH. In agreement with our previous report, Chinese sturgeon growth hormone-binding protein (csGHBP) was detected in the culture medium of CHO cells stably expressing csGHR. Mutation of Asp residue in the ligand binding motif in csGHR to Glu significantly enhanced csGHR’s biological function, whereas mutation of Asp residue to Ala decreased its biological function. The results demonstrated that the cloned csGHR was of full biological function and the csGHBP could be generated through proteolysis of csGHR. These findings might provide new insights into thoroughly understanding the regulatory mechanism of Chinese sturgeon growth.

  4. Larval green and white sturgeon swimming performance in relation to water-diversion flows

    OpenAIRE

    Verhille, Christine E.; Poletto, Jamilynn B.; Cocherell, Dennis E.; DeCourten, Bethany; Baird, Sarah; Joseph J Cech; Fangue, Nann A.

    2014-01-01

    Little is known of the swimming capacities of larval sturgeons, despite global population declines in many species due in part to fragmentation of their spawning and rearing habitats by man-made water-diversion structures. Larval green (Acipenser medirostris) and white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) inhabit the highly altered Sacramento–San Joaquin watershed, making them logical species to examine vulnerability to entrainment by altered water flows. The risk of larval sturgeon entrainment...

  5. First record predation on white sturgeon eggs by sympatric fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, A.I.; Beckman, L.G.

    1996-01-01

    We report the occurrence of white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus eggs in guts of four species of fish from the Columbia River. Three of the species—northern squawfish Ptychocheilus oregonensis, largescale sucker Catostomus macrocheilus, and prickly sentpin Cottus asper—are native to the river and one, common carp Cvprinus carpio, is exotic.

  6. Growth Performance and Feed Utilization of Russian Sturgeon Acipenser gueldenstaedtii Brandt&Ratzeburg, 1833 in Grow-out Phase Cultured in the Black Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Kocabaş

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of present study was to determine the growth performance of Russian sturgeon Acipenser gueldenstaedtii throughout 5 years and to investigate problems encountered in grow-out phase. Fish samples (2750.88±351.18 g, 80.18±6.49 cm mean±SD were equally stocked into fiberglass tanks, three replicate per treatment and fed for 5 years. Gain of weight and length, Specific Growth Rate (SGR, Condition Factor (CF and Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR were determined. Our results indicated that mean final length and weight were 106.34±2.79 (cm and 6651.16±3.16 (g. The mean condition factor (CF at year 5 was 0.51. FCR values fluctuated and the highest value of food conversion rate (FCR was determined in 4th year. During the rearing period of Russian sturgeon, SGR values decreased dramatically from 2.88 to 1.83. In conclusion, slow growth was determined in Russian sturgeon A. gueldenstaedtii. Therefore, there is need for extensive evaluation and comparison of data obtained from field studies and those obtained from laboratory studies.

  7. Feeding habitats of the Gulf sturgeon, Acipenser oxyrinchus desotoi, in the Suwannee and Yellow rivers, Florida, as identified by multiple stable isotope analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulak, Kenneth J.; Berg, James J.; Randall, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Stable 13C, 15N, and 34S isotopes were analyzed to define the feeding habitats of Acipenser oxyrinchus desotoi in the Suwannee and Yellow River populations. For the majority (93.9%) of Suwannee subadults and adults, 13C and 34S signatures indicate use of nearshore marine waters as primary winter feeding habitat, probably due to the limiting size of the Suwannee Sound estuary. In the Yellow River population, 13C isotope signatures indicate that adults remain primarily within Pensacola Bay estuary to feed in winter, rather than emigrating to the open Gulf of Mexico. A minor Suwannee River subset (6% of samples), comprised of juveniles and subadults, displayed 13C signatures indicating continued feeding in freshwater during the spring immigration and fall emigration periods. This cannot be interpreted as incidental feeding since it resulted in a 20.5% turnover in tissue δ13C signatures over a 1–3 month period. Cessation of feeding in the general population does not coincide with high river water temperatures. The hypothesis of reduced feeding in freshwater due to localized prey depletion as a result of spatial activity restriction is not supported by the present study. Instead, Suwannee River A. o. desotoi appear to follow two trophic alternatives; 1) complete cessation of feeding immediately upon immigration in spring, continuing through emigration 8–9 months later (the predominant alternative); 2) continued intensive feeding for 1–3 months following immigration, switching to freshwater prey, selected primarily from high trophic levels (i.e., large prey). Stable –34S data verifies that recently immigrated, fully-anadromous A. o. desotoi adults had fed in nearshore marine waters, not offshore waters.

  8. Neomycin damage and regeneration of hair cells in both mechanoreceptor and electroreceptor lateral line organs of the larval Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Chunxin; Zou, Sha; Wang, Jian; Zhang, Bo; Song, Jiakun

    2016-05-01

    The lateral line found in some amphibians and fishes has two distinctive classes of sensory organs: mechanoreceptors (neuromasts) and electroreceptors (ampullary organs). Hair cells in neuromasts can be damaged by aminoglycoside antibiotics and they will regenerate rapidly afterward. Aminoglycoside sensitivity and the capacity for regeneration have not been investigated in ampullary organs. We treated Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii) larvae with neomycin and observed loss and regeneration of sensory hair cells in both organs by labeling with DASPEI and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The numbers of sensory hair cells in both organs were reduced to the lowest levels at 6 hours posttreatment (hpt). New sensory hair cells began to appear at 12 hpt and were regenerated completely in 7 days. To reveal the possible mechanism for ampullary hair cell regeneration, we analyzed cell proliferation and the expression of neural placodal gene eya1 during regeneration. Both cell proliferation and eya1 expression were concentrated in peripheral mantle cells and both increased to the highest level at 12 hpt, which is consistent with the time course for regeneration of the ampullary hair cells. Furthermore, we used Texas Red-conjugated gentamicin in an uptake assay following pretreatment with a cation channel blocker (amiloride) and found that entry of the antibiotic was suppressed in both organs. Together, our results indicate that ampullary hair cells in Siberian sturgeon larvae can be damaged by neomycin exposure and they can regenerate rapidly. We suggest that the mechanisms for aminoglycoside uptake and hair cell regeneration are conserved for mechanoreceptors and electroreceptors. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:1443-1456, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Predicted effects of future climate warming on thermal habitat suitability for Lake Sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens, Rafinesque, 1817) in rivers in Wisconsin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, John D.; Stewart, Jana S.

    2015-01-01

    The Lake Sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens, Rafinesque, 1817) may be threatened by future climate warming. The purpose of this study was to identify river reaches in Wisconsin, USA, where they might be vulnerable to warming water temperatures. In Wisconsin, A. fulvescens is known from 2291 km of large-river habitat that has been fragmented into 48 discrete river-lake networks isolated by impassable dams. Although the exact temperature tolerances are uncertain, water temperatures above 28–30°C are potentially less suitable for this coolwater species. Predictions from 13 downscaled global climate models were input to a lotic water temperature model to estimate amounts of potential thermally less-suitable habitat at present and for 2046–2065. Currently, 341 km (14.9%) of the known habitat are estimated to regularly exceed 28°C for an entire day, but only 6 km (0.3%) to exceed 30°C. In 2046–2065, 685–2164 km (29.9–94.5%) are projected to exceed 28°C and 33–1056 km (1.4–46.1%) to exceed 30°C. Most river-lake networks have cooler segments, large tributaries, or lakes that might provide temporary escape from potentially less suitable temperatures, but 12 short networks in the Lower Fox and Middle Wisconsin rivers totaling 93.6 km are projected to have no potential thermal refugia. One possible adaptation to climate change could be to provide fish passage or translocation so that riverine Lake Sturgeon might have access to more thermally suitable habitats.

  10. Evidence of circadian rhythm, oxygen regulation capacity, metabolic repeatability and positive correlations between forced and spontaneous maximal metabolic rates in lake sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon C Svendsen

    Full Text Available Animal metabolic rate is variable and may be affected by endogenous and exogenous factors, but such relationships remain poorly understood in many primitive fishes, including members of the family Acipenseridae (sturgeons. Using juvenile lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens, the objective of this study was to test four hypotheses: 1 A. fulvescens exhibits a circadian rhythm influencing metabolic rate and behaviour; 2 A. fulvescens has the capacity to regulate metabolic rate when exposed to environmental hypoxia; 3 measurements of forced maximum metabolic rate (MMR(F are repeatable in individual fish; and 4 MMR(F correlates positively with spontaneous maximum metabolic rate (MMR(S. Metabolic rates were measured using intermittent flow respirometry, and a standard chase protocol was employed to elicit MMR(F. Trials lasting 24 h were used to measure standard metabolic rate (SMR and MMR(S. Repeatability and correlations between MMR(F and MMR(S were analyzed using residual body mass corrected values. Results revealed that A. fulvescens exhibit a circadian rhythm in metabolic rate, with metabolism peaking at dawn. SMR was unaffected by hypoxia (30% air saturation (O(2sat, demonstrating oxygen regulation. In contrast, MMR(F was affected by hypoxia and decreased across the range from 100% O(2sat to 70% O(2sat. MMR(F was repeatable in individual fish, and MMR(F correlated positively with MMR(S, but the relationships between MMR(F and MMR(S were only revealed in fish exposed to hypoxia or 24 h constant light (i.e. environmental stressor. Our study provides evidence that the physiology of A. fulvescens is influenced by a circadian rhythm and suggests that A. fulvescens is an oxygen regulator, like most teleost fish. Finally, metabolic repeatability and positive correlations between MMR(F and MMR(S support the conjecture that MMR(F represents a measure of organism performance that could be a target of natural selection.

  11. 史氏鲟鱼皮制革工艺研究%On leatherworking technology of Amur sturgeon ( Acipenser schrenckii) fishskin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许永安; 吴靖娜

    2011-01-01

    The Amur sturgeon cartilaginous taked as the material, the leatherworking technology was studied. Results showed that the optimum formaldehyde addition was 0.4% ; 8% lime, 3% sodimum sulfide (60% content) and 1.5% sodium hydrosulfide (60% content) , the sensory evaluation of leather by this ratio was better; the sensory evaluation of leather in the condition of 0.8 enzyme amount , 35 ℃, and 1.5 h was better; and the combination of 2% sodium chlorite and 1.5% sodium bisulfite showed the best bleaching effect. Based on above research, the optimizing leather technology of amur sturgeon fishskin was established. The physical and chemical properties of amur sturgeon leather by this technology were better than the standard of shoe upper leather QB/T 1873 -2004 and the standard of clothes leather QB 1872 -1993.%以史氏鲟(Acipenser schrenckii鱼皮为原料,对其制革工艺进行研究,结果表明,预浸水中添加0.4%的甲醛,防止鲟鱼皮大骨板松动的效果最佳;浸灰液配比为8%石灰、3%硫化钠(含量60%)、1.5%硫氢化钠(含量60%)时,研制的皮革感官评价较佳;软化工艺以酶量0.8%、温度35℃、时间1.5h研制的皮革感官评价较好;鲟鱼皮的脱色效果以亚氯酸钠(2%)和亚硫酸氢钠(1.5%)组合的氧化还原漂白法效果最佳.研究确立了鲟鱼皮制革优化工艺,该工艺试制的鲟鱼皮革其物理、化学性能指标总体上大大优于QB/T 1873-2004鞋面用皮革标准和QB 1872-1993服装用皮革标准.

  12. Length-weight relationship and a relative condition factor equation for lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) from the St. Clair River system (Michigan, USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Jaquelyn; Thomas, Michael V.; Nichols, Susan Jerrine

    2005-01-01

    Several USA state, federal, and Canadian agencies study lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) within the St Clair River and Lake St Clair, collectively referred to hereafter as the St Clair River (SCR) system. Previously, there has been no set standard for determining condition for SCR system lake sturgeon. Condition measures the variation from the expected weight for length as an indicator of fatness, general well-being, gonad development, etc. The aim of this project was to determine the length–weight relationship of lake sturgeon caught from the SCR system, from which a relative condition factor (Kn) equation could be derived. Total length (TL, mm) and weight (W, kg) were measured for 1074 lake sturgeon (101 males and 16 females were identifiable) collected by setline and bottom trawl from the SCR system in May–September, 1997–2002. Analysis of covariance found no difference in the length–weight relationship between sampling gear or sex. Least-squares regression of log10W × log10TL produced the overall equation logW = 3.365logTL − 9.320. Using the exponential form of the slope and y-intercept, relative condition factor for lake sturgeon from the SCR system can be calculated as Kn = W/[(4.786 × 10−10)(TL3.365)]. Equations for males and females were also developed. Overall, body condition was significantly correlated with both age and girth; no significant difference in Kn by sex was found. In general, the SCR lake sturgeon population was near the upper ends of growth and condition ranges listed in the literature, comparable with those populations that are at similar latitudes. Although condition factors should be interpreted with caution, proper use of a standard equation provides a non-lethal measure of overall fish health that can be used by biologists and managers in ongoing efforts to restore lake sturgeon throughout the Great Lakes.

  13. 中华鲟子二代仔鱼对光照强度的趋性行为%Phototactic behavior of second filial Acipenser sinensis larva

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭柏福; 袁涛; 石小涛; 高勇

    2013-01-01

    设计4种点光源(100 lx、320 lx、960 lx、1920 lx)光照模式,以黑暗和面光源(68 lx)模式为对照,以30 min为实验周期,对中华鲟(Acipenser sinensis)子二代仔、幼鱼(5~29日龄)的趋光行为进行观察和统计分析。结果表明,仔鱼处于平游期(5~8日龄)时,点光源光照条件下活动鱼苗的趋光率显著高于对照组(黑暗环境和面光源)(P<0.05),而且点光源光照条件下活动鱼苗的趋光率随着光照强度的增强而增加,并在1920 lx与100 lx和320 lx间存在显著性差异(P<0.05)。平游期仔鱼的趋光性最为明显,在设定的4种点光源光照强度中,在100 lx的低强度光照下趋光性最强,在960 lx光照强度下趋光性最弱,且二者存在显著性差异(P<0.05);中华鲟子二代进入沉底期以后,光照的影响作用明显减弱,仔鱼基本失去趋光性。研究表明,中华鲟子二代仔鱼具有平游期趋光性最强、趋弱光和沉底之后基本失去趋光性等行为特点,这种趋光行为与野生中华鲟仔鱼基本一致。研究结果可为阐明中华鲟全人工繁殖后代生态适应性提供参考。%Chinese sturgeon (Acipenser sinensis) is a species of anadromous migratory large fish living for decades, and is a special rare fish in China. In 2009, we got the second filial generation (F2) from the F1 of this species by complete artificial propagation under fresh water, which meant China got successful progress in conservation of A. sinensis. But the question is if there exists difference in biologic characteristics between the wild species and arti-ficial F2. In this study, we tested the response of larval A.sinensis F2 to four light intensities (100, 320, 960, and 1 920 lx), and two modes of illumination (dark and surface light source). The phototactic behavior of each indi-vidual was observed for 30 min/d for 24 consecutive days. Between 0-8 d after hatch (dah), the individual ratio of phototaxis movement in

  14. 三、水产资源

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    980069 加利福尼亚州圣弗兰西期科湾的高首鲟的生殖条件=The reproductive condi-tion of white sturgeon,Acipenser transmon-tanus,in San Francisco Bay,California[刊,英]/Chapman F A//Fish.Bull..—1996,94(4).—628~634在加利福尼亚圣弗兰西斯科湾高首鲟Acipenser transmontanus 摄饵场采捕成鱼(855尾),用组织学评价其性别和性成熟阶

  15. 多倍体中华鲟微卫星亲子鉴定体系的建立%Parentage identification of polyploidy Acipenser sinensis based on microsatellite markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    辛苗苗; 张书环; 汪登强; 汪珂; 张磊; 霍来江; 危起伟

    2015-01-01

    应用荧光引物和自动测序技术,检测了10个自主研发的微卫星分子标记在68个中华鲟( Acipenser sinensis)个体中的遗传多态性。结果表明,10个微卫星标记共检测到124个等位基因,等位基因数为7~22,期望杂合度为0.73026~0.87395, Shannon-Wiener多样性指数为1.56161~2.21960。基于亲子鉴定排除率不低于0.99的标准,最终确定Asi-75067、 Asi-67648、 Asi-67123、 Asi-73843、 Asi-72040、 Asi-70421和Asi-56700等7个微卫星标记为中华鲟亲子鉴定的核心体系,其单亲、父权和双亲的累积排除率分别为99.12%、99.95%和99.99%。该微卫星标记组合为中华鲟准确高效经济的亲子鉴定体系建立提供了科学依据。%10 novel microsatellite markers were used for assessing genetic diversity of 68 Acipenser sinensis individuals.The results demonstrated that there were 124 alleles in 10 loci and the number of alleles, mean expected heterozygosities and Shannon-Wiener Diversity Indices per locus ranged from 7 to 22, from 0.730 26 to 0.873 95 and from 1.561 61 to 2.219 60, respectively.With the criterion that cumulative exclusion probabilities were not lower than 0.99, the 7 high polymor-phic microsatellite markers (Asi-75067, Asi-67648, Asi-67123, Asi-73843, Asi-72040, Asi-70421 and Asi-56700) made up the system of paternity test for A.sinensis.The cumulative exclusion probabilities over the 7 loci of single parent, paternity and pair parent were 0.991 232, 0.999 503 and 0.999 997, respectively.These high polymorphic mic-rosatellite markers provided a scientific basis for validating paternity testing efficiently with a lower cost in A.sinensis.

  16. Prediction of Secondary Structure and B Cell Epitope of GH Protein from Acipenser sinensis%中华鲟GH蛋白二级结构和B细胞抗原表位的预测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘红艳; 杨东; 张繁荣; 余来宁

    2009-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to predict the secondary structure and B cell epitope of growth hormone (GH) protein from Acipenser sinensis. [Method] With the amino acid sequence of GH protein from A.sinensis as the base, the secondary structure of GH protein from A.sinensis was predicted by the method of Garnier-Robson, Chou-Fasman and Karplus-Schulz, and its cell epitope was predicted by the method of Kyte-Doolittle, Emini and Jameson-Wolf. [Result] The sections of 18-23, 55-56, 67-73, 83-86, 112-114, 151-157 and 209-211 in the N terminal of GH protein molecule had softer structure and these sections could sway or fold to produce more complex tertiary structure. The sections of 19-23, 51-71, 84-95, 128-139, 164-176 and 189-196 in the N terminal of GH protein could be the epitope of B cell and there were flexible regions in these sections or near these sections of GH protein molecule. So the dominant regions could be in these sections or near these sections. [Conclusion] The research provided the basis for the preparation of monoclonal antibody of GH protein from A.sinensis and provided the reference for the discussion for the molecular regulation mechanism of A.sinensis.

  17. 达氏鲟生长激素基因cDNA克隆、表达及免疫荧光定位研究%cDNA CLONING, EXPRESSION AND IMMUNOLOCALIZATION OF GROWTH HORMONE GENE IN ACIPENSER DABRYANUS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    单喜双; 岳华梅; 陈细华; 叶欢; 杨晓鸽; 李创举

    2015-01-01

    为研究达氏鲟(Acipenser dabryanus)生长激素(Growth Hormone, GH)基因的功能,合成了达氏鲟垂体SMART cDNA,克隆得到GH全长cDNA序列。达氏鲟GH全长cDNA序列为1008 bp,由52 bp的5′端非编码区(Untranslated region, UTR)、编码214个氨基酸的645 bp开放阅读框(Open reading frame, ORF)和311 bp的3′UTR构成。运用GH氨基酸序列构建进化树分析发现,达氏鲟与两栖类、爬行类和哺乳类的一致性要高于真骨鱼类。实时荧光定量PCR结果表明,达氏鲟GH mRNA主要在垂体和下丘脑中表达,且垂体中GH的表达量约为下丘脑的110倍; Western-blot研究结果与qRT-PCR一致,仅在垂体和下丘脑中检测到生长激素蛋白,且垂体中GH的表达量远高于下丘脑。免疫荧光定位结果显示, GH主要定位于垂体中部,下丘脑中也有少量荧光信号;苏木精-伊红组织切片染色研究表明, GH主要是由嗜酸性的生长激素分泌细胞分泌。研究为深入研究脊椎动物生长激素基因的进化和人工养殖达氏鲟的生长调控提供了基础。%The Dabry’s sturgeon (Acipenser dabryanus Dumeril, 1868) mainly distributes in the upper Yangtze River of China. It is currently endangered due to the destruction of their spawning grounds and other anthropogenic interferences. In this study, the full-length cDNA sequence of GH was cloned from SMART cDNAs of pituitary in A. dabryanus. The Dabry’s sturgeon GH cDNA was 1008 bp in length, including a 52 bp 5′-untranslated region (UTR), a 311 bp 3′ UTR and a 645 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a peptide of 143 amino acids. Amino acid sequence alignment revealed that A. dabryanus GH shared extremely high identities (over 95%) with its counterparts in other sturgeons. Moreover, sturgeons showed lower GH sequence identities with other bony fish than that of Amphibia, Reptilia, Aves, and Mammalia. By quantitative real-time PCR, GH mRNAs were detected in the pituitary and hypothalamus but

  18. Acquisition of glial cells missing 2 enhancers contributes to a diversity of ionocytes in zebrafish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takanori Shono

    Full Text Available Glial cells missing 2 (gcm2 encoding a GCM-motif transcription factor is expressed in the parathyroid in amniotes. In contrast, gcm2 is expressed in pharyngeal pouches (a homologous site of the parathyroid, gills, and H(+-ATPase-rich cells (HRCs, a subset of ionocytes on the skin surface of the teleost fish zebrafish. Ionocytes are specialized cells that are involved in osmotic homeostasis in aquatic vertebrates. Here, we showed that gcm2 is essential for the development of HRCs and Na(+-Cl(- co-transporter-rich cells (NCCCs, another subset of ionocytes in zebrafish. We also identified gcm2 enhancer regions that control gcm2 expression in ionocytes of zebrafish. Comparisons of the gcm2 locus with its neighboring regions revealed no conserved elements between zebrafish and tetrapods. Furthermore, We observed gcm2 expression patterns in embryos of the teleost fishes Medaka (Oryzias latipes and fugu (Fugu niphobles, the extant primitive ray-finned fishes Polypterus (Polypterus senegalus and sturgeon (a hybrid of Huso huso × Acipenser ruhenus, and the amphibian Xenopus (Xenopus laevis. Although gcm2-expressing cells were observed on the skin surface of Medaka and fugu, they were not found in Polypterus, sturgeon, or Xenopus. Our results suggest that an acquisition of enhancers for the expression of gcm2 contributes to a diversity of ionocytes in zebrafish during evolution.

  19. Effects of Dietary Garlic Extracts on Whole Body Amino Acid and Fatty Acid Composition, Muscle Free Amino Acid Profiles and Blood Plasma Changes in Juvenile Sterlet Sturgeon, Acipenser ruthenus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong-Hoon; Lim, Seong-Ryul; Ra, Chang-Six; Kim, Jeong-Dae

    2012-10-01

    A series of studies were carried out to investigate the supplemental effects of dietary garlic extracts (GE) on whole body amino acids, whole body and muscle free amino acids, fatty acid composition and blood plasma changes in 6 month old juvenile sterlet sturgeon (Acipenser ruthenus). In the first experiment, fish with an average body weight of 59.6 g were randomly allotted to each of 10 tanks (two groups of five replicates, 20 fish/tank) and fed diets with (0.5%) or without (control) GE respectively, at the level of 2% of fish body weight per day for 5 wks. Whole body amino acid composition between the GE and control groups were not different (p>0.05). Among free amino acids in muscle, L-glutamic acid, L-alanine, L-valine, L-leucine and L-phenylalanine were significantly (pexperiment, the effects of dietary garlic extracts on blood plasma changes were investigated using 6 month old juvenile sterlet sturgeon averaging 56.5 g. Fish were randomly allotted to each of 2 tanks (300 fish/tank) and fed diets with (0.5%) or without (control) GE respectively, at the rate of 2% of body weight per day for 23 d. At the end of the feeding trial, blood was taken from the tail vein (n = 5, per group) at 1, 12, and 24 h after feeding, respectively. Blood plasma glucose, insulin and the other serological characteristics were also measured to assess postprandial status of the fish. Plasma glucose concentrations (mg/dl) between two groups (GE vs control) were significantly (p0.05) were noticed at 12 h (74.6 vs 73.0). Plasma insulin concentrations (μIU/ml) between the two groups were significantly (p<0.05) different at 1 (10.56 vs 5.06) and 24 h (32.56 vs 2.96) after feeding. The present results suggested that dietary garlic extracts could increase dietary glucose utilization through the insulin secretion, which result in improved fish body quality and feed utilization by juvenile sterlet sturgeon.

  20. LES FRAYÈRES POTENTIELLES DE L’ESTURGEON EUROPÉEN ACIPENSER STURIO L. 1758 DANS LE BASSIN GARONNE-DORDOGNE. MÉTHODES D’INVESTIGATION, ÉTAT ACTUEL ET PERSPECTIVES.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JEGO S.

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Dans le cadre du programme de restauration de l’esturgeon européen Acipenser sturio L. 1758, nous avons recensé et caractérisé l’ensemble des frayères potentielles de cette espèce sur les fleuves Garonne et Dordogne. L’objectif de ce travail était de réaliser un premier bilan sur l’état actuel de ces zones et d’évaluer leur possible utilisation comme frayère. Avant ce travail, les seules données disponibles étaient constituées par une liste de frayères et de zones de pêche de géniteurs répertoriées en 1952 et 1980 par enquêtes auprès des pêcheurs. Une analyse des données publiées sur les autres espèces d’esturgeons a permis de cerner les principales caractéristiques physiques d’une frayère d’esturgeons. En croisant les informations issues de ces 2 sources, historique et bibliographique, nous avons retenu une liste de sites qui ont ensuite été caractérisés lors de campagnes sur le terrain. Cette caractérisation a porté sur la bathymétrie, le courant, la nature du substrat, la position dans le paysage et les impacts anthropiques immédiats. Les résultats de cette étude ont montré que la majorité des 28 sites étudiés répondait aux caractéristiques d’une frayère d’esturgeon en terme de courant, profondeur et substrat. Ils pouvaient donc être considérés comme frayères potentielles et leur capacité d’accueil était suffisante à moyen terme. Néanmoins il apparaît nécessaire de protéger réglementairement l’ensemble de ces sites afin de les soustraire aux impacts négatifs d’activité anthropiques.

  1. 西伯利亚鲟侧线神经丘发育过程的观察%OBSERVATION ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE LATERAL LINE NEUROMAST OF SIBERIAN STURGEON (ACIPENSER BAERII)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程千千; 施志仪; 陈晓武; 宋佳坤; 轩兴荣

    2011-01-01

    研究对西伯利亚鲟(Acipenser baerii)的胚后幼鱼进行石蜡切片HE染色,同时利用荧光染料DiA[4-(4-Diethylaminostyryl)-1-methylpyridinium iodide]对侧线管中侧线神经丘毛细胞特异性标记的特点,示踪了西伯利亚鲟胚后仔鱼各个时期侧线神经丘分化发育的过程.结果显示,西伯利业鲟侧线管内侧线神经丘毛细胞如纤毛状,呈竖立紧密排列.出膜3d仔鱼眼眶后神经基板发育分化活动剧烈,出膜10d的仔鱼眼眶后方的神经基板分化出眼眶上下侧线神经丘的两个分支,同时眼眶后神经基板进一步向后分化发育在眼眶后部形成躯干侧线神经丘,但整个侧线神经丘还未完全发育完成,待出膜15d时,眼眶上下和躯干侧线神经丘已基本发育完全,出膜22d的仔鱼侧线神经丘发育基本完成.研究为今后深入研究西伯利亚鲟侧线发育过程中的神经分化发育、细胞迁移奠定了初步形态学基础.%Acipenseriformes fish is a kind of the ancient chondrichthyes fish, and Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii) plays an important part in the evolutionary history of vertebrates. Lateral line neuromast is the key part of the lateral line system-a very important sense organ of fish. Therefore, it is necessary to pay attention to the development of the lateral line neuromast of the Siberian sturgeon. In order to observing the morphology and tracking the development of lateral line neuromast of the Siberian sturgeon larvae in the different development periods after hatching. The 5μm of the paraffin sections of the adult fish of the Siberian sturgeon were prepared and then stained with HE. Meanwhile, the Siberian sturgeon larvae in different periods after hatching stained with 10μmol/L DiA [4-(4-Diethylaminostyryl)-lmethylpyridinium iodide] which can be used as the neuromast specific markers. The results showed morphology of the neuromast in the lateral line canal: The hair cells erected and arranged closely

  2. The bacteria distribution and sterilization effect of four kinds of natural baits for cultured Acipenser sinensis%养殖中华鲟四种天然饵料的细菌分布及灭菌效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张艳珍; 张晓雁; 王彦鹏

    2014-01-01

    To prevent the bacterial disease caused by the bait in cultured Chinese sturgeon ( Acipenser sinensis) in Beijing aquarium, the bacterial distributions and sterilization effects of four kinds of live and frozen baits , Hexagrammos otakii, Acanthogobius ommaturus, Penaeus Vannamei and Malltus villosus, were studied.The results showed that two types of dominant bacteria were discovered with serious pathogenicity , belong to the Aeromonas and Acinetobacter.The species of bacteriain live baits and frozen baits were different.The dominant bacteria in live baits were A.hydrophila and two kinds of Non-Fermentative Gram-negative Bacteria , one was A.baumanii.The dominant bacteria in frozen baits were A.lwoffii, A.hydrophila and A.Verona.The treatment methods of live and frozen baits included disinfection , temporarily raised , fro-zen and ultraviolet sterilization.For Hexagrammos otakii, the sterilization effect was not obvious.After 3days raising in a suitable pool , the flora structure tended to be stable , while the ultraviolet sterilization could reduce the total number of bacteria, but could not kill the dominant bacterial pathogens.For Acanthogobius ommaturus, the species of bacteria changed obviously after 1 d, 4 d, 40 d and 110 d freezing.The dominant bacteria were stable in differentfreezingdays.Also, the ultraviolet sterilization could be stable , but could not kill the dominant bacterial patho-gens.For Penaeus Vannamei and Malltus villosus, the ultraviolet sterilization could reduce the numbers of bacteria and kill part of the dominant bacterial pathogens.%为预防北京海洋馆养殖中华鲟( Acipenser sinensis )因饵料引起的细菌性疾病暴发,对鲜活大泷六线鱼(Hexagrammos otakii)、冷冻斑尾刺虾虎鱼(Acanthogobius ommaturus)、南美白对虾(Penaeus Vannamei)和多春鱼( Malltus villosus)的细菌分布及不同方式灭菌效果进行了研究。结果显示:饵料优势菌类型为致病力较强的2类条

  3. Fish community structure in intertidal area of Acipenser sinensis Natural Reserve in Yangtze River estuary%长江口中华鲟自然保护区潮间带鱼类群落结构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨刚; 洪巧巧; 张涛; 侯俊利; 智玉龙; 庄平; 章龙珍

    2012-01-01

    为深入了解鱼类对潮间带水域的利用,2010年5月、8月、11月在长江口中华鲟自然保护区潮间带水域进行了插网调查.结果表明:调查期间共出现28种鱼类,隶属于10目16科,鲤形目种类最多,其次为鲈形目;群落优势种为中国花鲈(Lateolabrax maculates)、鲅(Liza haematocheila)和窄体舌鳎(Cynoglossus gracilis);长江口中华鲟自然保护区潮间带鱼类群落可以分为河口定居鱼类、海洋偶见鱼类、降海洄游鱼类、溯河洄游鱼类、海洋洄游鱼类和淡水鱼类6种生态类群,其中河口定居鱼类和海洋洄游鱼类占据明显优势.对调查水域鱼类群落进行聚类分析,结果表明秋季和春夏季差异显著,(鲮)、中国花鲈、斑尾刺虾虎鱼(Acanthogobius ommaturus)是对季节差异贡献最大的3种鱼类.主成分分析结果表明,夏季鱼类群落主要受到海洋洄游鱼类的影响,而秋季主要受到河口定居鱼类的影响,这2种鱼类的幼鱼在不同季节利用潮间带水域索饵肥育可能是造成季节差异的主要原因.%In order to understand the utilization of intertidal water area by fishes, an investigation with fyke was conducted on the fish community structure in the intertidal area of Acipenser sinensis Natural Reserve in Yangtze River estuary in May, August and November 2010. A total of 28 fish species belonging to 16 families and 10 orders were collected, among which, Lateolabrax maculates , Liza haematocheila, and Cynoglossus gracilis were the dominant species. Cypriniformes had the largest species number, followed by Perciformes. The fish communities could be classified into 6 ecological groups, i. e. , estuarine species, marine stragglers, catadromous species, anadro-mous species, marine migrants, and freshwater species, and the estuarine species and marine migrants took up distinct advantage. Cluster analysis showed that there was a significant difference in the fish communities in autumn and in spring

  4. Tip enhancement

    CERN Document Server

    Kawata, Satoshi

    2007-01-01

    This book discusses the recent advances in the area of near-field Raman scattering, mainly focusing on tip-enhanced and surface-enhanced Raman scattering. Some of the key features covered here are the optical structuring and manipulations, single molecule sensitivity, analysis of single-walled carbon nanotubes, and analytic applications in chemistry, biology and material sciences. This book also discusses the plasmonic materials for better enhancement, and optical antennas. Further, near-field microscopy based on second harmonic generation is also discussed. Chapters have been written by some of the leading scientists in this field, who present some of their recent work in this field.·Near-field Raman scattering·Tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy·Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy·Nano-photonics·Nanoanalysis of Physical, chemical and biological materials beyond the diffraction limits·Single molecule detection

  5. 饲料中不同糖源对杂交鲟幼鱼生长性能、血清生化指标和肌肉营养成分的影响%Effects of dietary carbohydrate sources on growth, feed utilization and haematological parameters of juvenile hybrid sturgeon Acipenser baeri ♀× A. schrenckii ♂

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋娇; 姜海波; 姜志强; 陈立侨; 王庆奎; 袁海文; 杨家和; 姚俊杰

    2016-01-01

    An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effects of different carbohydrate sources on growth, feed utilization, haematological parameters and muscle composition of juvenile hybrid sturgeon Acipenser baeri♀×A. schrenckii ♂(initial weight, 31. 88 g±1. 96 g). In the experiment, the juvenile hybrid sturgeon was fed five experimental diets containing 20% of glucose, sucrose, dextrin, corn starch and wheat starch. The results showed that there were no significant differences in survival rate and daily food intake rate in the hybrids fed the di-ets containing different carbohydrate sources ( P>0 . 05 ) . The juvenile hybrid sturgeon fed the diets containing glu-cose had significantly lower final body weight, weight gain rate, specific growth rate and protein deposition rate and higher food conversion ratio than the juveniles fed the control diet ( P0 . 05 ) . There was significantly higher serum glu-cose level in the hybrids fed the diets containing glucose than that in the others, without significant differences be-tween sucrose, dextrin and corn starch groups (P>0. 05),in which there was significantly higher than in the wheat starch group ( P0. 05). However, the minimal liver glycogen content was observed in dextrin group, significantly lower than in the hybrids in glucose and wheat starch groups ( P0 . 05 ) . The findings indicated that corn starch and wheat starch were the optimal dietary carbohydrate sources for juvenile hybrid sturgeon under the conditions in present experiment.%为探讨不同糖源对鲟鱼生长、饲料利用、血清生化指标和肌肉营养组成的影响,共配制5种含有不同糖源(葡萄糖、蔗糖、糊精、玉米淀粉、小麦淀粉)的等氮、等脂试验饲料,饲养初始体质量为(31.88±1.96) g的杂交鲟Acipenser baerii♀×Acipenser schrenckii♂幼鱼8周。结果表明:各试验组的成活率和日摄食率无显著性差异(P>0.05);葡萄糖组终末体质量、增重率、特定生长

  6. Length changes in white sturgeon larvae preserved in ethanol or formaldehyde

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, J.M.; Counihan, T.D.

    2001-01-01

    We examined the effects of two preservatives on the notochord and total lengths of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) larvae. White sturgeon larvae that were one, seven, and 14 days old were measured live and then preserved in 95% ethanol or 10% formaldehyde. Length changes were then determined at 20 and 95 days after preservation. We found mean length changes ranging from 0.4% to 3.4% shrinkage. Length changes varied with preservative, age of larvae, and length of time preserved. Constant length correction factors are provided for 10% formaldehyde or 95% ethanol valid for larvae between 1 and 14 days old preserved for less than 100 days.

  7. Accumulation and evaluation of heavy metals Cu, Cd and Hg in prey species of juvenile Chinese sturgeons (Acipenser Sinensis) in the Yangtze River estuary, China%长江口中华鲟幼鱼主要饵料生物体内重金属Cu、Cd和Hg的积累与评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张慧婷; 庄平; 章龙珍; 侯俊利; 张涛; 闫文罡; 冯广朋

    2011-01-01

    In order to discuss the different biological absorption of Gu, Cd and Hg, and evaluate them in food organisms for juvenile Acipenser Sinensis in Yangtze estuary, Macrobraohium nipponense, Acetes chinensis,Taenioides rubicundus, Chaeturichthys stigrnatias and Cynoglossus gracilis were collected and analyzed.Results showed that, individual pollution index (Pi) of Gu in shrimps was less than 0.5, Pi of Cu in fish was more than 0.5, and Pi of Cd and Hg in all selected prey species were more than 1. This indicated that the 5 selected prey species for juvenile Acipenser Sinensis were all contaminated by heavy metals to different extent.The shrimps were contaminated more seriouslly than fish. Compared with the historical data, the heavy metal pollution of fish in Yangtze estuary showed aggravating trend. Heavy metal pollution has been threatening juvenile Chinese sturgeon which migrate to sea via Yangtze estuary.%为评价重金属污染对长江口中华鲟幼鱼生长的影响,在长江口水域采集了日本沼虾(Macrobraohium nipponense)、中国毛虾(Acetes chinensis)、狼牙鳗虾虎鱼(Taenioides rubicundus)、矛尾虾虎鱼(Chaeturichthys stigmatias)、窄体舌鳎(Cynoglossus gracilis)等5种中华鲟幼鱼重要饵料生物,研究了Cu、Cd、Hg3种重金属元素在这些饵料生物体内的积累特征,评价了饵料生物受重金属污染的程度.结果显示,虾类Cu的单项污染指数(P)均大于0.5,鱼类Cu的P均小于0.5;5种饵料生物Cd和Hg的P均大于1.表明它们均不同程度受到重金属污染,虾类的重金属污染程度比鱼类严重.与历史资料比较发现,长江口鱼虾的重金属污染存在加重趋势,重金属污染已对洄游人海的中华鲟幼鱼构成威胁.

  8. Changes of enzyme activity in blood and liver of juvenile Chinese sturgeon (Acipenser sinensis) during starvation%饥饿期间中华鲟幼鱼血液与肝脏酶活力的变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯广朋; 庄平; 章龙珍; 黄晓荣; 刘鉴毅; 段明; 侯俊利

    2011-01-01

    将中华鲟幼鱼持续饥饿43 d,每隔6 d采样1次,研究饥饿期间中华鲟幼鱼血液与肝脏7项酶活力指标的变化.结果表明,饥饿期间中华鲟幼鱼血液丙氨酸转氨酶活力波动范围为42.1~134.6 U/L,在第13天与第37天均出现显著下降;天冬氨酸转氨酶活力在饥饿19 d后出现下降,最低值与最高值分别为310.1±52.4 U/L与420.8±83.4 U/L;溶菌酶活力呈现上升趋势,饥饿43 d组与饥饿前期的4个组之间具有显著差异;总抗氧化能力在饥饿19 d后下降至较低水平,饥饿13 d组显著高于饥饿37 d组;肝脏Na-K-ATP酶活力在饥饿前期下降,在饥饿37 d后显著升高,与饥饿前期的4个组之间具有显著差异;乳酸脱氢酶活力在饥饿13 d后显著下降,波动范围为5.101~3.154 U/g;碱性磷酸酶活力呈现上升趋势,饥饿19~43 d的5个组显著高于饥饿1 d组.从总体上看,中华鲟幼鱼生理指标在饥饿19~25 d后产生较大变化,这可能与其新陈代谢与能量供应水平下降有关,在人工养殖与救护工作中应防止中华鲟幼鱼受到长期的饥饿胁迫.%The effects of starvation on the enzyme activity in blood and liver of juvenile Chinese sturgeon (Acipenser sinensis) were studied. Blood and liver were sampled every six days during 43 days of starvation.The activity of alanine aminotransferase decreased significantly after 13 and 37 days of starvation. The levels ranged from 42. 1 to 134. 6 U/L. The activity of aspartate aminotransferase decreased after 19 days of starvation. The levels ranged from 310. 1 ± 52.4 to 420.8 ± 83.4 U/L. The activity of lysozyme increased generally and there were significant differences between 43-day starvation group and 4 starvation groups of 1 -19 days. Total antioxidative capacity remained low level after 19-day starvation and the level in 13-day starvation group was significantly higher than that of 37-day starvation group. The activity of Na + -K + -ATPase decreased first and then

  9. 中华鲟初次全人工繁殖的特性研究%THE REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY OF FIRST FILIAL GENERATION OF ACIPENSER SINENSIS GROWING UP IN THE FRESHWATER ENVIRONMENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭柏福; 常剑波; 肖慧; 朱滨; 万建义; 田家元; 舒德斌

    2011-01-01

    Chinese sturgeon (Acipenser sinensis Gary) is an endangered anadromous species in the IUCN Red List. It was characterized as the national level key protected animal of China in 1988 and under the protection of CITES Appendix II in 1998. In order to realize the artificial propagation, mature Chinese sturgeons were captured below the Gezhouba Dam in the Yangtze River every year since 1982. And the induction of wild Chinese sturgeon succeeded in 1984. From then on, the artificially reproduced larvae of Chinese sturgeon were released every year. With the declining of the population, capture of wild Chinese sturgeon was prohibited by the government from 2008, so induction of cultured sturgeons was necessary to increase the quantity of larvae in the Yangtze River. From 1987 to 1997, many progenies of induced Chinese sturgeons captured from the Yangtze River were tried to culture in complete freshwater environment in Chinese sturgeon Institute. Twenty four growing-up individuals were selected for the attempts of the artificial propagation study in 2006. We successfully made the gonads of these individuals develop into mature in freshwater environment via controlling culture environment temperature, lowering temperature to induce and supplying particular nutrient in 2009. The gonads were monitored by the combination of ultrasound detection and manual puncture detection. Primary biological data of egg, such as egg diameter and egg weight, the migration of the egg polar nucleus, were checked to confirm whether the female were mature and the microscope was used to check whether the male were mature. There were totally eight individuals whose gonads reached Phase III in 2008 and 2009. We found two mature brood fish (No. 6B7A and 391D) suitable to conduct artificial propagation via checking gonads in September 2009, and then we tried to conduct the first artificial induction in 29 September 2009, and part of the semen were Cryopreservation. In 22 November 2009, we confirmed

  10. Speech enhancement

    CERN Document Server

    Benesty, Jacob; Chen, Jingdong

    2006-01-01

    We live in a noisy world! In all applications (telecommunications, hands-free communications, recording, human-machine interfaces, etc.) that require at least one microphone, the signal of interest is usually contaminated by noise and reverberation. As a result, the microphone signal has to be ""cleaned"" with digital signal processing tools before it is played out, transmitted, or stored.This book is about speech enhancement. Different well-known and state-of-the-art methods for noise reduction, with one or multiple microphones, are discussed. By speech enhancement, we mean not only noise red

  11. Speech Enhancement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benesty, Jacob; Jensen, Jesper Rindom; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll;

    of methods and have been introduced in somewhat different contexts. Linear filtering methods originate in stochastic processes, while subspace methods have largely been based on developments in numerical linear algebra and matrix approximation theory. This book bridges the gap between these two classes......Speech enhancement is a classical problem in signal processing, yet still largely unsolved. Two of the conventional approaches for solving this problem are linear filtering, like the classical Wiener filter, and subspace methods. These approaches have traditionally been treated as different classes...... of methods by showing how the ideas behind subspace methods can be incorporated into traditional linear filtering. In the context of subspace methods, the enhancement problem can then be seen as a classical linear filter design problem. This means that various solutions can more easily be compared...

  12. EDITORIAL: Enhancing nanolithography Enhancing nanolithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Lithography was invented in late 18th century Bavaria by an ambitious young playwright named Alois Senefelder. Senefelder experimented with stone, wax, water and ink in the hope of finding a way of reproducing text so that he might financially gain from a wider distribution of his already successful scripts. His discovery not only facilitated the profitability of his plays, but also provided the world with an affordable printing press that would ultimately democratize the dissemination of art, knowledge and literature. Since Senefelder, experiments in lithography have continued with a range of innovations including the use of electron beams and UV that allow increasingly higher-resolution features [1, 2]. Applications for this have now breached the limits of paper printing into the realms of semiconductor and microelectronic mechanical systems technology. In this issue, researchers demonstrate a technique for fabricating periodic features in poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT-PSS) [3]. Their method combines field enhancements from silica nanospheres with laser-interference lithography to provide a means of patterning a polymer that has the potential to open the market of low-end, high-volume microelectronics. Laser-interference lithography has already been used successfully in patterning. Researchers in Korea used laser-interference lithography to generate stamps for imprinting a two-dimensional photonic crystal structure into green light emitting diodes (LEDs) [4]. The imprinted patterns comprised depressions 100 nm deep and 180 nm wide with a periodicity of 295 nm. In comparison with unpatterned LEDs, the intensity of photoluminescence was enhanced by a factor of seven in the LEDs that had the photonic crystal structures imprinted in them. The potential of exploiting field enhancements around nanostructures for new technologies has also attracted a great deal of attention. Researchers in the USA and Australia have used the field

  13. 淡水和半咸水条件下中华鲟幼鱼鳃上皮泌氯细胞的形态特征与数量分布%Characters of morphology,distribution and quantity of branchial chloride cells of juvenile Acipenser sinensis acclimated in freshwater and brackish water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵峰; 杨刚; 张涛; 王妤; 庄平

    2016-01-01

    To understand the adaptive changes of branchial chloride cells (CCs)in juvenile Chinese sturgeon Acipenser sinensis in the Yangtze Estuary,juveniles were acclimated to 0 (freshwater,FW)and brackish water (salinity 15,BW)for 60 days.Histological and ultrastructural observation on branchial CCs were comparatively studied in juveniles adapted either in FW or BW.Results showed that:CCs were slightly oval, and mainly distributed in the base of lamellae and interlamellar regions of filaments.When juveniles were adapted in BW,the number and size of branchial CCs on filaments increased significantly.However,there was no change on number of CCs,and there was a significant increase on size of CCs on lamellae.The morphology of CCs on filaments and lamellae did not change in fish adapted to FW or BW.Apical opening of CCs was largely classified into the following three types:Ⅰ,convex type;Ⅱ,concave type;Ⅲ,deep-hole type.In FW,apical opening of CCs on juvenile Chinese surgeon gills presented as type Ⅰ and Ⅱ,and no type Ⅲ was found.After the fish was adapted in BW,apical opening of CCs on juvenile gills was mainly type Ⅲ, and a small amount of type Ⅰ and Ⅱ apical opening appeared.The increase of number and size of branchial CCs on filaments and the morphological changes of apical opening of CCs is the adapting adjustment of juvenile Acipenser sinensis for osmoregulation and maintaining osmotic balance.%为了探讨中华鲟幼鱼进入长江口半咸水环境后,渗透压适应调节过程中鳃上皮泌氯细胞的适应性变化,将幼鱼在淡水(盐度0)和半咸水(盐度15)两种条件下驯养60 d,利用光镜和扫描电镜技术对比分析鳃上皮泌氯细胞的形态、分布与数量特征.结果表明:幼鱼鳃上皮泌氯细胞主要集中分布于鳃小片基部和鳃小片之间的鳃丝上,细胞略呈椭圆形.半咸水条件下,幼鱼鳃丝上皮泌氯细胞数量和大小显著增加,鳃小片上皮泌氯细胞数量则未发生改变,但

  14. 西伯利亚鲟仔稚鱼胚后发育的形态学和组织学观察%Observations on morphology of post-embryonic development and histology of sensory organs in larval and juvenile Siberian sturgeon,Acipenser baerii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋炜; 宋佳坤

    2012-01-01

    Siberian sturgeon, Acipenser baerii, one of the oldest extant cold-water fish species in the world, are of considerable research and economic value. We documented the postembryonic development of the Siberian sturgeon by monitoring morphological characteristics and cell types in retina, taste buds, olfactory sac, and ampullary organs in the larvae. The stages of postembryonic development were defined based on both the external morphology and the internal organ characteristics. Larvae were reared at a water temperature of (18.0±1.0)℃ and a pH of 7.0-7.5. The newly hatched larvae (day 0) were (9.05±0.14) mm long. During the early-stages of development (days 0-7), the larvae were nurtured by a large yolk sac and the eye was the primary sense organ. The late-stage larvae (day 8-22) were characterized by the disappearance of the yolk sac and initiation of active feeding, the formation of fins and fin rays, a shift in habitat use towards the bottom of the water column, and the completion of organ differentiation. As larvae reached the juvenile stage (day 23-57), the scutes begin to form, the organs tended to become fully developed, and the external morphology and body color pattern gradually matured into the adult pattern. We observed some differences in the development characteristics of the primary sensory organs in Siberian sturgeon relative to other teleosts. Our observations suggest that Siberian sturgeon is an ancient species that occupy a unique position during the evolution of teleosts.%应用形态学和组织学研究技术对西伯利亚鲟(Acipenser baerii)仔稚鱼发育进行了较详细的观察,通过外部形态变化和内部器官发育情况,对西伯利亚鲟仔稚鱼发育各阶段进行区分.在水温(18.0±1.0)℃,pH 7.0~7.5的条件下,初孵仔鱼平均全长(9.05±0.14) mm,出膜后7日内为早期仔鱼阶段,仔鱼以卵黄囊作为营养来源,视觉是主要的感觉功能;8日龄至22日龄为晚期仔鱼阶段,最显著的特点

  15. Effects of chronic crowding stress on growth, feeding, and behavior in Chinese sturgeon Acipenser sinensis F2 juveniles%中华鲟幼鱼对慢性拥挤胁迫的生长、摄食及行为反应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建明; 郭柏福; 高勇

    2013-01-01

      设置低、中、高3个初始养殖密度(1 g/L、4 g/L、8 g/L),进行40 d的养殖实验,研究慢性拥挤胁迫对子二代中华鲟(Acipenser sinensis Gray)幼鱼生长、摄食及行为的影响。研究表明,慢性拥挤胁迫对子二代中华鲟的生长和摄食有显著影响,体质量、体质量特定生长率、体长特定生长率、日增重随着养殖密度的升高显著降低(P<0.05),实验结束时,高密度组肥满度显著低于中、低密度组(P<0.05);各实验组的摄食率随着养殖密度的升高而降低,饵料系数随着养殖密度的升高而升高(P<0.05)。慢性拥挤胁迫对子二代中华鲟的行为也有显著的影响,随着养殖密度的增大,表现为呼吸频率、摆尾频率和游动速度显著加快等应急行为。研究结果表明高养殖密度对中华鲟的生长、摄食和行为存在显著的负面作用,不利于中华鲟幼鱼生长发育。%Chinese sturgeon(Acipenser sinensis) are an endangered anadromous species listed on the IUCN Red List. The species was characterized as a national level key protected animal of China in 1988 and fell under the protection of CITES Appendix II in 1998. Because of their perilous status, there is considerable interest in artifi-cial breeding and species conservation. To aid development of conservation breeding programs, we evaluated the effects of chronic crowding stress on growth, feeding, and behavior in F2 Chinese sturgeon. The fish were cultured at three stocking densities (low:1 g/L, medium:4 g/L, high:8 g/L) for 40 d to evaluate the influence of stocking density on growth, feeding and behavior. Density had a significant effect on growth and feeding. The body weight, growth efficiency, specific growth rate, and daily weight gain decreased significantly as stocking density increased. The feeding rate for the experimental groups also decreased as the stocking density increased and the feed conver-sion ratio increased as the

  16. The effects of three probiotics on the growth and immune system of hybrid sturgeon (Huso dauricus♀×Acipenser schrenckii♂)%三种微生态制剂对杂交鲟(达氏鳇♀×史氏鲟♂)生长性能及免疫机能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李斌; 杨军; 黄建华; 韩文利; 何洪超

    2014-01-01

    通过在杂交鲟(达氏鳇(Huso dauricus)♀×史氏鲟(Acipenser schrenckii)♂)((50.26±0.55)g)饲料中分别添加2000 mg/kg的枯草芽孢杆菌( Bacillus subtilis)、光合细菌和酵母多糖三种微生态制剂,研究其对杂交鲟的生长指标、血液指标和消化酶活性的影响。结果显示,与对照组相比,添加微生态制剂明显提高了杂交鲟的存活率,其平均增重率分别提高了31.95%、21.06%、45.09%,饵料系数分别降低了22.04%、7.50%、28.49%,蛋白质转化效率分别提高了22.90%、13.76%、26.61%;各项血液指标得到明显优化,其中,红细胞和白细胞数目增加,白细胞组成成分变化不大,血细胞脆性降低,血沉升高;此外,饲料中添加微生态制剂,提高了淀粉酶、脂肪酶及蛋白酶的活性。研究表明,三种微生态制剂中,酵母多糖对杂交鲟的作用效果最明显。%We evaluated the effects dietary supplementation with three different probiotics , Bacillus subtilis, photosynthetic bacteria and yeast polysaccharide on growth index , blood index and digestive enzyme activity of the hybrid sturgeon ( Huso dauricus♀ ×Acipenser schrenckii♂)((50.26 ±0.55)g).The hybrid sturgeons were randomly assigned to four groups containing one control group without probiotic and three experimental groups fed the same diet with 0.2% each probiotic , respectively.The results showed that the survival rate of experimental groups was obviously higher than control group . Mean weight gain ratio of the hybrid sturgeon increased by 31.95%, 21.06%and 45.09%, the feed conversion ratio de-creased by 22.04%, 7.50%and 28.49%and the quantity of the protein conversion was improved by 22.90%, 13.76%and 26.61%, respectively, compared with the control group .Additionally, the blood indicators of hybrid sturgeons were obviously optimized , of which the amount of red and white blood cells was increasing and

  17. The immunocross-reaction between pathogenic Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from Siberian sturgeon Acipenser baerii and other three Aeromonas strains%西伯利亚鲟嗜水气单胞菌与其它3株气单胞菌间的免疫交叉反应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜有声; 杨倩; 杨先乐; 吕利群; 邱军强

    2012-01-01

    The immunological characteristics of four Aeromonas strains like pathogenic bacteria strain Xl(Aeromonas hydrophlia) isolated from Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii) suffering with bacterial septicaemia, pathogenic bacteria strain XL2-T strain (Aeromonas caviae ) isolated from the sturgeon septicemia, pathogenic strain Wl (Aeromonas sobria) and non-pathogenic M3 strain (Aeromonas hydrophlia) , were detected through the cross-reactions between four Aeromonas strains and antiserums by indirect immunofluoresence assay. The results showed that the pathogenic XI strain, XL2 -T strain and Wl strain had strong cross reactions, and weak cross reactions were found on non-pathogenic M3 strain with other three pathogenic strains.%采用间接免疫荧光技术分析了西伯利亚鲟细菌性败血症致病菌嗜水气单胞菌(Aeromonas hydrophlia)X1菌株、豚鼠气单胞菌(Aeromonas caviae)XL2-T菌株、致病性温和气单胞菌(Aeromonas sobria)W1菌株与无致病性嗜水气单胞菌(Aeromonas hydrophlia)M3菌株等水产养殖主要病原菌与抗血清之间的免疫交叉反应.结果显示具有致病性的同属菌株X1菌株、XL2-T菌株、W1菌株交叉反应程度较大,说明这3株菌表面存在较多相同抗原决定簇.而无致病性菌株M3与其他3株致病性菌株免疫交叉反应程度较小.

  18. Summary of Stock Identification Research on White Sturgeon of the Columbia River, 1985-1991 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Setter, Ann L.; Brannon, E.L.

    1992-01-01

    White sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) are a long-lived, primitive fish species which forage primarily along the river bottom of large river systems in the Pacific Northwest. Historically, as an anadromous species, they could distribute downstream to feed in the rich estuary or marine areas and then migrate back up the river to spawn. With the historic river becoming a series of flooded impoundments, sturgeon were denied open river access, but they appear to have been able to adapt to the altered environment. White sturgeon are found throughout the Columbia River and are thought to be successfully reproducing in some of the impoundments. In those reservoirs where little or no reproduction takes place, enhancement hatcheries may be an option for use in rebuilding isolated populations. However, the degree of stock specificity that exists in the Columbia River was unknown and precluded the use of the more abundant lower river fish as a common egg source to repropagate the upper river unless genetic similarity could be demonstrated among sturgeon throughout the river system. To resolve the issue, research was conducted to determine what level of genetic differentiation exists among sturgeon in the Columbia River system, using starch gel electrophoresis to enable a baseline of population genetic structure data to be assembled. A greater diversity in electrophoretic pattern was observed in the lower portions of the river. The bulk of the qualitative variability we noted was consistent throughout all sections of the river. Some specific quantitative differences were apparent between the areas we examined. Interpretation of the results was complicated by the fact that dam construction would tend to isolate and mix stocks by preventing the migration of fish returning upstream.

  19. Simulation of Streamflow Using a Multidimensional Flow Model for White Sturgeon Habitat, Kootenai River near Bonners Ferry, Idaho - Supplement to Scientific Investigations Report 2005-5230

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Gary J.; McDonald, Richard R.; Nelson, Jonathan M.

    2009-01-01

    During 2005, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) developed, calibrated, and validated a multidimensional flow model for simulating streamflow in the white sturgeon spawning habitat of the Kootenai River in Idaho. The model was developed as a tool to aid understanding of the physical factors affecting quality and quantity of spawning and rearing habitat used by the endangered white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and for assessing the feasibility of various habitat-enhancement scenarios to re-establish recruitment of white sturgeon. At the request of the Kootenai Tribe of Idaho, the USGS extended the two-dimensional flow model developed in 2005 into a braided reach upstream of the current white sturgeon spawning reach. Many scientists consider the braided reach a suitable substrate with adequate streamflow velocities for re-establishing recruitment of white sturgeon. The 2005 model was extended upstream to help assess the feasibility of various strategies to encourage white sturgeon to spawn in the reach. At the request of the Idaho Department of Fish and Game, the USGS also extended the two-dimensional flow model several kilometers downstream of the white sturgeon spawning reach. This modified model can quantify the physical characteristics of a reach that white sturgeon pass through as they swim upstream from Kootenay Lake to the spawning reach. The USGS Multi-Dimensional Surface-Water Modeling System was used for the 2005 modeling effort and for this subsequent modeling effort. This report describes the model applications and limitations, presents the results of a few simple simulations, and demonstrates how the model can be used to link physical characteristics of streamflow to the location of white sturgeon spawning events during 1994-2001. Model simulations also were used to report on the length and percentage of longitudinal profiles that met the minimum criteria during May and June 2006 and 2007 as stipulated in the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Biological Opinion.

  20. Enhancement in Sport, and Enhancement outside Sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Thomas

    2007-12-01

    Sport is one of the first areas in which enhancement has become commonplace. It is also one of the first areas in which the use of enhancement technologies has been heavily regulated. Some have thus seen sport as a testing ground for arguments about whether to permit enhancement. However, I argue that there are fairness-based objections to enhancement in sport that do not apply as strongly in some other areas of human activity. Thus, I claim that there will often be a stronger case for permitting enhancement outside of sport than for permitting enhancement in sport. I end by considering some methodological implications of this conclusion.

  1. Diagnosis of an unidentified sturgeon species using the complete mitochondrial DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jeong-Nam; Kwak, Myounghai; Kweon, Seon-Man; Kwon, O-Nam

    2015-01-01

    A sturgeon of unknown species of 11 kg body weight was caught in Gosung-gun, Gangwon Province, Korea (38°17'10.67″N, 128°33'20.28″E). The morphological characteristics were similar to species of the genus Acipenser such as Acipenser medirostris, A. schrenckii and A. baerii, but it was not an obvious match. To identify the species using genetic tools, we analysed the complete mitogenome of this unidentified sturgeon, and found it to comprise 16,526 bp. The genome encoded 2 rRNAs, 22 tRNAs, 13 protein-coding genes and 1 control region. The nucleotide divergence between the complete mitogenome of the unidentified sturgeon and those of four Acipenser spp. (A. transmontanus, A. dabryanus, A. schrenckii and A. baerii) was 0.736%, 3.875%, 0.085% and 5.580%, respectively. This study suggests that the unidentified sturgeon is able to predict the least maternal lines with A. schrenckii.

  2. Enhancement in Sport, and Enhancement outside Sport

    OpenAIRE

    Douglas, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Sport is one of the first areas in which enhancement has become commonplace. It is also one of the first areas in which the use of enhancement technologies has been heavily regulated. Some have thus seen sport as a testing ground for arguments about whether to permit enhancement. However, I argue that there are fairness-based objections to enhancement in sport that do not apply as strongly in some other areas of human activity. Thus, I claim that there will often be a stronger case for permit...

  3. Oxygen-enhanced combustion

    CERN Document Server

    Baukal, Charles E

    2013-01-01

    Combustion technology has traditionally been dominated by air/fuel combustion. However, two developments have increased the significance of oxygen-enhanced combustion-new technologies that produce oxygen less expensively and the increased importance of environmental regulations. Advantages of oxygen-enhanced combustion include less pollutant emissions as well as increased energy efficiency and productivity. Oxygen-Enhanced Combustion, Second Edition compiles information about using oxygen to enhance industrial heating and melting processes. It integrates fundamental principles, applications, a

  4. 西伯利亚鲟致病性嗜水气单胞菌外膜蛋白及其抗原性分析%Antigenicity of outer membrane proteins of pathogenic Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from Siberian sturgeon Acipenser baerii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜有声; 杨倩; 李圆圆; 杨先乐; 吕利群; 邱军强

    2012-01-01

    A pathogenic strain Aeromonas hydrophila was isolated from Siberian sturgeon ( Acipenser baerii ) suffering with bacterial septicaemia. In this experiment, OMPs of four strains of Aeromonas were obtained by Sarkosyl method combining super centrifugal purification. SDS-PAGE showed that the strain had 14 membrane proteins with molecular weights of from 26 kDa to 120 kDa. OMPs of the pathogencial and unpathogencial Aeromonas hydrophila, Aeromonas caviae and Aeromonas sobria were analyzed and compared by using SDS-PAGE. The results showed that molecular weights focused on from 26 kDa to 120 kDa. After SDS-PAGE, in the Western-blotting with rabbit antiserum against Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from Siberian sturgeon, only 6 OMPs of the strain with molecular weights at 75 kDa, 52 kDa,43 kDa,40 kDa,34 kDa and 28kDa were detected. It showed that the 6 OMPs had some antigenicity. And the other 3 strains of Aeromonas all had positive reaction. The band of 28kDa and 34kDa had visible positive reaction in all 4 Aeromonas strains, the band of 43kDa and 75 kDa had positive reaction in some Aeromonas strains.%采用十二烷基肌氨酸钠(Sarkosyl)法提取西伯利亚鲟嗜水气单胞菌(Aeromonas hydrophila)外膜蛋白,电泳显示所提取的主要外膜蛋白分子量为26~120 kDa;为比较该菌株与气单胞菌菌属其他细菌外膜蛋白组分及抗原性异同,以致病性豚鼠气单胞菌(A.caviae)、温和气单胞菌(A.sobria)和无致病力的嗜水气单胞菌为对照,电泳图谱显示4种气单胞菌外膜蛋白的分子量主要集中在26~120 kDa之间;利用抗西伯利亚鲟嗜水气单胞菌血清的免疫印迹试验表明该菌株外膜蛋白中分子量为75 kDa、52 kDa、43 kDa、40 kDa、34 kDa、28 kDa的蛋白条带呈现阳性反应,其他3种气单胞菌外膜蛋白中均有与该抗血清反应的条带,且分子量为28 kDa、34 kDa的反应条带为4株菌共有;43 kDa与75 kDa反应条带为部分菌株共有.为进一步筛选和

  5. Smart Image Enhancement Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobson, Daniel J. (Inventor); Rahman, Zia-ur (Inventor); Woodell, Glenn A. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Contrast and lightness measures are used to first classify the image as being one of non-turbid and turbid. If turbid, the original image is enhanced to generate a first enhanced image. If non-turbid, the original image is classified in terms of a merged contrast/lightness score based on the contrast and lightness measures. The non-turbid image is enhanced to generate a second enhanced image when a poor contrast/lightness score is associated therewith. When the second enhanced image has a poor contrast/lightness score associated therewith, this image is enhanced to generate a third enhanced image. A sharpness measure is computed for one image that is selected from (i) the non-turbid image, (ii) the first enhanced image, (iii) the second enhanced image when a good contrast/lightness score is associated therewith, and (iv) the third enhanced image. If the selected image is not-sharp, it is sharpened to generate a sharpened image. The final image is selected from the selected image and the sharpened image.

  6. Enhancing human capacities

    CERN Document Server

    Savulescu, Julian; Kahane, Guy

    2011-01-01

    Enhancing Human Capacities is the first to review the very latest scientific developments in human enhancement. It is unique in its examination of the ethical and policy implications of these technologies from a broad range of perspectives. Presents a rich range of perspectives on enhancement from world leading ethicists and scientists from Europe and North America The most comprehensive volume yet on the science and ethics of human enhancement Unique in providing a detailed overview of current and expected scientific advances in this area Discusses both general conceptual and ethical issues

  7. Assessing Impacts of Navigation Dredging on Atlantic Sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    navigation channel along with other behavioral aspects of the target species. To assess potential entrainment by a CSD operating in the James River...documented entrainment rates for fishes, shellfishes and specific threatened and endangered species. To minimize potential impacts on fish species...of potential entrainment ” in the James River Federal navigation channel might be defined as that volume of the water column below 6 m. Time budgets

  8. Recovery of white sturgeon populations through natural production: Understanding the influence of abiotic and biotic factors on spawning and subsequent recruitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsley, M.J.; Anders, P.J.; Miller, A.I.; Beckman, L.G.; McCabe, G.T.

    2002-01-01

    Recovery or maintenance of sturgeon populations through natural production in perturbed rivers requires adequate knowledge of the abiotic and biotic factors that influence spawning and cause mortality of embryonic, larval, and juvenile life stages. Although it is known that year-class strength of white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus is determined within 2-3 months after spawning, little is known about specific causes of mortality to early life stages during this period. Initial spawning success is critical in the development of a strong year-class, and maximized recruitment may be dependent upon water temperature and the availability of optimal in-river habitat. Analyses have shown that increased river discharge combined with suitable water temperatures during spawning, egg incubation, yolk sac larvae dispersal, and first exogenous feeding result in greater recruitment. However, little is known about the importance of other variables, such as food availability or losses due to predation that influence year-class strength. ?? 2002 by the American Fisheries Society.

  9. A review of sturgeon virosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUA Yu-ping; WANG Di

    2005-01-01

    Sturgeon, as a kind of rare large-scale economic fish, has high scientific research and commercial value. But virosis was a significant cause of mortality among farm-raised juvenile sturgeon, which brought tremendous loss in the last decades. In this paper, we reviewed the studies on four sturgeon viruses: white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) iridovirus (WSIV), white sturgeon herpesvirus-1,2 (WSHV-1,2) and shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus Scaphirhynchus) iridovirus (SSIV). The content of this review were mainly focused on clinic symptom of infected fish, diagnostic method, virus isolation, prophylactic and remedy. Based on a detailed conclusion and analysis, it is reasonable that molecular biology techniques might be a potential method for sturgeon virosis diagnosis.

  10. Persistence of identifiable remains of white sturgeon juveniles in digestive tracts of northern pikeminnow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadomski, D.M.; Frost, C.N.

    2004-01-01

    Juvenile white sturgeon, Acipenser transmontanus, have not been commonly identified as prey items in digestive tracts of fishes collected in the wild. In particular, the diet of northern pikeminnow, Ptychocheilus oregonensis, an abundant Pacific Northwest freshwater predator which has been widely studied, has not included juvenile white sturgeon. To aid in interpreting these results and help in planning future feeding studies, we determined the persistence of identifiable remains of white sturgeon juveniles in this predator's digestive tract. Northern pikeminnow (mean total length = 476 mm), were force-fed meals of 2 or 3 juvenile white sturgeon (mean total length = 91 mm). After digestive periods of 4, 8, 16, 24, 28, and 32h at a water temperature of about 17 ??C, fish were sacrificed, digestive tracts removed, and contents examined. Our results indicate that juvenile white sturgeon would be readily discernable in digestive tracts of northern pikeminnow at least a day after feeding, with scutes remaining undigested and identifiable for 28 h.

  11. White sturgeon spawning areas in the lower Snake River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsley, M.J.; Kappenman, K.M.

    2000-01-01

    We documented 17 white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus spawning locations in the Snake River from the mouth to Lower Granite Dam (river km 0 to 173). Spawning locations were determined by the collection of fertilized eggs on artificial substrates or in plankton nets. We collected 245 eggs at seven locations in McNary Reservoir, 22 eggs at three locations in Ice Harbor Reservoir, 30 eggs from two locations in Lower Monumental Reservoir, and 464 eggs at five locations in Little Goose Reservoir. All 17 locations were in high water velocity areas and between 1.0 and 7.0 km downstream from a hydroelectric dam. The documentation of spawning areas is important because this habitat is necessary to maintain natural and viable populations.

  12. Influence of externally attached trasmitters on the swimming performance of juvenile white sturgeon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Counihan, T.D.; Frost, C.N.

    1999-01-01

    We measured the critical swimming speed of juvenile white sturgeons Acipenser transmontanus equipped with externally attached dummy ultrasonic transmitters and of untagged control fish in the laboratory. White sturgeons ranging from 31.9 to 37.0 cm fork length were subjected to one of three treatments: Control (handled but not tagged), tag attached below the dorsal fin, and tag attached with the anterior insertion point between the fourth and fifth dorsal scutes. Although transmitters were of recommended weight, we found that the swimming performance of tagged white sturgeons was significantly less than that of untagged control fish. Swimming performance of tagged fish was not differentially affected by tag location. Our results suggest that data from ultrasonic telemetry studies of externally tagged juvenile white sturgeons should be interpreted with caution due to the reduced swimming performance caused by external transmitters.

  13. Polycystic lesions in the liver of the white sturgeon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Peter; Smith, Charlie E; Blair, Marilyn J

    2009-03-01

    Polycystic lesions have been reported from the kidney and liver of many different fish species and are attributed to pollution and genetic anomalies. In June 2002, eggs and milt were collected from two female and five male white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus below Bonneville Dam on the Columbia River. Fertilized eggs were hatched at the Abernathy Fish Technology Center in Longview, Washington, and 20,000 juveniles were raised for approximately 1 year before release into the wild. Just before release, 12,000 juveniles were scute-marked, during which it was noticed that about 30 fish had distended abdomens. Gross necropsy revealed a large, jellylike mass in the peritoneal cavity. Histopathological examination of four fish showed that this growth was a polycystic lesion of liver tissue. This is the first report of this type of lesion in white sturgeon and is presumed to be the product of a genetic anomaly.

  14. Influence of externally attached transmitters on the swimming performance of juvenile white sturgeon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Counihan, T.D.; Frost, C.N.

    1999-01-01

    We measured the critical swimming speed of juvenile white sturgeons Acipenser transmontanus equipped with externally attached dummy ultrasonic transmitters and of untagged control fish in the laboratory. White sturgeons ranging from 31.9 to 37.0 cm fork length were subjected to one of three treatments: control (handled but not tagged), tag attached below the dorsal fin, and tag attached with the anterior insertion point between the fourth and fifth dorsal scutes. Although transmitters were of recommended weight, we found that the swimming performance of tagged white sturgeons was significantly less than that of untagged control fish. Swimming performance of tagged fish was not differentially affected by tag location. Our results suggest that data from ultrasonic telemetry studies of externally tagged juvenile white sturgeons should be interpreted with caution due to the reduced swimming performance caused by external transmitters.

  15. White sturgeon spawning and rearing habitat in the lower Columbia River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsley, Michael J.; Beckman, Lance G.

    1994-01-01

    Estimates of spawning habitat for white sturgeons Acipenser transmontanus in the tailraces of the four dams on the lower 470 km of the Columbia River were obtained by using the Physical Habitat Simulation System of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's Instream Flow Incremental Methodology to identify areas with suitable water depths, water velocities, and substrates. Rearing habitat throughout the lower Columbia River was assessed by using a geographic information system to identify areas with suitable water depths and substrates. The lowering of spring and summer river discharges from hydropower system operation reduces the availability of spawning habitat for white sturgeons. The four dam tailraces in the study area differ in the amount and quality of spawning habitat available at various discharges; the differences are due to channel morphology. The three impoundments and the free-flowing Columbia River downstream from Bonneville Dam provide extensive areas that are physically suitable for rearing young-of-the-year and juvenile white sturgeons.

  16. Capture of white sturgeon larvae downstream of The Dalles Dam, Columbia River, Oregon and Washington, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsley, Michael J.; Kofoot, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Wild-spawned white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) larvae captured and reared in aquaculture facilities and subsequently released, are increasingly being used in sturgeon restoration programs in the Columbia River Basin. A reconnaissance study was conducted to determine where to deploy nets to capture white sturgeon larvae downstream of a known white sturgeon spawning area. As a result of the study, 103 white sturgeon larvae and 5 newly hatched free-swimming embryos were captured at 3 of 5 reconnaissance netting sites. The netting, conducted downstream of The Dalles Dam on the Columbia River during June 25–29, 2012, provided information for potentially implementing full-scale collection efforts of large numbers of larvae for rearing in aquaculture facilities and for subsequent release at a larger size in white sturgeon restoration programs.

  17. Sediment transport and evaluation of sediment surrogate ratings in the Kootenai River near Bonners Ferry, Idaho, Water Years 2011–14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Molly S.; Fosness, Ryan L.; Etheridge, Alexandra B.

    2015-12-14

    The Kootenai River white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and other native fish species are culturally important to the Kootenai Tribe of Idaho, but their habitat and recruitment have been affected by anthropogenic changes to the river. Although the interconnections among anthropogenic changes and their impacts on fish are complex, the Kootenai Tribe of Idaho, in cooperation with other agencies, has been trying to understand and promote native fish recruitment through the development and implementation of the Kootenai River Habitat Restoration Program. As part of this effort, the U.S. Geological Survey collected sediment and streamflow information and evaluated use of acoustic backscatter as a sediment surrogate for estimating continuous suspended-sediment concentration at three sites in the Kootenai River white sturgeon critical habitat during water years 2011–14.

  18. EFFECTS OF ACUTE THERMAL STRESS ON HSP70 MRNA, PHYSIOLOGY AND NONSPECIFIC IMMUNITY IN SIBERIAN STURGEON (ACIPENSER BAERII)%急性热应激对西伯利亚鲟HSP70mRNA表达、血清皮质醇和非特异性免疫的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田照辉; 徐绍刚; 王巍; 胡红霞; 马国庆

    2013-01-01

    The effect of acute thermal stress on HSP1Q mRNA expression, physiology and nonspecific immunity were investigated in Siberian sturgeon. In the experiment, ten fish were transferred froml7.5℃ to 27.5℃ water, then data were measured at lh and 3h. Fish in 17.5℃ water were taken as Oh group. Respiratory rate increased from 80-90 breaths/min to 210 breaths/min, then decreased to 180 breaths/min after 0.5h. Among the three tissues including gill, spleen and brain, the HSP70 mRNA expression in gill rose most quickly after lh stress, and was about 1.63 fold compared with the Oh group (P<0.05), then remained this level to 3h; The HSP10 mRNA expression in spleen and brain had nearly no change in lh thermal stress, then rose quickly from lh to 3h in the two tissues, especially in brain at 3h rose most quickly to about 1.77 fold compared with the lh group (P<0.05). Compared with the Oh group, serum cortisol increased quickly and was 5.14 fold (PO.05) at lh, then decreased quickly to 2.1 fold at 3h. Spleen macrophage respiratory burst achieved the maximum (P<0.05) at lh, then reduced to the Oh group level. Serum complement C3 increased at lh and decreased significantly at 3h (P<0.05). Serum lysozyme activity firstly elevated then decreased but had no significant differences. Serum SOD activity decreased when thermal stress time prolonged, and achieved the minimum at 3h (P<0.05). Serum MDA content decreased when thermal stress time prolonged and had no significant difference. The results showed that lh acute thermal stress promoted the nonspecific immunity and tolerance, but 3h acute thermal stress decreased it.%为研究西伯利亚鲟(Acipenser baerii)对急性热应激的抗逆机理,将体质量为(155.47±19.50) g的鱼从17.5 ℃迅速转至27.5 ℃水中,在1h和3h取样测定HSP70 mRNA表达变化、血清皮质醇和非特异性免疫指标.结果显示:急性热应激时鳃、脾和脑的HSP70 mRNA表达量升高,具有组织特异性,热应激1h时

  19. Personal Identity in Enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Podroužková

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to introduce the concept of human enhancement, its methods and its relation to personal identity. Also several approaches to personal identity will be described. Transhumanism is a special think tank supporting human enhancement through modern technologies and some of its representatives claim, that even great changes to human organisms will not affect their personal identity. I will briefly describe the most important means of human enhancment and consider the problem of personal identity for each of them separately.

  20. Enhanced Magnetic Model 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Enhanced Magnetic Model (EMM) extends to degree and order 720, resolving magnetic anomalies down to 56 km wavelength. The higher resolution of the EMM results in...

  1. Technology Enhanced Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klemke, Roland; Specht, Marcus

    2013-01-01

    Klemke, R., & Specht, M. (2013, 26-27 September). Technology Enhanced Learning. Presentation at the fourth international conference on eLearning (eLearning 2013), Belgrade, Serbia. http://econference.metropolitan.ac.rs/

  2. Enhanced Magnetic Model 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Enhanced Magnetic Model (EMM) extends to degree and order 720, resolving magnetic anomalies down to 56 km wavelength. The higher resolution of the EMM results in...

  3. Ogallala Bedrock Data Enhancement

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This data set provides an enhanced estimate of the bedrock elevation of the Ogallala Aquifer in Kansas based on lithologic logs from a variety of sources. The data...

  4. Resonance Enhanced Tunneling

    CERN Document Server

    Matsumoto, S; Matsumoto, Sh.

    2000-01-01

    Time evolution of tunneling in thermal medium is examined using the real-time semiclassical formalism previously developed. Effect of anharmonic terms in the potential well is shown to give a new mechanism of resonance enhanced tunneling. If the friction from environment is small enough, this mechanism may give a very large enhancement for the tunneling rate. The case of the asymmetric wine bottle potential is worked out in detail.

  5. Canonical Strangeness Enhancement

    CERN Document Server

    Sollfrank, J; Redlich, Krzysztof; Satz, Helmut

    1998-01-01

    According to recent experimental data and theoretical developments we discuss three distinct topics related to strangeness enhancement in nuclear reactions. We investigate the compatibility of multi-strange particle ratios measured in a restricted phase space with thermal model parameters extracted recently in 4pi. We study the canonical suppression as a possible reason for the observed strangeness enhancement and argue that a connection between QGP formation and the undersaturation of strangeness is not excluded.

  6. E-nhance Lectures

    OpenAIRE

    Naber, Larissa; Köhle, Monika

    2006-01-01

    Ever more lecturers find themselves forced to Web-enhance their courses out of economic pressure or prestige. Universities trapped between rising student numbers and decreasing budgets are turning to e-learning as the one-stop solution, with little concern for student or teacher needs. An e-(nhanced) learning environment can only be successful if it fulfils students' and lecturers' needs alike. The student needs to be supported in various stages of learning, whereas the lecturer cannot afford...

  7. Emergency Fish Restoration Project; Final Report 2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LeCaire, Richard

    2003-03-01

    Lake Roosevelt is a 151-mile impoundment created by the construction of Grand Coulee Dam during the early 1940's. The construction of the dam permanently and forever blocked the once abundant anadromous fish runs to the upper Columbia Basin. Since the construction of Grand Coulee Dam in 1943 and Chief Joseph Dam in 1956 this area is known as the blocked area. The blocked area is totally dependant upon resident fish species to provide a subsistence, recreational and sport fishery. The sport fishery of lake Roosevelt is varied but consists mostly of Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), Kokanee salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka), Walleye (Stizostedion vitreum) Small mouth bass (Micropterus dolomieui) and white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus). Currently, Bonneville Power Administration funds and administers two trout/kokanee hatcheries on Lake Roosevelt. The Spokane Tribe of Indians operates one hatchery, the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife the other. In addition to planting fish directly into Lake Roosevelt, these two hatcheries also supply fish to a net pen operation that also plants the lake. The net pen project is administered by Bonneville Power funded personnel but is dependant upon volunteer labor for daily feeding and monitoring operations. This project has demonstrated great success and is endorsed by the Colville Confederated Tribes, the Spokane Tribe of Indians, the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, local sportsmen associations, and the Lake Roosevelt Forum. The Lake Roosevelt/Grand Coulee Dam area is widely known and its diverse fishery is targeted by large numbers of anglers annually to catch rainbow trout, kokanee salmon, small mouth bass and walleye. These anglers contribute a great deal to the local economy by fuel, grocery, license, tackle and motel purchases. Because such a large portion of the local economy is dependant upon the Lake Roosevelt fishery and tourism, any unusual operation of the Lake Roosevelt system may have a

  8. Transform image enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghagolzadeh, Sabzali; Ersoy, Okan K.

    1992-03-01

    Blockwise transform image enhancement techniques are discussed. Previously, transform image enhancement has usually been based on the discrete Fourier transform (DFT) applied to the whole image. Two major drawbacks with the DFT are high complexity of implementation involving complex multiplications and additions, with intermediate results being complex numbers, and the creation of severe block effects if image enhancement is done blockwise. In addition, the quality of enhancement is not very satisfactory. It is shown that the best transforms for transform image coding, namely, the scrambled real discrete Fourier transform, the discrete cosine transform, and the discrete cosine-III transform, are also the best for image enhancement. Three techniques of enhancement discussed in detail are alpha- rooting, modified unsharp masking, and filtering motivated by the human visual system response (HVS). With proper modifications, it is observed that unsharp masking and HVS- motivated filtering without nonlinearities are basically equivalent. Block effects are completely removed by using an overlap-save technique in addition to the best transform.

  9. Enhanced nurse call systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-04-01

    This Evaluation focuses on high-end computerized nurse call systems--what we call enhanced systems. These are highly flexible systems that incorporate microprocessor and communications technologies to expand the capabilities of the nurse call function. Enhanced systems, which vary in configuration from one installation to the next, typically consist of a basic system that provides standard nurse call functionality and a combination of additional enhancements that provide the added functionality the facility desires. In this study, we examine the features that distinguish enhanced nurse call systems from nonenhanced systems, focusing on their application and benefit to healthcare facilities. We evaluated seven systems to determine how well they help (1) improve patient care, as well as increase satisfaction with the care provided, and (2) improve caregiver efficiency, as well as increase satisfaction with the work environment. We found that all systems meet these objectives, but not all systems perform equally well for all implementations. Our ratings will help facilities identify those systems that offer the most effective features for their intended use. The study also includes a Technology Management Guide to help readers (1) determine whether they'll benefit from the capabilities offered by enhanced systems and (2) target a system for purchase and equip the system for optimum performance and cost-effective operation.

  10. Human nature and enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Allen

    2009-03-01

    Appeals to the idea of human nature are frequent in the voluminous literature on the ethics of enhancing human beings through biotechnology. Two chief concerns about the impact of enhancements on human nature have been voiced. The first is that enhancement may alter or destroy human nature. The second is that if enhancement alters or destroys human nature, this will undercut our ability to ascertain the good because, for us, the good is determined by our nature. The first concern assumes that altering or destroying human nature is in itself a bad thing. The second concern assumes that human nature provides a standard without which we cannot make coherent, defensible judgments about what is good. I will argue (1) that there is nothing wrong, per se, with altering or destroying human nature, because, on a plausible understanding of what human nature is, it contains bad as well as good characteristics and there is no reason to believe that eliminating some of the bad would so imperil the good as to make the elimination of the bad impermissible, and (2) that altering or destroying human nature need not result in the loss of our ability to make judgments about the good, because we possess a conception of the good by which we can and do evaluate human nature. I will argue that appeals to human nature tend to obscure rather than illuminate the debate over the ethics of enhancement and can be eliminated in favor of more cogent considerations.

  11. Enhancer networks revealed by correlated DNAse hypersensitivity states of enhancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malin, Justin; Aniba, Mohamed Radhouane; Hannenhalli, Sridhar

    2013-08-01

    Mammalian gene expression is often regulated by distal enhancers. However, little is known about higher order functional organization of enhancers. Using ∼100 K P300-bound regions as candidate enhancers, we investigated their correlated activity across 72 cell types based on DNAse hypersensitivity. We found widespread correlated activity between enhancers, which decreases with increasing inter-enhancer genomic distance. We found that correlated enhancers tend to share common transcription factor (TF) binding motifs, and several chromatin modification enzymes preferentially interact with these TFs. Presence of shared motifs in enhancer pairs can predict correlated activity with 73% accuracy. Also, genes near correlated enhancers exhibit correlated expression and share common function. Correlated enhancers tend to be spatially proximal. Interestingly, weak enhancers tend to correlate with significantly greater numbers of other enhancers relative to strong enhancers. Furthermore, strong/weak enhancers preferentially correlate with strong/weak enhancers, respectively. We constructed enhancer networks based on shared motif and correlated activity and show significant functional enrichment in their putative target gene clusters. Overall, our analyses show extensive correlated activity among enhancers and reveal clusters of enhancers whose activities are coordinately regulated by multiple potential mechanisms involving shared TF binding, chromatin modifying enzymes and 3D chromatin structure, which ultimately co-regulate functionally linked genes.

  12. Effects of Fish Meal Replacement by Plant Protein Blend on Growth and Flesh Quality of Japanese Seabass (Lateolabrax japonicus) and Siberian Sturgeon (Acipenser baeri Brandt)%混合植物蛋白质替代鱼粉对花鲈和西伯利亚鲟生长和肉质影响的比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志勇; 薛敏; 王嘉; 吴秀峰; 郑银桦; 韩芳

    2013-01-01

    A 16-week growth trial were conducted to compare the effects of fish meal replacement by plant protein blend (PPB) on growth and flesh quality of Japanese seabass (Lateolabrax japonicus) and Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baeri Brandt).In control diets,56.9% and 51.0% of low-temperature steam dried fish meal (white fish meal) were used as an only protein source to formulate the diets containing 36% and 40% of crude protein for Japanese seabass and Siberian sturgeon,and named as LJ-FM and AB-FM,respectively.The other four iso-nitrogen and iso-energy diets were prepared to replace 25%,50%,75% and 100% fish meal of the control diet by PPB (soybean meal:wheat gluten meal was 1.00:1.67 and the crude protein content was 64.84%) and correspondingly named as LJ-PPB25,LJ-PPB50,LJ-PPB75,LJ-PPB100 and AB-PPB25,ABPPB50,AB-PPB75,AB-PPB100,respectively.There were 5 groups for each species with 4 replicates per group and 30 Japanese seabass or 22 Siberian sturgeon per replicate,and the Japanese seabass and Siberian sturgeon had the initial weight of (7.34 ±0.01) g and (49.48 ± 1.00) g,respectively.The results showed as follows:the feed intake rate (FIR) of Japanese seabass was significantly decreased when fish meal was replaced by PPB (P <0.05) ; LJ-PPB25 group had the highest value of the final body weight (FBW),and was significantly higher than LJ-PPB75 and LJ-PPB100 groups (P < 0.05) ; the feed conversation ratio (FCR) in LJ-PPB100 group was significantly higher than that in other groups (P < 0.05) ; the contents of moisture and crude ash in whole fish of Japanese seabass were significantly increased (P < 0.05),and the crude fat content was significantly decreased (P < 0.05),while the crude protein content and gross energy had no significant changes (P > 0.05).No significant differences in FIR,FBW,FCR and body composition of Siberian sturgeon were found among all groups (P > 0.05).Generally,each of muscle free amino acids (FAA) content of

  13. Christian Self-Enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebauer, Jochen E; Sedikides, Constantine; Schrade, Alexandra

    2017-02-16

    People overestimate themselves in domains that are central to their self-concept. Critically, the psychological status of this "self-centrality principle" remains unclear. One view regards the principle as an inextricable part of human nature and, thus, as universal and resistant to normative pressure. A contrasting view regards the principle as liable to pressure (and subsequent modification) from self-effacement norms, thus questioning its universality. Advocates of the latter view point to Christianity's robust self-effacement norms, which they consider particularly effective in curbing self-enhancement, and ascribe Christianity an ego-quieting function. Three sets of studies examined the self-centrality principle among Christians. Studies 1A and 1B (N = 2,118) operationalized self-enhancement as better-than-average perceptions on the domains of commandments of faith (self-centrality: Christians ≫ nonbelievers) and commandments of communion (self-centrality: Christians > nonbelievers). Studies 2A-2H (N = 1,779) operationalized self-enhancement as knowledge overclaiming on the domains of Christianity (self-centrality: Christians ≫ nonbelievers), communion (self-centrality: Christians > nonbelievers), and agency (self-centrality: Christians ≈ nonbelievers). Studies 3A-3J (N = 1,956) operationalized self-enhancement as grandiose narcissism on the domains of communion (self-centrality: Christians > nonbelievers) and agency (self-centrality: Christians ≈ nonbelievers). The results converged across studies, yielding consistent evidence for Christian self-enhancement. Relative to nonbelievers, Christians self-enhanced strongly in domains central to the Christian self-concept. The results also generalized across countries with differing levels of religiosity. Christianity does not quiet the ego. The self-centrality principle is resistant to normative pressure, universal, and rooted in human nature. (PsycINFO Database Record

  14. Cavity-enhanced spectroscopies

    CERN Document Server

    van Zee, Roger

    2003-01-01

    ""Cavity-Enhanced Spectroscopy"" discusses the use of optical resonators and lasers to make sensitive spectroscopic measurements. This volume is written by the researcchers who pioneered these methods. The book reviews both the theory and practice behind these spectroscopic tools and discusses the scientific discoveries uncovered by these techniques. It begins with a chapter on the use of optical resonators for frequency stabilization of lasers, which is followed by in-depth chapters discussing cavity ring-down spectroscopy, frequency-modulated, cavity-enhanced spectroscopy, intracavity spectr

  15. Biomedical enhancements as justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Jeesoo

    2015-02-01

    Biomedical enhancements, the applications of medical technology to make better those who are neither ill nor deficient, have made great strides in the past few decades. Using Amartya Sen's capability approach as my framework, I argue in this article that far from being simply permissible, we have a prima facie moral obligation to use these new developments for the end goal of promoting social justice. In terms of both range and magnitude, the use of biomedical enhancements will mark a radical advance in how we compensate the most disadvantaged members of society.

  16. Enhanced Piezoelectric Shunt Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chul H. Park

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Piezoceramic material connected to an electronic shunt branch circuit has formed a successful vibration reduction device. One drawback of the conventional electronic shunt circuit is the large inductance required when suppressing low frequency vibration modes. Also, the large internal resistance associated with this large inductance exceeds the optimal design resistance needed for low frequency vibration suppression. To solve this problem, a modified and enhanced piezoelectric shunt circuit is designed and analyzed by using mechanical-electrical analogies to present the physical interpretation. The enhanced shunt circuit developed in this paper is proved to significantly reduce the targeted vibration mode of a cantilever beam, theoretically and experimentally.

  17. Enhancing learning with technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Specht, Marcus; Klemke, Roland

    2013-01-01

    Specht, M., & Klemke, R. (2013, 26-27 September). Enhancing Learning with Technology. In D. Milosevic (Ed.), Proceedings of the fourth international conference on eLearning (eLearning 2013) (pp. 37-45). Belgrade Metropolitan University, Belgrade, Serbia. http://econference.metropolitan.ac.rs/

  18. Teaching to Enhance Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harland, Tony

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, I present a conceptual argument for "teaching-led research" in which university lecturers construct courses that directly and positively influence their research, while at the same time, safeguard and enhance the student experience. A research-pedagogy for higher education considers the link between teaching and research,…

  19. Enhanced Attenuation: Chlorinated Organics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-01

    three sites, and lactate, whey powder, barometric pumping, and nutrient- enhanced biosparging at one site each. Full-scale applications were reported... applicable health and safety risks and precautions with respect to particular materials, conditions, or procedures in specific applications of any technology...Consequently, ITRC recommends also consulting applicable standards, laws, regulations, suppliers of materials, and material safety data sheets for

  20. Competence Enhancement Behavior Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Thomas W.; Goforth, Jennifer B.; Hives, Jacqueline; Aaron, Annie; Jackson, Frances; Sgammato, Adrienne

    2006-01-01

    Competence Enhancement Behavior Management is presented as a framework for supporting students with challenging behaviors in general education classrooms. This approach emphasizes classroom management and discipline strategies that (a) help to build positive relations with students, (b) communicate to students that they are important, and (c)…

  1. Simulations of Enhanced Confinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorland, W.; Kotschenreuther, M.; Liu, Q. P.; Jones, C. S.; Beer, M. A.; Hammett, G. W.

    1996-11-01

    Most existing tokamaks routinely achieve enhanced confinement regimes. Designs for new, larger tokamaks therefore are typically predicated upon reliable enhanced confinement performance. However, most enhanced confinement regimes rely (to some degree) upon sheared E×B flows to stabilize the turbulence that otherwise limits the confinement. For example, the pedestal H-mode transport barrier is typically attributed to shear stabilization [Biglari, Diamond and Terry, Phys. Fl. B, 2 1 (1990)]. Unfortunately, it is easily shown that sheared E×B stabilization of microinstabilities such as the ITG mode does not scale favorably with machine size. Here, using nonlinear gyrofluid simulations in general geometry, we attempt to quantify the confinement enhancement that can be expected from velocity shear stabilization for conventional reactor plasmas. We also consider other microinstability stabilization mechanisms(See related presentations by Beer, Kotschenreuther, Manickam, and Ramos, this conference.) (strong density peaking, Shafranov shift stabilization, dots) and unconventional reactor configurations.^2 Experimental datasets from JET, DIII-D, C-Mod and TFTR are analyzed, and ITER operation is considered.

  2. Wedgelet Enhanced Appearance Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darkner, Sune; Larsen, Rasmus; Stegmann, Mikkel Bille;

    2004-01-01

    . The wedgelet regression trees employed are based on triangular domains and estimated using cross validation. The wedgelet regression trees are functional descriptions of the intensity information and serve to 1) reduce noise and 2) produce a compact textural description. The wedgelet enhanced appearance model...

  3. Kootenai river velocities, depth, and white sturgeon spawning site selection - A mystery unraveled?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paragamian, V.L.; McDonald, R.; Nelson, G.J.; Barton, G.

    2009-01-01

    The Kootenai River white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus population in Idaho, US and British Columbia (BC), Canada became recruitment limited shortly after Libby Dam became fully operational on the Kootenai River, Montana, USA in 1974. In the USA the species was listed under the Endangered Species Act in September of 1994. Kootenai River white sturgeon spawn within an 18-km reach in Idaho, river kilometer (rkm) 228.0-246.0. Each autumn and spring Kootenai River white sturgeon follow a 'short two-step' migration from the lower river and Kootenay Lake, BC, to staging reaches downstream of Bonners Ferry, Idaho. Initially, augmented spring flows for white sturgeon spawning were thought to be sufficient to recover the population. Spring discharge mitigation enhanced white sturgeon spawning but a series of research investigations determined that the white sturgeon were spawning over unsuitable incubation and rearing habitat (sand) and that survival of eggs and larvae was negligible. It was not known whether post-Libby Dam management had changed the habitat or if the white sturgeon were not returning to more suitable spawning substrates farther upstream. Fisheries and hydrology researchers made a team effort to determine if the spawning habitat had been changed by Libby Dam operations. Researchers modeled and compared velocities, sediment transport, and bathymetry with post-Libby Dam white sturgeon egg collection locations. Substrate coring studies confirmed cobbles and gravel substrates in most of the spawning locations but that they were buried under a meter or more of post-Libby Dam sediment. Analysis suggested that Kootenai River white sturgeon spawn in areas of highest available velocity and depths over a range of flows. Regardless of the discharge, the locations of accelerating velocities and maximum depth do not change and spawning locations remain consistent. Kootenai River white sturgeon are likely spawning in the same locations as pre-dam, but post-Libby Dam

  4. Piezoelectrically Enhanced Photocathodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, Robert A.; Nikzad, Shouleh; Bell, Lloyd Douglas; Strittmatter, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Doping of photocathodes with materials that have large piezoelectric coefficients has been proposed as an alternative means of increasing the desired photoemission of electrons. Treating cathode materials to increase emission of electrons is called "activation" in the art. It has been common practice to activate photocathodes by depositing thin layers of suitable metals (usually, cesium). Because cesium is unstable in air, fabrication of cesiated photocathodes and devices that contain them must be performed in sealed tubes under vacuum. It is difficult and costly to perform fabrication processes in enclosed, evacuated spaces. The proposed piezoelectrically enhanced photocathodes would have electron-emission properties similar to those of cesiated photocathodes but would be stable in air, and therefore could be fabricated more easily and at lower cost. Candidate photocathodes include nitrides of elements in column III of the periodic table . especially compounds of the general formula Al(x)Ga(1.x)N (where 0< or = x < or =.1). These compounds have high piezoelectric coefficients and are suitable for obtaining response to ultraviolet light. Fabrication of a photocathode according to the proposal would include inducement of strain in cathode layers during growth of the layers on a substrate. The strain would be induced by exploiting structural mismatches among the various constituent materials of the cathode. Because of the piezoelectric effect in this material, the strain would give rise to strong electric fields that, in turn, would give rise to a high concentration of charge near the surface. Examples of devices in which piezoelectrically enhanced photocathodes could be used include microchannel plates, electron- bombarded charge-coupled devices, image tubes, and night-vision goggles. Piezoelectrically enhanced photocathode materials could also be used in making highly efficient monolithic photodetectors. Highly efficient and stable piezoelectrically enhanced

  5. Vibration enhanced quantum transport

    CERN Document Server

    Semião, F L; Milburn, G J

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we study the role of a collective vibrational motion in the phenomenon of electronic energy transfer (EET) between chromophores with different electronic transition frequencies. Previous experimental work on EET in conjugated polymer samples has suggested that the common structural framework of the macromolecule introduce correlations in the energy gap fluctuations which cause coherent EET. We present a simple model describing the coupling between the chromophores and a common vibrational mode, and find that vibration can indeed lead to an enhancement in the transport of excitations across the quantum network. Furthermore, in our model phase information is partially retained in the transfer process from a donor to an acceptor, as experimentally demonstrated in the conjugated polymer system. Consequently, this mechanism of vibration enhanced quantum transport might find applications in quantum information transfer of qubit states or entanglement.

  6. Enhanced magnetocaloric effect material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Laura J. H.

    2006-07-18

    A magnetocaloric effect heterostructure having a core layer of a magnetostructural material with a giant magnetocaloric effect having a magnetic transition temperature equal to or greater than 150 K, and a constricting material layer coated on at least one surface of the magnetocaloric material core layer. The constricting material layer may enhance the magnetocaloric effect by restriction of volume changes of the core layer during application of a magnetic field to the heterostructure. A magnetocaloric effect heterostructure powder comprising a plurality of core particles of a magnetostructural material with a giant magnetocaloric effect having a magnetic transition temperature equal to or greater than 150 K, wherein each of the core particles is encapsulated within a coating of a constricting material is also disclosed. A method for enhancing the magnetocaloric effect within a giant magnetocaloric material including the step of coating a surface of the magnetocaloric material with a constricting material is disclosed.

  7. Enhanced oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakma, A.; Rafiq Islam, M.; Berruti, F.

    1991-01-01

    Some forty to sixty percent of the original oil in place typically remains trapped in the reservoir after primary and secondary recoveries. Enhanced oil recovery refers to the recovery of the residual oil by different techniques. Many of the existing and proposed enhanced oil recovery techniques require sound understanding of basic chemical engineering principles such as fluid flow, heat and mass transfer, interfacial phenomena etc. Chemical EOR techniques require a good understanding of interfacial phenomena, chemical reaction, multicomponent absorption. Understanding of the fundamentals of the various EOR processes is not adequate. EOR is increasingly attracting a growing number of chemical engineers and, as a result, some of the fundamental aspect of EOR are now being investigated. However, much more remains to be done and chemical engineers can play an important role in providing a better understanding of EOR fundamentals. This volume presents selected papers on EOR presented at AICHE meetings.

  8. An enhanced communication model

    OpenAIRE

    Flensburg, Per

    2010-01-01

    The concept of information is often taken for more or less granted in research about information systems. This paper introduces a model starting with Shannon and Weaver data transmission model and ends with knowledge transfer between individual persons. The model is in fact an enhanced communication model giving a framework for discussing problems in the communication process. A specific feature of the model is the aim for providing design guidelines in designing the communication process. Th...

  9. Beyond enhanced recovery?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Christoffer C; Kehlet, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    We read with great interest the special article by Smart and Daniels discussing several important topics of perioperative care, especially regarding lack of consensus on the definition of "postoperative recovery", and need for further understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms. However, we disagr...... that a "new, clearly defined standard of what "recovery" actually is", demands "a look beyond enhanced recovery"(1) for several reasons. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  10. Coherence-Enhanced Spaser

    CERN Document Server

    Dorfman, Konstantin E; Voronine, Dmitri V; Genevet, Patrice; Capasso, Federico; Scully, Marlan O

    2012-01-01

    We investigate surface plasmon amplification in a silver nanoshell coupled to an externally driven three-level gain medium, and show that quantum coherence significantly enhances the generation of surface plasmons. Surface plasmon amplification by stimulated emission of radiation is achieved in the absence of population inversion on the spasing transition, which reduces the pump requirements. The coherent drive allows us to control the dynamics, and holds promise for quantum control of nanoplasmonic devices.

  11. Sleep for cognitive enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne eDiekelmann

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Sleep is essential for effective cognitive functioning. Loosing even a few hours of sleep can have detrimental effects on a wide variety of cognitive processes such as attention, language, reasoning, decision making, learning and memory. While sleep is necessary to ensure normal healthy cognitive functioning, it can also enhance performance beyond the boundaries of the normal condition. This article discusses the enhancing potential of sleep, mainly focusing on the domain of learning and memory. Sleep is known to facilitate the consolidation of memories learned before sleep as well as the acquisition of new memories to be learned after sleep. According to a widely held model this beneficial effect of sleep relies on the neuronal reactivation of memories during sleep that is associated with sleep-specific brain oscillations (slow oscillations, spindles, ripples as well as a characteristic neurotransmitter milieu. Recent research indicates that memory processing during sleep can be boosted by (i cueing memory reactivation during sleep, (ii stimulating sleep-specific brain oscillations, and (iii targeting specific neurotransmitter systems pharmacologically. Olfactory and auditory cues can be used, for example, to increase reactivation of associated memories during post-learning sleep. Intensifying neocortical slow oscillations (the hallmark of slow wave sleep by electrical or auditory stimulation and modulating specific neurotransmitters such as noradrenaline and glutamate likewise facilitates memory processing during sleep. With this evidence in mind, this article concludes by discussing different methodological caveats and ethical issues that should be considered when thinking about using sleep for cognitive enhancement in everyday applications.

  12. Enhanced airglow at Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royer, Emilie; Esposito, Larry; Wahlund, Jan-Erik

    2016-06-01

    The Cassini Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (UVIS) instrument made thousand of observations of Titan since its arrival in the Saturnian system in 2004, but only few of them have been analyzed yet. Using the imaging capability of UVIS combined to a big data analytics approach, we have been able to uncover an unexpected pattern in this observations: on several occasions the Titan airglow exhibits an enhanced brightness by approximately a factor of 2, generally combined with a lower altitude of the airglow emission peak. These events typically last from 10 to 30 minutes and are followed and preceded by an airglow of regular and expected level of brightness and altitude. Observations made by the Cassini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS) instrument onboard Cassini allowed us to correlate the enhanced airglow observed on T-32 with an electron burst. The timing of the burst and the level of energetic electrons (1 keV) observed by CAPS correspond to a brighter and lower than typical airglow displayed on the UVIS data. Furthermore, during T-32 Titan was inside the Saturn's magnetosheath and thus more subject to bombardment by energetic particles. However, our analysis demonstrates that the presence of Titan inside the magnetosheath is not a necessary condition for the production of an enhanced airglow, as we detected other similar events while Titan was within Saturn's magnetosphere. The study presented here aims to a better understanding of the interactions of Titan's upper atmosphere with its direct environment.

  13. Cognitive diversity and moral enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyngell, Chris; Easteal, Simon

    2015-01-01

    One debate in contemporary bioethics centers on whether the development of cognitive enhancement technologies (CETs) will hasten the need for moral enhancement. In this article we provide a new argument in favor of pursuing these enhancement technologies together. The widespread availability of CETs will likely increase population-level cognitive diversity. Different people will choose to enhance different aspects of their cognition, and some won't enhance themselves at all. Although this has the potential to be beneficial for society, it could also result in harms as people become more different from one another. Aspects of our moral psychology make it difficult for people to cooperate and coordinate actions with those who are very different from themselves. These moral failings could be targeted by moral enhancement technologies, which may improve cooperation among individuals. Moral enhancement technologies will therefore help society maximize the benefits, and reduce the costs, associated with widespread access to cognitive enhancements.

  14. Optical waveguide enhanced photovoltaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rühle, Sven; Greenwald, Shlomit; Koren, Elad; Zaban, Arie

    2008-12-22

    Enhanced light to electric power conversion efficiency of photovoltaic cells with a low absorbance was achieved using waveguide integration. We present a proof of concept using a very thin dye-sensitized solar cell which absorbed only a small fraction of the light at normal incidence. The glass substrate in conjunction with the solar cells reflecting back contact formed a planar waveguide, which lead to more than four times higher conversion efficiency compared to conventional illumination at normal incidence. This illumination concept leads to a new type of multi-junction PV systems based on enforced spectral splitting along the waveguide.

  15. Cell Growth Enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Exogene Corporation uses advanced technologies to enhance production of bio-processed substances like proteins, antibiotics and amino acids. Among them are genetic modification and a genetic switch. They originated in research for Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Extensive experiments in cell growth through production of hemoglobin to improve oxygen supply to cells were performed. By improving efficiency of oxygen use by cells, major operational expenses can be reduced. Greater product yields result in decreased raw material costs and more efficient use of equipment. A broad range of applications is cited.

  16. Universal threshold enhancement

    CERN Document Server

    Patkós, András; Szépfalusy, P; Szep, Zs.

    2003-01-01

    By assuming certain analytic properties of the propagator, it is shown that universal features of the spectral function including threshold enhancement arise if a pole describing a particle at high temperature approaches in the complex energy plane the threshold position of its two-body decay with the variation of T. The case is considered, when one can disregard any other decay processes. The quality of the proposed description is demonstrated by comparing it with the detailed large N solution of the linear sigma model around the pole-threshold coincidence.

  17. Enhancing LAN performance

    CERN Document Server

    Held, Gilbert

    2004-01-01

    Enhancing LAN Performance, Fourth Edition explains how to connect geographically separated LANs with appropriate bandwidth, the issues to consider when weighing the use of multiport or dualport devices, how to estimate traffic for new networks, the effects of configuration changes on the performance of Ethernet and Token Ring networks, the design of switch-based networks that prevent traffic bottlenecks, and other critical topics. It provides the tools to address these issues in relation to specific network requirements. This volume develops mathematical models of various LAN performance issue

  18. Enhancing an R-matrix

    CERN Document Server

    MacKaay, M A

    1996-01-01

    In order to construct a representation of the tangle category one needs an enhanced R-matrix. In this paper we define a sufficient and necessary condition for enhancement that can be checked easily for any R-matrix. If the R-matrix can be enhanced, we also show how to construct the additional data that define the enhancement. As a direct consequence we find a sufficient condition for the construction of a knot invariant.

  19. Natural Enhancement of Color Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Shaohua

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A new algorithm of Natural Enhancement of Color Image (NECI is proposed. It is inspired by multiscale Retinex model. There are four steps to realize this enhancement. At first, the image appearance is rendered by content-dependent global mapping for light cast correction, and then a modified Retinex filter is applied to enhance the local contrast. Histogram rescaling is used afterwards for normalization purpose. At last, the texture details of image are enhanced by emphasizing the high-frequency components of image using multichannel decomposition of Cortex Transform. In the contrast enhancement step, luminance channel is firstly enhanced, and then a weighing map is calculated by collecting luminance enhancement information and applied to chrominance channel in color space CIELCh which enables a proportional enhancement of chrominance. It avoids the problem of unbalanced enhancement in classical RGB independent channel operation. In this work, it is believed that image enhancement should avoid dramatic modifications to image such as light condition changes, color temperature alteration, or additional artifacts introduced or amplified. Disregarding light conditions of the scene usually leads to unnaturally sharpened images or dramatic white balance changes. In the proposed method, the ambience of image (warm or cold color impression is maintained after enhancement, and no additional light sources are added to the scene, and no halo effect and blocking effect are amplified due to overenhancement. It realizes a Natural Enhancement of Color Image. Different types of natural scene images have been tested and an encouraging performance is obtained for the proposed method.

  20. Acoustically enhanced heat transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ang, Kar M.; Hung, Yew Mun; Tan, Ming K., E-mail: tan.ming.kwang@monash.edu [School of Engineering, Monash University Malaysia, 47500 Bandar Sunway, Selangor (Malaysia); Yeo, Leslie Y. [Micro/Nanophysics Research Laboratory, RMIT University, Melbourne, VIC 3001 (Australia); Friend, James R. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, San Diego, California 92093 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    We investigate the enhancement of heat transfer in the nucleate boiling regime by inducing high frequency acoustic waves (f ∼ 10{sup 6} Hz) on the heated surface. In the experiments, liquid droplets (deionized water) are dispensed directly onto a heated, vibrating substrate. At lower vibration amplitudes (ξ{sub s} ∼ 10{sup −9} m), the improved heat transfer is mainly due to the detachment of vapor bubbles from the heated surface and the induced thermal mixing. Upon increasing the vibration amplitude (ξ{sub s} ∼ 10{sup −8} m), the heat transfer becomes more substantial due to the rapid bursting of vapor bubbles happening at the liquid-air interface as a consequence of capillary waves travelling in the thin liquid film between the vapor bubble and the air. Further increases then lead to rapid atomization that continues to enhance the heat transfer. An acoustic wave displacement amplitude on the order of 10{sup −8} m with 10{sup 6} Hz order frequencies is observed to produce an improvement of up to 50% reduction in the surface temperature over the case without acoustic excitation.

  1. Telemetry-Enhancing Scripts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maimone, Mark W.

    2009-01-01

    Scripts Providing a Cool Kit of Telemetry Enhancing Tools (SPACKLE) is a set of software tools that fill gaps in capabilities of other software used in processing downlinked data in the Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) flight and test-bed operations. SPACKLE tools have helped to accelerate the automatic processing and interpretation of MER mission data, enabling non-experts to understand and/or use MER query and data product command simulation software tools more effectively. SPACKLE has greatly accelerated some operations and provides new capabilities. The tools of SPACKLE are written, variously, in Perl or the C or C++ language. They perform a variety of search and shortcut functions that include the following: Generating text-only, Event Report-annotated, and Web-enhanced views of command sequences; Labeling integer enumerations with their symbolic meanings in text messages and engineering channels; Systematic detecting of corruption within data products; Generating text-only displays of data-product catalogs including downlink status; Validating and labeling of commands related to data products; Performing of convenient searches of detailed engineering data spanning multiple Martian solar days; Generating tables of initial conditions pertaining to engineering, health, and accountability data; Simplified construction and simulation of command sequences; and Fast time format conversions and sorting.

  2. Acoustically enhanced heat transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Kar M.; Yeo, Leslie Y.; Friend, James R.; Hung, Yew Mun; Tan, Ming K.

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the enhancement of heat transfer in the nucleate boiling regime by inducing high frequency acoustic waves (f ˜ 106 Hz) on the heated surface. In the experiments, liquid droplets (deionized water) are dispensed directly onto a heated, vibrating substrate. At lower vibration amplitudes (ξs ˜ 10-9 m), the improved heat transfer is mainly due to the detachment of vapor bubbles from the heated surface and the induced thermal mixing. Upon increasing the vibration amplitude (ξs ˜ 10-8 m), the heat transfer becomes more substantial due to the rapid bursting of vapor bubbles happening at the liquid-air interface as a consequence of capillary waves travelling in the thin liquid film between the vapor bubble and the air. Further increases then lead to rapid atomization that continues to enhance the heat transfer. An acoustic wave displacement amplitude on the order of 10-8 m with 106 Hz order frequencies is observed to produce an improvement of up to 50% reduction in the surface temperature over the case without acoustic excitation.

  3. Surface enhanced thermo lithography

    KAUST Repository

    Coluccio, Maria Laura

    2017-01-13

    We used electroless deposition to fabricate clusters of silver nanoparticles (NPs) on a silicon substrate. These clusters are plasmonics devices that induce giant electromagnetic (EM) field increments. When those EM field are absorbed by the metal NPs clusters generate, in turn, severe temperature increases. Here, we used the laser radiation of a conventional Raman set-up to transfer geometrical patterns from a template of metal NPs clusters into a layer of thermo sensitive Polyphthalaldehyde (PPA) polymer. Temperature profile on the devices depends on specific arrangements of silver nanoparticles. In plane temperature variations may be controlled with (i) high nano-meter spatial precision and (ii) single Kelvin temperature resolution on varying the shape, size and spacing of metal nanostructures. This scheme can be used to generate strongly localized heat amplifications for applications in nanotechnology, surface enhanced thermo-lithography (SETL), biology and medicine (for space resolved cell ablation and treatment), nano-chemistry.

  4. ICT Enhanced Buildings Potentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansson, Per

    2007-01-01

    The paper describes and gives example on how Information and Communication, ICT, can and will enhance and support the building functional systems defined from client and end-user needs and requirements. The building systems may be derived from functional requirements on buildings such as usability...... and security on highest level with sub-systems definitions on lever levels. Building functional sub-systems may be defined for user comfort, indoor-climate, evacuation, space configuration, aesthetics, O&M etc. These building systems are supported by Information and Communication Technology, ICT, and building...... component systems that are accessed and integrated in the real world of building use in different contexts. The ICT systems may be physically or virtually embedded in the building. Already in 1982 AT&T established the 'intelligent buildings', IB, concept due to marketing reasons and the Informart building...

  5. Enhancing the network synchronizability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Ming; ZHOU Tao; CHEN Guan-rong; WANG Bing-hong

    2007-01-01

    The structural and dynamical properties, partic-ularly the small-world effect and scale-free feature, of com-plex networks have attracted tremendous interest and atten-tion in recent years. This article offers a brief review of one focal issue concerning the structural and dynamical behav-iors of complex network synchronization. In the presenta-tion, the notions of synchronization of dynamical systems on networks, stability of dynamical networks, and relationships between network structure and synchronizability, will be first introduced. Then, various technical methods for enhancing the network synchronizability will be discussed, which are roughly divided into two classes: Structural Modification and Coupling-Pattern Regulation, where the former includes three typical methods-dividing hub nodes, shortening average dis-tances, and deleting overload edges, while the latter mainly is a method of strengthening the hub-nodes' influence on the network.

  6. Cavity enhanced atomic magnetometry

    CERN Document Server

    Crepaz, Herbert; Dumke, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    Atom sensing based on Faraday rotation is an indispensable method for precision measurements, universally suitable for both hot and cold atomic systems. Here we demonstrate an all-optical magnetometer where the optical cell for Faraday rotation spectroscopy is augmented with a low finesse cavity. Unlike in previous experiments, where specifically designed multipass cells had been employed, our scheme allows to use conventional, spherical vapour cells. Spherical shaped cells have the advantage that they can be effectively coated inside with a spin relaxation suppressing layer providing long spin coherence times without addition of a buffer gas. Cavity enhancement shows in an increase in optical polarization rotation and sensitivity compared to single-pass configurations.

  7. Surface enhanced Raman scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Furtak, Thomas

    1982-01-01

    In the course of the development of surface science, advances have been identified with the introduction of new diagnostic probes for analytical characterization of the adsorbates and microscopic structure of surfaces and interfaces. Among the most recently de­ veloped techniques, and one around which a storm of controversy has developed, is what has now been earmarked as surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). Within this phenomenon, molecules adsorbed onto metal surfaces under certain conditions exhibit an anomalously large interaction cross section for the Raman effect. This makes it possible to observe the detailed vibrational signature of the adsorbate in the ambient phase with an energy resolution much higher than that which is presently available in electron energy loss spectroscopy and when the surface is in contact with a much larger amount of material than that which can be tolerated in infrared absorption experiments. The ability to perform vibrational spectroscopy under these conditions would l...

  8. Cavity enhanced atomic magnetometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crepaz, Herbert; Ley, Li Yuan; Dumke, Rainer

    2015-10-20

    Atom sensing based on Faraday rotation is an indispensable method for precision measurements, universally suitable for both hot and cold atomic systems. Here we demonstrate an all-optical magnetometer where the optical cell for Faraday rotation spectroscopy is augmented with a low finesse cavity. Unlike in previous experiments, where specifically designed multipass cells had been employed, our scheme allows to use conventional, spherical vapour cells. Spherical shaped cells have the advantage that they can be effectively coated inside with a spin relaxation suppressing layer providing long spin coherence times without addition of a buffer gas. Cavity enhancement shows in an increase in optical polarization rotation and sensitivity compared to single-pass configurations.

  9. Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeanloz, R. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (United States); Stone, H. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (United States); et al.

    2013-12-31

    DOE, through the Geothermal Technologies Office (GTO) within the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, requested this study, identifying a focus on: i) assessment of technologies and approaches for subsurface imaging and characterization so as to be able to validate EGS opportunities, and ii) assessment of approaches toward creating sites for EGS, including science and engineering to enhance permeability and increase the recovery factor. Two days of briefings provided in-depth discussion of a wide range of themes and challenges in EGS, and represented perspectives from industry, government laboratories and university researchers. JASON also contacted colleagues from universities, government labs and industry in further conversations to learn the state of the field and potential technologies relevant to EGS.

  10. Lignite Fuel Enhancement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles Bullinger; Nenad Sarunac

    2010-03-31

    Pulverized coal power plants which fire lignites and other low-rank high-moisture coals generally operate with reduced efficiencies and increased stack emissions due to the impacts of high fuel moisture on stack heat loss and pulverizer and fan power. A process that uses plant waste heat sources to evaporate a portion of the fuel moisture from the lignite feedstock in a moving bed fluidized bed dryer (FBD) was developed in the U.S. by a team led by Great River Energy (GRE). The demonstration was conducted with Department of Energy (DOE) funding under DOE Award Number DE-FC26-04NT41763. The objectives of GRE's Lignite Fuel Enhancement project were to demonstrate reduction in lignite moisture content by using heat rejected from the power plant, apply technology at full scale at Coal Creek Station (CCS), and commercialize it. The Coal Creek Project has involved several stages, beginning with lignite drying tests in a laboratory-scale FBD at the Energy Research Center (ERC) and development of theoretical models for predicting dryer performance. Using results from these early stage research efforts, GRE built a 2 ton/hour pilot-scale dryer, and a 75 ton/hour prototype drying system at Coal Creek Station. Operated over a range of drying conditions, the results from the pilot-scale and prototype-scale dryers confirmed the performance of the basic dryer design concept and provided the knowledge base needed to scale the process up to commercial size. Phase 2 of the GRE's Lignite Fuel Enhancement project included design, construction and integration of a full-scale commercial coal drying system (four FBDs per unit) with Coal Creek Units 1 and 2 heat sources and coal handling system. Two series of controlled tests were conducted at Coal Creek Unit 1 with wet and dried lignite to determine effect of dried lignite on unit performance and emissions. Wet lignite was fired during the first, wet baseline, test series conducted in September 2009. The second test series was

  11. Color image and video enhancement

    CERN Document Server

    Lecca, Michela; Smolka, Bogdan

    2015-01-01

    This text covers state-of-the-art color image and video enhancement techniques. The book examines the multivariate nature of color image/video data as it pertains to contrast enhancement, color correction (equalization, harmonization, normalization, balancing, constancy, etc.), noise removal and smoothing. This book also discusses color and contrast enhancement in vision sensors and applications of image and video enhancement.   ·         Focuses on enhancement of color images/video ·         Addresses algorithms for enhancing color images and video ·         Presents coverage on super resolution, restoration, in painting, and colorization.

  12. Enhanced Micellar Catalysis LDRD.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betty, Rita G.; Tucker, Mark D; Taggart, Gretchen; Kinnan, Mark K.; Glen, Crystal Chanea; Rivera, Danielle; Sanchez, Andres; Alam, Todd Michael

    2012-12-01

    The primary goals of the Enhanced Micellar Catalysis project were to gain an understanding of the micellar environment of DF-200, or similar liquid CBW surfactant-based decontaminants, as well as characterize the aerosolized DF-200 droplet distribution and droplet chemistry under baseline ITW rotary atomization conditions. Micellar characterization of limited surfactant solutions was performed externally through the collection and measurement of Small Angle X-Ray Scattering (SAXS) images and Cryo-Transmission Electron Microscopy (cryo-TEM) images. Micellar characterization was performed externally at the University of Minnesotas Characterization Facility Center, and at the Argonne National Laboratory Advanced Photon Source facility. A micellar diffusion study was conducted internally at Sandia to measure diffusion constants of surfactants over a concentration range, to estimate the effective micelle diameter, to determine the impact of individual components to the micellar environment in solution, and the impact of combined components to surfactant phase behavior. Aerosolized DF-200 sprays were characterized for particle size and distribution and limited chemical composition. Evaporation rates of aerosolized DF-200 sprays were estimated under a set of baseline ITW nozzle test system parameters.

  13. Development of enhanced radioprotectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Kyu; Chun, K. J.; Lee, Y. K.; Kim, Y. K.; Lee, B. H.; Song, H. S.; Lee, C. J.; Chung, K. M.; Shin, H. S.; Park, T. W

    2000-04-01

    Biological model systems such as TSH mutations, animals and their reproductive organs, and cultured cell lines and human peripheral lymphocytes have been set up for screening radioprotective or radiosensitizing activities of natural products. About 100 natural plants were in vivo and in vitro tested. Among them, Salvia miltiorrhiza, Areca catechu, Cornus officinalis, and portulaca oleracea showed 20 percent of radioprotective activities. On the other hand, Acanthopanax sessiliflous, Melia japonica, and Agastache rugosa revealed radiosensitizing activities. Experimental studies on the farnesyl transferase inhibitors showed the results that some of the inhibitors lead to higher levels of cell death after {gamma}-irradiation and increased radiosensitivity in H-ras-transformed NIH3T3 cells and MCF-10A human tumor cells. Molecular biochemical studies on the mechanism of radioprotection was carried out using cultured cells. The treatment of DTT increased cell survival after gamma-irradiation,decreased in the frequencies of micronucleus, and reduction in DNA fragmentation and apoptotic cells. Induction of apoptosis after irradiation was revealed by the changes in the relative cell death, increase in the relative amount of apoptotic cells, and the induction of DNA fragmentation. The result of mechanism studies will be applied to elucidate the radioprotection mechanism and to develop enhanced radioprotectors. Furthermore, our results indicate that use of antioxidants in combination can efficiently modulate the radiation-induced cell damage like apoptosis and can be applied to alleviate the cellular damage in tumor patients during radiotherapy. (author)

  14. Development of enhanced radioprotectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Kyu; Park, K.B.; Lee, Y.I. [and others

    1999-04-01

    Biological model systems such as TSH mutations, animals and their reproductive organs, and cultured cell lines has been set up for screening radioprotective or radiosensitizing activities of natural products. About 100 natural plants were in vivo and in vitro tested. Among them, Salvia miltiorrhiza, Areca catechu, Cornus officinalis, and Portulaca oleracea showed 20% of radioprotective activities. On the other hand, Acanthopanax sessiliflous, Melia japonica, and Agastache rugosa revealed radiosensitizing activities. Experimental studies on the farnesyltransferase inhibitors showed the results that some of the inhibits lead to higher levels of cell death after {gamma} -irradiation and increased radiosensitivity in H-ras-transformed NIH3T3 cells and MCF-10A human tumor cells. Molecular biochemical studies on the mechanism of radioprotection was carried out using cultured cells. The treatment of DTT increased cell survival after gamma-irradiation, decreased in the frequencies of micronucleus, and reduction in DNA fragmentation and apoptotic cells. Induction of apoptosis after irradiation was revealed by the changes in the relative cell death, increase in the relative amount of apoptotic cells, and the induction of DNA fragmentation. Samples shown excellent radioprotective or radiosensitizing activities will be subjected to purification to develop radioprotectants and radiosensitizers applicable to human beings. The result of mechanism studies will be applied to elucidate the radioprotection mechanism and the develop enhanced radioprotectors. (author). 145 refs., 21 tabs., 29 figs.

  15. Enhanced Design Alternative IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N. E. Kramer

    1999-05-18

    This report evaluates Enhanced Design Alternative (EDA) IV as part of the second phase of the License Application Design Selection (LADS) effort. The EDA IV concept was compared to the VA reference design using criteria from the ''Design Input Request for LADS Phase II EDA Evaluations'' (CRWMS M&O 1999b) and (CRWMS M&O 1999f). Briefly, the EDA IV concept arranges the waste packages close together in an emplacement configuration known as ''line load''. Continuous pre-closure ventilation keeps the waste packages from exceeding the 350 C cladding and 200 C (4.3.13) drift wall temperature limits. This EDA concept keeps relatively high, uniform emplacement drift temperatures (post-closure) to drive water away from the repository and thus dry out the pillars between emplacement drifts. The waste package is shielded to permit human access to emplacement drifts and includes an integral filler inside the package to reduce the amount of water that can contact the waste form. Closure of the repository is desired 50 years after first waste is emplaced. Both backfill and a drip shields will be emplaced at closure to improve post-closure performance.

  16. Enhancing a Universe Below

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berge, Gunnar

    1998-12-31

    By understanding the past and by means of modern technology the petroleum resources can be exploited in an environmentally friendly and cost-effective way. Since the future of the oil and gas industry depends on the size and availability of the remaining resources and on the demand for the products, this presentation aims to overview these resources, globally and on the Norwegian Shelf. It also considers the uncertainty in the future demand for oil and gas. A key challenge for the industry is to enhance the value of these resources without compromising environmental values. The industry will also have to face issues such as deregulation of the energy markets, hydrocarbon taxation, etc. These challenges also provide possibilities for a proactive industry; how can we make the industry more competitive? New oil and gas fields are now being developed in deeper water, in harsh climate conditions and in vulnerable environments. These challenges call for technological development and strong focus on safety and environmental issues. Long-term commercial commitment and cooperation of the industry is essential for new technologies and for training. 2 figs.

  17. Multispectral histogram normalization contrast enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soha, J. M.; Schwartz, A. A.

    1979-01-01

    A multispectral histogram normalization or decorrelation enhancement which achieves effective color composites by removing interband correlation is described. The enhancement procedure employs either linear or nonlinear transformations to equalize principal component variances. An additional rotation to any set of orthogonal coordinates is thus possible, while full histogram utilization is maintained by avoiding the reintroduction of correlation. For the three-dimensional case, the enhancement procedure may be implemented with a lookup table. An application of the enhancement to Landsat multispectral scanning imagery is presented.

  18. What are super-enhancers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pott, Sebastian; Lieb, Jason D

    2015-01-01

    The term 'super-enhancer' has been used to describe groups of putative enhancers in close genomic proximity with unusually high levels of Mediator binding, as measured by chromatin immunoprecipitation and sequencing (ChIP-seq). Here we review the identification and composition of super-enhancers, describe links between super-enhancers, gene regulation and disease, and discuss the functional significance of enhancer clustering. We also provide our perspective regarding the proposition that super-enhancers are a regulatory entity conceptually distinct from what was known before the introduction of the term. Our opinion is that there is not yet strong evidence that super-enhancers are a novel paradigm in gene regulation and that use of the term in this context is not currently justified. However, the term likely identifies strong enhancers that exhibit behaviors consistent with previous models and concepts of transcriptional regulation. In this respect, the super-enhancer definition is useful in identifying regulatory elements likely to control genes important for cell type specification.

  19. PENETRATION ENHANCERS: A NOVEL STRATEGY FOR ENHANCING TRANSDERMAL DRUG DELIVERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singla Vikas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Skin penetration enhancers have been used to improve bioavailability and increase the range of drugs to be administered by topical and transdermal route. Enhancement in skin penetration via modification of the stratum corneum by hydration, or via use of chemical enhancers acting on the structure of the stratum corneum lipids and keratin, partitioning and solubility effects. The mechanism of action of penetration enhancers are used as an aid in potential clinical applications. Synthetic chemicals generally used for this purposes are rapidly losing their value in transdermal patches due to reports of their absorption into the systemic circulation and subsequent possible toxic effect upon long term application. Terpenes are included in the list of Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS substances and have low irritancy potential. In this review, we have discussed the chemical penetration as well as natural penetration enhancement technology for transdermal drug delivery as well as the probable mechanisms of action.

  20. Enhancers, enhancers - from their discovery to today's universe of transcription enhancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffner, Walter

    2015-04-01

    Transcriptional enhancers are short (200-1500 base pairs) DNA segments that are able to dramatically boost transcription from the promoter of a target gene. Originally discovered in simian virus 40 (SV40), a small DNA virus, transcription enhancers were soon also found in immunoglobulin genes and other cellular genes as key determinants of cell-type-specific gene expression. Enhancers can exert their effect over long distances of thousands, even hundreds of thousands of base pairs, either from upstream, downstream, or from within a transcription unit. The number of enhancers in eukaryotic genomes correlates with the complexity of the organism; a typical mammalian gene is likely controlled by several enhancers to fine-tune its expression at different developmental stages, in different cell types and in response to different signaling cues. Here, I provide a personal account of how enhancers were discovered more than 30 years ago, and also address the amazing development of the field since then.

  1. Plasmon Enhanced Photoemission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polyakov, Aleksandr [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-05-08

    this work, the structure consisted of rectangular nano-grooves (NGs) arranged in a subwavelength grating on a metal surface is presented that provides a dramatic increase in the metal’s absorption, field localization, and field enhancement. When light is polarized perpendicular to the orientation of the grooves a standing SPP wave is excited along the vertical walls in the NGs, that act as Fabry-Perot resonators. By adjusting the geometry of the NGs and the period of the subwavelength grating the resonance can be fine tuned to a desired position, for example, the laser fundamental wavelength, anywhere from the UV to the near infrared (NIR). Two types of gratings are presented: (a) a gold grating with period of 600 nm, and (b) an aluminum-gold grating with a period of 100 nm; both with resonance at 720 nm. In each case, strong on-resonance absorption was observed, with over 98% for grating (b). Unlike the grating-coupled SPP waves, where the angle is well defined by the momentum matching condition, the resonant NGs allow coupling to the standing modes at a range of angles of incidence, referred to as the angular bandwidth. A new model for the on-resonance absorption based on the ensamble action of the NGs is presented that serves as the basis for a design of an NG grating with an ultrawide spectral as well as angular bandwidth. For sample (b), the angular bandwidth is 80 degrees, corresponding to an opening angle of 160 degrees. The photoemission enhancement for such a grating was measured to be seven orders of magnitude for a four-photon photoemission. This is an incredible result demonstrating the power of the plasmonic grating presented, which is an efficient light trapper and field enhancer for a non-linear processes. These results demonstrate that the metal photocathode prepared with a NG grating on the metal surface will provide sufficient pulse charge driven by a 1 μJ 15fs pulsed laser at 800 nm for the optimum FEL operation.

  2. Resolution Enhancement of Multilook Imagery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galbraith, Amy E. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    2004-07-01

    This dissertation studies the feasibility of enhancing the spatial resolution of multi-look remotely-sensed imagery using an iterative resolution enhancement algorithm known as Projection Onto Convex Sets (POCS). A multi-angle satellite image modeling tool is implemented, and simulated multi-look imagery is formed to test the resolution enhancement algorithm. Experiments are done to determine the optimal con guration and number of multi-angle low-resolution images needed for a quantitative improvement in the spatial resolution of the high-resolution estimate. The important topic of aliasing is examined in the context of the POCS resolution enhancement algorithm performance. In addition, the extension of the method to multispectral sensor images is discussed and an example is shown using multispectral confocal fluorescence imaging microscope data. Finally, the remote sensing issues of atmospheric path radiance and directional reflectance variations are explored to determine their effect on the resolution enhancement performance.

  3. Metaheuristic applications to speech enhancement

    CERN Document Server

    Kunche, Prajna

    2016-01-01

    This book serves as a basic reference for those interested in the application of metaheuristics to speech enhancement. The major goal of the book is to explain the basic concepts of optimization methods and their use in heuristic optimization in speech enhancement to scientists, practicing engineers, and academic researchers in speech processing. The authors discuss why it has been a challenging problem for researchers to develop new enhancement algorithms that aid in the quality and intelligibility of degraded speech. They present powerful optimization methods to speech enhancement that can help to solve the noise reduction problems. Readers will be able to understand the fundamentals of speech processing as well as the optimization techniques, how the speech enhancement algorithms are implemented by utilizing optimization methods, and will be given the tools to develop new algorithms. The authors also provide a comprehensive literature survey regarding the topic.

  4. Enhanced incoherent scatter plasma lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Nilsson

    Full Text Available Detailed model calculations of auroral secondary and photoelectron distributions for varying conditions have been used to calculate the theoretical enhancement of incoherent scatter plasma lines. These calculations are compared with EISCAT UHF radar measurements of enhanced plasma lines from both the E and F regions, and published EISCAT VHF radar measurements. The agreement between the calculated and observed plasma line enhancements is good. The enhancement from the superthermal distribution can explain even the very strong enhancements observed in the auroral E region during aurora, as previously shown by Kirkwood et al. The model calculations are used to predict the range of conditions when enhanced plasma lines will be seen with the existing high-latitude incoherent scatter radars, including the new EISCAT Svalbard radar. It is found that the detailed structure, i.e. the gradients in the suprathermal distribution, are most important for the plasma line enhancement. The level of superthermal flux affects the enhancement only in the region of low phase energy where the number of thermal electrons is comparable to the number of suprathermal electrons and in the region of high phase energy where the suprathermal fluxes fall to such low levels that their effect becomes small compared to the collision term. To facilitate the use of the predictions for the different radars, the expected signal- to-noise ratios (SNRs for typical plasma line enhancements have been calculated. It is found that the high-frequency radars (Søndre Strømfjord, EISCAT UHF should observe the highest SNR, but only for rather high plasma frequencies. The VHF radars (EISCAT VHF and Svalbard will detect enhanced plasma lines over a wider range of frequencies, but with lower SNR.

  5. Environmental engineering education enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caporali, E.

    2012-04-01

    Since higher education plays a central role in the development of both human beings and modern societies, enhancing social, cultural and economic development, active citizenship, ethical values and expertises for a sustainable growth, environment respectful, the European Commission promotes a wide range of programmes. Among the EC programmes, the TEMPUS - Trans European Mobility Programme for University Studies, with the support of the DG EAC of the European Commission, has contributed to many aspects of general interest for higher education. Curricula harmonization, LifeLong Learning Programme development, ICT use, quality assessment, accreditation, innovation learning methods, growth of networks of institutions trusting each other, are the focused aspects. Such a solid cooperation framework is surely among the main outcomes of the TEMPUS Projects leaded by the University of Firenze UNIFI (Italy), DEREC - Development of Environment and Resources Engineering Curriculum (2005-2008), and its spin-off DEREL - Development of Environment and Resources Engineering Learning (2010-2013), and VICES - Videoconferencing Educational Services (2009-2012). DEREC and DEREL TEMPUS projects, through the co-operation of Universities in Italy, Austria, Germany, Greece, Macedonia, Albania and Serbia, are aimed at the development of first and second level curricula in "Environment and Resources Engineering" at the Ss. Cyril and Methodius University - UKIM Skopje (MK). In the DEREC Project the conditions for offering a joint degree title in the field of Environmental Engineering between UNIFI and UKIM Skopje were fulfilled and a shared educational programme leading to the mutual recognition of degree titles was defined. The DEREL project, as logical continuation of DEREC, is aimed to introduce a new, up-to-date, postgraduate second level curriculum in Environment and Resources Engineering at UKIM Skopje, University of Novi Sad (RS) and Polytechnic University of Tirana (AL). following

  6. Fuzzy-Contextual Contrast Enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parihar, Anil; Verma, Om; Khanna, Chintan

    2017-02-08

    This paper presents contrast enhancement algorithms based on fuzzy contextual information of the images. We introduce fuzzy similarity index and fuzzy contrast factor to capture the neighborhood characteristics of a pixel. A new histogram, using fuzzy contrast factor of each pixel is developed, and termed as the fuzzy dissimilarity histogram (FDH). A cumulative distribution function (CDF) is formed with normalized values of FDH and used as a transfer function to obtain the contrast enhanced image. The algorithm gives good contrast enhancement and preserves the natural characteristic of the image. In order to develop a contextual intensity transfer function, we introduce a fuzzy membership function based on fuzzy similarity index and coefficient of variation of the image. The contextual intensity transfer function is designed using the fuzzy membership function to achieve final contrast enhanced image. The overall algorithm is referred as the fuzzy contextual contrast-enhancement (FCCE) algorithm. The proposed algorithms are compared with conventional and state-of-art contrast enhancement algorithms. The quantitative and visual assessment of the results is performed. The results of quantitative measures are statistically analyzed using t-test. The exhaustive experimentation and analysis show the proposed algorithm efficiently enhances contrast and yields in natural visual quality images.

  7. Resolution enhancement techniques in microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremer, Christoph; Masters, Barry R.

    2013-05-01

    We survey the history of resolution enhancement techniques in microscopy and their impact on current research in biomedicine. Often these techniques are labeled superresolution, or enhanced resolution microscopy, or light-optical nanoscopy. First, we introduce the development of diffraction theory in its relation to enhanced resolution; then we explore the foundations of resolution as expounded by the astronomers and the physicists and describe the conditions for which they apply. Then we elucidate Ernst Abbe's theory of optical formation in the microscope, and its experimental verification and dissemination to the world wide microscope communities. Second, we describe and compare the early techniques that can enhance the resolution of the microscope. Third, we present the historical development of various techniques that substantially enhance the optical resolution of the light microscope. These enhanced resolution techniques in their modern form constitute an active area of research with seminal applications in biology and medicine. Our historical survey of the field of resolution enhancement uncovers many examples of reinvention, rediscovery, and independent invention and development of similar proposals, concepts, techniques, and instruments. Attribution of credit is therefore confounded by the fact that for understandable reasons authors stress the achievements from their own research groups and sometimes obfuscate their contributions and the prior art of others. In some cases, attribution of credit is also made more complex by the fact that long term developments are difficult to allocate to a specific individual because of the many mutual connections often existing between sometimes fiercely competing, sometimes strongly collaborating groups. Since applications in biology and medicine have been a major driving force in the development of resolution enhancing approaches, we focus on the contribution of enhanced resolution to these fields.

  8. Resolution enhancement in tilted coordinates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariri Naghadeh, Diako; Keith Morley, Christopher

    2016-11-01

    Deconvolution is applied to remove source wavelet effects from seismograms. The results are resolution enhancement that enables detection of thin layers. Following enhancement of resolution, low frequency and high angle reflectors, particularly at great depth, appear as low amplitude and semi-invisible reflectors that are difficult to track and pick. A new approach to enhance resolution is introduced that estimates a derivative using continuous wavelet transform in tilted coordinates. The results are compared with sparse spike deconvolution, curvelet deconvolution and inverse quality filtering in wavelet domain. The positive consequence of the new method is to increase sampling of high dip features by changing the coordinate system from Cartesian to tilted. To compare those methods a complex data set was chosen that includes high angle faults and chaotic mass transport complex. Image enhancement using curvelet deconvolution shows a chaotic system as a non-chaotic one. The results show that sparse spike deconvolution and inverse quality filtering in wavelet domain are able to enhance resolution more than curvelet deconvolution especially at great depth but it is impossible to follow steep dip reflectors after resolution enhancement using these methods, especially when their apparent dips are more than 45°. By estimating derivatives in a continuous wavelet transform from tilted data sets similar resolution enhancement as the other deconvolution methods is achieved but additionally steep dipping reflectors are imaged much better than others. Subtracted results of the enhanced resolution data set using new method and the other introduced methods show that steeply dipping reflectors are highlighted as a particular ability of the new method. The results show that high frequency recovery in Cartesian co-ordinate is accompanied by inability to image steeply dipping reflectors especially at great depths. Conversely recovery of high frequency data and imaging of the data

  9. Dural enhancement in pituitary macroadenomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cattin, F. [Dept. of Neuroradiology, University Hospital of Besancon (France); Dept. of Neuroradiology, Jean Minjoz Hospital, Besancon (France); Bonneville, F.; Andrea, I.; Barrali, E.; Bonneville, J.F. [Dept. of Neuroradiology, University Hospital of Besancon (France)

    2000-07-01

    We describe the normal dural enhancement patterns of the sellar region and determine whether the duramater is affected by pituitary macroadenomas. Dural enhancement appeared to be usually abnormal in 20 patients with pituitary macroadenoma compared with 20 control patients, mainly at the planum sphenoidale and carotid sulcus. However dural changes are subtle and their recognition requires knowledge of the normal enhancement patterns. Dural changes, reported in a variety of inflammatory and infectious dural diseases and after surgery, are not specific and may be also seen in pituitary macroadenomas. (orig.)

  10. Speech enhancement theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Loizou, Philipos C

    2013-01-01

    With the proliferation of mobile devices and hearing devices, including hearing aids and cochlear implants, there is a growing and pressing need to design algorithms that can improve speech intelligibility without sacrificing quality. Responding to this need, Speech Enhancement: Theory and Practice, Second Edition introduces readers to the basic problems of speech enhancement and the various algorithms proposed to solve these problems. Updated and expanded, this second edition of the bestselling textbook broadens its scope to include evaluation measures and enhancement algorithms aimed at impr

  11. Moderate eugenics and human enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selgelid, Michael J

    2014-02-01

    Though the reputation of eugenics has been tarnished by history, eugenics per se is not necessarily a bad thing. Many advocate a liberal new eugenics--where individuals are free to choose whether or not to employ genetic technologies for reproductive purposes. Though genetic interventions aimed at the prevention of severe genetic disorders may be morally and socially acceptable, reproductive liberty in the context of enhancement may conflict with equality. Enhancement could also have adverse effects on utility. The enhancement debate requires a shift in focus. What the equality and/or utility costs of enhancement will be is an empirical question. Rather than philosophical speculation, more social science research is needed to address it. Philosophers, meanwhile, should address head-on the question of how to strike a balance between liberty, equality, and utility in cases of conflict (in the context of genetics).

  12. Ultrasonic enhancement of battery diffusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, R; Dornbusch, D; Branson, K; Tekeei, A; Suppes, G J

    2014-03-01

    It has been demonstrated that sonic energy can be harnessed to enhance convection in Galvanic cells during cyclic voltammetry; however, the practical value of this approach is limited due to the lack of open volumes for convection patterns to develop in most batteries. This study evaluates the ability of ultrasonic waves to enhance diffusion in membrane separators commonly used in sandwich-architecture batteries. Studies include the measuring of open-circuit performance curves to interpret performances in terms of reductions in concentration overpotentials. The use of a 40 kHz sonicator bath can consistently increase the voltage of the battery and reduce overpotential losses up to 30%. This work demonstrates and quantifies battery enhancement due to enhanced diffusion made possible with ultrasonic energy.

  13. Field enhancement induced laser ablation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiutowski, Jacek; Maibohm, Christian; Kjelstrup-Hansen, Jakob

    Sub-diffraction spatially resolved, quantitative mapping of strongly localized field intensity enhancement on gold nanostructures via laser ablation of polymer thin films is reported. Illumination using a femtosecond laser scanning microscope excites surface plasmons in the nanostructures...

  14. Enhanced Brine Dewatering System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of the Enhanced Brine Dewatering System (EBDS) is to provide an easily scalable means of completely recovering usable water from byproducts created by...

  15. Enhanced Brine Dewatering System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of the Enhanced Brine Dewatering System (EBDS) is to provide a scalable means of completely recovering usable water from byproducts created by reverse...

  16. Geothermal Permeability Enhancement - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joe Beall; Mark Walters

    2009-06-30

    The overall objective is to apply known permeability enhancement techniques to reduce the number of wells needed and demonstrate the applicability of the techniques to other undeveloped or under-developed fields. The Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) concept presented in this project enhances energy extraction from reduced permeability zones in the super-heated, vapor-dominated Aidlin Field of the The Geysers geothermal reservoir. Numerous geothermal reservoirs worldwide, over a wide temperature range, contain zones of low permeability which limit the development potential and the efficient recovery of heat from these reservoirs. Low permeability results from poorly connected fractures or the lack of fractures. The Enhanced Geothermal System concept presented here expands these technologies by applying and evaluating them in a systematic, integrated program.

  17. Enhanced Master Station History Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Enhanced Master Station History Report (EMSHR) is a compiled list of basic, historical information for every station in the station history database, beginning...

  18. Bose enhancement and the ridge

    CERN Document Server

    Altinoluk, Tolga; Beuf, Guillaume; Kovner, Alex; Lublinsky, Michael

    2015-01-01

    We point out that Bose enhancement in a hadronic wave function generically leads to correlations between produced particles. We show explicitly, by calculating the projectile density matrix in the Color Glass Condensate approach to high-energy hadronic collisions, that the Bose enhancement of gluons in the projectile leads to azimuthal collimation of long range rapidity correlations of the produced particles, the so-called ridge correlations.

  19. Bose enhancement and the ridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tolga Altinoluk

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We point out that Bose enhancement in a hadronic wave function generically leads to correlations between produced particles. We show explicitly, by calculating the projectile density matrix in the Color Glass Condensate approach to high-energy hadronic collisions, that the Bose enhancement of gluons in the projectile leads to azimuthal collimation of long range rapidity correlations of the produced particles, the so-called ridge correlations.

  20. Multispectral Enhancement towards Digital Staining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinky A. Bautista

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Digital staining can be considered as a special form of image enhancement wherein the concern is not only to increase the contrast between the background objects and objects of interest, but to also impart the colors that mark the objects’ unique reactions to a specific stain. In this paper, we extended the previously proposed multispectral enhancement methods such that the colors of the background pixels can also be changed.

  1. Bose enhancement and the ridge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altinoluk, Tolga [Departamento de Física de Partículas and IGFAE, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, 15706 Santiago de Compostela, Galicia (Spain); Armesto, Néstor, E-mail: nestor.armesto@usc.es [Departamento de Física de Partículas and IGFAE, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, 15706 Santiago de Compostela, Galicia (Spain); Beuf, Guillaume [Department of Physics, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva 84105 (Israel); Kovner, Alex [Physics Department, University of Connecticut, 2152 Hillside Road, Storrs, CT 06269-3046 (United States); Lublinsky, Michael [Department of Physics, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva 84105 (Israel)

    2015-12-17

    We point out that Bose enhancement in a hadronic wave function generically leads to correlations between produced particles. We show explicitly, by calculating the projectile density matrix in the Color Glass Condensate approach to high-energy hadronic collisions, that the Bose enhancement of gluons in the projectile leads to azimuthal collimation of long range rapidity correlations of the produced particles, the so-called ridge correlations.

  2. Contrast-enhanced endoscopic ultrasonography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reddy, Nischita K; Ioncica, Ana Maria; Saftoiu, Adrian;

    2011-01-01

    agents and their use in various endoscopic procedures in the gastrointestinal tract. Various applications of contrast-enhanced endoscopic ultrasonography include differentiating benign from malignant mediastinal lymphadenopathy, assessment of depth of invasion of esophageal, gastric and gall bladder...... sonography to depict tumor neovascularization can be increased by contrast agents. Contrast-enhanced harmonic imaging is a useful aid in identifying the tumor vasculature and studying pancreatic microperfusion. In the future, these techniques could potentially be used to quantify tumor perfusion, to assess...

  3. Chemically enhanced in situ recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sale, T. [CH2M Hill, Denver, CO (United States); Pitts, M.; Wyatt, K. [Surtek, Inc., Golden, CO (United States)] [and others

    1996-08-01

    Chemically enhanced recovery is a promising alternative to current technologies for management of subsurface releases of organic liquids. Through the inclusion of surfactants, solvents, polymers, and/or alkaline agents to a waterflood, the transport of targeted organic compounds can be increased and rates of recovery enhanced. By far, the vast majority of work done in the field of chemically enhanced recovery has been at a laboratory scale. The following text focuses on chemically enhanced recovery from a field application perspective with emphasis given to chlorinated solvents in a low permeability setting. While chlorinated solvents are emphasized, issues discussed are also relevant to organic liquids less dense than water such as petroleum products. Topics reviewed include: (1) Description of technology; (2) General technology considerations; (3) Low permeability media considerations; (4) Cost and reliability considerations; (5) Commercial availability; and (6) Case histories. Through this paper an appreciation is developed of both the potential and limitations of chemically enhanced recovery. Excluded from the scope of this paper is the in situ destruction of organic compounds through processes such as chemical or biological oxidation, chemically enhanced recovery of inorganic compounds, and ex situ soil treatment processes. 11 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  4. 77 FR 25463 - Applications for New Awards; Enhanced Assessment Instruments Grants Program-Enhanced Assessment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-30

    ... Instruments Grants that yield significant research, methodologies, products, or tools specifically regarding... Applications for New Awards; Enhanced Assessment Instruments Grants Program--Enhanced Assessment Instruments...: Notice. Overview Information: Enhanced Assessment Instruments Grants Program--Enhanced...

  5. Enhanced sludge washing evaluation plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, R.D.

    1994-09-01

    The Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Program mission is to store, treat, and immobilize highly radioactive Hanford Site waste (current and future tank waste and the strontium/cesium capsules) in an environmentally sound, safe, and cost-effective manner. The scope of the TWRS Waste Pretreatment Program is to treat tank waste and separate that waste into HLW and LLW fractions and provide additional treatment as required to feed LLW and HLW immobilization facilities. Enhanced sludge washing was chosen as the baseline process for separating Hanford tank waste sludge. Section 1.0 briefly discusses the purpose of the evaluation plan and provides the background that led to the choice of enhanced sludge washing as the baseline process. Section 2.0 provides a brief summary of the evaluation plan details. Section 3.0 discusses, in some detail, the technical work planned to support the evaluation of enhanced sludge washing. Section 4.0 briefly discusses the potential important of policy issues to the evaluation. Section 5.0 discusses the methodology to be used in the evaluation process. Section 6.0 summarizes the milestones that have been defined to complete the enhanced sludge washing evaluation and provides a summary schedule to evaluate the performance of enhanced sludge washing. References are identified in Section 7.0, and additional schedule and milestone information is provided in the appendices.

  6. Human enhancement: The new eugenics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vizcarrondo, Felipe E

    2014-08-01

    Supporters of human enhancement through genetic and other reproductive technologies claim that the new liberal eugenics, based on science and individual consent differs from the old eugenics which was unscientific and coercive. Supporters claim it is the parent's moral obligation to produce the best children possible. At this time, a defective gene that is identified in an unborn child cannot be repaired. To prevent the manifestation of the undesirable trait the unborn child is destroyed. The arguments in support of human enhancement are based on an ethic of consequence that could allow for nearly any means as long as the desired end is reached. Medical enhancement may affect the parent-child family unit; the parents' love for the child may be conditioned on the expected results. The new eugenics, although based on science, continues to pursue the same goal as the old eugenics, the development of a superior individual and the elimination of those considered inferior.

  7. Piezoelectric enhancement under negative pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvasov, Alexander; McGilly, Leo J.; Wang, Jin; Shi, Zhiyong; Sandu, Cosmin S.; Sluka, Tomas; Tagantsev, Alexander K.; Setter, Nava

    2016-07-01

    Enhancement of ferroelectric properties, both spontaneous polarization and Curie temperature under negative pressure had been predicted in the past from first principles and recently confirmed experimentally. In contrast, piezoelectric properties are expected to increase by positive pressure, through polarization rotation. Here we investigate the piezoelectric response of the classical PbTiO3, Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 and BaTiO3 perovskite ferroelectrics under negative pressure from first principles and find significant enhancement. Piezoelectric response is then tested experimentally on free-standing PbTiO3 and Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 nanowires under self-sustained negative pressure, confirming the theoretical prediction. Numerical simulations verify that negative pressure in nanowires is the origin of the enhanced electromechanical properties. The results may be useful in the development of highly performing piezoelectrics, including lead-free ones.

  8. Moral enhancement requires multiple virtues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, James J

    2015-01-01

    Some of the debates around the concept of moral enhancement have focused on whether the improvement of a single trait, such as empathy or intelligence, would be a good in general, or in all circumstances. All virtue theories, however, both secular and religious, have articulated multiple virtues that temper and inform one another in the development of a mature moral character. The project of moral enhancement requires a reengagement with virtue ethics and contemporary moral psychology to develop an empirically grounded model of the virtues and a fuller model of character development. Each of these virtues may be manipulable with electronic, psychopharmaceutical, and genetic interventions. A set of interdependent virtues is proposed, along with some of the research pointing to ways such virtues could be enhanced.

  9. Bibliometric-enhanced Information Retrieval

    CERN Document Server

    Mayr, Philipp; Larsen, Birger; Schaer, Philipp; Mutschke, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Bibliometric techniques are not yet widely used to enhance retrieval processes in digital libraries, although they offer value-added effects for users. In this workshop we will explore how statistical modelling of scholarship, such as Bradfordizing or network analysis of coauthorship network, can improve re-trieval services for specific communities, as well as for large, cross-domain col-lections. This workshop aims to raise awareness of the missing link between in-formation retrieval (IR) and bibliometrics/scientometrics and to create a common ground for the incorporation of bibliometric-enhanced services into retrieval at the digital library interface.

  10. Plasmon-enhanced UV photocatalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honda, Mitsuhiro; Saito, Yuika, E-mail: yuika@ap.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp; Kawata, Satoshi [Department of Applied Physics, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Kumamoto, Yasuaki [Nanophotonics Laboratory, RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Taguchi, Atsushi [Nanophotonics Laboratory, RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Department of Mechanical Systems Engineering, School of Engineering, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8588 (Japan)

    2014-02-10

    We report plasmonic nanoparticle enhanced photocatalysis on titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) in the deep-UV range. Aluminum (Al) nanoparticles fabricated on TiO{sub 2} film increases the reaction rate of photocatalysis by factors as high as 14 under UV irradiation in the range of 260–340 nm. The reaction efficiency has been determined by measuring the decolorization rate of methylene blue applied on the TiO{sub 2} substrate. The enhancement of photocatalysis shows particle size and excitation wavelength dependence, which can be explained by the surface plasmon resonance of Al nanoparticles.

  11. Perturbations can enhance qauntum search

    CERN Document Server

    Bae, J; Bae, Joonwoo; Kwon, Younghun

    2003-01-01

    In general, a quantum algorithm wants to avoid decoherence or perturbation, since such factors may cause errors in the algorithm. In this letter, we will supply the answer to the interesting question: can the factors seemingly harmful to a quantum algorithm(for example, perturbations) enhance the algorithm? We show that some perturbations to the generalized quantum search Hamiltonian can reduce the running time and enhance the success probability. We also provide the narrow bound to the perturbation which can be beneficial to quantum search. In addition, we show that the error induced by a perturbation on the Farhi and Gutmann Hamiltonian can be corrected by another perturbation.

  12. Effect of alcohols and enhancers on permeation enhancement of ketorolac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra Amrish

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A reservoir-type transdermal patch for the delivery of ketorolac was studied. The low permeability of the skin is the rate-limiting step for delivery of most of the drugs. Studies were carried out to investigate the effect of pH, alcohols, and chemical permeation enhancers on the in vitro permeation of ketorolac. The reservoir core of the transdermal patch was filled with the hydrogel of a nonionic polymer, methocel K 15 M (hydroxyl propyl methylcellulose, HPMC formulated at an optimized pH of 5.4. Enhanced in vitro permeation was achieved after the incorporation of the alcohols. Higher enhancement was produced by short-chain alcohols like ethanol and isopropyl alcohol (IPA. Propylene glycol (PG along with other alcohols, viz. n-propanol, n-butanol, and n-pentanol, lagged behind. An exponential rise in permeation was observed in flux with an increase in the concentration of IPA. At 25%w/w IPA concentration, the observed ketorolac flux was 18.04mg/cm 2 /h. Terpene containing eucalyptus oil was studied to determine its permeation enhancement capability. The increase in the concentration of eucalyptus oil enhanced the drug permeation and a maximum flux of 66.38 and 90.56mg/cm 2 /h was achieved at 10 and 15%w/w concentrations. The anti-inflammatory potential of the transdermal formulation was evaluated on a carrageenan-induced paw edema model, with 41.67% inhibition at 6 h. The skin irritation potential was evaluated by the Drazie test and the formulations prepared were found to be safe. The reservoir-type transdermal patch for the delivery of ketorolac appeared to be feasible for delivering ketorolac across the skin.

  13. Toxicity of copper to early-life stage Kootenai River white sturgeon, Columbia River white sturgeon, and rainbow trout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, E E; Calfee, R D; Linder, G

    2012-10-01

    White sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) populations throughout western North America are in decline, likely as a result of overharvest, operation of dams, and agricultural and mineral extraction activities in their watersheds. Recruitment failure may reflect the loss of early-life stage fish in spawning areas of the upper Columbia River, which are contaminated with metals from effluents associated with mineral-extraction activities. Early-life stage white sturgeon (A. transmontanus) from the Columbia River and Kootenai River populations were exposed to copper during 96-h flow-through toxicity tests to determine their sensitivity to the metal. Similar tests were conducted with rainbow trout (RBT [Oncorhynchus mykiss]) to assess the comparative sensitivity of this species as a surrogate for white sturgeon. Exposures were conducted with a water quality pH 8.1-8.3, hardness 81-119 mg/L as CaCO(2), and dissolved organic carbon 0.2-0.4 mg/L. At approximately 30 days posthatch (dph), sturgeon were highly sensitive to copper with median lethal concentration (LC(50)) values ranging from 4.1 to 6.8 μg/L compared with 36.5 μg/L for 30 dph RBT. White sturgeon at 123-167 dph were less sensitive to copper with LC(50) values ranging from 103.7 to 268.9 μg/L. RBT trout, however, remained more sensitive to copper at 160 dph with an LC(50) value of 30.9 μg/L. The results indicate that high sensitivity to copper in early-life stage white sturgeon may be a factor in recruitment failure occurring in the upper Columbia and Kootenai rivers. When site-specific water-quality criteria were estimated using the biotic ligand model (BLM), derived values were not protective of early-life stage fish, nor were estimates derived by water-hardness adjustment.

  14. Advances in heat transfer enhancement

    CERN Document Server

    Saha, Sujoy Kumar; Sundén, Bengt; Wu, Zan

    2016-01-01

    This Brief addresses the phenomena of heat transfer enhancement. A companion edition in the SpringerBrief Subseries on Thermal Engineering and Applied Science to three other monographs including “Critical Heat Flux in Flow Boiling in Microchannels,” this volume is idea for professionals, researchers, and graduate students concerned with electronic cooling.

  15. Enhancing Access to Journal Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maine Univ., Orono. Raymond H. Fogler Library.

    The libraries of the University of Maine System, Bates, Bowdoin, and Colby Colleges have installed integrated systems which are being linked electronically and are designed to promote the maximum sharing of library resources, thereby significantly enhancing the teaching and research capabilities of each institution. The institutions propose to…

  16. Forensics: Enhancing Civic Literacy & Democracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briscoe, Shawn F.

    2009-01-01

    Forensics--interpretation, speech, and debate--can and should be a meaningful part of every school's curriculum. To put it simply, the course of study, alongside cocurricular competition, promotes civic education and enhances the standard curriculum by helping students explore myriad topics from multiple angles and find the truth in each,…

  17. Progress in Diffraction Enhanced Imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ In cooperation with the Topography Station of Beijing Synchrotron Radiation under CAS Institute of High Energy Physics, a research group from the CAS Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics (SIOM) has made encouraging progress in the diffraction enhanced imaging technology through phase-contrast microscope by hard X-rays.

  18. Bibliometric-enhanced information retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mayr, Philipp; Scharnhorst, Andrea; Larsen, Birger; Schaer, Philipp; Mutschke, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Bibliometric techniques are not yet widely used to enhance retrieval processes in digital libraries, although they offer value-added effects for users. In this workshop we will explore how statistical modelling of scholarship, such as Bradfordizing or network analysis of coauthorship network, can im

  19. Contrast enhancement in light microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst Keller, H; Watkins, Simon

    2013-01-01

    The optical microscope is a fundamental component of an image cytometry system. This unit covers the basic concepts of light microscopy, including Köhler illumination, resolution, contrast, and numerical aperture, and reviews the many types of instruments and techniques for contrast enhancement.

  20. Enhancements to PVM's BEOLIN architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Paul L.

    2005-01-01

    .4.3 of PVM had previously been enhanced by the addition of a new architecture, BEOLIN, which allowed a PVM user to abstract a Beowulf class computer with a private network to appear as a single system, visible to the outside world, which could spawn tasks on different internal nodes.

  1. Enhancing hydrogen spillover and storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ralph T; Li, Yingwei; Lachawiec, Jr., Anthony J

    2013-02-12

    Methods for enhancing hydrogen spillover and storage are disclosed. One embodiment of the method includes doping a hydrogen receptor with metal particles, and exposing the hydrogen receptor to ultrasonication as doping occurs. Another embodiment of the method includes doping a hydrogen receptor with metal particles, and exposing the doped hydrogen receptor to a plasma treatment.

  2. Surface-enhanced Raman nanodomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Charles J; Xu Zhida; Wu, Hsin-Yu; Liu, Gang Logan; Cunningham, Brian T, E-mail: bcunning@illinois.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Micro and Nanotechnology Laboratory, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 208 North Wright Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)

    2010-10-15

    We demonstrate a surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate consisting of a closely spaced metal nanodome array fabricated on flexible plastic film. We used a low-cost, large-area replica molding process to produce a two-dimensional periodic array of cylinders that is subsequently overcoated with SiO{sub 2} and silver thin films to form dome-shaped structures. Finite element modeling was used to investigate the electromagnetic field distribution of the nanodome array structure and the effect of the nanodome separation distance on the electromagnetic field enhancement. The SERS enhancement from the nanodome array substrates was experimentally verified using rhodamine 6G as the analyte. With a separation distance of 17 nm achieved between adjacent domes using a process that is precisely controlled during thin film deposition, a reproducible SERS enhancement factor of 1.37 x 10{sup 8} was demonstrated. The nanoreplica molding process presented in this work allows for simple, low-cost, high-throughput fabrication of uniform nanoscale SERS substrates over large surface areas without the requirement for high resolution lithography or defect-free deposition of spherical microparticle monolayer templates.

  3. CPS Science Laboratory Enhancement Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, Chandra

    2014-12-03

    The lab enhancement initiative was designed to support early implementation efforts of new policy to promote safe learning environments and school labs called the Chemical Safety and Hygiene Plan (CSHP). These efforts included comprehensive inventories and chemical removals at all Chicago Public High Schools, conducted by environmental health and safety consultants, and the development of professional development resources for teachers.

  4. Controlling plasmon-enhanced luminescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mertens, H.

    2007-01-01

    Plasmons are collective oscillations of the free electrons in a metal or an ionized gas. Plasmons dominate the optical properties of noble-metal nanoparticles, which enables a variety of applications. This thesis focuses on plasmon-enhanced luminescence of silicon quantum dots (Si QDs) and optically

  5. Bubble chamber: colour enhanced tracks

    CERN Multimedia

    1998-01-01

    This artistically-enhanced image of real particle tracks was produced in the Big European Bubble Chamber (BEBC). Liquid hydrogen is used to create bubbles along the paths of the particles as a piston expands the medium. A magnetic field is produced in the detector causing the particles to travel in spirals, allowing charge and momentum to be measured.

  6. Genomic Signal Enhancement by Clustering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Wei-Mou

    2003-01-01

    Weight matrix models for signal sequence motif are simple. A main limitation of the models is the assumption of independence between positions. Signal enhancement is achieved by taking the total likelihood as the objective function for maximization to cluster sequences into groups with different patterns. As an example, the initial and terminal signals for translation in rice genome are examined.

  7. Enhancing hydrogen spillover and storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ralph T.; Li, Yingwel; Lachawiec, Jr., Anthony J.

    2011-05-31

    Methods for enhancing hydrogen spillover and storage are disclosed. One embodiment of the method includes doping a hydrogen receptor with metal particles, and exposing the hydrogen receptor to ultrasonification as doping occurs. Another embodiment of the method includes doping a hydrogen receptor with metal particles, and exposing the doped hydrogen receptor to a plasma treatment.

  8. Dimensional enhancement of kinetic energies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schleich, W.P.; Dahl, Jens Peder

    2002-01-01

    Simple thermodynamics considers kinetic energy to be an extensive variable which is proportional to the number N of particles. We present a quantum state of N noninteracting particles for which the kinetic energy increases quadratically with N. This enhancement effect is tied to the quantum centr...

  9. Managing to enhance soil health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy soils are critical for meeting current and future societal demands. Management strategies that protect the soil against erosion, build soil organic matter and promote nutrient cycling are ways to enhance soil health. Keeping soils covered and judicious use of agrochemicals are akin to us “hu...

  10. Contrast-enhanced peripheral MRA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Yousef W; Thomsen, Henrik S

    2012-01-01

    In the last decade contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (CE-MRA) has gained wide acceptance as a valuable tool in the diagnostic work-up of patients with peripheral arterial disease. This review presents current concepts in peripheral CE-MRA with emphasis on MRI technique and contrast...

  11. Subendometrial enhancement and peritumoral enhancement for assessing endometrial cancer on dynamic contrast enhanced MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, Shinya [Division of Radiology, Department of Pathophysiological and Therapeutic Science, Faculty of Medicine, Tottori University, Yonago (Japan); Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Kido, Aki, E-mail: akikido@kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Baba, Tsukasa [Departments of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Fujimoto, Koji; Daido, Sayaka [Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Matsumura, Noriomi; Konishi, Ikuo [Departments of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Togashi, Kaori [Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: •We have assessed the peritumoral enhancement (PTE), which mimics SEE on DCE. •We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of SEE for the myometrial invasion and the frequency of PTE. •We assessed the relationship between these enhancements and important pathologic factors. •PTE Type 1 is the main factor causing the overestimation of myometrial invasion using SEE on DCE. •PTE Type 2 correlates the myometrial invasion and may play an important role in the diagnosis of LVSI. -- Abstract: Objectives: To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of subendometrial enhancement (SEE) in assessing the myometrial invasion in endometrial cancer, the frequency and clinical significance of peritumoral enhancement (PTE) on dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE) imaging. Materials and methods: MR images of 147 patients with endometrial cancer were retrospectively analyzed for intact SEE and PTEs: Type 1, a focal early enhancement peritumorally, and Type 2, an irregular thin-layered early intense enhancement peritumorally. Two radiologists independently assessed intact SEE and PTEs on DCE imaging and compared the lesions by the presence and depth of myometrial invasion, grade, lymphovascular space involvement (LVSI), and lymph node metastasis. The relationship between SEE, PTEs, and each factor was analyzed using univariate and multivariate analyses. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and diagnostic accuracy were calculated for SEE. Results: The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV and diagnostic accuracy for myometrial invasion based on SEE disruption on DCE were 96.6%, 32.1–46.4%, 85.8–88.5%, 69.2–76.5%, and 84.4–87.1%. According to multivariate analysis, SEE significantly predicted myometrial invasion (p < 0.0001). PTE Type 2 significantly predicted myometrial invasion presence (p < 0.05) and depth (p < 0.01). Conclusion: Diagnosis of myometrial invasion only by using SEE might be difficult on DCE-MRI due to the

  12. Image enhancement method for fingerprint recognition system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shunshan; Wei, Min; Tang, Haiying; Zhuang, Tiange; Buonocore, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Image enhancement plays an important role in Fingerprint Recognition System. In this paper fingerprint image enhancement method, a refined Gabor filter, is presented. This enhancement method can connect the ridge breaks, ensures the maximal gray values located at the ridge center and has the ability to compensate for the nonlinear deformations. The result shows it can improve the performance of image enhancement.

  13. Blob-enhanced reconstruction technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castrillo, Giusy; Cafiero, Gioacchino; Discetti, Stefano; Astarita, Tommaso

    2016-09-01

    A method to enhance the quality of the tomographic reconstruction and, consequently, the 3D velocity measurement accuracy, is presented. The technique is based on integrating information on the objects to be reconstructed within the algebraic reconstruction process. A first guess intensity distribution is produced with a standard algebraic method, then the distribution is rebuilt as a sum of Gaussian blobs, based on location, intensity and size of agglomerates of light intensity surrounding local maxima. The blobs substitution regularizes the particle shape allowing a reduction of the particles discretization errors and of their elongation in the depth direction. The performances of the blob-enhanced reconstruction technique (BERT) are assessed with a 3D synthetic experiment. The results have been compared with those obtained by applying the standard camera simultaneous multiplicative reconstruction technique (CSMART) to the same volume. Several blob-enhanced reconstruction processes, both substituting the blobs at the end of the CSMART algorithm and during the iterations (i.e. using the blob-enhanced reconstruction as predictor for the following iterations), have been tested. The results confirm the enhancement in the velocity measurements accuracy, demonstrating a reduction of the bias error due to the ghost particles. The improvement is more remarkable at the largest tested seeding densities. Additionally, using the blobs distributions as a predictor enables further improvement of the convergence of the reconstruction algorithm, with the improvement being more considerable when substituting the blobs more than once during the process. The BERT process is also applied to multi resolution (MR) CSMART reconstructions, permitting simultaneously to achieve remarkable improvements in the flow field measurements and to benefit from the reduction in computational time due to the MR approach. Finally, BERT is also tested on experimental data, obtaining an increase of the

  14. Enhancing who? Enhancing what? Ethics, bioethics, and transhumanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Tom

    2010-12-01

    Transhumanists advance a "posthuman" condition in which technological and genetic enhancements will transform humankind. They are joined in this goal by bioethicists arguing for genetic selection as a means of "enhancing evolution," improving if not also the species then at least the potential lives of future individuals. The argument of both, this paper argues, is a new riff on the old eugenics tune. As ever, it is done in the name of science and its presumed knowledge base. As ever, the result is destructive rather than instructive, bad faith promoted as high ideal. The paper concludes with the argument that species advancement is possible but in a manner thoroughly distinct from that advanced by either of these groups.

  15. Quantum-Enhanced Machine Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunjko, Vedran; Taylor, Jacob M; Briegel, Hans J

    2016-09-23

    The emerging field of quantum machine learning has the potential to substantially aid in the problems and scope of artificial intelligence. This is only enhanced by recent successes in the field of classical machine learning. In this work we propose an approach for the systematic treatment of machine learning, from the perspective of quantum information. Our approach is general and covers all three main branches of machine learning: supervised, unsupervised, and reinforcement learning. While quantum improvements in supervised and unsupervised learning have been reported, reinforcement learning has received much less attention. Within our approach, we tackle the problem of quantum enhancements in reinforcement learning as well, and propose a systematic scheme for providing improvements. As an example, we show that quadratic improvements in learning efficiency, and exponential improvements in performance over limited time periods, can be obtained for a broad class of learning problems.

  16. Quantum-Enhanced Machine Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunjko, Vedran; Taylor, Jacob M.; Briegel, Hans J.

    2016-09-01

    The emerging field of quantum machine learning has the potential to substantially aid in the problems and scope of artificial intelligence. This is only enhanced by recent successes in the field of classical machine learning. In this work we propose an approach for the systematic treatment of machine learning, from the perspective of quantum information. Our approach is general and covers all three main branches of machine learning: supervised, unsupervised, and reinforcement learning. While quantum improvements in supervised and unsupervised learning have been reported, reinforcement learning has received much less attention. Within our approach, we tackle the problem of quantum enhancements in reinforcement learning as well, and propose a systematic scheme for providing improvements. As an example, we show that quadratic improvements in learning efficiency, and exponential improvements in performance over limited time periods, can be obtained for a broad class of learning problems.

  17. Enhanced responsivity resonant RF photodetectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, R; Dev, S; Zhong, Y; Lu, R; Streyer, W; Allen, J W; Allen, M S; Wenner, B R; Gong, S; Wasserman, D

    2016-11-14

    The responsivity of room-temperature, semiconductor-based photodetectors consisting of resonant RF circuits coupled to microstrip buslines is investigated. The dependence of the photodetector response on the semiconductor material and RF circuit geometry is presented, as is the detector response as a function of the spatial position of the incident light. We demonstrate significant improvement in detector response by choice of photoconductive material, and for a given material, by positioning our optical signal to overlap with positions of RF field enhancement. Design of RF circuits with strong field enhancement are demonstrated to further improve detector response. The improved detector response demonstrated offers opportunities for applications in RF photonics, materials metrology, or single read-out multiplexed detector arrays.

  18. Biosurfactant-enhanced soil bioremediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosaric, N.; Lu, G.; Velikonja, J. [Univ. of Western Ontario, London, Ontario (Canada)

    1995-12-01

    Bioremediation of soil contaminated with organic chemicals is a viable alternative method for clean-up and remedy of hazardous waste sites. The final objective in this approach is to convert the parent toxicant into a readily biodegradable product which is harmless to human health and/or the environment. Biodegradation of hydrocarbons in soil can also efficiently be enhanced by addition or in-situ production of biosufactants. It was generally observed that the degradation time was shortened and particularly the adaptation time for the microbes. More data from our laboratories showed that chlorinated aromatic compounds, such as 2,4-dichlorophenol, a herbicide Metolachlor, as well as naphthalene are degraded faster and more completely when selected biosurfactants are added to the soil. More recent data demonstrated an enhanced biodegradation of heavy hydrocarbons in petrochemical sludges, and in contaminated oil when biosurfactants were present or were added prior to the biodegradation process.

  19. Enhancing OPAC Records for Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Griffis

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes adding keywords and descriptors to the catalog records of electronic databases and media items to enhance their discovery. The authors contend that subject liaisons can add value to OPAC records and enhance discovery of electronic databases and media items by providing searchable keywords and resource descriptions. The authors provide an examination of OPAC records at their own library, which illustrates the disparity of useful keywords and descriptions within the notes field for media item records versus electronic database records. The authors outline methods for identifying useful keywords for indexing OPAC records of electronic databases. Also included is an analysis of the advantages of using Encore’s Community Tag and Community Review features to allow subject liaisons to work directly in the catalog instead of collaborating with cataloging staff

  20. Enhanced heat transfer using nanofluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Stephen U. S.; Eastman, Jeffrey A.

    2001-01-01

    This invention is directed to a method of and apparatus for enhancing heat transfer in fluids such as deionized water. ethylene glycol, or oil by dispersing nanocrystalline particles of substances such as copper, copper oxide, aluminum oxide, or the like in the fluids. Nanocrystalline particles are produced and dispersed in the fluid by heating the substance to be dispersed in a vacuum while passing a thin film of the fluid near the heated substance. The fluid is cooled to control its vapor pressure.

  1. Technology Education Professional Enhancement Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Thomas A., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    The two goals of this project are: the use of integrative field of aerospace technology to enhance the content and instruction delivered by math, science, and technology teachers through the development of a new publication entitled NASA Technology Today, and to develop a rationale and structure for the study of technology, which establishes the foundation for developing technology education standards and programs of the future.

  2. Decision Rules for Enhanced Breakout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-20

    347AD-A18 2753 DECISION RULES FOR ENHANCED GRERICOUT(U) MODERN TECNOLOGIES CORP DAYTON 0ON T MI MCCANN 20 MAR 87 MTC-TR-8883-02 BRMC-85-564-i F33615... information to develop a priori estimates of the cost to break-out specific spare parts. In addition, some recommendations were to be developed...implementing directives. Applicable AF and AFLC Regulations and Pamphlets were also reviewed to obtain information on costs and their estimated

  3. Photodetector with enhanced light absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, James

    1985-01-01

    A photodetector including a light transmissive electrically conducting layer having a textured surface with a semiconductor body thereon. This layer traps incident light thereby enhancing the absorption of light by the semiconductor body. A photodetector comprising a textured light transmissive electrically conducting layer of SnO.sub.2 and a body of hydrogenated amorphous silicon has a conversion efficiency about fifty percent greater than that of comparative cells. The invention also includes a method of fabricating the photodetector of the invention.

  4. Enhancing Soundtracks From Old Movies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazer, Robert E.

    1992-01-01

    Proposed system enhances soundtracks of old movies. Signal on optical soundtrack of film digitized and processed to reduce noise and improve quality; timing signals added, and signal recorded on compact disk. Digital comparator and voltage-controlled oscillator synchronizes speed of film-drive motor and compact disk motor. Frame-coded detector reads binary frame-identifying marks on film. Digital comparator generates error signal if marks on film do not match those on compact disk.

  5. The myth of genetic enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosoff, Philip M

    2012-06-01

    The ongoing revolution in molecular genetics has led many to speculate that one day we will be able to change the expression or phenotype of numerous complex traits to improve ourselves in many different ways. The prospect of genetic enhancements has generated heated controversy, with proponents advocating research and implementation, with caution advised for concerns about justice, and critics tending to see the prospect of genetic enhancements as an assault on human freedom and human nature. Both camps base their arguments on the unquestioned assumption that the science will realize either their dreams or nightmares. In this paper, I show that their beliefs are based upon two fundamental mistakes. First, they are based upon an unwarranted reliance in a genetic determinism that takes for granted that the traits that we might most want to enhance, like intelligence, aggression, shyness, and even athletic ability, can be causally directed by specific genes. In so doing, character descriptions are reified to be concrete and discrete entities, in this case, genes. Second, they have accepted on faith that there is, or will be, a science to translate their hopes or worries into reality when, in fact, that is unlikely to occur because of the irreducible complexity of phenotypic expression.

  6. Proposal for Two Enhanced NTRU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Tariq Sadiq

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Sound is very widely used in communication. In order to ensure secure communication a cryptographic data scheme is used. Secure sound is needed in many fields such as military, business, banking and electronic commerce. There is also an increasing demand for secured sound in network communication. Several symmetric and asymmetric algorithms are used for sound encryption. In this work, NTRU, the last in line public key cryptosystem is enhanced in two methods and used for encrypting sound files after converting the sound into text. In the proposed methods the message is encrypted one character at a time, since NTRU encrypts only prime numbers, thus 7 bits of each character is encrypted and the eighth bit is left without encryption. In method I NTRU algorithm is enhanced by adding the result obtained from calculating a mathematical equation of one variable to the message and then the resulted encrypted bit is fed-back and added to the next bit of the message in the next step; this procedure is repeated for the subsequent bits of the message. In method II NTRU algorithm is enhanced by adding the subsequent states of LFSR (Linear Feedback Shift Register to the subsequent bytes of the message. The proposed methods are tested on several sound files; the results show that the proposed methods I and II maintain approximately the same original method encryption and decryption time while generating more complex encryption.

  7. Dispersion-Enhanced Laser Gyroscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David D.; Chang, Hongrok; Arissian, L.; Diels, J. C.

    2008-01-01

    We analyze the effect of a highly dispersive element placed inside a modulated optical cavity on the frequency and amplitude of the output modulation to determine the conditions for enhanced gyroscopic sensitivities. The element is treated as both a phase and amplitude filter, and the time-dependence of the cavity field is considered. Both atomic gases (two-level and multi-level) and optical resonators (single and coupled) are considered and compared as dispersive elements. We find that it is possible to simultaneously enhance the gyro scale factor sensitivity and suppress the dead band by using an element with anomalous dispersion that has greater loss at the carrier frequency than at the side-band frequencies, i.e., an element that simultaneously pushes and intensifies the perturbed cavity modes, e.g. a two-level absorber or an under-coupled optical resonator. The sensitivity enhancement is inversely proportional to the effective group index, becoming infinite at a group index of zero. However, the number of round trips required to reach a steady-state also becomes infinite when the group index is zero (or two). For even larger dispersions a steady-state cannot be achieved, and nonlinear dynamic effects such as bistability and periodic oscillations are predicted in the gyro response.

  8. Threshold enhancement of diphoton resonances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aoife Bharucha

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We revisit a mechanism to enhance the decay width of (pseudo-scalar resonances to photon pairs when the process is mediated by loops of charged fermions produced near threshold. Motivated by the recent LHC data, indicating the presence of an excess in the diphoton spectrum at approximately 750 GeV, we illustrate this threshold enhancement mechanism in the case of a 750 GeV pseudoscalar boson A with a two-photon decay mediated by a charged and uncolored fermion having a mass at the 12MA threshold and a small decay width, <1 MeV. The implications of such a threshold enhancement are discussed in two explicit scenarios: i the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model in which the A state is produced via the top quark mediated gluon fusion process and decays into photons predominantly through loops of charginos with masses close to 12MA and ii a two Higgs doublet model in which A is again produced by gluon fusion but decays into photons through loops of vector-like charged heavy leptons. In both these scenarios, while the mass of the charged fermion has to be adjusted to be extremely close to half of the A resonance mass, the small total widths are naturally obtained if only suppressed three-body decay channels occur. Finally, the implications of some of these scenarios for dark matter are discussed.

  9. Dispersion-enhanced laser gyroscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David D.; Chang, Hongrok; Arissian, L.; Diels, J. C.

    2008-11-01

    We analyze the effect of a highly dispersive element placed inside a modulated optical cavity on the frequency and amplitude of the output modulation to determine the conditions for enhanced gyroscopic sensitivities. The element is treated as both a phase and amplitude filter, and the time dependence of the cavity field is considered. Both atomic gases (two level and multilevel) and optical resonators (single and coupled) are considered and compared as dispersive elements. We find that it is possible to simultaneously enhance the gyro scale factor sensitivity and suppress the dead band by using an element with anomalous dispersion that has greater loss at the carrier frequency than at the sideband frequencies, i.e., an element that simultaneously pushes and intensifies the perturbed cavity modes, e.g. a two-level absorber or an undercoupled optical resonator. The sensitivity enhancement is inversely proportional to the effective group index, becoming infinite at a group index of zero. However, the number of round trips required to reach a steady state also becomes infinite when the group index is zero (or two). For even larger dispersions a steady state cannot be achieved, and nonlinear dynamic effects such as bistability and periodic oscillations are predicted in the gyro response.

  10. Cyclosporine A enhances platelet aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, A A; Barradas, M A; Mikhailidis, D P; Jeremy, J Y; Moorhead, J F; Sweny, P; Dandona, P

    1987-12-01

    In view of the reported increase in thromboembolic episodes following cyclosporine A (CyA) therapy, the effect of this drug on platelet aggregation and thromboxane A2 release was investigated. The addition of CyA, at therapeutic concentrations to platelet rich plasma from normal subjects in vitro was found to increase aggregation in response to adrenaline, collagen and ADP. Ingestion of CyA by healthy volunteers was also associated with enhanced platelet aggregation. The CyA-mediated enhancement of aggregation was further enhanced by the addition in vitro of therapeutic concentrations of heparin. Platelets from renal allograft recipients treated with CyA also showed hyperaggregability and increased thromboxane A2 release, which were most marked at "peak" plasma CyA concentration and less so at "trough" concentrations. Platelet hyperaggregability in renal allograft patients on long-term CyA therapy tended to revert towards normal following the replacement of CyA with azathioprine. Hypertensive patients with renal allografts on nifedipine therapy had normal platelet function and thromboxane release in spite of CyA therapy. These observations suggest that CyA-mediated platelet activation may contribute to the pathogenesis of the thromboembolic phenomena associated with the use of this drug. The increased release of thromboxane A2 (a vasoconstrictor) may also play a role in mediating CyA-related nephrotoxicity.

  11. Enhanced live cell imaging via photonic crystal enhanced fluorescence microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weili; Long, Kenneth D; Yu, Hojeong; Tan, Yafang; Choi, Ji Sun; Harley, Brendan A; Cunningham, Brian T

    2014-11-21

    We demonstrate photonic crystal enhanced fluorescence (PCEF) microscopy as a surface-specific fluorescence imaging technique to study the adhesion of live cells by visualizing variations in cell-substrate gap distance. This approach utilizes a photonic crystal surface incorporated into a standard microscope slide as the substrate for cell adhesion, and a microscope integrated with a custom illumination source as the detection instrument. When illuminated with a monochromatic light source, angle-specific optical resonances supported by the photonic crystal enable efficient excitation of surface-confined and amplified electromagnetic fields when excited at an on-resonance condition, while no field enhancement occurs when the same photonic crystal is illuminated in an off-resonance state. By mapping the fluorescence enhancement factor for fluorophore-tagged cellular components between on- and off-resonance states and comparing the results to numerical calculations, the vertical distance of labelled cellular components from the photonic crystal substrate can be estimated, providing critical and quantitative information regarding the spatial distribution of the specific components of cells attaching to a surface. As an initial demonstration of the concept, 3T3 fibroblast cells were grown on fibronectin-coated photonic crystals with fluorophore-labelled plasma membrane or nucleus. We demonstrate that PCEF microscopy is capable of providing information about the spatial distribution of cell-surface interactions at the single-cell level that is not available from other existing forms of microscopy, and that the approach is amenable to large fields of view, without the need for coupling prisms, coupling fluids, or special microscope objectives.

  12. Effect of dietary selenomethionine on growth performance, tissue burden, and histopathology in green and white sturgeon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Riu, Nicola; Lee, Jang-Won; Huang, Susie S Y; Moniello, Giuseppe; Hung, Silas S O

    2014-03-01

    A comparative examination of potential differences in selenium (Se) sensitivity was conducted on two sturgeon species indigenous to the San Francisco Bay-Delta. Juvenile green (Acipenser medirostris), recently given a federally threatened status, and white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) were exposed to one of four nominal concentrations of dietary l-selenomethionine (SeMet) (0 (control), 50, 100, or 200 mg SeMet/kg diet) for 8 weeks. Mortality, growth performance, whole body composition, histopathology, and Se burdens of the whole body, liver, kidneys, gills, heart, and white muscle were determined every 2 to 4 weeks. Significant (psturgeon fed the highest SeMet diet after 2 weeks, whereas no mortality was observed in white sturgeon. Growth rates were significantly reduced in both species; however, green sturgeon was more adversely affected by the treatment. Dietary SeMet significantly affected whole body composition and most noticeably, in the decline of lipid contents in green sturgeon. Selenium accumulated significantly in all tissues relative to the control groups. After 4 and 8 weeks of exposure, marked abnormalities were observed in the kidneys and liver of both sturgeon species; however, green sturgeon was more susceptible to SeMet than white sturgeon at all dietary SeMet levels. Our results showed that a dietary Se concentration at 19.7 ± 0.6 mg Se/kg, which is in range with the reported Se concentrations of the benthic macro-vertebrate community of the San Francisco Bay, had adverse effects on both sturgeon species. However, the exposure had a more severe pathological effect on green sturgeon, suggesting that when implementing conservation measures, this federally listed threatened species should be monitored and managed independently from white sturgeon.

  13. Larval green and white sturgeon swimming performance in relation to water-diversion flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhille, Christine E; Poletto, Jamilynn B; Cocherell, Dennis E; DeCourten, Bethany; Baird, Sarah; Cech, Joseph J; Fangue, Nann A

    2014-01-01

    Little is known of the swimming capacities of larval sturgeons, despite global population declines in many species due in part to fragmentation of their spawning and rearing habitats by man-made water-diversion structures. Larval green (Acipenser medirostris) and white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) inhabit the highly altered Sacramento-San Joaquin watershed, making them logical species to examine vulnerability to entrainment by altered water flows. The risk of larval sturgeon entrainment is influenced by the ontogeny of swimming capacity and dispersal timing and their interactions with water-diversion structure operations. Therefore, the aim of this study was to describe and compare the ontogeny and allometry of larval green and white sturgeon swimming capacities until completion of metamorphosis into juveniles. Despite the faster growth rates and eventual larger size of larval white sturgeon, green sturgeon critical swimming velocities remained consistently, though modestly, greater than those of white sturgeon throughout the larval life stage. Although behavioural interactions with water-diversion structures are also important considerations, regarding swimming capacity, Sacramento-San Joaquin sturgeons are most vulnerable to entrainment in February-May, when white sturgeon early larvae are in the middle Sacramento River, and April-May, when green sturgeon early larvae are in the upper river. Green sturgeon migrating downstream to the estuary and bays in October-November are also susceptible to entrainment due to their movements combined with seasonal declines in their swimming capacity. An additional inter-species comparison of the allometric relationship between critical swimming velocities and total length with several sturgeon species found throughout the world suggests a similar ontogeny of swimming capacity with growth. Therefore, although dispersal and behaviour differ among river systems and sturgeon species, similar recommendations are applicable

  14. ATAMM enhancement and multiprocessor performance evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoughton, John W.; Mielke, Roland R.; Som, Sukhamoy; Obando, Rodrigo; Malekpour, Mahyar R.; Jones, Robert L., III; Mandala, Brij Mohan V.

    1991-01-01

    ATAMM (Algorithm To Architecture Mapping Model) enhancement and multiprocessor performance evaluation is discussed. The following topics are included: the ATAMM model; ATAMM enhancement; ADM (Advanced Development Model) implementation of ATAMM; and ATAMM support tools.

  15. DENdb: database of integrated human enhancers

    KAUST Repository

    Ashoor, Haitham

    2015-09-05

    Enhancers are cis-acting DNA regulatory regions that play a key role in distal control of transcriptional activities. Identification of enhancers, coupled with a comprehensive functional analysis of their properties, could improve our understanding of complex gene transcription mechanisms and gene regulation processes in general. We developed DENdb, a centralized on-line repository of predicted enhancers derived from multiple human cell-lines. DENdb integrates enhancers predicted by five different methods generating an enriched catalogue of putative enhancers for each of the analysed cell-lines. DENdb provides information about the overlap of enhancers with DNase I hypersensitive regions, ChIP-seq regions of a number of transcription factors and transcription factor binding motifs, means to explore enhancer interactions with DNA using several chromatin interaction assays and enhancer neighbouring genes. DENdb is designed as a relational database that facilitates fast and efficient searching, browsing and visualization of information.

  16. Complementary surface charge for enhanced capacitive deionization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, X.; Porada, S.; Omosebi, A.; Liu, K.L.; Biesheuvel, P.M.; Landon, J.

    2016-01-01

    Commercially available activated carbon cloth electrodes are treated using nitric acid and ethylenediamine solutions, resulting in chemical surface charge enhanced carbon electrodes for capacitive deionization (CDI) applications. Surface charge enhanced electrodes are then configured in a CDI cel

  17. A Survey on Speech Enhancement Methodologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Kumar. K

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Speech enhancement is a technique which processes the noisy speech signal. The aim of speech enhancement is to improve the perceived quality of speech and/or to improve its intelligibility. Due to its vast applications in mobile telephony, VOIP, hearing aids, Skype and speaker recognition, the challenges in speech enhancement have grown over the years. It is more challenging to suppress back ground noise that effects human communication in noisy environments like airports, road works, traffic, and cars. The objective of this survey paper is to outline the single channel speech enhancement methodologies used for enhancing the speech signal which is corrupted with additive background noise and also discuss the challenges and opportunities of single channel speech enhancement. This paper mainly focuses on transform domain techniques and supervised (NMF, HMM speech enhancement techniques. This paper gives frame work for developments in speech enhancement methodologies

  18. DENdb: database of integrated human enhancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashoor, Haitham; Kleftogiannis, Dimitrios; Radovanovic, Aleksandar; Bajic, Vladimir B

    2015-01-01

    Enhancers are cis-acting DNA regulatory regions that play a key role in distal control of transcriptional activities. Identification of enhancers, coupled with a comprehensive functional analysis of their properties, could improve our understanding of complex gene transcription mechanisms and gene regulation processes in general. We developed DENdb, a centralized on-line repository of predicted enhancers derived from multiple human cell-lines. DENdb integrates enhancers predicted by five different methods generating an enriched catalogue of putative enhancers for each of the analysed cell-lines. DENdb provides information about the overlap of enhancers with DNase I hypersensitive regions, ChIP-seq regions of a number of transcription factors and transcription factor binding motifs, means to explore enhancer interactions with DNA using several chromatin interaction assays and enhancer neighbouring genes. DENdb is designed as a relational database that facilitates fast and efficient searching, browsing and visualization of information. Database URL: http://www.cbrc.kaust.edu.sa/dendb/.

  19. Mutual Workshops enhancing Curriculum Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard Jensen, Lotte; Markvorsen, Steen; Almegaard, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    to the joint project. The theme of the third semester is ‘structural design’. Structural design is defined as an integration of material science, statics and geometry in relation to an architectural project. Anticipating the implementation of CDIO and this theme, major changes were made to the curriculum...... course. This realized the full potential of structural design and firmly highlighted the creative potential in geometry for hesitant students. The joint workshop also showed potential as a general tool that can enhance curriculum integration....

  20. The Enhanced Speed Bag System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-18

    system for helicopter resupply is a crucial development in aerial sustainment .  By Capt. Jude G.B. Coe Three enhanced speed bag systems are rigged on...NI NG & ED UC AT IO N 47 Army Sustainment July–August 2015 multipurpose cargo bag with pad- ding, one speed line assembly with a cable grip that...understand- ing of how to set up and rig the ESBS inside a Black Hawk. Validation Exercise After two joint in-progress reviews , Task Force Talon and the Iron

  1. Glucose biosensor enhanced by nanoparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Glucose biosensors have been formed with glucose oxidase (GOD) immobilized in composite immobilization membrane matrix, which is composed of hydrophobic gold, or hydrophilic gold, or hydrophobic silica nanoparticles, or the combination of gold and silica nanoparticles, and polyvinyl butyral (PVB) by a sol-gel method. The experiments show that nanoparticles can significantly enhance the catalytic activity of the immobilization enzyme. The current response can be increased from tens of nanoamperometer (nA) to thousands of nanoamperometer to the same glucose concentration, and the electrodes respond very quickly, to about 1 min. The function of nanoparticles effect on immobilization enzyme has been discussed.

  2. Glucose biosensor enhanced by nanoparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐芳琼; 孟宪伟; 陈东; 冉均国; 郑昌琼

    2000-01-01

    Glucose biosensors have been formed with glucose oxidase (GOD) immobilized in composite immobilization membrane matrix, which is composed of hydrophobic gold, or hydro-philic gold, or hydrophobic silica nanoparticles, or the combination of gold and silica nanoparticles, and polyvinyl butyral (PVB) by a sol-gel method. The experiments show that nanoparticles can significantly enhance the catalytic activity of the immobilization enzyme. The current response can be increased from tens of nanoamperometer (nA) to thousands of nanoamperometer to the same glucose concentration, and the electrodes respond very quickly, to about 1 min. The function of nanoparticles effect on immobilization enzyme has been discussed.

  3. Enhancing the crisis management briefing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Daniel W; Volkmann, Peter

    2005-01-01

    The Crisis Management Briefing (CMB) is a powerful and versatile crisis intervention tool, effective within a wide variety of populations, settings, and critical incidents. Initially proposed by Everly (2000), the CMB uniquely fills the factual information void following a critical incident. Additionally, a CMB provides essential information on effective coping strategies and available helping resources, tailored to the specific incident(s). The authors expand on the original CMB construct using their combined field experience, offering recommendations on team composition, strategic planning factors, using CISDs vs. CMBs, and specific enhancements for the four phases. They conclude with examples of specific interventions across a variety of events to illustrate their recommendations.

  4. Enhanced Master Controller Unit Tester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Patricia; Johnson, Yvette; Johnson, Brian; Williams, Philip; Burton, Geoffrey; McCoy, Anthony

    2007-01-01

    The Enhanced Master Controller Unit Tester (EMUT) software is a tool for development and testing of software for a master controller (MC) flight computer. The primary function of the EMUT software is to simulate interfaces between the MC computer and external analog and digital circuitry (including other computers) in a rack of equipment to be used in scientific experiments. The simulations span the range of nominal, off-nominal, and erroneous operational conditions, enabling the testing of MC software before all the equipment becomes available.

  5. Does Design Rationale Enhance Creativity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Wang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Creativity and rationale are often viewed as two contrasting facets in software design. A lack in recognizing the facilitative relationship between creativity and rationale not only underestimates the benefits designers can obtain from rationale practices, but also confines the approaches that support creativity in software design. Our exploratory study provides empirical evidence of the positive correlation between rationale and creativity. Furthermore, we found that the feasibility of design alternatives and the comprehensiveness of tradeoff evaluation are critical to enhancing novelty, persuasiveness, and insightfulness. We also discuss future directions to further understand how these properties, or rationale quality in general, affects design creativity.

  6. Enhanced migration of seismic data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrion, P.M. (PPPG/UFBA, Instituto de Geociencias, Rua Gaetano Moura 123, Federacao, 40.210 Salvador, Bahia (BR))

    1990-10-01

    The so-called enhanced migration which uses diffraction tomography as the repair tool for correction of amplitudes (reflection coefficients) of migrated sections is discussed. As with any linearized procedure, diffraction tomography requires knowledge of the initial model. It is suggested that the initial model is taken as the migrated image. It will be demonstrated that diffraction tomography applied to the data residuals improves the amplitudes of the migrated images. Migration is redefined as the reconstruction of the wavefront sets of distributions (reflection interfaces), and the inversion process as tomographic correction of migrated images.

  7. Enhancing chaoticity of spatiotemporal chaos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaowen; Zhang, Heqiao; Xue, Yu; Hu, Gang

    2005-01-01

    In some practical situations strong chaos is needed. This introduces the task of chaos control with enhancing chaoticity rather than suppressing chaoticity. In this paper a simple method of linear amplifications incorporating modulo operations is suggested to make spatiotemporal systems, which may be originally chaotic or nonchaotic, strongly chaotic. Specifically, this control can eliminate periodic windows, increase the values and the number of positive Lyapunov exponents, make the probability distributions of the output chaotic sequences more homogeneous, and reduce the correlations of chaotic outputs for different times and different space units. The applicability of the method to practical tasks, in particular to random number generators and secure communications, is briefly discussed.

  8. Transcriptional enhancer from milk protein genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casperson, Gerald F. (Ballwin, MO); Schmidhauser, Christian T. (Berkeley, CA); Bissell, Mina J. (Berkeley, CA)

    1999-01-01

    The invention relates to novel enhancer nucleotide sequences which stimulate transcription of heterologous DNA in cells in culture. The enhancers are derived from major milk protein genes by the process of deletion mapping and functional analysis. The invention also relates to expression vectors containing the novel enhancers.

  9. Transcriptional enhancer from milk protein genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casperson, G.F.; Schmidhauser, C.T.; Bissell, M.J.

    1999-12-21

    The invention relates to novel enhancer nucleotide sequences which stimulate transcription of heterologous DNA in cells in culture. The enhancers are derived from major milk protein genes by the process of deletion mapping and functional analysis. The invention also relates to expression vectors containing the novel enhancers.

  10. Enhanced multifunctional paint for detection of radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, Joseph C.; Moses, Edward Ira; Rubenchik, Alexander M.

    2017-03-07

    An enhanced multifunctional paint apparatus, systems, and methods for detecting radiation on a surface include providing scintillation particles; providing an enhance neutron absorptive material; providing a binder; combining the scintillation particles, the enhance neutron absorptive material, and the binder creating a multifunctional paint; applying the multifunctional paint to the surface; and monitoring the surface for detecting radiation.

  11. Resolution enhancement of color video sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, N R; Zakhor, A

    1999-01-01

    We propose a new multiframe algorithm to enhance the spatial resolution of frames in video sequences. Our technique specifically accounts for the possibility that motion estimation will be inaccurate and compensates for these inaccuracies. Experiments show that our multiframe enhancement algorithm yields perceptibly sharper enhanced images with significant signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) improvement over bilinear and cubic B-spline interpolation.

  12. Enhanced Video-Oculography System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Steven T.; MacDougall, Hamish G.

    2009-01-01

    A previously developed video-oculography system has been enhanced for use in measuring vestibulo-ocular reflexes of a human subject in a centrifuge, motor vehicle, or other setting. The system as previously developed included a lightweight digital video camera mounted on goggles. The left eye was illuminated by an infrared light-emitting diode via a dichroic mirror, and the camera captured images of the left eye in infrared light. To extract eye-movement data, the digitized video images were processed by software running in a laptop computer. Eye movements were calibrated by having the subject view a target pattern, fixed with respect to the subject s head, generated by a goggle-mounted laser with a diffraction grating. The system as enhanced includes a second camera for imaging the scene from the subject s perspective, and two inertial measurement units (IMUs) for measuring linear accelerations and rates of rotation for computing head movements. One IMU is mounted on the goggles, the other on the centrifuge or vehicle frame. All eye-movement and head-motion data are time-stamped. In addition, the subject s point of regard is superimposed on each scene image to enable analysis of patterns of gaze in real time.

  13. Surfactant Enhanced Electroremediation of Phenanthrene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    佘鹏; 杨建刚; 等

    2003-01-01

    Removal of hydrophobic organic contaminants(HOCs) form soil of low permeability by electroremediation was investigated by using phenanthrene and kaolinite as a model system.Tween 80 was added into the purging solution in order to enhance the solubility of phenanthrene.The effects of pH on the adsorption of phenanthrene and Tween 80 on kaolinite and the magnitude of ζ-potential of kaolinite were examined,respectively.The effects of electric field strength indicated by electric current on the electroremediation behavior,including the pH of purging solution,the conductivity,phenanthrene concentration and flow rate of effluent,were experimentally investigated,repectively,In case of an electric field of 25mA applied for 72 hours,over 90% of phenanthrene was removed from 424g(dry mass)of kaolinite at an energy consumption of 0.148kW.h.The experimental results described in present study show that the addition of surfactant into purging solution greatly enhances the removel of HOCs by electroremediation.

  14. NANOCOMPOSITE COATINGS WITH ENHANCED HARDNESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J. Musil

    2005-01-01

    The article reviews the present state of the art in the magnetron sputtering of hart and superhard nanocomposite coatings. It is shown that there are (1) two groups of hard and superhard nanocomposites: (i) nc-MN/hard phase and (ii) nc-MN/soft phase, (2) three possible origins of the enhanced hardness: (i) dislocation-dominated plastic deformation, (ii) cohesive forces between atoms and (iii) nanostructure of materials, and (3) huge differences in the microstructure of single- and two-phase films. A main attention is devoted to the formation of nanocrystalline and/or X-ray amorphous films. Such films are created in a vicinity of transitions between (i)crystalline and amorphous phases, (ii) two crystalline phases of different chemical composition or (iii) two different preferred orientations of grains of the sane material from which the coating is composed. The existence of the last transition makes it possible to explain the enhanced hardness in single-phase films. The thermal stability and oxidation resistance of hard nanocomposite films is also shortly discussed.

  15. Electrostatically enhanced core separator system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Easom, B.H.; Smolensky, L.A.; Altman, R.F. [LSR Technologies, Inc., Acton, MA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The Electrostatically Enhanced Core Separator (EECS) system employs the same design principles as the mechanical Core Separator system plus an electrostatic separation enhancing technique. The EECS system contains a special type of separator, the EECS element, a conventional solids collector and means for flow recirculation. In the EECS system solids separation and collection are accomplished in two different components. The EECS element acts as a separator, not as a collector so particles are not collected on its walls. This eliminates or at least mitigates the problems associated with reentrainment (due to high or low dust resistivity), seepage (due to gas flow below the precipitator plates and over the hoppers), sneakage (due to gas flow both above and below the precipitator plates), and rapping reentrainment. If the EECS separation efficiency is high enough, particles cannot leave the system with the process stream. They recirculate until they are extracted by the collector. As a result, the separation efficiency of the EECS element determines the efficiency of the system, even if the collector efficiency is relatively low. 8 refs., 3 figs.

  16. Contrast-enhanced endoscopic ultrasonography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nischita K Reddy; Ana Maria Ioncic(a); Adrian S(a)ftoiu; Peter Vilmann; Manoop S Bhutani

    2011-01-01

    Contrast agents are increasingly being used to characterize the vasculature in an organ of interest,to better delineate benign from malignant pathology and to aid in staging and directing therapeutic procedures.We review the mechanisms of action of first,second and third generation contrast agents and their use in various endoscopic procedures in the gastrointestinal tract.Various applications of contrast-enhanced endoscopic ultrasonography include differentiating benign from malignant mediastinal lymphadenopathy,assessment of depth of invasion of esophageal,gastric and gall bladder cancers and visualization of the portal venous system and esophageal varices.In addition,contrast agents can be used to differentiate pancreatic lesions.The use of color Doppler further increases the ability to diagnose and differentiate various pancreatic malignancies.The sensitivity of power Doppler sonography to depict tumor neovascularization can be increased by contrast agents.Contrast-enhanced harmonic imaging is a useful aid in identifying the tumor vasculature and studying pancreatic microperfusion.In the future,these techniques could potentially be used to quantify tumor perfusion,to assess and monitor the efficacy of antiangiogenic agents,to assist targeted drug delivery and allow molecular imaging.

  17. Pharmacokinetic enhancers in HIV therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Kajal B; Wang, Kun; Delille, Cecile; Otofokun, Igho; Acosta, Edward P

    2014-10-01

    Maximal and durable viral load suppression is one of the most important goals of HIV therapy and is directly related to adequate drug exposure. Protease inhibitors (PIs), an important component of the antiretroviral armada, were historically associated with poor oral bioavailability and high pill burden. However, because the PIs are metabolized by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A enzymes, intentional inhibition of these enzymes leads to higher drug exposure, lower pill burden, and therefore simplified dosing schedules with this class of drug. This is the basis of pharmacokinetic enhancement. In HIV therapy, two pharmacokinetic enhancers or boosting agents are used: ritonavir and cobicistat. Both agents inhibit CYP3A4, with cobicistat being a more specific CYP inhibitor than ritonavir. Unlike ritonavir, cobicistat does not have antiretroviral activity. Cobicistat has been evaluated in clinical trials and was recently approved in the USA as a fixed-dose combination with the integrase inhibitor, elvitegravir and two nucleos(t)ide analogs. Additional studies are examining cobicistat in fixed-dose combinations with various PIs. In this review, we summarize current knowledge of these agents and clinically relevant drug regimens and ongoing trials. Studies with elvitegravir and the novel PI TMC319011 are also discussed.

  18. Threshold enhancement of diphoton resonances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharucha, Aoife; Djouadi, Abdelhak; Goudelis, Andreas

    2016-10-01

    We revisit a mechanism to enhance the decay width of (pseudo-)scalar resonances to photon pairs when the process is mediated by loops of charged fermions produced near threshold. Motivated by the recent LHC data, indicating the presence of an excess in the diphoton spectrum at approximately 750 GeV, we illustrate this threshold enhancement mechanism in the case of a 750 GeV pseudoscalar boson A with a two-photon decay mediated by a charged and uncolored fermion having a mass at the 1/2MA threshold and a small decay width, photons predominantly through loops of charginos with masses close to 1/2MA and ii) a two Higgs doublet model in which A is again produced by gluon fusion but decays into photons through loops of vector-like charged heavy leptons. In both these scenarios, while the mass of the charged fermion has to be adjusted to be extremely close to half of the A resonance mass, the small total widths are naturally obtained if only suppressed three-body decay channels occur. Finally, the implications of some of these scenarios for dark matter are discussed.

  19. Photonic crystal enhanced cytokine immunoassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathias, Patrick C; Ganesh, Nikhil; Cunningham, Brian T

    2009-01-01

    Photonic crystal surfaces are demonstrated as a means for enhancing the detection sensitivity and resolution for assays that use a fluorescent tag to quantify the concentration of an analyte protein molecule in a liquid test sample. Computer modeling of the spatial distribution of resonantly coupled electromagnetic fields on the photonic crystal surface are used to estimate the magnitude of enhancement factor compared to performing the same fluorescent assay on a plain glass surface, and the photonic crystal structure is fabricated and tested to experimentally verify the performance using a sandwich immunoassay for the protein Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). The demonstrated photonic crystal fabrication method utilizes a nanoreplica molding technique that allows for large-area inexpensive fabrication of the structure in a format that is compatible with confocal microarray laser scanners. The signal-to-noise ratio for fluorescent spots on the photonic crystal is increased by at least five-fold relative to the glass slide, allowing a TNF-alpha concentration of 1.6 pg/ml to be distinguished from noise on a photonic crystal surface. In addition, the minimum quantitative limit of detection on the photonic crystal surface is one-third the limit on the glass slide - a decrease from 18 pg/ml to 6 pg/ml. The increased performance of the immunoassay allows for more accurate quantitation of physiologically relevant concentrations of TNF-alpha in a protein microarray format that can be expanded to multiple cytokines.

  20. Surfactant enhanced volumetric sweep efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harwell, J.H.; Scamehorn, J.F.

    1989-10-01

    Surfactant-enhanced waterflooding is a novel EOR method aimed to improve the volumetric sweep efficiencies in reservoirs. The technique depends upon the ability to induce phase changes in surfactant solutions by mixing with surfactants of opposite charge or with salts of appropriate type. One surfactant or salt solution is injected into the reservoir. It is followed later by injection of another surfactant or salt solution. The sequence of injections is arranged so that the two solutions do not mix until they are into the permeable regions well away from the well bore. When they mix at this point, by design they form a precipitate or gel-like coacervate phase, plugging this permeable region, forcing flow through less permeable regions of the reservoir, improving sweep efficiency. The selectivity of the plugging process is demonstrated by achieving permeability reductions in the high permeable regions of Berea sandstone cores. Strategies were set to obtain a better control over the plug placement and the stability of plugs. A numerical simulator has been developed to investigate the potential increases in oil production of model systems. Furthermore, the hardness tolerance of anionic surfactant solutions is shown to be enhanced by addition of monovalent electrolyte or nonionic surfactants. 34 refs., 32 figs., 8 tabs.

  1. RTU Comparison Calculator Enhancement Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, James D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wang, Weimin [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Katipamula, Srinivas [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Over the past two years, Department of Energy’s Building Technologies Office (BTO) has been investigating ways to increase the operating efficiency of the packaged rooftop units (RTUs) in the field. First, by issuing a challenge to the RTU manufactures to increase the integrated energy efficiency ratio (IEER) by 60% over the existing ASHRAE 90.1-2010 standard. Second, by evaluating the performance of an advanced RTU controller that reduces the energy consumption by over 40%. BTO has previously also funded development of a RTU comparison calculator (RTUCC). RTUCC is a web-based tool that provides the user a way to compare energy and cost savings for two units with different efficiencies. However, the RTUCC currently cannot compare savings associated with either the RTU Challenge unit or the advanced RTU controls retrofit. Therefore, BTO has asked PNNL to enhance the tool so building owners can compare energy and savings associated with this new class of products. This document provides the details of the enhancements that are required to support estimating energy savings from use of RTU challenge units or advanced controls on existing RTUs.

  2. Defense mutualisms enhance plant diversification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Marjorie G; Agrawal, Anurag A

    2014-11-18

    The ability of plants to form mutualistic relationships with animal defenders has long been suspected to influence their evolutionary success, both by decreasing extinction risk and by increasing opportunity for speciation through an expanded realized niche. Nonetheless, the hypothesis that defense mutualisms consistently enhance plant diversification across lineages has not been well tested due to a lack of phenotypic and phylogenetic information. Using a global analysis, we show that the >100 vascular plant families in which species have evolved extrafloral nectaries (EFNs), sugar-secreting organs that recruit arthropod mutualists, have twofold higher diversification rates than families that lack species with EFNs. Zooming in on six distantly related plant clades, trait-dependent diversification models confirmed the tendency for lineages with EFNs to display increased rates of diversification. These results were consistent across methodological approaches. Inference using reversible-jump Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) to model the placement and number of rate shifts revealed that high net diversification rates in EFN clades were driven by an increased number of positive rate shifts following EFN evolution compared with sister clades, suggesting that EFNs may be indirect facilitators of diversification. Our replicated analysis indicates that defense mutualisms put lineages on a path toward increased diversification rates within and between clades, and is concordant with the hypothesis that mutualistic interactions with animals can have an impact on deep macroevolutionary patterns and enhance plant diversity.

  3. Is caffeine a cognitive enhancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehlig, Astrid

    2010-01-01

    The effects of caffeine on cognition were reviewed based on the large body of literature available on the topic. Caffeine does not usually affect performance in learning and memory tasks, although caffeine may occasionally have facilitatory or inhibitory effects on memory and learning. Caffeine facilitates learning in tasks in which information is presented passively; in tasks in which material is learned intentionally, caffeine has no effect. Caffeine facilitates performance in tasks involving working memory to a limited extent, but hinders performance in tasks that heavily depend on working memory, and caffeine appears to rather improve memory performance under suboptimal alertness conditions. Most studies, however, found improvements in reaction time. The ingestion of caffeine does not seem to affect long-term memory. At low doses, caffeine improves hedonic tone and reduces anxiety, while at high doses, there is an increase in tense arousal, including anxiety, nervousness, jitteriness. The larger improvement of performance in fatigued subjects confirms that caffeine is a mild stimulant. Caffeine has also been reported to prevent cognitive decline in healthy subjects but the results of the studies are heterogeneous, some finding no age-related effect while others reported effects only in one sex and mainly in the oldest population. In conclusion, it appears that caffeine cannot be considered a ;pure' cognitive enhancer. Its indirect action on arousal, mood and concentration contributes in large part to its cognitive enhancing properties.

  4. Optical antenna enhanced spontaneous emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggleston, Michael S; Messer, Kevin; Zhang, Liming; Yablonovitch, Eli; Wu, Ming C

    2015-02-10

    Atoms and molecules are too small to act as efficient antennas for their own emission wavelengths. By providing an external optical antenna, the balance can be shifted; spontaneous emission could become faster than stimulated emission, which is handicapped by practically achievable pump intensities. In our experiments, InGaAsP nanorods emitting at ∼ 200 THz optical frequency show a spontaneous emission intensity enhancement of 35 × corresponding to a spontaneous emission rate speedup ∼ 115 ×, for antenna gap spacing, d = 40 nm. Classical antenna theory predicts ∼ 2,500 × spontaneous emission speedup at d ∼ 10 nm, proportional to 1/d(2). Unfortunately, at d antenna efficiency drops below 50%, owing to optical spreading resistance, exacerbated by the anomalous skin effect (electron surface collisions). Quantum dipole oscillations in the emitter excited state produce an optical ac equivalent circuit current, I(o) = qω|x(o)|/d, feeding the antenna-enhanced spontaneous emission, where q|x(o)| is the dipole matrix element. Despite the quantum-mechanical origin of the drive current, antenna theory makes no reference to the Purcell effect nor to local density of states models. Moreover, plasmonic effects are minor at 200 THz, producing only a small shift of antenna resonance frequency.

  5. RTU Comparison Calculator Enhancement Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, James D.; Wang, Weimin; Katipamula, Srinivas

    2014-03-31

    Over the past two years, Department of Energy’s Building Technologies Office (BTO) has been investigating ways to increase the operating efficiency of the packaged rooftop units (RTUs) in the field. First, by issuing a challenge to the RTU manufactures to increase the integrated energy efficiency ratio (IEER) by 60% over the existing ASHRAE 90.1-2010 standard. Second, by evaluating the performance of an advanced RTU controller that reduces the energy consumption by over 40%. BTO has previously also funded development of a RTU comparison calculator (RTUCC). RTUCC is a web-based tool that provides the user a way to compare energy and cost savings for two units with different efficiencies. However, the RTUCC currently cannot compare savings associated with either the RTU Challenge unit or the advanced RTU controls retrofit. Therefore, BTO has asked PNNL to enhance the tool so building owners can compare energy and savings associated with this new class of products. This document provides the details of the enhancements that are required to support estimating energy savings from use of RTU challenge units or advanced controls on existing RTUs.

  6. Fingerprint Image Enhancement By Develop Mehtre Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Salah Khalefa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Fingerprint identification is one of the most reliable biometrics technologies. There are manyapplications of fingerprint recognition such as voting, ecommerce, bank, virtual banks and military.Fingerprint image enhancement is an essential preprocessing step in extract minutiae from the inputfingerprint images. In this paper, we propose an image enhancement method by developing Mehtermethod for directional image. The enhancement is done by added the Block Filtering, HistogramEqualization and High-Pass Filtering. We have evaluated the performance of the enhancement imagemethod by tested it with 100 fingerprint images. Experimental results show the enhancement methodimproves the recognition more accuracy.

  7. Enhanced performance hybrid-arq

    KAUST Repository

    Fareed, Muhammad Mehboob

    2016-06-16

    Apparatuses, computer readable media, and methods are provided for enhancing hybrid automatic repeat request (ARQ) performance. In an example method, a communication device transmits a first element of a vector, where the vector is selected using the information bits to be transmitted as an index in a code book. In some embodiments, this code book is constructed using Linear Constellation Precoding (LCP). If a NACK is received, the communication device transmits a second element of the vector. The process of transmitting elements of the vector continues until an ACK is received or the maximum number of transmission attempts is reached. If an ACK is received, the communication device transmits a first element of another vector of the code book that encodes a second set of information bits. This procedure may continue until all information bits have been transmitted successfully.

  8. Enhancing undergraduate students’ communications skills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Merete; Witt, Klaus; Fridorff-Jens, Peter Kindt

    2014-01-01

    19729 Abstract Title: Enhancing undergraduate students communications skills Abstract Authors: •Merete Jorgensen, Copenhagen University , Family Medicine , Copenhagen •Klaus Witt, Research Unit , Family Medicine , Copenhagen •Peter Kindt Fridorff-Jens, Copenhagen University , IT-unit , Copenhagen...... the Consultation Logic (CL) and Consultation Analysis (CA), based on the Patient-Centred Consultation. To investigate the effect of various teaching methods in communication skills we have developed a scientific tool (DanSCORE) based on CL and CA to measure the students analysing ability Summary of work It has...... and they alternate with five plus four hour’s sessions of assessing, analyzing and discussion the videos in small groups with a peer (university teacher) and fellow students.We focus in our project on communication skills. 600 medical students are enrolled in the project. Changes in analyzing ability...

  9. Quantum-enhanced absorption refrigerators

    CERN Document Server

    Correa, Luis A; Alonso, Daniel; Adesso, Gerardo

    2014-01-01

    Thermodynamics is a branch of science blessed by an unparalleled combination of generality of scope and formal simplicity. Based on few natural assumptions together with the four laws, it sets the boundaries between possible and impossible in macroscopic aggregates of matter. This triggered groundbreaking achievements in physics, chemistry and engineering over the last two centuries. Close analogues of those fundamental laws are now being established at the level of individual quantum systems, thus placing limits on the operation of quantum-mechanical devices. Here we study quantum absorption refrigerators, which are driven by heat rather than external work. We establish thermodynamic performance bounds for these machines and investigate their quantum origin. We also show how those bounds may be pushed beyond what is classically achievable, by suitably tailoring the environmental fluctuations via quantum reservoir engineering techniques. Such superefficient quantum-enhanced cooling realises a promising step t...

  10. Q-enhanced racetrack microresonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamorro-Posada, P.

    2017-03-01

    A Q-enhancement strategy for racetrack microresonators is put forward. The design is based on the modification of the resonator geometry in order to mitigate the two main sources of radiation loss in the presence of curved waveguides: the discontinuities at the junctions between straight waveguides and the bent sections, and the continuous loss at the curved waveguide sectors. At the same time, the modifications of the geometry do not affect the versatility of coupling of racetrack resonators in integrated optical circuits, which is their main advantage over ring microresonators. The proposal is applied to the design of high-Q racetrack resonators for the silicon nitride CMOS-compatible platform having bent radii amenable for large-scale photonic integration. Numerical calculations show over 100% improvement of the Q factor in Si3N4/SiO2 resonators.

  11. Static magnetic fields enhance turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Pothérat, Alban

    2015-01-01

    More often than not, turbulence occurs under the influence of external fields, mostly rotation and magnetic fields generated either by planets, stellar objects or by an industrial environment. Their effect on the anisotropy and the dissipative behaviour of turbulence is recognised but complex, and it is still difficult to even tell whether they enhance or dampen turbulence. For example, externally imposed magnetic fields suppress free turbulence in electrically conducting fluids (Moffatt 1967), and make it two-dimensional (2D) (Sommeria & Moreau 1982); but their effect on the intensity of forced turbulence, as in pipes, convective flows or otherwise, is not clear. We shall prove that since two-dimensionalisation preferentially affects larger scales, these undergo much less dissipation and sustain intense turbulent fluctuations. When higher magnetic fields are imposed, quasi-2D structures retain more kinetic energy, so that rather than suppressing forced turbulence, external magnetic fields indirectly enha...

  12. Enhanced NIF neutron activation diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeamans, C B; Bleuel, D L; Bernstein, L A

    2012-10-01

    The NIF neutron activation diagnostic suite relies on removable activation samples, leading to operational inefficiencies and a fundamental lower limit on the half-life of the activated product that can be observed. A neutron diagnostic system measuring activation of permanently installed samples could remove these limitations and significantly enhance overall neutron diagnostic capabilities. The physics and engineering aspects of two proposed systems are considered: one measuring the (89)Zr/(89 m)Zr isomer ratio in the existing Zr activation medium and the other using potassium zirconate as the activation medium. Both proposed systems could improve the signal-to-noise ratio of the current system by at least a factor of 5 and would allow independent measurement of fusion core velocity and fuel areal density.

  13. Enhanced collectivity in 74Ni

    CERN Document Server

    Aoi, N; Takeuchi, S; Suzuki, H; Bazin, D; Bowen, M D; Campbell, C M; Cook, J M; Dinca, D -C; Gade, A; Glasmacher, T; Iwasaki, H; Kubo, T; Kurita, K; Motobayashi, T; Mueller, W F; Nakamura, T; Sakurai, H; Takashina, M; Terry, J R; Yoneda, K; Zwahlen, H

    2010-01-01

    The neutron-rich nucleus 74Ni was studied with inverse-kinematics inelastic proton scattering using a 74Ni radioactive beam incident on a liquid hydrogen targetat a center-of-mass energy of 80 MeV. From the measured de-excitation gamma-rays, the population of the first 2+ state was quantified. The angle-integrated excitation cross section was determined to be 14(4) mb. A deformation length of delta = 1.04(16) fm was extracted in comparison with distorted wave theory, which suggests that the enhancement of collectivity established for 70Ni continues up to 74Ni. A comparison with results of shell model and quasi-particle random phase approximation calculations indicates that the magic character of Z = 28 or N = 50 is weakened in 74Ni.

  14. Enhanced collectivity in 74Ni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoi, N.; Kanno, S.; Takeuchi, S.; Suzuki, H.; Bazin, D.; Bowen, M. D.; Campbell, C. M.; Cook, J. M.; Dinca, D.-C.; Gade, A.; Glasmacher, T.; Iwasaki, H.; Kubo, T.; Kurita, K.; Motobayashi, T.; Mueller, W. F.; Nakamura, T.; Sakurai, H.; Takashina, M.; Terry, J. R.; Yoneda, K.; Zwahlen, H.

    2010-09-01

    The neutron-rich nucleus 74Ni was studied with inverse-kinematics inelastic proton scattering using a 74Ni radioactive beam incident on a liquid hydrogen target at a center-of-mass energy of 80 MeV. From the measured de-excitation γ rays, the population of the first 2+ state was quantified. The angle-integrated excitation cross section was determined to be 14(4) mb. A deformation length of δ=1.04(16) fm was extracted in comparison with distorted wave theory, which suggests that the enhancement of collectivity established for 70Ni continues up to 74Ni. A comparison with results of shell model and quasi-particle random phase approximation calculations indicates that the magic character of Z=28 or N=50 is weakened in 74Ni.

  15. Enhancing AFLOW Visualization using Jmol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanasa, Jacob; New, Elizabeth; Stefek, Patrik; Honaker, Brigette; Hanson, Robert; Aflow Collaboration

    The AFLOW library is a database of theoretical solid-state structures and calculated properties created using high-throughput ab initio calculations. Jmol is a Java-based program capable of visualizing and analyzing complex molecular structures and energy landscapes. In collaboration with the AFLOW consortium, our goal is the enhancement of the AFLOWLIB database through the extension of Jmol's capabilities in the area of materials science. Modifications made to Jmol include the ability to read and visualize AFLOW binary alloy data files, the ability to extract from these files information using Jmol scripting macros that can be utilized in the creation of interactive web-based convex hull graphs, the capability to identify and classify local atomic environments by symmetry, and the ability to search one or more related crystal structures for atomic environments using a novel extension of inorganic polyhedron-based SMILES strings

  16. Enhancing the US Power Infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles Alexander

    2010-05-31

    The primary motivation for this set of research activities was to develop a foundation in several aspects of power in order to position Cleveland State University to lead a multiuniversity effort to secure funding for enhanced power system projects and to be able to eventually secure a NASA Space Power Systems Center status through the competitive bidding process. This was accomplished by focusing on these major project areas, (1) the design of the next generation nuclear-electric power generation system, (2) the design of a distributed, fault-tolerant, and modular power system, and (3) the development of the dynamics and control of active magnetic bearings for flywheel energy storage without using conventional sensors.

  17. Enhanced Li-Ion Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Ross

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Au with Pd nanoparticles were synthesized and coated onto the spinel LiMn2O4 via a coprecipitation calcination method with the objective to improve the microstructure, conductivity, and electrochemical activities of pristine LiMn2O4. The novel LiPdAuxMn2-xO4 composite cathode had high phase purity, well crystallized particles, and more regular morphological structures with narrow size distributions. At enlarged cycling potential ranges the LiPdAuxMn2-xO4 sample delivered 90 mAh g−1 discharge capacity compared to LiMn2O4 (45 mAh g−1. It was concluded that even a small amount of the Pd and Au enhanced both the lithium diffusivity and electrochemical conductivity of the host sample due to the beneficial properties of their synergy.

  18. Shale Oil Value Enhancement Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James W. Bunger

    2006-11-30

    Raw kerogen oil is rich in heteroatom-containing compounds. Heteroatoms, N, S & O, are undesirable as components of a refinery feedstock, but are the basis for product value in agrochemicals, pharmaceuticals, surfactants, solvents, polymers, and a host of industrial materials. An economically viable, technologically feasible process scheme was developed in this research that promises to enhance the economics of oil shale development, both in the US and elsewhere in the world, in particular Estonia. Products will compete in existing markets for products now manufactured by costly synthesis routes. A premium petroleum refinery feedstock is also produced. The technology is now ready for pilot plant engineering studies and is likely to play an important role in developing a US oil shale industry.

  19. Environmental contaminants in tissues from an Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus) recovered in Wellfleet, Massachusetts

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — On February 2, 2007, a family walking along a Cape Cod beach in Wellfleet, Massachusetts, came upon a large dead sturgeon in the sand. Since very little information...

  20. Sex assignment of lake sturgeon (Acipenser fluvescens) based on plasma sex hormone and vitellogenin levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, J.M.; Papoulias, D.M.; Thomas, M.V.; Annis, M.L.; Boase, J.

    2009-01-01

    This study focused on identifying the sex of lake sturgeon by measuring the sex hormones estradiol and testosterone, and the phosphoprotein vitellogenin (Vtg) in blood plasma by radioimmunoassay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively, and evaluating these techniques as tools in lake sturgeon population management. Surveys of the St Clair River (SCR) lake sturgeon population have characterized it as rebounding by having steady or increasing recruitment since 1997. However, researchers have not been able to effectively determine the sex for most of the sturgeon they capture because few fish caught during surveys are releasing gametes. A total of 115 fish were sampled from May through June in 2004 and 2005 from the SCR, Michigan, USA. Of these, only four females and eight males were verified (i.e. they were releasing gametes at time of capture), resulting in very few fish with which to validate blood hormone and Vtg biomarkers of sex. Fifty-six percent of the fish were assigned a sex designation based on biomarker criteria. Correspondence between actual gonadal sex and biomarker-directed classification was good for the small subset of fish for which gonadal sex was definitively determined. Moreover, application of the steroid values in a predictive sex assignment model developed for white sturgeon misclassified only the same two fish that were misclassified with the steroid and Vtg biomarkers. The experimental results suggest a sex ratio of 1 : 2.7 (F:M), however more conclusive methods are needed to confirm this ratio because so few fish were available for sex validation. Of the 43 males, 14 were within the legal slot limit, 11 were smaller than 1067 mm total length (TL), and 18 were larger than 1270 mm TL. All 15 females were larger than 1270 mm TL, and thus protected by the slot limit criteria. Considering that lake sturgeon are threatened in Michigan, an advantage to using blood plasma assays was that fish were not harmed, and sample collection was quick, simple, and inexpensive. However, because a sufficiently large number of fish could not be validated for gonadal sex due to handling restrictions given the fish's protected status, assignment of sex is not based on a robust multi-variate model. An immediate alternative may be to use other non-invasive field methods (e.g. ultrasound, fiber-optic endoscope) to provide a more timely classification while establishing well-validated plasma hormone and Vtg-based predictive models for sex assignment of lake sturgeon. ?? 2009 Blackwell Verlag, Berlin.

  1. The Relationship Between Acoustic Target Strength and Body Length for Atlantic Sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    2002; Horne 2003; McQuinn and Winger 2003; Rudstam et al. 2003; Frouzova and Kubecka 2004; Nero et al. 2004; Hartman and Nagy 2005; McClatchie and...415. Nero , R. W., C. H. Thompson, and J. M. Jech. 2004. In situ acoustic estimates of the swimbladder volume of Atlan- tic herring (Clupea harengus

  2. PERMEABILITY OF STERLET SPERM MEMBRANES (ACIPENSER RUTHENUS L., 1758) FOR WATER MOLECULES

    OpenAIRE

    A. Puhovkin; Kononenko, I.; V. Cherepnin; І. Hrytsyniak; E. Kopeika

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. The literature analysis of the results cryopreservation of different fish species highlights a variation of many parameters, in particular the sperm survival rate during the freezing and unfreezing process. The survival capability of spermatozoa may be called the main parameter, which indentifies the efficiency of the entire process of low temperature freezing of reproductive products. Therefore, the goal of this work was to investigate and find the causes of different degrees of fis...

  3. Determination of the Ovarian Stages in Wild Persian Sturgeon, Acipenser persicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahboubeh HOSSENZADE

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we investigated the histological changes in the ovary of 35 female Persian sturgeon. Ovarian samples were taken from the females stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E staining and sexual maturity was determined by examining the sections under a light microscope. Four developmental stages of ovary including cortical alveoli formation stage (ΙΙ, vitellogenic stage (ΙII, mature stage (IV and ovulation stage (V were recognized during development. The gonadosomatic index (GSI of female Persian sturgeon gradually increased during the development of ovary. The lowest GSI was recorded in stage II (2.57 ± 0.28 and the highest GSI was shown in stage V (23.58 ± 1.08. Therefore, GSI may be useful to determining maturity stages; however histological experiments of ovaries should be considered as the most accurate method for all stages.doi:10.14456/WJST.2014.80

  4. Determination of cortisol in lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) eggs by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussy, Ugo; Wassink, Lydia; Scribner, Kim T; Li, Weiming

    2017-01-01

    Quantifying cortisol concentrations in fish eggs is important to understand the effects of environmental conditions on maternal physiological condition and on egg provisioning and quality. Data are particularly relevant to studies of the ecology of threatened species such as lake sturgeon (Aciperser fulvescens) as well as assessments of larval physical and behavioral phenotypes, fish health and caviar quality in sturgeon aquaculture. This study focuses on development of bioanalytical methods for high sensitivity and robust determination of cortisol in sturgeon eggs. Sample preparation was optimized after investigating protein precipitation and liquid-liquid extraction techniques. Ethyl acetate was found to be the most efficient solvent (recovery parameter) and also provided the best sample clean up (matrix effect parameter). The method was determined to be linear for cortisol concentrations between 0.025 and 100ng/mL. The limits of detection and quantification were 0.025 and 0.1ng/mL respectively. Intra- and inter-day performances of the method were validated at three concentrations (0.25; 10 and 100ng/mL). The method was applied to field-collected samples for the determination of endogenous cortisol in lake sturgeon eggs. Cortisol was detected in all egg samples and statistical analysis showed significant differences between fertilized and non-fertilized eggs.

  5. A bibliography of all known publications & reports on the Gulf sturgeon, Acipenser oxyrinchus desotoi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Melissa; Adler, Jennifer; Littles, Chanda; Randolph, April Norem; Nash, Ursula A.; Gillett, Bethan; Randall, Michael; Sulak, Kenneth J.; Walsh, Stephen J.; Brownell, Prescott

    2013-01-01

    This functional bibliography is meant to be a complete and comprehensive bibliography of all discoverable reports containing information on the Gulf Sturgeon (GS). This bibliography contains all known reports presenting, documenting, summarizing, listing, or interpreting information on the GS through 31 December 2013. Report citations are organized into four sections. Section I includes published scientific journal articles, books, dissertations and theses, published and unpublished technical reports, published harvest prohibitions, and online articles reporting substantive scientific information. Section II includes newspaper, newsletter, magazine, book, agency news releases, and online articles reporting on GS occurrences, mortalities, captures, jumping, boat collisions, aquaculture, historical photographs, and other largely non-scientific or anecdotal issues. Section III consists of books, theses, ecotour-guides, media articles, editorials, and blogs reporting a mix of anecdotal information, historical information, and opinion on GS conservation, habitat issues, exploitation, aquaculture, and human interaction - but presenting very limited or no substantive scientific information. Section IV includes videos, films and audio recordings documenting GS life history and behavior.

  6. Effect of sea buckthorn and vitamin E on growth performance of Acipenser stellatus (Pallas 1771 juveniles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Georgiana Dorojan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Addition of natural additives (prebiotics, probiotics, phytobiotics in fish feed is a benefic method because it leads to improved growth performance of fish reared in intensive production systems. Sea buckthorn is one of the most commonly phytobiotics used in aquaculture because of its antioxidant, antimicrobial, immunostimulant, anti-stress, cytoprotective, liver and tissue regeneration properties. Sea buckthorn berries are rich in vitamins (B, C, E and K, flavonoids, carotenoids, tocopherols and many volatile compounds. In this context the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary vitamin E (500 mg/kg diet and sea buckthorn on growth performance and survival of the A. stellatus juveniles reared in a recirculating aquaculture system. The experiment took place in the recirculating pilot system of “Dunărea de Jos” University of Galați. In order to emphasize the influence of the above mentioned immunostimulants on sevruga fingerlings with different genetic background, four experimental groups from different genitors (V1: ♀2 Danube x ♂1 Aquaculture, V2: ♀1 Danube x ♂1 Danube, V3: ♀1 Danube x ♂2 Aquaculture and V4: ♀2 Danube x ♂2 Danube have been used. At the end of the experiment no significant differences (p>0.05 were observed in terms of final mean weight, individual growth rate, SGR, FCR, PER, between the sevruga fingerlings obtained from wild genitors, comparing with those obtained from aquaculture genitors.

  7. An evaluative conservative case for biomedical enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danaher, John

    2016-09-01

    It is widely believed that a conservative moral outlook is opposed to biomedical forms of human enhancement. In this paper, I argue that this widespread belief is incorrect. Using Cohen's evaluative conservatism as my starting point, I argue that there are strong conservative reasons to prioritise the development of biomedical enhancements. In particular, I suggest that biomedical enhancement may be essential if we are to maintain our current evaluative equilibrium (ie, the set of values that undergird and permeate our current political, economic and personal lives) against the threats to that equilibrium posed by external, non-biomedical forms of enhancement. I defend this view against modest conservatives who insist that biomedical enhancements pose a greater risk to our current evaluative equilibrium, and against those who see no principled distinction between the forms of human enhancement.

  8. Cognitive enhancement. Effort of definition, and methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Gunia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The idea of cognitive enhancement refers to multifaceted and interdisciplinary approach aimed at improving human mental processes. Cognitive enhancement is the amplification or extension of core mind capacities through improvement or augmentation of either internal or external information processing systems. This includes improvements of intelligence and attention, reinforcement of creativity and memory, or extension of perception range. The main feature of cognitive enhancement is voluntariness of use for overcoming natural mental limitations. This article is a synthesis of current trends in cognitive enhancement from the perspective of transhumanism. The article presents various definitions of cognitive enhancement, methods of cognitive enhancement (biotechnological methods, non-pharmacological methods, IT methods as well as challenges and questions concerning improving human mental processes.

  9. A Thomistic appraisal of human enhancement technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberl, Jason T

    2014-08-01

    Debate concerning human enhancement often revolves around the question of whether there is a common "nature" that all human beings share and which is unwarrantedly violated by enhancing one's capabilities beyond the "species-typical" norm. I explicate Thomas Aquinas's influential theory of human nature, noting certain key traits commonly shared among human beings that define each as a "person" who possesses inviolable moral status. Understanding the specific qualities that define the nature of human persons, which includes self-conscious awareness, capacity for intellective thought, and volitional autonomy, informs the ethical assessment of various forms of enhancement. Some forms of cognitive and physical enhancement may be desirable from the perspective of what constitutes the "flourishing" of human persons in our fundamental nature; while other forms of enhancement, such as emotive or so-called "moral" enhancement, run the risk of detracting from human flourishing when evaluated from the virtue-theoretic perspective Aquinas promotes.

  10. Interactive Image Enhancement by Fuzzy Relaxation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shang-Ming Zhou; John Q.Can; Li-Da Xu; Robert John

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, an interactive image enhancement (HE) technique based on fuzzy relaxation is presented, which allows the user to select different intensity levels for enhancement and intermit the enhancement process according to his/her preference in applications. First, based on an analysis of the convergence of a fuzzy relaxation algorithm for image contrast enhancement, an improved version of this algorithm, which is called FuzzIIE Method 1, is suggested by deriving a relationship between the convergence regions and the parameters in the transformations defined in the algorithm. Then a method called FuzzIIE Method 2 is introduced by using a different fuzzy relaxation function, in which there is no need to re-select the parameter values for interactive image enhancement. Experimental results are presented demonstrating the enhancement capabilities of the proposed methods under different conditions.

  11. Comparative enhancing effects of electret with chemical enhancers on transdermal delivery of meloxicam in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, L L; Hou, X M; Li, G D [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, College of Pharmacy, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, 200433 (China); Jiang, J; Liang, Y Y; Xin, X [Department of Physics and Mathematics, College of Basic Medical Sciences, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, 200433 (China)], E-mail: cuilili39@hotmail.com, E-mail: JJiang0827@hotmail.com

    2008-12-01

    Electret offers enhancing effect in transdermal drug delivery for altering of the arrangement of lipid molecules in the stratum corneum, forming many transient permeable apertures and enhancing the transdermal drug delivery. In this paper, meloxicam patch formulations were developed to make the comparative study of transdermal drug delivery between electret and chemical enhancers. Patches were made into control, electret, chemical enhancer and electret with chemical enhancer ones, according to the preparation procedure. The electret combined with chemical enhancer patch was designed to probe the incorporation between electret and chemical enhancer in transdermal drug delivery. The meloxicam release from the patch was found to increase in order of blank, chemical enhancer, electret and electret with chemical enhancer patch, in general.

  12. Enhancement patterns and pseudo-washout of hepatic haemangiomas on gadoxetate disodium-enhanced liver MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bohyun [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ajou University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Jae Ho; Kim, Hyoung Jung; Won, Hyung Jin; Kim, So Yeon; Shin, Yong Moon; Kim, Pyo Nyun [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-01-15

    To compare the enhancement patterns and prevalence of pseudo-washout between rapidly and slowly enhancing hepatic haemangiomas on gadoxetate disodium-enhanced MRI in patients with chronic liver disease (CLD) and healthy liver (HL). On gadoxetate disodium-enhanced MRI, the extent of intralesional arterial enhancement >50 % and ≤50 % of lesions was defined as rapid and slow enhancement, respectively. The enhancement patterns and presence of pseudo-washout during the portal venous phase (PVP) and transitional phase (TP) of 74 hepatic haemangiomas were retrospectively evaluated in the CLD and HL groups. Sequential changes of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) were measured in unenhanced phase, PVP and TP. Irrespective of hepatic health status, pseudo-washout in TP was significantly more common in the rapidly enhancing haemangiomas (p ≤ 0.026). In both groups, rapidly enhancing haemangiomas showed complete or progressive incomplete enhancement in PVP, which either lasted or transformed to pseudo-washout in TP, whereas slowly enhancing haemangiomas showed progressive incomplete enhancement in PVP and TP. SNR of hepatic parenchyma continued to rise until TP, whereas that of portal vein and haemangioma falls in TP. Regardless of CLD, pseudo-washout in TP was more common in rapidly than in slowly enhancing haemangiomas, with enhancement patterns differing in the two subgroups. (orig.)

  13. Labor potential: enhancing its development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.P. Melnichuk

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This publication presents the views of the author about the need to expand research of labor potential, estimation of quantitative indicators and qualitative characteristics at the individual, regional levels and the state as a whole to develop the mechanisms of its development. The existing methods of labour potential assessment are mainly based on the probable approach taking into account external and internal factors. In the case of assessment of labour potential of a single enterprise for the most suitable for this production method the mechanisms of its development can be worked out. However, for the state under a certain depreciation of the resource, property, financial and other potentials, aggressive manifestations of the crisis phenomena, processes etc. to resolve urgent is the problem of enhancing the development of qualitative characteristics of labor potential at all its levels. In this context it is important to exploit the potential of domestic education and science which now continue to be reformed for the sake of achieving European standards, using the advanced experience of other countries. Every means of legal, financial, managerial, and organizational impact should be used for this.

  14. Enhanced Eryptosis Following Gramicidin Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abaid Malik

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The peptide antibiotic and ionophore gramicidin has previously been shown to trigger apoptosis of nucleated cells. In analogy to apoptosis, the suicidal death of erythrocytes or eryptosis involves cell shrinkage and cell membrane scrambling with phosphatidylserine translocation to the erythrocyte surface. Triggers of eryptosis include oxidative stress, increase of cytosolic Ca2+ activity ([Ca2+]i, and ceramide. The present study explored, whether gramicidin triggers eryptosis. To this end phosphatidylserine exposure at the cell surface was estimated from annexin V binding, cell volume from forward scatter, red blood cell distribution width (RDW from electronic particle counting, reactive oxidant species (ROS from 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFDA fluorescence, [Ca2+]i from Fluo3- and Fluo4 fluorescence, and ceramide abundance from binding of specific antibodies. As a result, a 24 h exposure of human erythrocytes to gramicidin significantly increased the percentage of annexin-V-binding cells (≥1 µg/mL, forward scatter (≥0.5 µg/mL and hemolysis. Gramicidin enhanced ROS activity, [Ca2+]i and ceramide abundance at the erythrocyte surface. The stimulation of annexin-V-binding by gramicidin was significantly blunted but not abolished by removal of extracellular Ca2+. In conclusion, gramicidin stimulates phospholipid scrambling of the erythrocyte cell membrane, an effect at least partially due to induction of oxidative stress, increase of [Ca2+]i and up-regulation of ceramide abundance. Despite increase of [Ca2+]i, gramicidin increases cell volume and slightly reduces RWD.

  15. Enhanced eryptosis following gramicidin exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Abaid; Bissinger, Rosi; Liu, Guoxing; Liu, Guilai; Lang, Florian

    2015-04-23

    The peptide antibiotic and ionophore gramicidin has previously been shown to trigger apoptosis of nucleated cells. In analogy to apoptosis, the suicidal death of erythrocytes or eryptosis involves cell shrinkage and cell membrane scrambling with phosphatidylserine translocation to the erythrocyte surface. Triggers of eryptosis include oxidative stress, increase of cytosolic Ca2+ activity ([Ca2+]i), and ceramide. The present study explored, whether gramicidin triggers eryptosis. To this end phosphatidylserine exposure at the cell surface was estimated from annexin V binding, cell volume from forward scatter, red blood cell distribution width (RDW) from electronic particle counting, reactive oxidant species (ROS) from 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFDA) fluorescence, [Ca2+]i from Fluo3- and Fluo4 fluorescence, and ceramide abundance from binding of specific antibodies. As a result, a 24 h exposure of human erythrocytes to gramicidin significantly increased the percentage of annexin-V-binding cells (≥1 µg/mL), forward scatter (≥0.5 µg/mL) and hemolysis. Gramicidin enhanced ROS activity, [Ca2+]i and ceramide abundance at the erythrocyte surface. The stimulation of annexin-V-binding by gramicidin was significantly blunted but not abolished by removal of extracellular Ca2+. In conclusion, gramicidin stimulates phospholipid scrambling of the erythrocyte cell membrane, an effect at least partially due to induction of oxidative stress, increase of [Ca2+]i and up-regulation of ceramide abundance. Despite increase of [Ca2+]i, gramicidin increases cell volume and slightly reduces RWD.

  16. Enhanced potentiometry by metallic nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noyhouzer, T; Valdinger, I; Mandler, D

    2013-09-03

    Measuring the oxidation-reduction potential (Eh) requires an interface that is not selective toward specific species but exchanges electrons with all redox couples in the solution. Sluggish electron transfer (ET) kinetics with the species will not reflect the "true" Eh of the solution. Here, we present a novel approach by which adsorbed metal nanoparticles (NPs) are used for enhancing ET exchange rates between redox species and electrode surface and therefore affect significantly the measurement of the open circuit potential (OCP) and cyclic voltammetry (CV). The OCP and CV of various organic and inorganic species such as l-dopa, dopac, iron(II), and iodide are measured by bare stainless steel and by stainless steel modified by either Pt or Au NPs. We study the effect of the surface coverage of the stainless steel surface by NPs on the electrochemical response. Moreover, the stainless steel electrode was modified simultaneously by Au and Pt nanoparticles. This improved concurrently the stainless steel response (CV and potentiometry) toward two different species; l-dopa, which shows fast electron transfer on Pt, and catechol, which exhibits fast electron transfer on Au. We believe that this approach could be a first step toward developing a superior electrode for measuring the "true" Eh of complex aquatic systems.

  17. An enhanced tokamak startup model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Rajiv; Artaud, Jean-François

    2017-01-01

    The startup of tokamaks has been examined in the past in varying degree of detail. This phase typically involves the burnthrough of impurities and the subsequent rampup of plasma current. A zero-dimensional (0D) model is most widely used where the time evolution of volume averaged quantities determines the detailed balance between the input and loss of particle and power. But, being a 0D setup, these studies do not take into consideration the co-evolution of plasma size and shape, and instead assume an unchanging minor and major radius. However, it is known that the plasma position and its minor radius can change appreciably as the plasma evolves in time to fill in the entire available volume. In this paper, an enhanced model for the tokamak startup is introduced, which for the first time takes into account the evolution of plasma geometry during this brief but highly dynamic period by including realistic one-dimensional (1D) effects within the broad 0D framework. In addition the effect of runaway electrons (REs) has also been incorporated. The paper demonstrates that the inclusion of plasma cross section evolution in conjunction with REs plays an important role in the formation and development of tokamak startup. The model is benchmarked against experimental results from ADITYA tokamak.

  18. Enhanced Model for Fast Ignition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mason, Rodney J. [Research Applications Corporation, Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2010-10-12

    Laser Fusion is a prime candidate for alternate energy production, capable of serving a major portion of the nation's energy needs, once fusion fuel can be readily ignited. Fast Ignition may well speed achievement of this goal, by reducing net demands on laser pulse energy and timing precision. However, Fast Ignition has presented a major challenge to modeling. This project has enhanced the computer code ePLAS for the simulation of the many specialized phenomena, which arise with Fast Ignition. The improved code has helped researchers to understand better the consequences of laser absorption, energy transport, and laser target hydrodynamics. ePLAS uses efficient implicit methods to acquire solutions for the electromagnetic fields that govern the accelerations of electrons and ions in targets. In many cases, the code implements fluid modeling for these components. These combined features, "implicitness and fluid modeling," can greatly facilitate calculations, permitting the rapid scoping and evaluation of experiments. ePLAS can be used on PCs, Macs and Linux machines, providing researchers and students with rapid results. This project has improved the treatment of electromagnetics, hydrodynamics, and atomic physics in the code. It has simplified output graphics, and provided new input that avoids the need for source code access by users. The improved code can now aid university, business and national laboratory users in pursuit of an early path to success with Fast Ignition.

  19. How harmless is FFA enhancement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesserommatis, C; Tsopanakis, C; Symeonoglou, G; Loukissa, M; Kouvarou, E; Varonos, D D

    1996-01-01

    Standard heparin as well as low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) increase lipid levels in serum. It has been reported that a diet rich in long chain saturated fatty acids can enhance the susceptibility to experimental thrombosis. The mechanism by which serum fatty acids may provoke thrombosis is not clear. It is possible that the fatty acids change the properties of the cell membrane and thereby modify the response of platelets to aggregating agents. Heparin and its LMW fractions, by mobilising lipoprotein lipase that hydrolyses serum triglycerides (TG), cause the serum TG to increase, a well known "clearing effect' of heparin in turbid lipemic plasma. This effect may have no significance when it lasts for a short time; however, a long-lasting heparin effect on TG serum levels may have important consequences. The purpose of this study was to examine the time span of the action of heparin and its fractions and to investigate variations in the concentration of digoxin, which is a compound with narrow therapeutic width. The investigated substances after 2 days administration, provoked serum concentration increases of free fatty acids (FFA), TG and HDL-C. Seven days after stopping drug administration, FFA and HDL-C levels remained high, while triglycerides declined. Serum total cholesterol remained unchanged throughout. Digoxin levels increased non-significantly after heparin administration and during swimming stress, while a lipid diet caused a serum digoxin concentration increase.

  20. Facebook enhances antidepressant pharmacotherapy effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota Pereira, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Treatment-resistant major depressive disorder (TR-MDD) is a complex condition, with very low remission rates. In recent years some studies have been conducted on the implementation of cognitive behavioral therapy and psychodynamic psychotherapy interventions via the Internet to MDD patients, and results have been promising. However, there have been no studies in patients with TR-MDD nor with the use of Facebook with the psychiatrist as "friend." 60 TR-MDD patients were randomized to one of three groups: Facebook group with psychiatrist as "friend," Facebook group without psychiatrist as "friend," and control group (no Facebook use). Both Facebook groups spent at least 1 hour/day on Facebook, 7 days/week, during the 3 months. All patients maintained their usual pharmacotherapy. All participants were evaluated at baseline and at 1, 2, and 3 months for depressive symptoms using HAD17 and BDI-II. Results show that both Facebook groups had a decrease on HADM17 and BDI-II scores as well as higher remission and response rates than the control group, with better results if the psychiatrist was a "friend" on Facebook. Therefore, in TR-MDD, Facebook can be used as an effective enhancement therapy, adjuvant to pharmacological therapy with regular consultations, especially if the psychiatrist is the patient's online "friend."

  1. Completely Enhanced Cell Phone Keypad

    CERN Document Server

    Sharmeen, Rezwana; Ahmad, Shabbir; Kamruzzaman, S M

    2010-01-01

    The enhanced frequency based keypad is designed to speed up the typing process. This paper will show that the proposed layout will increase the typing speed and be flexible for thumb. Traditional cell phone keypad is not a scientific keypad from the frequency point of view. Approaches have been explored to speed up the typing process. We found that no manufacturer has considered the frequency of the alphabet. The current architecture does not provide flexibility although the users are accustomed to the currently available multi-tapping keypad. Since the currently available keypad layouts are not best suited for users, this paper will suggest a keypad for cell phone and other cellular device based on the frequency of the alphabet in English language and also with the view of structure of human finger movements to provide a flexible and fast cell phone keypad. It also takes into consideration the key jamming problem that was available in typewriter. At first we identified those keys of cell phone, which are eas...

  2. Does facial resemblance enhance cooperation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trang Giang

    Full Text Available Facial self-resemblance has been proposed to serve as a kinship cue that facilitates cooperation between kin. In the present study, facial resemblance was manipulated by morphing stimulus faces with the participants' own faces or control faces (resulting in self-resemblant or other-resemblant composite faces. A norming study showed that the perceived degree of kinship was higher for the participants and the self-resemblant composite faces than for actual first-degree relatives. Effects of facial self-resemblance on trust and cooperation were tested in a paradigm that has proven to be sensitive to facial trustworthiness, facial likability, and facial expression. First, participants played a cooperation game in which the composite faces were shown. Then, likability ratings were assessed. In a source memory test, participants were required to identify old and new faces, and were asked to remember whether the faces belonged to cooperators or cheaters in the cooperation game. Old-new recognition was enhanced for self-resemblant faces in comparison to other-resemblant faces. However, facial self-resemblance had no effects on the degree of cooperation in the cooperation game, on the emotional evaluation of the faces as reflected in the likability judgments, and on the expectation that a face belonged to a cooperator rather than to a cheater. Therefore, the present results are clearly inconsistent with the assumption of an evolved kin recognition module built into the human face recognition system.

  3. Carbon-enhanced VRLA batteries.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enos, David George; Hund, Thomas D.; Shane, Rod (East Penn Manufacturing, Lyon Station, PA)

    2010-10-01

    The addition of certain forms of carbon to the negative plate in valve regulated lead acid (VRLA) batteries has been demonstrated to increase the cycle life of such batteries by an order of magnitude or more under high-rate, partial-state-of-charge operation. Such performance will provide a significant impact, and in some cases it will be an enabling feature for applications including hybrid electric vehicles, utility ancillary regulation services, wind farm energy smoothing, and solar photovoltaic energy smoothing. There is a critical need to understnd how the carbon interacts with the negative plate and achieves the aforementioned benefits at a fundamental level. Such an understanding will not only enable the performance of such batteries to be optimzied, but also to explore the feasibility of applying this technology to other battery chemistries. In partnership with the East Penn Manufacturing, Sandia will investigate the electrochemical function of the carbon and possibly identify improvements to its anti-sulfation properties. Shiomi, et al. (1997) discovered that the addition of carbon to the negative active material (NAM) substantially reduced PbSO{sub 4} accumulation in high rate, partial state of charge (HRPSoC) cycling applications. This improved performance with a minimal cost. Cycling applications that were uneconomical for traditional VRLA batteries are viable for the carbon enhanced VRLA. The overall goal of this work is to quantitatively define the role that carbon plays in the electrochemistry of a VRLA battery.

  4. Advanced integrated enhanced vision systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, J. R.; Luk, Chiu H.; Hammerstrom, Dan; Pavel, Misha

    2003-09-01

    In anticipation of its ultimate role in transport, business and rotary wing aircraft, we clarify the role of Enhanced Vision Systems (EVS): how the output data will be utilized, appropriate architecture for total avionics integration, pilot and control interfaces, and operational utilization. Ground-map (database) correlation is critical, and we suggest that "synthetic vision" is simply a subset of the monitor/guidance interface issue. The core of integrated EVS is its sensor processor. In order to approximate optimal, Bayesian multi-sensor fusion and ground correlation functionality in real time, we are developing a neural net approach utilizing human visual pathway and self-organizing, associative-engine processing. In addition to EVS/SVS imagery, outputs will include sensor-based navigation and attitude signals as well as hazard detection. A system architecture is described, encompassing an all-weather sensor suite; advanced processing technology; intertial, GPS and other avionics inputs; and pilot and machine interfaces. Issues of total-system accuracy and integrity are addressed, as well as flight operational aspects relating to both civil certification and military applications in IMC.

  5. QUALITY ENHANCEMENT IN MEDICAL EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Nejati Ajibisheh

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Since ancient time, education has been evaluated in terms of its practical value among the Chinese; however, despite its long history, performance evaluation is the most complex and controversial of human resource management techniques (Roberts, 2003, and a little understood function of organizational life.Performance appraisal in both the private and the public sectors have become an integral part of work life. Of course, there is a growing interest to use performance management techniques in educational institutes in order to increase the competitiveness and quality of university education in a globalized environment .Accordingly, medical education requires special performance management and excellence models to improve the quality of course materials and provided services.The aim of this article is to develop a model of academic excellence based on a combination of SERVQUAL technique, Balanced Scorecard model, and EFQM Excellence Model. The SERVQUAL technique can be used to identify the gap between medical students\\' expectations and perceived experience as indicators of service quality, to measure quality of services offered by medical universities.In this article, with the use of Balanced Scorecard and EFQM, a comprehensive model will be introduced to enhance the quality of medical education. The model will recommend a process within different academic quality dimensions. In addition, the paper will introduce approaches to use available resources effectively to improve educational development.

  6. Interpersonal leveling, independence, and self-enhancement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Lotte; Sidanius, Jim; Fiske, Alan Page

    2007-01-01

    in self-enhancement. However, Danes practiced interpersonal leveling, preferring equality of outcome more than did Americans. This leveling strongly and inversely predicted self-enhancement within both cultures and mediated Danish-American differences in self-enhancement. In contrast, no independence...... of self.We conclude that social relationships, not the model of the self, mediate the mutual constitution of psyche and culture....

  7. Enhancements in entrepreneurial services : JAMK Generator

    OpenAIRE

    Schepers, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    The JAMK Generator assigned this task of enhancing the services of the Generator with the objective to increase the value of the Generator for the students through developing new enhancements. The enhancement is based on five concepts, which were researched in detail among the students of JAMK through a survey. In general, students are interested in entrepreneurship itself during their studies or in anticipation of their future careers. Students have been curious about an entrepreneurial ...

  8. BIR 2014 - Bibliometric-enhanced Information Retrieval

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This first “Bibliometric-enhanced Information Retrieval” (BIR 2014) workshop1 aims to engage with the IR community about possible links to bibliometrics and scholarly communication. Bibliometric techniques are not yet widely used to enhance retrieval processes in digital libraries, although...... for the incorporation of bibliometric-enhanced services into retrieval at the digital library interface. Our interests include information retrieval, information seeking, science modelling, network analysis, and digital libraries. The goal is to apply insights from bibliometrics, scientometrics, and informetrics...

  9. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy: nonlocal limitations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toscano, Giuseppe; Raza, Søren; Xiao, Sanshui;

    2012-01-01

    Giant field enhancement and field singularities are a natural consequence of the commonly employed local-response framework. We show that a more general nonlocal treatment of the plasmonic response leads to new and possibly fundamental limitations on field enhancement with important consequences ...... by periodic arrays of half-cylinders (up to 120 nm in radius), we find no enhancement factors exceeding 10 orders of magnitude (1010)....

  10. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy: nonlocal limitations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toscano, Giuseppe; Raza, S.; Xiao, Sanshui;

    2012-01-01

    Giant field enhancement and field singularities are a natural consequence of the commonly employed local-response framework. We show that a more general nonlocal treatment of the plasmonic response leads to new and possibly fundamental limitations on field enhancement with important consequences ...... by periodic arrays of half-cylinders (up to 120 nm in radius), we find no enhancement factors exceeding 10 orders of magnitude (10(10)). (C) 2012 Optical Society of America...

  11. Adopting Emerging Technology to Enhance Organizational Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    Center, Pacific with open-source, competitive intelligence to enhance their situational awareness and fulfill the external information needs of the...Group – An Overview To provide and enhance the situational awareness of its parent organization, the CSG has employed a competitive intelligence infrastructure...in 2001 by senior leadership to address SA imperative • Why: Provide open-source competitive intelligence to enhance situational awareness of SSC

  12. Enhancement of colposcopic image by sulphosalicylic acid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khilnani P

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Acetic acid is used conventionally for enhancement of the colposcopic image. We used sulphosalicylic acid instead of acetic acid in 50 normal cases. The normal appearance was enhanced in all cases. The image was also enhanced in 70% cases of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and 90% cases of cervical condyloma accuminata. The image was not inferior to that with acetic acid in any of the cases.

  13. Quantifying fish swimming behavior in response to acute exposure of aqueous copper using computer assisted video and digital image analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calfee, Robin D.; Puglis, Holly J.; Little, Edward E.; Brumbaugh, William G.; Mebane, Christopher A.

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral responses of aquatic organisms to environmental contaminants can be precursors of other effects such as survival, growth, or reproduction. However, these responses may be subtle, and measurement can be challenging. Using juvenile white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) with copper exposures, this paper illustrates techniques used for quantifying behavioral responses using computer assisted video and digital image analysis. In previous studies severe impairments in swimming behavior were observed among early life stage white sturgeon during acute and chronic exposures to copper. Sturgeon behavior was rapidly impaired and to the extent that survival in the field would be jeopardized, as fish would be swept downstream, or readily captured by predators. The objectives of this investigation were to illustrate protocols to quantify swimming activity during a series of acute copper exposures to determine time to effect during early lifestage development, and to understand the significance of these responses relative to survival of these vulnerable early lifestage fish. With mortality being on a time continuum, determining when copper first affects swimming ability helps us to understand the implications for population level effects. The techniques used are readily adaptable to experimental designs with other organisms and stressors.

  14. Resolving microsatellite genotype ambiguity in populations of allopolyploid and diploidized autopolyploid organisms using negative correlations between allelic variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Lindsay V; Schreier, Andrea Drauch

    2016-11-21

    A major limitation in the analysis of genetic marker data from polyploid organisms is non-Mendelian segregation, particularly when a single marker yields allelic signals from multiple, independently segregating loci (isoloci). However, with markers such as microsatellites that detect more than two alleles, it is sometimes possible to deduce which alleles belong to which isoloci. Here, we describe a novel mathematical property of codominant marker data when it is recoded as binary (presence/absence) allelic variables: under random mating in an infinite population, two allelic variables will be negatively correlated if they belong to the same locus, but uncorrelated if they belong to different loci. We present an algorithm to take advantage of this mathematical property, sorting alleles into isoloci based on correlations, then refining the allele assignments after checking for consistency with individual genotypes. We demonstrate the utility of our method on simulated data, as well as a real microsatellite data set from a natural population of octoploid white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus). Our methodology is implemented in the R package polysat version 1.6.

  15. Importance of mechanics and kinematics in determining the stiffness contribution of the vertebral column during body-caudal-fin swimming in fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowroozi, Bryan N; Brainerd, Elizabeth L

    2014-02-01

    Whole-body stiffness in fishes has important consequences for swimming mode, speed and efficiency, but the contribution of vertebral column stiffness to whole-body stiffness is unclear. In our opinion, this lack of clarity is due in part to the lack of studies that have measured both in vitro mechanical properties of the vertebral column as well as in vivo vertebral kinematics in the same species. Some lack of clarity may also come from real variation in the mechanical role of the vertebral column across species. Previous studies, based on either mechanics or kinematics alone, suggest species-specific variation in vertebral column locomotor function that ranges from highly stiff regimes that contribute greatly to whole-body stiffness, and potentially act as a spring, to highly compliant regimes that only prohibit excessive flexion of the intervertebral joints. We review data collected in combined investigations of both mechanics and kinematics of three species, Myxine glutinosa, Acipenser transmontanus, and Morone saxatilis, to illustrate how mechanical testing within the context of the in vivo kinematics more clearly distinguishes the role of the vertebral column in each species. In addition, we identify species for which kinematic data are available, but mechanical data are lacking. We encourage further investigation of these species to fill these mechanical data gaps. Finally, we hope these future combined analyses will identify certain morphological, mechanical, or kinematic parameters that might be associated with certain vertebral column functional regimes with respect to body stiffness.

  16. Status and Habitat Requirements of the White Sturgeon Populations in the Columbia River Downstream from McNary Dam, 1990-1991 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nigro, Anthony A. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Portland, OR)

    1991-09-01

    We report on our effort from April 1990 to March 1991 to describe the life history and population dynamics of white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus in.John Day Reservoir. We set 1188 set lines and 26 gill nets. We caught 623 white sturgeon with set lines and 236 with gill nets. Catch per unit effort was much higher in areas near the tailrace than in downstream sites. Our setlines were size selective. We recaptured 3 fish released in John Day Reservoir in 1989 and 28 fish released in 1990. Sport and commercial fishermen recovered 62 tags from fish we tagged in Bonneville, The Dalles and John Day reservoirs, 1987-1990. We observed extensive movements of marked sturgeon within the reservoirs. We completed aging of available samples from all three reservoirs from 1987-1990. We aged fish as old as 46 years. Bone marks were observed on 74 of 78 fish previously injected with oxytetracycline and annulus formation was generally complete after June. We estimated parameters in a length-weight equation. About 1.5% of the female white sturgeon we examined to date had early or late vitellogenic eggs and would be expected to spawn the following year.

  17. Influence of a weak field of pulsed DC electricity on the behavior and incidence of injury in adult Steelhead and Pacific Lamprey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesa, Matthew G.; Copeland, Elizabeth S.

    2009-01-01

    Predation by pinnipeds, such as California sea lions Zalophus californianus, Pacific harbor seals Phoca vitulina, and Stellar sea lions Eumetopias jubatus on adult Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp in the lower Columbia River has become a serious concern for fishery managers trying to conserve and restore runs of threatened and endangered fish. As a result, Smith-Root, Incorporated (SRI; Vancouver, Washington), manufacturers of electrofishing and closely-related equipment, proposed a project to evaluate the potential of an electrical barrier to deter marine mammals and reduce the amount of predation on adult salmonids (SRI 2007). The objectives of their work were to develop, deploy, and evaluate a passive, integrated sonar and electric barrier that would selectively inhibit the upstream movements of marine mammals and reduce predation, but would not injure pinnipeds or impact anadromous fish migrations. However, before such a device could be deployed in the field, concerns by regional fishery managers about the potential effects of such a device on the migratory behavior of Pacific salmon, steelhead O. mykiss, Pacific lampreys Entoshpenus tridentata, and white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus, needed to be addressed. In this report, we describe the results of laboratory research designed to evaluate the effects of prototype electric barriers on adult steelhead and Pacific lampreys.

  18. Sediment cores and chemistry for the Kootenai River White Sturgeon Habitat Restoration Project, Boundary County, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Gary J.; Weakland, Rhonda J.; Fosness, Ryan L.; Cox, Stephen E.; Williams, Marshall L.

    2012-01-01

    The Kootenai Tribe of Idaho, in cooperation with local, State, Federal, and Canadian agency co-managers and scientists, is assessing the feasibility of a Kootenai River habitat restoration project in Boundary County, Idaho. This project is oriented toward recovery of the endangered Kootenai River white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) population, and simultaneously targets habitat-based recovery of other native river biota. Projects currently (2010) under consideration include modifying the channel and flood plain, installing in-stream structures, and creating wetlands to improve the physical and biological functions of the ecosystem. River restoration is a complex undertaking that requires a thorough understanding of the river. To assist in evaluating the feasibility of this endeavor, the U.S. Geological Survey collected and analyzed the physical and chemical nature of sediment cores collected at 24 locations in the river. Core depths ranged from 4.6 to 15.2 meters; 21 cores reached a depth of 15.2 meters. The sediment was screened for the presence of chemical constituents that could have harmful effects if released during restoration activities. The analysis shows that concentrations of harmful chemical constituents do not exceed guideline limits that were published by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers in 2006.

  19. Effects of turbidity, light level, and cover on predation of white sturgeon larvae by prickly sculpins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadomski, D.M.; Parsley, M.J.

    2005-01-01

    White sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus occur in rivers of the western United States and southwestern Canada, but some populations are in decline because of recruitment failure. Many river systems in this area have been altered as a result of development that has caused major environmental changes. Our goal was to examine how three changes - lower turbidity levels, higher light levels, and altered substrates - might affect predation by prickly sculpin Cottus asper on white sturgeon larvae. We experimentally investigated predation at various turbidity levels and found that significantly more white sturgeon yolk sac larvae were eaten at lower turbidity levels. The effects of light level (1-4 and 7-15 1x), the presence or absence of rocks as cover, and prey size (14-17 mm and 20-24 mm total length) on the outcome of predator-prey interactions were also examined. Significantly fewer white sturgeon were eaten during trials that combined the lowest light level, cover, and the smallest larvae. Our results suggest that altered river conditions caused by impoundment and other factors have increased predation on white sturgeon larvae. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2005.

  20. Seasonal and diel movements of white sturgeon in the lower columbia river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsley, M.J.; Popoff, N.D.; Van Der Leeuw, B. K.; Wright, C.D.

    2008-01-01

    Continuous monitoring of the movements and depths used by white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus with acoustic telemetry technologies in the lower Columbia River provided information on diel and seasonal migrations, local movements, and site fidelity. White sturgeon moved to shallower water at night and showed greater activity, inferred from rates of movement, than during daytime. The extent of local movement within a season was variable among fish; some fish readily moved among habitats while the movements of others were more constrained. White sturgeon were absent from the study area (river kilometers 45-52) during winter and returned from upstream during the spring, confirming an upstream seasonal migration in the fall and downstream migration in spring. The return of individual fish and reoccupation of areas previously inhabited showed that some white sturgeon exhibit site fidelity. This work shows that studies seeking to characterize habitat for white sturgeon need to be cognizant of diel migrations and site fidelity. We urge caution in the use of limited fish location data to describe habitats if diel activities and fine-scale movements are not known.

  1. The effects of dissolved gas supersaturation on white sturgeon larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Counihan, T.D.; Miller, A.I.; Mesa, M.G.; Parsley, M.J.

    2000-01-01

    Spill at dams has caused supersaturation of atmospheric gas in waters of the Columbia and Snake rivers and raised concerns about the effects of dissolved gas supersaturation (DGS) on white sturgeons Acipenser transmontanus. The timing and location of white sturgeon spawning and the dispersal of white sturgeon larvae from incubation areas makes the larval stage potentially vulnerable to the effects of DGS. To assess the effects of DGS on white sturgeon larvae, we exposed larvae to mean total dissolved gas (TDG) levels of 118% and 131% saturation in laboratory bioassay tests. Gas bubble trauma (GBT) was manifested as a gas bubble in the buccal cavity, nares, or both and it first occurred at developmental stages characterized by the formation of the mouth and gills. Exposure times of 15 min were sufficient to elicit these signs in larvae in various stages of development. No mortality was observed in larvae exposed to 118% TDG for 10 d, but 50% mortality occurred after a 13-d exposure to 131% TDG. The signs of GBT we observed resulted in positive buoyancy and alterations in behavior that may affect the dispersal and predation vulnerability of white sturgeon larvae. The exact depth distribution of dispersing white sturgeon larvae in the Columbia River currently is unknown. Thus, our results may represent a worst-case scenario if white sturgeon larvae are dispersed at depths with insufficient hydrostatic pressure to compensate for high TDG levels.

  2. Modeling white sturgeon movement in a reservoir: The effect of water quality and sturgeon density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, A.B.; Jager, H.I.; Myers, R.

    2003-01-01

    We developed a movement model to examine the distribution and survival of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) in a reservoir subject to large spatial and temporal variation in dissolved oxygen and temperature. Temperature and dissolved oxygen were simulated by a CE-QUAL-W2 model of Brownlee Reservoir, Idaho for a typical wet, normal, and dry hydrologic year. We compared current water quality conditions to scenarios with reduced nutrient inputs to the reservoir. White sturgeon habitat quality was modeled as a function of temperature, dissolved oxygen and, in some cases, suitability for foraging and depth. We assigned a quality index to each cell along the bottom of the reservoir. The model simulated two aspects of daily movement. Advective movement simulated the tendency for animals to move toward areas with high habitat quality, and diffusion simulated density dependent movement away from areas with high sturgeon density in areas with non-lethal habitat conditions. Mortality resulted when sturgeon were unable to leave areas with lethal temperature or dissolved oxygen conditions. Water quality was highest in winter and early spring and lowest in mid to late summer. Limiting nutrient inputs reduced the area of Brownlee Reservoir with lethal conditions for sturgeon and raised the average habitat suitability throughout the reservoir. Without movement, simulated white sturgeon survival ranged between 45 and 89%. Allowing movement raised the predicted survival of sturgeon under all conditions to above 90% as sturgeon avoided areas with low habitat quality. ?? 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Selenium absorption, distribution, and excretion in white sturgeon orally dosed with l-selenomethionine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashjian, Diran H; Hung, Silas S O

    2006-10-01

    The usefulness of a newly developed, combined technique consisting of esophageal intubation, dorsal aortic cannulation, and urinary catheterization to deliver Se orally and to monitor Se uptake, accumulation, and excretion in white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) was explored. Groups of five yearling sturgeon (1-2 kg) each were intubated with 0 (sham), 250, 500, or 1,000 microg Se/kg body weight in the form of L-selenomethionine, an ecologically relevant organic form of Se. Selenium concentrations in whole blood, plasma, and red blood cells did not change in the sham group but began to rise within 2 h postintubation in the other groups, and levels remained near maximum concentrations throughout the 48-h sampling period. Average urinary Se excretion rates over the entire 48-h period were 0.05, 0.46, 0.61, and 2.15 microg Se/kg/h in sturgeon intubated with 0, 250, 500, and 1,000 microg Se/kg, respectively. Selenium excretion rates were highest within the first 6 h in all treatment groups except the sham group. Selenium concentrations in the liver were positively correlated with the intubated Se dosage.

  4. Short-term response of subadult white sturgeon to hopper dredge disposal operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsley, Michael J.; Popoff, Nicholas D.; Romine, Jason G.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of dredged-material disposal operations on the behavior of seven white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus (50–101 cm fork length) was examined by analysis of the movements and depth use of these fish before, during, and after a series of hopper dredge disposal operations in the lower Columbia River. Analyses of fish locations showed that 12 flow-lane disposal operations within a 24-h period had minimal effect on subadult white sturgeon behavior; six of the seven fish showed slight attraction to the disposal area during disposals, and one fish increased its distance from the disposal area. The core area for all fish combined shifted toward the disposal area during disposals. In the 24 h after completion of the disposal operations the fish core areas shifted back toward those areas occupied before the disposals. The rates of movement, depths used, and diel movement patterns of the white sturgeon showed little change over all periods, suggesting that natural behaviors were not altered during and immediately after hopper dredge disposal operations.

  5. Vulnerability of larval and juvenile white sturgeon to barotrauma: can they handle the pressure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Richard S; Cook, Katrina V; Pflugrath, Brett D; Rozeboom, Latricia L; Johnson, Rachelle C; McLellan, Jason G; Linley, Timothy J; Gao, Yong; Baumgartner, Lee J; Dowell, Frederick E; Miller, Erin A; White, Timothy A

    2013-01-01

    Techniques were developed to determine which life stages of fish are vulnerable to barotrauma from expansion of internal gases during decompression. Eggs, larvae, and juvenile hatchery-reared white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus; up to 91 days post hatch; d.p.h.) were decompressed to assess vulnerability to barotrauma and identify initial swim bladder inflation. Barotrauma-related injury and mortality were first observed 9 d.p.h., on the same day as initial exogenous feeding. However, barotrauma-related injury did not occur again until swim bladder inflation 75 d.p.h. (visible at necropsy and on radiographs). Swim bladder inflation was not consistent among individuals, with only 44% being inflated 91 d.p.h. Additionally, swim bladder inflation did not appear to be size dependent among fish ranging in total length from 61 to 153 mm at 91 d.p.h. The use of a combination of decompression tests and radiography was validated as a method to determine initial swim bladder inflation and vulnerability to barotrauma. Extending these techniques to other species and life-history stages would help to determine the susceptibility of fish to hydro turbine passage and aid in fish conservation.

  6. Vulnerability of larval and juvenile white sturgeon to barotrauma: can they handle the pressure?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Richard S.; Cook, Katrina V.; Pflugrath, Brett D.; Rozeboom, Latricia L.; Johnson, Rachelle C.; McLellan, Jason; Linley, Timothy J.; Gao, Yong; Baumgartner, Lee J.; Dowell, Frederick E.; Miller, Erin A.; White, Timothy A.

    2013-07-01

    Techniques were developed to determine which life stages of fish are vulnerable to barotrauma from expansion of internal gases during decompression. Eggs, larvae and juvenile hatchery-reared white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus; up to 91 days post hatch; dph), were decompressed to assess vulnerability to barotrauma and identify initial swim bladder inflation. Barotrauma related injury and mortality were first observed 9 dph, on the same day as initial exogenous feeding. However, barotrauma related injury did not occur again until swim bladder inflation 75 dph (visible from necropsy and x-ray radiographs). Swim bladder inflation was not consistent among individuals, with only 44% being inflated 91 dph. Additionally, swim bladder inflation did not appear to be size dependent among fish ranging in total length from 61-153 mm at 91 dph. The use of a combination of decompression tests and x-ray radiography was validated as a method to determine initial swim bladder inflation and vulnerability to barotrauma. Extending these techniques to other species and life history stages would help to determine fish susceptibility to hydroturbine passage and aid in fish conservation.

  7. A spatial model of white sturgeon rearing habitat in the lower Columbia River, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatten, J.R.; Parsley, M.J.

    2009-01-01

    Concerns over the potential effects of in-water placement of dredged materials prompted us to develop a GIS-based model that characterizes in a spatially explicit manner white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus rearing habitat in the lower Columbia River, USA. The spatial model was developed using water depth, riverbed slope and roughness, fish positions collected in 2002, and Mahalanobis distance (D2). We created a habitat suitability map by identifying a Mahalanobis distance under which >50% of white sturgeon locations occurred in 2002 (i.e., high-probability habitat). White sturgeon preferred relatively moderate to high water depths, and low to moderate riverbed slope and roughness values. The eigenvectors indicated that riverbed slope and roughness were slightly more important than water depth, but all three variables were important. We estimated the impacts that fill might have on sturgeon habitat by simulating the addition of fill to the thalweg, in 3-m increments, and recomputing Mahalanobis distances. Channel filling simulations revealed that up to 9 m of fill would have little impact on high-probability habitat, but 12 and 15 m of fill resulted in habitat declines of ???12% and ???45%, respectively. This is the first spatially explicit predictive model of white sturgeon rearing habitat in the lower Columbia River, and the first to quantitatively predict the impacts of dredging operations on sturgeon habitat. Future research should consider whether water velocity improves the accuracy and specificity of the model, and to assess its applicability to other areas in the Columbia River.

  8. Salinity effects on activity and expression of glutathione S-transferases in white sturgeon and Chinook salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donham, Rachel T; Morin, Dexter; Tjeerdema, Ronald S

    2006-02-01

    This study evaluated the activity and expression of the glutathione S-transferase (GST) detoxification isoenzymes in juvenile white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) during acclimation from freshwater (2 per thousand) to estuarine (15 per thousand) salinity conditions. In white sturgeon, GST activity toward 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB) increased significantly (P = 0.005; n = 5) with elevated salinity, but not for the Chinook salmon (P = 0.174; n = 10). GST activity of both sturgeon and salmon toward ethacrynic acid (ETHA) did not significantly change with elevated salinity (P = 0.516 with n = 3, and P = 0.125 with n = 3, respectively). Expression of the GST classes, and hepatic glutathione (GSH) concentration, as determined by HPLC, also did not significantly change with increased salinity. In conclusion, overall GST activity in white sturgeon, but not Chinook salmon, is stimulated by elevated water salinity, thus electrophilic chemicals such as pesticides may be more effectively detoxified by sturgeon as they undergo seaward migration.

  9. Effects of sediment cover on survival and development of white sturgeon embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kock, T.J.; Congleton, J.L.; Anders, P.J.

    2006-01-01

    A simple, inexpensive apparatus (embryo incubation unit [EIU]) was developed and used to assess the relationship between sediment cover (Kootenai River sediments, 97% by weight in the 0.83-mm- to 1.0-mm-diameter range) and survival of white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus embryos in the laboratory. An apparatus-testing trial assessed the effects of two sediment depths (5 and 20 mm), three EIU ventilation hole sizes (4.8, 6.8, and 9.5 mm) providing three levels of intrasediment flow, and EIU location (upstream or downstream in laboratory troughs) on embryo survival at two above-substrate flow velocities (0.05 and 0.15 m/s). A second trial assessed the effects of sediment cover duration (5-mm sediment cover for 4, 7, 9, 11, or 14 d, with a ventilation hole size of 9.5 mm and a flow velocity of 0.17 m/s) on mean embryo survival and larval length and weight. In the apparatus-testing trial, embryo survival was reduced (P white sturgeon spawn over fine-sediment substrates. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2006.

  10. Important Considerations for Methemoglobin Measurement in Fish Blood: Assay Choice and Storage Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuntz, Mel Anton; Rodnick, K. J.; J. A. Lacey

    2002-05-01

    Spectrophotometric assays of methaemoglobin (metHb) in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus, tilapias Tilapia niloticus and Tilapia zillii and white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus, under baseline conditions, were low (<4%) for each species, and yet higher than human values (<1%). MetHb results for a given fish species varied significantly between assays and two assays were deemed unacceptable for particular animals. For rainbow trout, white sturgeon, and the two species of tilapia, the Dubowski method gave uncharacteristically high estimates of metHb. MetHb could not measured in tilapia blood using the Evelyn & Malloy method due to spectral interference. Only the Horecker & Brackett assay worked well for all species. Storage conditions were extremely important in the quantification of metHb in rainbow trout blood. For consistent values, samples can be stored up to 4 h on ice (0 degrees C) or at least 20 days under liquid nitrogen (-196 degrees C). Auto-oxidation, however, elevates rainbow trout metHb at -20 and -80 degrees C. It should not be assumed that the blood of fishes and humans perform similarly during assays of metHb.

  11. Structuring decisions for managing threatened and endangered species in a changing climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Robin; Arvai, Joseph; Gerber, Leah R

    2013-12-01

    The management of endangered species under climate change is a challenging and often controversial task that incorporates input from a variety of different environmental, economic, social, and political interests. Yet many listing and recovery decisions for endangered species unfold on an ad hoc basis without reference to decision-aiding approaches that can improve the quality of management choices. Unlike many treatments of this issue, which consider endangered species management a science-based problem, we suggest that a clear decision-making process is equally necessary. In the face of new threats due to climate change, managers' choices about endangered species require closely linked analyses and deliberations that identify key objectives and develop measurable attributes, generate and compare management alternatives, estimate expected consequences and key sources of uncertainty, and clarify trade-offs across different dimensions of value. Several recent cases of endangered species conservation decisions illustrate our proposed decision-focused approach, including Gulf of Maine Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) recovery framework development, Cultus Lake sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) management, and Upper Columbia River white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) recovery planning. Estructuración de Decisiones para Manejar Especies Amenazadas y en Peligro en un Clima Cambiante.

  12. Anatomy and early development of the pectoral girdle, fin, and fin spine of sturgeons (Actinopterygii: Acipenseridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillman, Casey B; Hilton, Eric J

    2015-03-01

    Acipenseriformes hold an important place in the evolutionary history of bony fishes. Given their phylogenetic position as extant basal Actinopterygii, it is generally held that a thorough understanding of their morphology will greatly contribute to the knowledge of the evolutionary history and the origin of diversity for the major osteichthyan clades. To this end, we examined comparative developmental series from the pectoral girdle in Acipenser fulvescens, A. medirostris, A. transmontanus, and Scaphirhynchus albus to document, describe, and compare ontogenetic and allometric differences in the pectoral girdle. We find, not surprisingly, broad congruence between taxa in the basic pattern of development of the dermal and chondral elements of the pectoral girdle. However, we also find clear differences in the details of structure and development among the species examined in the dermal elements, including the clavicle, cleithrum, supracleithrum, posttemporal, and pectoral-fin spine. We also find differences in the internal fin elements such as the distal radials as well as in the number of fin rays and their association with the propterygium. Further, there are clear ontogenetic differences during development of the dermal and chondral elements in these species and allometric variation in the pectoral-fin spine. The characters highlighted provide a suite of elements for further examination in studies of the phylogeny of sturgeons. Determining the distribution of these characters in other sturgeons may aid in further resolution of phylogenetic relationships, and these data highlight the role that ontogenetic and comparative developmental studies provide in systematics.

  13. Evaluate Potential Means of Rebuilding Sturgeon Populations in the Snake River between Lower Granite and Hells Canyon Dams, 1998 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Everett, Scott R.; Tuell, Michael A. (Nez Perce Tribe, Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Lapwai, ID)

    2002-03-01

    In 1998 white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) were captured, marked, and population data were collected in the Snake River between Lower Granite Dam and the mouth of the Salmon River. A total of 13,785 hours of setline effort and 389 hours of hook-and-line effort was employed in 1998. Of the 278 white sturgeon captured in the Snake River, 238 were marked for future identification. Three sturgeon were captured in the Salmon River and none were captured in the Clearwater River. Since 1997, 6.9% of the tagged fish have been recovered. Movement of recaptured white sturgeon ranged from 98.5 kilometers downstream to 60.7 kilometers upstream, however, less than 25% of the fish moved more than 16 kilometers (10 miles). In the Snake River, white sturgeon ranged in total length from 51.5 cm to 286 cm and averaged 118.9 cm. Differences were detected in the length frequency distributions of sturgeon in Lower Granite Reservoir and the free-flowing Snake River (Chi-Square test, P < 0.05). In addition, the proportion of white sturgeon greater than 92 cm (total length) in the free-flowing Snake River has shown an increase of 37% since the 1970's. Analysis of the length-weight relationship indicated that white sturgeon in Lower Granite Reservoir were slightly larger than white sturgeon in the free-flowing Snake River.

  14. Status and Habitat Requirements of the White Sturgeon Populations in the Columbia River Downstream from McNary Dam Volume II; Supplemental Papers and Data Documentation, 1986-1992 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beamesderfer, Raymond C.; Nigro, Anthony A. [Oregon Dept. of Fish and Wildlife, Clackamas, OR (US)

    1995-01-01

    This is the final report for research on white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus from 1986--92 and conducted by the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW), US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), and Washington Department of Fisheries (WDF). Findings are presented as a series of papers, each detailing objectives, methods, results, and conclusions for a portion of this research. This volume includes supplemental papers which provide background information needed to support results of the primary investigations addressed in Volume 1. This study addresses measure 903(e)(1) of the Northwest Power Planning Council's 1987 Fish and Wildlife Program that calls for ''research to determine the impact of development and operation of the hydropower system on sturgeon in the Columbia River Basin.'' Study objectives correspond to those of the ''White Sturgeon Research Program Implementation Plan'' developed by BPA and approved by the Northwest Power Planning Council in 1985. Work was conducted on the Columbia River from McNary Dam to the estuary.

  15. Electronic enhancement of tear secretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinton, Mark; Lim Chung, Jae; Kossler, Andrea; Kook, Koung Hoon; Loudin, Jim; Franke, Manfred; Palanker, Daniel

    2016-02-01

    Objective. To study electrical stimulation of the lacrimal gland and afferent nerves for enhanced tear secretion, as a potential treatment for dry eye disease. We investigate the response pathways and electrical parameters to safely maximize tear secretion. Approach. We evaluated the tear response to electrical stimulation of the lacrimal gland and afferent nerves in isofluorane-anesthetized rabbits. In acute studies, electrical stimulation was performed using bipolar platinum foil electrodes, implanted beneath the inferior lacrimal gland, and a monopolar electrode placed near the afferent ethmoid nerve. Wireless microstimulators with bipolar electrodes were implanted beneath the lacrimal gland for chronic studies. To identify the response pathways, we applied various pharmacological inhibitors. To optimize the stimulus, we measured tear secretion rate (Schirmer test) as a function of pulse amplitude (1.5-12 mA), duration (0.1-1 ms) and repetition rate (10-100 Hz). Main results. Stimulation of the lacrimal gland increased tear secretion by engaging efferent parasympathetic nerves. Tearing increased with stimulation amplitude, pulse duration and repetition rate, up to 70 Hz. Stimulation with 3 mA, 500 μs pulses at 70 Hz provided a 4.5 mm (125%) increase in Schirmer score. Modulating duty cycle further increased tearing up to 57%, compared to continuous stimulation in chronically implanted animals (36%). Ethmoid (afferent) nerve stimulation increased tearing similar to gland stimulation (3.6 mm) via a reflex pathway. In animals with chronically implanted stimulators, a nearly 6 mm increase (57%) was achieved with 12-fold less charge density per pulse (0.06-0.3 μC mm-2 with 170-680 μs pulses) than the damage threshold (3.5 μC mm-2 with 1 ms pulses). Significance. Electrical stimulation of the lacrimal gland or afferent nerves may be used as a treatment for dry eye disease. Clinical trials should validate this approach in patients with aqueous tear deficiency, and

  16. Enhancing Ocean Research Data Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Cynthia; Groman, Robert; Shepherd, Adam; Allison, Molly; Arko, Robert; Chen, Yu; Fox, Peter; Glover, David; Hitzler, Pascal; Leadbetter, Adam; Narock, Thomas; West, Patrick; Wiebe, Peter

    2014-05-01

    The Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO) works in partnership with ocean science investigators to publish data from research projects funded by the Biological and Chemical Oceanography Sections and the Office of Polar Programs Antarctic Organisms & Ecosystems Program at the U.S. National Science Foundation. Since 2006, researchers have been contributing data to the BCO-DMO data system, and it has developed into a rich repository of data from ocean, coastal and Great Lakes research programs. While the ultimate goal of the BCO-DMO is to ensure preservation of NSF funded project data and to provide open access to those data, achievement of those goals is attained through a series of related phases that benefits from active collaboration and cooperation with a large community of research scientists as well as curators of data and information at complementary data repositories. The BCO-DMO is just one of many intermediate data management centers created to facilitate long-term preservation of data and improve access to ocean research data. Through partnerships with other data management professionals and active involvement in local and global initiatives, BCO-DMO staff members are working to enhance access to ocean research data available from the online BCO-DMO data system. Continuing efforts in use of controlled vocabulary terms, development of ontology design patterns and publication of content as Linked Open Data are contributing to improved discovery and availability of BCO-DMO curated data and increased interoperability of related content available from distributed repositories. We will demonstrate how Semantic Web technologies (e.g. RDF/XML, SKOS, OWL and SPARQL) have been integrated into BCO-DMO data access and delivery systems to better serve the ocean research community and to contribute to an expanding global knowledge network.

  17. Robotically enhanced rubber hand illusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arata, Jumpei; Hattori, Masashi; Ichikawa, Shohei; Sakaguchi, Masamichi

    2014-01-01

    The rubber hand illusion is a well-known multisensory illusion. In brief, watching a rubber hand being stroked by a paintbrush while one's own unseen hand is synchronously stroked causes the rubber hand to be attributed to one's own body and to "feel like it's my hand." The rubber hand illusion is thought to be triggered by the synchronized tactile stimulation of both the subject's hand and the fake hand. To extend the conventional rubber hand illusion, we introduce robotic technology in the form of a master-slave telemanipulator. The developed one degree-of-freedom master-slave system consists of an exoskeleton master equipped with an optical encoder that is worn on the subject's index finger and a motor-actuated index finger on the rubber hand, which allows the subject to perform unilateral telemanipulation. The moving rubber hand illusion has been studied by several researchers in the past with mechanically connected rigs between the subject's body and the fake limb. The robotic instruments let us investigate the moving rubber hand illusion with less constraints, thus behaving closer to the classic rubber hand illusion. In addition, the temporal delay between the body and the fake limb can be precisely manipulated. The experimental results revealed that the robotic instruments significantly enhance the rubber hand illusion. The time delay is significantly correlated with the effect of the multisensory illusion, and the effect significantly decreased at time delays over 100 ms. These findings can potentially contribute to the investigations of neural mechanisms in the field of neuroscience and of master-slave systems in the field of robotics.

  18. Lift enhancement by trapped vortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossow, Vernon J.

    1992-01-01

    The viewgraphs and discussion of lift enhancement by trapped vortex are provided. Efforts are continuously being made to find simple ways to convert wings of aircraft from an efficient cruise configuration to one that develops the high lift needed during landing and takeoff. The high-lift configurations studied here consist of conventional airfoils with a trapped vortex over the upper surface. The vortex is trapped by one or two vertical fences that serve as barriers to the oncoming stream and as reflection planes for the vortex and the sink that form a separation bubble on top of the airfoil. Since the full three-dimensional unsteady flow problem over the wing of an aircraft is so complicated that it is hard to get an understanding of the principles that govern the vortex trapping process, the analysis is restricted here to the flow field illustrated in the first slide. It is assumed that the flow field between the two end plates approximates a streamwise strip of the flow over a wing. The flow between the endplates and about the airfoil consists of a spanwise vortex located between the suction orifices in the endplates. The spanwise fence or spoiler located near the nose of the airfoil serves to form a separated flow region and a shear layer. The vorticity in the shear layer is concentrated into the vortex by withdrawal of fluid at the suction orifices. As the strength of the vortex increases with time, it eventually dominates the flow in the separated region so that a shear or vertical layer is no longer shed from the tip of the fence. At that point, the vortex strength is fixed and its location is such that all of the velocity contributions at its center sum to zero thereby making it an equilibrium point for the vortex. The results of a theoretical analysis of such an idealized flow field are described.

  19. Sensor fusion method for machine performance enhancement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mou, J.I. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); King, C.; Hillaire, R. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States). Integrated Manufacturing Systems Center; Jones, S.; Furness, R. [Ford Motor Co., Dearborn, MI (United States)

    1998-03-01

    A sensor fusion methodology was developed to uniquely integrate pre-process, process-intermittent, and post-process measurement and analysis technology to cost-effectively enhance the accuracy and capability of computer-controlled manufacturing equipment. Empirical models and computational algorithms were also developed to model, assess, and then enhance the machine performance.

  20. Surface enhanced raman spectroscopy on chip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hübner, Jörg; Anhøj, Thomas Aarøe; Zauner, Dan;

    2007-01-01

    is projected onto a CCD element and visualized by a computer. To enhance the otherwise rather weak Raman signal, a nanosurface is prepared and a sample solutions is impregnated on this surface. The surface enhanced Raman signal is picked up using a Raman probe and coupled into the spectrometer via an optical...

  1. 75 FR 45562 - Enhancing Airline Passenger Protections

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-03

    ... Office of the Secretary 14 CFR Parts 234, 244, 250, 253, 259, and 399 RIN No. 2105-AD92 Enhancing Airline... enhancing airline passenger protections that was published in the Federal Register on June 8, 2010. The... of airline associations, one airport association, and two airlines to extend the comment period...

  2. Teachers as designers of technology enhanced learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kali, Yael; McKenney, Susan; Sagy, Ornit

    2013-01-01

    Kali, Y., McKenney, S., & Sagy, O. (2012, 2-6 July). Teachers as designers of technology enhanced learning. Presentation at the Teachers as Designers of Technology Enhanced Learning pre-conference workshop in conjunction with the ISLS annual meeting, Sydney, Australia.

  3. Image Enhancement By Partially Coherent Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, William T.; Koizumi, M.

    1983-04-01

    A partially coherent Koehler-illumination imaging system equipped with complementary masks in source and pupil planes can be used to perform image enhancement operations such as directional or non-directional edge enhancement and emphasis of spatial bandpass features. With many objects the use of complementary masks results in high-contrast images. Underlying principles are explained and preliminary experimental results presented.

  4. Open Educational Practices for Curriculum Enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armellini, Alejandro; Nie, Ming

    2013-01-01

    Open educational resources (OER) and open educational practices (OEP) are relatively new areas in educational research. How OER and OEP can help practitioners enhance curricula is one of a number of under-researched topics. This article aims to enable practitioners to identify and implement appropriate open practices to enhance higher education…

  5. Enhancing critical current density of cuprate superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhari, Praveen

    2015-06-16

    The present invention concerns the enhancement of critical current densities in cuprate superconductors. Such enhancement of critical current densities include using wave function symmetry and restricting movement of Abrikosov (A) vortices, Josephson (J) vortices, or Abrikosov-Josephson (A-J) vortices by using the half integer vortices associated with d-wave symmetry present in the grain boundary.

  6. UV fluorescence enhancement from nanostructured aluminum materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montanari, Danielle E.; Dean, Nathan; Poston, Pete E.; Blair, Steve; Harris, Joel M.

    2016-09-01

    Interest in label-free detection of biomolecules has given rise to the need for UV plasmonic materials. DNA bases and amino acid residues have electronic resonances in the UV which allow for sensitive detection of these species by surface-enhanced UV fluorescence spectroscopy. Electrochemical roughening has been used extensively to generate plasmonically-active metal surfaces that produce localized enhancement of excitation and emission of electromagnetic radiation from surface-bound molecules. Electrochemically roughened gold and silver surfaces produce enhancement in the visible and near-IR regions, but to the best of our knowledge, application of this technique for producing UV-enhancing substrates has not been reported. Using electropolishing of aluminum, we are able to generate nanostructured surfaces that produce enhanced spectroscopic detection of molecules in the UV. Aluminum is a natural choice for substrate composition as it exhibits a relatively large quality factor in the UV. We have fabricated electropolished aluminum films with nanometer scale roughness and have studied UV-excited fluorescence enhancement from submonolayer coverage of tryptophan on these substrates using a UV-laser based spectrometer. Quantitative dosing by dip-coating was used to deposit known surface concentrations of the aromatic amino acid tryptophan, so that fluorescence enhancement could be evaluated. Compared to a dielectric substrate (surface-oxidized silicon), we observe a 180-fold enhancement in the total fluorescence emitted by tryptophan on electropolished aluminum under photobleaching conditions, allowing detection of sub-monolayer coverages of molecules essential for development of biosensor technologies.

  7. Bacterial mutants for enhanced succinate production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baart, G.J.E.; Beauprez, J.J.R.; Foulquie, M.M.R.; Heijnen, J.J.; Maertens, J.

    2010-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method for obtaining enhanced metabolite production in micro-organisms, and to mutants and/or transformants obtained with said method. More particularly, it relates to bacterial mutants and/or transformants for enhanced succinate production, especially mutants and/

  8. The Enhancement of Social Self-Esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, W. L.; Christie, M. M.

    1982-01-01

    Compared the relative effectiveness of three self-management procedures in enhancing self-esteem. Results indicated that it is possible to enhance reported self-esteem by self-management procedures and that cueing effects are as important as reinforcing effects. (KMF)

  9. Quality Enhancement and Educational Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Peter

    2006-01-01

    There is a strong international interest in the enhancement of teaching quality. Enhancement is a big job because teaching is an extensive activity. It is a complex job because learning to teach is not, mainly, a formal process: non-formal, practice-based learning is more significant. These two points, extensiveness and practice-based learning,…

  10. Enhancing Engineering Education through Engineering Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pence, Kenneth R.; Rowe, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    Engineering Management courses are added to a traditional engineering curriculum to enhance the value of an undergraduate's engineering degree. A four-year engineering degree often leaves graduates lacking in business and management acumen. Engineering management education covers topics enhancing the value of new graduates by teaching management…

  11. Animal Behaviour: Friendship Enhances Trust in Chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silk, Joan

    2016-01-25

    Individuals that participate in exchanges with delayed rewards can be exploited if their partners don't reciprocate. In humans, friendships are built on trust, and trust enhances cooperation. New evidence suggests that close social bonds also enhance trust in chimpanzees.

  12. 4-Aminothiophenol Strong SERS Signal Enhance-ment at Electro dep osited Silver Surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lenka Skantarova; Andrej Orinak; Renata Orinakova; Frantisek Lofaj

    2012-01-01

    Strong surface enhancement Raman spectroscopy signal of 4-aminothiophenol on silver substrate prepared by controlled electrodeposition is documented in this article. Enhancement factor was found to be affected not only by nanoparticle size, shape, orientation and spatial distribution, but also by interaction of Ag nanoparticles with thiol group of testing analyte. Self-assembled monolayers formation was contributed to this unique signal enhancement. The enhancement factor was established of 1.81×1014 .

  13. Gabor filter based fingerprint image enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin-Xiang

    2013-03-01

    Fingerprint recognition technology has become the most reliable biometric technology due to its uniqueness and invariance, which has been most convenient and most reliable technique for personal authentication. The development of Automated Fingerprint Identification System is an urgent need for modern information security. Meanwhile, fingerprint preprocessing algorithm of fingerprint recognition technology has played an important part in Automatic Fingerprint Identification System. This article introduces the general steps in the fingerprint recognition technology, namely the image input, preprocessing, feature recognition, and fingerprint image enhancement. As the key to fingerprint identification technology, fingerprint image enhancement affects the accuracy of the system. It focuses on the characteristics of the fingerprint image, Gabor filters algorithm for fingerprint image enhancement, the theoretical basis of Gabor filters, and demonstration of the filter. The enhancement algorithm for fingerprint image is in the windows XP platform with matlab.65 as a development tool for the demonstration. The result shows that the Gabor filter is effective in fingerprint image enhancement technology.

  14. Enhancing nanoparticle electrodynamics with gold nanoplate mirrors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zijie; Bao, Ying; Manna, Uttam; Shah, Raman A; Scherer, Norbert F

    2014-05-14

    Mirrors and optical cavities can modify and enhance matter-radiation interactions. Here we report that chemically synthesized Au nanoplates can serve as micrometer-size mirrors that enhance electrodynamic interactions. Because of their plasmonic properties, the Au nanoplates enhance the brightness of scattered light from Ag nanoparticles near the nanoplate surface in dark-field microscopy. More importantly, enhanced optical trapping and optical binding of Ag nanoparticles are demonstrated in interferometric optical traps created from a single laser beam and its reflection from individual Au nanoplates. The enhancement of the interparticle force constant is ≈20-fold more than expected from the increased intensity due to standing wave interference. We show that the additional stability for optical binding arises from the restricted axial thermal motion of the nanoparticles that couples to and reduces the fluctuations in the lateral plane. This new mechanism greatly advances the photonic synthesis of ultrastable nanoparticle arrays and investigation of their properties.

  15. Speech enhancement on smartphone voice recording

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tris Atmaja, Bagus; Nur Farid, Mifta; Arifianto, Dhany

    2016-11-01

    Speech enhancement is challenging task in audio signal processing to enhance the quality of targeted speech signal while suppress other noises. In the beginning, the speech enhancement algorithm growth rapidly from spectral subtraction, Wiener filtering, spectral amplitude MMSE estimator to Non-negative Matrix Factorization (NMF). Smartphone as revolutionary device now is being used in all aspect of life including journalism; personally and professionally. Although many smartphones have two microphones (main and rear) the only main microphone is widely used for voice recording. This is why the NMF algorithm widely used for this purpose of speech enhancement. This paper evaluate speech enhancement on smartphone voice recording by using some algorithms mentioned previously. We also extend the NMF algorithm to Kulback-Leibler NMF with supervised separation. The last algorithm shows improved result compared to others by spectrogram and PESQ score evaluation.

  16. Molecular mechanism of the sweet taste enhancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feng; Klebansky, Boris; Fine, Richard M; Liu, Haitian; Xu, Hong; Servant, Guy; Zoller, Mark; Tachdjian, Catherine; Li, Xiaodong

    2010-03-01

    Positive allosteric modulators of the human sweet taste receptor have been developed as a new way of reducing dietary sugar intake. Besides their potential health benefit, the sweet taste enhancers are also valuable tool molecules to study the general mechanism of positive allosteric modulations of T1R taste receptors. Using chimeric receptors, mutagenesis, and molecular modeling, we reveal how these sweet enhancers work at the molecular level. Our data argue that the sweet enhancers follow a similar mechanism as the natural umami taste enhancer molecules. Whereas the sweeteners bind to the hinge region and induce the closure of the Venus flytrap domain of T1R2, the enhancers bind close to the opening and further stabilize the closed and active conformation of the receptor.

  17. Metal plasmon enhanced europium complex luminescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Feng [Department of Chemistry, Queen' s University, 90 Bader Lane, Kingston, Ontario, K7L 3N6 (Canada); Aldea, Gabriela [Department of Chemistry, Queen' s University, 90 Bader Lane, Kingston, Ontario, K7L 3N6 (Canada); Petru Poni Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry Iasi, Aleea Grigore Ghica Voda 41A, 700487 Iasi (Romania); Nunzi, Jean-Michel, E-mail: nunzijm@queensu.c [Department of Chemistry, Queen' s University, 90 Bader Lane, Kingston, Ontario, K7L 3N6 (Canada)

    2010-01-15

    The plasmon enhanced luminescence of a rare-earth complex Tris(6, 6, 7, 7, 8, 8, 8-heptafluoro-2, 2-dimethyl-3, 5-octanedionato) europium (Eu(fod){sub 3}) was investigated. A polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) thin film was successfully adopted as a spacer to separate the Eu complex from the silver island film (SIF), and five-fold enhancement of the radiative decay rate of the Eu complex on SIF was demonstrated based on the luminescence intensity and lifetime measurement. Investigation of the distance dependent luminescence indicates that 7 nm is an optimal distance for SIF enhanced Eu luminescence. Plasmon enhanced rare-earth luminescence based on an organic film spacer would find potential applications in plasmon enhanced organic light emitting diode (OLED) devices.

  18. ELECTROSTATICALLY ENHANCED BARRIER FILTER COLLECTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Erjavec; Michael D. Mann; Ryan Z. Knutson; Michael L. Swanson; Michael E. Collings

    2003-06-01

    electrostatically enhanced barrier filter collection (EBFC). This concept combines electrostatic precipitation (ESP) with candle filters in a single unit. Similar technology has been recently proven on a commercial scale for atmospheric applications, but needed to be tested at high temperatures and pressures. The synergy obtained by combining the two control technologies into a single system should actually reduce filter system capital and operating costs and make the system more reliable. More specifically, the ESP is expected to significantly reduce candle filter load and also to limit ash reintrainment, allowing for full recovery of baseline pressure drop during backpulsing of the filters.

  19. Inflammation-sensitive super enhancers form domains of coordinately regulated enhancer RNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hah, Nasun; Benner, Chris; Chong, Ling-Wa; Yu, Ruth T; Downes, Michael; Evans, Ronald M

    2015-01-20

    Enhancers are critical genomic elements that define cellular and functional identity through the spatial and temporal regulation of gene expression. Recent studies suggest that key genes regulating cell type-specific functions reside in enhancer-dense genomic regions (i.e., super enhancers, stretch enhancers). Here we report that enhancer RNAs (eRNAs) identified by global nuclear run-on sequencing are extensively transcribed within super enhancers and are dynamically regulated in response to cellular signaling. Using Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling in macrophages as a model system, we find that transcription of super enhancer-associated eRNAs is dynamically induced at most of the key genes driving innate immunity and inflammation. Unexpectedly, genes repressed by TLR4 signaling are also associated with super enhancer domains and accompanied by massive repression of eRNA transcription. Furthermore, we find each super enhancer acts as a single regulatory unit within which eRNA and genic transcripts are coordinately regulated. The key regulatory activity of these domains is further supported by the finding that super enhancer-associated transcription factor binding is twice as likely to be conserved between human and mouse than typical enhancer sites. Our study suggests that transcriptional activities at super enhancers are critical components to understand the dynamic gene regulatory network.

  20. Hyperthermia enhances CTL cross-priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Hongzhen; Cao, Tinghua; Connolly, John E; Monnet, Laurence; Bennett, Lynda; Chapel, Sylvie; Bagnis, Claude; Mannoni, Patrice; Davoust, Jean; Palucka, A Karolina; Banchereau, Jacques

    2006-02-15

    Dendritic cells (DCs) loaded with killed allogeneic melanoma cells can cross-prime naive CD8(+) T cells to differentiate into melanoma-specific CTLs in 3-wk cultures. In this study we show that DCs loaded with killed melanoma cells that were heated to 42 degrees C before killing are more efficient in cross-priming of naive CD8(+) T cells than DCs loaded with unheated killed melanoma cells. The enhanced cross-priming was demonstrated by several parameters: 1) induction of naive CD8(+) T cell differentiation in 2-wk cultures, 2) enhanced killing of melanoma peptide-pulsed T2 cells, 3) enhanced killing of HLA-A*0201(+) melanoma cells in a standard 4-h chromium release assay, and 4) enhanced capacity to prevent tumor growth in vitro in a tumor regression assay. Two mechanisms might explain the hyperthermia-induced enhanced cross-priming. First, heat-treated melanoma cells expressed increased levels of 70-kDa heat shock protein (HSP70), and enhanced cross-priming could be reproduced by overexpression of HSP70 in melanoma cells transduced with HSP70 encoding lentiviral vector. Second, hyperthermia resulted in the increased transcription of several tumor Ag-associated Ags, including MAGE-B3, -B4, -A8, and -A10. Thus, heat treatment of tumor cells permits enhanced cross-priming, possibly via up-regulation of both HSPs and tumor Ag expression.

  1. Contrast Enhancement through Clustered Histogram Equalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen-Chuan Tai

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study proposed a contrast enhancement algorithm. Some methods enhance images depending on only the global or the local information, therefore it would cause over-enhancement usually and make the image look unnatural. The proposed method enhances image based on the global and local information. For the global part, we proposed mapping curves to find the new average, maximum and minimum intensity to try to suit the concept of Human Visual System (HVS for obtaining the better perceptual results. For the local part, we utilized fuzzy c-means clustering algorithm to group image and we can obtain the information of intensity distribution and pixel number from each group. Then we calculate weights according to the information and enhance images by Histogram Equalization (HE depending on the weights. The experiment results show that our method can enhance the contrast of image steadily and it causes over-enhancement with lower probability than other methods. The whole image not only looks natural but also shows detail texture more clearly after applying our method.

  2. Evolution of Alu elements toward enhancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ming; Han, Dali; Boyd-Kirkup, Jerome; Yu, Xiaoming; Han, Jing-Dong J

    2014-04-24

    The human genome contains approximately one million Alu repetitive elements comprising 10% of the genome, yet their functions are not well understood. Here, we show that Alu elements resemble enhancers. Alu elements are bound by two well-phased nucleosomes that contain histones bearing marks of active chromatin, and they show tissue-specific enrichment for the enhancer mark H3K4me1. A proportion of Alu elements were experimentally validated as bona fide active enhancers with an in vitro reporter assay. In addition, Hi-C data indicate that Alus show long-range interactions with gene promoters. We also find that Alus are generally more conserved when located in the proximal upstream region of genes. Their similarity to enhancers becomes more prominent with their age in the human genome, following a clear evolutionary continuum reminiscent of the evolutionary pattern of proto-genes. Therefore, we conclude that some Alu elements can function as enhancers and propose that many more may be proto-enhancers that serve as a repertoire for the de novo birth of enhancers.

  3. Autoimmune pancreatitis: Assessment of the enhanced duct sign on multiphase contrast-enhanced computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawai, Yuichi, E-mail: kawai.yuichi@a.mbox.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 65 Tsurumai-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Suzuki, Kojiro, E-mail: kojiro@med.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 65 Tsurumai-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Itoh, Shigeki, E-mail: shigeito@nagoya-1st.jrc.or.jp [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Japan Red Cross Nagoya Daiichi Hospital, 3-35 Michishita-cho, Nakamura-ku, Nagoya 453-8511 (Japan); Takada, Akira, E-mail: takadaa@med.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 65 Tsurumai-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Mori, Yoshine, E-mail: yoshine@med.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 65 Tsurumai-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Naganawa, Shinji, E-mail: naganawa@med.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 65 Tsurumai-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan)

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: To assess the usefulness of the computed tomography (CT) finding of main pancreatic duct (MPD) wall enhancement, termed the 'enhanced duct sign', for diagnosis of autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) in comparison with diagnosis of pancreatic carcinoma and chronic pancreatitis. Materials and methods: Two radiologists independently evaluated the presence or absence of the enhanced duct sign on multiphase contrast-enhanced CT in patients with AIP (n = 55), pancreatic carcinoma (n = 50), and chronic pancreatitis (n = 50). The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of AIP were calculated. In patients demonstrating the enhanced duct sign, additional findings were evaluated by consensus. Results: The enhanced duct sign was more frequently observed in patients with AIP (37/55, 67%) than in patients with pancreatic carcinoma (5/50, 10%) or chronic pancreatitis (0/50, 0%) (P < 0.05). The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of the finding were 0.67, 0.95, 0.85, 0.88, and 0.84, respectively. In AIP, the lumen within the enhanced duct was completely or partially invisible in 29 of 37 (78%) patients, and the enhanced duct was observed within the affected pancreatic parenchyma in 35 of 37 (95%) patients. In pancreatic carcinoma, the lumen within the enhanced duct was visible in all patients (5/5, 100%), and the enhanced duct was observed downstream of the tumor (5/5, 100%). Conclusion: The enhanced duct sign is highly specific of AIP.

  4. [Study on cine view of relative enhancement ratio map in O2-enhanced MRI].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Keita; Watanabe, Yasushi; Hanaoka, Shouhei; Motoyoshi, Kouichi; Goto, Masami; Amemiya, Shiori; Ino, Kenji; Akahane, Masaaki; Yano, Keiichi; Ohtomo, Kuni

    2014-11-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) enables the evaluation of organ structure and function. Oxygen-enhanced MRI (O2-enhanced MRI) is a method for evaluating the pulmonary ventilation function using oxygen as a contrast agent. We created the Cine View of Relative Enhancement Ratio Map (Cine RER map) in O2-enhanced MRI to easily observe the contrast effect for clinical use. Relative enhancement ratio (RER) was determined as the pixel values of the Cine RER map. Moreover, six healthy volunteers underwent O2-enhanced MRI to determine the appropriate scale width of the Cine RER map. We calculated each RER and set 0 to 1.27 as the scale width of the Cine RER map based on the results. The Cine RER map made it possible to observe the contrast effect over time and thus is a convenient tool for evaluating the pulmonary ventilation function in O2-enhanced MRI.

  5. Fingerprint Verification based on Gabor Filter Enhancement

    CERN Document Server

    Lavanya, B N; Venugopal, K R

    2009-01-01

    Human fingerprints are reliable characteristics for personnel identification as it is unique and persistence. A fingerprint pattern consists of ridges, valleys and minutiae. In this paper we propose Fingerprint Verification based on Gabor Filter Enhancement (FVGFE) algorithm for minutiae feature extraction and post processing based on 9 pixel neighborhood. A global feature extraction and fingerprints enhancement are based on Hong enhancement method which is simultaneously able to extract local ridge orientation and ridge frequency. It is observed that the Sensitivity and Specificity values are better compared to the existing algorithms.

  6. Fingerprint image enhancement using CNN filtering techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saatci, Ertugrul; Tavsanoglu, Vedat

    2003-12-01

    Due to noisy acquisition devices and variation in impression conditions, the ridgelines of fingerprint images are mostly corrupted by various kinds of noise causing cracks, scratches and bridges in the ridges as well as blurs. These cause matching errors in fingerprint recognition. For an effective recognition the correct ridge pattern is essential which requires the enhancement of fingerprint images. Segment by segment analysis of the fingerprint pattern yields various ridge direction and frequencies. By selecting a directional filter with correct filter parameters to match ridge features at each point, we can effectively enhance fingerprint ridges. This paper proposes a fingerprint image enhancement based on CNN Gabor-Type filters.

  7. Enhancing Rotational Diffusion Using Oscillatory Shear

    KAUST Repository

    Leahy, Brian D.

    2013-05-29

    Taylor dispersion - shear-induced enhancement of translational diffusion - is an important phenomenon with applications ranging from pharmacology to geology. Through experiments and simulations, we show that rotational diffusion is also enhanced for anisotropic particles in oscillatory shear. This enhancement arises from variations in the particle\\'s rotation (Jeffery orbit) and depends on the strain amplitude, rate, and particle aspect ratio in a manner that is distinct from the translational diffusion. This separate tunability of translational and rotational diffusion opens the door to new techniques for controlling positions and orientations of suspended anisotropic colloids. © 2013 American Physical Society.

  8. Enhanced Gain in Photonic Crystal Amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ek, Sara; Semenova, Elizaveta; Hansen, Per Lunnemann;

    2012-01-01

    study of a 1 QW photonic crystal amplifier. Net gain is achieved which enables laser oscillation in photonic crystal micro cavities. The ability to freely tailor the dispersion in a semiconductor optical amplifier makes it possible to raise the optical gain considerably over a certain bandwidth......We experimentally demonstrate enhanced gain in the slow-light regime of quantum well photonic crystal amplifiers. A strong gain enhancement is observed with the increase of the group refractive index, due to light slow-down. The slow light enhancement is shown in a amplified spontaneous emission...

  9. Patentability of methods of human enhancement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordberg, Ana

    2015-01-01

    This article explores how to apply patentability rules to human enhancement, particularly focusing on Article 53(c) of the European Patent Convention (EPC). The global size and value of the cosmetic and wellness market and industry allow for the prediction of considerable market potential for human......, and subsequently developed through European Patent Office (EPO) case law, by reference to the dichotomy between therapeutic and cosmetic methods. Subsuming enhancement methods under this patentability rule may be challenging. Ultimately, patentability of human enhancement will depend on the concept of health, its...

  10. Recent studies of transform image enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghagolzadeh, Sabzali; Ersoy, Okan K.

    1992-06-01

    Blockwise transform image enhancement techniques are discussed. It is shown that the best transforms for transform image coding, namely, the scrambled real discrete Fourier transform, the discrete cosine transform, and the discrete cosine-III transform, are also the best for image enhancement. Three techniques of enhancement discussed in detail are alpha- rooting, modified unsharp masking, and filtering motivated by the human visual system response (HVS). With proper modifications, it is observed that unsharp masking and HVS- motivated filtering without nonlinearities are basically equivalent. Block effects are completely removed by using an overlap-save technique in addition to the best transform.

  11. Enhancing Rotational Diffusion Using Oscillatory Shear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leahy, Brian D.; Cheng, Xiang; Ong, Desmond C.; Liddell-Watson, Chekesha; Cohen, Itai

    2013-05-01

    Taylor dispersion—shear-induced enhancement of translational diffusion—is an important phenomenon with applications ranging from pharmacology to geology. Through experiments and simulations, we show that rotational diffusion is also enhanced for anisotropic particles in oscillatory shear. This enhancement arises from variations in the particle’s rotation (Jeffery orbit) and depends on the strain amplitude, rate, and particle aspect ratio in a manner that is distinct from the translational diffusion. This separate tunability of translational and rotational diffusion opens the door to new techniques for controlling positions and orientations of suspended anisotropic colloids.

  12. Enhancer evolution across 20 mammalian species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villar, Diego; Berthelot, Camille; Aldridge, Sarah;

    2015-01-01

    The mammalian radiation has corresponded with rapid changes in noncoding regions of the genome, but we lack a comprehensive understanding of regulatory evolution in mammals. Here, we track the evolution of promoters and enhancers active in liver across 20 mammalian species from six diverse orders...... by profiling genomic enrichment of H3K27 acetylation and H3K4 trimethylation. We report that rapid evolution of enhancers is a universal feature of mammalian genomes. Most of the recently evolved enhancers arise from ancestral DNA exaptation, rather than lineage-specific expansions of repeat elements....... These results provide important insight into the functional genetics underpinning mammalian regulatory evolution....

  13. Aerodynamic Efficiency Enhancements for Air Vehicles Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The need for aerodynamics-based efficiency enhancements for air vehicles is presented. Concepts are presented for morphing aircraft, to enable the aircraft to...

  14. ENHANCING WRITING ABILITY THROUGH IDEA LISTING TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zaini Miftah

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The study is aimed at developing the Idea Listing Technique (ILT to enhance the students‟ writing ability. The Classroom Action Research was applied in this study. The subjects of the study were 31 students, the students taking the course of Writing II, of the third semester of English Department of one State Islamic College at Palangka Raya, Indonesia, in the 2012/2013 academic year. The findings show that the implementation of ILT can enhance the students‟ ability in writing expository paragraph. It is indicated by the enhancements of the percentage of the students achieving the score greater than or equal to C (60-69, and of the percentage of their involvement in the writing activities during the implementation of ILT in Cycle I and II. Thus, the enhancement of the students‟ ability in writing expository paragraph can be reached but it should follow the appropriate procedures of the implementation of ILT having been developed.

  15. Learning in a technology enhanced world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Specht, Marcus

    2010-01-01

    Specht, M. (2009). Learning in a technology enhanced world. Invited talk given at the World Conference on E-learning in Corporate, Government, Healthcare & Higher Education. October, 27, 2009, Vancouver, Canada.

  16. Signal enhancement with variable span linear filters

    CERN Document Server

    Benesty, Jacob; Jensen, Jesper R

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces readers to the novel concept of variable span speech enhancement filters, and demonstrates how it can be used for effective noise reduction in various ways. Further, the book provides the accompanying Matlab code, allowing readers to easily implement the main ideas discussed. Variable span filters combine the ideas of optimal linear filters with those of subspace methods, as they involve the joint diagonalization of the correlation matrices of the desired signal and the noise. The book shows how some well-known filter designs, e.g. the minimum distortion, maximum signal-to-noise ratio, Wiener, and tradeoff filters (including their new generalizations) can be obtained using the variable span filter framework. It then illustrates how the variable span filters can be applied in various contexts, namely in single-channel STFT-based enhancement, in multichannel enhancement in both the time and STFT domains, and, lastly, in time-domain binaural enhancement. In these contexts, the properties of ...

  17. Scientific Research Enjoys Enhanced Support in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Scientific research in China is receiving enhanced support from both the government and the public, as science and technology are playing an increasingly constructive role in the country's social progress and economic growth, states CAS President Lu Yongxiang.

  18. Performance-Enhancing Drugs and Teen Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Tween and teen health Performance-enhancing drugs can be tempting for teen athletes. Understand the warning signs and what you can do to keep your teen from using shortcuts to improve athletic performance. By Mayo ...

  19. Does (in)formal learning enhance employability?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Heijden, Beate; Boon, Jo; Van der Klink, Marcel; Meijs, Ely

    2009-01-01

    Van der Heijden, B. I. J. M., Boon, J., Van der Klink, M., & Meys, E. (2008). Does (in)formal learning enhance employability? Paper presented at the AHRD Conference. February, 2008, Panama Florida, USA.

  20. Curved Gabor Filters for Fingerprint Image Enhancement

    CERN Document Server

    Gottschlich, Carsten

    2011-01-01

    Gabor filters play an important role in many application areas for the enhancement of various types of images and the extraction of Gabor features. For the purpose of enhancing curved structures in noisy images, we introduce curved Gabor filters which locally adapt their shape to the direction of flow. These curved Gabor filters enable the choice of filter parameters which increase the smoothing power without creating artifacts in the enhanced image. In this paper, curved Gabor filters are applied to the curved ridge and valley structure of low-quality fingerprint images. First, we combine two orientation field estimation methods in order to obtain a more robust estimation for very noisy images. Next, curved regions are constructed by following the respective local orientation and they are used for estimating the local ridge frequency. Lastly, curved Gabor filters are defined based on curved regions and they are applied for the enhancement of low-quality fingerprint images. Experimental results on the FVC2004...

  1. [Normal and abnormal meningeal enhancement: MRI features].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietemann, J L; Correia Bernardo, R; Bogorin, A; Abu Eid, M; Koob, M; Nogueira, Th; Vargas, M I; Fakhoury, W; Zöllner, G

    2005-11-01

    The authors describe normal imaging of the meninges and meningeal spaces and MR (magnetic resonance) imaging findings in tumoral and nontumoral diseases. Dural or/and pial enhancement may be related to tumoral, infectious or granulomatous diseases.

  2. Hippocampal Processing of Ambiguity Enhances Fear Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amadi, Ugwechi; Lim, Seh Hong; Liu, Elizabeth; Baratta, Michael V; Goosens, Ki A

    2017-02-01

    Despite the ubiquitous use of Pavlovian fear conditioning as a model for fear learning, the highly predictable conditions used in the laboratory do not resemble real-world conditions, in which dangerous situations can lead to unpleasant outcomes in unpredictable ways. In the current experiments, we varied the timing of aversive events after predictive cues in rodents and discovered that temporal ambiguity of aversive events greatly enhances fear. During fear conditioning with unpredictably timed aversive events, pharmacological inactivation of the dorsal hippocampus or optogenetic silencing of cornu ammonis 1 cells during aversive negative prediction errors prevented this enhancement of fear without affecting fear learning for predictable events. Dorsal hippocampal inactivation also prevented ambiguity-related enhancement of fear during auditory fear conditioning under a partial-reinforcement schedule. These results reveal that information about the timing and occurrence of aversive events is rapidly acquired and that unexpectedly timed or omitted aversive events generate hippocampal signals to enhance fear learning.

  3. Viability of Biopolymers for Enhanced Oil Recovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sveistrup, Marte; van Mastrigt, Frank; Norrman, Jens; Picchioni, Francesco; Paso, Kristofer

    2016-01-01

    Xanthan gum and scleroglucan are assessed as environmentally friendly enhanced oil recovery (EOR) agents. Viscometric and interfacial tension measurements show that the polysaccharides exhibit favorable viscosifying performance, robust shear tolerance, electrolyte tolerance, and moderate interaction

  4. Cavity-Enhanced Third Harmonic Generation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Xiao-Xue; WU Ying

    2005-01-01

    We derive the analytical expression of microcavity-enhanced factor for third harmonic generation in terms of detunings, linewidths, and the Purcell factors of the relevant microcavity modes. It is suitable for microcavities with any dimensions and arbitrary geometric shapes.

  5. Large Purcell enhancement without strong field localization

    CERN Document Server

    Krasnok, Alexander; Petrov, Mihail; Makarov, Sergey; Savelev, Roman; Belov, Pavel; Simovski, Constantin; Kivshar, Yuri

    2015-01-01

    The Purcell effect is defined as the modification of spontaneous decay in the presence of a resonator, and in plasmonics it is usually associated with the large local-field enhancement in "hot spots" due to surface plasmon polaritons. Here we propose a novel strategy for enhancing the Purcell effect through engineering the radiation directivity without a strict requirement of the local field enhancement. Employing this approach, we demonstrate how to enhance the Purcell effect by two orders of magnitude in all-dielectric nanostructures recently suggested as building blocks of low-loss nanophotonics and metamaterials. We support our concept by proof-of-principle microwave experiments with arrays of high-index dielectric resonators.

  6. Fusion Enhanced Vehicle Level Diagnostic System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global Technology Connection, Inc. in conjunction with its partner, Vanderbilt University, is proposing to build a Fusion-enhanced Vehicle Diagnostics System (FVDS)...

  7. Gd enhanced MRI in sensorineural hearing loss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takenaka, Mika; Tono, Tetsuya; Toyama, Katsuhiro; Kano, Kiyo; Morimitsu, Tamotsu [Miyazaki Medical Coll., Kiyotake (Japan)

    1996-09-01

    The enhanced MRI hearing findings of the inner ear in 124 patients with sensorineural hearing loss were evaluated. MR images were obtained before and after the intravenous administration of gadolinium (0.1 mmol/kg). In three out of seventy-nine patients with unilateral healing loss, cochlear and/or the vestibular enhancement was noted on the symptomatic side. The positive cases included those with Ramsay-Hunt syndrome, mumps and so-called sudden deafness. Forty-five patients with bilateral hearing loss showed no enhancement within the inner ear. Although positive gadolinium enhancement of the inner ear may detect inflammatory lesions due to a viral infection, its incidence in sensorineural hearing loss, including cases of sudden deafness. seems to be extremely rare. (author)

  8. Coupled external cavity photonic crystal enhanced fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokhriyal, Anusha; Lu, Meng; Ge, Chun; Cunningham, Brian T

    2014-05-01

    We report a fundamentally new approach to enhance fluorescence in which surface adsorbed fluorophore-tagged biomolecules are excited on a photonic crystal surface that functions as a narrow bandwidth and tunable mirror of an external cavity laser. This scheme leads to ∼10× increase in the electromagnetic enhancement factor compared to ordinary photonic crystal enhanced fluorescence. In our experiments, the cavity automatically tunes its lasing wavelength to the resonance wavelength of the photonic crystal, ensuring optimal on-resonance coupling even in the presence of variable device parameters and variations in the density of surface-adsorbed capture molecules. We achieve ∼10(5) × improvement in the limit of detection of a fluorophore-tagged protein compared to its detection on an unpatterned glass substrate. The enhanced fluorescence signal and easy optical alignment make cavity-coupled photonic crystals a viable approach for further reducing detection limits of optically-excited light emitters that are used in biological assays.

  9. Heat transfer enhancement by pin elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahiti, N.; Durst, F.; Dewan, A. [LSTM-Erlangen, Institute of Fluid Mechanics, Friedrich-Alexander-Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Cauerstrasse 4, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany)

    2005-11-01

    Heat transfer enhancement is an active and important field of engineering research since increases in the effectiveness of heat exchangers through suitable heat transfer augmentation techniques can result in considerable technical advantages and savings of costs. Considerable enhancements were demonstrated in the present work by using small cylindrical pins on surfaces of heat exchangers. A partly quantitative theoretical treatment of the proposed method is presented. It uses simple relationships for the conductive and convective heat transfer to derive an equation that shows which parameters permit the achievement of heat transfer enhancements. Experiments are reported that demonstrate the effectiveness of the results of the proposed approach. It is shown that the suggested method of heat transfer enhancements is much more effective than existing methods, since it results in an increase in heat transfer area (like fins) and also an increase in the heat transfer coefficient. (author)

  10. Microwave Enhancement in Coronal Holes: Statistical Properties

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ν. Gopalswamy; Κ. Shibasaki; Μ. Salem

    2000-09-01

    We report on the statistical properties of the microwave enhancement (brightness temperature, area, fine structure, life time and magnetic field strength) in coronal holes observed over a period of several solar rotations.

  11. Enhancer evolution across 20 mammalian species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villar, Diego; Berthelot, Camille; Aldridge, Sarah;

    2015-01-01

    The mammalian radiation has corresponded with rapid changes in noncoding regions of the genome, but we lack a comprehensive understanding of regulatory evolution in mammals. Here, we track the evolution of promoters and enhancers active in liver across 20 mammalian species from six diverse orders...... by profiling genomic enrichment of H3K27 acetylation and H3K4 trimethylation. We report that rapid evolution of enhancers is a universal feature of mammalian genomes. Most of the recently evolved enhancers arise from ancestral DNA exaptation, rather than lineage-specific expansions of repeat elements....... In contrast, almost all liver promoters are partially or fully conserved across these species. Our data further reveal that recently evolved enhancers can be associated with genes under positive selection, demonstrating the power of this approach for annotating regulatory adaptations in genomic sequences...

  12. Inhomogeneous thermal conductivity enhances thermoelectric cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingyu Lu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We theoretically investigate the enhancement of thermoelectric cooling performance in thermoelectric refrigerators made of materials with inhomogeneous thermal conductivity, beyond the usual practice of enhancing thermoelectric figure of merit (ZT of materials. The dissipation of the Joule heat in such thermoelectric refrigerators is asymmetric which can give rise to better thermoelectric cooling performance. Although the thermoelectric figure of merit and the coefficient-of-performance are slightly enhanced, both the maximum cooling power and the maximum cooling temperature difference can be enhanced significantly. This finding can be used to increase the heat absorption at the cold end. We further find that the asymmetric dissipation of Joule heat leads to thermal rectification.

  13. Enhanced Quantization: The particle on the circle

    CERN Document Server

    Geloun, Joseph Ben

    2012-01-01

    Enhanced quantization is an improved program for overcoming difficulties which may arise during an ordinary canonical quantization procedure. We review here how this program applies for a particle on circle.

  14. Tailored nanoporous gold for ultrahigh fluorescence enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, X Y; Guan, P F; Fujita, T; Chen, M W

    2011-03-07

    We report molecular fluorescence enhancement of free-standing nanoporous gold in which the nanoporosity can be arbitrarily tailored by the combination of dealloying and electroless gold plating. The nanoporous gold fabricated by this facile method possesses unique porous structures with large gold ligaments and very small pores, and exhibits significant improvements in surface enhanced fluorescence as well as structure rigidity. It demonstrates that the confluence effect of improved quantum yield and excitation of fluorophores is responsible for the large fluorescence enhancement due to the near-field enhancement of nanoporous gold, which arises from the strong electromagnetic coupling between neighboring ligaments and the weakening of plasmon damping of the large ligaments because of the small pore size and large ligament size, respectively.

  15. Indian, Swiss nuke centres to enhance

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    India and a major European nuclear facility signed a Statement of Intent designed to significantly enhance existing levels of cooperation and give Indian scientists access to the latest in nuclear-related technology

  16. Entanglement Enhancement in an XY Spin Chain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Xiao-Qiang

    2011-01-01

    We study evolution of entanglement in an XY-type spin channel and find that the entanglement can be enhanced by the spin channel. The parameter regions of the initial states for different numbers of sites are obtained.Furthermore, we consider a common spin environment coupling to the spin chains and find that the entanglement enhancement can also be implemented only for the chains with the odd numbers of sites.%@@ We study evolution of entanglement in an XY-type spin channel and find that the entanglement can be enhanced by the spin channel.The parameter regions of the initial states for different numbers of sites are obtained.Furthermore,we consider a common spin environment coupling to the spin chains and find that the entanglement enhancement can also be implemented only for the chains with the odd numbers of sites.

  17. Aerodynamic Efficiency Enhancements for Air Vehicles Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The need for aerodynamics-based efficiency enhancements for air vehicles is presented. The results of the Phase I investigation of concepts for morphing aircraft are...

  18. An Evaluation of Enhanced Geothermal Systems Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jelacic, Allan [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Fortuna, Raymond [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); LaSala, Raymond [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Nathwani, Jay [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Nix, Gerald [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Visser, Charles [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Green, Bruce [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Renner, Joel [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Blankenship, Douglas [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kennedy, Mack [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Bruton, Carol [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2008-04-01

    This 2008 document presents the results of an eight-month study by the Department of Energy (DOE) and its support staff at the national laboratories concerning the technological requirements to commercialize a new geothermal technology, Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS).

  19. Resonant metallic nanostructures for enhanced terahertz spectroscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Toma, A.

    2015-11-12

    We present our recent studies on terahertz resonant dipole nanoantennas. Exploiting the localization and enhancement capabilities of these devices, we introduce an effective method to perform terahertz spectroscopy on an extremely small number of nano-objects.

  20. Enhancing transdermal drug delivery with electroporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Tak-Wah; Ko, Shu-Fen; Hui, Sek-Wen

    2008-01-01

    The application of electroporation to enhance transdermal delivery has opened up a new possibility to introduce larger molecules such as peptide hormones and vaccines as well as minigenes and RNAi etc. through the transdermal route. Many devices have been developed to deliver the pulse electric field needed to permeate the skin. These devices include both non-puncturing surface electrodes as well as puncturing electrodes of different geometrical arrangements. The latter type uses electroporation only to increase uptake of molecules injected through the puncturing electrode or syringe. Different electroporation protocols have been developed to maximize transport, uptake and minimizing pain. Synergistic effect of chemical enhancers and physical (sonic, vibrational and thermal) treatments are used to enhance the transport. This article reviews the patents pertaining to the instrumentation as well as application protocols of transdermal delivery, uptake enhancement and interstitial fluid sampling by electroporation.

  1. Recent Progress on Plasmon-Enhanced Fluorescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Jun

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The optically generated collective electron density waves on metal–dielectric boundaries known as surface plasmons have been of great scientific interest since their discovery. Being electromagnetic waves on gold or silver nanoparticle’s surface, localised surface plasmons (LSP can strongly enhance the electromagnetic field. These strong electromagnetic fields near the metal surfaces have been used in various applications like surface enhanced spectroscopy (SES, plasmonic lithography, plasmonic trapping of particles, and plasmonic catalysis. Resonant coupling of LSPs to fluorophore can strongly enhance the emission intensity, the angular distribution, and the polarisation of the emitted radiation and even the speed of radiative decay, which is so-called plasmon enhanced fluorescence (PEF. As a result, more and more reports on surface-enhanced fluorescence have appeared, such as SPASER-s, plasmon assisted lasing, single molecule fluorescence measurements, surface plasmoncoupled emission (SPCE in biological sensing, optical orbit designs etc. In this review, we focus on recent advanced reports on plasmon-enhanced fluorescence (PEF. First, the mechanism of PEF and early results of enhanced fluorescence observed by metal nanostructure will be introduced. Then, the enhanced substrates, including periodical and nonperiodical nanostructure, will be discussed and the most important factor of the spacer between molecule and surface and wavelength dependence on PEF is demonstrated. Finally, the recent progress of tipenhanced fluorescence and PEF from the rare-earth doped up-conversion (UC and down-conversion (DC nanoparticles (NPs are also commented upon. This review provides an introduction to fundamentals of PEF, illustrates the current progress in the design of metallic nanostructures for efficient fluorescence signal amplification that utilises propagating and localised surface plasmons.

  2. Recent Progress on Plasmon-Enhanced Fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jun; Zhang, Zhenglong; Zheng, Hairong; Sun, Mentao

    2015-12-01

    The optically generated collective electron density waves on metal-dielectric boundaries known as surface plasmons have been of great scientific interest since their discovery. Being electromagnetic waves on gold or silver nanoparticle's surface, localised surface plasmons (LSP) can strongly enhance the electromagnetic field. These strong electromagnetic fields near the metal surfaces have been used in various applications like surface enhanced spectroscopy (SES), plasmonic lithography, plasmonic trapping of particles, and plasmonic catalysis. Resonant coupling of LSPs to fluorophore can strongly enhance the emission intensity, the angular distribution, and the polarisation of the emitted radiation and even the speed of radiative decay, which is so-called plasmon enhanced fluorescence (PEF). As a result, more and more reports on surface-enhanced fluorescence have appeared, such as SPASER-s, plasmon assisted lasing, single molecule fluorescence measurements, surface plasmoncoupled emission (SPCE) in biological sensing, optical orbit designs etc. In this review, we focus on recent advanced reports on plasmon-enhanced fluorescence (PEF). First, the mechanism of PEF and early results of enhanced fluorescence observed by metal nanostructure will be introduced. Then, the enhanced substrates, including periodical and nonperiodical nanostructure, will be discussed and the most important factor of the spacer between molecule and surface and wavelength dependence on PEF is demonstrated. Finally, the recent progress of tipenhanced fluorescence and PEF from the rare-earth doped up-conversion (UC) and down-conversion (DC) nanoparticles (NPs) are also commented upon. This review provides an introduction to fundamentals of PEF, illustrates the current progress in the design of metallic nanostructures for efficient fluorescence signal amplification that utilises propagating and localised surface plasmons.

  3. Citalopram enhances cocaine's subjective effects in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Soto, Paul L.; Hiranita, Takato; Katz, Jonathan L.

    2009-01-01

    Serotonin-selective reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) have been shown to enhance the locomotor stimulatory, discriminative-stimulus, and convulsive effects of cocaine in rodents. A pharmacokinetic mechanism for the interaction is supported by increases in the brain levels of cocaine by fluoxetine treatment. Furthermore, the locomotor-stimulant effects of cocaine in rodents are enhanced by fluoxetine and fluvoxamine, SSRIs known to inhibit cocaine-metabolizing cytochrome P450 enzymes, whereas citalo...

  4. Strategy to Enhance International Supply Chain Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-07-01

    a strategic plan to enhance the security of the international supply chain , including protocols for the expeditious resumption of the flow of trade...following a transportation disruption or transportation security incident. The Strategy to Enhance International Supply Chain Security exists within a...extensive risk analysis specific to the risk area they cover in the supply chain . Assessments are used to identify the highest risk areas and resources

  5. Metal Nanostructures for Detection and Imaging Enhancements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-03

    source spectrum, is delivered into a pig adipose sample. OCT is a widely used optical imaging technique for the diagnoses of many diseases [27-29... Fahr , C. Rockstuhl, and F. Lederer, “Engineering the randomness for enhanced absorption in solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 171114 (2008). 7. T...Rockstuhl, S. Fahr , and F. Lederer, “Absorption enhancement in solar cells by localized plasmon polaritons,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 123102 (2008). 31. A

  6. Enhanced optomechanical readout using optical coalescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Genes, Claudiu; Xuereb, André; Pupillo, Guido;

    2013-01-01

    We present a scheme to strongly enhance the readout sensitivity of the squared displacement of a mobile scatterer placed in a Fabry-Pérot cavity. We investigate the largely unexplored regime of cavity electrodynamics in which a highly reflective element positioned between the end mirrors of a sym...... in this generic “optical coalescence” phenomenon gives rise to an enhanced frequency shift of the peaks of the cavity transmission that can be exploited in optomechanics....

  7. Salmon River Habitat Enhancement. 1990 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowe, Mike

    1991-12-01

    The annual report contains three individual subproject sections detailing tribal fisheries work completed during the summer and fall of 1990. Subproject I contains summaries of evaluation/monitoring efforts associated with the Bear Valley Creek, Idaho enhancement project. Subproject II contains an evaluation of the Yankee Fork of the Salmon River habitat enhancement project. Subproject III concerns the East Fork of the Salmon River, Idaho.

  8. Enhancing Biological Wastewater Treatment with Chitosan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈亮; 陈东辉; 朱珺

    2003-01-01

    Chitin and chitosan have been applied to biological wastewater treatment.From a number of parallel comparison experiments,it can be concluded that the application of chitin and chitosan can both enhance the biological treatment,besides which chitosan is more efficient than chitin.The study on the enhancement mechanism reveals the difference between the two additives:chitosan improves the sludge structure and settlibility,while chitin acts as a kind of carrier for microorganism in the biological treatment system.

  9. Tunable spectral enhancement of fiber supercontinuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeom, Dong-Il; Bolger, Jeremy A.; Marshall, Graham D.; Austin, Dane R.; Kuhlmey, Boris T.; Withford, Michael J.; de Sterke, C. Martijn; Eggleton, Benjamin J.

    2007-06-01

    We demonstrate tunable spectral enhancement of the supercontinuum generated in a microstructured fiber with a fiber long-period grating. The long-period grating leads to phase distortion and loss that, with subsequent high-intensity propagation in uniform fiber, evolves into an enhancement around the grating's resonant wavelengths. Wavelength tunability is achieved by varying the temperature or the ambient refractive index, and the spectral peak can be extinguished by immersing the grating in index-matching oil.

  10. Genetic enhancement, human nature, and rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Terrance

    2010-08-01

    Authors such as Francis Fukuyama, the President's Council on Bioethics, and George Annas have argued that biotechnological interventions that aim to promote genetic enhancement pose a threat to human nature. This paper clarifies what conclusions these critics seek to establish, and then shows that there is no plausible account of human nature that will meet the conditions necessary to support this position. Appeals to human nature cannot establish a prohibition against the pursuit of genetic enhancement.

  11. Enhanced Graphene Photodetector with Fractal Metasurface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Jieran; Wang, Di; DeVault, Clayton

    2016-01-01

    We designed and fabricated a broadband, polarization-independent photodetector by integrating graphene with a fractal Cayley tree metasurface. Our measurements show an almost uniform, tenfold enhancement in photocurrent generation due to the fractal metasurface structure.......We designed and fabricated a broadband, polarization-independent photodetector by integrating graphene with a fractal Cayley tree metasurface. Our measurements show an almost uniform, tenfold enhancement in photocurrent generation due to the fractal metasurface structure....

  12. An Efficient Algorithm for Image Enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manglesh Khandelwal

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In the digital image processing field enhancement and removing the noise in the image is a critical issue. We have proposed a new algorithmto enhance color Image corrupted by Gaussian noise using fuzzy logic which describes uncertain features of images with modification of median filter. . The performance of the proposed technique has been evaluated and compared to the existing mean and median filter.

  13. ENHANCEMENT TECHNIQUES FOR DATA WAREHOUSE STAGING AREA

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmoud El-Wessimy; Hoda M. O. Mokhtar; Osman Hegazy

    2013-01-01

    Poor performance can turn a successful data warehousing project into a failure. Consequently, several attempts have been made by various researchers to deal with the problem of scheduling the ExtractTransform-Load (ETL) process. In this paper we therefore present several approaches in the context of enhancing the data warehousing Extract, Transform and loading stages. We focus on enhancing the performance of extract and transform phases by proposing two algorithms that reduce the ...

  14. Enhancer activity-based identification of functional enhancers using zebrafish embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taminato, Tomohito; Yokota, Daisuke; Araki, Soh; Ovara, Hiroki; Yamasu, Kyo; Kawamura, Akinori

    2016-08-01

    Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) against enhancer-associated marks with massive sequencing is a powerful approach to identify genome-wide distributions of putative enhancers. However, functional in vivo analysis is required to elucidate the activities of predicted enhancers. Using zebrafish embryos, we established a ChIP-Injection method that enables identification of functional enhancers based on their enhancer activities in embryos. Each reporter gene possessing the enhancer-associated genomic region enriched by ChIP was injected into zebrafish embryos to analyze the activity of putative enhancers. By using the ChIP-Injection, we identified 32 distinct putative enhancers that drove specific expression. Additionally, we generated transgenic lines that exhibit distributions of the EGFP signal as was observed in the screening. Furthermore, the expression pattern driven by the identified somite-specific enhancer resembled that of the gene acta2. The results indicate that ChIP-Injection provides an efficient approach for identification of active enhancers in a potentially wide variety of developmental tissues and stages.

  15. Enhanced MRI in patients with facial palsy; Study of time-related enhancement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanagida, Masahiro; Kato, Tsutomu; Ushiro, Koichi; Kitajiri, Masanori; Yamashita, Toshio; Kumazawa, Tadami; Tanaka, Yoshimasa (Kansai Medical School, Moriguchi, Osaka (Japan))

    1991-03-01

    We performed Gd-DTPA-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations at several stages in 40 patients with peripheral facial nerve palsy (Bell's palsy and Ramsay-Hunt syndrome). In 38 of the 40 patients, one and more enhanced region could be seen in certain portion of the facial nerve in the temporal bone on the affected side, whereas no enhanced regions were seen on the intact side. Correlations between the timing of the MRI examination and the location of the enhanced regions were analysed. In all 6 patients examined by MRI within 5 days after the onset of facial nerve palsy, enhanced regions were present in the meatal portion. In 3 of the 8 patients (38%) examined by MRI 6 to 10 days after the onset of facial palsy, enhanced areas were seen in both the meatal and labyrinthine portions. In 8 of the 9 patients (89%) tested 11 to 20 days after the onset of palsy, the vertical portion was enhanced. In the 12 patients examined by MRI 21 to 40 days after the onset of facial nerve palsy, the meatal portion was not enhanced while the labyrinthine portion, the horizontal portion and the vertical portion were enhanced in 5 (42%), 8 (67%) and 11 (92%), respectively. Enhancement in the vertical portion was observed in all 5 patients examined more than 41 days after the onset of facial palsy. These results suggest that the central portion of the facial nerve in the temporal bone tends to be enhanced in the early stage of facial nerve palsy, while the peripheral portion is enhanced in the late stage. These changes of Gd-DTPA enhanced regions in the facial nerve may suggest dromic degeneration of the facial nerve in peripheral facial nerve palsy. (author).

  16. Metal-enhanced fluorescence of carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Guosong; Tabakman, Scott M; Welsher, Kevin; Wang, Hailiang; Wang, Xinran; Dai, Hongjie

    2010-11-17

    The photoluminescence (PL) quantum yield of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) is relatively low, with various quenching effects by metallic species reported in the literature. Here, we report the first case of metal enhanced fluorescence (MEF) of surfactant-coated carbon nanotubes on nanostructured gold substrates. The photoluminescence quantum yield of SWNTs is observed to be enhanced more than 10-fold. The dependence of fluorescence enhancement on metal-nanotube distance and on the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of the gold substrate for various SWNT chiralities is measured to reveal the mechanism of enhancement. Surfactant-coated SWNTs in direct contact with metal exhibit strong MEF without quenching, suggesting a small quenching distance for SWNTs on the order of the van der Waals distance, beyond which the intrinsically fast nonradiative decay rate in nanotubes is little enhanced by metal. The metal enhanced fluorescence of SWNTs is attributed to radiative lifetime shortening through resonance coupling of SWNT emission to the reradiating dipolar plasmonic modes in the metal.

  17. Enhancement of Cellulose Degradation by Cattle Saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, Yasutaka; Kikuchi, Yukiko; Kimura, Yoshihiro; Yoshimoto, Ryo; Takahashi, Masatoshi; Aburai, Kenichi; Kanai, Yoshihiro; Ruike, Tatsushi; Iwabata, Kazuki; Sugawara, Fumio; Sakai, Hideki; Abe, Masahiko; Sakaguchi, Kengo

    2015-01-01

    Saccharification of cellulose is a promising technique for producing alternative source of energy. However, the efficiency of conversion of cellulose into soluble sugar using any currently available methodology is too low for industrial application. Many additives, such as surfactants, have been shown to enhance the efficiency of cellulose-to-sugar conversion. In this study, we have examined first whether cattle saliva, as an additive, would enhance the cellulase-catalyzed hydrolysis of cellulose, and subsequently elucidated the mechanism by which cattle saliva enhanced this conversion. Although cattle saliva, by itself, did not degrade cellulose, it enhanced the cellulase-catalyzed degradation of cellulose. Thus, the amount of reducing sugar produced increased approximately 2.9-fold by the addition of cattle saliva. We also found that non-enzymatic proteins, which were present in cattle saliva, were responsible for causing the enhancement effect. Third, the mechanism of cattle saliva mediated enhancement of cellulase activity was probably similar to that of the canonical surfactants. Cattle saliva is available in large amounts easily and cheaply, and it can be used without further purification. Thus, cattle saliva could be a promising additive for efficient saccharification of cellulose on an industrial scale.

  18. Is human enhancement also a personal matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menuz, Vincent; Hurlimann, Thierry; Godard, Béatrice

    2013-03-01

    Emerging technologies are increasingly used in an attempt to "enhance the human body and/or mind" beyond the contemporary standards that characterize human beings. Yet, such standards are deeply controversial and it is not an easy task to determine whether the application of a given technology to an individual and its outcome can be defined as a human enhancement or not. Despite much debate on its potential or actual ethical and social impacts, human enhancement is not subject to any consensual definition. This paper proposes a timely and much needed examination of the various definitions found in the literature. We classify these definitions into four main categories: the implicit approach, the therapy-enhancement distinction, the improvement of general human capacities and the increase of well-being. After commenting on these different approaches and their limitations, we propose a definition of human enhancement that focuses on individual perceptions. While acknowledging that a definition that mainly depends on personal and subjective individual perceptions raises many challenges, we suggest that a comprehensive approach to define human enhancement could constitute a useful premise to appropriately address the complexity of the ethical and social issues it generates.

  19. Localized basal meningeal enhancement in tuberculous meningitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theron, Salomine; Andronikou, Savvas; Grobbelaar, Marie; Steyn, Freda; Mapukata, Ayanda; Plessis, Jaco du [University of Stellenbosch, Department of Radiology, Tygerberg Hospital, P.O. BOX 19063, Tygerberg (South Africa)

    2006-11-15

    Focal basal meningeal enhancement may produce a confusing CT picture in children with suspected tuberculous meningitis (TBM). To demonstrate the incidence, distribution and appearance of localized basal meningeal enhancement in children with TBM. CT scans of patients with definite (culture proven) and probable (CSF suggestive) TBM were retrospectively evaluated by two observers. Localized basal enhancement was documented as involving: unilateral cistern of the lateral fossa (CLF), unilateral sylvian fissure, unilateral CLF and sylvian fissure in combination, unilateral CLF and sylvian fissure with ipsi- or contralateral ambient cistern and isolated quadrigeminal plate cistern. The study included 130 patients with TBM (aged 2 months to 13 years 9 months). Focal basal enhancement was seen in 11 patients (8.5%). The sylvian fissure was involved most commonly, followed by the lateral fossa cistern. The ambient cistern was involved in three patients and the quadrigeminal plate cistern in one. Focal areas of enhancement corresponded to the areas of infarction in every patient. Focal basal meningeal enhancement is common (8.5%) in paediatric TBM. This must be kept in mind when evaluating CT scans in children presenting with focal neurological findings, seizures or meningism in communities where TBM is endemic. (orig.)

  20. Contrast Enhanced US in the Abdomen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Yong Eun; Kim, Ki Whang [Dept. of Radiology, Research Institute of Radiological Science, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-08-15

    Contrast enhanced ultrasound, which was introduced in 1996, has been widely used in Europe and Eastern Asia. Ultrasound contrast agent can be classified as first generation and second generation, depending on the gas within the microbubble. With the first generation contrast agent, the high MI technique was used, and only intermittent scanning was possible due to destruction of the microbubble during scanning. Use of the second generation contrast agent with the low MI technique makes continuous scanning possible. Contrast enhanced US can be used in detection and differentiation of focal liver lesions. It is also helpful for monitoring of radiofrequency ablation and for targeting of US guided biopsy. Currently, because morphologic criteria alone may not reflect the response of the tumor to treatment, new criteria are needed for treatment evaluation after administration of anti-angiogenic agents. Contrast enhanced US could provide quantitative markers for evaluation of the response to treatment via use of dynamic contrast enhanced US. Due to cost-effectiveness, contrast enhanced US is not yet widely used in Korea; however, considering recent issues regarding contrast agent related adverse reaction, such as contrast induced nephropathy and nephrogenic systemic fibrosis, and radiation exposure, contrast enhanced US might be more widely used in Korea, as an alternative imaging modality in the future.