WorldWideScience

Sample records for acinetobacter sp strain

  1. Naturally Transformable Acinetobacter sp. Strain ADP1 Belongs to the Newly Described Species Acinetobacter baylyi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaneechoutte, Mario; Young, David M.; Ornston, L. Nicholas; De Baere, Thierry; Nemec, Alexandr; Van Der Reijden, Tanny; Carr, Emma; Tjernberg, Ingela; Dijkshoorn, Lenie

    2006-01-01

    Genotypic and phenotypic analyses were carried out to clarify the taxonomic position of the naturally transformable Acinetobacter sp. strain ADP1. Transfer tDNA-PCR fingerprinting, 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, and selective restriction fragment amplification (amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis) indicate that strain ADP1 and a second transformable strain, designated 93A2, are members of the newly described species Acinetobacter baylyi. Transformation assays demonstrate that the A. baylyi type strain B2T and two other originally identified members of the species (C5 and A7) also have the ability to undergo natural transformation at high frequencies, confirming that these five strains belong to a separate species of the genus Acinetobacter, characterized by the high transformability of its strains that have been cultured thus far. PMID:16391138

  2. Taxonomy of haemolytic and/or proteolytic strains of the genus Acinetobacter with the proposal of Acinetobacter courvalinii sp. nov. (genomic species 14 sensu Bouvet & Jeanjean), Acinetobacter dispersus sp. nov. (genomic species 17), Acinetobacter modestus sp. nov., Acinetobacter proteolyticus sp. nov. and Acinetobacter vivianii sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemec, Alexandr; Radolfova-Krizova, Lenka; Maixnerova, Martina; Vrestiakova, Eliska; Jezek, Petr; Sedo, Ondrej

    2016-04-01

    We aimed to define the taxonomic status of 40 haemolytic and/or proteolytic strains of the genus Acinetobacter which were previously classified into five putative species termed as genomic species 14BJ (n=9), genomic species 17 (n=9), taxon 18 (n=7), taxon 19 (n=6) and taxon 20 (n=9). The strains were recovered mostly from human clinical specimens or soil and water ecosystems and were highly diverse in geographical origin and time of isolation. Comparative analysis of the rpoB and gyrB gene sequences of all strains, and the whole-genome sequences of selected strains, showed that these putative species formed five respective, well-supported clusters within a distinct clade of the genus Acinetobacter which typically, although not exclusively, encompasses strains with strong haemolytic activity. The whole-genome-based average nucleotide identity (ANIb) values supported the species status of each of these clusters. Moreover, the distinctness and coherence of the clusters were supported by whole-cell profiling based on MALDI-TOF MS. Congruent with these findings were the results of metabolic and physiological testing. We conclude that the five putative taxa represent respective novel species, for which the names Acinetobacter courvalinii sp. nov. (type strain ANC 3623T=CCUG 67960T=CIP 110480T=CCM 8635T), Acinetobacter dispersus sp. nov. (type strain ANC 4105T=CCUG 67961T=CIP 110500T=CCM 8636T), Acinetobacter modestus sp. nov. (type strain NIPH 236T=CCUG 67964T=CIP 110444T=CCM 8639T), Acinetobacter proteolyticus sp. nov. (type strain NIPH 809T=CCUG 67965T=CIP 110482T = CCM 8640T) and Acinetobacter vivianii sp. nov. (type strain NIPH 2168T=CCUG 67967T=CIP 110483T=CCM 8642T) are proposed.

  3. Draft genome sequence of phenol degrading Acinetobacter sp. Strain V2, isolated from oil contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vikas; Lin, Johnson

    We report here the draft genome sequence of Acinetobacter sp. Strain V2 isolated from the oil contaminated soil collected from ENGEN, Amanzimtoti, South Africa. Degradation of phenolic compounds such as phenol, toluene, aniline etc. at 400ppm in 24h and oil degrading capability makes this organism an efficient multifunctional bioremediator. Genome sequencing of Acinetobacter spp. V2 was carried out on Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform (performed by the Beijing Genomics Institute [BGI], Shenzhen, China). The data obtained revealed 643 contigs with genome size of 4.0 Mb and G+C content of 38.59%. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  4. Taxonomy of haemolytic and/or proteolytic strains of the genus Acinetobacter with the proposal of Acinetobacter courvalinii sp. nov. (genomic species 14 sensu Bouvet & Jeanjean), Acinetobacter dispersus sp. nov. (genomic species 17), Acinetobacter modestus sp. nov., Acinetobacter proteolyticus sp. nov. and Acinetobacter vivianii sp. nov

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nemec, Alexandr; Radolfova-Krizova, Lenka; Maixnerova, Martina; Vrestiakova, Eliska; Jezek, Petr; Sedo, Ondrej

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to define the taxonomic status of 40 haemolytic and/or proteolytic strains of the genus Acinetobacter which were previously classified into five putative species termed as genomic species 14BJ (n=9...

  5. Isolation of a bacterial strain, Acinetobacter sp. from centrate wastewater and study of its cooperation with algae in nutrients removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Lu, Qian; Wang, Qin; Liu, Wen; Wei, Qian; Ren, Hongyan; Ming, Caibing; Min, Min; Chen, Paul; Ruan, Roger

    2017-07-01

    Algae were able to grow healthy on bacteria-containing centrate wastewater in a pilot-scale bioreactor. The batch experiment indicated that the co-cultivation of algae and wastewater-borne bacteria improved the removal efficiencies of chemical oxygen demand and total phosphorus in centrate wastewater to 93.01% and 98.78%, respectively. A strain of beneficial aerobic bacteria, Acinetobacter sp., was isolated and its biochemical characteristics were explored. Synergistic cooperation was observed in the growth of algae and Acinetobacter sp. Removal efficiencies of some nutrients were improved significantly by the co-cultivation of algae and Acinetobacter sp. After treatment, residual nutrients in centrate wastewater reached the permissible discharge limit. The cooperation between algae and Acinetobacter sp. was in part attributed to the exchange of carbon dioxide and oxygen between the algae and bacteria. This synergetic relationship between algae and Acinetobacter sp. provided a promising way to treat the wastewater by improving the nutrients removal and biomass production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Production and characterization of L-fucose dehydrogenase from newly isolated Acinetobacter sp. strain SA-134.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohshiro, Takashi; Morita, Noriyuki

    2014-01-01

    Microorganisms producing L-fucose dehydrogenase were screened from soil samples, and one of the isolated bacterial strains SA-134 was identified as Acinetobacter sp. by 16S rDNA gene analysis. The strain grew well utilizing L-fucose as a sole source of carbon, but all other monosaccharides tested such as D-glucose and D-arabinose did not support the growth of the strain in the absence of L-fucose. D-Arabinose inhibited the growth even in the culture medium containing L-fucose. Although the strain grew on some organic acids and amino acids such as citric acid and L-alanine as sole sources of carbon, the enzyme was produced only in the presence of L-fucose. The fucose dehydrogenase was purified to apparently homogeneity from the strain, and the native enzyme was a monomer of 25 kD. L-Fucose and D-arabinose were good substrates for the enzyme, but L-galactose was a poor substrate. The enzyme acted on both NAD(+) and NADP(+) in the similar manner.

  7. Biodegradation of crude oil surfactant production by strain Acinetobacter sp. D3-2 isolated from oil-contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bao, Mutai; Wang, Lina; Li, Yiming [Ocean University of China (China)], email: mtbao@ouc.edu.cn; Cao, Lixin; Sun, Peiyan [North China Sea Environmental Monitoring Center of State Oceanic Administration (China)

    2011-07-01

    The increasing needs for energy world-wide have led to the offshore petroleum operations and this raises concerns about hydrocarbon contamination of the marine environment. There is consequently a need to find solutions for removing hydrocarbons from marine environments and the aim of this paper is to study the capacity of bacterium D3-2 to degrade crude oil. The bacterium was extracted from oil contaminated soil samples and was identified as Acinetobacter sp. D3-2. The optimum conditions for the growth of this bacterium and its production of biosurfactant were determined and an Erlenmeyer flash experiment was conducted to determine the biosurfactant's capacity to degrade hydrocarbon. Results showed that the optimum conditions for the bacterium's growth are pH 8.0, 30 degrees Celsius and 3% NaCl concentration; it was found that acinetobacter can degrade 82% hydrocarbons under these conditions. This study demonstrated that bioremediation of hydrocarbons is possible.

  8. Acinetobacter defluvii sp. nov., recovered from hospital sewage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yiyi; Feng, Yu; Zhang, Xiaoxia; Zong, Zhiyong

    2017-06-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, non-motile Acinetobacter strain, WCHA30T, was isolated from hospital sewage in West China Hospital of Sichuan University in Chengdu, south-western China. Strain WCHA30T was a non-spore-forming, catalase-positive, oxidase-negative, strictly aerobic coccobacillus. The DNA G+C content was 38 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA, rpoB and gyrB gene sequences revealed that the strain was distinct from any previously described species of the genus Acinetobacter. Strain WCHA30T could be distinguished from all known Acinetobacter species by its ability to assimilate β-alanine but not l-glutamate. Genotypic and phenotypic characteristics from this study indicate that strain WCHA30T should be considered to represent a novel species of the genus Acinetobacter, for which the name Acinetobacter defluvii sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is WCHA30T (=CCTCC AB 2016203T=GDMCC 1.1101T=KCTC 52503T).

  9. Acinetobacter seifertii sp. nov., a member of the Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-Acinetobacter baumannii complex isolated from human clinical specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemec, Alexandr; Krizova, Lenka; Maixnerova, Martina; Sedo, Ondrej; Brisse, Sylvain; Higgins, Paul G

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to define the taxonomic status of a phenetically distinct group of 16 strains that corresponds to Acinetobacter genomic species 'close to 13TU', a provisional genomic species of the Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-Acinetobacter baumannii (ACB) complex recognized by Gerner-Smidt and Tjernberg in 1993. These strains have been isolated in different countries since the early 1990s and were mostly recovered from human clinical specimens. They were compared with 45 reference strains representing the known taxa of the ACB complex using taxonomic methods relevant to the genus Acinetobacter. Based on sequence analysis of the concatenated partial sequences (2976 bp) of seven housekeeping genes, the 16 strains formed a tight and well-supported cluster (intracluster sequence identity of ≥98.4 %) that was clearly separated from the other members of the ACB complex (≤94.7 %). The species status of the group was supported by average nucleotide identity values of ≤91.7 % between the whole genome sequence of representative strain NIPH 973(T) (NCBI accession no. APOO00000000) and those of the other species. In addition, whole-cell matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) MS analyses indicated the distinctness of the group at the protein level. Metabolic and physiological tests revealed several typical features of the group, although they did not allow its reliable differentiation from the other members of the ACB complex. We conclude that the 16 strains represent a distinct novel species, for which we propose the name Acinetobacter seifertii sp. nov. The type strain is NIPH 973(T) ( = CIP 110471(T) = CCUG 34785(T) = CCM 8535(T)). © 2015 IUMS.

  10. Acinetobacter plantarum sp. nov. isolated from wheat seedlings plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Juan; Singh, Hina; Yu, Hongshan; Jin, Feng-Xie; Yi, Tae-Hoo

    2016-07-01

    Strain THG-SQM11(T), a Gram-negative, aerobic, non-motile, coccus-shaped bacterium, was isolated from wheat seedlings plant in P. R. China. Strain THG-SQM11(T) was closely related to members of the genus Acinetobacter and showed the highest 16S rRNA sequence similarities with Acinetobacter junii (97.9 %) and Acinetobacter kookii (96.1 %). DNA-DNA hybridization showed 41.3 ± 2.4 % DNA reassociation with A. junii KCTC 12416(T). Chemotaxonomic data revealed that strain THG-SQM11(T) possesses ubiquinone-9 as the predominant respiratory quinone, C18:1 ω9c, summed feature 3 (C16:1 ω7c and/or C16:1 ω6c), and C16:0 as the major fatty acids. The major polar lipids were found to be diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, and phosphatidylcholine. The DNA G+C content was 41.7 mol %. These data, together with phenotypic characterization, suggest that the isolate represents a novel species, for which the name Acinetobacter plantarum sp. nov. is proposed, with THG-SQM11(T) as the type strain (=CCTCC AB 2015123(T) =KCTC 42611(T)).

  11. Characterization of a Pseudomonas putida rough variant evolved in a mixed species biofilm with Acinetobacter sp. strain C6

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Susse Kirkelund; Haagensen, Janus Anders Juul; Gjermansen, Morten

    2007-01-01

    Genetic differentiation by natural selection is readily observed among microbial populations, but a more comprehensive understanding of evolutionary forces, genetic causes, and resulting phenotypic advantages is not often sought. Recently, a surface population of Pseudomonas putida bacteria...... to oxygen starvation. A key factor explaining this conditional, nondispersal phenotype is likely to be the acquired ability of the rough variant to coaggregate specifically with Acinetobacter cells. We further show that the P. putida rough variant displayed enhanced production of a cellulose-like polymer...

  12. Acinetobacter dijkshoorniae sp. nov., a member of the Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-Acinetobacter baumannii complex mainly recovered from clinical samples in different countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosgaya, Clara; Marí-Almirall, Marta; Van Assche, Ado; Fernández-Orth, Dietmar; Mosqueda, Noraida; Telli, Murat; Huys, Geert; Higgins, Paul G; Seifert, Harald; Lievens, Bart; Roca, Ignasi; Vila, Jordi

    2016-10-01

    The recent advances in bacterial species identification methods have led to the rapid taxonomic diversification of the genus Acinetobacter. In the present study, phenotypic and molecular methods have been used to determine the taxonomic position of a group of 12 genotypically distinct strains belonging to the Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-Acinetobacter baumannii (ACB) complex, initially described by Gerner-Smidt and Tjernberg in 1993, that are closely related to Acinetobacter pittii. Strains characterized in this study originated mostly from human samples obtained in different countries over a period of 15 years. rpoB gene sequences and multilocus sequence typing were used for comparisons against 94 strains representing all species included in the ACB complex. Cluster analysis based on such sequences showed that all 12 strains grouped together in a distinct clade closest to Acinetobacter pittiithat was supported by bootstrap values of 99 %. Values of average nucleotide identity based on blast between the genome sequence of strain JVAP01T (NCBI accession no. LJPG00000000) and those of other species from the ACB complex were always Acinetobacter dijkshoorniae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is JVAP01T (=CECT 9134T=LMG 29605T).

  13. Acinetobacter gandensis sp. nov. isolated from horse and cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smet, Annemieke; Cools, Piet; Krizova, Lenka; Maixnerova, Martina; Sedo, Ondrej; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Kempf, Marie; Nemec, Alexandr; Vaneechoutte, Mario

    2014-12-01

    We previously reported the presence of an OXA-23 carbapenemase in an undescribed species of the genus Acinetobacter isolated from horse dung at the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ghent University, Belgium. Here we include six strains to corroborate the delineation of this taxon by phenotypic characterization, DNA-DNA hybridization, 16S rRNA gene and rpoB sequence analysis, % G+C determination, MALDI-TOF MS and fatty acid analysis. The nearly complete 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain UG 60467(T) showed the highest similarities with those of the type strains of Acinetobacter bouvetii (98.4 %), Acinetobacter haemolyticus (97.7 %), and Acinetobacter schindleri (97.2 %). The partial rpoB sequence of strain UG 60467(T) showed the highest similarities with 'Acinetobacter bohemicus' ANC 3994 (88.6 %), A. bouvetii NIPH 2281 (88.6 %) and A. schindleri CIP 107287T (87.3 %). Whole-cell MALDI-TOF MS analyses supported the distinctness of the group at the protein level. The predominant fatty acids of strain UG 60467(T) were C12 : 0 3-OH, C12 : 0, C16 : 0, C18 : 1ω9c and summed feature 3 (C16 : 1ω7c and/or iso-C15 : 0 2-OH). Strains UG 60467(T) and UG 60716 showed a DNA-DNA relatedness of 84 % with each other and a DNA-DNA relatedness with A. schindleri LMG 19576(T) of 17 % and 20 %, respectively. The DNA G+C content of strain UG 60467(T) was 39.6 mol%. The name Acinetobacter gandensis sp. nov. is proposed for the novel taxon. The type strain is UG 60467(T) ( = ANC 4275(T) = LMG 27960(T) = DSM 28097(T)). © 2014 IUMS.

  14. Induction of Diverse Bioactive Secondary Metabolites from the Mangrove Endophytic Fungus Trichoderma sp. (Strain 307 by Co-Cultivation with Acinetobacter johnsonii (Strain B2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liuhong Zhang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Two new sesquiterpenes, microsphaeropsisin B (1 and C (2, and two new de-O-methyllasiodiplodins, (3R, 7R-7-hydroxy-de-O-methyllasiodiplodin (4 and (3R-5-oxo-de-O-methyllasiodiplodin (5, together with one new natural product (6 and twelve known compounds (3, 7–17, were isolated from the co-cultivation of mangrove endophytic fungus Trichoderma sp. 307 and aquatic pathogenic bacterium Acinetobacter johnsonii B2. Their structures, including absolute configurations, were elucidated by extensive analysis of spectroscopic data, electronic circular dichroism, Mo2(AcO4-induced circular dichroism, and comparison with reported data. All of the isolated compounds were tested for their α-glucosidase inhibitory activity and cytotoxicity. New compounds 4 and 5 exhibited potent α-glucosidase inhibitory activity with IC50 values of 25.8 and 54.6 µM, respectively, which were more potent than the positive control (acarbose, IC50 = 703.8 µM. The good results of the tested bioactivity allowed us to explore α-glucosidase inhibitors in lasiodiplodins.

  15. Acinetobacter pragensis sp. nov., found in soil and water ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radolfova-Krizova, Lenka; Maixnerova, Martina; Nemec, Alexandr

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed to define the taxonomic status of a novel, phenetically distinct group of seven strains belonging to the genus Acinetobacter, which were isolated from environmental soil and water samples collected in Central Bohemia, Czech Republic. Comparative sequence analyses of the 16S rRNA, gyrB and rpoB genes showed that all these strains formed respective tight clusters (intracluster sequence similarities of ≥99.8, ≥98.1 and ≥98.3 %, respectively), which were distant from all known Acinetobacter species (≤98.2, ≤84.0 and ≤88.9 %, respectively). The average nucleotide identity and digital DNA-DNA hybridization values (≤83.5 and ≤27.4 %, respectively) between the whole-genome sequence of a group representative (strain ANC 4149T) and those of known taxa were far below the thresholds used to discriminate between bacterial species. The seven strains also formed a tight and distinct cluster based on the genus-wide comparison of whole-cell mass fingerprints generated by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight MS and could be distinguished from all other members of the genus Acinetobacter by the combination of their ability to assimilate glutarate and l-tartrate and inability to grow at 37 °C and on l-aspartate. It is concluded that the seven strains represent a novel species for which the name Acinetobacter pragensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is ANC 4149T (=CCM 8637T=CCUG 67962T=CNCTC 7530T).

  16. Acinetobacter bohemicus sp. nov. widespread in natural soil and water ecosystems in the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krizova, Lenka; Maixnerova, Martina; Sedo, Ondrej; Nemec, Alexandr

    2014-10-01

    We investigated the taxonomic status of a phenetically unique group of 25 Acinetobacter strains which were isolated from multiple soil and water samples collected in natural ecosystems in the Czech Republic. Based on the comparative sequence analyses of the rpoB, gyrB, and 16S rRNA genes, the strains formed a coherent and well separated branch within the genus Acinetobacter. The genomic uniqueness of the group at the species level was supported by the low average nucleotide identity values (≤77.37%) between the whole genome sequences of strain ANC 3994(T) (NCBI accession no. APOH00000000) and the representatives of the known Acinetobacter species. Moreover, all 25 strains created a tight cluster clearly separated from all hitherto described species based on whole-cell protein profiling by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and shared a unique combination of metabolic and physiological properties. The capacity to assimilate l-histidine and the inability to grow at 35°C differentiated them from their phenotypically closest neighbor, Acinetobacter johnsonii. We conclude that the 25 strains represent a novel Acinetobacter species, for which the name Acinetobacter bohemicus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of A. bohemicus is ANC 3994(T) (=CIP 110496(T)=CCUG 63842(T)=CCM 8462(T)). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Description of Acinetobacter populi sp. nov. isolated from symptomatic bark of Populus x euramericana canker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong; Chang, Jupu; Guo, Li-min; Wang, Hai-Ming; Xie, Shou-jiang; Piao, Chun-gen; He, Wei

    2015-12-01

    Five Gram-negative, non-motile, rod-shaped bacterial strains were isolated from cankers of Populus x euramericana collected from different locations in Puyang city, Henan Province, China. The five strains were characterized by nutritional and physiological testing and DNA sequence analysis. Haemolysis was not observed on agar media supplemented with sheep erythrocytes. The strains could be distinguished from members of most species of the genus Acinetobacter by their inability to assimilate L-arginine and benzoate. The five strains formed a single branch in phylogenetic trees based on 16S rRNA, gyrB and rpoB individual gene sequence analysis,indicating that they all belonged to a single taxon within the genus Acinetobacter. DNA-DNA hybridization results indicated that the five isolates represented to a single species that was separate from Acinetobacter puyangensis. On the basis of the phenotypic, genotypic and phylogenetic characteristics, the five strains are considered to represent a novel species of the genus Acinetobacter, for which the name Acinetobacter populi sp. nov. is proposed. The typestrain of A. populi sp. nov. is PBJ7T (CFCC 11170T=KCTC 42272T).

  18. Acinetobacter lactucae sp. nov., isolated from iceberg lettuce (Asteraceae: Lactuca sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooney, Alejandro P; Dunlap, Christopher A; Flor-Weiler, Lina B

    2016-09-01

    Strain NRRL B-41902T and three closely related strains were isolated from iceberg lettuce. The strain was found to consist of strictly aerobic, Gram-stain-negative rods that formed cocci in late stationary phase. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that strain NRRL B-41902T was most closely related to species within the genera Acinetobacter, and that a grouping of it and the three other closely related strains was most closely related to the type strain of Acinetobacter pittii, which was also confirmed through a phylogenomic analysis. Moreover, in silico DNA-DNA hybridization analysis revealed a substantial amount of genomic divergence (39.1 %) between strain NRRL B-41902T and the type strain of A. pittii, which is expected if the strains represent distinct species. Further phenotypic analysis revealed that strain NRRL B-41902T was able to utilize a combination of l-serine, citraconic acid and citramalic acid, which differentiated it from other, closely related Acinetobacter species. Therefore, strain NRRL B-41902T (=CCUG 68785T) is proposed as the type strain of a novel species, Acinetobacter lactucae sp. nov.

  19. Acinetobacter variabilis sp. nov. (formerly DNA group 15 sensu Tjernberg & Ursing), isolated from humans and animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krizova, Lenka; McGinnis, Jana; Maixnerova, Martina; Nemec, Matej; Poirel, Laurent; Mingle, Lisa; Sedo, Ondrej; Wolfgang, William; Nemec, Alexandr

    2015-03-01

    We aimed to define the taxonomic status of 16 strains which were phenetically congruent with Acinetobacter DNA group 15 described by Tjernberg & Ursing in 1989. The strains were isolated from a variety of human and animal specimens in geographically distant places over the last three decades. Taxonomic analysis was based on an Acinetobacter-targeted, genus-wide approach that included the comparative sequence analysis of housekeeping, protein-coding genes, whole-cell profiling based on matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), an array of in-house physiological and metabolic tests, and whole-genome comparative analysis. Based on analyses of the rpoB and gyrB genes, the 16 strains formed respective, strongly supported clusters clearly separated from the other species of the genus Acinetobacter. The distinctness of the group at the species level was indicated by average nucleotide identity values of ≤82 % between the whole genome sequences of two of the 16 strains (NIPH 2171(T) and NIPH 899) and those of the known species. In addition, the coherence of the group was also supported by MALDI-TOF MS. All 16 strains were non-haemolytic and non-gelatinase-producing, grown at 41 °C and utilized a rather limited number of carbon sources. Virtually every strain displayed a unique combination of metabolic and physiological features. We conclude that the 16 strains represent a distinct species of the genus Acinetobacter, for which the name Acinetobacter variabilis sp. nov. is proposed to reflect its marked phenotypic heterogeneity. The type strain is NIPH 2171(T) ( = CIP 110486(T) = CCUG 26390(T) = CCM 8555(T)). © 2015 IUMS.

  20. Coaggregation between Rhodococcus and Acinetobacter strains isolated from the food industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møretrø, Trond; Sharifzadeh, Shahab; Langsrud, Solveig; Heir, Even; Rickard, Alexander H

    2015-07-01

    In this study, coaggregation interactions between Rhodococcus and Acinetobacter strains isolated from food-processing surfaces were characterized. Rhodococcus sp. strain MF3727 formed intrageneric coaggregates with Rhodococcus sp. strain MF3803 and intergeneric coaggregates with 2 strains of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus (MF3293, MF3627). Stronger coaggregation between A. calcoaceticus MF3727 and Rhodococcus sp. MF3293 was observed after growth in batch culture at 30 °C than at 20 °C, after growth in tryptic soy broth than in liquid R2A medium, and between cells in exponential and early stationary phases than cells in late stationary phase. The coaggregation ability of Rhodococcus sp. MF3727 was maintained even after heat and Proteinase K treatment, suggesting its ability to coaggregate was protein independent whereas the coaggregation determinants of the other strains involved proteinaceous cell-surface-associated polymers. Coaggregation was stable at pH 5-9. The mechanisms of coaggregation among Acinetobacter and Rhodococcus strains bare similarity to those displayed by coaggregating bacteria of oral and freshwater origin, with respect to binding between proteinaceous and nonproteinaceous determinants and the effect of environmental factors on coaggregation. Coaggregation may contribute to biofilm formation on industrial food surfaces, protecting bacteria against cleaning and disinfection.

  1. Genes for chlorogenate and hydroxycinnamate catabolism (hca) are linked to functionally related genes in the dca-pca-qui-pob-hca chromosomal cluster of Acinetobacter sp. strain ADP1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael A; Weaver, Valerie B; Young, David M; Ornston, L Nicholas

    2003-01-01

    Hydroxycinnamates are ubiquitous in the environment because of their contributions to the structure and defense mechanisms of plants. Additional plant products, many of which are formed in response to stress, support the growth of Acinetobacter sp. strain ADP1 through pathways encoded by genes in the dca-pca-qui-pob chromosomal cluster. In an appropriate genetic background, it was possible to select for an Acinetobacter strain that had lost the ability to grow with caffeate, a commonly occurring hydroxycinnamate. The newly identified mutation was shown to be a deletion in a gene designated hcaC and encoding a ligase required for conversion of commonly occurring hydroxycinnamates (caffeate, ferulate, coumarate, and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylpropionate) to thioesters. Linkage analysis showed that hcaC is linked to pobA. Downstream from hcaC and transcribed in the direction opposite the direction of pobA transcription are open reading frames designated hcaDEFG. Functions of these genes were inferred from sequence comparisons and from the properties of knockout mutants. HcaD corresponded to an acyl coenzyme A (acyl-CoA) dehydrogenase required for conversion of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylpropionyl-CoA to caffeoyl-CoA. HcaE appears to encode a member of a family of outer membrane proteins known as porins. Knockout mutations in hcaF confer no discernible phenotype. Knockout mutations in hcaG indicate that this gene encodes a membrane-associated esterase that hydrolyzes chlorogenate to quinate, which is metabolized in the periplasm, and caffeate, which is metabolized by intracellular enzymes. The chromosomal location of hcaG, between hcaC (required for growth with caffeate) and quiA (required for growth with quinate), provided the essential clue that led to the genetic test of HcaG as the esterase that produces caffeate and quinate from chlorogenate. Thus, in this study, organization within what is now established as the dca-pca-qui-pob-hca chromosomal cluster provided essential

  2. Acinetobacter halotolerans sp. nov., a novel halotolerant, alkalitolerant, and hydrocarbon degrading bacterium, isolated from soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahal, Ram Hari; Chaudhary, Dhiraj Kumar; Kim, Jaisoo

    2017-07-01

    A novel aerobic, non-motile, halotolerant, alkalitolerant, hydrocarbon degrading, and rod shaped bacterium, designated strain R160(T), was isolated from soil in South Korea. Cells were Gram-staining-negative, catalase-positive, and oxidase-negative. This strain grew up to 7% of NaCl and in the pH range of 6-11 (optimum 7.0-10.0). The isolate degraded 51.7 ± 1.3% of hydrocarbon components (C-18, C-20, and C-22) and 45.8 ± 1.4% oil components (kerosene, diesel, and gasoline). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16 S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain R160(T) formed a lineage within the genus Acinetobacter, and was closely related to 'Acinetobacter oleivorans' DR1(T) (97.47%, sequence similarity). Other closely related members have sequence similarity between 97.47 to 96.52%. The predominant respiratory lipoquinones of strain R160(T) were ubiquinone 9 (Q-9) and ubiquinone 8 (Q-8). The major polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), diphosphatidylglycerol (DPG), phosphatidylglycerol (PG), and phosphatidylcholine (PC). The major cellular fatty acids were 9-octadecenoic acid (C18:1 ω9c), hexadecanoic acid (C16:0), and summed feature (comprising C16:1 ω7c and/or C16:1 ω6c). The DNA G + C content of strain R160(T) was 44.9 mol%. On the basis of phenotypic, genotypic, chemotaxonomic, and phylogenetic characteristics, strain R160(T) represents a novel species of the genus Acinetobacter, for which the name Acinetobacter halotolerans sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is R160(T) (= KEMB 9005-333(T) = KACC 18453(T) = JCM 31009(T)).

  3. A taxonomically unique Acinetobacter strain with proteolytic and hemolytic activities recovered from a patient with a soft tissue injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almuzara, Marisa; Traglia, German Matías; Krizova, Lenka; Barberis, Claudia; Montaña, Sabrina; Bakai, Romina; Tuduri, Alicia; Vay, Carlos; Nemec, Alexandr; Ramírez, María Soledad

    2015-01-01

    A taxonomically unique bacterial strain, Acinetobacter sp. A47, has been recovered from several soft tissue samples from a patient undergoing reconstructive surgery owing to a traumatic amputation. The results of 16S rRNA, rpoB, and gyrB gene comparative sequence analyses showed that A47 does not belong to any of the hitherto-known taxa and may represent an as-yet-unknown Acinetobacter species. The recognition of this novel organism contributes to our knowledge of the taxonomic complexity underlying infections caused by Acinetobacter. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  4. Acinetobacter albensis sp. nov., isolated from natural soil and water ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krizova, Lenka; Maixnerova, Martina; Sedo, Ondrej; Nemec, Alexandr

    2015-11-01

    We have studied the taxonomic position of a phenetically unique group of eight strains of the genus Acinetobacter which were isolated from soil and water samples collected in protected landscape areas in the Czech Republic. Each of the comparative sequence analyses of the 16S rRNA, gyrB and rpoB genes showed that the eight strains formed a cohesive and tight cluster (intracluster sequence identities of ≥ 99.9 %, ≥ 98.5 % and ≥ 97.7 %, respectively), which was clearly separated from all hitherto known species of the genus Acinetobacter ( ≤ 98.6 %, ≤ 84.5 % and ≤ 89.3 %, respectively). Congruent with these findings were the results of comparative sequence analysis of three additional housekeeping genes (gltA, pyrG and recA). This genotypic distinctness was mirrored by the uniqueness of the combination of a number of independent phenotypic markers including the whole-cell spectra produced by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-ToF) MS and physiological and metabolic features. The most useful phenotypic features to differentiate the eight strains from all known species of the genus Acinetobacter were the ability to assimilate tricarballylate and the inability to grow at 35 °C or to assimilate ethanol or l-histidine. We conclude that the eight strains represent a novel environmental species for which the name Acinetobacter albensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is ANC 4874(T) ( = CCUG 67281(T) = CCM 8611(T)).

  5. Acinetobacter larvae sp. nov., isolated from the larval gut of Omphisa fuscidentalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Song; Wang, Yanwei; Ruan, Zhiyong; Ma, Kedong; Wu, Bo; Xu, Yansheng; Wang, Jingli; You, Yang; He, Mingxiong; Hu, Guoquan

    2017-04-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, non-spore-forming, non-motile and aerobic coccobacilli-shaped strain, designated BRTC-1T, was isolated from the gut of Omphisa fuscidentalis Hampson, which is a larva of a moth and was collected from Xishuangbanna Dai Autonomous Prefecture in China. The isolate was found to grow at NaCl concentrations of 0-5 % (w/v) (optimum: 0 %), 10-45 °C (optimum: 30-35 °C) and pH 5.0-9.0 (optimum: pH 6.0) on tryptic soy agar. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that the isolate belonged to the genus Acinetobacter and was most closely related to Acinetobacter rudis LMG 26107T, Acinetobacter guillouiae LMG 988T and Acinetobacter bereziniae LMG 1003T with 96.4, 96.3 and 96.3 % sequence similarity, respectively. The comparative sequence analyses of the rpoB and gyrB genes showed that BRTC-1T is distant from the species of the genus Acinetobacter with validly published names (≤84.0 and ≤82.0 % similarity, respectively). The average nucleotide identity and digital DNA-DNA hybridization values (≤77.0 and ≤22.8 %, respectively) between the whole-genome sequence of BRTC-1T and those of the known taxa were far below the thresholds used to discriminate bacterial species. The major fatty acids were determined to be C16 : 0, C18 : 1ω9c and C16 : 1ω7c/iso-C15 : 0 2-OH. The respiratory quinone was Q-9. The polar lipids were found to be diphosphatidyglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, five phospholipids and one phosphatidylcholine. Based on its phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characteristics from this study, the isolate is concluded to represent a novel species of the genus Acinetobacter, for which the name Acinetobacter larvae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is BRTC-1T (=ACCC 19936T=JCM 31367T).

  6. Stress responses of Acinetobacter strain Y during phenol degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Johnson

    2017-03-01

    Quantification of gene expression of Acinetobacter strain Y under 1000 mg/l of phenol was investigated using qPCR and proteomic analyses. The results show that Acinetobacter strain Y utilized 100 % of phenol within 18 h of exposure. The results of qPCR and proteomic analyses demonstrate a sequential expression of phenol-degrading genes of Acinetobacter strain Y via the ortho-pathway followed by the β-ketoadipate pathway. Many stress-responsive proteins such as chaperones, chaperonins, porins and the enzymes involved in the signal transduction pathway were upregulated especially in the early stage. The stressed bacteria produced more ABC-type transporters, membrane receptors and efflux pumps to mitigate the impacts of phenol stress. The functions of TCA/glyoxylate cycle and oxidative phosphorylation processes were negatively affected. Many enzymes in the gluconeogenesis pathway were upregulated. This study demonstrates bacterial strategies of Acinetobacter strain Y via the energy saving mechanisms and the coordinated control between carbon (C)- and nitrogen (N)-limitations in coping with the stress by scavenging the reactive oxygen species.

  7. [Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii strains].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogiel, Tomasz; Kwiecińska-Piróg, Joanna; Jachna-Sawicka, Katarzyna; Gospodarek, Eugenia

    2010-01-01

    A. baumannii rods are opportunistic pathogens responsible generally for nosocomial infections. Resistance to carbapenems, observed among them, is a serious threat due to ability to be transmitted between bacterial species. The aim of our study was to evaluate the frequency of isolation and susceptibility to antibiotics of resistant to imipenem and/or meropenem A. baumannii strains isolated between 2007 and 2009 from patients of University Hospital of dr A. Jurasz Collegium Medicum of L. Rydygier in Bydgoszcz Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń. Study shows increasing frequency of isolation that type of strains from 4 in 2007 to 95 in 2008 and 67 in 2009. Percentage of imipenem-resistant isolates raised to 27.6% in 2008 and 31.0% in 2009. Meropenem-resistant A. baumannii isolates frequency changed from 2.1% in 2007 to 31.2% and 34.6%, in 2008 and 2009, respectively. The majority of strains were obtained from patients of the Intensive Care Units and surgery clinics. Examined A. baumannii strains were generally isolated from bronchoalveolar lavage (25.3%) and wound (18.1%) or throat (12.0%) swabs samples. The isolates demonstrated full resistance to norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, and chloramphenicol. Ampicillin/sulbactam (24.8%), tobramycin (8.1%) and colistin (1.5%) presented the highest in vitro activity against isolated strains.

  8. Clinical strains of acinetobacter classified by DNA-DNA hybridization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tjernberg, I.; Ursing, J. (Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Lund, Malmoe General Hospital, Malmoe (Sweden))

    1989-01-01

    A collection of Acinetobacter strains consisting of 168 consecutive clinical strains and 30 type and reference strains was studied by DNA-DNA hybridization and a few phenotypic tests. The field strains could be allotted to 13 DNA groups. By means of reference strains ten of these could be identified with groups described by Bouvet and Grimont (1986), while three groups were new; they were given the numbers 13-15. The type strain of A. radioresistens- recently described by Nishimura et al. (1988) - was shown to be a member of DNA group 12, which comprised 31 clinical isolates. Of the 19 strains of A. junii, eight showed hemolytic acitivity on sheep and human blood agar and an additional four strains on human blood agar only. Strains of this species have previously been regarded as non-hemolytic. Reciprocal DNA pairing data for the reference strains of the DNA gropus were treated by UPGMA clustering. The reference strains for A. calcoaceticus, A. baumannii and DNA groups 3 and 13 formed a cluster with about 70% relatedness within the cluster. Other DNA groups joined at levels below 60%. (author).

  9. Natural genetic transformation in Acinetobacter sp. BD413 Biofilms: introducing natural genetic transformation as a tool for bioenhancement of biofilm reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrickx, L.

    2002-07-01

    This study focussed on the localization and quantification of natural genetic transformation using neutral and disadvantageous genes in monoculture biofilms to investigate gene transfer and expression of the transferred genes in the absence of a selective advantage. Data obtained by this investigation were regarded as initial steps for evaluating the applicability of adding catabolic traits into the indigenous bacterial community of biofilm reactors by in situ natural genetic transformation. Because Acinetobacter spp. strains are readily found in waste water treatment plants and because Acinetobacter sp. BD413 possesses a high effective level of competence, natural genetic transformation was investigated in monoculture Acinetobacter sp. BD413 biofilms. The genes used for transformation encoded for the green fluorescent protein (GFP) and its variants. Monitoring of transformation events were performed with the use of automated confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and semi automated digital image processing and analysis. (orig.)

  10. Silica-immobilized Methylobacterium sp. NP3 and Acinetobacter sp. PK1 degrade high concentrations of phenol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khongkhaem, P; Intasiri, A; Luepromchai, E

    2011-05-01

    To immobilize Methylobacterium sp. NP3 and Acinetobacter sp. PK1 to silica and determine the ability of the immobilized bacteria to degrade high concentrations of phenol. The phenol degradation activity of suspended and immobilized Methylobacterium sp. NP3 and Acinetobacter sp. PK1 bacteria was investigated in batch experiments with various concentrations of phenol. The bacterial cells were immobilized by attachment to or encapsulation in silica. The encapsulated bacteria had the highest phenol degradation rate, especially at initial phenol concentrations between 7500 and 10000 mg l(-1) . Additionally, the immobilized cells could continuously degrade phenol for up to 55 days. The encapsulation of a mixed culture of Methylobacterium sp. NP3 and Acinetobacter sp. PK1 is an effective and easy technique that can be used to improve bacterial stability and phenol degradation. Wastewater from various industries contains high concentrations of phenol, which can cause wastewater treatment failure. Silica-immobilized bacteria could be applied in bioreactors to initially remove the phenol, thereby preventing phenol shock loads to the wastewater treatment system. © 2011 The Authors. Letters in Applied Microbiology © 2011 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  11. Pesquisa de Acinetobacter sp e Pseudomonas aeruginosa produtores de metalo-β-lactamase em hospital de emergência de Porto Alegre, Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Investigation of metallo-β-lactamase-producing Acinetobacter sp and Pseudomonas aeruginosa at an emergency hospital in Porto Alegre, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vani Dos Santos Laranjeira

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: O aparecimento de Pseudomonas aeruginosa e Acinetobacter sp produtores de metalo-β-lactamases (MBLs é um desafio para os hospitais. MÉTODOS: Verificou-se a produção de MBL em cepas clínicas de Pseudomonas aeruginosa e Acinetobacter sp de um hospital de emergência de Porto Alegre pelo método de aproximação de disco e E-test MBL. Os genes bla foram pesquisados pela PCR. RESULTADOS: Duas cepas de Pseudomonas aeruginosa e oito Acinetobacter sp demonstraram fenótipo de MBLs. A amplificação do gene blaSPM-1 confirmou a enzima em P. aeruginosa.. CONCLUSÕES: Deve-se ter cautela ao avaliar testes fenotípicos utilizados na detecção rotineira de metalo-enzima.INTRODUCTION: The appearance of metallo-β-lactamase (MBL-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter sp. is a challenge for hospitals. METHODS: The production of MBL in clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter sp. From an emergency hospital in Porto Alegre was investigated using the disk approximation test and MBL E-test. The bla genes were determined using PCR. RESULTS: Two strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and eight of Acinetobacter sp were shown to be MBL phenotypes. Amplification of the blaSPM-1 gene confirmed the presence of the enzyme in P. aeruginosa. CONCLUSIONS: Caution is needed in evaluating phenotype tests used for routine detection of metallo-β-lactamases.

  12. Characterization of a fluoride-resistant bacterium Acinetobacter sp. RH5 towards assessment of its water defluoridation capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Shraboni; Yadav, Vaibhav; Mondal, Madhumanti; Banerjee, Soumya; Halder, Gopinath

    2017-07-01

    The present study investigates the defluoridation capability of fluoride-resistant bacteria from contaminated groundwater collected from Asanjola and Madhabpur, West Bengal, India. Seven strains of fluoride-resistant bacteria were isolated employing culture media containing 10-250 mg/L of fluoride to evaluate their ability in reducing fluoride concentration in water. Five isolates exhibited significant amount of reduction in fluoride. Isolate RH5 achieved a maximum fluoride removal of 25.7 % from the media at 30 °C and pH 7 after 8 days of incubation. Based on morphological, physiological characteristics and analysis of 16S rDNA gene sequence, isolate RH5 was identified as Acinetobacter sp. RH5. Growth of RH5 was analysed at a diverse pH range, and it could thrive at pH 5-10. The present investigation revealed that the selective pressure of fluoride results in growth of fluoride-resistant bacteria capable of secreting high-affinity anion-binding compounds. This bacterium played a dominant bioremediative role by concentrating the anions so that they become less available. Hence, the fluoride-resistant bacteria, Acinetobacter sp. RH5, could be used as a promising strain for application in water defluoridation from contaminated sites.

  13. The activity of silver nanoparticles (Axonnite) on clinical and environmental strains of Acinetobacter spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łysakowska, Monika E; Ciebiada-Adamiec, Anna; Klimek, Leszek; Sienkiewicz, Monika

    2015-03-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii isolates are responsible for a high number of wound infections. The reason of this study was to evaluate the activity of silver nanoparticles obtained by microexplosion against wide range of Acinetobacter spp. Susceptibility to silver nanoparticles was tested by microdilution method, susceptibility to antibiotics was evaluated by the disc-diffusion method. All strains of Acinetobacter spp. were sensitive to AgNPs at low concentrations. The values of the MIC for strains of Acinetobacter spp. were 0.39 and 0.78μg/mL. In general, strains inhibited by 0.78μg/mL of AgNPs were more resistant to antibiotics than Acinetobacter strains for which MIC=0.39μg/mL (p=0.023). The AgNPs in Axonnite seems to be a good alternative for other antimicrobials to treat wound infections caused by multidrug resistant Acinetobacter spp. strains because of its high activity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  14. Genomic and proteomic evidences unravel the UV-resistome of the poly-extremophile Acinetobacter sp. Ver3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel eKurth

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Ultraviolet radiation can damage biomolecules, with detrimental or even lethal effects for life. Even though lower wavelengths are filtered by the ozone layer, a significant amount of harmful UV-B and UV-A radiation reach Earth’s surface, particularly in high altitude environments. High-Altitude Andean Lakes (HAAL are a group of disperse shallow lakes and salterns, located at the Dry Central Andes region in South America at altitudes above 3,000 m. As it is considered one of the highest UV-exposed environments, HAAL microbes constitute model systems to study UV-resistance mechanisms in environmental bacteria at various complexity levels. Herein, we present the genome sequence of Acinetobacter sp. Ver3, a gammaproteobacterium isolated from Lake Verde (4,400 m, together with further experimental evidence supporting the phenomenological observations regarding this bacterium ability to cope with increased UV-induced DNA damage. Comparison with the genomes of other Acinetobacter strains highlighted a number of unique genes, such as a novel cryptochrome. Proteomic profiling of UV-exposed cells identified up-regulated proteins such as a specific cytoplasmic catalase, a putative regulator, and proteins associated to amino acid and protein synthesis. Down-regulated proteins were related to several energy-generating pathways such as glycolysis, beta-oxidation of fatty acids and electronic respiratory chain. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on a genome from a polyextremophilic Acinetobacter strain. From the genomic and proteomic data, an UV-resistome was defined, encompassing the genes that would support the outstanding UV-resistance of this strain.

  15. Susceptibility to tigecycline of Acinetobacter baumannii strains isolated from intensive care unit patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talaga, Katarzyna; Krzyściak, Paweł; Bulanda, Małgorzata

    2016-01-01

    Infections caused by Acinetobacter baumannii are difficult to cure due to the acquisition of resistance by these bacteria and lead to an increase in the general costs of hospitalization. The aim of this study was to determine tigecycline susceptibility of Acinetobacter baumannii strains isolated from intensive care unit and non-intensive care unit patients with skin and soft tissue infections. MICs were tested by Etest among 70 Acinetobacter baumannii isolates. The MIC range was from 0.5 to 8.0 mg L⁻¹. For ESBL-producing Acinetobacter baumannii, as well as for strains without carbapenemases, the highest MIC to tigecycline value was 8.0 mg L⁻¹. For AmpC-producing Acinetobacter baumannii, the highest MIC to tigecycline value was 6.0 mg L⁻¹ and, for MBL-producing strains, 2.0 mg L⁻¹. The majority of Acinetobacter baumannii strains isolated from ICU and non-ICU patients demonstrated high values of MIC range, MIC50 and MIC90 to tigecycline.

  16. Characterization and identification of newly isolated Acinetobacter baumannii strain serdang 1 for phenol removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadzir, Z. H. M.; Shukor, M. Y.; Nazir, M. S.; Abdullah, M. A.

    2012-09-01

    A new indigenous bacterial strain from Malaysian soil contaminated with petroleum waste had been successfully isolated, characterized and identified for phenol removal. The gram negative bacteria showed 98% identity with Acinetobacter baumannii based on Biolog{trade mark, serif} Identification System and the determination of a partial 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) sequence. The isolate clustered with species belonging to Acinetobacter clade in a 16S rDNA-based neighbour-joining phylogenetic tree.

  17. Genome sequencing and annotation of Acinetobacter gyllenbergii strain MTCC 11365T

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin Kumar Singh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Acinetobacter consists of 31 validly published species ubiquitously distributed in nature and primarily associated with nosocomial infection. We report 4.3 Mb genome of the Acinetobacter gyllenbergii strain MTCC 11365T. The draft genome of A. gyllenbergii has a G + C content of 41.0% and includes 3 rRNA genes (5S, 23S, 16S and 67 aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase genes.

  18. Isolation and characterization of diesel degrading bacteria, Sphingomonas sp. and Acinetobacter junii from petroleum contaminated soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiuzhuo; Wang, Duanchao; Li, Mengmeng; Xiang, Wei-Ning; Achal, Varenyam

    2014-03-01

    Two indigenous bacteria of petroleum contaminated soil were characterized to utilize diesel fuel as the sole carbon and energy sources in this work. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis identified these bacteria as Sphingomonas sp. and Acinetobacter junii. The ability to degrade diesel fuel has been demonstrated for the first time by these isolates. The results of IR analyses showed that Sphingomonas sp. VA1 and A. junii VA2 degraded up to 82.6% and 75.8% of applied diesel over 15 days, respectively. In addition, Sphingomonas sp. VA1 possessed the higher cellular hydrophobicities of 94% for diesel compared to 81% by A. junii VA2. The isolates Sphingomonas sp. VA1 and A. junii VA2 exhibited 24% and 18%, respectively emulsification activity. This study reports two new diesel degrading bacterial species, which can be effectively used for bioremediation of petroleum contaminated sites.

  19. Characterization of plasmids in extensively drug-resistant acinetobacter strains isolated in India and Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Lim S; Carvalho, Maria J; Toleman, Mark A; White, P Lewis; Connor, Thomas R; Mushtaq, Ammara; Weeks, Janis L; Kumarasamy, Karthikeyan K; Raven, Katherine E; Török, M Estée; Peacock, Sharon J; Howe, Robin A; Walsh, Timothy R

    2015-02-01

    The blaNDM-1 gene is associated with extensive drug resistance in Gram-negative bacteria. This probably spread to Enterobacteriaceae from Acinetobacter spp., and we characterized plasmids associated with blaNDM-1 in Acinetobacter spp. to gain insight into their role in this dissemination. Four clinical NDM-1-producing Acinetobacter species strains from India and Pakistan were investigated. A plasmid harboring blaNDM-1, pNDM-40-1, was characterized by whole-genome sequencing of Acinetobacter bereziniae CHI-40-1 and comparison with related plasmids. The presence of similar plasmids in strains from Pakistan was sought by PCR and sequencing of amplicons. Conjugation frequency was tested and stability of pNDM-40-1 investigated by real-time PCR of isolates passaged with and without antimicrobial selection pressure. A. bereziniae and Acinetobacter haemolyticus strains contained plasmids similar to the pNDM-BJ01-like plasmids identified in Acinetobacter spp. in China. The backbone of pNDM-40-1 was almost identical to that of pNDM-BJ01-like plasmids, but the transposon harboring blaNDM-1, Tn125, contained two short deletions. Escherichia coli and Acinetobacter pittii transconjugants were readily obtained. Transconjugants retained pNDM-40-1 after a 14-day passage experiment, although stability was greater with meropenem selection. Fragments of pNDM-BJ01-like plasmid backbones are found near blaNDM-1 in some genetic contexts from Enterobacteriaceae, suggesting that cross-genus transfer has occurred. pNDM-BJ01-like plasmids have been described in isolates originating from a wide geographical region in southern Asia. In vitro data on plasmid transfer and stability suggest that these plasmids could have contributed to the spread of blaNDM-1 into Enterobacteriaceae. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  20. Effect of Acinetobacter sp on metalaxyl degradation and metabolite profile of potato seedlings (Solanum tuberosum L.) alpha variety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuno-Floriano, Fabiola G; Miller, Marion G; Aldana-Madrid, Maria L; Hengel, Matt J; Gaikwad, Nilesh W; Tolstikov, Vladimir; Contreras-Cortés, Ana G

    2012-01-01

    One of the most serious diseases in potato cultivars is caused by the pathogen Phytophthora infestans, which affects leaves, stems and tubers. Metalaxyl is a fungicide that protects potato plants from Phytophthora infestans. In Mexico, farmers apply metalaxyl 35 times during the cycle of potato production and the last application is typically 15 days before harvest. There are no records related to the presence of metalaxyl in potato tubers in Mexico. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of Acinetobacter sp on metalaxyl degradation in potato seedlings. The effect of bacteria and metalaxyl on the growth of potato seedlings was also evaluated. A metabolite profile analysis was conducted to determine potential molecular biomarkers produced by potato seedlings in the presence of Acinetobacter sp and metalaxyl. Metalaxyl did not affect the growth of potato seedlings. However, Acinetobacter sp strongly affected the growth of inoculated seedlings, as confirmed by plant length and plant fresh weights which were lower in inoculated potato seedlings (40% and 27%, respectively) compared to the controls. Acinetobacter sp also affected root formation. Inoculated potato seedlings showed a decrease in root formation compared to the controls. LC-MS/MS analysis of metalaxyl residues in potato seedlings suggests that Acinetobacter sp did not degrade metalaxyl. GC-TOF-MS platform was used in metabolic profiling studies. Statistical data analysis and metabolic pathway analysis allowed suggesting the alteration of metabolic pathways by both Acinetobacter sp infection and metalaxyl treatment. Several hundred metabolites were detected, 137 metabolites were identified and 15 metabolic markers were suggested based on statistical change significance found with PLS-DA analysis. These results are important for better understanding the interactions of putative endophytic bacteria and pesticides on plants and their possible effects on plant metabolism.

  1. Intensification of microbial exopolysaccharide ethapolan synthesis under Acinetobacter sp. IМV B-7005 cultivation on sunflower oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ivahniuk

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction.Microbial exopolysaccharides (EPS by the ability of their solutions to change the rheological properties of aqueous systems are widely used in various industries. In recent years, research on the use of industrial waste (including oil-containing to obtain practically valuable microbial metabolites intensified. Materials and methods.Cultivation of Acinetobactersp. IМV B-7005 strain was performed in liquid medium, containing as a carbon source sunflower oil (1−5 %, v/v, a source of nitrogen – ammonium nitrate (0.4−0.8 g/l, a source of pantothenate − multivitamin complex «Complevit» (0.00085 and0.00095 %. EPSconcentration was determined gravimetrically after precipitation with isopropanol, EPS-synthesizing ability − as a ratio of EPS concentration to biomass concentration, wich was expressed as g EPS / g biomass. Results and discussions. It was established that increasing the concentration of sunflower oil in basic medium for Acinetobacter sp. IMV B -7005 cultivation to 4−5% was accompanied by decrease of ethapolan synthesis compared with those in the medium containing lower (2−3 % substrate concentration. Increasing ammonium nitrate content to 0.6 g/l and/or pantothenate concentration to 0.00095% in a medium with 5% sunflower oil allowed to increase the amount of ethapolan synthesized up to 6.6−6.7 g/l, that is in 1.3−1.4 times higher than in the basic medium with the same concentration of the substrate but lower NH4NO3 (0.4 g/l and pantothenate (0.00085 %. Conclusion. The obtained results indicate the possibility of microbial polysaccharide ethapolan synthesis under Acinetobacter sp. ІMV B -7005 cultivation in the medium with a high content of sunflower oil. These data are the basis for the development of ethapolan technology using as a substrate fried oil.

  2. AtaA, a new member of the trimeric autotransporter adhesins from Acinetobacter sp. Tol 5 mediating high adhesiveness to various abiotic surfaces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahito Ishikawa

    Full Text Available Acinetobacter sp. Tol 5 exhibits an autoagglutinating nature and noteworthy adhesiveness to various abiotic surfaces from hydrophobic plastics to hydrophilic glass and stainless steel. Although previous studies have suggested that bacterionanofibers on Tol 5 cells are involved in the adhesive phenotype of Tol 5, the fiber that directly mediates Tol 5 adhesion has remained unknown. Here, we present a new member of trimeric autotransporter adhesins designated AtaA, which we discovered by analyzing a less adhesive mutant of Tol 5, T1, obtained by transposon mutagenesis. AtaA forms thinner and shorter nanofibers than fimbriae on Tol 5 cells. We performed target disruption of ataA by allelic marker exchange, and the resulting ΔataA strain was complemented with ataA on the Escherichia coli-Acinetobacter shuttle vector, which was newly constructed. These results proved that AtaA is essential for Tol 5's autoagglutinating nature and high adhesiveness to surfaces of various materials. In addition, the adhesiveness to solid surfaces mediated by AtaA is notably higher than that mediated by YadA of Yersinia enterocolitica WA-314. Moreover, and importantly, these characteristics can be conferred to the non-adhesive, non-agglutinating bacterium Acinetobacter sp. ADP1 in trans by transformation with ataA, with expected applications to microbial immobilization.

  3. Species, biotype, and bacteriophage type determinations compared with cell envelope protein profiles for typing Acinetobacter strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouvet, P J; Jeanjean, S; Vieu, J F; Dijkshoorn, L

    1990-02-01

    Species, biotypes, and phage types were determined for 120 Acinetobacter strains from clinical or environmental sources or from culture collections. These characteristics were compared with cell envelope protein profiles obtained by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in previous studies. A considerable heterogeneity of species and types was observed by use of the various methods, in particular among strains from different sources. Acinetobacter baumannii was the most commonly found species in isolates from clinical sources, followed by Acinetobacter species 3. Nine biotypes were observed among A. baumannii strains. Further differentiation within most species and biotypes was achieved by protein profile typing and, to some extent, phage typing. Of 120 strains, 49 (41%) were not typeable by phages. Consistent results for the various classification methods were obtained for strains from common sources. Biotyping seemed an appropriate method for the screening of strains, whereas protein profile and phage typing could serve as additional methods to establish the identity or nonidentity of strains. Results of this study suggest that the combination of the typing methods is useful in epidemiological studies.

  4. Clinical Antibiotic-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii Strains with Higher Susceptibility to Environmental Phages than Antibiotic-sensitive Strains

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Li-Kuang; Kuo, Shu-Chen; Chang, Kai-Chih; Cheng, Chieh-Chen; Yu, Pei-Ying; Chang, Chih-Hui; Chen, Tren-Yi; Tseng, Chun-Chieh

    2017-01-01

    Antibiotic-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii is associated with nosocomial infections worldwide. Here, we used clinically isolated A. baumannii strains as models to demonstrate whether antibiotic resistance is correlated with an increased susceptibility to bacteriophages. In this study, 24 active phages capable of infecting A. baumannii were isolated from various environments, and the susceptibilities of both antibiotic-sensitive and antibiotic-resistant strains of A. baumannii to different p...

  5. A comparative assay of epidemiological markers for Acinetobacter strains isolated in a hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giammanco, A; Vieu, J F; Bouvet, P J; Sarzana, A; Sinatra, A

    1989-12-01

    A comparative assay for epidemiological evaluation of three different Acinetobacter typing procedures, i.e. biotyping, phage-typing, and the analysis of the bacterial envelope protein profiles, was carried out using sixty-four multiresistant Acinetobacter strains isolated from clinical specimens. The antibiotic susceptibility of the strains was also considered. After geno-species identification, biotyping allowed the recognition of a relatively large and long-lasting presence, at an Intensive Therapy Unit, of two A. baumannii biotypes. Phage-typing and the analysis of the susceptibility to antibiotics allowed for the differentiation of strains belonging to different geno-species and biotypes, and in some cases also to the same biotypes. On the contrary, the analysis by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the cell-envelope proteins failed to show any diversity not only within, but also between some of the biotypes of A. baumannii, the most prevalent species of the genus in the hospital environment.

  6. Occurrence of an Environmental Acinetobacter baumannii Strain Similar to a Clinical Isolate in Paleosol from Croatia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durn, Goran; Goic-Barisic, Ivana; Kovacic, Ana

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decade, bacteria of the genus Acinetobacter have emerged as a leading cause of hospital-acquired infections. Outbreaks of Acinetobacter infections are considered to be caused exclusively by contamination and transmission in hospital environments. The natural habitats of clinically important multiresistant Acinetobacter spp. remain to be defined. In this paper, we report an incidental finding of a viable multidrug-resistant strain of Acinetobacter baumannii, related to clinical isolates, in acid paleosol from Croatia. The environmental isolate of A. baumannii showed 87% similarity to a clinical isolate originating from a hospital in this geographic area and was resistant to gentamicin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, ciprofloxacin, and levofloxacin. In paleosol, the isolate was able to survive a low pH (3.37), desiccation, and a high temperature (50°C). The probable source of A. baumannii in paleosol is illegally disposed waste of external origin situated in the abandoned quarry near the sampling site. The bacteria could have been leached from waste by storm water and thus infiltrated the paleosol. PMID:24584245

  7. Comparison of the virulence potential of Acinetobacter strains from clinical and environmental sources.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azam F Tayabali

    Full Text Available Several Acinetobacter strains have utility for biotechnology applications, yet some are opportunistic pathogens. We compared strains of seven Acinetobacter species (baumannii, Ab; calcoaceticus, Ac; guillouiae, Ag; haemolyticus, Ah; lwoffii, Al; junii, Aj; and venetianus, Av-RAG-1 for their potential virulence attributes, including proliferation in mammalian cell conditions, haemolytic/cytolytic activity, ability to elicit inflammatory signals, and antibiotic susceptibility. Only Ah grew at 10(2 and 10(4 bacteria/well in mammalian cell culture medium at 37°C. However, co-culture with colonic epithelial cells (HT29 improved growth of all bacterial strains, except Av-RAG-1. Cytotoxicity of Ab and Ah toward HT29 was at least double that of other test bacteria. These effects included bacterial adherence, loss of metabolism, substrate detachment, and cytolysis. Only Ab and Ah exhibited resistance to killing by macrophage-like J774A.1 cells. Haemolytic activity of Ah and Av-RAG-1 was strong, but undetectable for other strains. When killed with an antibiotic, Ab, Ah, Aj and Av-RAG-1 induced 3 to 9-fold elevated HT29 interleukin (IL-8 levels. However, none of the strains altered levels of J774A.1 pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α. Antibiotic susceptibility profiling showed that Ab, Ag and Aj were viable at low concentrations of some antibiotics. All strains were positive for virulence factor genes ompA and epsA, and negative for mutations in gyrA and parC genes that convey fluoroquinolone resistance. The data demonstrate that Av-RAG-1, Ag and Al lack some potentially harmful characteristics compared to other Acinetobacter strains tested, but the biotechnology candidate Av-RAG-1 should be scrutinized further prior to widespread use.

  8. UV-resistant Acinetobacter sp. isolates from Andean wetlands display high catalase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Capua, Cecilia; Bortolotti, Ana; Farías, María Eugenia; Cortez, Néstor

    2011-04-01

    Andean wetlands are characterized by their extreme environmental conditions such as high UV radiation, elevated heavy metal content and salinity. We present here the first study on UV tolerance and antioxidant defense of four Acinetobacter strains: Ver3, Ver5 and Ver7, isolated from Lake Verde, and N40 from Lake Negra, both lakes located 4400 m above sea level. All four isolates displayed higher UV resistance compared with collection strains, with Ver3 and Ver7 being the most tolerant strains not only to UV radiation but also to hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and methyl viologen (MV) challenges. A single superoxide dismutase band with similar activity was detected in all studied strains, whereas different electrophoretic pattern and activity levels were observed for catalase. Ver3 and Ver7 displayed 5-15 times higher catalase activity levels than the control strains. Analysis of the response of antioxidant enzymes to UV and oxidative challenges revealed a significant increase in Ver7 catalase activity after H(2)O(2) and MV exposure. Incubation of Ver7 cultures with a catalase inhibitor resulted in a significant decrease of tolerance against UV radiation. We conclude that the high catalase activity displayed by Ver7 isolate could play an important role in UV tolerance. © 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Biodegradation of 4-nitroaniline by plant-growth promoting Acinetobacter sp. AVLB2 and toxicological analysis of its biodegradation metabolites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silambarasan, Sivagnanam [Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Vangnai, Alisa S., E-mail: alisa.v@chula.ac.th [Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Center of Excellence on Hazardous Substance Management (HSM), Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand)

    2016-01-25

    Highlights: • Acinetobacter sp. AVLB2 is a PGPB able to degrade high concentration of 4-NA. • Growth and degradation kinetics for 4-NA removal by AVLB2 were studied. • A novel biodegradation pathway for 4-nitroaniline has been proposed. • Toxicological studies revealed non-toxic nature of 4-NA biodegraded metabolites. • Acinetobacter sp. AVLB2 could maintain PGP traits under 4-NA stress. - Abstract: 4-nitroaniline (4-NA) is one of the major priority pollutants generated from industrial productions and pesticide transformation; however very limited biodegradation details have been reported. This work is the first to report 4-NA biodegradation kinetics and toxicity reduction using a newly isolated plant-growth promoting bacterium, Acinetobacter sp. AVLB2. The 4-NA-dependent growth kinetics parameters: μ{sub max}, K{sub s} and K{sub i}, were determined to be 0.039 h{sup −1}, 6.623 mg L{sup −1} and 25.57 mg L{sup −1}, respectively using Haldane inhibition model, while the maximum biodegradation rate (V{sub max}) of 4-NA was at 0.541 mg L{sup −1} h{sup −1} and 0.551 mg L{sup −1} h{sup −1}, following Michaelis–Menten and Hanes–Woolf models, respectively. Biodegradation pathway of 4-NA by Acinetobacter sp. AVLB2 was proposed, and successfully led to the reduction of 4-NA toxicity according to the following toxicity assessments: microbial toxicity using Escherichia coli DH5α, phytotoxicity with Vigna radiata and Crotalaria juncea, and cytogenotoxicity with Allium cepa root-tip cells. In addition, Acinetobacter sp. AVLB2 possess important plant-growth promoting traits, both in the presence and absence of 4-NA. This study has provided a new insight into 4-NA biodegradation ability and concurrent plant-growth promoting activities of Acinetobacter sp. AVLB2, which may indicate its potential role for rhizoremediation, while sustaining crop production even under 4-NA stressed environment.

  10. Radiation resistance of acinetobacter spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitby, James L.

    1995-02-01

    The radiation resistance of 78 different strains of Acinetobacter sp. 42 from clinical isolates and 36 from other sources were compared with 15 clinical isolates and 12 other strains from Denmark. None of the Canadian strains was as resistant as resistant-enhanced Danish strains. Four strains had D 10 values of 3.1-3.6 kGy. Irradiated and unirradiated cells from all strains grew well, when cultured in Trypticase-Soy Broth at 30°C. Most cultures grew after overnight incubation. It was concluded that there would be no difficulty in detecting these strains, using ISO methodology for establishing the radiation sterilization dose for devices.

  11. [Activity of imipenem and meropenem against strains of Acinetobacter baumannii isolated from various Chilean hospitals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello, H; Domínguez, M; Sepúlveda, M; Cerda, F; González, G; Mella, S; Zemelman, R

    2000-12-01

    The activity of two carbapenem compounds, imipenem and meropenem, against 447 strains of Acinetobacter baumannii isolated between 1990 and 1998 in different Chilean hospitals was determined. MIC ranges, MIC(50) and MIC(90), were determined by an agar dilution method. Similar antibacterial activities were observed for both antibacterials; however, a slight increase in the MIC(50) of imipenem and meropenem, and in the MIC(90) of meropenem was found among strains isolated from 1997-1998. Although A. baumannii remains susceptible to these antibiotics, the MIC(50) and MIC(90) have increased in recent years.

  12. Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) production by Lynisibacillus sp. strain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... thermoplastic produced from renewable bioresources and is hence attracting attention as a plastic material for use in the environment and medical fields. In the present study, the Lynisibacillus sp. strain UEA-20.171 was selected for production of polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) in bioreactor. The accumulation of polymer in ...

  13. Biodegradation of 4-nitroaniline by plant-growth promoting Acinetobacter sp. AVLB2 and toxicological analysis of its biodegradation metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silambarasan, Sivagnanam; Vangnai, Alisa S

    2016-01-25

    4-nitroaniline (4-NA) is one of the major priority pollutants generated from industrial productions and pesticide transformation; however very limited biodegradation details have been reported. This work is the first to report 4-NA biodegradation kinetics and toxicity reduction using a newly isolated plant-growth promoting bacterium, Acinetobacter sp. AVLB2. The 4-NA-dependent growth kinetics parameters: μmax, Ks and Ki, were determined to be 0.039 h(-1), 6.623 mg L(-1) and 25.57 mg L(-1), respectively using Haldane inhibition model, while the maximum biodegradation rate (Vmax) of 4-NA was at 0.541 mg L(-1) h(-1) and 0.551 mg L(-1) h(-1), following Michaelis-Menten and Hanes-Woolf models, respectively. Biodegradation pathway of 4-NA by Acinetobacter sp. AVLB2 was proposed, and successfully led to the reduction of 4-NA toxicity according to the following toxicity assessments: microbial toxicity using Escherichia coli DH5α, phytotoxicity with Vigna radiata and Crotalaria juncea, and cytogenotoxicity with Allium cepa root-tip cells. In addition, Acinetobacter sp. AVLB2 possess important plant-growth promoting traits, both in the presence and absence of 4-NA. This study has provided a new insight into 4-NA biodegradation ability and concurrent plant-growth promoting activities of Acinetobacter sp. AVLB2, which may indicate its potential role for rhizoremediation, while sustaining crop production even under 4-NA stressed environment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Assistance of Ectoine on Acinetobacter sp. A06 of simultaneous heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification denitrifying at stress condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, P.; Li, X. W.; Tan, F. X.; Qu, A.; Yuan, X. N.; Zhang, L. H.

    2017-08-01

    The simultaneous heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification (SND) performed by Acinetobacter sp. A06 could be inhibited by high salt, high ammonia nitrogen concentrations and extreme pH. To improve the SND nitrogen removal efficiency of Acinetobacter sp. A06 in adverse environment, we investigated the effects on nitrogen removal by Acinetobacter sp. A06 of five compatible solutes. The results show that Ectoine was the best effect in five osmotic compensation solutes when the salt concentration was 15 g/L, 30 g/L, 45 g/L, and 60 g/L, adding Ectoine, nitrogen removal were increased by 21.10%, 26.94%, 14.67% and 11.21%, respectively. When the NH4 +-N concentration was 1.5 g/L, 2 g/L and 2.5 g/L, adding Ectoine, the nitrogen removal rate increased by 15.93%, 10.07% and 7.11%, respectively,. When the extreme pH of pH was 5 or 9, adding Ectoine, the nitrogen removal rate was increased by 20.70% and 10.44%, respectively.

  15. Acinetobacter colistiniresistens sp. nov. (formerly genomic species 13 sensu Bouvet and Jeanjean and genomic species 14 sensu Tjernberg and Ursing), isolated from human infections and characterized by intrinsic resistance to polymyxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemec, Alexandr; Radolfova-Krizova, Lenka; Maixnerova, Martina; Sedo, Ondrej

    2017-07-01

    Strains of the genusAcinetobacter, classified as genomic species 13BJ/14TU have been previously associated with human infections and resistance to colistin. To clarify the taxonomy of this provisional group, we investigated 24 strains that have been isolated from humans since the 1960s in 10 countries. The genus-wide analysis of the rpoB and gyrB sequences of all strains and whole-genome sequences of strains representing different rpoB/gyrB genotypes showed that the 24 strains formed a distinct monophyletic group within the so-called haemolytic clade of the genus Acinetobacter. The distinctness of the group at the species level was supported by the results of the cluster analysis of the whole-cell protein fingerprints generated by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight MS. The 24 strains had very similar metabolic features and could be distinguished from other members of the genus by the combination of strong haemolytic and proteolytic activities and the ability to oxidize d-glucose and grow on phenylacetate and/or l-phenylalanine. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of the 24 strains to colistin and polymyxin B ranged from 16 to 64 mgl-1 and from 4 to 32 mgl-1, respectively, so uniformly reaching the current clinical resistance breakpoint (4 mg l-1) for these drugs. Genus-wide comparison revealed that such a consistently high level of resistance to polymyxins is a unique feature among species of the genus Acinetobacter,which occur in humans. We conclude that genomic species 13BJ/14TU represents a biologically meaningful and medically relevant species, for which the name Acinetobacter colistiniresistens sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is NIPH 2036T (=CCM 8641T=CIP 110478T=CCUG 67966T=CNCTC 7573T).

  16. Draft Genome Sequence of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus Strain P23, a Plant Growth-Promoting Bacterium of Duckweed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosoyama, Akira; Yamazoe, Atsushi; Morikawa, Masaaki

    2015-01-01

    Acinetobacter calcoaceticus strain P23 is a plant growth-promoting bacterium, which was isolated from the surface of duckweed. We report here the draft genome sequence of strain P23. The genome data will serve as a valuable reference for understanding the molecular mechanism of plant growth promotion in aquatic plants. PMID:25720680

  17. Silver Nanocomposite Biosynthesis: Antibacterial Activity against Multidrug-Resistant Strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klebson Silva Santos

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial resistance is an emerging public health issue that is disseminated worldwide. Silver nanocomposite can be an alternative strategy to avoid Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria growth, including multidrug-resistant strains. In the present study a silver nanocomposite was synthesized, using a new green chemistry process, by the addition of silver nitrate (1.10−3 mol·L−1 into a fermentative medium of Xanthomonas spp. to produce a xanthan gum polymer. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM was used to evaluate the shape and size of the silver nanoparticles obtained. The silver ions in the nanocomposite were quantified by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS. The antibacterial activity of the nanomaterial against Escherichia coli (ATCC 22652, Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 29282, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853 and Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923 was carried out using 500 mg of silver nanocomposite. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii multidrug-resistant strains, isolated from hospitalized patients were also included in the study. The biosynthesized silver nanocomposite showed spherical nanoparticles with sizes smaller than 10 nm; 1 g of nanocomposite contained 49.24 µg of silver. Multidrug-resistant strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii, and the other Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria tested, were sensitive to the silver nanocomposite (10–12.9 mm of inhibition zone. The biosynthesized silver nanocomposite seems to be a promising antibacterial agent for different applications, namely biomedical devices or topical wound coatings.

  18. Purification and Characterization of Catalase from Marine Bacterium Acinetobacter sp. YS0810

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinhua Fu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The catalase from marine bacterium Acinetobacter sp. YS0810 (YS0810CAT was purified and characterized. Consecutive steps were used to achieve the purified enzyme as follows: ethanol precipitation, DEAE Sepharose ion exchange, Superdex 200 gel filtration, and Resource Q ion exchange. The active enzyme consisted of four identical subunits of 57.256 kDa. It showed a Soret peak at 405 nm, indicating the presence of iron protoporphyrin IX. The catalase was not apparently reduced by sodium dithionite but was inhibited by 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole, hydroxylamine hydrochloride, and sodium azide. Peroxidase-like activity was not found with the substrate o-phenylenediamine. So the catalase was determined to be a monofunctional catalase. N-terminal amino acid of the catalase analysis gave the sequence SQDPKKCPVTHLTTE, which showed high degree of homology with those of known catalases from bacteria. The analysis of amino acid sequence of the purified catalase by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry showed that it was a new catalase, in spite of its high homology with those of known catalases from other bacteria. The catalase showed high alkali stability and thermostability.

  19. Isolation of the crude oil degrading marine Acinetobacter sp. E11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Razak, C.N.A.; Wang, W.F.; Rahman, S.H.S.A.; Basri, M.; Salleh, A.B. [University Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia). Centre for Enzyme and Microbial Technology Research

    1999-07-01

    The Acinetobacter sp. E11, isolated from Port Dickson Beach, Malaysia, was able to grow in media containing crude oil as the sole carbon and energy source. Substrate specificity studies showed that the bacterium exhibited substrate preference as growth was observed only in media containing aliphatic hydrocarbons, while aromatic and cyclic hydrocarbons inhibited growth. With the aliphatic hydrocarbons, growth was seen only in the long-chain alkanes tested (pentadecane, dodecane and hexadecane). No growth was recorded in the short-chain alkanes (pentane, hexane and heptane) tested. With complex hydrocarbons, only crude oil and 4T SHELL engine oil supported growth. No growth was observed in kerosene and PETRONAS gasoline. The isolate could grow in up to 10% and 20% [v/v] of the crude oil and alkanes tested, respectively. Among the long-chain alkanes tested, hexadecane was the most preferred, followed by pentadecane and dodecane. Nitrogen and phosphorous supplements were essential for growth and the best growth was achieved with 3% nitrogen/phosphorous additions. Microscopic observation revealed that the bacterium adhered to the hexadecane and crude oil droplets. GC analysis showed that the bacterium was able to degrade more than 60% of the hydrocarbons in the crude oil in 15 days at 37 C compared to the uninoculated media. (orig.)

  20. Characteristics of multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii strains isolated in Geneva during colonization or infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherkaoui, Abdessalam; Emonet, Stéphane; Renzi, Gesuele; Schrenzel, Jacques

    2015-09-11

    This study determined the antibiotic susceptibility profile and genetic mechanisms of β-lactam resistance in 27 clinical strains of Acinetobacter baumannii isolated at the University Hospitals of Geneva, Switzerland. The antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using Etest and the disc diffusion method in accordance with CLSI guidelines. All of the strains were defined as multi-drug resistant (MDR) and were susceptible to colistin and moderately susceptible to tigecycline. Uniplex PCR assays were used to detect the following β-lactamase genes: four class D carbapenem-hydrolysing oxacillinases (blaOXA-51, blaOXA-23, blaOXA-24 and blaOXA-58), four class B metallo-β-lactamases genes (blaIMP, blaVIM, blaSPM and blaNDM) and two class A carbapenemases (blaKPC and blaGES). All of the strains were positive for blaOXA-51 (intrinsic resistance), 14/27 strains carried blaOXA-23, 2/27 strains carried a blaOXA-24-like gene, and 4/27 strains had a blaOXA-58 gene. blaGES-11 was found in three strains, and NDM-1-harbouring strains were identified in three patients. All of the A. baumannii isolates were typed by rep-PCR (DiversiLab) and excluded any clonality. Altogether, this analysis suggests a very high genetic diversity of imported MDR A. baumannii.

  1. Whole-genome pyrosequencing of an epidemic multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii strain belonging to the European clone II group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iacono, M.; Villa, L.; Fortini, D.

    2008-01-01

    The whole-genome sequence of an epidemic, multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii strain (strain ACICU) belonging to the European clone II group and carrying the plasmid-mediated bla(OXA-58) carbapenem resistance gene was determined. The A. baumannii ACICU genome was compared with the genomes...... of A. baumannii ATCC 17978 and Acinetobacter baylyi ADP1, with the aim of identifying novel genes related to virulence and drug resistance. A. baumannii ACICU has a single chromosome of 3,904,116 bp (which is predicted to contain 3,758 genes) and two plasmids, pACICUI and pACICU2, of 28,279 and 64...

  2. Clinical Antibiotic-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii Strains with Higher Susceptibility to Environmental Phages than Antibiotic-sensitive Strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li-Kuang; Kuo, Shu-Chen; Chang, Kai-Chih; Cheng, Chieh-Chen; Yu, Pei-Ying; Chang, Chih-Hui; Chen, Tren-Yi; Tseng, Chun-Chieh

    2017-07-24

    Antibiotic-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii is associated with nosocomial infections worldwide. Here, we used clinically isolated A. baumannii strains as models to demonstrate whether antibiotic resistance is correlated with an increased susceptibility to bacteriophages. In this study, 24 active phages capable of infecting A. baumannii were isolated from various environments, and the susceptibilities of both antibiotic-sensitive and antibiotic-resistant strains of A. baumannii to different phages were compared. In our study, a total of 403 clinically isolated A. baumannii strains were identified. On average, the phage infection percentage of the antibiotic-resistant A. baumannii strains was 84% (from 81-86%), whereas the infection percentage in the antibiotic-sensitive A. baumannii strains was only 56.5% (from 49-64%). In addition, the risk of phage infection for A. baumannii was significantly increased in the strains that were resistant to at least four antibiotics and exhibited a dose-dependent response (p-trend baumannii isolates, 75.6% were phage typeable. The results of phage typing might also reveal the antibiotic-resistant profiles of clinical A. baumannii strains. In conclusion, phage susceptibility represents an evolutionary trade-off in A. baumannii strains that show adaptations for antibiotic resistance, particularly in medical environments that have high antibiotic use.

  3. Determination antimicrobial resistance profile of Acinetobacter strains isolated from hospitalized patients in Different Part of Taleghani Hospital (Ahvaz, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadijah Ahmadi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The members of the genus Acinetobacter are Gram-negative cocobacilli that are frequently found in the environment but also in the hospital setting where they have been associated with outbreaks of nosocomial infections such as meningitis, endocarditis, skin and soft tissue infections, urinary tract infection, conjunctivitis, burn wound infection and bacteremia. This organism has been shown resistance to different antimicrobial agents. The aim of this study was to determination antibiotic resistance profile of Acinetobacter strains isolated from hospitalized patients in Taleghani hospital (Ahvaz, Iran. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 43 Acinetobacter strains isolated from hospitalized patients. Clinical specimens were cultured on microbiological media. Subsequently, drug susceptibility test was performed using the disc diffusion method according to CLSI recommendations. Results: Acinetobacter strains were isolated from different specimens consisting biopsy 24 (55.8%, wound 13 (30/2% and blood 6 (14%. In antimicrobial susceptibility testing, colistin exhibited the greatest activity (60.5% against isolated strains. 33 (76/7% isolates demonstrated resistance to imipenem. Conclusion: In outbreak situations, surveillance cultures of patients involved in the outbreak or who are deemed at risk for colonization/infection with the outbreak organism are often parts of the planned intervention.

  4. Genome Sequence of vB_AbaS_TRS1, a Viable Prophage Isolated from Acinetobacter baumannii Strain A118

    OpenAIRE

    Turner, D; Wand, M. E.; Sutton, J M; Centron, D.; Kropinski, A. M.; Reynolds, D. M.

    2016-01-01

    A novel temperate phage, vB_AbaS_TRS1, was isolated from cultures of Acinetobacter baumannii strain A118 that had been exposed to mitomycin C. Phage TRS1 belongs to the Siphoviridae family of bacteriophages and encapsulates a 40,749-bp genome encoding 70 coding sequences and a single tRNA.

  5. Genome Sequence of vB_AbaS_TRS1, a Viable Prophage Isolated from Acinetobacter baumannii Strain A118.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Dann; Wand, Matthew E; Sutton, J Mark; Centron, Daniela; Kropinski, Andrew M; Reynolds, Darren M

    2016-10-13

    A novel temperate phage, vB_AbaS_TRS1, was isolated from cultures of Acinetobacter baumannii strain A118 that had been exposed to mitomycin C. Phage TRS1 belongs to the Siphoviridae family of bacteriophages and encapsulates a 40,749-bp genome encoding 70 coding sequences and a single tRNA. Copyright © 2016 Turner et al.

  6. Acinetobacter johnsonii and Acinetobacter lwoffii - the emerging fish pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozińska Alicja

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to characterise Acinetobacter sp. isolated from fish. Eight isolates obtained from diseased rainbow trout and common carp cultured in Poland were analysed. The isolates were identified using API 20 NE system as Acinetobacter sp. Afterwards, they were identified by sequencing 16S rDNA gene fragment. The bacteria were identified as A. johnsonii (two isolates, A. lwoffii (two isolates, A. junii/johnsonii (one isolate, A. calcoaceticus (one isolate, and Acinetobacter sp. (two isolates. The drug resistance of isolates was examined. The majority of the isolates were resistant to ampicilin, amoxicillin, and cephalothin and all demonstrated sensitivity to fluoroquinolones, except of one isolate. Two isolates were selected for the experimental infection of trout and carp to confirm their pathogenicity. Experimentally infected fish showed disease symptoms similar to those observed in fish naturally infected with these bacteria. This is the first report concerning pathogenicity of A. johnsonii for rainbow trout and A. lwoffii for common carp. These bacteria were regarded as emerging opportunistic pathogens of fish farmed in Poland. Acinetobacter strains are commonly known as microorganisms transmitting the antibiotic resistance genes. Therefore, they might have a great impact on the resistance transfer in aquaculture.

  7. A metallo-keratinase from a newly isolated Acinetobacter sp. R-1 with low collagenase activity and its biotechnological application potential in leather industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rong-Xian; Gong, Jin-Song; Zhang, Dan-Dan; Su, Chang; Hou, Ying-Shuo; Li, Heng; Shi, Jin-Song; Xu, Zheng-Hong

    2016-01-01

    Microbial keratinase is a well-recognized enzyme that can specifically degrade insoluble keratins. A keratinase-producing bacterium was isolated from a duck ranch soil and identified as Acinetobacter sp. R-1 based on the biochemical characteristics and 16S rDNA gene sequencing. It showed high keratinase activity and low collagenase activity. The keratinase was purified to electrophoretic homogeneity with 6.69% recovery, 2.68-fold purification and an estimated molecular weight of 25 kDa. Additionally, the keratinase showed optimal activity at 50 °C and pH11. Keratinase activity of Acinetobacter sp. significantly increased in the presence of Li(+), Na(+), and Ca(2+), while it was completely inhibited by EDTA, indicating it was a metallo-keratinase. Moreover, the crude keratinase from Acinetobacter sp. R-1 could thoroughly depilate goat skin and simultaneously modify the wool surface, which indicated its applicable potential in leather and textile industries.

  8. Isolation and Characterization of 2,4-D Butyl Ester Degrading Acinetobacter sp. ZX02 from a Chinese Ginger Cultivated Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Lin; Jia, Hai-Fei; Jeong, In-Hong; Ahn, Young-Joon; Zhu, Yong-Zhe

    2017-08-30

    Strain ZX02 was isolated from Chinese ginger cultivated soil contaminated with various pesticides, which could utilize 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid butyl ester (2,4-D butyl ester) as the sole carbon source. On the basis of the sequence analysis of 16S rRNA gene as well as the morphological, biochemical, and physiological characteristics of strain ZX02, the organism belonged to Gram-negative bacterium and was identified as Acinetobacter sp. ZX02. The strain ZX02 showed a remarkable performance in 2,4-D butyl ester degradation (100% removal in <96 h) in pure culture. Strain ZX02 was sensitive to tetracycline and resistant to amoxicillin and chloramphenicol in an antibiotic sensitivity test. The curing study indicates that the gene for degradation of 2,4-D butyl ester was encoded on a single plasmid of 23 kb. The gene encoding resistance to polymixin B sulfate was also located on this plasmid. On the basis of its greater biodegradation activity, this bacterium is a potential candidate as a bioremediation agent in soils contaminated with 2,4-D butyl ester.

  9. Quorum sensing signal profile of Acinetobacter strains from nosocomial and environmental sources Perfil de sensores de quórum en cepas nosocomiales y ambientales de Acinetobacter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. H. González

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A set of 43 strains corresponding to 20 classified and unclassified genomic Acinetobacter species was analyzed for the production of typical N-acyl homoserine lactone quorum sensing molecules in culture broths. A large percentage of the strains (74% displayed quorum sensing signals that could be separated into three statistically significantly different chromatographic groups (p Rf2 > Rf1. None of the three signals could be specifically assigned to a particular species in the genus; furthermore, no distinction could be made between the quorum sensing signals secreted by typical opportunistic strains of the A. calcoaceticus-A. baumannii complex, isolated from patients, with respect to the other species of the genus, except for the Rf1 signal which was present in all the QS positive strains belonging to this complex and DNA group 13 TU. In conclusion, quorum sensors in Acinetobacter are not homogenously distributed among species and one of them is present in most of the A. calcoaceticus-baumannii complex.Se analizó la producción de moléculas típicas de N-acil homoserina lactona con actividad de quorum sensing en cultivos líquidos de un grupo de 43 cepas correspondientes a 20 especies genómicas clasificadas y no clasificadas de Acinetobacter. Un porcentaje alto de las cepas (74% mostraron señales de quorum sensing que pudieron ser separadas en tres grupos cromatográficos significativamente diferentes entre sí (p Rf2 > Rf1. Ninguna de las tres señales pudo ser asignada a una especie en particular dentro del género; es más, no se encontró diferencia entre las señales producidas por las cepas típicamente oportunistas (complejo A. calcoaceticus-A. baumannii aisladas de pacientes respecto de las producidas por otras cepas del mismo género, excepto para el caso de Rf1, que se encontró presente en todos los aislamientos quorum sensing positivos del mencionado complejo y en las cepas del grupo de DNA 13TU. En conclusión, los sensores de

  10. The Genetic Analysis of an Acinetobacter johnsonii Clinical Strain Evidenced the Presence of Horizontal Genetic Transfer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Montaña

    Full Text Available Acinetobacter johnsonii rarely causes human infections. While most A. johnsonii isolates are susceptible to virtually all antibiotics, strains harboring a variety of β-lactamases have recently been described. An A. johnsonii Aj2199 clinical strain recovered from a hospital in Buenos Aires produces PER-2 and OXA-58. We decided to delve into its genome by obtaining the whole genome sequence of the Aj2199 strain. Genome comparison studies on Aj2199 revealed 240 unique genes and a close relation to strain WJ10621, isolated from the urine of a patient in China. Genomic analysis showed evidence of horizontal genetic transfer (HGT events. Forty-five insertion sequences and two intact prophages were found in addition to several resistance determinants such as blaPER-2, blaOXA-58, blaTEM-1, strA, strB, ereA, sul1, aacC2 and a new variant of blaOXA-211, called blaOXA-498. In particular, blaPER-2 and blaTEM-1 are present within the typical contexts previously described in the Enterobacteriaceae family. These results suggest that A. johnsonii actively acquires exogenous DNA from other bacterial species and concomitantly becomes a reservoir of resistance genes.

  11. The Genetic Analysis of an Acinetobacter johnsonii Clinical Strain Evidenced the Presence of Horizontal Genetic Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montaña, Sabrina; Schramm, Sareda T J; Traglia, German Matías; Chiem, Kevin; Parmeciano Di Noto, Gisela; Almuzara, Marisa; Barberis, Claudia; Vay, Carlos; Quiroga, Cecilia; Tolmasky, Marcelo E; Iriarte, Andrés; Ramírez, María Soledad

    2016-01-01

    Acinetobacter johnsonii rarely causes human infections. While most A. johnsonii isolates are susceptible to virtually all antibiotics, strains harboring a variety of β-lactamases have recently been described. An A. johnsonii Aj2199 clinical strain recovered from a hospital in Buenos Aires produces PER-2 and OXA-58. We decided to delve into its genome by obtaining the whole genome sequence of the Aj2199 strain. Genome comparison studies on Aj2199 revealed 240 unique genes and a close relation to strain WJ10621, isolated from the urine of a patient in China. Genomic analysis showed evidence of horizontal genetic transfer (HGT) events. Forty-five insertion sequences and two intact prophages were found in addition to several resistance determinants such as blaPER-2, blaOXA-58, blaTEM-1, strA, strB, ereA, sul1, aacC2 and a new variant of blaOXA-211, called blaOXA-498. In particular, blaPER-2 and blaTEM-1 are present within the typical contexts previously described in the Enterobacteriaceae family. These results suggest that A. johnsonii actively acquires exogenous DNA from other bacterial species and concomitantly becomes a reservoir of resistance genes.

  12. Screening and Evaluation of the Bioremediation Potential of Cu/Zn-resistant, Autochthonous Acinetobacter sp. FQ-44 from Sonchus oleraceus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Fang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The quest for new, promising and indigenous plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria and a deeper understanding of their relationship with plants are important considerations in the improvement of phytoremediation. This study focuses on the screening of plant beneficial Cu/Zn-resistant strains and assessment of their bioremediation potential (metal solubilization/tolerance/biosorption and effects on growth of Brassica napus seedlings to identify suitable rhizobacteria and examine their roles in microbes-assisted phytoremediation. Sixty Cu/Zn-resistant rhizobacteria were initially isolated from Sonchus oleraceus grown at a multi-metal-polluted site in Shanghai, China. From these strains, 19 isolates that were all resistant to 300 mg·L-1 Cu as well as 300 mg·L-1 Zn, and could simultaneously grow on Dworkin-Foster salt minimal medium containing 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid were preliminarily selected. Of those 19 isolates, 10 isolates with superior plant growth-promoting properties (indole-3-acetic acid production, siderophore production and insoluble phosphate solubilization were secondly chosen and further evaluated to identify those with the highest bioremediation potential and capacity for bioaugmentation. Strain S44, identified as Acinetobacter sp. FQ-44 based on 16S rDNA sequencing, was specifically chosen as the most favorable strain owing to its strong capabilities to (1 promote the growth of rape seedlings (significantly increased root length, shoot length and fresh weight by 92.60%, 31.00% and 41.96%, respectively under gnotobiotic conditions; (2 tolerate up to 1000 mg·L-1 Cu and 800 mg·L-1 Zn; (3 mobilize the highest concentrations of water-soluble Cu, Zn, Pb and Fe (16.99, 0.98, 0.08 and 3.03 mg·L-1, respectively; and (4 adsorb the greatest quantities of Cu and Zn (7.53 and 6.61 mg·g-1 dry cell, respectively. Our findings suggest that Acinetobacter sp. FQ-44 could be exploited for bacteria-assisted phytoextraction. Moreover

  13. Novel polyhedral gold nanoparticles: green synthesis, optimization and characterization by environmental isolate of Acinetobacter sp. SW30.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadhwani, Sweety A; Shedbalkar, Utkarsha U; Singh, Richa; Karve, Meena S; Chopade, Balu A

    2014-10-01

    Gold nanoparticles have enormous applications in cancer treatment, drug delivery and nanobiosensor due to their biocompatibility. Biological route of synthesis of metal nanoparticles are cost effective and eco-friendly. Acinetobacter sp. SW 30 isolated from activated sewage sludge produced cell bound as well as intracellular gold nanoparticles when challenged with HAuCl4 salt solution. We first time report the optimization of various physiological parameters such as age of culture, cell density and physicochemical parameters viz HAuCl4 concentration, temperature and pH which influence the synthesis of gold nanoparticles. Gold nanoparticles thus produced were characterized by various analytical techniques viz. UV-Visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, cyclic voltammetry, transmission electron microscopy, selected area electron diffraction, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, environmental scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and dynamic light scattering. Polyhedral gold nanoparticles of size 20 ± 10 nm were synthesized by 24 h grown culture of cell density 2.4 × 10(9) cfu/ml at 50 °C and pH 9 in 0.5 mM HAuCl4. It was found that most of the gold nanoparticles were released into solution from bacterial cell surface of Acinetobacter sp. at pH 9 and 50 °C.

  14. LOGICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN FOR PHENOL DEGRADATION USING IMMOBILIZED ACINETOBACTER SP. CULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amro Abd Al Fattah Amara

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Phenol degradation processes were conducted through a series of enzymatic reactions effects and is affect by different components of the microbial metabolic flux. Using different optimization strategies like mutagenesis could lead to a successful optimization but also lead to lost of some important microbial features or to release a new virulence or unexpected characters. Plackett-Burman closes much gab between optimization, safety, time, cost, Man/hr, the complexity of the metabolic flux etc. Using Plackett-Burman experimental design lead to map the points affect in the optimization process by well understanding their request from nutrient and the best environmental condition required. In this study nine variables include pH (X1, oC (X2, glucose (X3, yeast extract (X4, meat extract (X5, NH4NO3 (X6, K-salt (X7, Mg-salt (X8 and trace element (X9 are optimized during phenol degradation by Acinetobacter sp., using Plackett-Burman design method. Plackett-Burman included 16 experiments, each was used in two levels, [-1] low and high [+1]. According to Blackett-Burman design experiments the maximum degradation rate was 31.25 mg/l/h. Logical and statistical analysis of the data lead to select pH, Temperature and Meat extract as three factors affecting on phenol degradation rate. These three variables have been used in Box-Behnken experimental design for further optimization. Meat extract, which is not statistically recommended for optimization has been used while it can substitute trace element, which is statistically significant. Glucose, which is statistically significant, did not included while it has a negative effect and gave the best result at 0 g/l amount. Glucose has been completely omitted from the media.  pH, temperature and meat extract were used in fifteen experiments each was used in three levels, –1, 0, and +1 according to Box-Behnken design. Microsoft Excel 2002 solver tool was used to optimize the model created from Box-Behnken. The

  15. Antimicrobial Activity of Gallium Protoporphyrin IX against Acinetobacter baumannii Strains Displaying Different Antibiotic Resistance Phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arivett, Brock A; Fiester, Steven E; Ohneck, Emily J; Penwell, William F; Kaufman, Cynthia M; Relich, Ryan F; Actis, Luis A

    2015-12-01

    A paucity of effective, currently available antibiotics and a lull in antibiotic development pose significant challenges for treatment of patients with multidrug-resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter baumannii infections. Thus, novel therapeutic strategies must be evaluated to meet the demands of treatment of these often life-threatening infections. Accordingly, we examined the antibiotic activity of gallium protoporphyrin IX (Ga-PPIX) against a collection of A. baumannii strains, including nonmilitary and military strains and strains representing different clonal lineages and isolates classified as susceptible or MDR. Susceptibility testing demonstrated that Ga-PPIX inhibits the growth of all tested strains when cultured in cation-adjusted Mueller-Hinton broth, with a MIC of 20 μg/ml. This concentration significantly reduced bacterial viability, while 40 μg/ml killed all cells of the A. baumannii ATCC 19606(T) and ACICU MDR isolate after 24-h incubation. Recovery of ATCC 19606(T) and ACICU strains from infected A549 human alveolar epithelial monolayers was also decreased when the medium was supplemented with Ga-PPIX, particularly at a 40-μg/ml concentration. Similarly, the coinjection of bacteria with Ga-PPIX increased the survival of Galleria mellonella larvae infected with ATCC 19606(T) or ACICU. Ga-PPIX was cytotoxic only when monolayers or larvae were exposed to concentrations 16-fold and 1,250-fold higher than those showing antibacterial activity, respectively. These results indicate that Ga-PPIX could be a viable therapeutic option for treatment of recalcitrant A. baumannii infections regardless of the resistance phenotype, clone lineage, time and site of isolation of strains causing these infections and their iron uptake phenotypes or the iron content of the media. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  16. Genomic and physiological characterization of a laboratory-isolated Acinetobacter schindleri ACE strain that quickly and efficiently catabolizes acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigala, Juan-Carlos; Suárez, Brisa Paola; Lara, Alvaro R; Borgne, Sylvie Le; Bustos, Patricia; Santamaría, Rosa Isela; González, Víctor; Martinez, Alfredo

    2017-07-01

    An Acinetobacter strain, designated ACE, was isolated in the laboratory. Phylogenetic tests and average nucleotide identity value comparisons suggested that ACE belongs to the species Acinetobacterschindleri. We report for the first time the complete genome sequence of an A. schindleri strain, which consists of a single circular chromosome of 3 001 209 bp with an overall DNA G+C content of 42.9 mol% and six plasmids that account for 266 844 bp of extrachromosomal material. The presence or absence of genes related to carbon catabolism and antibiotic resistance were in agreement with the phenotypic characterization of ACE. This strain grew faster and with a higher biomass yield on acetate than the reference strain Acinetobacter baylyi ADP1. However, ACE did not use aromatic compounds and was unable to grow on common carbon sources, such as glucose, xylose, glycerol or citrate. The gluconeogenic and the catechol pathways are complete in ACE, but compounds that are converted to protocatechuate did not sustain growth since some genes of this pathway are missing. Likewise, this strain could not grow on glucose because it lacks the genes of the Entner-Doudoroff pathway. Minimal inhibitory concentration data showed that ACE was susceptible to most of the antimicrobial agents recommended for the clinical treatment of Acinetobacter spp. Some genes related to a possible human-microbe interaction were found in the ACE genome. ACE is likely to have a low pathogenic risk, as is the case with other A. schindleri strains. These results provide a valuable reference for broadening the knowledge of the biology of Acinetobacter.

  17. The impact of horizontal gene transfer on targeting the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) to identify Acinetobacter junii strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslunka, C; Gürtler, V; Seviour, R J

    2015-06-01

    Despite electrophoretic patterns of ITS PCR amplicons often suggesting only a single ITS sequence variant is present in strains of Acinetobacter junii, sequence data shows differences in ITS copies between and among them. This paper set out to explain why these ITS variants arise, and whether their presence compromises the reliability of the ITS targeted methods currently available for typing Ac. junii strains. ITS sequences from a number of strains of Ac. junii were either downloaded from public databases or generated here by cloning and sequencing ITS PCR amplicons. ITS copies of Ac. junii strain 97338 were all 666 bp long, with identical sequences. In Ac. junii ATCC 17908(T) /BCRC 14854(T) ), ITS copies were also all identical in their lengths but now were 706/7 bp long. Two sequence variants of these 707 bp ITS were detected. One was identical in its sequence to the nine ITS copies downloaded from the whole genome sequence of Ac. junii CIP 64·5, and those in several other Ac. junii strains. The other 707 bp ITS variant occurred elsewhere only in Ac. junii strain DSM 14968 of those examined. The six ITS copies from the genome sequence of Ac. junii NIPH 182 were all 685 bp, and with identical sequences. Ac. junii strain 178 also possessed this same 685 bp ITS variant, one of six variants detected there. At least five ITS sequence variants were seen in Ac. junii strain 97380, four in strain DSM 14968 and two in the whole genome of strain 107470. As with those of other Acinetobacter species, such ITS variants arise not from intragenomic recombination events but from the presence of different length indels. These arise from horizontal gene transfers involving ITS fragments of other Acinetobacter species. The presence of these indels compromises the reliability of the ITS targeted methods available for typing Acinetobacter junii. It also precludes the value of using ITS sequences as phylogenetic markers in members of the genus Acinetobacter, since the outcomes in

  18. Resistance Markers and Genetic Diversity in Acinetobacter baumannii Strains Recovered from Nosocomial Bloodstream Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanoch S. I. Martins

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, phenotypic and genotypic methods were used to detect metallo-β-lactamases, cephalosporinases and oxacillinases and to assess genetic diversity among 64 multiresistant Acinetobacter baumannii strains recovered from blood cultures in five different hospitals in Brazil from December 2008 to June 2009. High rates of resistance to imipenem (93.75% and polymyxin B (39.06% were observed using the disk diffusion (DD method and by determining the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC. Using the disk approximation method, thirty-nine strains (60.9% were phenotypically positive for class D enzymes, and 51 strains (79.6% were positive for cephalosporinase (AmpC. Using the E-test, 60 strains (93.75% were positive for metallo-β-lactamases (MβLs. All strains were positive for at least one of the 10 studied genes; 59 (92.1% contained blaVIM-1, 79.6% contained blaAmpC, 93.7% contained blaOXA23 and 84.3% contained blaOXA51. Enterobacteria Repetitive Intergenic Consensus (ERIC-PCR analysis revealed a predominance of certain clones that differed from each other. However, the same band pattern was observed in samples from the different hospitals studied, demonstrating correlation between the genotypic and phenotypic results. Thus, ERIC-PCR is an appropriate method for rapidly clustering genetically related isolates. These results suggest that defined clonal clusters are circulating within the studied hospitals. These results also show that the prevalence of MDR A. baumannii may vary among clones disseminated in specific hospitals, and they emphasize the importance of adhering to appropriate infection control measures.

  19. Assessment of intra-species diversity among strains of Acinetobacter baumannii isolated from sites contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manab Sarma, P.; Bhattacharya, D.; Krishnan, S. [TERI School of Advanced Studies, Center of Bioresources and Biotechnology, New Delhi (India); Lal, B. [TERI School of Advanced Studies, Microbial Biotechnology Division, New Delhi (India)

    2004-06-01

    Intra-species diversity among Acinetobacter baumannii strains isolated from crude oil-contaminated soils from different geographic regions in India was assessed, including their capability to degrade different fractions of total petroleum hydrocarbons. A total of 96 strains were isolated from five different sites. Of the 96 isolates, 25 strains were identified as Acinetobacter baumannii; all of these strains were biochemically profiled and grouped into eight phenovars on the basis of multivariate analysis of their substrate utilization profiles. All strains were able to degrade the total petroleum hydrocarbon fractions of crude oil. Intraspecies relatedness among the 25 strains was determined using tRNA intergenic spacer length polymorphism. Specific variants among the strains with different degradation capacities for different fractions of crude oil were detected. Environmental influences that cause intra-species diversity, such as functional resilience, within the selected strains of A. baumannii were also noted. It is suggested that such diversities may make it possible to select contaminant-specific strains for efficient biotechnological strategies in environmental remediation. 19 refs., 4 tabs., 3 figs.

  20. Usefulness of phenotypic and genotypic methods for metallo-beta-lactamases detection in carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii strains

    OpenAIRE

    Szejbach, Aleksandra; Mikucka, Agnieszka; Bogiel, Tomasz; Gospodarek, Eugenia

    2013-01-01

    Background Acinetobacter baumannii is an opportunistic microorganism with an increasing role in nosocomial outbreaks. For the last 2 decades, a growing number of carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii strains have been identified, including the metallo-beta-lactamases (MBLs) producers. The study aimed to investigate the genetic relatedness of, and MBLs production among, a collection of A. baumannii isolates from Poland. Material/Methods This study involved 78 clinical isolates of carbapenem-resist...

  1. Vitroprocines, new antibiotics against Acinetobacter baumannii, discovered from marine Vibrio sp. QWI-06 using mass-spectrometry-based metabolomics approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaw, Chih-Chuang; Chen, Pei-Chin; Shih, Chao-Jen; Tseng, Sung-Pin; Lai, Ying-Mi; Hsu, Chi-Hsin; Dorrestein, Pieter C.; Yang, Yu-Liang

    2015-08-01

    A robust and convenient research strategy integrating state-of-the-art analytical techniques is needed to efficiently discover novel compounds from marine microbial resources. In this study, we identified a series of amino-polyketide derivatives, vitroprocines A-J, from the marine bacterium Vibrio sp. QWI-06 by an integrated approach using imaging mass spectroscopy and molecular networking, as well as conventional bioactivity-guided fractionation and isolation. The structure-activity relationship of vitroprocines against Acinetobacter baumannii is proposed. In addition, feeding experiments with 13C-labeled precursors indicated that a pyridoxal 5‧-phosphate-dependent mechanism is involved in the biosynthesis of vitroprocines. Elucidation of amino-polyketide derivatives from a species of marine bacteria for the first time demonstrates the potential of this integrated metabolomics approach to uncover marine bacterial biodiversity.

  2. [Evaluation of the efficacy of colistin/sulbactam combination on carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii strains].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çetinkol, Yeliz; Telli, Murat; Altunçekiç Yıldırım, Arzu; Çalgın, Mustafa Kerem

    2016-07-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii strains, are opportunistic pathogens that cause severe nosocomial infections that are difficult to treat due to development of resistance to multiple antibiotics. As the antibiotic choices to be used in treatment are limited, combinations of a variety of antibiotics are used. The aims of this study were to identify the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of colistin and sulbactam against A.baumannii isolates and to determine the in vitro activity of colistin-sulbactam combination. A total of 50 A.baumannii strains isolated from different clinical specimens (32 tracheal aspirates, 10 blood, 6 urine and 2 wound samples) were included in the study. The identification of bacteria was performed by traditional methods and Vitek-2 (BioMerieux, France) automated system. Antibiotic susceptibilities were detected by Mueller-Hinton agar disk diffusion method and Vitek-2 automated system and the results were interpreted according to the CLSI standards. MIC values of colistin and sulbactam against A.baumannii strains and in vitro interactions of colistin-sulbactam combinations were determined with the E-test (BioMerieux, France). Fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) index was used for the detection of efficacy of drug combinations. The presence of oxacillinase and metallo-beta-lactamase (MBL) genes that lead carbapenem resistance was investigated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was performed for the determination of clonal relationship. In our study, all strains (100%) were detected as susceptible to colistin, 48 (96%) to trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole and 18 to (36%) tigecyclin; however all of them were resistant to the other studied antibiotics, including sulbactam and carbapenem. When the colistin-sulbactam combination was assessed according to FIC index, all strains were found to have antagonistic effect. All of the carbapenem-resistant strains were positive for OXA-51 and OXA-23, and 3

  3. [Xylanase activity of phytopathogenic and endophytic strains of Ceratocystis sp].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurchenko, I M; Sokolova, O V; Iur'ieva, O M

    2010-01-01

    A comparative analysis of xylanase activity of 36 phytopathogenic and endophytic Ceratocystis sp. strains was conducted. The rate of their linear growth on the medium with xylan was studied. The rate of linear growth of phytopathogenic strains was 0.003-0.004 mm/h that was almost 70 times less than in endophytic ones. There were no correlation between levels of xylanase activity of studied strains and rates of their linear growth. Xylanase activity ofendophytic Ceratocystis sp. strains varied from complete absence to high level. Phytopathogenic strains possessed only high xylanase activity; maximum values of their xylanase activity zones were three times more than in endophytic strains. The differences in xylanase activity were observed on the strain level. The xylanase activity of 24% endophytic and 64% phytopathogenic strains became higher with increasing of cultivation period. The clear dependence of xylanase activity on the species and organs of host plants was not demonstrated. It was shown that the xylanase activity level of phytopathogenic Ceratocystis sp. strains was too much higher than in such phytopathogens as Fusarium poae, F. oxysporum and Alternaria alternata strains. The conclusion was made that the studied endophytic Ceratocystis sp. strains can be related to latent pathogens, which are able to cause the diseases of host plants in conditions favorable for them.

  4. Genome sequencing and annotation of Serratia sp. strain TEL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lephoto, Tiisetso E; Gray, Vincent M

    2015-12-01

    We present the annotation of the draft genome sequence of Serratia sp. strain TEL (GenBank accession number KP711410). This organism was isolated from entomopathogenic nematode Oscheius sp. strain TEL (GenBank accession number KM492926) collected from grassland soil and has a genome size of 5,000,541 bp and 542 subsystems. The genome sequence can be accessed at DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank under the accession number LDEG00000000.

  5. SUBSTANTIATION OF OVERCOMING OF ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE IN ACINETOBACTER BAUMANNII CLINICAL STRAINS BY USAGE OF DECAMETHOXINUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazarchuk O. A.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Non-fermenting Gram-negative bacilli are known as one of the most frequent causative agents of hospital-acquired infections. Acinetobacter baumanii, as causative agent of infection complications of different localization, has obtained recently high resistance to antibiotics and has belonged to ESKAPE group of pathogens. Antimicrobials, recommended for the prophylaxis ant therapy of hospital-acquired infections, have been failing in their effectiveness and lead to selection of antibiotic resistant strains of A. baumanii.The aim of this research was to substantiate the way of overcoming of resistance in clinical strains of A. baumannii, by means of synergic antimicrobial activity of antibiotics and antiseptic decamethoxinum®. Material and methods. The research was carried out on 190 clinical strains of A.baumannii, isolated from patients with burn disease in 2011-2015 years. The sensitivity of clinical strains of A.baumannii was determined to such antibiotics as ampicillin/sulbactam, cefoperazone, cefoperazone/sulbactam, meropenem, imipenem, amikacin, ciprofloxacin, gatifloxacin and antiseptic decamethoxinum® (DCM; Registration certificate № UA/14444/01/01 since 24.06.2015. Order of Ministry of Health of Ukraine № 373. The sensitivity of A.baumannii to antibiotics and DCM were done by means of disc-diffusion method and serial dilution one (Order of Ministry of Health of Ukraine №167 since 05.04.2007 year; EUCAST Expert rules. The research of the influence of antiseptic DCM on the sensitivity of acinetobacteria to antibiotics was studied on 35 clinical strains of A.baumannii, drafted from the general number of isolates enrolled in the research. For this, the sensitivity of A.baumannii to antibiotics in the presence of subminimal inhibitory concentrations (subMIC of DCM was identified. The received experimental data were analyzed by «Statistica 6.0». Results and discussion. The changes of antibiotic sensitivity profile of A

  6. Acinetobacter lactucae sp. nov., isolated from iceberg lettuce (Asteraceae: Lactuca sativa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strain NRRL B-41902 and three closely related strains were isolated from iceberg lettuce. The strain was found to consist of strictly aerobic, gram-negative rods that formed cocci in late stationary phase. Subsequent to sequencing the 16S ribosomal RNA gene, it was found that strain NRRL B-41902 was...

  7. Genomic sequencing of a strain of Acinetobacter baumannii and potential mechanisms to antibiotics resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lei; Li, Hongru; Zhu, Ziwen; Wakefield, Mark R; Fang, Yujiang; Ye, Ying

    2017-06-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii has been becoming a great challenge to clinicians due to their resistance to almost all available antibiotics. In this study, we sequenced the genome from a multiple antibiotics resistant Acinetobacter baumannii stain which was named A. baumannii-1isolated from China by SMRT sequencing technology to explore its potential mechanisms to antibiotic resistance. We found that several mechanisms might contribute to the antibiotic resistance of Acinetobacter baumannii. Specifically, we found that SNP in genes associated with nucleotide excision repair and ABC transporter might contribute to its resistance to multiple antibiotics; we also found that specific genes associated with bacterial DNA integration and recombination, DNA-mediated transposition and response to antibiotics might contribute to its resistance to multiple antibiotics; Furthermore, specific genes associated with penicillin and cephalosporin biosynthetic pathway and specific genes associated with CHDL and MBL β-lactamase genes might contribute to its resistance to multiple antibiotics. Thus, the detailed mechanisms by which Acinetobacter baumannii show extensive resistance to multiple antibiotics are very complicated. Such a study might be helpful to develop new strategies to control Acinetobacter baumannii infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Draft Genome Sequence of the Plant Growth–Promoting Rhizobacterium Acinetobacter radioresistens Strain SA188 Isolated from the Desert Plant Indigofera argentea

    KAUST Repository

    Lafi, Feras Fawzi

    2017-03-03

    Acinetobacter radioresistens strain SA188 is a plant endophytic bacterium, isolated from root nodules of the desert plants Indigofera spp., collected in Jizan, Saudi Arabia. Here, we report the 3.2-Mb draft genome sequence of strain SA188, highlighting characteristic pathways for plant growth–promoting activity and environmental adaptation.

  9. Early dissemination of OXA-72-producing Acinetobacter baumannii strain in Colombia: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Yamile Saavedra

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Nosocomial infections caused by carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii isolates have reached epidemic levels in past decades. Currently this microorganism is responsible for outbreaks of difficult eradication and with high mortality rates worldwide. We herein report a rare case of an OXA-72-producing A. baumannii isolate colonizing a 47-year-old male patient with peritonitis due to abdominal stab wound, four years earlier than the first report of this carbapenemase in Acinetobacter pittii in Colombia. Although OXA-72 presents a low prevalence compared with OXA-23, our study demonstrated that A. baumannii isolates carrying the blaOXA-72 gene were present in the hospital environment in Colombia and could act as a reservoir for further spread to other Acinetobacter species, like A. pittii, causing carbapenem-resistance.

  10. Comparative genomic analysis of Acinetobacter oleivorans DR1 to determine strain-specific genomic regions and gentisate biodegradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jaejoon; Madsen, Eugene L; Jeon, Che Ok; Park, Woojun

    2011-10-01

    The comparative genomics of Acinetobacter oleivorans DR1 assayed with A. baylyi ADP1, A. calcoaceticus PHEA-2, and A. baumannii ATCC 17978 revealed that the incorporation of phage-related genomic regions and the absence of transposable elements have contributed to the large size (4.15 Mb) of the DR1 genome. A horizontally transferred genomic region and a higher proportion of transcriptional regulator- and signal peptide-coding genes were identified as characteristics of the DR1 genome. Incomplete glucose metabolism, metabolic pathways of aromatic compounds, biofilm formation, antibiotics and metal resistance, and natural competence genes were conserved in four compared genomes. Interestingly, only strain DR1 possesses gentisate 1,2-dioxygenase (nagI) and grows on gentisate, whereas other species cannot. Expression of the nagI gene was upregulated during gentisate utilization, and four downstream open reading frames (ORFs) were cotranscribed, supporting the notion that gentisate metabolism is a unique characteristic of strain DR1. The genomic analysis of strain DR1 provides additional insights into the function, ecology, and evolution of Acinetobacter species.

  11. Comparative Genomic Analysis of Acinetobacter oleivorans DR1 To Determine Strain-Specific Genomic Regions and Gentisate Biodegradation ▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jaejoon; Madsen, Eugene L.; Jeon, Che Ok; Park, Woojun

    2011-01-01

    The comparative genomics of Acinetobacter oleivorans DR1 assayed with A. baylyi ADP1, A. calcoaceticus PHEA-2, and A. baumannii ATCC 17978 revealed that the incorporation of phage-related genomic regions and the absence of transposable elements have contributed to the large size (4.15 Mb) of the DR1 genome. A horizontally transferred genomic region and a higher proportion of transcriptional regulator- and signal peptide-coding genes were identified as characteristics of the DR1 genome. Incomplete glucose metabolism, metabolic pathways of aromatic compounds, biofilm formation, antibiotics and metal resistance, and natural competence genes were conserved in four compared genomes. Interestingly, only strain DR1 possesses gentisate 1,2-dioxygenase (nagI) and grows on gentisate, whereas other species cannot. Expression of the nagI gene was upregulated during gentisate utilization, and four downstream open reading frames (ORFs) were cotranscribed, supporting the notion that gentisate metabolism is a unique characteristic of strain DR1. The genomic analysis of strain DR1 provides additional insights into the function, ecology, and evolution of Acinetobacter species. PMID:21856821

  12. Genome sequencing and annotation of Acinetobacter guillouiae strain MSP 4-18

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin Kumar Singh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Acinetobacter consists of 31 validly published species ubiquitously distributed in nature and primarily associated with nosocomial infection. We report the 4.8 Mb genome of Acinetobacter guillouiae MSP 4-18, isolated from a mangrove soil sample from Parangipettai (11°30′N, 79°47′E, Tamil Nadu, India. The draft genome of A. guillouiae MSP 4-18 has a G + C content of 38.0% and includes 3 rRNA genes (5S, 23S, 16S and 69 aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase genes.

  13. Differences in Acinetobacter baumannii strains and host innate immune response determine morbidity and mortality in experimental pneumonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna de Breij

    Full Text Available Despite many reports documenting its epidemicity, little is known on the interaction of Acinetobacter baumannii with its host. To deepen our insight into this relationship, we studied persistence of and host response to different A. baumannii strains including representatives of the European (EU clones I-III in a mouse pneumonia model. Neutropenic mice were inoculated intratracheally with five A. baumannii strains and an A. junii strain and at several days morbidity, mortality, bacterial counts, airway inflammation, and chemo- and cytokine production in lungs and blood were determined. A. baumannii RUH875 and RUH134 (EU clone I and II, respectively and sporadic strain LUH8326 resulted in high morbidity/mortality, whereas A. baumannii LUH5875 (EU clone III, which is less widespread than clone I and II caused less symptoms. A. baumannii type strain RUH3023(T and A. junii LUH5851 did not cause disease. All strains, except A. baumannii RUH3023(T and A. junii LUH5851, survived and multiplied in the lungs for several days. Morbidity and mortality were associated with the severity of lung pathology and a specific immune response characterized by low levels of anti-inflammatory (IL-10 and specific pro-inflammatory (IL-12p40 and IL-23 cytokines at the first day of infection. Altogether, a striking difference in behaviour among the A. baumannii strains was observed with the clone I and II strains being most virulent, whereas the A. baumannii type strain, which is frequently used in virulence studies appeared harmless.

  14. [Molecular characterization of the multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii strains and assessment of their sensitivity to the phage AP22].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, A V; Miakinina, V P; Platonov, M E; Volozhantsev, N V

    2012-01-01

    The molecular analysis of 130 multidrug-resistant nosocomial Acinetobacter baumannii strains was performed. The strains were obtained from patients admitted to different Russian hospitals (Chelyabinsk, Moscow, Nizhni Novgorod, and St. Petersburg) in 2005-2010. Species identification was performed using the amplified 16S rRNA gene restriction analysis and by determining intrinsic for A. baumannii blaQXA-51-like genes using PCR. The genetic typing of the strains was performed by RAPD-PCR. All strains fell into two clusters: A and B with dominant RAPD-groups A1 and B1, respectively, including 82% (107 of 130) of all studied strains. The susceptibility to the bacteriophage AP22 of the strains was determined. The phage was found to infect specifically and to constitute 69% of 130 strains and 82% (88 of 107) of the A. baumannii strains from the dominant RAPD groups. The ability of the bacteriophage AP22 to constitute a broad range of the clinically relevant A. baumannii strains makes it an attractive candidate for designing the phage cocktails intended to control the A. baumannii-associated nosocomial infections. Moreover, the phage can be used for the identification of A. baumannii in bacteriological analysis of clinical materials.

  15. Characterization and upregulation of bifunctional phosphoglucomutase/phosphomannomutase enzyme in an exobiopolymer overproducing strain of Acinetobacter haemolyticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Taranpreet; Ghosh, Moushumi

    2015-12-01

    Several members of the Acinetobacter spp. produce exobiopolymer (EBP) of considerable biotechnological interest. In a previous study, we reported phosphate removal capacity of EBP produced by Acinetobacter haemolyticus. Insertional mutagenesis was attempted to develop EBP-overproducing strains of A. haemolyticus and mutant MG606 was isolated. In order to understand the underlying mechanism of overproduction, the EBP overproducing mutant MG606 was analyzed and compared with the wild type counterpart for its key EBP synthetic enzymes. The EBP produced by MG606 mutant was 650 mg/L compared to 220 mg/L in its wild type counterpart. Significantly high (p0.05). The up-regulation of PGM/PMM expression in mutant was further confirmed by real time reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR of PGM/PMM transcripts. The optimal conditions for PGM/PMM activity were found to be 35 °C and pH 7.5; PGM/PMM activity was inhibited by ions such as lithium, zinc, nickel. Further, incubation of cells with a PGM inhibitor (lithium) resulted in a concentration-dependent decrease in EBP production further confirming the role of PGM/PMM overexpression in enhanced EBP production by the mutant. Overall the results of our study indicate a key role of PGM/PMM in enhanced EBP production, as evident from enhanced enzyme activity, increased PGM/PMM transcripts and reduction in EBP synthesis by a PGM inhibitor. We envisage a potential exploitation of the insights so obtained to effectively engineer strains of Acinetobacter for overproducing phosphate binding EBP. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Biofilm and metallo beta-lactamase production among the strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp. at a Tertiary Care Hospital in Kathmandu, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bandana Baniya

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp. are found to be associated with biofilm and metallo-β-lactamase production and are the common causes of serious infections mainly in hospitalized patients. So, the main aims of this study were to determine the rates of biofilm production and metallo beta-lactamase production (MBL among the strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp. isolated from hospitalized patients. Methods A total of 85 P. aeruginosa isolates and 50 Acinetobacter spp. isolates isolated from different clinical specimens from patients admitted to Shree Birendra Hospital, Kathmandu, Nepal from July 2013 to May 2014 were included in this study. The bacterial isolates were identified with the help of biochemical tests. Modified Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion technique was used for antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Combined disc diffusion technique was used for the detection of MBL production, while Congo red agar method and tube adherence method were used for detection of biofilm production. Results Around 16.4% of P. aeruginosa isolates and 22% of the strains of Acinetobacter spp. were metallo β-lactamase producers. Out of 85 P. aeruginosa isolates, 23 (27.05% were biofilm producers according to tube adherence test while, only 13 (15.29% were biofilm producers as per Congo red agar method. Similarly, out of 50 Acinetobacter spp. 7 (14% isolates were biofilm producers on the basis of tube adherence test, while only 5 (10% were positive for biofilm production by Congo red agar method. Highest rates of susceptibility of P. aeruginosa as well as Acinetobacter spp. were seen toward colistin. Conclusion In our study, biofilm production and metallo beta-lactamase production were observed among Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp. However, no statistically significant association could be established between biofilm production and metallo beta-lactamase production.

  17. AKTIVITAS ANTIBAKTERI FILTRAT Streptomyces sp. KCM2 TERHADAP MULTIDRUG RESISTANT Acinetobacter baumannii SECARA IN VITRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NI KADEK LOSIANI

    2017-06-01

    data of MIC test were analyzed by Analysis of Varian (ANOVA, and then continued by Duncan Multiple Range Test in significance level 5%. The results of this study showed that the Streptomyces sp. KCM2 filtrate was able inhi biting with diameter zone of 23,44 mm and MIC of filtrate was 4% (v/v with inhibition zone diameter of 8.77 mm.

  18. Complete genome sequence of Paenibacillus sp. strain JDR-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virginia Chow; Guang Nong; Franz J. St. John; John D. Rice; Ellen Dickstein; Olga Chertkov; David Bruce; Chris Detter; Thomas Brettin; James Han; Tanja Woyke; Sam Pitluck; Matt Nolan; Amrita Pati; Joel Martin; Alex Copeland; Miriam L. Land; Lynne Goodwin; Jeffrey B. Jones; Lonnie O. Ingram; Keelnathan T. Shanmugam; James F. Preston

    2012-01-01

    Paenibacillus sp. strain JDR-2, an aggressively xylanolytic bacterium isolated from sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) wood, is able to efficiently depolymerize, assimilate and metabolize 4-O-methylglucuronoxylan, the predominant structural component of hardwood hemicelluloses. A basis for this capability was first supported by...

  19. GENERATION OF A PROTON MOTIVE FORCE BY THE EXCRETION OF METAL-PHOSPHATE IN THE POLYPHOSPHATE-ACCUMULATING ACINETOBACTER-JOHNSONII STRAIN 210A

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANVEEN, HW; ABEE, T; KORTSTEE, GJJ; PEREIRA, H; KONINGS, WN; ZEHNDER, AJB

    1994-01-01

    The strictly aerobic, polyphosphate-accumulating Acinetobacter johnsonii strain 210A degrades its polyphosphate when oxidative phosphorylation is impaired. The endproducts of this degradation, divalent metal ions and inorganic phosphate, are excreted as a neutral metal-phosphate (MeHPO(4)) chelate

  20. Ocorrência e perfil de sensibilidade a antimicrobianos em Pseudomonas aeruginosa e Acinetobacter sp. em um hospital terciário, no sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Mariani Machado

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: O principal mecanismo de resistência entre isolados de Pseudomonas aeruginosa e Acinetobacter sp. é a produção de metalo-β-lactamases (MβLs. As MβLs são enzimas capazes de hidrolisar cefalosporinas, penicilinas e carbapenêmicos, mas não monobactâmicos (aztreonam antibióticos que se encontram entre as principais opções terapêuticas para o tratamento de infecções causadas por bactérias não fermentadoras de glicose. MÉTODOS: Um estudo observacional, transversal, descritivo e retrospectivo foi desenvolvido para avaliar a frequência e o perfil de susceptibilidade cepas de P. aeruginosa e Acinetobacter sp. produtoras de MβLs isoladas no Hospital São Vicente de Paulo, Passo Fundo, Brasil. RESULTADOS: A produção de MβLs foi observada em 77,6% (n = 173/223 dos isolados de P. aeruginosa e em 22,4% (n = 50/223 dos isolados de Acinetobacter sp. Dentre as cepas produtoras de MβL, a maioria apresentou mais de 90% de resistência a seis antimicrobianos dos 12 testados, enfatizando a resistência a ceftazidima, gentamicina, aztreonam, piperaciclina/tazobactam, cefepime, ciprofloxacina, meropenem e tobramicina. CONCLUSÕES: Os índices de MβL encontrados confirmam a preocupação mundial com a disseminação desse mecanismo de resistência.

  1. Serum resistance, gallium nitrate tolerance and extrapulmonary dissemination are linked to heme consumption in a bacteremic strain of Acinetobacter baumannii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Léséleuc, Louis; Harris, Greg; KuoLee, Rhonda; Xu, H Howard; Chen, Wangxue

    2014-05-01

    Bacteremia caused by Acinetobacter baumannii is a highly lethal complication of hospital-acquired pneumonia. In the present study, we investigated the serum resistance, gallium nitrate tolerance and heme consumption of A. baumannii strain LAC-4 which was recently reported to display high virulence in a mouse pneumonia model with extrapulmonary dissemination leading to fatal bacteremia. This strain showed enhanced growth in mouse and fetal bovine serum that was independent of complement and was not observed with regular growth media. The LAC-4 strain was found to possess a high tolerance to gallium nitrate (GaN), whereas serum synergized with GaN in inhibiting A. baumannii strain ATCC 17978. We found that LAC-4 contains a heme oxygenase gene and expresses a highly efficient heme consumption system. This system can be fully blocked in vitro and in vivo by gallium protoporphyrin IX (GaPPIX). Inhibition of heme consumption by GaPPIX completely abrogated the growth advantage of LAC-4 in serum as well as its tolerance to GaN. More importantly, GaPPIX treatment of mice intranasally infected with LAC-4 prevented extrapulmonary dissemination and death. Thus, we propose that heme provides an additional source of iron for LAC-4 to bypass iron restriction caused by serum transferrin, lactoferrin or free gallium salts. Heme consumption systems in A. baumannii may constitute major virulence factors for lethal bacteremic isolates. Copyright © 2014 Crown Copyright and Elsevier Inc. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  2. Enrichment of Acinetobacter spp. from food samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalheira, Ana; Ferreira, Vânia; Silva, Joana; Teixeira, Paula

    2016-05-01

    Relatively little is known about the role of foods in the chain of transmission of acinetobacters and the occurrence of different Acinetobacter spp. in foods. Currently, there is no standard procedure to recover acinetobacters from food in order to gain insight into the food-related ecology and epidemiology of acinetobacters. This study aimed to assess whether enrichment in Dijkshoorn enrichment medium followed by plating in CHROMagar™ Acinetobacter medium is a useful method for the isolation of Acinetobacter spp. from foods. Recovery of six Acinetobacter species from food spiked with these organisms was compared for two selective enrichment media (Baumann's enrichment and Dijkshoorn's enrichment). Significantly (p Acinetobacter was applied to detect Acinetobacter spp. in different foods. Fourteen different presumptive acinetobacters were recovered and assumed to represent nine different strains on the basis of REP-PCR typing. Eight of these strains were identified by rpoB gene analysis as belonging to the species Acinetobacter johnsonii, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, Acinetobacter guillouiae and Acinetobacter gandensis. It was not possible to identify the species level of one strain which may suggests that it represents a distinct species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Evaluation of antibacterial effect of Myrtus communis against Acinetobacter baumannii clinical strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venous Akhavan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Because of inappropriate use of antibiotics and prevalence of resistant bacteria, there is urgent need for antibacterial drugs that have fewer side effects than antibiotics. Myrtus communis is a medicinal plant which had many uses in traditional medicine. In this study, ethanol leave extract of this plant is tested on Acinetobacter baumannii. In the case of antimicrobial evaluation of plants, one of the effecting factors on effectiveness of the microbial inhibition is extraction techniques. In the presents study, the antibacterial activity of the Ethanol, Methanol, and Ethyl acetate extracts of M. communis plant was evaluated at seven different concentrations by broth microdilution method. The results of this study showed that the antimicrobial effect of M. communis extract is concentration dependent. Different extracts were obtained by the maceration method. Extracts of the plant exhibited antibacterial activity at varied levels against A. baumannii. Obtained results from our antibacterial experiments showed that all extracts have anti-bacterial activity against tested bacterial isolates According to the results, the ethyl acetate extracted fraction showed the highest level of activity at a MIC 400 mg/ml for A. baumannii. The results of this study indicate that, different extracts had growth inhibitory effect on A. baumannii. Therefore this plant has the potential to be evaluated as an alternative or adjunct to antibiotics to treat Acinetobacter infections.

  4. Natural transformation of Thermotoga sp. strain RQ7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Dongmei; Xu, Hui; Puranik, Rutika; Xu, Zhaohui

    2014-05-10

    Thermotoga species are organisms of enormous interest from a biotechnological as well as evolutionary point of view. Genetic modifications of Thermotoga spp. are often desired in order to fully release their multifarious potentials. Effective transformation of recombinant DNA into these bacteria constitutes a critical step of such efforts. This study aims to establish natural competency in Thermotoga spp. and to provide a convenient method to transform these organisms. Foreign DNA was found to be relatively stable in the supernatant of a Thermotoga culture for up to 6 hours. Adding donor DNA to T. sp. strain RQ7 at its early exponential growth phase (OD600 0.18 ~ 0.20) resulted in direct acquisition of the DNA by the cells. Both T. neapolitana chromosomal DNA and Thermotoga-E. coli shuttle vectors effectively transformed T. sp. strain RQ7, rendering the cells resistance to kanamycin. The kan gene carried by the shuttle vector pDH10 was detected by PCR from the plasmid extract of the transformants, and the amplicons were verified by restriction digestions. A procedure for natural transformation of Thermotoga spp. was established and optimized. With the optimized method, T. sp. strain RQ7 sustained a transformation frequency in the order of 10⁻⁷ with both genomic and plasmid DNA. T. sp. strain RQ7 cells are naturally transformable during their early exponential phase. They acquire DNA from both closely and distantly related species. Both chromosomal DNA and plasmid DNA serve as suitable substrates for transformation. Our findings lend a convenient technical tool for the genetic engineering of Thermotoga spp.

  5. Nutritional Requirements of Methanosarcina sp. Strain TM-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Patti A.; Zinder, Stephen H.

    1985-01-01

    Methanosarcina sp. strain TM-1, an acetotrophic, thermophilic methanogen isolated from an anaerobic sludge digestor, was originally reported to require an anaerobic sludge supernatant for growth. It was found that the sludge supernatant could be replaced with yeast extract (1 g/liter), 6 mM bicarbonate-30% CO2, and trace metals, with a doubling time on methanol of 14 h. For growth on either methanol or acetate, yeast extract could be replaced with CaCl2 · 2H2O (13.6 μM minimum) and the vitamin p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA, ca. 3 nM minimum), with a doubling time on methanol of 8 to 9 h. Filter-sterilized folic acid at 0.3 μM could not replace PABA. The antimetabolite sulfanilamide (20 mM) inhibited growth of and methanogenesis by Methanosarcina sp. strain TM-1, and this inhibition was reversed by the addition of 0.3 μM PABA. When a defined medium buffered with 20 mM N,N-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)-2-aminoethanesulfonic acid was used, it was shown that Methanosarcina sp. strain TM-1 required 6 mM bicarbonate-30% CO2 for optimal growth and methanogenesis from methanol. Cells growing on acetate were less dependent on bicarbonate-CO2. When we used a defined medium in which the only organic compounds present were methanol or acetate, nitrilotriacetic acid (0.2 mM), and PABA, it was possible to limit batch cultures of Methanosarcina sp. strain TM-1 for nitrogen at NH4+ concentrations at or below 2.0 mM, in marked contrast with Methanosarcina barkeri 227, which fixes dinitrogen when grown under NH4+ limitation. PMID:16346841

  6. Diversity of Acinetobacter baumannii strains isolated in humans, companion animals, and the environment in Reunion Island: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pailhoriès, Hélène; Belmonte, Olivier; Kempf, Marie; Lemarié, Carole; Cuziat, Julien; Quinqueneau, Catherine; Ramont, Catherine; Joly-Guillou, Marie-Laure; Eveillard, Matthieu

    2015-08-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii can be responsible for community-acquired infections in tropical climates like that of Reunion Island. The epidemiology of these community-acquired A. baumannii infections is not well understood. The aim of this study was to characterize A. baumannii strains isolated from patients at the time of admission to the university hospital of Saint-Denis, from environmental samples, and from pets. In this exploratory study, samples were collected by swabbing the rectum and mouth. A. baumannii isolates from positive samples were identified by VITEK 2 system, blaOXA-51-like gene PCR, and partial sequencing of the rpoB gene. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was then performed. Strains were further analysed by multilocus sequence typing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. A high prevalence of A. baumannii carriage was found in pets (8.5%). Only one A. baumannii isolate was resistant to carbapenems (isolated from a patient). A wide variety of A. baumannii, assigned to different sequence types, were isolated from pets, humans, and the environment. This study shows that A. baumannii strains are present outside the hospital setting in Reunion Island and show great diversity. Further studies are needed to explore these extra-hospital reservoirs of A. baumannii in Reunion Island in greater detail and to determine their possible means of dissemination. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Usefulness of phenotypic and genotypic methods for metallo-beta-lactamases detection in carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szejbach, Aleksandra; Mikucka, Agnieszka; Bogiel, Tomasz; Gospodarek, Eugenia

    2013-01-21

    Acinetobacter baumannii is an opportunistic microorganism with an increasing role in nosocomial outbreaks. For the last 2 decades, a growing number of carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii strains have been identified, including the metallo-beta-lactamases (MBLs) producers. The study aimed to investigate the genetic relatedness of, and MBLs production among, a collection of A. baumannii isolates from Poland. This study involved 78 clinical isolates of carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii. Strain typing of the isolates was performed using PCR-RAPD. The presence of MBLs was phenotypically determined using different double disc synergy tests (DDST), the imipenem/EDTA combination disk test (CDT) and Etest MBL. blaIMP and blaVIM genes were detected using a duplex PCR assay. The isolates were divided into 18 PCR-RAPD patterns. Among 18 examined isolates, 94.4% were MBL-positive by the phenotypic method relying on comparing the bacteria growth inhibition zones diameters between imipenem/EDTA and imipenem discs, 88.9% using Etest MBL, 66.7% using the double disc synergy test with ceftazidime, imipenem, meropenem and EDTA, and 88.9% using a corresponding method with 2-MPA. The existence of blaIMP was identified in 8 (10.3%) strains. MBLs production was an important mechanism of carbapenem resistance among A. baumannii isolates in Poland. Laboratories should routinely screen for MBLs among A. baumannii isolates.

  8. Metalaxyl Degradation by Mucorales Strains Gongronella sp. and Rhizopus oryzae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Rosário Martins

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the degradation of metalaxyl was investigated in the presence of two Mucorales strains, previously isolated from soil subjected to repeated treatments with this fungicide and selected after enrichment technique. Fungal strains were characterised by a polyphasic approach using phylogenetic analysis of the Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS gene region, phenotypic characterisation by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS spectral analysis, and growth kinetics experiments. The strains were identified as Gongronella sp. and Rhizopus oryzae. The fungal growth kinetics in liquid cultures containing metalaxyl fits with Haldane model. Under laboratory conditions, the ability of Gongronella sp. and R. oryzae cultures to degrade metalaxyl was evaluated in liquid cultures and soil experiments. Both species were able to: (a use metalaxyl as the main carbon and energy source; and (b degrade metalaxyl in polluted soils, with rates around 1.0 mg kg−1 d−1. This suggests these strains could degrade metalaxyl in soils contaminated with this fungicide.

  9. Characterization of a highly virulent and antimicrobial-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii strain isolated from diseased chicks in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dong; Liu, Zeng-Shan; Hu, Pan; Hui, Qi; Fu, Bao-Quan; Lu, Shi-Ying; Li, Yan-Song; Zou, De-Ying; Li, Zhao-Hui; Yan, Dong-Ming; Ding, Yan-Xia; Zhang, Yuan-Yuan; Zhou, Yu; Liu, Nan-Nan; Ren, Hong-Lin

    2016-08-01

    Poultry husbandry is a very important aspect of the agricultural economy in China. However, chicks are often susceptible to infectious disease microorganisms, such as bacteria, viruses and parasites, causing large economic losses in recent years. In the present study, we isolated an Acinetobacter baumannii strain, CCGGD201101, from diseased chicks in the Jilin Province of China. Regression analyses of virulence and LD50 tests conducted using healthy chicks confirmed that A. baumannii CCGGD201101, with an LD50 of 1.81 (±0.11) × 10(4) CFU, was more virulent than A. baumannii ATCC17978, with an LD50 of 1.73 (±0.13) × 10(7) CFU. Moreover, TEM examination showed that the pili of A. baumannii CCGGD201101 were different from those of ATCC17978. Antibiotic sensitivity analyses showed that A. baumannii CCGGD201101 was sensitive to rifampicin but resistant to most other antibiotics. These results imply that A. baumannii strain CCGGD201101 had both virulence enhancement and antibiotic resistance characteristics, which are beneficial for A. baumannii survival under adverse conditions and enhance fitness and invasiveness in the host. A. baumannii CCGGD20101, with its high virulence and antimicrobial resistance, may be one of the pathogens causing death of diseased chicks. © 2016 The Societies and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  10. [Formation of huntite by Lysinibacillus sp. GW-2 strain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qinglong; Li, Fuchun; Zhang, Chonghong; Li, Xuelin

    2015-05-04

    We studied the formation of carbonate minerals induced by microorganism to explore the possibility of mineral capture. Culture experiments of carbonate precipitation were done using B4 medium with 6:1 molar ration of Mg/Ca for 50 days. The same medium without inoculation was used as the control. During the cultivation, bacterial density, precipitate quantities, pH and conductivity of the medium, calciumand magnesium concentration were determined. The morphologies of precipitated carbonates were observed using scanning electron microscopy, and mineral species of carbonate were determined by X-ray diffraction. The main results were: (1) In the inoculation process of the Lysinibacillus sp. (GW-2 strain), we found that precipitate quantities were gradually increased with time, while precipitate was not collected in the aseptic experiments; (2) There were significant positive correlations between bacterial density and average precipitation rate (r = 0. 67, P carbonate minerals by Lysinibacillus sp. formed according to following trend: amorphous calcium carbonate --> Huntite --> High-Mg calcite. The main conclusions were: (1) Lysinibacillus sp. (GW-2 strain) might induce the formation of carbonate minerals precipitation; (2) The bacterial density directly affected the precipitation of carbonate minerals, whereas pH value indirectly controlled the precipitation of carbonate minerals; (3) Decreased of conductivity, calcium and magnesium concentration of the medium could indirectly indicate the occurrence of carbonate precipitate; (4) Huntite might be formed through ageing of amorphous calcium carbonate, whereas high-Mg calcite might be formed through demagnesium of the huntite.

  11. Bacillus nakamurai sp. nov., a black-pigment-producing strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlap, Christopher A; Saunders, Lauren P; Schisler, David A; Leathers, Timothy D; Naeem, Naveed; Cohan, Frederick M; Rooney, Alejandro P

    2016-08-01

    Two isolates of a Gram-stain-positive, strictly aerobic, motile, rod-shaped, endospore-forming bacterium were identified during a survey of the Bacillus diversity of the Agriculture Research Service Culture Collection. These strains were originally isolated from soil and have a phenotype of producing a dark pigment on tryptic soy agar. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene indicated that these strains were related most closely to Bacillus subtilis subsp. inaquosorum (99.7 % similarity) and Bacillus axarquiensis (99.7 %). In phenotypic characterization, the novel strains were found to grow between 17 and 50 °C and can tolerate up to 9 % (w/v) NaCl. Furthermore, the strains grew in media of pH 5.5-10 (optimal growth at pH 7.0-8.0). The predominant cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C15 : 0 (34.8 %) and iso-C15 : 0 (21.9 %). The cell-wall peptidoglycan contained meso-diaminopimelic acid. A draft genome of both strains was completed. The DNA G+C content was 43.8 mol%. A phylogenomic analysis on the core genome of these two new strains and all members of the Bacillus subtilis group revealed these two strains formed a distinct monophyletic clade with the nearest neighbour Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. DNA-DNA relatedness studies using in silico DNA-DNA hybridizations showed the two strains were conspecific (93.8 %), while values with all other species (Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus nakamurai sp. nov. is proposed, with type strain NRRL B-41091T (=CCUG 68786T).

  12. Characteriz ation of integrons and associated gene cassettes in Acinetobacter baumannii strains isolated from intensive care unit in Tehran, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Goudarzi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns, the frequency of integrons and associated gene cassettes in Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumannii strains isolated from selected hospital intensive care units. Methods: During a ten-month period, 120 A. baumannii isolates were studied. The resistance rates to different classes of antimicrobial agents were determined. PCR was used to detect different types of integrons and associated gene cassettes. Results: The resistance rates to the majority of antibiotics tested were found to be between 39.3% and 99.1%. No isolate was observed to be resistant to colistin and polymyxin B. The rate of extensive drug-resistance among these clinical isolates was 62.5%. The prevalence of class 1 and 2 integrons was found to be 74.1% and 12.5%, respectively. Seven different gene cassettes (ampC, aacA4-catB8, ISAba1-blaOXA-23-GES-14, aadA2-cm1A6-GES-14-qacF, VIM-25-GES-24-qacF, dfrA5-ISAba1-blaOXA-51-blaOXA-40 and aadA2-GES-11-IMP-1 were observed in Class 1 integron-carrying strains. Three gene cassettes (IMP-4, VIM-2-VEB-aacA4 and dfrA2-sat-2-aadA4 were detected in class 2 integron-bearing A. baumannii strains. Conclusions: A high prevalence of integron was described among multidrug resistant A. baumannii in the hospital. The findings highlighted the need for continuous surveillance in order to prevent dissemination of multidrug resistance among A. baumannii strains in Iran.

  13. Complete genome sequence of Paenibacillus sp. strain JDR-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Virginia; Nong, Guang; St. John, Franz J.; Rice, John D.; Dickstein, Ellen; Chertkov, Olga; Bruce, David; Detter, Chris; Brettin, Thomas; Han, James; Woyke, Tanja; Pitluck, Sam; Nolan, Matt; Pati, Amrita; Martin, Joel; Copeland, Alex; Land, Miriam L.; Goodwin, Lynne; Jones, Jeffrey B.; Ingram, Lonnie O.; Shanmugam, Keelnathan T.; Preston, James F.

    2012-01-01

    Paenibacillus sp. strain JDR-2, an aggressively xylanolytic bacterium isolated from sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) wood, is able to efficiently depolymerize, assimilate and metabolize 4-O-methylglucuronoxylan, the predominant structural component of hardwood hemicelluloses. A basis for this capability was first supported by the identification of genes and characterization of encoded enzymes and has been further defined by the sequencing and annotation of the complete genome, which we describe. In addition to genes implicated in the utilization of β-1,4-xylan, genes have also been identified for the utilization of other hemicellulosic polysaccharides. The genome of Paenibacillus sp. JDR-2 contains 7,184,930 bp in a single replicon with 6,288 protein-coding and 122 RNA genes. Uniquely prominent are 874 genes encoding proteins involved in carbohydrate transport and metabolism. The prevalence and organization of these genes support a metabolic potential for bioprocessing of hemicellulose fractions derived from lignocellulosic resources. PMID:22675593

  14. Complete genome sequence of Paenibacillus sp. strain JDR-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chow, Virginia [University of Florida; Nong, Guang [University of Florida; St. John, Franz J. [US Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory, Madison, Wisconsin, USA; Dickstein, Ellen [University of Florida; Chertkov, Olga [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Bruce, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Detter, J. Chris [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Brettin, Thomas S [ORNL; Han, James [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Woyke, Tanja [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Nolan, Matt [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pati, Amrita [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Martin, Joel [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Copeland, A [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Jones, Jeffrey B. [University of Florida; Ingram, Lonnie O. [University of Florida; Shanmugam, Keelnathan T. [University of Florida; Preston, James F. [University of Florida

    2012-01-01

    Paenibacillus sp. strain JDR-2, an aggressively xylanolytic bacterium isolated from sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) wood, is able to efficiently depolymerize, assimilate and metabolize 4-O-methylglucuronoxylan, the predominant structural component of hardwood hemicelluloses. A basis for this capability was first supported by the identification of genes and characterization of encoded enzymes and has been further defined by the sequencing and annotation of the complete genome, which we describe. In addition to genes implicated in the utilization of -1,4-xylan, genes have also been identified for the utilization of other hemicellulosic polysaccharides. The genome of Paenibacillus sp. JDR-2 contains 7,184,930 bp in a single replicon with 6,288 protein-coding and 122 RNA genes. Uniquely prominent are 874 genes encoding proteins involved in carbohydrate transport and metabolism. The prevalence and organization of these genes support a metabolic potential for bioprocessing of hemicellulose fractions derived from lignocellulosic resources.

  15. Insertions or Deletions (Indels) in the rrn 16S-23S rRNA Gene Internal Transcribed Spacer Region (ITS) Compromise the Typing and Identification of Strains within the Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-baumannii (Acb) Complex and Closely Related Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslunka, Christopher; Gifford, Bianca; Tucci, Joseph; Gürtler, Volker; Seviour, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    To determine whether ITS sequences in the rrn operon are suitable for identifying individual Acinetobacter Acb complex members, we analysed length and sequence differences between multiple ITS copies within the genomes of individual strains. Length differences in ITS reported previously between A. nosocomialis BCRC15417T (615 bp) and other strains (607 bp) can be explained by presence of an insertion (indel 13i/1) in the longer ITS variant. The same Indel 13i/1 was also found in ITS sequences of ten strains of A. calcoaceticus, all 639 bp long, and the 628 bp ITS of Acinetobacter strain BENAB127. Four additional indels (13i/2–13i/5) were detected in Acinetobacter strain c/t13TU 10090 ITS length variants (608, 609, 620, 621 and 630 bp). These ITS variants appear to have resulted from horizontal gene transfer involving other Acinetobacter species or in some cases unrelated bacteria. Although some ITS copies in strain c/t13TU 10090 are of the same length (620 bp) as those in Acinetobacter strains b/n1&3, A. pittii (10 strains), A. calcoaceticus and A. oleivorans (not currently acknowledged as an Acb member), their individual ITS sequences differ. Thus ITS length by itself can not by itself be used to identify Acb complex strains. A shared indel in ITS copies in two separate Acinetobacter species compromises the specificity of ITS targeted probes, as shown with the Aun-3 probe designed to target the ITS in A. pitti. The presence of indel 13i/5 in the ITS of Acinetobacter strain c/t13TU means it too responded positively to this probe. Thus, neither ITS sequencing nor the currently available ITS targeted probes can distinguish reliably between Acb member species. PMID:25141005

  16. A new diphenyl ether from Phoma sp. strain, SHZK-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, M J; Fang, H; Li, W J; Huang, D M; Wu, Z; Zhao, Y F

    2012-01-01

    A new diphenyl ether methyl 2-(2-formyl-3-hydroxy-5-methylphenoxy)-5-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzoate (3), together with four known compounds, asterric acid (1), methyl asterrate (2), 9(Z),12(Z)-nonadecadienoic acid (4) and orsellinic acid (5), were isolated from the Phoma sp. strain SHZK-2, which was isolated from a polluted environment in southern China. The structures of these compounds were determined by spectroscopic methods. Cytotoxicities of compounds against HEPG2 cell and Raji cell lines were preliminarily evaluated by the MTT method.

  17. Salpingitis in geese associated with Mycoplasma sp. strain 1220.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobos-Kovács, Mihály; Varga, Zsuzsanna; Czifra, György; Stipkovits, László

    2009-06-01

    An outbreak of disease in a White Rhine laying goose flock was characterized by increased water uptake, increased mortality, production of eggs with abnormal shells, a 25% drop in egg production and 40% embryo mortality. Affected dead or sacrificed birds had sero-fibrinogranulocytic peritonitis and salpingitis, infiltration of the lamina propria in the uterus and heterophil granulocytes in the isthmus and magnum of the oviduct. Mycoplasmas, mainly identified as Mycoplasma sp. strain 1220, were isolated from the airsac, liver, ovary, magnum and peritoneum of some affected geese. Strain 1220 was originally isolated from a Hungarian gander with phallus inflammation and, according to detailed biochemical and serological examinations, it is expected to represent a new avian species within the genus Mycoplasma.

  18. Crude oil degradation efficiency of a recombinant Acinetobacter baumannii strain and its survival in crude oil-contaminated soil microcosm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Sanjeet; Sarma, Priyangshu M; Lal, Banwari

    2004-06-15

    A hydrocarbon degrading Acinetobacter baumannii S30 strain, isolated from crude oil-contaminated soil, was inserted with the lux gene from the luciferase gene cassette luxCDABE. Soil microcosms were designed to study the degradation efficacy for total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) of crude oil by lux-tagged A. baumannii S30 pJES. Bioaugmentation of a TPH-contaminated microcosm with A baumannii S30 pJES showed that TPH levels were reduced from 89.3 to 53.9 g/kg soil in 90 days. Biodegradation of TPH by A baumannii S30 pJES was also monitored in shake flask conditions, which showed a reduction of initial TPH levels by over 50% at the end of 120 h. A lux-PCR-based approach along with the standard dilution plating with selective antibiotics was successfully utilized to monitor the survivability of the lux-tagged strain A. baumannii S30 pJES in soil microcosms and stability of the lux insert in the host strain A. baumannii S30. The selective plating technique indicated the population of A. baumannii S30 pJES to be 6.5+/-0.13 x 10(8) CFU/g at day zero (just after bioaugmentation) and 2.09+/-0.08 x 10(8) CFU/g of soil after 90 days of incubation. lux-PCR confirmed the stability of the insert in all the randomly selected colonies of A. baumannii strains from the antibiotic plates. The lux insert was stable after 50 generations in Luria Bertini broth and storage at -70 degrees C as glycerol stocks for over a year. These results revealed that the lux insert was stable and lux-tagged A. baumannii S30 strain could survive in a TPH-contaminated soil microcosm and could degrade TPH in the soil microcosm conditions. It can be used as an effective marker to monitor the survival of augmented strains at a bioremediation site.

  19. Kinetics of Acetate Utilization by Two Thermophilic Acetotrophic Methanogens: Methanosarcina sp. Strain CALS-1 and Methanothrix sp. Strain CALS-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, H; Zinder, S H

    1989-02-01

    The kinetics of acetate utilization were examined for washed concentrated cell suspensions of two thermophilic acetotrophic methanogens isolated from a 58 degrees C anaerobic digestor. Progress curves for acetate utilization by cells of Methanosarcina sp. strain CALS-1 showed that the utilization rate was concentration independent (zero order) above concentrations near 3 mM and that acetate utilization ceased when a threshold concentration near 1 mM was reached. Acetate utilization by cells of Methanothrix sp. strain CALS-1 was concentration independent down to 0.1 to 0.2 mM, and threshold values of 12 to 21 muM were observed. Typical utilization rates in the concentration-independent stage were 210 and 130 nmol min mg of protein for the methanosarcina and the methanothrix, respectively. These results are in agreement with a general model in which high acetate concentrations favor Methanosarcina spp., while low concentrations favor Methanothrix spp. However, acetate utilization by these two strains did not follow simple Michaelis-Menton kinetics.

  20. Characterization of eDNA from the Clinical Strain Acinetobacter baumannii AIIMS 7 and Its Role in Biofilm Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen K. Sahu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Release of extracellular DNA (eDNA was observed during in vitro growth of a clinical strain of Acinetobacter baumannii. Membrane vesicles (MV of varying diameter (20–200 nm containing DNA were found to be released by transmission electron microscopy (TEM and atomic force microscopy (AFM. An assessment of the characteristics of the eDNA with respect to size, digestion pattern by DNase I/restriction enzymes, and PCR-sequencing, indicates a high similarity with genomic DNA. Role of eDNA in static biofilm formed on polystyrene surface was evaluated by biofilm augmentation assay using eDNA available in different preparations, for example, whole cell lysate, cell-free supernatant, MV suspension, and purified eDNA. Biofilm augmentation was seen up to 224.64%, whereas biofilm inhibition was 59.41% after DNase I treatment: confirming that eDNA facilitates biofilm formation in A. baumannii. This is the first paper elucidating the characteristics and role of eDNA in A. baumannii biofilm, which may provide new insights into its pathogenesis.

  1. Biodegradation of hexavalent chromium (Cr+6) in wastewater using Pseudomonas sp. and Bacillus sp. bacterial strains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qasim, Muhammad [Department of Chemical Engineering, American University of Sharjah (United Arab Emirates)

    2013-07-01

    The recovery of toxic metal compounds is a deep concern in all industries. Hexavalent chromium is particularly worrying because of its toxic influence on human health. In this paper, biodegradation of hexavalent chromium (Cr+6) present in wastewater has been studied using two different bacterial strains; Pseudomonas sp. and Bacillus sp. A chemostat (with and without recycle of cells) with 10 L liquid culture volume was used to study the substrate and the biomass cell concentrations with time. Also, the degree of substrate conversion was studied by the varying the dilution rate as an independent parameter. The dilution rate (ratio of feed flow rate to the culture volume) was varied by varying the feed volumetric rate from 110-170 mL/h for inlet hexavalent chromium concentrations of 70 mg/dm3. The results show that a chemostat with recycle gives a better performance in terms of substrate conversion than a chemostat without a recycle. Moreover, the degree of substrate conversion decreases as the dilution rate is increased. Also, Bacillus sp. was found to give higher conversions compared to pseudomonas sp.

  2. Multidrug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii: risk factors for appearance of imipenem resistant strains on patients formerly with susceptible strains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Jr Ye

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Multidrug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (MDRAB is an important nosocomial pathogen usually susceptible to carbapenems; however, growing number of imipenem resistant MDRAB (IR-MDRAB poses further clinical challenge. The study was designed to identify the risk factors for appearance of IR-MDRAB on patients formerly with imipenem susceptible MDRAB (IS-MDRAB and the impact on clinical outcomes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A retrospective case control study was carried out for 209 consecutive episodes of IS-MDRAB infection or colonization from August 2001 to March 2005. Forty-nine (23.4% episodes with succeeding clinical isolates of IR-MDRAB were defined as the cases and 160 (76.6% with all subsequent clinical isolates of IS-MDRAB were defined as the controls. Quantified antimicrobial selective pressure, "time at risk", severity of illness, comorbidity, and demographic data were incorporated for multivariate analysis, which revealed imipenem or meropenem as the only significant independent risk factor for the appearance of IR-MDRAB (adjusted OR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.09 to 1.27. With selected cases and controls matched to exclude exogenous source of IR-MDRAB, multivariate analysis still identified carbapenem as the only independent risk factor (adjusted OR, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.14 to 1.92. Case patients had a higher crude mortality rate compared to control patients (57.1% vs. 31.3%, p = 0.001, and the mortality of case patients was associated with shorter duration of "time at risk", i.e., faster appearance of IR-MDRAB (adjusted OR, 0.9; 95% CI, 0.83 to 0.98. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Judicious use of carbapenem with deployment of antibiotics stewardship measures is critical for reducing IR-MDRAB and the associated unfavorable outcome.

  3. Role of feed forward neural networks coupled with genetic algorithm in capitalizing of intracellular alpha-galactosidase production by Acinetobacter sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edupuganti, Sirisha; Potumarthi, Ravichandra; Sathish, Thadikamala; Mangamoori, Lakshmi Narasu

    2014-01-01

    Alpha-galactosidase production in submerged fermentation by Acinetobacter sp. was optimized using feed forward neural networks and genetic algorithm (FFNN-GA). Six different parameters, pH, temperature, agitation speed, carbon source (raffinose), nitrogen source (tryptone), and K2HPO4, were chosen and used to construct 6-10-1 topology of feed forward neural network to study interactions between fermentation parameters and enzyme yield. The predicted values were further optimized by genetic algorithm (GA). The predictability of neural networks was further analysed by using mean squared error (MSE), root mean squared error (RMSE), mean absolute error (MAE), mean absolute percentage error (MAPE), and R2-value for training and testing data. Using hybrid neural networks and genetic algorithm, alpha-galactosidase production was improved from 7.5 U/mL to 10.2 U/mL.

  4. Mechanisms of Resistance, Clonal Expansion, and Increasing Prevalence of Acinetobacter baumannii Strains Displaying Elevated Tigecycline MIC Values in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Sarah E; Gales, Ana C; Morfin-Otero, Rayo; Jones, Ronald N; Castanheira, Mariana

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the study was to characterize forty-eight Acinetobacter baumannii (ACB) isolates with confirmed tigecycline MIC values >2 mg/L observed in six Latin American (LATAM) hospitals (four countries) in 2011. During 2005-2011, 6,923 ACB isolates were collected as part of the SENTRY Program, and tigecycline susceptibility was quantified using the reference broth microdilution method. A total of 102/1881 ACB from LATAM hospitals displayed tigecycline minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values >2 mg/L, showing an increase from 4.3% in 2010 to 10.5% in 2011, which is considerably high when compared to other geographical regions. Forty-eight ACB from 2011 displaying elevated tigecycline MICs were typed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, which showed multiple clusters in Sao Paulo, Brazil, and a major clone in Guadalajara, Mexico. Eighteen unique isolates had the expression of adeA and adeF determined and results compared to a group of tigecycline-susceptible strains, which demonstrated that 18/18 strains had significantly increased expression of AdeABC and three isolates overexpressed AdeFGH. Sequencing of adeS and adeR revealed that 11 isolates displayed adeS mutations, and 5 isolates had mutations in adeR. Sequencing of trm showed frameshift mutations in eight isolates and insertion sequences leading to nonfunctional proteins in three isolates. TetX-encoding genes were not detected. We documented the recent increase of ACB displaying elevated tigecycline MICs in LATAM hospitals, dominantly due to the clonal expansion of isolates in Brazil and Mexico. Control of tigecycline usage in those countries and more strict infection control practices in the involved hospitals should be considered to reduce such outbreaks.

  5. A New Double Digestion Ligation Mediated Suppression PCR Method for Simultaneous Bacteria DNA-Typing and Confirmation of Species: An Acinetobacter sp. Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojowska, Karolina; Krawczyk, Beata

    2014-01-01

    We have designed a new ddLMS PCR (double digestion Ligation Mediated Suppression PCR) method based on restriction site polymorphism upstream from the specific target sequence for the simultaneous identification and differentiation of bacterial strains. The ddLMS PCR combines a simple PCR used for species or genus identification and the LM PCR strategy for strain differentiation. The bacterial identification is confirmed in the form of the PCR product(s), while the length of the PCR product makes it possible to differentiate between bacterial strains. If there is a single copy of the target sequence within genomic DNA, one specific PCR product is created (simplex ddLMS PCR), whereas for multiple copies of the gene the fingerprinting patterns can be obtained (multiplex ddLMS PCR). The described ddLMS PCR method is designed for rapid and specific strain differentiation in medical and microbiological studies. In comparison to other LM PCR it has substantial advantages: enables specific species' DNA-typing without the need for pure bacterial culture selection, is not sensitive to contamination with other cells or genomic DNA, and gives univocal “band-based” results, which are easy to interpret. The utility of ddLMS PCR was shown for Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-baumannii (Acb) complex, the genetically closely related and phenotypically similar species and also important nosocomial pathogens, for which currently, there are no recommended methods for screening, typing and identification. In this article two models are proposed: 3′ recA-ddLMS PCR-MaeII/RsaI for Acb complex interspecific typing and 5′ rrn-ddLMS PCR-HindIII/ApaI for Acinetobacter baumannii intraspecific typing. ddLMS PCR allows not only for DNA-typing but also for confirmation of species in one reaction. Also, practical guidelines for designing a diagnostic test based on ddLMS PCR for genotyping different species of bacteria are provided. PMID:25522278

  6. Ethylene production with engineered Synechocystis sp PCC 6803 strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veetil, Vinod Puthan; Angermayr, S Andreas; Hellingwerf, Klaas J

    2017-02-23

    Metabolic engineering and synthetic biology of cyanobacteria offer a promising sustainable alternative approach for fossil-based ethylene production, by using sunlight via oxygenic photosynthesis, to convert carbon dioxide directly into ethylene. Towards this, both well-studied cyanobacteria, i.e., Synechocystis sp PCC 6803 and Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942, have been engineered to produce ethylene by introducing the ethylene-forming enzyme (Efe) from Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola PK2 (the Kudzu strain), which catalyzes the conversion of the ubiquitous tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediate 2-oxoglutarate into ethylene. This study focuses on Synechocystis sp PCC 6803 and shows stable ethylene production through the integration of a codon-optimized version of the efe gene under control of the Ptrc promoter and the core Shine-Dalgarno sequence (5'-AGGAGG-3') as the ribosome-binding site (RBS), at the slr0168 neutral site. We have increased ethylene production twofold by RBS screening and further investigated improving ethylene production from a single gene copy of efe, using multiple tandem promoters and by putting our best construct on an RSF1010-based broad-host-self-replicating plasmid, which has a higher copy number than the genome. Moreover, to raise the intracellular amounts of the key Efe substrate, 2-oxoglutarate, from which ethylene is formed, we constructed a glycogen-synthesis knockout mutant (ΔglgC) and introduced the ethylene biosynthetic pathway in it. Under nitrogen limiting conditions, the glycogen knockout strain has increased intracellular 2-oxoglutarate levels; however, surprisingly, ethylene production was lower in this strain than in the wild-type background. Making use of different RBS sequences, production of ethylene ranging over a 20-fold difference has been achieved. However, a further increase of production through multiple tandem promoters and a broad-host plasmid was not achieved speculating that the transcription strength and

  7. Extremophilic Acinetobacter Strains from High-Altitude Lakes in Argentinean Puna: Remarkable UV-B Resistance and Efficient DNA Damage Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albarracín, Virginia Helena; Pathak, Gopal P.; Douki, Thierry; Cadet, Jean; Borsarelli, Claudio Darío; Gärtner, Wolfgang; Farias, María Eugenia

    2012-06-01

    High-Altitude Andean Lakes (HAAL) of the South American Andes are almost unexplored ecosystems of shallow lakes. The HAAL are recognized by a remarkably high UV exposure, strong changes in temperature and salinity, and a high content of toxic elements, especially arsenic. Being exposed to remarkably extreme conditions, they have been classified as model systems for the study of life on other planets. Particularly, Acinetobacter strains isolated from the HAAL were studied for their survival competence under strong UV-B irradiation. Clinical isolates, Acinetobacter baumannii and Acinetobacter johnsonii, served as reference material. Whereas the reference strains rapidly lost viability under UV-B irradiation, most HAAL-derived strains readily survived this exposure and showed less change in cell number after the treatment. Controls for DNA repair activity, comparing dark repair (DR) or photo repair (PR), gave evidence for the involvement of photolyases in the DNA repair. Comparative measurements by HPLC-mass spectrometry detected the number of photoproducts: bipyrimidine dimers under both PR and DR treatments were more efficiently repaired in the HAAL strains (up to 85 % PR and 38 % DR) than in the controls (31 % PR and zero DR ability). Analysis of cosmid-cloned total genomic DNA from the most effective DNA-photorepair strain (Ver3) yielded a gene (HQ443199) encoding a protein with clear photolyase signatures belonging to class I CPD-photolyases. Despite the relatively low sequence similarity of 41 % between the enzymes from Ver3 and from E. coli (PDB 1DNPA), a model-building approach revealed a high structural homology to the CPD-photolyase of E. coli.

  8. Pyrene degradation by Mycobacterium sp. strain KR2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehmann, K; Noll, H P; Steinberg, C E; Kettrup, A A

    1998-06-01

    A Mycobacterium sp., strain KR2 which was able to utilise pyrene as sole source of carbon and energy was isolated from a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contaminated soil originating from the area of a former gaswork plant. The isolate metabolised up to 60% of the pyrene added (0.5 mg/mL) within 8 days at 20 degrees C. Cis-4,5-pyrene dihydrodiol, 4,5-phenanthrene dicarboxylic acid, 1-hydroxy-2-naphthoic acid, 2-carboxybenzaldehyde, phthalic acid, and protocatechuic acid were identified as degradation products. Based on these findings a degradation pathway for pyrene is suggested which is in good accordance with the data published so far on bacterial pyrene metabolism.

  9. Draft Genome Sequences of Acinetobacter baumannii Strains Harboring the blaNDM-1 Gene Isolated in Lebanon from Civilians Wounded during the Syrian Civil War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokajian, Sima; Eisen, Jonathan A; Jospin, Guillaume; Hamze, Monzer; Rafei, Rayane; Salloum, Tamara; Ibrahim, Joe; Coil, David A

    2016-01-28

    We present here the draft genome sequences of multidrug-resistant blaNDM-1-positive Acinetobacter baumannii strains ACMH-6200 and ACMH-6201, isolated in north Lebanon from civilians wounded during the Syrian civil war. The draft genomes were contained in 217 contigs for ACMH-6200 and 83 contigs for ACMH-6201, including a combined 3,997,237 bases for ACMH-6200 and 3,983,110 bases for ACMH-6201, with 39% and 38.9% G+C content, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Tokajian et al.

  10. Draft Genome Sequence of Micromonospora sp. Strain HK10, Isolated from Kaziranga National Park, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talukdar, Madhumita; Das, Dhrubajyoti; Borah, Chiranjeeta; Deka Boruah, Hari Prasanna; Bora, Tarun Chandra

    2016-01-01

    We report the 6.92-Mbp genome sequence of Micromonospora sp. HK10, isolated from soil samples collected from Kaziranga National Park, Assam, India. The full genome of strain Micromonospora sp. strain HK10 consists of 6,911,179 bp with 73.39% GC content, 6,196 protein-coding genes, and 86 RNAs. PMID:27516496

  11. Genome Sequence of the Acidophilic Bacterium Acidocella sp. Strain MX-AZ02

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Servín-Garcidueñas, Luis E.; Garrett, Roger A.; Amils, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Acidocella sp. strain MX-AZ02, an acidophilic and heterotrophic alphaproteobacterium isolated from a geothermal lake in western Mexico.......Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Acidocella sp. strain MX-AZ02, an acidophilic and heterotrophic alphaproteobacterium isolated from a geothermal lake in western Mexico....

  12. Isolation and phylogenetic analysis of zinc resistant Acinetobacter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Isolation and phylogenetic analysis of zinc resistant Acinetobacter sp. and its potential for bioremediation. Fatemeh Bagheri Bejestani, Maryam Ghane, Marjan Mirhosseininia, Ozra Bagheri Bejestani ...

  13. An amphipathic undecapeptide with all D-amino acids shows promising activity against colistin-resistant strains of Acinetobacter baumannii and a dual mode of action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oddo, Alberto; Thomsen, Thomas Thyge; Kjelstrup, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    . In this study, we investigated the in vitro antibacterial activities of 18 BP100 analogs (four known and 14 new) against the MDR A. baumannii strain ATCC BAA-1605, as well as against a number of other clinically relevant human pathogens. Selected peptides were further evaluated against strains of A. baumannii......Multiple strains of Acinetobacter baumannii have developed multidrug resistance (MDR), leaving colistin as the only effective treatment. The cecropin-α-melittin hybrid BP100 (KKLFKKILKYL-NH2) and its analogs have previously shown activity against a wide array of plant and human pathogens...... that acquired resistance to colistin due to mutations of the lpxC, lpxD, pmrA, and pmrB genes. The novel analogue BP214 showed antimicrobial activity at 1 to 2 μM and a hemolytic 50% effective concentration (EC50) of >150 μM. The lower activity of its enantiomer suggests a dual, specific and nonspecific mode...

  14. Identification and nitrogen regulation of the cyanase gene from the cyanobacteria Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 and Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7942.

    OpenAIRE

    Harano, Y; Suzuki, I; Maeda, S; Kaneko, T.; Tabata, S.; Omata, T

    1997-01-01

    An open reading frame (slr0899) on the genome of Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 encodes a polypeptide of 149 amino acid residues, the sequence of which is 40% identical to that of cyanase from Escherichia coli. Introduction into a cyanase-deficient E. coli strain of a plasmid-borne slr0899 resulted in expression of low but significant activity of cyanase. Targeted interruption of a homolog of slr0899 from Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7942, encoding a protein 77% identical to that encoded b...

  15. Substrate range of benzylsuccinate synthase from Azoarcus sp. strain T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beller, H R; Spormann, A M

    1999-09-01

    Benzylsuccinate synthase, which catalyzes the anaerobic addition of the methyl carbon of toluene to fumarate, has recently been reported in several denitrifying and sulfate-reducing, toluene-degrading bacteria. In substrate range studies with partially purified benzylsuccinate synthase from denitrifying Azoarcus sp. strain T, benzylsuccinate analogs were observed as a result of fumarate addition to the following toluene surrogates: xylenes, monofluorotoluenes, benzaldehyde, and 1-methyl-1-cyclohexene (but not 4-methyl-l-cyclohexene or methylcyclohexane). Benzylsuccinate was also observed as a result of toluene addition to maleate, but no products were observed from assays with toluene and either crotonate or trans-glutaconate. Toluene-maleate addition, like toluene-fumarate addition, resulted in highly stereospecific formation of the (+)-benzylsuccinic acid enantiomer [(R)-2-benzyl-3-carboxypropionic acid]. The previously reported finding that the methyl H atom abstracted from toluene is retained in the succinyl moiety of benzylsuccinate was found to apply to several toluene surrogates. The implications of these observations for the mechanism of benzylsuccinate synthase will be discussed.

  16. Dichloromethane dehalogenase of Hyphomicrobium sp. strain DM2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler-Staub, D; Leisinger, T

    1985-01-01

    Dichloromethane dehalogenase, a highly inducible glutathione-dependent enzyme catalyzing the conversion of dichloromethane into formaldehyde and inorganic chloride, was purified fivefold with 60% yield from Hyphomicrobium sp. strain DM2. The electrophoretically homogeneous purified enzyme exhibited a specific activity of 17.3 mkat/kg of protein. Its pH optimum was 8.5. The enzyme was stable at -20 degrees C for at least 6 months. A subunit molecular weight of 33,000 was determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Gel filtration of native dichloromethane dehalogenase yielded a molecular weight of 195,000. Subunit cross-linking with dimethyl suberimidate confirmed the hexameric tertiary structure of the enzyme. Dichloromethane dehalogenase was highly specific for dihalomethanes. Its apparent Km values were 30 microM for CH2Cl2, 15 microM for CH2BrCl, 13 microM for CH2Br2, 5 microM for CH2I2, and 320 microM for glutathione. Several chlorinated aliphatic compounds inhibited the dichloromethane dehalogenase activity of the pure enzyme. The Ki values of the competitive inhibitors 1,2-dichloroethane and 1-chloropropane were 3 and 56 microM, respectively. Images PMID:3988708

  17. Extremotolerant survival and proteomics of Acinetobacter isolated from spacecraft assembly facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogul, Rakesh; Vaishampayan, Parag; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri; McCoy, Kelly; Derecho, Ivy; Dallal, Freida

    2012-07-01

    Herein, we report on the extreme hydrogen peroxide resistance of Acinetobacter isolated from the assembly facilities for the Mars Odyssey orbiter and Phoenix lander. Specific activity experiments on 10 different spacecraft-associated Acinetobacter strains show that the catalase contents are 15-250-fold greater than that of E. coli. Among this group, the highest and lowest catalase-containing strains, which were Acinetobacter nov. sp. 2P01AA and Acinetobacter radioresistens 50v1, demonstrated no significant and 2-log reductions in survivability upon exposure to 100 mM hydrogen peroxide (1 hr), respectively. These survivals are among the highest reported for non-spore forming Gram-negative bacteria. Comparative proteomics on these strains reveals that alkyl hydroperoxide reductase, ATP synthase, dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase, and peptidyl-tRNA hydrolase also contribute to the hydrogen peroxide extremotolerance. Together, the survival and metabolic features of the spacecraft-associated Acinetobacter indicate that survival in the dry and low-nutrient environments of clean rooms is supported by factors such as oxidant degradation, energy management, and protein biosynthesis.

  18. Polyvinylpyrrolidone-Capped Silver Nanoparticle Inhibits Infection of Carbapenem-Resistant Strain of Acinetobacter baumannii in the Human Pulmonary Epithelial Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishvanath Tiwari

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Acinetobacter baumannii, an opportunistic ESKAPE pathogen, causes respiratory and urinary tract infections. Its prevalence increases gradually in the clinical setup. Pathogenicity of Acinetobacter is significantly influenced by its ability to infect and survive in human pulmonary cells. Therefore, it is important to study the infection of A. baumannii in human pulmonary host cell (A-549, monitoring surface interacting and internalized bacteria. It was found that during infection of A. baumannii, about 40% bacteria adhered to A-549, whereas 20% got internalized inside pulmonary cell and induces threefold increase in the reactive oxygen species production. We have synthesized polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP-capped AgNPs using chemical methods and tested its efficacy against carbapenem-resistant strain of A. baumannii. PVP-capped silver nanoparticles (PVP-AgNPs (30 µM have shown antibacterial activity against carbapenem-resistant strain of A. baumannii and this concentration does not have any cytotoxic effect on the human pulmonary cell line (IC50 is 130 µM. Similarly, PVP-AgNPs treatment decreases 80% viability of intracellular bacteria, decreases adherence of A. baumannii to A-549 (40 to 2.2%, and decreases intracellular concentration (20 to 1.3% of A. baumannii. This concludes that PVP-AgNPs can be developed as a substitute for carbapenem to control the infection caused by carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii.

  19. Rapid identification of Iranian Acinetobacter baumannii strains by single PCR assay using BLA oxa-51 -like carbapenemase and evaluation of the antimicrobial resistance profiles of the isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari, Mahdi; Mahdi, Akbari; Niakan, Mohammad; Mohammad, Niakan; Taherikalani, Morovat; Morovat, Taherikalani; Feizabadi, Mohammad Mehdi; Mhammad-Mahdi, Feizabadi; Azadi, Namam Ali; Namam-Ali, Azadi; Soroush, Setareh; Setareh, Soroush; Emaneini, Mohammad; Mohammad, Emaneini; Abdolkarimi, Amir; Amir, Abdolkarimi; Maleki, Abbas; Abbas, Maleki; Hematian, Ali; Ali, Hematian

    2010-06-01

    The rapid identification of relevant bacterial pathogens is of utmost importance in clinical settings. The aim of this study was to test a rapid identification technique for A. baumannii strains from Tehran Hospitals and to determine the antibiotic resistance profiles of the isolates. A hundred strains of Acinetobacter spp. grown from clinical specimens were identified as A. baumannii by conventional methods. Using PCR a bla OXA-51 -like gene was detected in all A. baumannii isolates but not in other species of acinetobacter. More than half of the isolates proved resistant to a variety of antibiotics by the disk diffusion technique. The rate of resistance to gentamicin, imipenem, ampicillin-sulbactam and amikacin was determined to be 45%, 53%, 62% and 62%, respectively. Moreover, most isolates (more than 90%) showed resistance to cephalosporins. This study shows that the demonstration of the bla OXA-51-like gene is a reliable and rapid way for the presumptive identification of A. baumannii and reveals that the rate of antibiotic resistance is high in Iranian A. baumannii isolates to a variety of antibiotics.

  20. ISAba1/blaOXA-23: A serious obstacle to controlling the spread and treatment of Acinetobacter baumannii strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, Giselle Fukita; Zago, Maisa Cristina Barreto; Moreira, Rafael Renato Brondani; Zarpellon, Mirian Nicéa; Menegucci, Thatiany Cevallos; Cardoso, Celso Luiz; Tognim, Maria Cristina Bronharo

    2016-05-01

    This study demonstrated a direct correlation between Acinetobacter baumannii clusters carrying the ISAba1/blaOXA-23 gene and increased minimal inhibitory concentrations for carbapenems and greater clonal diversity. Our findings showed that clusters carrying ISAba1 are widely distributed in our hospital, further complicating the treatment and control of infections caused by A baumannii. Copyright © 2016 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Genome Sequence of the Dichloromethane-Degrading Bacterium Hyphomicrobium sp. Strain GJ21

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bringel, Françoise; Postema, Christiaan P; Mangenot, Sophie; Bibi-Triki, Sabrina; Chaignaud, Pauline; Farhan Ul Haque, Muhammad; Gruffaz, Christelle; Hermon, Louis; Louhichi, Yousra; Maucourt, Bruno; Muller, Emilie E L; Nadalig, Thierry; Lajus, Aurélie; Rouy, Zoé; Médigue, Claudine; Barbe, Valérie; Janssen, Dick B; Vuilleumier, Stéphane

    2017-01-01

    The genome sequence of Hyphomicrobium sp. strain GJ21, isolated in the Netherlands from samples of environments contaminated with halogenated pollutants and capable of using dichloromethane as its sole carbon and energy source, was determined.

  2. An assessment of adaptive and antagonistic properties of Trichoderma sp. strains in vegetable waste composts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolna-Maruwka Agnieszka

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The experiment consisted in monitoring the count of moulds and three selected Trichoderma sp. isolates (T1 - Trichoderma atroviride, T2 - Trichoderma harzianum, T3 - Trichoderma harzianum in vegetable (onion and tomato waste composted with additives (straw, pig manure. Additionally, the aim of the study was to determine the type of interaction occurring between autochthonous fungi isolated from composts after the end of the thermophilic phase and Trichoderma sp. strains applied in the experiment. Number of microorganisms was determined by the plate method, next the identification was confirmed. The rating scale developed by Mańka was used to determine the type of interactions occurring between microorganisms. The greatest count of moulds in onion waste composts was noted in the object which had simultaneously been inoculated with two strains T1 - T. atroviride and T3 - T. harzianum. The greatest count of moulds was noted in the tomato waste composts inoculated with T2 - T. harzianum strain. Microscope identification revealed that Penicillum sp., Rhizopus sp., Alternaria sp. and Mucor sp. strains were predominant in onion waste composts. In tomato waste composts Penicillium was the predominant genus, followed by Rhizopus. The test of antagonism revealed the inhibitory effect of Trichoderma isolates on most autochthonous strains of moulds. Tomato waste composts proved to be better substrates for the growth and development of Trichoderma sp. isolates. The results of the study show that vegetable waste can be used in agriculture as carriers of antagonistic microorganisms.

  3. In-vitro activity of polymyxin B in combination with imipenem, rifampicin and azithromycin versus multidrug resistant strains of Acinetobacter baumannii producing OXA-23 carbapenemases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bean David C

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acinetobacter baumannii has emerged as a major nosocomial pathogen worldwide. Many of the circulating strains exhibit multi-drug resistance remaining consistently susceptible only to polymyxins. In-vitro studies have reported that polymyxins combined with carbapenems, rifampicin or azithromycin are synergistic against these strains despite in-vitro resistance to these agents alone. The use of antimicrobial combinations have therefore been advocated for the treatment of severe A. baumannii infection in man. In order to determine whether such combinations are synergistic against the prevalent clones of multi-drug resistant A. baumannii causing infection in the UK, we performed synergy testing against representative isolates using two rapid Etest methods. Methods The activity of polymyxin in combination with imipenem, azithromycin or rifampicin was assessed against five strains of multi-drug resistant A. baumannii encoding OXA-23 carbapenemases. Synergy studies were performed by Etest-agar dilution and a combined Etest strip method. Synergy was defined as a FICI of ≤ 0.5. Results All strains were resistant to β-lactams, carbapenems, quinolones and aminoglycosides but susceptible to polymyxins. Marked synergy was not seen with polymyxin in combination with imipenem, rifampicin or azithromycin against any of the strains. Borderline synergy (FICI = 0.5 was seen against one strain belonging to OXA-23 clonal group 2, using the Etest-agar dilution method only. Conclusion In-vitro synergy with polymxyin in combination with imipenem, rifampicin or azithromycin is highly strain and method dependent. As reliable synergy could not be demonstrated against the prevalent UK multi-drug resistant strains, use of such combinations should not be used for empirical treatment of these infections in the UK. The optimal treatment for serious multi-drug A. baumannii infection and the role of combination therapy should be addressed in a prospective

  4. Structure of a short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) within a genomic island from a clinical strain of Acinetobacter baumannii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Bhumika S; Tetu, Sasha G; Harrop, Stephen J; Paulsen, Ian T; Mabbutt, Bridget C

    2014-10-01

    Over 15% of the genome of an Australian clinical isolate of Acinetobacter baumannii occurs within genomic islands. An uncharacterized protein encoded within one island feature common to this and other International Clone II strains has been studied by X-ray crystallography. The 2.4 Å resolution structure of SDR-WM99c reveals it to be a new member of the classical short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) superfamily. The enzyme contains a nucleotide-binding domain and, like many other SDRs, is tetrameric in form. The active site contains a catalytic tetrad (Asn117, Ser146, Tyr159 and Lys163) and water molecules occupying the presumed NADP cofactor-binding pocket. An adjacent cleft is capped by a relatively mobile helical subdomain, which is well positioned to control substrate access.

  5. In vivo activity of vancomycin combined with colistin against multidrug-resistant strains of Acinetobacter baumannii in a Galleria mellonella model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Haifei; Lv, Na; Hu, Lifen; Liu, Yanyan; Cheng, Jun; Ye, Ying; Li, Jiabin

    2016-01-01

    With increasing antibiotic resistance, the selection of effective treatment of A. baumannii infections is particularly challenging. This study assessed the activities of the combination of vancomycin and colistin combination in vitro and in vivo using a Galleria mellonella model against four colistin-susceptible or colistin-resistant A. baumannii strains. In checkerboard assays, synergy was observed between vancomycin and colistin for all four strains tested (0.156 ≤ Fractional inhibitory concentration indices [FICI] ≤ 0.281). In time-kill assays, the combination showed continued bactericidal activity and synergy after 24 h for colistin-susceptible strains. For colistin-resistant strains, the combination resulted in bactericidal activity within 8 h, but sustained bacterial re-growth was then observed. Treatment of G. mellonella larvae infected with lethal doses of A. baumannii (except 19606R) resulted in significantly increased survival rates when vancomycin was given with colistin compared to colistin treatment alone (p < 0.05). These findings suggest that regimens containing vancomycin may be useful for infections due to multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii.

  6. Specificity of monoclonal antibodies to strains of Dickeya sp. that cause bacterial heart rot of pineapple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peckham, Gabriel D; Kaneshiro, Wendy S; Luu, Van; Berestecky, John M; Alvarez, Anne M

    2010-10-01

    During a severe outbreak of bacterial heart rot that occurred in pineapple plantations on Oahu, Hawaii, in 2003 and years following, 43 bacterial strains were isolated from diseased plants or irrigation water and identified as Erwinia chrysanthemi (now Dickeya sp.) by phenotypic, molecular, and pathogenicity assays. Rep-PCR fingerprint patterns grouped strains from pineapple plants and irrigation water into five genotypes (A-E) that differed from representatives of other Dickeya species, Pectobacterium carotovorum and other enteric saprophytes isolated from pineapple. Monoclonal antibodies produced following immunization of mice with virulent type C Dickeya sp. showed only two specificities. MAb Pine-1 (2D11G1, IgG1 with kappa light chain) reacted to all 43 pineapple/water strains and some reference strains (D. dianthicola, D. chrysanthemi, D. paradisiaca, some D. dadantii, and uncharacterized Dickeya sp.) but did not react to reference strains of D. dieffenbachiae, D. zeae, or one of the two Malaysian pineapple strains. MAb Pine-2 (2A7F2, IgG3 with kappa light chain) reacted to all type B, C, and D strains but not to any A or E strains or any reference strains except Dickeya sp. isolated from Malaysian pineapple. Pathogenicity tests showed that type C strains were more aggressive than type A strains when inoculated during cool months. Therefore, MAb Pine-2 distinguishes the more virulent type C strains from less virulent type A pineapple strains and type E water strains. MAbs with these two specificities enable development of rapid diagnostic tests that will distinguish the systemic heart rot pathogen from opportunistic bacteria associated with rotted tissues. Use of the two MAbs in field assays also permits the monitoring of a known subpopulation and provides additional decision tools for disease containment and management practices.

  7. The determination and arrangement of a combination of enzyme lactate dehydrogenase of bacteria Acinetobacter sp. as a device the identity important bacteria agent composts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukmawati, D.; Puspitaningrum, R.; Muzajjanah

    2017-07-01

    The number of garbage generated by the industry or society is a usual problem encountered by almost all urban centers, especially large cities such as Jakarta. Waste prevention strategy required quickly and accurately. One strategy for tackling the Junk was getting lactic acid-producing bacteria. It has been shown that lactic acid can increase the acceleration of organic matter such as an overhaul of lignin and cellulose as well as out causing toxic compounds arising from decay. This research will be conducted on the determination and characterization of the enzyme-producing compost bacteria LDH lactate dehydrogenase LDH - which in isolation from the garbage Landfill Rawasari. Methodology: Research carried out consists: isolation of lactic acid-producing bacteria; identification of microscopic, macroscopic and staining Gram; cellulose assay, and optimization of PCR conditions LDH enzymes producing bacteria. Isolation is performed by dilution method and the direct method. As many as 5-point sampling. Each stage is conducted from 10 grams of soil from the top surface of the compost. Isolation results obtained 100 isolate the bacteria. Base on the characteristic of macroscopic and microscopic observations retrieved 14 isolates of bacteria have shaped rods and brought forth a negative kind of Gram positive staining. Bacterial isolates with codes (BK1; BK3; BK4; BK5; BK6; BK7; BK8; BK9; BK10; BK11: BK12; BK 13). The potential bacteria with ability produce lactate dehydrogenase was BK1 and BK3. Base for analysis phylogenetic there was identification bacteria bak1 and bak3 where Acinetobacter sp.

  8. Acinetobacter guangdongensis Feng et al. 2014 is a junior heterotypic synonym of Acinetobacter indicus Malhotra et al. 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemec, Alexandr; Radolfova-Krizova, Lenka

    2017-10-01

    A draft whole-genome sequence was obtained for Acinetobacter guangdongensis strain KCTC 42012(T) and compared against those of the type strains of all Acinetobacter species with validly published names. High similarity was found to Acinetobacter indicus CCM 7832(T) (average nucleotide identity based on blast and digital DNA-DNA hybridization values of 96.3 and 70.4 %, respectively). In addition, the metabolic, physiological and chemotaxonomic features of KCTC 42012(T) were shown to be congruent with those of A. indicus. We conclude that Acinetobacter guangdongensisFeng et al. 2014 is a later heterotypic synonym of Acinetobacter indicus Malhotra et al. 2012.

  9. Genome sequence of Janthinobacterium sp. strain PAMC 25724, isolated from alpine glacier cryoconite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su Jin; Shin, Seung Chul; Hong, Soon Gyu; Lee, Yung Mi; Lee, Hyoungseok; Lee, Jungeun; Choi, In-Geol; Park, Hyun

    2012-04-01

    The draft genome of Janthinobacterium sp. strain PAMC 25724, which is a violacein-producing psychrotolerant bacterium, was determined. The strain was isolated from glacier cryoconite of the Alps mountain permafrost region. The sequence will allow identification and characterization of the genetic determination of its cold-adaptive properties.

  10. Diazinon degradation by a novel strain Ralstonia sp. DI-3 and X-ray ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Diazinon is a widely used organophosphorus insecticide often detected in the environment. A highly effectivediazinon-degrading Ralstonia sp. strain DI-3 was isolated from agricultural soil. Strain DI-3 can utilize dimethoateas its sole carbon source for growth and degrade an initial concentration of 100 mg·L^{−1} diazinon to ...

  11. A New Alkali-Thermostable Azoreductase from Bacillus sp. Strain SF

    OpenAIRE

    Maier, Jurgen; A. Kandelbauer; Erlacher, Angelika; Paulo, Artur Cavaco; Gübitz, Georg M.

    2004-01-01

    A screening for dye-decolorizing alkali-thermophilic microorganisms resulted in a Bacillus sp. strain isolated out of the wastewater drain of a textile finishing company. An NADH-dependent azoreductase of this strain, Bacillus sp. strain SF, was found to be responsible for the decolorization of azo dyes. This enzyme was purified by a combination of ammonium sulfate precipitation and anion-exchange and affinity chromatography and had a molecular mass of 61.6 kDa and an isoelectric point at pH ...

  12. Degradation of 4-fluorophenol by Arthrobacter sp strain IF1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferreira, Maria Isabel M.; Marchesi, Julian R.; Janssen, Dick B.

    A Gram-positive bacterial strain capable of aerobic biodegradation of 4-fluorophenol (4-FP) as the sole source of carbon and energy was isolated by selective enrichment from soil samples collected near an industrial site. The organism, designated strain IF1, was identified as a member of the genus

  13. An Amphipathic Undecapeptide with All d-Amino Acids Shows Promising Activity against Colistin-Resistant Strains of Acinetobacter baumannii and a Dual Mode of Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oddo, Alberto; Thomsen, Thomas T; Kjelstrup, Susanne; Gorey, Ciara; Franzyk, Henrik; Frimodt-Møller, Niels; Løbner-Olesen, Anders; Hansen, Paul R

    2015-11-16

    Multiple strains of Acinetobacter baumannii have developed multidrug resistance (MDR), leaving colistin as the only effective treatment. The cecropin-α-melittin hybrid BP100 (KKLFKKILKYL-NH2) and its analogs have previously shown activity against a wide array of plant and human pathogens. In this study, we investigated the in vitro antibacterial activities of 18 BP100 analogs (four known and 14 new) against the MDR A. baumannii strain ATCC BAA-1605, as well as against a number of other clinically relevant human pathogens. Selected peptides were further evaluated against strains of A. baumannii that acquired resistance to colistin due to mutations of the lpxC, lpxD, pmrA, and pmrB genes. The novel analogue BP214 showed antimicrobial activity at 1 to 2 μM and a hemolytic 50% effective concentration (EC50) of >150 μM. The lower activity of its enantiomer suggests a dual, specific and nonspecific mode of action. Interestingly, colistin behaved antagonistically to BP214 when pmrAB and lpxC mutants were challenged. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  14. Marine diatom, Navicula sp. strain JPCC DA0580 and marine green alga, Chlorella sp. strain NKG400014 as potential sources for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Mitsufumi; Sugiyama, Hiroshi; Maeda, Yoshiaki; Sato, Reiko; Tanaka, Tsuyoshi; Matsunaga, Tadashi

    2010-05-01

    Marine diatom, strain JPCC DA0580, and marine green microalga strain NKG400014 were selected as high neutral lipid-producers from marine microalgal culture collection toward biodiesel production. These strains were tentatively identified as Navicula sp. and Chlorella sp., respectively, by 18S rDNA analysis. Growth and lipid accumulation conditions of both strains were analyzed by changing nutrient concentrations in growth media and initial illuminance intensity. The highest productivity of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) reached to 154 mg/L/week for NKG400014 and 185 mg/L/week for JPCC DA0580. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis indicates that FAME fraction from NKG400014 mainly contained 9-12-15-octadecatrienoate (C18:3) and that from JPCC DA0580 mainly contained methyl palmitate (C16:0) and methyl palmitoleate (C16:1). Furthermore, calorimetric analysis revealed that the energy content of strain was 4,233 +/- 55 kcal/kg (i.e., 15.9 +/- 0.2 MJ/kg) for NKG400014 and 6,423 +/- 139 kcal/mg (i.e., 26.9 +/- 0.6 MJ/kg) for JPCC DA0580, respectively. The value from JPCC DA0580 was equivalent to that of coal. The strains NKG400014 and JPCC DA0580 will become a promising resource that can grow as dominant species in the open ocean toward production of both liquid and solid biofuels.

  15. A Desulfitobacterium sp. strain PR reductively dechlorinates both 1,1,1-trichloroethane and chloroform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Chang; Zhao, Siyan; He, Jianzhong

    2014-11-01

    1,1,1-Trichloroethane (TCA) and chloroform are two notorious groundwater pollutants. Here we report the isolation and characterization of Desulfitobacterium sp. strain PR that rapidly dechlorinates both compounds. In pyruvate-amended medium, strain PR reductively dechlorinates ∼ 1.0 mM TCA completely to monochloroethane within 15 days. Under the same conditions, strain PR dechlorinates ∼ 1.2 mM chloroform to predominantly dichloromethane (∼ 1.14 mM) and trace amount of monochloromethane (∼ 0.06 mM) within 10 days. Strain PR shares 96.7% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with its closest relative - Desulfitobacterium metallireducens strain 853-15; however, it distinguishes itself from known Desulfitobacterium strains by its inability of utilizing several of their commonly shared substrates such as lactate, thiosulfate and sulfite. A reductive dehalogenase gene (ctrA) in strain PR was identified to be responsible for dechlorination of both TCA and chloroform, showing a maximum expression level of 5.95 ∼ 6.25 copies of transcripts cell(-1) . CtrA shares 94% amino acid sequence identity with CfrA in Dehalobacter sp. strain CF50 and DcrA in Dehalobacter sp. strain DCA. Interestingly, strain PR could tolerate high aqueous concentrations (up to 0.45 mM) of trichloroethene, another groundwater pollutant that often coexists with TCA/chloroform. As the first chloroform-respiring and the second TCA-respiring isolate that has been identified, Desulfitobacterium sp. strain PR may prove useful in remediation of halogenated alkanes with trihalomethyl (-CX₃) groups. © 2014 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Genomic analysis of novel phytopathogenic Georgenia sp. strain SUB25.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Pooja P; Rakhashiya, Purvi M; Thaker, Vrinda S

    2015-09-01

    A Gram positive bacterium, Georgenia sp. SUB25 was isolated from infected leaves of Solanum lycopersicum L. in Rajkot (22.30°N, 70.78°E), Gujarat, India. We sequenced and analyzed Georgenia sp. SUB25 that is novel plant pathogen using next generation sequencing platform and assembly yielded contigs representing a size of 4.84 Mb with 81 tRNAs and 88 rRNAs. The whole genome sequencing has been deposited in DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank under the accession number JNFL00000000. This genome sequence contains Type II secretion system genes, which involved in pathogenicity mechanism that may help to understand plant microbial interaction.

  17. [Isolation, identification and characterization of a microcystin-degrading bacterium Paucibacter sp. strain CH].

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Di-Jie; Chen, Xiao-Guo; Xiang, Hui-Yi; Ouyang, Liao; Yang, Bing

    2014-01-01

    A bacterium capable of degrading microcystin (MC), strain CH, was isolated from the sediment of Lake Chaohu, China. Strain CH was tentatively identified as Paucibacter sp. based on the analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences. Paucibacter sp. strain CH can use microcystin LR (MCLR) as the sole carbon and energy sources, and 11.6 microg x mL(-1) of MCLR was degraded to below the detection limit within 10 hours with the first-order reaction rate constant of 0.242 h(-1). The optimum temperature and initial pH for MC degradation were 25-30 degrees C and pH 6-9, respectively. A novel intermediate product containing the Adda residue was detected during the degradation of MCLR, which is different from those produced by strain ACM-3962, and Adda was recognized as the final product of the degradation process. Furthermore, no homologue to any of the four genes, mlrA, mlrB, mlrC and mlrD previously associated with the degradation of MCLR by strain ACM-3962 was found in strain CH. These findings suggest that Paucibacter sp. strain CH mighe degrade MC through a different pathway from that of strain ACM-3962.

  18. Streptomyces sp. strain PGPA39 alleviates salt stress and promotes growth of 'Micro Tom' tomato plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaniyandi, S A; Damodharan, K; Yang, S H; Suh, J W

    2014-09-01

    To identify an actinobacterial strain that can promote growth and alleviate salinity stress in tomato plants. Actinobacteria were isolated from agricultural soil and screened for ACC deaminase activity, production of indole acetic acid (IAA), solubilization of tricalcium phosphate and sodium chloride (NaCl) salinity tolerance. Among the several strains tested, one strain designated PGPA39 exhibited higher IAA production, and phosphate solubilization in addition to ACC deaminase activity, and tolerance to 1 mol l(-1) NaCl. Strain PGPA39 was identified as a Streptomyces strain based on 16S rDNA sequence and designated Streptomyces sp. strain PGPA39. It promoted the growth of Arabidopsis seedlings in vitro as evidenced by a significant increase in plant biomass and number of lateral roots. Salinity stress-alleviating activity of PGPA39 was evaluated using 'Micro Tom' tomato plants with 180 mmol l(-1) NaCl stress under gnotobiotic condition. A significant increase in plant biomass and chlorophyll content and a reduction in leaf proline content were observed in PGPA39-inoculated tomato plants under salt stress compared with control and salt-stressed noninoculated plants. Streptomyces sp. strain PGPA39 alleviated salt stress and promoted the growth of tomato plants. This study shows the potential of Streptomyces sp. strain PGPA39 in alleviating salinity stress in tomato plants and could be utilized for stress alleviation in crop plants under field conditions. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  19. Draft Genome Sequence of the Antitrypanosomally Active Sponge-Associated Bacterium Actinokineospora sp. Strain EG49

    KAUST Repository

    Harjes, Janno

    2014-03-06

    The marine sponge-associated bacterium Actinokineospora sp. strain EG49 produces the antitrypanosomal angucycline-like compound actinosporin A. The draft genome of Actinokineospora sp. EG49 has a size of 7.5 megabases and a GC content of 72.8% and contains 6,629 protein-coding sequences (CDS). antiSMASH predicted 996 genes residing in 36 secondary metabolite gene clusters.

  20. Antibiotic susceptibility profiles of Mycoplasma sp. 1220 strains isolated from geese in Hungary

    OpenAIRE

    Gr?zner, D?nes; Kreizinger, Zsuzsa; Sulyok, Kinga M.; R?nai, Zsuzsanna; Hrivn?k, Veronika; Turcs?nyi, Ibolya; J?nosi, Szil?rd; Gyuranecz, Mikl?s

    2016-01-01

    Background Mycoplasma sp. 1220 can induce inflammation primarily in the genital and respiratory tracts of waterfowl, leading to serious economic losses. Adequate housing and appropriate antibiotic treatment are promoted in the control of the disease. The aim of the present study was to determine the in vitro susceptibility to thirteen different antibiotics and an antibiotic combination of thirty-eight M. sp. 1220 strains isolated from geese and a duck in several parts of Hungary, Central Euro...

  1. Acinetobacter: environmental and biotechnological applications ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Biotechnology ... Abstract. Among microbial communities involved in different ecosystems such as soil, freshwater, wastewater and solid wastes, several strains belonging to the genus of Acinetobacter have been attracting growing interest from medical, environmental and a biotechnological point of view.

  2. Methyl Red Decolorization Efficiency of a Korea Strain of Aspergillus sp. Immobilized into Different Polymeric Matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Beom-Su; Blaghen, Mohamed; Lee, Kang-Min

    2017-07-01

      Intensive research studies have revealed that fungal decolorization of dye wastewater is a promising replacement for the current process of dye wastewater decolorization. The authors isolated an Aspergillus sp. from the effluent of a textile industry area in Korea and assessed the effects of a variety of operational parameters on the decolorization of methyl red (MR) by this strain of Aspergillus sp. This Aspergillus sp. was then immobilized by entrapment in several polymeric matrices and the effects of operational conditions on MR decolorization were investigated again. The optimal decolorization activity of this Aspergillus sp. was observed in 1% glucose at a temperature of 37 °C and pH of 6.0. Furthermore, stable decolorization efficiency was observed when fungal biomass was immobilized into alginate gel during repeated batch experiment. These results suggest that the Aspergillus sp. isolated in Korea could be used to treat industrial wastewaters containing MR dye.

  3. Dynamics of sodium dodecyl sulfate utilization andantibiotic susceptibility of strain Pseudomonas sp. ATCC19151

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovčić B.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas sp. ATCC19151 harbors a gene encoding a putative alkylsulfatase (sdsA. Here we report a growth ability of this strain in minimal media containing 0.5, 0.75, and 1% sodium dodecyl sulfate as the sole carbon source. The most prominent growth was detected for the minimal medium with 0.5% SDS, so this concentration of SDS was used to monitor Pseudomonas sp. ATCC19151 SDS biodegradation dynamics. Bacterial growth coincided with the disappearance of SDS. Antibiotic susceptibility was tested as well. Pseudomonas sp. ATCC19151 was resistant to six out of nine tested antibiotics, including ampicillin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, tobramycin, nalidixic acid, and gentamycin.

  4. Structure of a short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) within a genomic island from a clinical strain of Acinetobacter baumannii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, Bhumika S., E-mail: bhumika.shah@mq.edu.au; Tetu, Sasha G. [Macquarie University, Research Park Drive, Sydney, NSW 2109 (Australia); Harrop, Stephen J. [University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Paulsen, Ian T.; Mabbutt, Bridget C. [Macquarie University, Research Park Drive, Sydney, NSW 2109 (Australia)

    2014-09-25

    The structure of a short-chain dehydrogenase encoded within genomic islands of A. baumannii strains has been solved to 2.4 Å resolution. This classical SDR incorporates a flexible helical subdomain. The NADP-binding site and catalytic side chains are identified. Over 15% of the genome of an Australian clinical isolate of Acinetobacter baumannii occurs within genomic islands. An uncharacterized protein encoded within one island feature common to this and other International Clone II strains has been studied by X-ray crystallography. The 2.4 Å resolution structure of SDR-WM99c reveals it to be a new member of the classical short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) superfamily. The enzyme contains a nucleotide-binding domain and, like many other SDRs, is tetrameric in form. The active site contains a catalytic tetrad (Asn117, Ser146, Tyr159 and Lys163) and water molecules occupying the presumed NADP cofactor-binding pocket. An adjacent cleft is capped by a relatively mobile helical subdomain, which is well positioned to control substrate access.

  5. Isolation, identification and diesel-oil biodegradation capacities of indigenous hydrocarbon-degrading strains of Cellulosimicrobium cellulans and Acinetobacter baumannii from tarball at Terengganu beach, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkem, Bruno Martins; Halimoon, Normala; Yusoff, Fatimah Md; Johari, Wan Lufti Wan; Zakaria, Mohamad Pauzi; Medipally, Srikanth Reddy; Kannan, Narayanan

    2016-06-15

    In this study, we isolated two indigenous hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria from tarball found in Rhu Sepuluh beach, Terengganu, Malaysia. These bacteria were identified based on their physiological characteristic and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, and they showed 99% similarity with Cellulosimicrobium cellulans DSM 43879 and Acinetobacter baumannii ATCC 19606 respectively. Their hydrocarbon-degrading capabilities were tested using diesel-oil as sole carbon source. Results analysed using GC-MS, showed diesel-oil alkanes were degraded an average 64.4% by C. cellulans and 58.1% by A. baumannii with medium optical density reaching 0.967 (C. cellulans) and 1.515 (A. baumannii) in minimal salt media at 32°C for 10days. Individual diesel-oil alkanes were degraded between 10%-95.4% by C. cellulans and 0.2%-95.9% by A. baumannii. Both strains utilized diesel-oil for growth. The study suggests both strains are part of indigenous hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria in tarball with potential for bioremediation of oil-polluted marine environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. [The taxonomic study of the strain Bacillus sp. UCM B-7404--phytopathogenic fungae antagonist].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukova, D A; Klochko, V V; Zelena, L B; Reva, O M; Dragovoz, I V; Avdeeva, L V

    2015-01-01

    The polyphasic taxonomic analysis of strain Bacillus sp. UCM B-7404 active against phytopathogenic fungi and producing extracellular phytohormones, lytic enzymes and lipopeptide antifungal compounds has been carried out. The basic cell wall fatty acids presented by branched iso- and anteiso- C15:0 and C17:0 acids, contained 65-77% of the average pool. Phylogenetic assay of 16S rRNA gene nucleotide sequence, phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characteristics proved the attachment of strain Bacillus sp. UCM B-7404 to Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum.

  7. Response to Bile Salts in Clinical Strains of Acinetobacter baumannii Lacking the AdeABC Efflux Pump: Virulence Associated with Quorum Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Maria; Blasco, Lucia; Gato, Eva; Perez, Astrid; Fernández-Garcia, Laura; Martínez-Martinez, Luis; Fernández-Cuenca, Felipe; Rodríguez-Baño, Jesús; Pascual, Alvaro; Bou, German; Tomás, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Acinetobacter baumannii is an opportunistic nosocomial pathogen associated with multiple infections. This pathogen usually colonizes (first stage of microbial infection) host tissues that are in contact with the external environment. As one of the sites of entry in human hosts is the gastrointestinal tract, the pathogen must be capable of tolerating bile salts. However, studies analyzing the molecular characteristics involved in the response to bile salts in clinical strains of A. baumannii are scarce. Material and Methods: Microbiological and transcriptional studies (arrays and RT-PCR) in the response to bile salts were carried out in isogenic (A. baumanni ΔadeB ATCC 17978 and A. baumannii ΔadeL ATCC 17978) and clinical strains from clone ST79/PFGE-HUI-1 which is characterized by lacking the AdeABC efflux pump and by overexpression the AdeFGH efflux pump. Results and Discussion: In presence of bile salts, in addition to the glutamate/aspartate transporter were found overexpressed in A. baumannii ΔadeB ATCC 17978, the virulence factors (surface motility, biofilm, and Type VI Secretion System) which are associated with activation of the Quorum Sensing system. Overexpression of these factors was confirmed in clinical strains of clone ST79/PFGE-HUI-1. Conclusions: This the first study about the adaptive response to bile salts investigating the molecular and microbiological characteristics in response to bile salts of an isogenic model of A. baumannii ATCC 17978 and clinical isolates of A. baumannii (clinical strains of ST79/PFGE-HUI-1) lacking the main RND efflux pump (AdeABC). Clinical isolates of A. baumannii lacking the AdeABC efflux pump (clone ST79/PFGE-HUI-1) displayed a new clinical profile (increased invasiveness) possibly associated with the response to stress conditions (such as the presence of bile salts). PMID:28536672

  8. methoxyethanol by a new bacterium isolate Pseudomonas sp. Strain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    at room temperature by using a Clark - Type electrode Model 10 Ranke Brothers, Birmingham,. Great Britain) ... strain VB was determined with Clarke-Type electrode. Briefly, 3ml of 50mM phosphate buffer. (pH 7.2) was ... Aerobic transformation of 2 – methoxyethanol and hypothetical pathways intermediates: Studies of the.

  9. Bacillus nakamurai sp. nov., a black pigment producing strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two isolates of a Gram-positive, strictly aerobic, motile, rod-shaped, endospore-forming bacterium were identified during a survey of the Bacillus diversity of the Agriculture Research Service Culture Collection. These strains were originally isolated from soil and have a phenotype of producing a da...

  10. Molecular Epidemiology and Drug Resistance of Acinetobacter baumannii Isolated from Hospitals in Southern Poland: ICU as a Risk Factor for XDR Strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmielarczyk, Agnieszka; Pilarczyk-Żurek, Magdalena; Kamińska, Wanda; Pobiega, Monika; Romaniszyn, Dorota; Ziółkowski, Grzegorz; Wójkowska-Mach, Jadwiga; Bulanda, Małgorzata

    2016-06-01

    The objectives of the present study were to investigate the carbapenemase and metallo-beta-lactamase genes of Acinetobacter baumannii clinical isolates by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and real time PCR and to determine the molecular epidemiology of the strains using the DiversiLab tool. From these data, correlations between drug resistance, resistance genes, and epidemiological clones may be revealed. The study was conducted on 125 A. baumannii collected over the 2013 year. The majority of the isolates from both intensive care unit (ICU) and non-ICU cases originated from pneumonia infections (79.2%), isolates from blood infections accounted for 17.6% and 3.2% were from meningitis infections. In the ICU cases compared with the non-ICU cases, bloodstream infections were more frequently diagnosed (19.2% vs. 11.5%). Sixty percent of A. baumannii strains were resistant to all the antimicrobials tested with the exception of colistin. All strains were susceptible to colistin and polymyxin B. Extensively drug-resistant (XDR) strains accounted for 80.8% of the isolates tested and these XDR strains were more frequently isolated from ICU cases than from non-ICU cases (93.9% vs. 30.8%). Among the 101 isolates of A. baumannii exhibiting the XDR pattern of resistance, 80 possessed the blaOXA-24 gene and 29 had the blaOXA-23 gene. Only two isolates possessed the blaVIM gene. The presence of the ISAba1element was confirmed among 10 strains from patients hospitalized in the ICU. Using repetitive extragenic palindromic sequence PCR (DiversiLab typing), six clones and 12 unique strains were identified, of which two clones dominated. Most isolates belonging to clone 1 (66.7%) and clone 2 (85.5%) were susceptible only to colistin. In summary, it is clear from our findings and those of other studies that carbapenem resistance among A. baumannii strains presents a serious clinical problem worldwide. Furthermore, the presence of XDR international clone II in ICUs poses a potential risk

  11. Improved Eco-Friendly Recombinant Anabaena sp. Strain PCC7120 with Enhanced Nitrogen Biofertilizer Potential▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaurasia, Akhilesh Kumar; Apte, Shree Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Photosynthetic, nitrogen-fixing Anabaena strains are native to tropical paddy fields and contribute to the carbon and nitrogen economy of such soils. Genetic engineering was employed to improve the nitrogen biofertilizer potential of Anabaena sp. strain PCC7120. Constitutive enhanced expression of an additional integrated copy of the hetR gene from a light-inducible promoter elevated HetR protein expression and enhanced functional heterocyst frequency in the recombinant strain. The recombinant strain displayed consistently higher nitrogenase activity than the wild-type strain and appeared to be in homeostasis with compatible modulation of photosynthesis and respiration. The enhanced combined nitrogen availability from the recombinant strain positively catered to the nitrogen demand of rice seedlings in short-term hydroponic experiments and supported better growth. The engineered strain is stable, eco-friendly, and useful for environmental application as nitrogen biofertilizer in paddy fields. PMID:21057013

  12. Improved eco-friendly recombinant Anabaena sp. strain PCC7120 with enhanced nitrogen biofertilizer potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaurasia, Akhilesh Kumar; Apte, Shree Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Photosynthetic, nitrogen-fixing Anabaena strains are native to tropical paddy fields and contribute to the carbon and nitrogen economy of such soils. Genetic engineering was employed to improve the nitrogen biofertilizer potential of Anabaena sp. strain PCC7120. Constitutive enhanced expression of an additional integrated copy of the hetR gene from a light-inducible promoter elevated HetR protein expression and enhanced functional heterocyst frequency in the recombinant strain. The recombinant strain displayed consistently higher nitrogenase activity than the wild-type strain and appeared to be in homeostasis with compatible modulation of photosynthesis and respiration. The enhanced combined nitrogen availability from the recombinant strain positively catered to the nitrogen demand of rice seedlings in short-term hydroponic experiments and supported better growth. The engineered strain is stable, eco-friendly, and useful for environmental application as nitrogen biofertilizer in paddy fields.

  13. Identification and nitrogen regulation of the cyanase gene from the cyanobacteria Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 and Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7942.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harano, Y; Suzuki, I; Maeda, S; Kaneko, T; Tabata, S; Omata, T

    1997-09-01

    An open reading frame (slr0899) on the genome of Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 encodes a polypeptide of 149 amino acid residues, the sequence of which is 40% identical to that of cyanase from Escherichia coli. Introduction into a cyanase-deficient E. coli strain of a plasmid-borne slr0899 resulted in expression of low but significant activity of cyanase. Targeted interruption of a homolog of slr0899 from Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7942, encoding a protein 77% identical to that encoded by slr0899, resulted in loss of cellular cyanase activity. These results indicated that slr0899 and its homolog in the strain PCC 7942 represent the cyanobacterial cyanase gene (designated cynS). While cynS of strain PCC 6803 is tightly clustered with the four putative molybdenum cofactor biosynthesis genes located downstream, cynS of strain PCC 7942 was found to be tightly clustered with the two genes located upstream, which encode proteins similar to the subunits of the cyanobacterial nitrate-nitrite transporter. In both strains, cynS was transcribed as a part of a large transcription unit and the transcription was negatively regulated by ammonium. Cyanase activity was low in ammonium-grown cells and was induced 7- to 13-fold by inhibition of ammonium fixation or by transfer of the cells to ammonium-free media. These findings indicated that cyanase is an ammonium-repressible enzyme in cyanobacteria, the expression of which is regulated at the level of transcription. Similar to other ammonium-repressible genes in cyanobacteria, expression of cynS required NtcA, a global nitrogen regulator of cyanobacteria.

  14. Alkaloids from an algicolous strain of Talaromyces sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Haibin; Li, Fang; Ji, Naiyun

    2016-03-01

    Compounds isolated and identified in a culture of the alga-endophytic fungus Talaromyces sp. cf-16 included two naturally occurring alkaloids, 2-[( S)-hydroxy(phenyl)methyl]-3-methylquinazolin-4(3H)-one ( 1a) and 2-[( R)-hydroxy(phenyl)methyl]-3-methylquinazolin-4(3H)-one ( 1b), that were identified for the first time. In addition, seven known compounds ( 2- 8) were obtained from the culture. Following chiral column chromatography, compounds 1a and 1b were identified as enantiomers by spectroscopic analyses and quantum chemical calculations. Bioassay results showed that 5 was more toxic to brine shrimp than the other compounds, and that 3- 6 could inhibit Staphylococcus aureus.

  15. Degradation of 4-fluorophenol by Arthrobacter sp. strain IF1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Maria Isabel M.; Marchesi, Julian R.

    2008-01-01

    A Gram-positive bacterial strain capable of aerobic biodegradation of 4-fluorophenol (4-FP) as the sole source of carbon and energy was isolated by selective enrichment from soil samples collected near an industrial site. The organism, designated strain IF1, was identified as a member of the genus Arthrobacter on the basis of 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequence analysis. Arthrobacter strain IF1 was able to mineralize 4-FP up to concentrations of 5 mM in batch culture. Stoichiometric release of fluoride ions was observed, suggesting that there is no formation of halogenated dead-end products during 4-FP metabolism. The degradative pathway of 4-FP was investigated using enzyme assays and identification of intermediates by gas chromatography (GC), GC–mass spectrometry (MS), high-performance liquid chromatography, and liquid chromatography–MS. Cell-free extracts of 4-FP-grown cells contained no activity for catechol 1,2-dioxygenase or catechol 2,3-dioxygenase, which indicates that the pathway does not proceed through a catechol intermediate. Cells grown on 4-FP oxidized 4-FP, hydroquinone, and hydroxyquinol but not 4-fluorocatechol. During 4-FP metabolism, hydroquinone accumulated as a product. Hydroquinone could be converted to hydroxyquinol, which was further transformed into maleylacetic acid and β-ketoadipic acid. These results indicate that the biodegradation of 4-FP starts with a 4-FP monooxygenase reaction that yields benzoquinone, which is reduced to hydroquinone and further metabolized via the β-ketoadipic acid pathway. PMID:18228015

  16. Evaluation of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry for species identification of Acinetobacter strains isolated from blood cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishii, K; Kikuchi, K; Matsuda, N; Yoshida, A; Okuzumi, K; Uetera, Y; Yasuhara, H; Moriya, K

    2014-05-01

    The clinical relevance of Acinetobacter species, other than A. baumannii, as human pathogens has not been sufficiently assessed owing to the insufficiency of simple phenotypic clinical diagnostic laboratory tests. Infections caused by these organisms have different impacts on clinical outcome and require different treatment and management approaches. It is therefore important to correctly identify Acinetobacter species. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has been introduced to identify a wide range of microorganisms in clinical laboratories, but only a few studies have examined its utility for identifying Acinetobacter species, particularly those of the non-Acinetobacter baumannii complex. We therefore evaluated MALDI-TOF MS for identification of Acinetobacter species by comparing it with sequence analysis of rpoB using 123 isolates of Acinetobacter species from blood. Of the isolates examined, we identified 106/123 (86.2%) to species, and 16/123 (13.0%) could only be identified as acinetobacters. The identity of one isolate could not be established. Of the 106 species identified, 89/106 (84.0%) were confirmed by rpoB sequence analysis, and 17/106 (16.0%) were discordant. These data indicate correct identification of 89/123 (72.4%) isolates. Surprisingly, all blood culture isolates were identified as 13 species of Acinetobacter, and the incidence of Acinetobacter pittii was unexpectedly high (42/123; 34.1%) and exceeded that of A. baumannii (22/123; 17.9%). Although the present identification rate using MALDI-TOF MS is not acceptable for species-level identification of Acinetobacter, further expansion of the database should remedy this situation. © 2013 The Authors Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2013 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  17. Comparison of two multimetal resistant bacterial strains: Enterobacter sp. YSU and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia ORO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Andrew; Vinayak, Anubhav; Benton, Cherise; Esbenshade, Aaron; Heinselman, Carlisle; Frankland, Daniel; Kulkarni, Samatha; Kurtanich, Adrienne; Caguiat, Jonathan

    2009-11-01

    The Y-12 plant in Oak Ridge, TN, which manufactured nuclear weapons during World War II and the Cold War, contaminated East Fork Poplar Creek with heavy metals. The multimetal resistant bacterial strain, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia Oak Ridge strain O2 (S. maltophilia O2), was isolated from East Fork Poplar Creek. Sequence analysis of 16s rDNA suggested that our working strain of S. maltophilia O2 was a strain of Enterobacter. Phylogenetic tree analysis and biochemical tests confirmed that it belonged to an Enterobacter species. This new strain was named Enterobacter sp. YSU. Using a modified R3A growth medium, R3A-Tris, the Hg(II), Cd(II), Zn(II), Cu(II), Au(III), Cr(VI), Ag(I), As(III), and Se(IV) MICs for a confirmed strain of S. maltophilia O2 were 0.24, 0.33, 5, 5, 0.25, 7, 0.03, 14, and 40 mM, respectively, compared to 0.07, 0.24, 0.8, 3, 0.05, 0.4, 0.08, 14, and 40 mM, respectively, for Enterobacter sp. YSU. Although S. maltophilia O2 was generally more metal resistant than Enterobacter sp. YSU, in comparison to Escherichia coli strain HB101, Enterobacter sp. YSU was resistant to Hg(II), Cd(II), Zn(II), Au(III), Ag(I), As(III), and Se(IV). By studying metal resistances in these two strains, it may be possible to understand what makes one microorganism more metal resistant than another microorganism. This work also provided benchmark MICs that can be used to evaluate the metal resistance properties of other bacterial isolates from East Fork Poplar Creek and other metal contaminated sites.

  18. Premethylation of Foreign DNA Improves Integrative Transformation Efficiency in Synechocystis sp. Strain PCC 6803

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Bo; Yu, Jianping; Zhang, Weiwen; Meldrum, Deirdre R.

    2015-01-01

    Restriction digestion of foreign DNA is one of the key biological barriers against genetic transformation in microorganisms. To establish a high-efficiency transformation protocol in the model cyanobacterium, Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 (Synechocystis 6803), we investigated the effects of premethylation of foreign DNA on the integrative transformation of this strain. In this study, two type II methyltransferase-encoding genes, i.e., sll0729 (gene M) and slr0214 (gene C), were cloned fro...

  19. Reduction of Photoautotrophic Productivity in the Cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. Strain PCC 6803 by Phycobilisome Antenna Truncation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Page, Lawrence E.; Liberton, Michelle; Pakrasi, Himadri B.

    2012-06-15

    ABSTRACT

    Truncation of the algal light-harvesting antenna is expected to enhance photosynthetic productivity. The wild type and three mutant strains ofSynechocystissp. strain 6803 with a progressively smaller phycobilisome antenna were examined under different light and CO2conditions. Surprisingly, such antenna truncation resulted in decreased whole-culture productivity for this cyanobacterium.

  20. AB5075, a Highly Virulent Isolate of Acinetobacter baumannii, as a Model Strain for the Evaluation of Pathogenesis and Antimicrobial Treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Anna C; Thompson, Mitchell G; Black, Chad C; Kessler, Jennifer L; Clark, Lily P; McQueary, Christin N; Gancz, Hanan Y; Corey, Brendan W; Moon, Jay K; Si, Yuanzheng; Owen, Matthew T; Hallock, Justin D; Kwak, Yoon I; Summers, Amy; Li, Charles Z; Rasko, David A; Penwell, William F; Honnold, Cary L; Wise, Matthew C; Waterman, Paige E; Lesho, Emil P; Stewart, Rena L; Actis, Luis A; Palys, Thomas J; Craft, David W; Zurawski, Daniel V

    2014-05-27

    Acinetobacter baumannii is recognized as an emerging bacterial pathogen because of traits such as prolonged survival in a desiccated state, effective nosocomial transmission, and an inherent ability to acquire antibiotic resistance genes. A pressing need in the field of A. baumannii research is a suitable model strain that is representative of current clinical isolates, is highly virulent in established animal models, and can be genetically manipulated. To identify a suitable strain, a genetically diverse set of recent U.S. military clinical isolates was assessed. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and multiplex PCR determined the genetic diversity of 33 A. baumannii isolates. Subsequently, five representative isolates were tested in murine pulmonary and Galleria mellonella models of infection. Infections with one strain, AB5075, were considerably more severe in both animal models than those with other isolates, as there was a significant decrease in survival rates. AB5075 also caused osteomyelitis in a rat open fracture model, while another isolate did not. Additionally, a Tn5 transposon library was successfully generated in AB5075, and the insertion of exogenous genes into the AB5075 chromosome via Tn7 was completed, suggesting that this isolate may be genetically amenable for research purposes. Finally, proof-of-concept experiments with the antibiotic rifampin showed that this strain can be used in animal models to assess therapies under numerous parameters, including survival rates and lung bacterial burden. We propose that AB5075 can serve as a model strain for A. baumannii pathogenesis due to its relatively recent isolation, multidrug resistance, reproducible virulence in animal models, and genetic tractability. The incidence of A. baumannii infections has increased over the last decade, and unfortunately, so has antibiotic resistance in this bacterial species. A. baumannii is now responsible for more than 10% of all hospital-acquired infections in the

  1. Analysis of the role of the LH92_11085 gene of a biofilm hyper-producing Acinetobacter baumannii strain on biofilm formation and attachment to eukaryotic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Fraga, Laura; Pérez, Astrid; Rumbo-Feal, Soraya; Merino, María; Vallejo, Juan Andrés; Ohneck, Emily J; Edelmann, Richard E; Beceiro, Alejandro; Vázquez-Ucha, Juan C; Valle, Jaione; Actis, Luis A; Bou, Germán; Poza, Margarita

    2016-05-18

    Acinetobacter baumannii is a nosocomial pathogen that has a considerable ability to survive in the hospital environment partly due to its capacity to form biofilms. The first step in the process of establishing an infection is adherence of the bacteria to target cells. Chaperone-usher pili assembly systems are involved in pilus biogenesis pathways that play an important role in adhesion to host cells and tissues as well as medically relevant surfaces. After screening a collection of strains, a biofilm hyper-producing A. baumannii strain (MAR002) was selected to describe potential targets involved in pathogenicity. MAR002 showed a remarkable ability to form biofilm and attach to A549 human alveolar epithelial cells. Analysis of MAR002 using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed a significant presence of pili on the bacterial surface. Putative protein-coding genes involved in pili formation were identified based on the newly sequenced genome of MAR002 strain (JRHB01000001/2 or NZ_JRHB01000001/2). As assessed by qRT-PCR, the gene LH92_11085, belonging to the operon LH92_11070-11085, is overexpressed (ca. 25-fold more) in biofilm-associated cells compared to exponential planktonic cells. In the present work we investigate the role of this gene on the MAR002 biofilm phenotype. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and biofilm assays showed that inactivation of LH92_11085 gene significantly reduced bacterial attachment to A549 cells and biofilm formation on plastic, respectively. TEM analysis of the LH92_11085 mutant showed the absence of long pili formations normally present in the wild-type. These observations indicate the potential role this LH92_11085 gene could play in the pathobiology of A baumannii.

  2. The FhaB/FhaC two-partner secretion system is involved in adhesion of Acinetobacter baumannii AbH12O-A2 strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, A; Merino, M; Rumbo-Feal, S; Álvarez-Fraga, L; Vallejo, J A; Beceiro, A; Ohneck, E J; Mateos, J; Fernández-Puente, P; Actis, L A; Poza, M; Bou, G

    2017-08-18

    Acinetobacter baumannii is a hospital-acquired pathogen that shows an extraordinary capacity to stay in the hospital environment. Adherence of the bacteria to eukaryotic cells or to abiotic surfaces is the first step for establishing an infection. The A. baumannii strain AbH12O-A2 showed an exceptional ability to adhere to A549 epithelial cells. The AbFhaB/FhaC 2-partner secretion (TPS) system involved in adhesion was discovered after the screening of the recently determined A. baumannii AbH12O-A2 strain genome (CP009534.1). The AbFhaB is a large exoprotein which transport to the bacterial surface is mediated by the AbFhaC protein. In the present study, the role of this TPS system in the AbH12O-A2 adherence phenotype was investigated. The functional inactivation of this 2-partner secretion system was addressed by analyzing the outer membrane vesicles (OMV) proteomic profile from the wild-type strain and its derivative mutant AbH12O-A2ΔfhaC demonstrating that AbFhaB is no longer detected in the absence of AbFhaC. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and adhesion experiments demonstrated that inactivation of the AbFhaB/FhaC system significantly decreases bacterial attachment to A549 alveolar epithelial cells. Moreover, it has been demonstrated that this 2-partner secretion system is involved in fibronectin-mediated adherence of the A. baumannii AbH12O-A2 isolate. Finally, we report that the AbFhaB/FhaC system is involved in virulence when tested using invertebrate and vertebrate hosts. These data suggest the potential role that this AbFhaB/FhaC secretion system could play in the pathobiology of A. baumannii.

  3. In Vivo Application of Bacteriophage as a Potential Therapeutic Agent To Control OXA-66-Like Carbapenemase-Producing Acinetobacter baumannii Strains Belonging to Sequence Type 357.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Jongsoo; Ryu, Choong-Min; Lee, Jun-Young; Park, Jong-Hwan; Yong, Dongeun; Lee, Kyungwon

    2016-07-15

    The increasing prevalence of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) strains in intensive care units has caused major problems in public health worldwide. Our aim was to determine whether this phage could be used as an alternative therapeutic agent against multidrug-resistant bacterial strains, specifically CRAB clinical isolates, using a mouse model. Ten bacteriophages that caused lysis in CRAB strains, including blaOXA-66-like genes, were isolated. YMC13/01/C62 ABA BP (phage Bϕ-C62), which showed the strongest lysis activity, was chosen for further study by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), host range test, one-step growth and phage adsorption rate, thermal and pH stability, bacteriolytic activity test, genome sequencing and bioinformatics analysis, and therapeutic effect of phage using a mouse intranasal infection model. The phage Bϕ-C62 displayed high stability at various temperatures and pH values and strong cell lysis activity in vitro The phage Bϕ-C62 genome has a double-stranded linear DNA with a length of 44,844 bp, and known virulence genes were not identified in silico. In vivo study showed that all mice treated with phage Bϕ-C62 survived after intranasal bacterial challenge. Bacterial clearance in the lung was observed within 3 days after bacterial challenge, and histologic damage also improved significantly; moreover, no side effects were observed. In our study, the novel A. baumannii phage Bϕ-C62 was characterized and evaluated in vitro, in silico, and in vivo These results, including strong lytic activities and the improvement of survival rates, showed the therapeutic potential of the phage Bϕ-C62 as an antimicrobial agent. This study reports the potential of a novel phage as a therapeutic candidate or nontoxic disinfectant against CRAB clinical isolates in vitro and in vivo. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  4. Discovery of Rare and Highly Toxic Microcystins from Lichen-Associated Cyanobacterium Nostoc sp. Strain IO-102-I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oksanen, Ilona; Jokela, Jouni; Fewer, David P.; Wahlsten, Matti; Rikkinen, Jouko; Sivonen, Kaarina

    2004-01-01

    The production of hepatotoxic cyclic heptapeptides, microcystins, is almost exclusively reported from planktonic cyanobacteria. Here we show that a terrestrial cyanobacterium Nostoc sp. strain IO-102-I isolated from a lichen association produces six different microcystins. Microcystins were identified with liquid chromatography-UV mass spectrometry by their retention times, UV spectra, mass fragmentation, and comparison to microcystins from the aquatic Nostoc sp. strain 152. The dominant microcystin produced by Nostoc sp. strain IO-102-I was the highly toxic [ADMAdda5]microcystin-LR, which accounted for ca. 80% of the total microcystins. We assigned a structure of [DMAdda5]microcystin-LR and [d-Asp3,ADMAdda5]microcystin-LR and a partial structure of three new [ADMAdda5]-XR type of microcystin variants. Interestingly, Nostoc spp. strains IO-102-I and 152 synthesized only the rare ADMAdda and DMAdda subfamilies of microcystin variants. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrated congruence between genes involved directly in microcystin biosynthesis and the 16S rRNA and rpoC1 genes of Nostoc sp. strain IO-102-I. Nostoc sp. strain 152 and the Nostoc sp. strain IO-102-I are distantly related, revealing a sporadic distribution of toxin production in the genus Nostoc. Nostoc sp. strain IO-102-I is closely related to Nostoc punctiforme PCC 73102 and other symbiotic Nostoc strains and most likely belongs to this species. Together, this suggests that other terrestrial and aquatic strains of the genus Nostoc may have retained the genes necessary for microcystin biosynthesis. PMID:15466511

  5. Draft Genome Sequence of Hoeflea sp. Strain BAL378, a Potential Producer of Bioactive Compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzon-Tilia, Mikkel; Riemann, Lasse; Gram, Lone

    2014-01-01

    Some phytoplankton-associated marine bacteria produce bioactive compounds. Members of the genus Hoeflea may be examples of such bacteria; however, data describing their metabolisms are scarce. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Hoeflea sp. strain BAL378, a putative producer...... of bacteriocins, polyketides, and auxins, as demonstrated by genome mining....

  6. Complete genome sequence of the acetylene-fermenting Pelobacter sp. strain SFB93

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, John M.; Baesman, Shaun; Fierst, Janna L.; Poret-Peterson, Amisha T.; Oremland, Ronald S.; Dunlap, Darren S.; Akob, Denise M.

    2017-01-01

    Acetylene fermentation is a rare metabolism that was previously reported as being unique to Pelobacter acetylenicus. Here, we report the genome sequence of Pelobacter sp. strain SFB93, an acetylene-fermenting bacterium isolated from sediments collected in San Francisco Bay, CA.

  7. Draft Genome Sequence of Hoeflea sp. Strain BAL378, a Potential Producer of Bioactive Compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzon-Tilia, Mikkel; Riemann, Lasse; Gram, Lone

    2014-01-01

    Some phytoplankton-associated marine bacteria produce bioactive compounds. Members of the genus Hoeflea may be examples of such bacteria; however, data describing their metabolisms are scarce. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Hoeflea sp. strain BAL378, a putative producer of bacterioc...

  8. Genome Sequence of the Alkaline-Tolerant Cellulomonas sp. Strain FA1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ping; Nguyen, My Vu; Kamennaya, Nina; Brown, Natasha; Woyke, Tanja; Kyrpides, Nikos; Holman, Hoi-Ying; Torok, Tamas

    2015-01-01

    We present the genome of the cellulose-degrading Cellulomonas sp. strain FA1 isolated from an actively serpentinizing highly alkaline spring. Knowledge of this genome will enable studies into the molecular basis of plant material degradation in alkaline environments and inform the development of lignocellulose bioprocessing procedures for biofuel production. PMID:26089422

  9. Draft Genome Sequence of a Kale (Brassica oleracea L.) Root Endophyte, Pseudomonas sp. Strain C9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laugraud, Aurelie; Young, Sandra; Gerard, Emily; O'Callaghan, Maureen; Wakelin, Steven

    2017-04-13

    Pseudomonas sp. strain C9 is a plant growth-promoting bacterium isolated from the root tissue of Brassica oleracea L. grown in soil from Marlborough, New Zealand. Its draft genome of 6,350,161 bp contains genes associated with plant growth promotion and biological control. Copyright © 2017 Laugraud et al.

  10. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon degradation by the white rot fungus Bjerkandera sp. strain BOS55

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kotterman, M.

    1998-01-01

    Outline of this thesis
    In this thesis the conditions for optimal PAH oxidation by the white rot fungus Bjerkandera sp. strain BOS55 were evaluated. In Chapter 2, culture conditions like aeration and cosubstrate concentrations,

  11. Genome sequence of Pseudomonas sp. strain PAMC 25886, isolated from alpine glacial cryoconite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Seung Chul; Kim, Su Jin; Hong, Soon Gyu; Ahn, Do Hwan; Lee, Yung Mi; Lee, Hyoungseok; Lee, Jungeun; Park, Hyun

    2012-04-01

    Pseudomonas spp. have shown characteristics of efficiently metabolizing environmental pollutants and also producing exopolysaccharides known as biofilms. Here we present the draft genome sequence of Pseudomonas sp. strain PAMC 25886, which was isolated from glacier cryoconite in the Alps mountain permafrost region and which may provide further insight into biodegradative and/or biofilm-producing mechanisms in a cold environment.

  12. Genome Sequence of the Dichloromethane-Degrading Bacterium Hyphomicrobium sp. Strain GJ21.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bringel, Françoise; Postema, Christiaan P; Mangenot, Sophie; Bibi-Triki, Sabrina; Chaignaud, Pauline; Farhan Ul Haque, Muhammad; Gruffaz, Christelle; Hermon, Louis; Louhichi, Yousra; Maucourt, Bruno; Muller, Emilie E L; Nadalig, Thierry; Lajus, Aurélie; Rouy, Zoé; Médigue, Claudine; Barbe, Valérie; Janssen, Dick B; Vuilleumier, Stéphane

    2017-07-27

    The genome sequence of Hyphomicrobium sp. strain GJ21, isolated in the Netherlands from samples of environments contaminated with halogenated pollutants and capable of using dichloromethane as its sole carbon and energy source, was determined. Copyright © 2017 Bringel et al.

  13. Genome Sequence of the Electrogenic Petroleum-Degrading Thalassospira sp. Strain HJ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiseleva, Larisa; Garushyants, Sofya K; Briliute, Justina; Simpson, David J W; Cohen, Michael F; Goryanin, Igor

    2015-05-14

    We present the draft genome of the petroleum-degrading Thalassospira sp. strain HJ, isolated from tidal marine sediment. Knowledge of this genomic information will inform studies on electrogenesis and means to degrade environmental organic contaminants, including compounds found in petroleum. Copyright © 2015 Kiseleva et al.

  14. OXIDATION OF BIPHENYL BY A MULTICOMPONENT ENZYME SYSTEM FROM PSEUDOMONAS SP. STRAIN LB400

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pseudomonas sp. strain LB400 grows on biphenyl as the sole carbon and energy source. This organism also cooxidizes several chlorinated biphenyl congeners. Biphenyl dioxygenase activity in cell extract required addition of NAD(P)H as an electron donor for the conversion of bipheny...

  15. Purification and Characterization of Haloalcohol Dehalogenase from Arthrobacter sp. Strain AD2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Wijngaard, Arjen J.; Reuvekamp, Peter T.W.; Janssen, Dick B.

    An enzyme capable of dehalogenating vicinal haloalcohols to their corresponding epoxides was purified from the 3-chloro-1,2-propanediol-utilizing bacterium Arthrobacter sp. strain AD2. The inducible haloalcohol dehalogenase converted 1,3-dichloro-2-propanol, 3-chloro-1,2-propanediol,

  16. Enhanced production of dimethyl phthalate-degrading strain Bacillus sp. QD14 by optimizing fermentation medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jixian Mo

    2015-05-01

    Conclusion: In this work, the key factors affected by the fermentation of DMP-degrading strain Bacillus sp. QD14 were optimized by PBD, SAM and BBD (RSM; the yield was increased by 57,11% in the conditions in our study. We propose that the conditions optimized in the study can be applied to the fermentation for commercialization production.

  17. Effect of salt stress on the physiology of Frankia sp strain CcI6

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2013-10-01

    Oct 1, 2013 ... *Corresponding author (Email, louis.tisa@unh.edu). Actinorhizal plants are able to overcome saline soils and reclaim land. Frankia sp strain .... Giri B, Kapoor R and Mukerji KG 2003 Influence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and salinity on growth, biomass, and mineral nutrition of Acacia auriculiformis. Biol.

  18. Draft Genome Sequences of Kosmotoga sp. Strain DU53 and Kosmotoga arenicorallina S304.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollo, Stephen M J; Charchuk, Rhianna; Nesbø, Camilla L

    2016-06-16

    Here, we announce the draft genome sequences of two thermophilic Thermotogae bacteria: Kosmotoga sp. strain DU53, isolated from a continental oil reservoir, and Kosmotoga arenicorallina, isolated from hydrothermal sediments. The sequences will provide further insight into evolution of the Kosmotogales. Copyright © 2016 Pollo et al.

  19. A Novel Caffeine Dehydrogenase in Pseudomonas sp. Strain CBB1 Oxidizes Caffeine to Trimethyluric Acid▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chi Li; Kale, Yogesh; Gopishetty, Sridhar; Louie, Tai Man; Subramanian, Mani

    2008-01-01

    A unique heterotrimeric caffeine dehydrogenase was purified from Pseudomonas sp. strain CBB1. This enzyme oxidized caffeine to trimethyluric acid stoichiometrically and hydrolytically, without producing hydrogen peroxide. The enzyme was not NAD(P)+ dependent; coenzyme Q0 was the preferred electron acceptor. The enzyme was specific for caffeine and theobromine and showed no activity with xanthine. PMID:17981969

  20. Genome Sequence of Amycolatopsis sp Strain ATCC 39116, a Plant Biomass-Degrading Actinomycete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Jennifer R. [Brown University; Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Woyke, Tanja [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Teshima, Hazuki [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Bruce, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Detter, J. Chris [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Tapia, Roxanne [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Han, Shunsheng [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Han, James [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Nolan, Matt [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mikhailova, Natalia [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Sello, Jason K. [Brown University

    2012-01-01

    We announce the availability of a high-quality draft of the genome sequence of Amycolatopsis sp. strain 39116, one of few bacterial species that are known to consume the lignin component of plant biomass. This genome sequence will further ongoing efforts to use microorganisms for the conversion of plant biomass into fuels and high-value chemicals.

  1. An effective lipid-producing fungal sp. strain DGB1 and its use for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Among 30 fungal isolates screened for lipid production using Nile-red staining assay, an isolate designated DGB1 was recorded as the highest lipid producer with lipid content up to 40% (w/w). Based on morphological, biochemical and molecular analysis, DGB1 was identified as fungal sp. strain DGB1. Under the optimized ...

  2. Longitudinal analysis of the temporal evolution of Acinetobacter baumannii strains in Ohio, USA, by using rapid automated typing methods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brooke K Decker

    Full Text Available Genotyping methods are essential to understand the transmission dynamics of Acinetobacter baumannii. We examined the representative genotypes of A. baumannii at different time periods in select locations in Ohio, using two rapid automated typing methods: PCR coupled with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (PCR/ESI-MS, a form of multi-locus sequence typing (MLST, and repetitive-sequence-based-PCR (rep-PCR. Our analysis included 122 isolates from 4 referral hospital systems, in 2 urban areas of Ohio. These isolates were associated with outbreaks at 3 different time periods (1996, 2000 and 2005-2007. Type assignments of PCR/ESI-MS and rep-PCR were compared to each other and to worldwide (WW clone types. The discriminatory power of each method was determined using the Simpson's index of diversity (DI. We observed that PCR/ESI-MS sequence type (ST 14, corresponding to WW clone 3, predominated in 1996, whereas ST 12 and 14 co-existed in the intermediate period (2000 and ST 10 and 12, belonging to WW clone 2, predominated more recently in 2007. The shift from WW clone 3 to WW clone 2 was accompanied by an increase in carbapenem resistance. The DI was approximately 0.74 for PCR/ESI-MS, 0.88 for rep-PCR and 0.90 for the combination of both typing methods. We conclude that combining rapid automated typing methods such as PCR/ESI-MS and rep-PCR serves to optimally characterize the regional molecular epidemiology of A. baumannii. Our data also sheds light on the changing sequence types in an 11 year period in Northeast Ohio.

  3. Investigation of Class I, II and III Integrons among Acinetobacter Strains Isolated from Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia Patients in Intensive Care Unit of Rasoul Akram Hospital in Tehran, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajar Mohammadi-Barzelighi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Multi-drug resistant strains of Acinetobacter spp. have created therapeutic problems worldwide. The objective of this study was to detect integrons  in Acinetobacter  spp. isolates  from Ventilator-Associated  Pneu- monia patients using PCR method.Methods: A total 51 Bronchoalveolar lavage samples were obtained from pa-tients in ICU and examined for Acinetobacter spp. infection by biochemical and PCR methods using blaOXA51-like primers. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using disk diffusion and MIC methods.Results: Among 51 patients with VAP (62.7% males, 35.2% females, mean age 53 year, 50 (98% were positive, with a high prevalence of gram-nega- tive bacteria, mainly Acinetobacter spp. (70%, from which A. baumani was detected in 34 (68% and A. lwoffii in 1 (2% of isolates. More than 90% of isolates were resistant to imipenem,  piperacillin+tazobactam,  third genera- tion cephalosporins and gentamicin, while the most effective antibiotic was colistin (100%. The correlation coefficient between disk diffusion and MIC was 0.808 (p = 0.001. Three Acinetobacter isolates (8% harbored integrase I gene but none of isolates contained Class II or III integrons.Conclusion: The results showed that colistin was an effective antibiotic andcan be used for treatment  of patients in ICU. Due to the high number of MDR isolates lacking Integrons it can be concluded that although class I in- tegrons are important among clinical isolates of A. baumannii, they have no significant  role  in  dissemination  of  antibiotic  resistance  genes  in  Rasoul Akram  Hospital in Tehran, Iran. The presence of IntI in A. lwoffii may be related to transfer of integron to A. baumannii which can be considered as an important threat for hospitalized patients.

  4. Transcription and Regulation of the Bidirectional Hydrogenase in the Cyanobacterium Nostoc sp. Strain PCC 7120▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjöholm, Johannes; Oliveira, Paulo; Lindblad, Peter

    2007-01-01

    The filamentous, heterocystous cyanobacterium Nostoc sp. strain PCC 7120 (Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120) possesses an uptake hydrogenase and a bidirectional enzyme, the latter being capable of catalyzing both H2 production and evolution. The completely sequenced genome of Nostoc sp. strain PCC 7120 reveals that the five structural genes encoding the bidirectional hydrogenase (hoxEFUYH) are separated in two clusters at a distance of approximately 8.8 kb. The transcription of the hox genes was examined under nitrogen-fixing conditions, and the results demonstrate that the cluster containing hoxE and hoxF can be transcribed as one polycistronic unit together with the open reading frame alr0750. The second cluster, containing hoxU, hoxY, and hoxH, is transcribed together with alr0763 and alr0765, located between the hox genes. Moreover, alr0760 and alr0761 form an additional larger operon. Nevertheless, Northern blot hybridizations revealed a rather complex transcription pattern in which the different hox genes are expressed differently. Transcriptional start points (TSPs) were identified 66 and 57 bp upstream from the start codon of alr0750 and hoxU, respectively. The transcriptions of the two clusters containing the hox genes are both induced under anaerobic conditions concomitantly with the induction of a higher level of hydrogenase activity. An additional TSP, within the annotated alr0760, 244 bp downstream from the suggested translation start codon, was identified. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays with purified LexA from Nostoc sp. strain PCC 7120 demonstrated specific interactions between the transcriptional regulator and both hox promoter regions. However, when LexA from Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 was used, the purified protein interacted only with the promoter region of the alr0750-hoxE-hoxF operon. A search of the whole Nostoc sp. strain PCC 7120 genome demonstrated the presence of 216 putative LexA binding sites in total, including recA and rec

  5. Draft Genome Sequence of the Microbispora sp. Strain ATCC-PTA-5024, Producing the Lantibiotic NAI-107

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sosio, M.; Gallo, G.; Pozzi, R.

    2014-01-01

    We report the draft genome sequence of Microbispora sp. strain ATCC-PTA-5024, a soil isolate that produces NAI-107, a new lantibiotic with the potential to treat life-threatening infections caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-positive pathogens. The draft genome of strain Microbispora sp. ATCC-PTA...

  6. Complete genome sequence of hypervirulent and outbreak-associated Acinetobacter baumannii strain LAC-4: epidemiology, resistance genetic determinants and potential virulence factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Hong-Yu; Kuang, Shan N.; He, Xinyi; Molgora, Brenda M.; Ewing, Peter J.; Deng, Zixin; Osby, Melanie; Chen, Wangxue; Xu, H. Howard

    2015-01-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii is an important human pathogen due to its multi-drug resistance. In this study, the genome of an ST10 outbreak A. baumannii isolate LAC-4 was completely sequenced to better understand its epidemiology, antibiotic resistance genetic determinants and potential virulence factors. Compared with 20 other complete genomes of A. baumannii, LAC-4 genome harbors at least 12 copies of five distinct insertion sequences. It contains 12 and 14 copies of two novel IS elements, ISAba25 and ISAba26, respectively. Additionally, three novel composite transposons were identified: Tn6250, Tn6251 and Tn6252, two of which contain resistance genes. The antibiotic resistance genetic determinants on the LAC-4 genome correlate well with observed antimicrobial susceptibility patterns. Moreover, twelve genomic islands (GI) were identified in LAC-4 genome. Among them, the 33.4-kb GI12 contains a large number of genes which constitute the K (capsule) locus. LAC-4 harbors several unique putative virulence factor loci. Furthermore, LAC-4 and all 19 other outbreak isolates were found to harbor a heme oxygenase gene (hemO)-containing gene cluster. The sequencing of the first complete genome of an ST10 A. baumannii clinical strain should accelerate our understanding of the epidemiology, mechanisms of resistance and virulence of A. baumannii. PMID:25728466

  7. Antimicrobial Resistance of Nosocomial Strain of Acinetobacter baumannii in Children’s Medical Center of Tehran: A 6-Year Prospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setareh Soroush

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available "nThere are increasing reports of emergence of multiple drug resistant (MDR Acinetobacter spp in the world; however there are a few reports in our country. 145 A. baumannii isolates from distinct wards and Children's Medical Center (CMC in Tehran were studied in order to find the profile of antibiotic resistance among them. 40.6% (59/145 of A. baumannii isolates were identified as MDR. Overall susceptibility rates to cotrimoxazole, chloramphenicole and ciprofloxacin were 23.4%, 16.9% and 20.1%, respectively. Frequency susceptibility rates to amikacin, kanamycin, gentamycin and tobramycin decreased gradually from 81.2%, 50%, 50% and 62.5% in 2002 to 25%, 15.6%, 28.1% and 25% in 2007 respectively. Overall susceptibility rates to cephalosporines cephalotin, ceftazidime, cefteriaxon, ceftizoxime and cefixime were 9.3%, 14.7%, 16.2%, 15.9% and 18%, respectively. Susceptibility to carbapenems was assessed only in 2007. The susceptibility rates of Imipenem and meropenem were shown to be 50% and 46.8%, respectively. Our data indicates that MDR A. baumannii strains are spreading and carbapenem resistance is becoming more common in Iran. Our findings also highlight the importance of clinicians' access to updated susceptibility data regarding A. baumannii in developing countries such as Iran.

  8. [Adherence of Acinetobacter baumannii to rat tracheal tissue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, M; Bello, H; Sepúlveda, M; Domínguez, M; Martínez, M A; Pinto, M E; González, G; Mella, S; Zemelman, R

    1998-10-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii is an important nosocomial pathogen whose virulence factors have not been fully elucidated. To study the adherence and hemagglutinating capacity of several biotypes of Acinetobacter baumannii. Thirty nine strains of Acinetobacter baumannii isolated from hospitalized patients were studied. The adherence of these strains to small pieces of rat tracheal tissue was studied. Additionally, their ability to hemagglutinate human erythrocytes and the effect of D-mannose and D-galactose on the adherence and hemagglutinating capacity was assessed. Transmission electron microscopy of strains was performed looking for the presence of fimbriae. All strains exhibited adherence to tissues. All strains had also D-mannose and D-galactose resistant hemagglutinating ability. Fimbriae were found in Acinetobacter baumannii and E coil cells. Adherence of Acinetobacter baumannii to rat tracheal tissue, apparently not related to the presence of fimbriae, may be a virulence mechanism of this bacterium.

  9. Identification of antibiotic resistance genes in the multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii strain, MDR-SHH02, using whole-genome sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hualiang; Wang, Jinghua; Yu, Peijuan; Ge, Ping; Jiang, Yanqun; Xu, Rong; Chen, Rong; Liu, Xuejie

    2017-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate antibiotic resistance genes in the multidrug-resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumanii) strain, MDR-SHH02, using whole‑genome sequencing (WGS). The antibiotic resistance of MDR-SHH02 isolated from a patient with breast cancer to 19 types of antibiotics was determined using the Kirby‑Bauer method. WGS of MDR-SHH02 was then performed. Following quality control and transcriptome assembly, functional annotation of genes was conducted, and the phylogenetic tree of MDR-SHH02, along with another 5 A. baumanii species and 2 Acinetobacter species, was constructed using PHYLIP 3.695 and FigTree v1.4.2. Furthermore, pathogenicity islands (PAIs) were predicted by the pathogenicity island database. Potential antibiotic resistance genes in MDR-SHH02 were predicted based on the information in the Antibiotic Resistance Genes Database (ARDB). MDR-SHH02 was found to be resistant to all of the tested antibiotics. The total draft genome length of MDR-SHH02 was 4,003,808 bp. There were 74.25% of coding sequences to be annotated into 21 of the Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COGs) of protein terms, such as 'transcription' and 'amino acid transport and metabolism'. Furthermore, there were 45 PAIs homologous to the sequence MDRSHH02000806. Additionally, a total of 12 gene sequences in MDR-SHH02 were highly similar to the sequences of antibiotic resistance genes in ARDB, including genes encoding aminoglycoside‑modifying enzymes [e.g., aac(3)-Ia, ant(2'')‑Ia, aph33ib and aph(3')-Ia], β-lactamase genes (bl2b_tem and bl2b_tem1), sulfonamide-resistant dihydropteroate synthase genes (sul1 and sul2), catb3 and tetb. These results suggest that numerous genes mediate resistance to various antibiotics in MDR-SHH02, and provide a clinical guidance for the personalized therapy of A. baumannii-infected patients.

  10. Nesterenkonia sp. strain F, a halophilic bacterium producing acetone, butanol, and ethanol under aerobic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri, Hamid; Azarbaijani, Reza; Parsa Yeganeh, Laleh; Shahzadeh Fazeli, Abolhassan; Tabatabaei, Meisam; Salekdeh, Ghasem Hosseini; Karimi, Keikhosro

    2016-01-04

    The moderately halophilic bacterium Nesterenkonia sp. strain F, which was isolated from Aran-Bidgol Lake (Iran), has the ability to produce acetone, butanol, and ethanol (ABE) as well as acetic and butyric acids under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. This result is the first report of ABE production with a wild microorganism from a family other than Clostridia and also the first halophilic species shown to produce butanol under aerobic cultivation. The cultivation of Nesterenkonia sp. strain F under anaerobic conditions with 50 g/l of glucose for 72 h resulted in the production of 105 mg/l of butanol, 122 mg/l of acetone, 0.2 g/l of acetic acid, and 2.5 g/l of butyric acid. Furthermore, the strain was cultivated on media with different glucose concentrations (20, 50, and 80 g/l) under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Through fermentation with a 50 g/l initial glucose concentration under aerobic conditions, 66 mg/l of butanol, 125 mg/l of acetone, 291 mg/l of ethanol, 5.9 g/l of acetic acid, and 1.2 g/l of butyric acid were produced. The enzymes pertaining to the fermentation pathway in the strain were compared with the enzymes of Clostridium spp., and the metabolic pathway of fermentation used by Nesterenkonia sp. strain F was investigated.

  11. Isolation and characterization of a high-efficiency erythromycin A-degrading Ochrobactrum sp. strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weiwei; Qiu, Lina; Gong, Aijun; Yuan, Xiaotao

    2017-01-30

    In this work, Erythromycin A(EA)- degrading bacteria was isolated from the contaminated soil obtained from a pharmaceutical factory in China. The isolate designated as strain WX-J1 was identified as Ochrobactrum sp. by sequence analysis of its 16S rDNA gene. It can grow in a medium containing EA as the sole source of carbon and its optimal growth pH and temperature were 6.5 and 32°C, respectively. Under these conditions, when the initial Erythromycin A concentration was 100mg·L-1, 97% of Erythromycin A has been degraded. HPLC-MS analyses indicated that Erythromycin A degradation produced intermediates contained the following three substances: 3-depyranosyloxy erythromycin A, 7,12-dyhydroxy-6-deoxyerythronolide B, 6-deoxyerythronolide B and propionaldehyde. Since Erythromycin A-degrading Ochrobactrum sp. strain rapidly degraded Erythromycin A, this strain might be useful for bioremediation purposes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Transcriptomes of Frankia sp. strain CcI3 in growth transitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bickhart Derek M

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Frankia sp. strains are actinobacteria that form N2-fixing root nodules on angiosperms. Several reference genome sequences are available enabling transcriptome studies in Frankia sp. Genomes from Frankia sp. strains differ markedly in size, a consequence proposed to be associated with a high number of indigenous transposases, more than 200 of which are found in Frankia sp. strain CcI3 used in this study. Because Frankia exhibits a high degree of cell heterogeneity as a consequence of its mycelial growth pattern, its transcriptome is likely to be quite sensitive to culture age. This study focuses on the behavior of the Frankia sp. strain CcI3 transcriptome as a function of nitrogen source and culture age. Results To study global transcription in Frankia sp. CcI3 grown under different conditions, complete transcriptomes were determined using high throughput RNA deep sequencing. Samples varied by time (five days vs. three days and by culture conditions (NH4+ added vs. N2 fixing. Assembly of millions of reads revealed more diversity of gene expression between five-day and three-day old cultures than between three day old cultures differing in nitrogen sources. Heat map analysis organized genes into groups that were expressed or repressed under the various conditions compared to median expression values. Twenty-one SNPs common to all three transcriptome samples were detected indicating culture heterogeneity in this slow-growing organism. Significantly higher expression of transposase ORFs was found in the five-day and N2-fixing cultures, suggesting that N starvation and culture aging provide conditions for on-going genome modification. Transposases have previously been proposed to participate in the creating the large number of gene duplication or deletion in host strains. Subsequent RT-qPCR experiments confirmed predicted elevated transposase expression levels indicated by the mRNA-seq data. Conclusions The overall pattern of

  13. Evaluation of phenotypic and genotypic markers for clinical strains of Acinetobacter baumannii Evaluación de marcadores fenotípicos y genotípicos para cepas clínicas de Acinetobacter baumannii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana S. Limansky

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Acinetobacter baumannii is an important opportunistic pathogen that is rapidly evolving toward multidrug resistance and is involved in various nosocomial infections that are often severe. It strongly prompts the epidemiological study of A. baumannii infections. However, there is no a generally accepted typing scheme. Different genotypic and phenotypic procedures were evaluated for the characterization of clinical isolates of A. baumannii isolated from a community hospital of Rosario, Argentina (Hospital de Emergencias Clemente Alvarez, HECA, during a period of four years. These included PCR with degenerate oligonucleotide primers (DO-PCR, repetitive extragenic palindromic-PCR (REP-PCR, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE, and antibiotyping. Amongst individual methods, DO-PCR and PFGE were found the most suitable methods to discriminate A. baumannii clinical isolates [discriminatory indexes (D of 0.98 and 0.96, respectively]. On the other hand, both antibiotyping and REP-PCR were much less discriminatory (D: 0.86 and 0.77, respectively. The combination of antibiotyping with any of the above genotypic procedures was found to largely increase D. In particular, the combination of DO-PCR and antibiotyping provided the best discriminatory method for epidemiological studies of A. baumannii.Combination of the different genotypic and phenotypic procedures allowed the inference of genetic relationships and dissemination of multidrug-resistant A. baumannii clones in HECA in the period 1994-1999. One particular strain, which showed sensibility to carbapenems, was found widely distributed in this hospital during 1994-1996. A different strain, showing additional resistance to carbapenems, rapidly disseminated in HECA in coincidence with the introduction of imipenem therapy in 1997.Acinetobacter baumannii es un importante patógeno oportunista. Este microorganismo adquiere con facilidad resistencia a antimicrobianos, involucrándose en infecciones

  14. Acinetobacter baumannii strains isolated from patients in intensive care units in Goiânia, Brazil: Molecular and drug susceptibility profiles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suellen Rocha Araújo Castilho

    Full Text Available Resistance to antimicrobial agents is increasing worldwide and imposes significant life-threatening risks to several different populations, especially those in intensive care units (ICUs. Bacteria can quickly develop or acquire resistance to antimicrobial drugs, and combined with their intrinsic potential to cause disease in humans, these bacteria can become deadly. Among Gram-negative bacteria, Acinetobacter baumannii is notorious as a frequent opportunistic pathogen associated with critically ill patients, and understanding the genetic basis of A. baumannii resistance to beta-lactams among patients in ICUs will result in better protocols to prevent the development of resistance as well as improved treatment regimens. In this study, we assessed 1333 patients in five ICUs, 56 of whom developed A. baumannii infections. Most of the A. baumannii isolates were resistant to beta-lactam antimicrobial drugs, specifically, 3rd- and 4th-generation cephalosporins and carbapenems, and 91.1% of the isolates were multi-drug resistant (MDR. The most frequent OXA gene present was OXA-23 (55.1%, which is significantly associated with MDR strains. Most of the A. baumannii isolates (76.8% were capable of forming a biofilm. The antimicrobial drug classes that were effective against most of these isolates were polymyxins and tigecycline. The molecular profile of the isolates allowed detection of 12 different clusters comprising 2 to 8 isolates each. In conclusion, our data indicate a high incidence of resistance to carbapenems as well as MDR strains among the observed A. baumannii isolates, most of which exhibited a high prevalence of OXA-23 gene expression. Only a few selective drugs were effective, reinforcing the notion that bacterial resistance is an emerging problem that should be prioritized in every healthcare facility.

  15. A novel nicotine catabolic plasmid pMH1 in Pseudomonas sp. strain HF-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meizhen; Yang, Guiqin; Min, Hang; Lv, Zhenmei

    2009-03-01

    Attempts were made to acquire a plasmid-loss mutant via various methods (spontaneous mutation, SDS, and mitomycin C), among which the method involving mitomycin C (10 microg/mL) has been proven successful. Concomitant with the loss of the plasmid in Pseudomonas sp. strain HF-1, the cured derivative was identified as having a nicotine-negative (Nic-) phenotype, named mutant strain 6-13 (Nic-). After plasmids were transferred from strain HF-1 (named plasmid pMH1) to the mutant strain 6-13, the mutant strain acquired nicotine-degrading ability, called 6-13 transformant (Nic+). There were no differences in growth or nicotine-degrading efficiency between strain HF-1 (wild-type strain) and strain 6-13 transformant. After pMH1 was transferred to Escherichia coli strain Top10 (Nic-), a distant relative of Pseudomonas, it also gained nicotine-degrading ability, showing the highest nicotine degradation efficiency at pH 7.0, the optimal pH for growth of E. coli. The hsp gene, which encodes 6-hydroxy-3-succinoylpyridine hydroxylase, is involved in nicotine degradation in Pseudomonas putida strain S16 and was present in pMH1 but not in pAO1, the well-known nicotine degradation plasmid in Arthrobacter nicotinovorans. It was demonstrated that plasmid pMH1 is a novel nicotine-degrading plasmid.

  16. Draft genome sequence of Thermoanaerobacterium sp. strain PSU-2 isolated from thermophilic hydrogen producing reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O-Thong, Sompong; Khongkliang, Peerawat; Mamimin, Chonticha; Singkhala, Apinya; Prasertsan, Poonsuk; Birkeland, Nils-Kåre

    2017-06-01

    Thermoanaerobacterium sp. strain PSU-2 was isolated from thermophilic hydrogen producing reactor and subjected to draft genome sequencing on 454 pyrosequencing and annotated on RAST. The draft genome sequence of strain PSU-2 contains 2,552,497 bases with an estimated G + C content of 35.2%, 2555 CDS, 8 rRNAs and 57 tRNAs. The strain had a number of genes responsible for carbohydrates metabolic, amino acids and derivatives, and protein metabolism of 17.7%, 14.39% and 9.81%, respectively. Strain PSU-2 also had gene responsible for hydrogen biosynthesis as well as the genes related to Ni-Fe hydrogenase. Comparative genomic analysis indicates strain PSU-2 shares about 94% genome sequence similarity with Thermoanaerobacterium xylanolyticum LX-11. The nucleotide sequence of this draft genome was deposited into DDBJ/ENA/GenBank under the accession MSQD00000000.

  17. Mycobacterium eburneum sp. nov., a non-chromogenic, fast-growing strain isolated from sputum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouioui, Imen; Carro, Lorena; Teramoto, Kanae; Igual, José M; Jando, Marlen; Del Carmen Montero-Calasanz, Maria; Sutcliffe, Iain; Sangal, Vartul; Goodfellow, Michael; Klenk, Hans-Peter

    2017-09-01

    A polyphasic study was undertaken to establish the taxonomic position of a non-chromogenic, rapidly growing Mycobacterium strain that had been isolated from sputum. The strain, CECT 8775T, has chemotaxonomic and cultural properties consistent with its classification in the genus Mycobacterium and was distinguished from the type strains of closely related mycobacterial species, notably from Mycobacterium paraense DSM 46749T, its nearest phylogenetic neighbour, based on 16S rRNA, hsp65 and rpoB gene sequence data. These organisms were also distinguished by a broad range of chemotaxonomic and phenotypic features and by a digital DNA-DNA relatedness value of 22.8 %. Consequently, the strain is considered to represent a novel species of Mycobacterium for which the name Mycobacterium eburneum sp. nov is proposed; the type strain is X82T (CECT 8775T=DSM 44358T).

  18. Biodegradation of nicotine by a novel Strain Shinella sp. HZN1 isolated from activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hong J; Ma, Yun; Qiu, Guo J; Wu, Fei L; Chen, Sheng L

    2011-01-01

    The nicotine-degrading bacterium HZN1 was isolated from activated sludge and identified as Shinella sp. based on its physiological characteristics and analysis of 16S rDNA gene. Strain HZN1 is capable of using nicotine as the sole carbon source in the mineral salts medium. The optimum temperature and pH for strain HZN1 growth and nicotine degradation were 30°C and 7.0, respectively. It could degrade approximately 100 % of 0.5 g L(-1) of nicotine within 9 h. Three intermediate metabolites were produced by the strain HZN1 and identified as cotinine, myosmine and nicotyrine using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. This is the first report of nicotine-degrading strain from the genus of Shinella. The results showed that strain HZN1 could be potentially employed in bioremediation of nicotine. Our findings would provide a new insight into the biodegradation of nicotine.

  19. Strategy for improving extracellular lipolytic activities by a novel thermotolerant Staphylococcus sp. strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherif Slim

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Extracellular bacterial lipases received much attention for their substrate specificity and their ability to function under extreme environments (pH, temperature.... Many staphylococci produced lipases which were released into the culture medium. Reports of extracellular thermostable lipases from Staphylococcus sp. and active in alkaline conditions are not previously described. Results This study focused on novel strategies to increase extracellular lipolytic enzyme production by a novel Staphylococcus sp. strain ESW. The microorganism needed neutral or alkaline pH values between 7.0 and 12.0 for growth. For pH values outside this range, cell growth seemed to be significantly inhibited. Staphylococcus sp. culture was able to grow within a wide temperature range (from 30 to 55°C. The presence of oils in the culture medium leaded to improvements in cells growth and lipolytic enzyme activity. On the other hand, although chemical surfactants leaded to an almost complete inhibition of growth and lipolytic enzyme production, their addition along the culture could affect the location of the enzyme. In addition, our results showed that this novel Staphylococcus sp. strain produced biosurfactants simultaneously with lipolytic activity, when soapstock (The main co-product of the vegetable oil refining industry, was used as the sole carbon source. Conclusion A simultaneous biosurfactant and extracellular lipolytic enzymes produced bacterial strain with potential application in soap stock treatment

  20. Diverse responses to UV light exposure in Acinetobacter include the capacity for DNA damage-induced mutagenesis in the opportunistic pathogens Acinetobacter baumannii and Acinetobacter ursingii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, James A.; Lin, Ching-li; Elam, Tyler J.

    2012-01-01

    Error-prone and error-free DNA damage repair responses that are induced in most bacteria after exposure to various chemicals, antibiotics or radiation sources were surveyed across the genus Acinetobacter. The error-prone SOS mutagenesis response occurs when DNA damage induces a cell’s umuDC- or dinP-encoded error-prone polymerases. The model strain Acinetobacter baylyi ADP1 possesses an unusual, regulatory umuD allele (umuDAb) with an extended 5′ region and only incomplete fragments of umuC. Diverse Acinetobacter species were investigated for the presence of umuDC and their ability to conduct UV-induced mutagenesis. Unlike ADP1, most Acinetobacter strains possessed multiple umuDC loci containing either umuDAb or a umuD allele resembling that of Escherichia coli. The nearly omnipresent umuDAb allele was the ancestral umuD in Acinetobacter, with horizontal gene transfer accounting for over half of the umuDC operons. Despite multiple umuD(Ab)C operons in many strains, only three species conducted UV-induced mutagenesis: Acinetobacter baumannii, Acinetobacter ursingii and Acinetobacter beijerinckii. The type of umuDC locus or mutagenesis phenotype a strain possessed was not correlated with its error-free response of survival after UV exposure, but similar diversity was apparent. The survival of 30 Acinetobacter strains after UV treatment ranged over five orders of magnitude, with the Acinetobacter calcoaceticus–A. baumannii (Acb) complex and haemolytic strains having lower survival than non-Acb or non-haemolytic strains. These observations demonstrate that a genus can possess a range of DNA damage response mechanisms, and suggest that DNA damage-induced mutation could be an important part of the evolution of the emerging pathogens A. baumannii and A. ursingii. PMID:22117008

  1. Transmission dynamics of Bartonella sp. strain OE 1-1 in Sundevall's jirds (Meriones crassus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morick, Danny; Krasnov, Boris R; Khokhlova, Irina S; Gottlieb, Yuval; Harrus, Shimon

    2013-02-01

    A high prevalence of Bartonella infection is found in many natural systems; however, the transmission dynamics leading to observations of these infections is not fully understood. The capability of Xenopsylla ramesis fleas to serve as competent vectors of Bartonella sp. OE 1-1 (a strain closely related to the zoonotic Bartonella elizabethae) to Meriones crassus jirds was investigated. Naïve X. ramesis fleas were placed for 72 h on naïve jirds or jirds that were either experimentally or naturally infected with Bartonella sp. strain OE 1-1, after which they were placed on naïve jirds. Postfeeding, 69 to 100% of the fleas collected from each Bartonella-positive jird contained Bartonella DNA, and all naïve jirds became positive for Bartonella sp. OE 1-1 after infestation with the infected fleas. In addition, maternal transmission of Bartonella sp. OE 1-1 in jirds was tested by mating 5 Bartonella-positive and 5 naïve female jirds with 10 naïve male jirds in the absence of fleas. Fifteen offspring were delivered by each group. Cultures of blood drawn from all offspring on days 35 and 47 postdelivery were found to be negative for Bartonella. A single spleen sample from the offspring of a Bartonella-positive mother was found molecularly positive for Bartonella sp. OE 1-1. This study demonstrates that X. ramesis fleas are competent vectors of Bartonella sp. OE 1-1 to M. crassus jirds and indicates that maternal transmission is probably not the major transmission route from female jirds to their offspring. We suggest that the dynamics of Bartonella sp. OE 1-1 in the M. crassus jird population in nature is mostly dependent on its vectors.

  2. Identification of an Enzyme System for Daidzein-to-Equol Conversion in Slackia sp. Strain NATTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriyama, Kaoru; Nomoto, Koji; Akaza, Hideyuki

    2012-01-01

    An Escherichia coli library comprising 8,424 strains incorporating gene fragments of the equol-producing bacterium Slackia sp. strain NATTS was constructed and screened for E. coli strains having daidzein- and dihydrodaidzein (DHD)- metabolizing activity. We obtained 3 clones that functioned to convert daidzein to DHD and 2 clones that converted DHD to equol. We then sequenced the gene fragments inserted into plasmids contained by these 5 clones. All of the gene fragments were contiguous, encoding three open reading frames (ORF-1, -2, and -3). Analysis of E. coli strains containing an expression vector incorporating one of the orf-1, -2, or -3 genes revealed that (i) the protein encoded by orf-1 was involved in the conversion of cis/trans-tetrahydrodaidzein (cis/trans-THD) to equol, (ii) the protein encoded by orf-2 was involved in the conversion of DHD to cis/trans-THD, and (iii) the protein encoded by orf-3 was involved in the conversion of daidzein to DHD. ORF-1 had a primary amino acid structure similar to that of succinate dehydrogenase. ORF-2 was presumed to be an enzyme belonging to the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase superfamily. ORF-3 was predicted to have 42% identity to the daidzein reductase of Lactococcus strain 20-92 and belonged to the NADH:flavin oxidoreductase family. These findings showed that the daidzein-to-equol conversion reaction in the Slackia sp. NATTS strain proceeds by the action of these three enzymes. PMID:22179235

  3. Production of proteasome inhibitor syringolin A by the endophyte Rhizobium sp. strain AP16.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudnik, Alexey; Bigler, Laurent; Dudler, Robert

    2014-06-01

    Syringolin A, the product of a mixed nonribosomal peptide synthetase/polyketide synthase encoded by the syl gene cluster, is a virulence factor secreted by certain Pseudomonas syringae strains. Together with the glidobactins produced by a number of beta- and gammaproteobacterial human and animal pathogens, it belongs to the syrbactins, a structurally novel class of proteasome inhibitors. In plants, proteasome inhibition by syringolin A-producing P. syringae strains leads to the suppression of host defense pathways requiring proteasome activity, such as the ones mediated by salicylic acid and jasmonic acid. Here we report the discovery of a syl-like gene cluster with some unusual features in the alphaproteobacterial endophyte Rhizobium sp. strain AP16 that encodes a putative syringolin A-like synthetase whose components share 55% to 65% sequence identity (72% to 79% similarity) at the amino acid level. As revealed by average nucleotide identity (ANI) calculations, this strain likely belongs to the same species as biocontrol strain R. rhizogenes K84 (formely known as Agrobacterium radiobacter K84), which, however, carries a nonfunctional deletion remnant of the syl-like gene cluster. Here we present a functional analysis of the syl-like gene cluster of Rhizobium sp. strain AP16 and demonstrate that this endophyte synthesizes syringolin A and some related minor variants, suggesting that proteasome inhibition by syrbactin production can be important not only for pathogens but also for endophytic bacteria in the interaction with their hosts. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  4. EFEKTIVITAS Bacillus thuringiensis H-14 STRAIN LOKAL DALAM BUAH KELAPA TERHADAP LARVA Anopheles sp dan Culex sp di KAMPUNG LAUT KABUPATEN CILACAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blondine Ch. P

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Bacillus thuringiensis serotipe H-14 strain lokal adalah bakteri patogen bersifat target spesifiknya larva nyamuk, aman bagi mamalia dan lingkungan. Penelitian bertujuan menentukan efektivitas B. thuringiensis H-14 strain lokal yang dikembangbiakkan dalam buah kelapa untuk pengendalian larva Anopheles sp dan Culex sp. Rancangan eksperimental semu, terdiri dari kelompok perlakuan dan kontrol. Bacillus thuringiensis H-14 strain lokal dikembangbiakan dalam10 buah kelapa umur 6–8 bulan, dengan berat kira-kira 1 kg, telah berisi air kelapa sekitar 400-500 ml/buah kelapa yang diperoleh dari Desa Klaces, Kampung Laut, Kabupaten Cilacap. Diinkubasi selama 14 hari pada temperatur kamar dan ditebarkan di 6 kolam yang menjadi habitat perkembangbiakan larva nyamuk dengan luas berkisar 3–100 m2.Hasil yang diperoleh menunjukkan efektivitas B. thuringiensis H-14 strain lokal terhadap larva Anopheles sp dan Culex sp selama 1 hari sesudah penebaran kematian larva berturut-turut sebesar 80–100% dan 79,31–100%. Sedangkan pada hari ke-14 sebesar 69,30–76,71% dan 67,69–86,04%. Buah kelapa dapat digunakan sebagai media lokal alternatif untuk pengembangbiakan B. thuringiensis H-14 strain lokal Kata kunci: B. thuringiensis H-14,  strain  lokal, buah kelapa, pengendalian larva Abstract Bacillus thuringiensis serotype H-14 local strain is pathogenic bacteria which specific  target to mosquito larvae. It is safe for mammals and enviroment. The aims of this study was to determine the effectivity of B. thuringiensis H-14 local strain which culturing in thecoconut wates against Anopheles sp and Culex sp mosquito larvae. This research is quasi experiment which consist of treated  and control groups. Bacillus thuringiensis H-14 local strain was cultured in 10 coconuts with 6–8 months age with weight around 1 kg that contained were approximately 400-500 ml/coconut were taken from Klaces village, Kampung Laut. After that the coconuts incubated for 14

  5. Strain identification and quorum sensing inhibition characterization of marine-derived Rhizobium sp. NAO1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hong; Zhou, Jin; Zhu, Xiaoshan; Yu, Shenchen; Chen, Lu; Jin, Hui; Cai, Zhonghua

    2017-03-01

    A novel strategy for combating pathogens is through the ongoing development and use of anti-quorum sensing (QS) treatments such as therapeutic bacteria or their anti-QS substances. Relatively little is known about the bacteria that inhabit the open ocean and of their potential anti-pathogenic attributes; thus, in an initiative to identify these types of therapeutic bacteria, planktonic microbes from the North Atlantic Ocean were collected, isolated, cultured and screened for anti-QS activity. Screening analysis identified one such strain, Rhizobium sp. NAO1. Extracts of Rhizobium sp. NAO1 were identified via ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) analysis. They were shown to contain N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL)-based QS analogues (in particular, the N-butyryl homoserine lactone (C4-AHL) analogue) and could disrupt biofilm formation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. QS inhibition was confirmed using confocal scanning laser microscopy and growth curves, and it was shown to occur in a dose-dependent manner without affecting bacterial growth. Secondary metabolites of Rhizobium sp. NAO1 inhibited PAO1 pathogenicity by downregulating AHL-mediated virulence factors such as elastase activity and siderophore production. Furthermore, as a result of biofilm structure damage, the secondary metabolite products of Rhizobium sp. NAO1 significantly increased the sensitivity of PAO1 to aminoglycoside antibiotics. Our results demonstrated that Rhizobium sp. strain NAO1 has the ability to disrupt P. aeruginosa PAO1 biofilm architecture, in addition to attenuating P. aeruginosa PAO1 virulence factor production and pathogenicity. Therefore, the newly identified ocean-derived Rhizobium sp. NAO1 has the potential to serve as a QS inhibitor and may be a new microbial resource for drug development.

  6. Quantitative proteomic analysis of ibuprofen-degrading Patulibacter sp. strain I11

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almeida, Barbara; Kjeldal, Henrik; Lolas, Ihab Bishara Yousef

    2013-01-01

    Ibuprofen is the third most consumed pharmaceutical drug in the world. Several isolates have been shown to degrade ibuprofen, but very little is known about the biochemistry of this process. This study investigates the degradation of ibuprofen by Patulibacter sp. strain I11 by quantitative...... proteomics using a metabolic labelling strategy. The whole genome of Patulibacter sp. strain I11 was sequenced to provide a species-specific protein platform for optimal protein identification. The bacterial proteomes of actively ibuprofen-degrading cells and cells grown in the absence of ibuprofen...... was identified and quantified by gel based shotgun-proteomics. In total 251 unique proteins were quantitated using this approach. Biological process and pathway analysis indicated a number of proteins that were up-regulated in response to active degradation of ibuprofen, some of them are known to be involved...

  7. Dominant colonization and inheritance of Methylobacterium sp. strain OR01 on perilla plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Masayuki; Yurimoto, Hiroya; Iguchi, Hiroyuki; Tani, Akio; Sakai, Yasuyoshi

    2013-01-01

    Pink-pigmented facultative methylotrophs (PPFMs) are major inhabitants of the phyllosphere. In a preceding study, we found that perilla plants harbor a dominant population of PPFMs on their leaves and seeds, and that the closest relative of PPFMs (Methylobacterium sp. strain OR01 as representative strain) isolated from red perilla seeds was M. fujisawaense DSM5686(T). In the present study, the specific interaction between red perilla and Methylobacterium species was investigated. All the PPFMs isolated from red perilla seeds harvested in the Ohara area of Kyoto, Japan in 2009, 2010, and 2011 and the PPFMs isolated from red perilla leaves planted at four geographically different places in Japan had 16S rRNA sequences identical to that of strain OR01. Direct transmission of PPFMs from seeds to leaves and the competitiveness of strain OR01 were confirmed. This report is the first step toward understanding the species-level specificity of the interaction between perilla plants and Methylobacterium species.

  8. Characterization of Methylobacterium strains isolated from the phyllosphere and description of Methylobacterium longum sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knief, Claudia; Dengler, Vanina; Bodelier, Paul L E; Vorholt, Julia A

    2012-01-01

    Methylobacterium strains are abundantly found in the phyllosphere of plants. Morphological, physiological and chemotaxonomical properties of 12 previously isolated strains were analyzed in order to obtain a more detailed overview of the characteristics of phyllosphere colonizing Methylobacterium strains. All strains showed the typical properties of the genus Methylobacterium, including pink pigmentation, facultative methylotrophy, a fatty acid profile dominated by C18:1 ω7c, and a high G+C content of 65 mol % or more. However, some strains showed only weak growth on methanol and pigmentation varied from pale pink to red. Strains grew best under mesophilic, neutrophilic conditions and low salt (≤1%) concentrations, but variation was seen with respect to the temperature and pH range under which growth occurred. Likewise, differences were seen with respect to carbon source utilization. Some strains were versatile and utilized diverse organic acids, amino acids and sugars, while others could only metabolize a restricted number of organic acids. The strains that were most distinct from existing type strains based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis were selected for DNA-DNA hybridization experiments to analyze whether they are sufficiently different at the genomic level from existing type strains to justify their classification as new species. This resulted in the delineation of strain 440 and its description as Methylobacterium longum sp. nov. strain 440 (=DSM 23933(T) = CECT 7806(T)). A main characteristic of this species is the formation of relatively long rods compared to other Methylobacterium species.

  9. Characterization of an Acinetobacter baumannii lptD Deletion Strain: Permeability Defects and Response to Inhibition of Lipopolysaccharide and Fatty Acid Biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojkovic, Jade; Richie, Daryl L; Six, David A; Rath, Christopher M; Sawyer, William S; Hu, Qijun; Dean, Charles R

    2015-12-14

    Lipid A on the Gram-negative outer membrane (OM) is synthesized in the cytoplasm by the Lpx pathway and translocated to the OM by the Lpt pathway. Some Acinetobacter baumannii strains can tolerate the complete loss of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) resulting from the inactivation of early LPS pathway genes such as lpxC. Here, we characterized a mutant deleted for lptD, which encodes an OM protein that mediates the final translocation of fully synthesized LPS to the OM. Cells lacking lptD had a growth defect comparable to that of an lpxC deletion mutant under the growth conditions tested but were more sensitive to hydrophobic antibiotics, revealing a more significant impact on cell permeability from impaired LPS translocation than from the loss of LPS synthesis. Consistent with this, ATP leakage and N-phenyl-1-naphthylamine (NPN) fluorescence assays indicated a more severe impact of lptD deletion than of lpxC deletion on inner and outer membrane permeability, respectively. Targeted liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LCMS) analysis of LPS intermediates from UDP-3-O-R-3-hydroxylauroyl-N-acetyl-α-d-glucosamine through lipid IV(A) showed that the loss of LptD caused an accumulation of lipid IV(A). This suggested that pathway intermediate accumulation or mislocalization caused by the blockage of later LPS pathway steps impacts envelope integrity. Supporting this notion, chemical inhibition of lipid A precursor enzymes, including LpxC and FabB/F, in the lptD deletion strain partially rescued growth and permeability defects. New antibiotics to treat Gram-negative bacterial infections are urgently needed. Inhibition of LPS biosynthesis is attractive because this would impact viability and cell permeability. Therefore, a better understanding of this pathway is important, especially in strains such as A. baumannii ATCC 19606, where LPS biosynthesis is not essential in vitro. We show that ATCC 19606 also survives the loss of the final translocation of LPS into the OM (lpt

  10. Characterization of an Acinetobacter baumannii lptD Deletion Strain: Permeability Defects and Response to Inhibition of Lipopolysaccharide and Fatty Acid Biosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojkovic, Jade; Richie, Daryl L.; Six, David A.; Rath, Christopher M.; Sawyer, William S.; Hu, Qijun

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Lipid A on the Gram-negative outer membrane (OM) is synthesized in the cytoplasm by the Lpx pathway and translocated to the OM by the Lpt pathway. Some Acinetobacter baumannii strains can tolerate the complete loss of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) resulting from the inactivation of early LPS pathway genes such as lpxC. Here, we characterized a mutant deleted for lptD, which encodes an OM protein that mediates the final translocation of fully synthesized LPS to the OM. Cells lacking lptD had a growth defect comparable to that of an lpxC deletion mutant under the growth conditions tested but were more sensitive to hydrophobic antibiotics, revealing a more significant impact on cell permeability from impaired LPS translocation than from the loss of LPS synthesis. Consistent with this, ATP leakage and N-phenyl-1-naphthylamine (NPN) fluorescence assays indicated a more severe impact of lptD deletion than of lpxC deletion on inner and outer membrane permeability, respectively. Targeted liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LCMS) analysis of LPS intermediates from UDP-3-O-R-3-hydroxylauroyl-N-acetyl-α-d-glucosamine through lipid IVA showed that the loss of LptD caused an accumulation of lipid IVA. This suggested that pathway intermediate accumulation or mislocalization caused by the blockage of later LPS pathway steps impacts envelope integrity. Supporting this notion, chemical inhibition of lipid A precursor enzymes, including LpxC and FabB/F, in the lptD deletion strain partially rescued growth and permeability defects. IMPORTANCE New antibiotics to treat Gram-negative bacterial infections are urgently needed. Inhibition of LPS biosynthesis is attractive because this would impact viability and cell permeability. Therefore, a better understanding of this pathway is important, especially in strains such as A. baumannii ATCC 19606, where LPS biosynthesis is not essential in vitro. We show that ATCC 19606 also survives the loss of the final translocation of LPS into

  11. Biodegradation of cypermethrin by immobilized cells of Micrococcus sp. strain CPN 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti N. Tallur

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Pyrethroid pesticide cypermethrin is a environmental pollutant because of its widespread use, toxicity and persistence. Biodegradation of such chemicals by microorganisms may provide an cost-effective method for their detoxification. We have investigated the degradation of cypermethrin by immobilized cells of Micrococcus sp. strain CPN 1 in various matrices such as, polyurethane foam (PUF, polyacrylamide, sodium alginate and agar. The optimum temperature and pH for the degradation of cypermethrin by immobilized cells of Micrococcus sp. were found to be 30 °C and 7.0, respectively. The rate of degradation of 10 and 20 mM of cypermethrin by freely suspended cells were compared with that of immobilized cells in batches and semi-continuous with shaken cultures. PUF-immobilized cells showed higher degradation of cypermethrin (10 mM and 20 mM than freely suspended cells and cells immobilized in other matrices. The PUF-immobilized cells of Micrococcus sp. strain CPN 1 were retain their degradation capacity. Thus, they can be reused for more than 32 cycles, without losing their degradation capacity. Hence, the PUF-immobilized cells of Micrococcus sp. could potentially be used in the bioremediation of cypermethrin contaminated water.

  12. Three New Compounds from the Marine Fungal Strain Aspergillus sp. AF119

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaosong Liu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Three new compounds , namely barceloneic lactone B (1 and barceloneic acid C (2 and 5’ -hydroxychlorflavonin ( 3 , together with one known compound chlorflavonin ( 4 , were isolated from the marine fungal strain Aspergillus sp. AF119. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analyses including 1D- and 2D NMR experiments, and HR Q-TOF mass spectrometry. The antifungal activities against Candida albicans of these compounds were evaluated.

  13. Large-scale bioreactor production of the herbicide-degrading Aminobacter sp. strain MSH1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz-Jensen, Nadja; Knudsen, Berith Elkær; Frkova, Zuzana

    2014-01-01

    The Aminobacter sp. strain MSH1 has potential for pesticide bioremediation because it degrades the herbicide metabolite 2,6-dichlorobenzamide (BAM). Production of the BAM-degrading bacterium using aerobic bioreactor fermentation was investigated. A mineral salt medium limited for carbon and with ......, large-scale production of herbicide-degrading Aminobacter was possible, bringing the use of this bacterium in bioaugmentation field remediation closer to reality....

  14. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon degradation by the white rot fungus Bjerkandera sp. strain BOS55

    OpenAIRE

    Kotterman, M.

    1998-01-01

    Outline of this thesis
    In this thesis the conditions for optimal PAH oxidation by the white rot fungus Bjerkandera sp. strain BOS55 were evaluated. In Chapter 2, culture conditions like aeration and cosubstrate concentrations, which influenced the oxidation of the PAH compound anthracene and the ligninolytic indicator dye Poly R-478 by the white rot fungus, were studied. Two parameters were identified as the most important P...

  15. Identification of salt-tolerant Sinorhizobium sp. strain BL3 membrane proteins based on proteomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanthanuch, Waraporn; Tittabutr, Panlada; Mohammed, Shabaz

    2010-01-01

    Sinorhizobium sp. BL3 is a salt-tolerant strain that can fix atmospheric nitrogen in symbiosis with leguminous host plants under salt-stress conditions. Since cell membranes are the first barrier to environmental change, it is interesting to explore the membrane proteins within this protective ba......-line SCX fractionation coupled to nanoLC-MS/MS. These techniques would be useful for further comparative analysis of membrane proteins that function in the response to environmental stress....

  16. Cell Surface-Associated Proteins in the Filamentous Cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshimura, Hidehisa; Ikeuchi, Masahiko; Ohomori, Masayuki

    2012-01-01

    The cell surface senses environmental changes first and transfers signals into the cell. To understand the response to environmental changes, it is necessary to analyze cell surface components, particularly cell surface-associated proteins. We therefore investigated cell surface-associated proteins from the filamentous cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120. The cell surface-associated proteins extracted by an acidic buffer were resolved by SDS-PAGE. Eighteen proteins were identified fro...

  17. A new alkali-thermostable azoreductase from Bacillus sp. strain SF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Jürgen; Kandelbauer, Andreas; Erlacher, Angelika; Cavaco-Paulo, Artur; Gübitz, Georg M

    2004-02-01

    A screening for dye-decolorizing alkali-thermophilic microorganisms resulted in a Bacillus sp. strain isolated out of the wastewater drain of a textile finishing company. An NADH-dependent azoreductase of this strain, Bacillus sp. strain SF, was found to be responsible for the decolorization of azo dyes. This enzyme was purified by a combination of ammonium sulfate precipitation and anion-exchange and affinity chromatography and had a molecular mass of 61.6 kDa and an isoelectric point at pH 5.3. The pH optimum of the azoreductase depended on the substrate and was within the range of pHs 8 to 9, while the temperature maximum was reached at 80 degrees C. Decolorization only took place in the absence of oxygen and was enhanced by FAD, which was not consumed during the reaction. A 26% similarity of this azoreductase to chaperonin Cpn60 from a Bacillus sp. was found by peptide mass mapping experiments. Substrate specificities of the azoreductase were studied by using synthesized model substrates based on di-sodium-(R)-benzyl-azo-2,7-dihydroxy-3,6-disulfonyl-naphthaline. Those dyes with NO2 substituents, especially in the ortho position, were degraded fastest, while analogues with a methyl substitution showed the lowest degradation rates.

  18. Biodegradation of Methyl tert-Butyl Ether by Co-Metabolism with a Pseudomonas sp. Strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanshan Li

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Co-metabolic bioremediation is supposed to be an impressive and promising approach in the elimination technology of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE, which was found to be a common pollutant worldwide in the ground or underground water in recent years. In this paper, bacterial strain DZ13 (which can co-metabolically degrade MTBE was isolated and named as Pseudomonas sp. DZ13 based on the result of 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis. Strain DZ13 could grow on n-alkanes (C5-C8, accompanied with the co-metabolic degradation of MTBE. Diverse n-alkanes with different carbon number showed a significant influence on the degradation rate of MTBE and accumulation of tert-butyl alcohol (TBA. When Pseudomonas sp. DZ13 co-metabolically degraded MTBE with n-pentane as the growth substrate, a higher MTBE-degrading rate (Vmax = 38.1 nmol/min/mgprotein, Ks = 6.8 mmol/L and lower TBA-accumulation was observed. In the continuous degradation experiment, the removal efficiency of MTBE by Pseudomonas sp. Strain DZ13 did not show an obvious decrease after five times of continuous addition.

  19. Identification, purification and characterization of laterosporulin, a novel bacteriocin produced by Brevibacillus sp. strain GI-9.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradip Kumar Singh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bacteriocins are antimicrobial peptides that are produced by bacteria as a defense mechanism in complex environments. Identification and characterization of novel bacteriocins in novel strains of bacteria is one of the important fields in bacteriology. METHODOLOGY/FINDINGS: The strain GI-9 was identified as Brevibacillus sp. by 16 S rRNA gene sequence analysis. The bacteriocin produced by strain GI-9, namely, laterosporulin was purified from supernatant of the culture grown under optimal conditions using hydrophobic interaction chromatography and reverse-phase HPLC. The bacteriocin was active against a wide range of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. MALDI-TOF experiments determined the precise molecular mass of the peptide to be of 5.6 kDa and N-terminal sequencing of the thermo-stable peptide revealed low similarity with existing antimicrobial peptides. The putative open reading frame (ORF encoding laterosporulin and its surrounding genomic region was fished out from the draft genome sequence of GI-9. Sequence analysis of the putative bacteriocin gene did not show significant similarity to any reported bacteriocin producing genes in database. CONCLUSIONS: We have identified a bacteriocin producing strain GI-9, belonging to the genus Brevibacillus sp. Biochemical and genomic characterization of laterosporulin suggests it as a novel bacteriocin with broad spectrum antibacterial activity.

  20. High-quality permanent draft genome sequence of Bradyrhizobium sp. strain WSM1743 - an effective microsymbiont of an Indigofera sp. growing in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshraghi, Leila; De Meyer, Sofie E; Tian, Rui; Seshadri, Rekha; Ivanova, Natalia; Pati, Amrita; Markowitz, Victor; Woyke, Tanja; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Tiwari, Ravi; Yates, Ron; Howieson, John; Reeve, Wayne

    2015-01-01

    Bradyrhizobium sp. strain WSM1743 is an aerobic, motile, Gram-negative, non-spore-forming rod that can exist as a soil saprophyte or as a legume microsymbiont of an Indigofera sp. WSM1743 was isolated from a nodule recovered from the roots of an Indigofera sp. growing 20 km north of Carnarvon in Australia. It is slow growing, tolerates up to 1 % NaCl and is capable of growth at 37 °C. Here we describe the features of Bradyrhizobium sp. strain WSM1743, together with genome sequence information and its annotation. The 8,341,956 bp high-quality permanent draft genome is arranged into 163 scaffolds and 167 contigs, contains 7908 protein-coding genes and 75 RNA-only encoding genes and was sequenced as part of the Root Nodule Bacteria chapter of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.

  1. [Isolation and identification of Sulfobacillus sp. strains and their application in pyrite bioleaching].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Tangjian; Zhong, Shuiping; Chen, Chaoran; Peng, Cheng; Jiang, Chengying

    2013-12-04

    The work aimed to isolate and culture the acidophilic and moderately thermophilic microorganisms for leaching the sulfide ore. We enriched and incubated iron- or sulfur-oxidizing strains from muddy water of acuric hot spring utilizing ferrous irons or elemental sulfur as substrates. Then, we identified the strains by their morphological, physiological, biochemical properties and phylogenetic positions, and estimated their bioleaching potential according to their oxidation rate of pyrite. Two acidophilic, aerobic and facultative heterotrophic bacterial strains, Costa C and Costa E, were isolated from the samples of sulfuric hot springs of Costa Rica. Cells of the two strains were gram-positive, spore-forming and rod-shaped [(0.4 - 0.6) microm x (2.5 - 4.0) microm and (0.4 - 0.7) microm x (2.4 - 4.9) microm, respectively]. Strain Costa C grew at a temperature range of 30 degrees C - 55 degrees C and a pH range of 1.2 - 5.0, optimally at 50 degrees C and 2.8. Strain Costa E grew at a temperature range of 30 degrees C - 55 degrees C and at a pH range of 1.4 - 5.0, optimally at 40 degrees C and 2.8. Two strains could autotrophically grow on inorganic substrates such as ferrous irons, element sulfur and K2 S4 O6 and also could utilize organic substrates like yeast extract for heterotrophic growth. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences alignment demonstrated that the highest similarity between strain Costa C, Costa E and other species of the genus Sulfobacillus was above 99%. Based on morphological, physiological and biochemical analysis, Costa C and Costa E can be affiliated to the genus Sulfobacillus, for which the names Sulfobacillus sp. strain Costa C and Sulfobacillus sp. strain Costa E were proposed. Both strains could oxidize pyrite, and the oxidation rates arrived 63.0 mg/L x d and 56.8 mg/L x d, respectively.

  2. Coregulation of the cyclic lipopeptides orfamide and sessilin in the biocontrol strain Pseudomonas sp. CMR12a

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Olorunleke, Feyisara E; Kieu, Nam P; De Waele, Evelien; Timmerman, Marc; Ongena, Marc; Höfte, Monica

    2017-01-01

    ... ), which are often flanked by LuxR‐type transcriptional regulators. Pseudomonas sp. CMR 12a, an effective biocontrol strain, produces two different classes of CLP s namely sessilins and orfamides...

  3. Whole-Genome Sequences of Two Closely Related Bacteria, Actinomyces sp. Strain Chiba101 and Actinomyces denticolens DSM 20671T

    OpenAIRE

    Kanesaki, Yu; Ishige, Taichiro; Sekigawa, Yuriko; Kobayashi, Tomoko; Torii, Yasushi; YOKOYAMA, Eiji; Ishiwata, Hiroyuki; Hamada, Moriyuki; Tamura, Tomohiko; Azuma, Ryozo; Murakami, Satoshi

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Actinomyces sp. strain Chiba101, isolated from an arthritic leg joint of a pig raised in Japan, is a bacterium closely related to Actinomyces denticolens. Here, we deciphered the complete genome sequence of Actinomyces sp. Chiba101 and the high-quality draft genome sequence of A.?denticolens DSM 20671T.

  4. Draft genome sequence of Paenisporosarcina sp. strain TG-20, a psychrophilic bacterium isolated from the basal ice of Taylor Glacier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jun Hyuck; Koh, Hye Yeon; Lee, Sung Gu; Doyle, Shawn; Christner, Brent C; Kim, Hak Jun

    2012-12-01

    We report the draft genome sequence of Paenisporosarcina sp. strain TG-20, which is 4.12 Mb in size and consists of 4,071 protein-coding genes and 76 RNA genes. The genome sequence of Paenisporosarcina sp. TG-20 may provide useful information about molecular adaptations that enhance survival in icy subsurface environments.

  5. Rickettsia sp. Strain NOD Infecting Ticks ( Amblyomma nodosum) in an Endemic Area of Spotted Fever in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moerbeck, Leonardo; Vizzoni, Vinicius F; de Oliveira, Stefan V; Cavalcante, Robson; Coelho, Gerlene C B; Duarte, Naylê F H; Amorim, Marinete; Gazêta, Gilberto S

    2017-12-20

    Amblyomma nodosum ticks were collected from one collared anteater ( Tamandua tetradactyla) in the Caatinga biome, Brazil. From one sample, we isolated a Rickettsia sp. that was phylogenetically close to Rickettsia sp. strain NOD, with 99.9, 100.0, and 99.8% identity for gltA, htrA, and ompA genes, respectively.

  6. Screening of bacterial strains for pectinolytic activity: characterization of the polygalacturonase produced by Bacillus sp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soares Márcia M.C.N.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available One hundred sixty eight bacterial strains, isolated from soil and samples of vegetable in decomposition, were screened for the use of citrus pectin as the sole carbon source. 102 were positive for pectinase depolymerization in assay plates as evidenced by clear hydrolization halos. Among them, 30% presented considerable pectinolytic activity. The cultivation of these strains by submerged and semi-solid fermentation for polygalacturonase production indicated that five strains of Bacillus sp produced high quantities of the enzyme. The physico-chemical characteristics, such as optimum pH of 6.0 - 7.0, optimum temperatures between 45oC and 55oC, stability at temperatures above 40oC and in neutral and alkaline pH, were determined.

  7. High-quality genome sequence and description of Bacillus ndiopicus strain FF3T sp. nov.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.I. Lo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Strain FF3T was isolated from the skin-flora of a 39-year-old healthy Senegalese man. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry did not allow any identification. This strain exhibited a 16S rRNA sequence similarity of 96.8% with Bacillus massiliensis, the phylogenetically closest species with standing nomenclature. Using a polyphasic study made of phenotypic and genomic analyses, strain FF3T was Gram-positive, aeroanaerobic and rod shaped and exhibited a genome of 4 068 720 bp with a G+C content of 37.03% that coded 3982 protein-coding and 67 RNA genes (including four rRNA operons. On the basis of these data, we propose the creation of Bacillus ndiopicus sp. nov.

  8. Noncontiguous finished genome sequence and description of Diaminobutyricimonas massiliensis strain FF2T sp. nov.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.I. Lo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Strain FF2T was isolated from the blood sample of a 35 year-old febrile Senegalese male, in Dielmo, Senegal. This strain exhibited a 97.47% 16S rRNA sequence identity with Diaminobutyricimonas aerilata. The score from MALDI-TOF-MS does not allow any identification. Using a polyphasic study made of phenotypic and genomic analyses, strain FF2T was Gram-negative, aerobic, motile, rod-shaped, and exhibited a genome of 3,227,513 bp (1 chromosome but no plasmid with a G+C content of 70.13% that coded 3,091 protein-coding and 56 RNA genes. On the basis of these data, we propose the creation of Diaminobutyricimonas massiliensis sp. nov.

  9. Identification and Characterization of an Archaeal Kojibiose Catabolic Pathway in the Hyperthermophilic Pyrococcus sp. Strain ST04

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, Jong-Hyun; Seo, Dong-Ho; Holden, James F.; Park, Cheon-Seok

    2014-01-01

    A unique gene cluster responsible for kojibiose utilization was identified in the genome of Pyrococcus sp. strain ST04. The proteins it encodes hydrolyze kojibiose, a disaccharide product of glucose caramelization, and form glucose-6-phosphate (G6P) in two steps. Heterologous expression of the kojibiose-related enzymes in Escherichia coli revealed that two genes, Py04_1502 and Py04_1503, encode kojibiose phosphorylase (designated PsKP, for Pyrococcus sp. strain ST04 kojibiose phosphorylase) a...

  10. Discovery of Rare and Highly Toxic Microcystins from Lichen-Associated Cyanobacterium Nostoc sp. Strain IO-102-I

    OpenAIRE

    Oksanen, Ilona; Jokela, Jouni; Fewer, David P.; Wahlsten, Matti; Rikkinen, Jouko; Sivonen, Kaarina

    2004-01-01

    The production of hepatotoxic cyclic heptapeptides, microcystins, is almost exclusively reported from planktonic cyanobacteria. Here we show that a terrestrial cyanobacterium Nostoc sp. strain IO-102-I isolated from a lichen association produces six different microcystins. Microcystins were identified with liquid chromatography-UV mass spectrometry by their retention times, UV spectra, mass fragmentation, and comparison to microcystins from the aquatic Nostoc sp. strain 152. The dominant micr...

  11. Nodulation of Lupinus albus by strains of Ochrobactrum lupini sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Martha E; Willems, Anne; Abril, Adriana; Planchuelo, Ana-María; Rivas, Raúl; Ludeña, Dolores; Mateos, Pedro F; Martínez-Molina, Eustoquio; Velázquez, Encarna

    2005-03-01

    The nodulation of legumes has for more than a century been considered an exclusive capacity of a group of microorganisms commonly known as rhizobia and belonging to the alpha-Proteobacteria. However, in the last 3 years four nonrhizobial species, belonging to alpha and beta subclasses of the Proteobacteria, have been described as legume-nodulating bacteria. In the present study, two fast-growing strains, LUP21 and LUP23, were isolated from nodules of Lupinus honoratus. The phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S and 23S rRNA gene sequences showed that the isolates belong to the genus Ochrobactrum. The strains were able to reinfect Lupinus plants. A plasmid profile analysis showed the presence of three plasmids. The nodD and nifH genes were located on these plasmids, and their sequences were obtained. These sequences showed a close resemblance to the nodD and nifH genes of rhizobial species, suggesting that the nodD and nifH genes carried by strain LUP21T were acquired by horizontal gene transfer. A polyphasic study including phenotypic, chemotaxonomic, and molecular features of the strains isolated in this study showed that they belong to a new species of the genus Ochrobactrum for which we propose the name Ochrobactrum lupini sp. nov. Strain LUP21T (LMG 20667T) is the type strain.

  12. Nodulation of Lupinus albus by Strains of Ochrobactrum lupini sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Martha E.; Willems, Anne; Abril, Adriana; Planchuelo, Ana-María; Rivas, Raúl; Ludeña, Dolores; Mateos, Pedro F.; Martínez-Molina, Eustoquio; Velázquez, Encarna

    2005-01-01

    The nodulation of legumes has for more than a century been considered an exclusive capacity of a group of microorganisms commonly known as rhizobia and belonging to the α-Proteobacteria. However, in the last 3 years four nonrhizobial species, belonging to α and β subclasses of the Proteobacteria, have been described as legume-nodulating bacteria. In the present study, two fast-growing strains, LUP21 and LUP23, were isolated from nodules of Lupinus honoratus. The phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S and 23S rRNA gene sequences showed that the isolates belong to the genus Ochrobactrum. The strains were able to reinfect Lupinus plants. A plasmid profile analysis showed the presence of three plasmids. The nodD and nifH genes were located on these plasmids, and their sequences were obtained. These sequences showed a close resemblance to the nodD and nifH genes of rhizobial species, suggesting that the nodD and nifH genes carried by strain LUP21T were acquired by horizontal gene transfer. A polyphasic study including phenotypic, chemotaxonomic, and molecular features of the strains isolated in this study showed that they belong to a new species of the genus Ochrobactrum for which we propose the name Ochrobactrum lupini sp. nov. Strain LUP21T (LMG 20667T) is the type strain. PMID:15746334

  13. Development and Evaluation of Species-Specific PCR for Detection of Nine Acinetobacter Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xue Min; Choi, Ji Ae; Choi, In Sun; Kook, Joong Ki; Chang, Young-Hyo; Park, Geon; Jang, Sook Jin; Kang, Seong Ho; Moon, Dae Soo

    2016-05-01

    Molecular methods have the potential to improve the speed and accuracy of Acinetobacter species identification in clinical settings. The goal of this study is to develop species-specific PCR assays based on differences in the RNA polymerase beta-subunit gene (rpoB) to detect nine commonly isolated Acinetobacter species including Acinetobacter baumannii, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, Acinetobacter pittii, Acinetobacter nosocomialis, Acinetobacter lwoffii, Acinetobacter ursingii, Acinetobacter bereziniae, Acinetobacter haemolyticus, and Acinetobacter schindleri. The sensitivity and specificity of these nine assays were measured using genomic DNA templates from 55 reference strains and from 474 Acinetobacter clinical isolates. The sensitivity of A. baumannii-specific PCR assay was 98.9%, and the sensitivity of species-specific PCR assays for all other species was 100%. The specificities of A. lwoffii- and A. schindleri-specific PCR were 97.8 and 98.9%, respectively. The specificity of species-specific PCR for all other tested Acinetobacter species was 100%. The lower limit of detection for the nine species-specific PCR assays developed in this study was 20 or 200 pg of genomic DNA from type strains of each species. The Acinetobacter species-specific PCR assay would be useful to determine the correct species among suggested candidate Acinetobacter species when conventional methods including MALDI-TOF MS identify Acinetobacter only to the genus level. The species-specific assay can be used to screen large numbers of clinical and environmental samples obtained for epidemiologic study of Acinetobacter for the presence of target species. © 2016 by the Association of Clinical Scientists, Inc.

  14. Genotypic and Phenotypic Correlations of Multidrug-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii-A. calcoaceticus Complex Strains Isolated from Patients at the National Naval Medical Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acinetobacter baumannii-calcoaceticus complex (ABC) infections have complicated the care of U.S. combat casualties. In this study, 102 ABC isolates from wounded soldiers treated at National Naval Medical Center (NNMC) were characterized by phenotype and genotype to identify clones in this population...

  15. Draft genome sequence of Paenibacillus algorifonticola sp. nov., an antimicrobial-producing strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liying Zhu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Paenibacillus algorifonticola sp. nov. is isolated from a cold spring sample from Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region (China, a novel strain that can produce antimicrobial substance against human pathogenic bacteria and fungi, including Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans. Here we report a 7.60-Mb assembly of its genome sequence and other useful information, including the coding sequences (CDSs responsible for the biosynthesis of antibacterial factors, anaerobic respiration and several immune-associated reactions. Also, prospective studies on P. algorifonticola sp. nov. in the cold spring might offer a potential source for the discovery of bioactive compounds with medical value. The data repository is deposited on the website http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/nuccore/LAQO00000000 and the accession number is LAQO00000000.

  16. Antifungal properties of Foeniculum vulgare, Carum carvi and Eucalyptus sp. essential oils against Candida albicans strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skrobonja Jelica M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aromatic plants are among the most important sources of biologically active secondary metabolites, with high antimicrobal potential. This study was carried out to examine in vitro antifungal activity of Foeniculum vulgare (Apiaceae, Carum carvi (Apiaceae and Eucalyptus sp.(Myrtaceae essential oils against three Candida albicans strains of different origin (laboratory-CAL, human pulmonary-CAH and ATCC10231-CAR. The essential oils were screened on C. albicans using disc and well-diffusion and microdilution method, and compared to Nystatine and Fluconazole as standard anti-mycotics. The activity of tested oils was expressed by inhibition zone diameter (mm, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC (mg/ml. The results indicated that studied essential oils show antifungal activity against all three isolates of C. albicans. It was observed that each oil exhibits different degree of antifungal activity depending on the oil concentration applied as well as on analyzed strain of C. albicans. Carum carvi demonstrated the strongest antifungal effect to all tested strains, showing the lowest MIC values (0.03mg/ml for CAL, 0.06mg/ml for CAH, and 0.11mg/ml for CAR, respectively. Eucalyptus sp. exhibited the lowest antifungal activity, with MIC values ranging from 0.11 mg/ml for CAL to 0.45 mg/ml for both CAH and CAR. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172058

  17. Novel Acetone Metabolism in a Propane-Utilizing Bacterium, Gordonia sp. Strain TY-5▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotani, Tetsuya; Yurimoto, Hiroya; Kato, Nobuo; Sakai, Yasuyoshi

    2007-01-01

    In the propane-utilizing bacterium Gordonia sp. strain TY-5, propane was shown to be oxidized to 2-propanol and then further oxidized to acetone. In this study, the subsequent metabolism of acetone was studied. Acetone-induced proteins were found in extracts of cells induced by acetone, and a gene cluster designated acmAB was cloned on the basis of the N-terminal amino acid sequences of acetone-induced proteins. The acmA and acmB genes encode a Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenase (BVMO) and esterase, respectively. The BVMO encoded by acmA was purified from acetone-induced cells of Gordonia sp. strain TY-5 and characterized. The BVMO exhibited NADPH-dependent oxidation activity for linear ketones (C3 to C10) and cyclic ketones (C4 to C8). Escherichia coli expressing the acmA gene oxidized acetone to methyl acetate, and E. coli expressing the acmB gene hydrolyzed methyl acetate. Northern blot analyses revealed that polycistronic transcription of the acmAB gene cluster was induced by propane, 2-propanol, and acetone. These results indicate that the acmAB gene products play an important role in the metabolism of acetone derived from propane oxidation and clarify the propane metabolism pathway of strain TY-5 (propane → 2-propanol → acetone → methyl acetate → acetic acid + methanol). This paper provides the first evidence for BVMO-dependent acetone metabolism. PMID:17071761

  18. Effects of nano bamboo charcoal on PAHs-degrading strain Sphingomonas sp. GY2B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    She, Bojia; Tao, Xueqin; Huang, Ting; Lu, Guining; Zhou, Zhili; Guo, Chuling; Dang, Zhi

    2016-03-01

    Nano bamboo charcoal (NBC) has been commonly used in the production of textiles, plastics, paint, etc. However, little is known regarding their effects towards the microorganisms. The effects of NBC on phenanthrene degrading strain Sphingomonas sp. GY2B were investigated in the present study. Results showed that the addition of NBC could improve the phenanthrene removal by Sphingomonas sp. GY2B, with removal efficiencies increased by 10.29-18.56% in comparison to the control at 24h, and phenanthrene was almost completely removed at 48h. With the presence of low dose of NBC (20 and 50mgL(-1)), strain GY2B displayed a better growth at 6h, suggesting that NBC was beneficial to the growth of GY2B and thus resulting in the quick removal of phenanthrene from water. However, the growth of strain GY2B in high dose of NBC (200mgL(-1)) was inhibited at 6h, and the inhibition could be attenuated and eliminated after 12h. NBC-effected phenanthrene solubility experiment suggested that NBC makes a negligible contribution to the solubilization of phenanthrene in water. Results of electronic microscopy analysis (SEM and TEM) indicated NBC may interact with the cell membrane, causing the enhanced membrane permeability and then NBC adsorbed on the membrane would enter into the cells. The findings of this work would provide important information for the future usage and long-term environmental risk assessment of NBC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Draft Genome Sequences of Type Strain Sediminibacterium salmoneum NJ-44T and Sediminibacterium sp. C3, a Novel Strain Isolated from Activated Sludge

    OpenAIRE

    Ayarza, Joaquín M.; Figuerola, Eva Lucia Margarita; Erijman, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    The genus Sediminibacterium comprises species present in diverse natural and engineered environments. Here, we report for the first time the genome sequences of the type strain Sediminibacterium salmoneum NJ-44T (NBRC 103935) and the strain Sedi- minibacterium sp. strain C3 (BNM541), isolated from activated sludge, a valuable model for the study of substrate-dependent autoaggregation. Fil: Ayarza, Joaquín M.. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Instituto de Investig...

  20. High Frequency of Acinetobacter soli among Acinetobacter Isolates Causing Bacteremia at a Tertiary Hospital in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Hisakazu; Kanamori, Hajime; Inomata, Shinya; Aoyagi, Tetsuji; Hatta, Masumitsu; Gu, Yoshiaki; Tokuda, Koichi; Kitagawa, Miho; Kaku, Mitsuo

    2014-01-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii is generally the most frequently isolated Acinetobacter species. Sequence analysis techniques allow reliable identification of Acinetobacter isolates at the species level. Forty-eight clinical isolates of Acinetobacter spp. were obtained from blood cultures at Tohoku University Hospital. These isolates were identified at the species level by partial sequencing of the RNA polymerase β-subunit (rpoB), 16S rRNA, and gyrB genes. Then further characterization was done by using the PCR for detection of OXA-type β-lactamase gene clusters, metallo-β-lactamases, and carO genes. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing were also performed. The most frequent isolate was Acinetobacter soli (27.1%). Six of the 13 A. soli isolates were carbapenem nonsusceptible, and all of these isolates produced IMP-1. PFGE revealed that the 13 A. soli isolates were divided into 8 clusters. This study demonstrated that A. soli accounted for a high proportion of Acinetobacter isolates causing bacteremia at a Japanese tertiary hospital. Non-A. baumannii species were identified more frequently than A. baumannii and carbapenem-nonsusceptible isolates were found among the non-A. baumannii strains. These results emphasize the importance of performing epidemiological investigations of Acinetobacter species. PMID:24403303

  1. Bacillus mesophilum sp. nov., strain IITR-54T, a novel 4-chlorobiphenyl dechlorinating bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manickam, Natesan; Singh, Nitin Kumar; Bajaj, Abhay; Kumar, Rajendran Mathan; Kaur, Gurwinder; Kaur, Navjot; Bala, Monu; Kumar, Anand; Mayilraj, Shanmugam

    2014-07-01

    The taxonomic position of a Gram-positive, endospore-forming bacterium isolated from soil sample collected from an industrial site was analyzed by a polyphasic approach. The strain designated as IITR-54T matched most of the phenotypic and chemical characteristics of the genus Bacillus and represents a novel species. It was found to biodegrade 4-chlorobiphenyl through dechlorination and was isolated through enrichment procedure from an aged polychlorinated biphenyl-contaminated soil. Both resting cell assay and growth under aerobic liquid conditions using 4-chlorobiphenyl as sole source of carbon along with 0.01% yeast extract, formation of chloride ions was measured. 16S rRNA (1,489 bases) nucleotide sequence of isolated strain was compared with those of closely related Bacillus type strains and confirmed that the strain belongs to the genus Bacillus. Strain IITR-54T differs from all other species of Bacillus by at least 2.1% at the 16S rRNA level, and the moderately related species are Bacillus oceanisediminis (97.9%) followed by Bacillus infantis (97.7%), Bacillus firmus (97.4%), Bacillus drentensis (97.3%), Bacillus circulans (97.2%), Bacillus soli (97.1%), Bacillus horneckiae (97.1%), Bacillus pocheonensis (97.1%) and Bacillus bataviensis (97.1%), respectively. The cell wall peptidoglycan contained meso-diaminopimelic acid and the major isoprenoid quinone was MK-7. Major fatty acids are iso-C15:0 (32.4%) and anteiso-C15:0 (27.4%). Predominant polar lipids are diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylethanolamine. The results of physiological and biochemical tests allowed the genotypic and phenotypic distinctiveness of strain IITR-54T with its phylogenetic relatives and suggest that the strain IITR-54T should be recognized as a novel species, for which the name Bacillus mesophilum sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is IITR-54T (=MTCC 11060T=JCM 19208T).

  2. Antibiotic susceptibility profiles of Mycoplasma sp. 1220 strains isolated from geese in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grózner, Dénes; Kreizinger, Zsuzsa; Sulyok, Kinga M; Rónai, Zsuzsanna; Hrivnák, Veronika; Turcsányi, Ibolya; Jánosi, Szilárd; Gyuranecz, Miklós

    2016-08-19

    Mycoplasma sp. 1220 can induce inflammation primarily in the genital and respiratory tracts of waterfowl, leading to serious economic losses. Adequate housing and appropriate antibiotic treatment are promoted in the control of the disease. The aim of the present study was to determine the in vitro susceptibility to thirteen different antibiotics and an antibiotic combination of thirty-eight M. sp. 1220 strains isolated from geese and a duck in several parts of Hungary, Central Europe between 2011 and 2015. High MIC50 values were observed in the cases of tilmicosin (>64 μg/ml), oxytetracycline (64 μg/ml), norfloxacin (>10 μg/ml) and difloxacin (10 μg/ml). The examined strains yielded the same MIC50 values with spectinomycin, tylosin and florfenicol (8 μg/ml), while enrofloxacin (MIC50 5 μg/ml), doxycycline (MIC50 5 μg/ml), lincomycin (MIC50 4 μg/ml) and lincomycin-spectinomycin (1:2) combination (MIC50 4 μg/ml) inhibited the growth of the bacteria with lower concentrations. Tylvalosin (MIC50 0.5 μg/ml) and two pleuromutilins (tiamulin MIC50 0.625 μg/ml; valnemulin MIC50 ≤ 0.039 μg/ml) were found to be the most effective drugs against M. sp. 1220. However, strains with elevated MIC values were detected for all applied antibiotics. Valnemulin, tiamulin and tylvalosin were found to be the most effective antibiotics in the study. Increasing resistance was observed in the cases of several antibiotics. The results highlight the importance of testing Mycoplasma species for antibiotic susceptibility before therapy.

  3. Degradation of ethyl mercaptan and its major intermediate diethyl disulfide by Pseudomonas sp. strain WL2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiangqian; Wu, Chao; Liu, Nan; Li, Sujing; Li, Wei; Chen, Jianmeng; Chen, Dongzhi

    2015-04-01

    A Pseudomonas sp. strain WL2 that is able to efficiently metabolize ethyl mercaptan (EM) into diethyl disulfide (DEDS) through enzymatic oxidation was isolated from the activated sludge of a pharmaceutical wastewater plant. One hundred percent removal of 113.5 mg L(-1) EM and 110.3 mg L(-1) DEDS were obtained within 14 and 32 h, respectively. A putative EM degradation pathway that involved the catabolism via DEDS was proposed, which indicated DEDS were further mineralized into carbon dioxide (CO2), bacterial cells, and sulfate (SO4 (2-)) through the transformation of element sulfur and ethyl aldehyde. Degradation kinetics for EM and DEDS with different initial concentrations by strain WL2 were evaluated using Haldane-Andrews model with maximum specific degradation rates of 3.13 and 1.33 g g(-1) h(-1), respectively, and maximum degradation rate constants of 0.522 and 0.175 h(-1) using pseudo-first-order kinetic model were obtained. Results obtained that aerobic degradation of EM by strain WL2 was more efficient than those from previous studies. Substrate range studies of strain WL2 demonstrated its ability to degrade several mercaptans, disulfides, aldehydes, and methanol. All the results obtained highlight the potential of strain WL2 for the use in the biodegradation of volatile organic sulfur compounds (VOSCs).

  4. Biodegradation of nitroglycerin in porous media and potential for bioaugmentation with Arthrobacter sp. strain JBH1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husserl, Johana; Hughes, Joseph B

    2013-07-01

    Nitroglycerin (NG) is a toxic explosive found as a contaminant of soil and groundwater. Several microbial strains are capable of partially reducing the NG molecule to dinitro or mononitroesters. Recently, a strain capable of growing on NG as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen (Arthrobacter sp. strain JBH1) was isolated from contaminated soil. Despite the widespread presence of microbial strains capable of transforming NG in contaminated soils and sediments, the extent of NG biodegradation at contaminated sites is still unknown. In this study column experiments were conducted to investigate the extent of microbial degradation of NG in saturated porous media, specifically after bioaugmentation with JBH1. Initial experiments using sterile, low sorptivity sand, showed mineralization of NG after bioaugmentation with JBH1 in the absence of sources of carbon and nitrogen other than NG. Results could be modeled using a first order degradation rate of 0.14d(-1). Further experiments conducted using contaminated soil with high organic carbon content (highly sorptive) resulted in column effluents that did not contain NG although high dinitroester concentrations were observed. Bioaugmentation with JBH1 in sediments containing strains capable of partial transformation of NG resulted in complete mineralization of NG and faster degradation rates. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Antimicrobial Susceptibility and Biofilm Production by Salmonella sp. Strains Isolated from Frozen Poultry Carcasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MJ Sereno

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objectives of this study were to evaluate the antimicrobial resistance and the biofilm-producing ability of Salmonella sp. strains isolated from frozen poultry carcasses. Antimicrobial susceptibility was tested by the disk-diffusion method. Biofilm-producing ability was determined in 96-well polystyrene microplates stained with crystal violet at 1%. Out of the 22 strains tested, all were multiresistant, that is, resistant to more than three antimicrobial classes, and 72.7% were able to form biofilms. The highest resistance rates obtained were against sulfonamides, tetracycline, and quinolones. On the other hand, 100% of the strains were sensitive to chloramphenicol. According to the rate of biofilm formation, 3 (13.6% and 13 (59.1% strains were classified as moderate and weak biofilm-producers, respectively, and 27.3% did not form biofilms. Biofilms increase the tolerance of microorganisms to stress, reducing their sensitivity to disinfectants and antimicrobials; favor equipment corrosion; and act as substrates for the adhesion of bacteria with lower biofilm-producing capacity. The results of the present study stress the importance of cleaning procedures in food processing plants and highlight the public health risks related to the emergence of multiresistant strains.

  6. Draft genome sequence of type strain HBR26(T) and description of Rhizobium aethiopicum sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aserse, Aregu Amsalu; Woyke, Tanja; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Whitman, William B; Lindström, Kristina

    2017-01-01

    Rhizobium aethiopicum sp. nov. is a newly proposed species within the genus Rhizobium. This species includes six rhizobial strains; which were isolated from root nodules of the legume plant Phaseolus vulgaris growing in soils of Ethiopia. The species fixes nitrogen effectively in symbiosis with the host plant P. vulgaris, and is composed of aerobic, Gram-negative staining, rod-shaped bacteria. The genome of type strain HBR26(T) of R. aethiopicum sp. nov. was one of the rhizobial genomes sequenced as a part of the DOE JGI 2014 Genomic Encyclopedia project designed for soil and plant-associated and newly described type strains. The genome sequence is arranged in 62 scaffolds and consists of 6,557,588 bp length, with a 61% G + C content and 6221 protein-coding and 86 RNAs genes. The genome of HBR26(T) contains repABC genes (plasmid replication genes) homologous to the genes found in five different Rhizobium etli CFN42(T) plasmids, suggesting that HBR26(T) may have five additional replicons other than the chromosome. In the genome of HBR26(T), the nodulation genes nodB, nodC, nodS, nodI, nodJ and nodD are located in the same module, and organized in a similar way as nod genes found in the genome of other known common bean-nodulating rhizobial species. nodA gene is found in a different scaffold, but it is also very similar to nodA genes of other bean-nodulating rhizobial strains. Though HBR26(T) is distinct on the phylogenetic tree and based on ANI analysis (the highest value 90.2% ANI with CFN42(T)) from other bean-nodulating species, these nod genes and most nitrogen-fixing genes found in the genome of HBR26(T) share high identity with the corresponding genes of known bean-nodulating rhizobial species (96-100% identity). This suggests that symbiotic genes might be shared between bean-nodulating rhizobia through horizontal gene transfer. R. aethiopicum sp. nov. was grouped into the genus Rhizobium but was distinct from all recognized species of that genus by

  7. Genome sequence of Methylobacterium sp. strain GXF4, a xylem-associated bacterium isolated from Vitis vinifera L. grapevine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Han Ming; Chew, Teong Han; Hudson, André O; Savka, Michael A

    2012-09-01

    Methylobacterium sp. strain GXF4 is an isolate from grapevine. Here we present the sequence, assembly, and annotation of its genome, which may shed light on its role as a grapevine xylem inhabitant. To our knowledge, this is the first genome announcement of a plant xylem-associated strain of the genus Methylobacterium.

  8. [Carotenogenesis of five strains of the algae Dunaliella sp. (Chlorophyceae) isolated from Venezuelan hypersaline lagoons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara, Miguel; Lodeiros, César; Gómez, Olga; Lemus, Nathalie; Núñez, Paulino; Romero, Lolymar; Vásquez, Aléikar; Rosales, Néstor

    2005-01-01

    We evaluated discontinuous cultures (Algal medium at 0.5 mM of NaNO3, and 27% NaCI) of five strains of Dunaliella sp. isolated from Venezuelan hypersaline lagoons (Araya, Coche, Peonia, Cumaraguas. and Boca Chica) and one strain from a reference collection (Dunaliella salina, LB1644). Cultures were maintained to 25+/-1 degrees C, with constant aeration, photoperiod 12:12, and two light intensities (195 and 390 microE.m(-2).s(-1)) during 30 days. Cell count was recorded on a daily basis using a Neubaüer camera. Totals of chlorophyll a and carotenoids were measured at the end of the experiment. The largest cellular densities were measured during the smallest light intensities. The strain with the largest cellular density was isolated from Boca Chica (8 xl0(6) and 2.5 xl0(6) cel.ml(-1) a 390 and 195microE.m(-2).s(-1), respectively). The increment of light intensity produced a significant reduction of growth rates in all strains. Totals of carotenoids by volume were as large as 390 microE.m(-2).s(-1). Strains LB 1644, from Coche and Araya were those that produced the largest amount of carotenoids (38.4; 32.8 and 21.0 microg.ml(-1), respectively). Differences total carotenoids by cell between treatments were significant. The largest concentration was 390 microE.m(-2).s(-1). The strains LB 1644 and Coche produced the highest values of carotenes (137.14 and 106.06 pg.cel(-1), respectively). Differences in the relation carotenoid:chlorophyll a between the strains at various light intensities was significant. Strains LB1644 presented the largest value of the relation carotenoids:chlorophyll a (20:1) at 195 microE.m(-2).s(-1). No significant differences were detected in the strain Coche (15:1). All the other strains showed relations lower than one. Our results suggest that the strains of Coche and Araya show potential to be used in the biotechnology of carotenoids production.

  9. Legionella clemsonensis sp. nov.: a green fluorescing Legionella strain from a patient with pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Allison; Painter, Joseph; Hassler, Hayley; Richards, Vincent P; Bruce, Terri; Morrison, Shatavia; Brown, Ellen; Kozak-Muiznieks, Natalia A; Lucas, Claressa; McNealy, Tamara L

    2016-10-01

    A novel Legionella species was identified based on sequencing, cellular fatty acid analysis, biochemical reactions, and biofilm characterization. Strain D5610 was originally isolated from the bronchial wash of a patient in Ohio, USA. The bacteria were gram-negative, rod-shaped, and exhibited green fluorescence under long wave UV light. Phylogenetic analysis and fatty acid composition revealed a distinct separation within the genus. The strain grows between 26-45°C and forms biofilms equivalent to L. pneumophila Philadelphia 1. These characteristics suggest that this isolate is a novel Legionella species, for which the name Legionella clemsonensis sp nov. is proposed. © 2016 The Societies and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  10. Identification of 50 Class D β-Lactamases and 65 Acinetobacter-Derived Cephalosporinases in Acinetobacter spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Périchon, Bruno; Goussard, Sylvie; Walewski, Violaine; Krizova, Lenka; Cerqueira, Gustavo; Murphy, Cheryl; Feldgarden, Michael; Wortman, Jennifer; Clermont, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    Whole-genome sequencing of a collection of 103 Acinetobacter strains belonging to 22 validly named species and another 16 putative species allowed detection of genes for 50 new class D β-lactamases and 65 new Acinetobacter-derived cephalosporinases (ADC). All oxacillinases (OXA) contained the three typical motifs of class D β-lactamases, STFK, (F/Y)GN, and K(S/T)G. The phylogenetic tree drawn from the OXA sequences led to an increase in the number of OXA groups from 7 to 18. The topologies of the OXA and RpoB phylogenetic trees were similar, supporting the ancient acquisition of blaOXA genes by Acinetobacter species. The class D β-lactamase genes appeared to be intrinsic to several species, such as Acinetobacter baumannii, Acinetobacter pittii, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, and Acinetobacter lwoffii. Neither blaOXA-40/143- nor blaOXA-58-like genes were detected, and their origin remains therefore unknown. The phylogenetic tree analysis based on the alignment of the sequences deduced from blaADC revealed five main clusters, one containing ADC belonging to species closely related to A. baumannii and the others composed of cephalosporinases from the remaining species. No indication of blaOXA or blaADC transfer was observed between distantly related species, except for blaOXA-279, possibly transferred from Acinetobacter genomic species 6 to Acinetobacter parvus. Analysis of β-lactam susceptibility of seven strains harboring new oxacillinases and cloning of the corresponding genes in Escherichia coli and in a susceptible A. baumannii strain indicated very weak hydrolysis of carbapenems. Overall, this study reveals a large pool of β-lactamases in different Acinetobacter spp., potentially transferable to pathogenic strains of the genus. PMID:24277043

  11. Antagonistic activities of some Bifidobacterium sp. strains isolated from resident infant gastrointestinal microbiota on Gram-negative enteric pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delcaru, Cristina; Alexandru, Ionela; Podgoreanu, Paulina; Cristea, Violeta Corina; Bleotu, Coralia; Chifiriuc, Mariana Carmen; Bezirtzoglou, Eugenia; Lazar, Veronica

    2016-06-01

    The gastrointestinal microbiota contributes to the consolidation of the anti-infectious barrier against enteric pathogens. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of Bifidobacterium sp. strains, recently isolated from infant gastrointestinal microbiota on the in vitro growth and virulence features expression of enteropathogenic bacterial strains. The antibacterial activity of twelve Bifidobacterium sp. strains isolated from human feces was examined in vitro against a wide range of Gram negative pathogenic strains isolated from 30 infant patients (3 days to 5 years old) with diarrhea. Both potential probiotic strains (Bifidobacterium longum, Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum, Bifidobacterium catenulatum, Bifidobacterium breve, Bifidobacterium ruminantium) and enteropathogenic strains (EPEC, EIEC, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella sp., Yersinia enterocolitica, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) were identified by MALDI-TOF and confirmed serologically when needed. The bactericidal activity, growth curve, adherence to the cellular HEp-2 substratum and production of soluble virulence factors have been assessed in the presence of different Bifidobacterium sp. cultures and fractions (whole culture and free-cell supernatants). Among the twelve Bifidobacterium sp. strains, the largest spectrum of antimicrobial activity against 9 of the 18 enteropathogenic strains was revealed for a B. breve strain recently isolated from infant intestinal feces. The whole culture and free-cell supernatant of B. breve culture decreased the multiplication rate, shortened the log phase and the total duration of the growth curve, with an earlier entrance in the decline phase and inhibited the adherence capacity to a cellular substratum and the swimming/swarming motility too. These results indicate the significant probiotic potential of the B. breve strain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Acinetobacter baumannii and A. pittii clinical isolates lack adherence and cytotoxicity to lung epithelial cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lázaro-Díez, María; Navascués-Lejarza, Teresa; Remuzgo-Martínez, Sara; Navas, Jesús; Icardo, José Manuel; Acosta, Felix; Martínez-Martínez, Luis; Ramos-Vivas, José

    2016-09-01

    The molecular and genetic basis of Acinetobacter baumannii and Acinetobacter pittii virulence remains poorly understood, and there is still lack of knowledge in host cell response to these bacteria. In this study, we have used eleven clinical Acinetobacter strains (A. baumannii n = 5; A. pittii n = 6) to unravel bacterial adherence, invasion and cytotoxicity to human lung epithelial cells. Our results showed that adherence to epithelial cells by Acinetobacter strains is scarce and cellular invasion was not truly detected. In addition, all Acinetobacter strains failed to induce any cytotoxic effect on A549 cells. Copyright © 2016 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Antibacterial activity of wild Xylaria sp. strain R005 (Ascomycetes) against multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, Veluchamy; Arivudainambi, U; Thalavaipandian, Annamalai; Karunakaran, Chandran; Rajendran, Ayyappan

    2012-01-01

    There is a growing need for new and effective antibiotic agents due to the recent emergence of life-threatening, multidrug-resistant bacterial infections such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In the present study, the antimicrobial potential of mushroom was investigated against multidrug-resistant bacterial strains. The mushroom was identified as Xylaria sp. strain R005 based on the morphological characteristics and confirmed by 18S ribosomal RNA sequence comparisons. The crude ethyl acetate extracts of culture filtrate and fruiting bodies of Xylaria sp. showed significant antibacterial activity against multidrug-resistant S. aureus strains (1-10) and P. aeruginosa strains (1-8). The minimum inhibitory concentration of the ethyl acetate extracts of culture filtrate and fruiting bodies ranged from 225 µg/mL to 625 µg/mL, and 120 µg/mL to 625 µg/mL, respectively, against clinical strains of S. aurues and P. aeruginosa. The synergistic action of extracts of Xylaria sp. with vancomycin and ciprofloxacin was observed against S. aureus strain 6 and P. aeruginosa strain 3, respectively. The fractional inhibitory concentration indices (FICIs) of culture filtrate extract with vancomycin and ciprofloxacin were 0.5 and 0.18, respectively. The FICI of fruiting body extract with vancomycin and ciprofloxacin were 0.5 and 0.375, respectively. These results clearly indicate that the metabolites of culture filtrate and fruiting bodies of Xylaria sp. are the potential source for production of new antimicrobial compounds.

  14. Serological characterization of the core region of lipopolysaccharides of rough Proteus sp. strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palusiak, Agata; Sidorczyk, Zygmunt

    2009-01-01

    Both smooth and rough Proteus sp. strains can be found. The latter are characterized by their lack of an O-polysaccharide chain in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) molecule, which makes them suitable for obtaining anti-core sera. Using this kind of material enables identifying fragments of the Proteus LPS core region that might be involved in cross-reactions. To date only a few similar epitopes have been established for the genus Proteus. Polyclonal rabbit antisera directed against three rough strains of Proteus sp. were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with a set of LPSs. The reactivity of the selected cross-reactive and homologous systems was checked by the Western blot technique and by a passive immunohemolysis assay preceded by the absorption of each antiserum with appropriate cross-reactive and homologous alkalized LPSs. On the basis of the ELISA results, 19 cross-reactive antigens were selected among which both smooth and rough LPS forms were found. All the observed reactions involved the core region of the LPS. Using the antisera absorbed with the appropriate LPSs allowed identification of four groups of antigens with serologically identical core regions. Comparing the results of the serological studies with the known chemical structures of the core regions of the LPSs used enabled the identification of a few core oligosaccharide fragments probably involved in the observed cross-reactions. All were located in the most distal part of LPS core region, which made them more easily recognized by specific antibodies.

  15. Plasmid Localization and Organization of Melamine Degradation Genes in Rhodococcus sp. Strain Mel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodge, Anthony G.; Wackett, Lawrence P.

    2012-01-01

    Rhodococcus sp. strain Mel was isolated from soil by enrichment and grew in minimal medium with melamine as the sole N source with a doubling time of 3.5 h. Stoichiometry studies showed that all six nitrogen atoms of melamine were assimilated. The genome was sequenced by Roche 454 pyrosequencing to 13× coverage, and a 22.3-kb DNA region was found to contain a homolog to the melamine deaminase gene trzA. Mutagenesis studies showed that the cyanuric acid hydrolase and biuret hydrolase genes were clustered together on a different 17.9-kb contig. Curing and gene transfer studies indicated that 4 of 6 genes required for the complete degradation of melamine were located on an ∼265-kb self-transmissible linear plasmid (pMel2), but this plasmid was not required for ammeline deamination. The Rhodococcus sp. strain Mel melamine metabolic pathway genes were located in at least three noncontiguous regions of the genome, and the plasmid-borne genes encoding enzymes for melamine metabolism were likely recently acquired. PMID:22210223

  16. Novel alginate lyases from marine bacterium Alteromonas sp. strain H-4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawabe, T; Ohtsuka, M; Ezura, Y

    1997-10-28

    A bacterium Alteromonas sp. strain H-4 isolated from Laminaria fronds produced extra- and intra-cellular alginate lyases and utilized alginate as its sole carbon source. An extracellular alginate lyase was purified from the culture supernatant of the strain and its substrate specificity was characterized. The estimated molecular mass of the enzyme was 32 kDa and the isoelectric point was 4.7. Both polyM and polyG block degrading activities were observed using the substrate-containing gel overlay technique after isoelectric focusing of the enzyme. By analyzing the reaction products from the polyM block, polyG block, MG random block and intact alginate, three major peaks containing unsaturated tri-uronide through octa-uronide were detected for each substrate. The results indicate that the enzyme of Alteromonas sp. H-4 can degrade both polyM and polyG blocks with a K(m) in mg/mL 20-times higher for the polyM block.

  17. Rapid Aggregation of Biofuel-Producing Algae by the Bacterium Bacillus sp. Strain RP1137

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Ryan J.

    2013-01-01

    Algal biofuels represent one of the most promising means of sustainably replacing liquid fuels. However, significant challenges remain before alga-based fuels become competitive with fossil fuels. One of the largest challenges is the ability to harvest the algae in an economical and low-energy manner. In this article, we describe the isolation of a bacterial strain, Bacillus sp. strain RP1137, which can rapidly aggregate several algae that are candidates for biofuel production, including a Nannochloropsis sp. This bacterium aggregates algae in a pH-dependent and reversible manner and retains its aggregation ability after paraformaldehyde fixation, opening the possibility for reuse of the cells. The optimal ratio of bacteria to algae is described, as is the robustness of aggregation at different salinities and temperatures. Aggregation is dependent on the presence of calcium or magnesium ions. The efficiency of aggregation of Nannochloropsis oceanica IMET1 is between 70 and 95% and is comparable to that obtained by other means of harvest; however, the rate of harvest is fast, with aggregates forming in 30 s. PMID:23892750

  18. Crystallization of the extracellular rubber oxygenase RoxA from Xanthomonas sp. strain 35Y

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, Maren [Abteilung Molekulare Strukturbiologie, Institut für Mikrobiologie und Genetik, Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 11, 37077 Göttingen (Germany); Braaz, Reinhard; Jendrossek, Dieter [Institut für Mikrobiologie, Universität Stuttgart, Allmandring 31, 70550 Stuttgart (Germany); Einsle, Oliver, E-mail: oeinsle@uni-goettingen.de [Abteilung Molekulare Strukturbiologie, Institut für Mikrobiologie und Genetik, Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 11, 37077 Göttingen (Germany)

    2008-02-01

    The extracellular rubber-degrading enzyme rubber oxygenase A (RoxA) from Xanthomonas sp. strain 35Y has been crystallized and diffraction data have been collected to high resolution. Rubber oxygenase A (RoxA) from Xanthomonas sp. strain 35Y is an extracellular dioxygenase that is capable of cleaving the double bonds of poly(cis-1,4-isoprene) into short-chain isoprene units with 12-oxo-4,8-dimethyl-trideca-4,8-diene-1-al (ODTD) as the major cleavage product. Crystals of the dihaem c-type cytochrome RoxA were grown by sitting-drop vapour diffusion using polyethylene glycol as a precipitant. RoxA crystallized in space group P2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 72.4, b = 97.1, c = 101.1 Å, β = 98.39°, resulting in two monomers per asymmetric unit. Diffraction data were collected to a limiting resolution of 1.8 Å. Despite a protein weight of 74.1 kDa and only two iron sites per monomer, phasing was successfully carried out by multiple-wavelength anomalous dispersion.

  19. Genomic Analysis of Bacillus sp. Strain B25, a Biocontrol Agent of Maize Pathogen Fusarium verticillioides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douriet-Gámez, Nadia R; Maldonado-Mendoza, Ignacio E; Ibarra-Laclette, Enrique; Blom, Jochen; Calderón-Vázquez, Carlos L

    2018-03-01

    Bacillus sp. B25 is an effective biocontrol agent against the maize pathogenic fungus Fusarium verticillioides (Fv). Previous in vitro assays have shown that B25 has protease, glucanase, and chitinase activities and siderophores production; however, specific mechanisms by which B25 controls Fv are still unknown. To determine the genetic traits involved in biocontrol, B25 genome was sequenced and analyzed. B25 genome is composed of 5,113,413 bp and 5251 coding genes. A multilocus phylogenetic analysis (MLPA) suggests that B25 is closely related to the Bacillus cereus group and a high percentage (70-75%) of the genetic information is conserved between B25 and related strains, which include most of the genes associated to fungal antagonism. Some of these genes are shared with some biocontrol agents of the Bacillus genus and less with Pseudomonas and Serratia strains. We performed a genomic comparison between B25 and five Bacillus spp., Pseudomonas and Serratia strains. B25 contains genes involved in a wide variety of antagonistic mechanisms including chitinases, glycoside hydrolases, siderophores, antibiotics, and biofilm production that could be implicated in root colonization. Also, 24 genomic islands and 3 CRISPR sequences were identified in the B25 genome. This is the first comparative genome analysis between strains belonging to the B. cereus group and biocontrol agents of phytopathogenic fungi. These results are the starting point for further studies on B25 gene expression during its interaction with Fv.

  20. Biodecolorization of textile azo dye using Bacillus sp. strain CH12 isolated from alkaline lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guadie, Awoke; Tizazu, Samson; Melese, Meseretu; Guo, Wenshan; Ngo, Huu Hao; Xia, Siqing

    2017-09-01

    Textile azo dye decolorizing bacteria were isolated from alkaline Lakes Abaya and Chamo using Reactive Red 239 (RR239) dye. Through subsequent screening process, strain CH12 was selected to investigate the effects of nutrient supplement, DO, pH, temperature, dye concentration and types on decolorization. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain CH12 was identified as Bacillus sp. Decolorization efficiencies were significantly enhanced with carbon (≥98%) and organic nitrogen (∼100%) supplements. Complete decolorization was also observed under anoxic and anaerobic conditions, and at the temperature of 30 °C and the pH of 10. However, the azo dye decolorization efficiency of strain CH12 was significantly reduced when NaNO3 (1-8%) was supplemented or under aerobic culturing condition (≤6%), indicating that RR239 was less preferred electron acceptor. Overall, strain CH12 can be a promising candidate for decolorization applications due to its potential to effectively decolorize higher RR239 concentrations (50-250 mg/L) and six additional dyes.

  1. Biodecolorization of textile azo dye using Bacillus sp. strain CH12 isolated from alkaline lake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awoke Guadie

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Textile azo dye decolorizing bacteria were isolated from alkaline Lakes Abaya and Chamo using Reactive Red 239 (RR239 dye. Through subsequent screening process, strain CH12 was selected to investigate the effects of nutrient supplement, DO, pH, temperature, dye concentration and types on decolorization. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain CH12 was identified as Bacillus sp. Decolorization efficiencies were significantly enhanced with carbon (≥98% and organic nitrogen (∼100% supplements. Complete decolorization was also observed under anoxic and anaerobic conditions, and at the temperature of 30 °C and the pH of 10. However, the azo dye decolorization efficiency of strain CH12 was significantly reduced when NaNO3 (1–8% was supplemented or under aerobic culturing condition (≤6%, indicating that RR239 was less preferred electron acceptor. Overall, strain CH12 can be a promising candidate for decolorization applications due to its potential to effectively decolorize higher RR239 concentrations (50−250 mg/L and six additional dyes.

  2. Isolation and characterization of Rhizobium sp. strain YS-1r that degrades lignin in plant biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, C A; Couger, M B; Prabhakaran, M; Ramachandriya, K D; Canaan, P; Fathepure, B Z

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this work was to isolate novel lignin-degrading organisms. Several pure cultures of bacteria that degrade lignin were isolated from bacterial consortia developed from decaying biomass. Among the isolates, Rhizobium sp. strain YS-1r (closest relative of Rhizobium petrolearium strain SL-1) was explored for its lignin-degrading ability. Microcosm studies showed that strain YS-1r was able to degrade a variety of lignin monomers, dimers and also native lignin in switchgrass and alfalfa. The isolate demonstrated lignin peroxidase (LiP) activity when grown on alkali lignin, p-anisoin, switchgrass or alfalfa, and only negligible activity was measured in glucose-grown cells suggesting inducible nature of the LiP activity. Analysis of the strain YS-1r genome revealed the presence of a variety of genes that code for various lignin-oxidizing, H 2 O 2 -producing as well as polysaccharide-hydrolysing enzymes. This study shows both the genomic and physiological capability of bacteria in the genus Rhizobium to metabolize lignin and lignin-like compounds. This is the first detailed report on the lignocellulose-degrading ability of a Rhizobium species and thus this study expands the role of alpha-proteobacteria in the degradation of lignin. The organism's ability to degrade lignin is significant since Rhizobia are widespread in soil, water and plant rhizospheres and some fix atmospheric nitrogen and also have the ability to degrade aromatic hydrocarbons. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  3. Biodegradation of triazine herbicide metribuzin by the strain Bacillus sp. N1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Zhang, Yubin; Hou, Zhiguang; Wu, Xian; Gao, Henan; Sun, Fengjie; Pan, Hongyu

    2014-01-01

    By enrichment culturing of soil contaminated with metribuzin, a highly efficient metribuzin degrading bacterium, Bacillus sp. N1, was isolated. This strain grows using metribuzin at 5.0% (v/v) as the sole nitrogen source in a liquid medium. Optimal metribuzin degradation occurred at a temperature of 30ºC and at pH 7.0. With an initial concentration of 20 mg L(-1), the degradation rate was 73.5% in 120 h. If the initial concentrations were higher than 50 mg L(-1), the biodegradation rates decreased as the metribuzin concentrations increased. When the concentration was 100 mg L(-1), the degradation rate was only 45%. Degradation followed the pesticide degradation kinetic equation at initial concentrations between 5 mg L(-1) and 50 mg L(-1). When the metribuzin contaminated soil was mixed with strain N1 (with the concentration of metribuzin being 20 mg L(-1) and the inoculation rate of 10(11) g(-1) dry soil), the degradation rate of the metribuzin was 66.4% in 30 days, while the degradation rate of metribuzin was only 19.4% in the control soil without the strain N1. These results indicate that the strain N1 can significantly increase the degradation rate of metribuzin in contaminated soil.

  4. Molecular characterization of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To survey the molecular characteristics of imipenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii obtained from pediatric burns patients in a teaching hospital in Tehran, Iran. Methods: Over a 10-month period, 73 non-duplicate A. baumannii strains were collected from pediatric burns patients admitted to Motahari Burn and ...

  5. Antimicrobial resistance and clonality in Acinetobacter baumannii

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nemec, Alexandr

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to obtain insight into the epidemiology and molecular basis of multidrug resistance of Acinetobacter baumannii at the population level. To this aim a number of studies were performed on strains mainly from the Czech Republic (CR) which have shown in particular that (i) the

  6. Multiple Mechanisms of Uranium Immobilization by Cellulomonas sp. strain ES6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivaswamy, Vaideeswaran; Brent Peyton; Viamajala, Sridhar; Robin Gerlach; William Apel; Rajesh Sani; Alice Dohnalkova; Thomas Borch

    2011-02-01

    Removal of hexavalent uranium (U(VI)) from aqueous solution was studied using a Gram-positive facultative anaerobe, Cellulomonas sp. strain ES6, under anaerobic, non growth conditions in bicarbonate and PIPES buffers. Inorganic phosphate was released by cells during the experiments providing ligands for formation of insoluble U(VI) phosphates. Phosphate release was most probably the result of anaerobic hydrolysis of intracellular polyphosphates accumulated by ES6 during aerobic growth. Microbial reduction of U(VI) to U(IV) was also observed. However, the relative magnitudes of U(VI) removal by abiotic (phosphate-based) precipitation and microbial reduction depended on the buffer chemistry. In bicarbonate buffer, X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) analysis showed U precipitates containing nearly equal fractions of U(IV) and U(VI), whereas in PIPES buffer, U precipitates consisted primarily of U(VI). Mass balance calculations for U and P corroborate these observations. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR42TEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) showed both extracellular and intracellular accumulation of U solids. The U(VI)-phosphate precipitates, confirmed by EDS as containing U and P in equimolar concentrations, had nanometer sized lath structure. When anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS), a known electron shuttle, was added to the experimental reactors, U reduction became the dominant removal mechanism, in contrast to primarily phosphate-mediated precipitation observed in the absence of AQDS. Uranium immobilization by abiotic precipitation or microbial reduction has been extensively reported; however, present work suggests that strain ES6 can remove U(VI) from solution simultaneously through precipitation with phosphate ligands and microbial reduction, depending on the environmental conditions. Cellulomonadaceae are environmentally relevant subsurface bacteria and here, for the first time, t 52 he presence of multiple U

  7. Complete genome sequence of Hymenobacter sp. strain PAMC26554, an ionizing radiation-resistant bacterium isolated from an Antarctic lichen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Tae-Jin; Han, So-Ra; Ahn, Do-Hwan; Park, Hyun; Kim, Augustine Yonghwi

    2016-06-10

    A Gram-negative, rod-shaped, red-pink in color, and UV radiation-resistant bacterium Hymenobacter sp. strain PAMC26554 was isolated from Usnea sp., an Antarctic lichen, and belongs to the class of Cytophagia and the phylum of Bacteroidetes. The complete genome of Hymenobacter sp. PAMC26554 consists of one chromosome (5,244,843bp) with two plasmids (199,990bp and 6421bp). The genomic sequence indicates that Hymenobacter sp. strain PAMC26554 possesses several genes involved in the nucleotide excision repair pathway that protects damaged DNA. This complete genome information will help us to understand its adaptation and novel survival strategy in the Antarctic extreme cold environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Antibacterial activity of the Antarctic bacterium Janthinobacterium sp. SMN 33.6 against multi-resistant Gram-negative bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldine Asencio

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: The ethanolic extract of Janthinobacterium sp. SMN 33.6 possesses antibacterial activity against a chromosomal AmpC beta-lactamase-producing strain of Serratia marcescens, an extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli and also against carbapenemase-producing strains of Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This becomes a potential and interesting biotechnological tool for the control of bacteria with multi-resistance to commonly used antibiotics.

  9. Relationship between oviposition, virulence gene expression and parasitism success in Cotesia typhae nov. sp. parasitoid strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoist, R; Chantre, C; Capdevielle-Dulac, C; Bodet, M; Mougel, F; Calatayud, P A; Dupas, S; Huguet, E; Jeannette, R; Obonyo, J; Odorico, C; Silvain, J F; Le Ru, B; Kaiser, L

    2017-12-01

    Studying mechanisms that drive host adaptation in parasitoids is crucial for the efficient use of parasitoids in biocontrol programs. Cotesia typhae nov. sp. (Fernández-Triana) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is a newly described parasitoid of the Mediterranean corn borer Sesamia nonagrioides (Lefebvre) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Braconidae are known for their domesticated bracovirus, which is injected with eggs in the host larva to overcome its resistance. In this context, we compared reproductive success traits of four Kenyan strains of C. typhae on a French and a Kenyan populations of its host. Differences were found between the four strains and the two most contrasted ones were studied more thoroughly on the French host population. Parasitoid offspring size was correlated with parasitism success and the expression of bracovirus virulence genes (CrV1 and Cystatin) in the host larva after parasitism. Hybrids between these two parasitoid strains showed phenotype and gene expression profiles similar to the most successful parental strain, suggesting the involvement of dominant alleles in the reproductive traits. Ovary dissections revealed that the most successful strain injected more eggs in a single host larva than the less successful one, despite an equal initial ovocyte number in ovaries. It can be expected that the amount of viral particles increase with the number of eggs injected. The ability to bypass the resistance of the allopatric host may in consequence be related to the oviposition behaviour (eggs allocation). The influence of the number of injected eggs on parasitism success and on virulence gene expression was evaluated by oviposition interruption experiments.

  10. CrdR function in a curdlan-producing Agrobacterium sp. ATCC31749 strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiaoqin; Zhang, Chao; Yang, Liping; Zhao, Lamei; Lin, Chun; Liu, Zhengjie; Mao, Zichao

    2015-02-10

    Agrobacterium sp. ATCC31749 is an efficient curdlan producer at low pH and under nitrogen starvation. The helix-turn-helix transcriptional regulatory protein (crdR) essential for curdlan production has been analyzed, but whether crdR directly acts to cause expression of the curdlan biosynthesis operon (crdASC) is uncertain. To elucidate the molecular function of crdR in curdlan biosynthesis, we constructed a crdR knockout mutant along with pBQcrdR and pBQNcrdR vectors with crdR expression driven by a T5 promoter and crdR native promoter, respectively. Also, we constructed a pAG with the green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene driven by a curdlan biosynthetic operon promoter (crdP) to measure the effects of crdR expression on curdlan biosynthesis. Compared with wild-type (WT) strain biomass production, the biomass of the crdR knockout mutant was not significantly different in either exponential or stationary phases of growth. Mutant cells were non-capsulated and planktonic and produced significantly less curdlan. WT cells were curdlan-capsulated and aggregated in the stationery phase. pBQcrdR transformed to the WT strain had a 38% greater curdlan yield and pBQcrdR and pBQNcrdR transformed to the crdR mutant strain recovered 18% and 105% curdlan titers of the WT ATCC31749 strain, respectively. Consistent with its function of promoting curdlan biosynthesis, curdlan biosynthetic operon promoter (crdP) controlled GFP expression caused the transgenic strain to have higher GFP relative fluorescence in the WT strain, and no color change was observed with low GFP relative fluorescence in the crdR mutant strain as evidenced by fluorescent microscopy and spectrometric assay. q-RT-PCR revealed that crdR expression in the stationary phase was greater than in the exponential phase, and crdR overexpression in the WT strain increased crdA, crdS, and crdC expression. We also confirmed that purified crdR protein can specifically bind to the crd operon promoter region, and we inferred

  11. Antimicrobial activities of Rhizobium sp. strains against Pseudomonas savastanoi, the agent responsible for the olive knot disease in Algeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mourad, K.; Fadhila, K.; Chahinez, M.; Merien, R.; Philippe, L. de; Abdelkader, B.

    2009-07-01

    In the present investigation, six Rhizobium strains isolated from Algerian soil were checked for their antimicrobial activity against Pseudomonas savastanoi, the agent responsible for olive knot disease. Rhizobium sp. ORN 24 and ORN 83 were found to produce antimicrobial activities against Pseudomonas savastanoi. The antimicrobial activity produced by Rhizobium sp. ORN24 was precipitable with ammonium sulfate, between 1,000 and 10,000 KDa molecular weight, heat resistant but sensitive to proteases and detergents. These characteristics suggest the bacteriocin nature of the antimicrobial substance produced by Rhizobium sp. ORN24, named rhizobiocin 24. In contrast, the antimicrobial activity produced by Rhizobium sp. ORN83 was not precipitable with ammonium sulfate; it was smaller than 1,000 KDa molecular weight, heat labile, and protease and detergent resistant. These characteristics could indicate the relationship between the antimicrobial substance produced by Rhizobium sp. ORN 83 and the small bacteriocins described in other rhizobia. (Author) 51 refs.

  12. Characterization of Klebsiella sp. strain S1: a bacterial producer of secoisolariciresinol through biotransformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yu-Jie; Zhu, Songling; Yang, Dong-Hui; Zhao, Dan-Dan; Li, Jia-Jing; Liu, Shu-Lin

    2017-01-01

    Secoisolariciresinol (SECO) is a lignan of potential therapeutic value for diseases such as cancer, but its use has been limited by the lack of ideal production methods, even though its precursors are abundant in plants, such as flaxseeds. Here, we report the characterization of a bacterial strain, S1, isolated from the human intestinal flora, which could produce secoisolariciresinol by biotransformation of precursors in defatted flaxseeds. This bacterium was a Gram-negative and facultatively anaerobic straight rod without capsules. Biochemical assays showed that it was negative for production of oxidase, lysine decarboxylase, ornithine decarboxylase, arginine dihydrolase, and β-glucolase. The G + C content of genomic DNA was 57.37 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis by 16S rRNA and rpoB gene sequences demonstrated S1's close relatedness to Klebsiella. No homologues were found for wzb or wzc (capsular genes), which may explain why Klebsiella sp. strain S1 does not have the capsule and was isolated from a healthy human individual. Based on the percentages of homologous genes with identical nucleotide sequences between the bacteria in comparison, we found that clear-cut genetic boundaries had been formed between S1 and any other Klebsiella strains compared, dividing them into distinct phylogenetic lineages. This work demonstrates that the intestinal Klebsiella, well known as important opportunistic pathogens prevalent in potentially fatal nosocomial infections, may contain lineages that are particularly beneficial to the human health.

  13. Reduction of Fe(III)EDTA by Klebsiella sp. strain FD-3 in NOx scrubber solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zuoming; Jing, Guohua; Zheng, Xiangjiao

    2013-03-01

    Biological reduction of Fe(III) to Fe(II) is a key step in nitrogen oxides (NOx) removal by the integrated chemical absorption-biological reduction method, which determines the concentration of Fe(II) in the scrubbing liquid. A new Fe(III)EDTA reduction strain, named as FD-3, was isolated from mixed cultures used in the integrated NOx removal process and identified as Klebsiella sp. by 16S rDNA sequence analysis. The reduction abilities of FD-3 and the influence of nitrogen-containing compounds (Fe(II)EDTA-NO, NO3(-) and NO2(-)) and sulfur-containing compounds (SO4(2-), SO3(2-)) on the Fe(III)EDTA reduction were investigated. The results indicated that strain FD-3 could reduce Fe(III)EDTA efficiently. NO3(-), NO2(-) and Fe(II)EDTA-NO inhibit the reduction of Fe(III)EDTA and could also serve as electron acceptor for strain FD-3. SO3(2-) inhibited Fe(III)EDTA reduction while SO4(2-) had no obviously effect on Fe(III)EDTA reduction. The relationship between cell growth and Fe(III)EDTA reduction could be described by the models based on Logistic equation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Transcription of the extended hyp-operon in Nostoc sp. strain PCC 7120

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agervald, Åsa; Stensjö, Karin; Holmqvist, Marie; Lindblad, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Background The maturation of hydrogenases into active enzymes is a complex process and e.g. a correctly assembled active site requires the involvement of at least seven proteins, encoded by hypABCDEF and a hydrogenase specific protease, encoded either by hupW or hoxW. The N2-fixing cyanobacterium Nostoc sp. strain PCC 7120 may contain both an uptake and a bidirectional hydrogenase. The present study addresses the presence and expression of hyp-genes in Nostoc sp. strain PCC 7120. Results RT-PCRs demonstrated that the six hyp-genes together with one ORF may be transcribed as a single operon. Transcriptional start points (TSPs) were identified 280 bp upstream from hypF and 445 bp upstream of hypC, respectively, demonstrating the existence of several transcripts. In addition, five upstream ORFs located in between hupSL, encoding the small and large subunits of the uptake hydrogenase, and the hyp-operon, and two downstream ORFs from the hyp-genes were shown to be part of the same transcript unit. A third TSP was identified 45 bp upstream of asr0689, the first of five ORFs in this operon. The ORFs are annotated as encoding unknown proteins, with the exception of alr0692 which is identified as a NifU-like protein. Orthologues of the four ORFs asr0689-alr0692, with a highly conserved genomic arrangement positioned between hupSL, and the hyp genes are found in several other N2-fixing cyanobacteria, but are absent in non N2-fixing cyanobacteria with only the bidirectional hydrogenase. Short conserved sequences were found in six intergenic regions of the extended hyp-operon, appearing between 11 and 79 times in the genome. Conclusion This study demonstrated that five ORFs upstream of the hyp-gene cluster are co-transcribed with the hyp-genes, and identified three TSPs in the extended hyp-gene cluster in Nostoc sp. strain PCC 7120. This may indicate a function related to the assembly of a functional uptake hydrogenase, hypothetically in the assembly of the small subunit of

  15. Transcription of the extended hyp-operon in Nostoc sp. strain PCC 7120

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindblad Peter

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The maturation of hydrogenases into active enzymes is a complex process and e.g. a correctly assembled active site requires the involvement of at least seven proteins, encoded by hypABCDEF and a hydrogenase specific protease, encoded either by hupW or hoxW. The N2-fixing cyanobacterium Nostoc sp. strain PCC 7120 may contain both an uptake and a bidirectional hydrogenase. The present study addresses the presence and expression of hyp-genes in Nostoc sp. strain PCC 7120. Results RT-PCRs demonstrated that the six hyp-genes together with one ORF may be transcribed as a single operon. Transcriptional start points (TSPs were identified 280 bp upstream from hypF and 445 bp upstream of hypC, respectively, demonstrating the existence of several transcripts. In addition, five upstream ORFs located in between hupSL, encoding the small and large subunits of the uptake hydrogenase, and the hyp-operon, and two downstream ORFs from the hyp-genes were shown to be part of the same transcript unit. A third TSP was identified 45 bp upstream of asr0689, the first of five ORFs in this operon. The ORFs are annotated as encoding unknown proteins, with the exception of alr0692 which is identified as a NifU-like protein. Orthologues of the four ORFs asr0689-alr0692, with a highly conserved genomic arrangement positioned between hupSL, and the hyp genes are found in several other N2-fixing cyanobacteria, but are absent in non N2-fixing cyanobacteria with only the bidirectional hydrogenase. Short conserved sequences were found in six intergenic regions of the extended hyp-operon, appearing between 11 and 79 times in the genome. Conclusion This study demonstrated that five ORFs upstream of the hyp-gene cluster are co-transcribed with the hyp-genes, and identified three TSPs in the extended hyp-gene cluster in Nostoc sp. strain PCC 7120. This may indicate a function related to the assembly of a functional uptake hydrogenase, hypothetically in the

  16. Targeted Gene Disruption of the Cyclo (L-Phe, L-Pro Biosynthetic Pathway in Streptomyces sp. US24 Strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samiha Sioud

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We have previously isolated a new actinomycete strain from Tunisian soil called Streptomyces sp. US24, and have shown that it produces two bioactive molecules including a Cyclo (L-Phe, L-Pro diketopiperazine (DKP. To identify the structural genes responsible for the synthesis of this DKP derivative, a PCR amplification (696 bp was carried out using the Streptomyces sp. US24 genomic DNA as template and two degenerate oligonucleotides designed by analogy with genes encoding peptide synthetases (NRPS. The detection of DKP derivative biosynthetic pathway of the Streptomyces sp. US24 strain was then achieved by gene disruption via homologous recombination using a suicide vector derived from the conjugative plasmid pSET152 and containing the PCR product. Chromatography analysis, biological tests and spectroscopic studies of supernatant cultures of the wild-type Streptomyces sp. US24 strain and three mutants obtained by this gene targeting disruption approach showed that the amplified DNA fragment is required for Cyclo (L-Phe, L-Pro biosynthesis in Streptomyces sp. US24 strain. This DKP derivative seems to be produced either directly via a nonribosomal pathway or as a side product in the course of nonribosomal synthesis of a longer peptide.

  17. Isolation and Characterization of an Atypical Metschnikowia sp. Strain from the Skin Scraping of a Dermatitis Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuan, Chee Sian; Ismail, Rokiah; Kwan, Zhenli; Yew, Su Mei; Yeo, Siok Koon; Chan, Chai Ling; Toh, Yue Fen; Na, Shiang Ling; Lee, Kok Wei; Hoh, Chee-Choong; Yee, Wai-Yan; Ng, Kee Peng

    2016-01-01

    A yeast-like organism was isolated from the skin scraping sample of a stasis dermatitis patient in the Mycology Unit Department of Medical Microbiology, University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The isolate produced no pigment and was not identifiable using chromogenic agar and API 20C AUX. The fungus was identified as Metschnikowia sp. strain UM 1034, which is close to that of Metschnikowia drosophilae based on ITS- and D1/D2 domain-based phylogenetic analysis. However, the physiology of the strain was not associated to M. drosophilae. This pathogen exhibited low sensitivity to all tested azoles, echinocandins, 5-flucytosine and amphotericin B. This study provided insight into Metschnikowia sp. strain UM 1034 phenotype profiles using a Biolog phenotypic microarray (PM). The isolate utilized 373 nutrients of 760 nutrient sources and could adapt to a broad range of osmotic and pH environments. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the isolation of Metschnikowia non-pulcherrima sp. from skin scraping, revealing this rare yeast species as a potential human pathogen that may be misidentified as Candida sp. using conventional methods. Metschnikowia sp. strain UM 1034 can survive in flexible and diverse environments with a generalist lifestyle.

  18. Isolation and Characterization of an Atypical Metschnikowia sp. Strain from the Skin Scraping of a Dermatitis Patient.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chee Sian Kuan

    Full Text Available A yeast-like organism was isolated from the skin scraping sample of a stasis dermatitis patient in the Mycology Unit Department of Medical Microbiology, University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The isolate produced no pigment and was not identifiable using chromogenic agar and API 20C AUX. The fungus was identified as Metschnikowia sp. strain UM 1034, which is close to that of Metschnikowia drosophilae based on ITS- and D1/D2 domain-based phylogenetic analysis. However, the physiology of the strain was not associated to M. drosophilae. This pathogen exhibited low sensitivity to all tested azoles, echinocandins, 5-flucytosine and amphotericin B. This study provided insight into Metschnikowia sp. strain UM 1034 phenotype profiles using a Biolog phenotypic microarray (PM. The isolate utilized 373 nutrients of 760 nutrient sources and could adapt to a broad range of osmotic and pH environments. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the isolation of Metschnikowia non-pulcherrima sp. from skin scraping, revealing this rare yeast species as a potential human pathogen that may be misidentified as Candida sp. using conventional methods. Metschnikowia sp. strain UM 1034 can survive in flexible and diverse environments with a generalist lifestyle.

  19. High-quality permanent draft genome sequence of the Parapiptadenia rigida-nodulating Burkholderia sp. strain UYPR1.413.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Meyer, Sofie E; Fabiano, Elena; Tian, Rui; Van Berkum, Peter; Seshadri, Rekha; Reddy, Tbk; Markowitz, Victor; Ivanova, Natalia; Pati, Amrita; Woyke, Tanja; Howieson, John; Kyrpides, Nikos; Reeve, Wayne

    2015-01-01

    Burkholderia sp. strain UYPR1.413 is an aerobic, motile, Gram-negative, non-spore-forming rod that was isolated from a root nodule of Parapiptadenia rigida collected at the Angico plantation, Mandiyu, Uruguay, in December 2006. A survey of symbionts of P. rigida in Uruguay demonstrated that this species is nodulated predominantly by Burkholderia microsymbionts. Moreover, Burkholderia sp. strain UYPR1.413 is a highly efficient nitrogen fixing symbiont with this host. Currently, the only other sequenced isolate to fix with this host is Cupriavidus sp. UYPR2.512. Therefore, Burkholderia sp. strain UYPR1.413 was selected for sequencing on the basis of its environmental and agricultural relevance to issues in global carbon cycling, alternative energy production, and biogeochemical importance, and is part of the GEBA-RNB project. Here we describe the features of Burkholderia sp. strain UYPR1.413, together with sequence and annotation. The 10,373,764 bp high-quality permanent draft genome is arranged in 336 scaffolds of 342 contigs, contains 9759 protein-coding genes and 77 RNA-only encoding genes.

  20. Rhizosphere colonization and arsenic translocation in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) by arsenate reducing Alcaligenes sp. strain Dhal-L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalca, Lucia; Corsini, Anna; Bachate, Sachin Prabhakar; Andreoni, Vincenza

    2013-10-01

    In the present study, six arsenic-resistant strains previously isolated were tested for their plant growth promoting characteristics and heavy metal resistance, in order to choose one model strain as an inoculum for sunflower plants in pot experiments. The aim was to investigate the effect of arsenic-resistant strain on sunflower growth and on arsenic uptake from arsenic contaminated soil. Based on plant growth promoting characteristics and heavy metal resistance, Alcaligenes sp. strain Dhal-L was chosen as an inoculum. Beside the ability to reduce arsenate to arsenite via an Ars operon, the strain exhibited 1-amino-cyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase activity and it was also able to produce siderophore and indole acetic acid. Pot experiments were conducted with an agricultural soil contaminated with arsenic (214 mg kg⁻¹). A real time PCR method was set up based on the quantification of ACR3(2) type of arsenite efflux pump carried by Alcaligenes sp. strain Dhal-L, in order to monitor presence and colonisation of the strain in the bulk and rhizospheric soil. As a result of strain inoculation, arsenic uptake by plants was increased by 53 %, whereas ACR3(2) gene copy number in rhizospheric soil was 100 times higher in inoculated than in control pots, indicating the colonisation of strain. The results indicated that the presence of arsenate reducing strains in the rhizosphere of sunflower influences arsenic mobilization and promotes arsenic uptake by plant.

  1. Draft genome sequence of Streptomyces sp. strain F1, a potential source for glycoside hydrolases isolated from Brazilian soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Rodrigues de Melo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Here, we show the draft genome sequence of Streptomyces sp. F1, a strain isolated from soil with great potential for secretion of hydrolytic enzymes used to deconstruct cellulosic biomass. The draft genome assembly of Streptomyces sp. strain F1 has 69 contigs with a total genome size of 8,142,296 bp and G + C 72.65%. Preliminary genome analysis identified 175 proteins as Carbohydrate-Active Enzymes, being 85 glycoside hydrolases organized in 33 distinct families. This draft genome information provides new insights on the key genes encoding hydrolytic enzymes involved in biomass deconstruction employed by soil bacteria.

  2. High-quality permanent draft genome sequence of the Parapiptadenia rigida-nodulating Cupriavidus sp. strain UYPR2.512.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Meyer, Sofie E; Fabiano, Elena; Tian, Rui; Van Berkum, Peter; Seshadri, Rekha; Reddy, Tbk; Markowitz, Victor; Ivanova, Natalia N; Pati, Amrita; Woyke, Tanja; Howieson, John; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Reeve, Wayne

    2015-01-01

    Cupriavidus sp. strain UYPR2.512 is an aerobic, motile, Gram-negative, non-spore-forming rod that was isolated from a root nodule of Parapiptadenia rigida grown in soils from a native forest of Uruguay. Here we describe the features of Cupriavidus sp. strain UYPR2.512, together with sequence and annotation. The 7,858,949 bp high-quality permanent draft genome is arranged in 365 scaffolds of 369 contigs, contains 7,411 protein-coding genes and 76 RNA-only encoding genes, and is part of the GEBA-RNB project proposal.

  3. Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus saerimneri 30a (Formerly Lactobacillus sp. Strain 30a), a Reference Lactic Acid Bacterium Strain Producing Biogenic Amines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romano, Andrea; Trip, Hein; Campbell-Sills, Hugo; Bouchez, Olivier; Sherman, David; Lolkema, Juke S.; Lucas, Patrick M.

    2013-01-01

    Lactobacillus sp. strain 30a (Lactobacillus saerimneri) produces the biogenic amines histamine, putrescine, and cadaverine by decarboxylating their amino acid precursors. We report its draft genome sequence (1,634,278 bases, 42.6% G+C content) and the principal findings from its annotation, which

  4. Degradation of terephthalic acid by a newly isolated strain of Arthrobacter sp.0574

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Mei Zhang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Terephthalic acid is an important industrial chemical but its production typically generates 3–10 tons of wastewater, which is a significant source of pollution. Although recent research has shown that terephthalic acid can be degraded by physical and chemical methods, these methods are complex and expensive. Microbial degradation of terephthalic acid is a popular alternative because it is environmentally friendly. We isolated a Gram-positive strain capable of growing aerobically on terephthalic acid as the sole carbon and energy source. It was identified as Arthrobacter sp. by 16S rDNA sequencing and its physiological and biochemical characteristics. For terephthalic acid degradation, the optimal temperature of the resting cells was 30 °C, optimal shaking speed was 150 rpm, the most suitable pH was 7.0, and the ability to degrade terephthalic acid was inhibited by concentrations of terephthalic acid above 10 g/L.

  5. Biochemical characterisation of lipase from a new strain of Bacillus sp. ITP-001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Murillo P. Barbosa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lipases are characterised mainly by catalytic versatility and application in different industrial segments. The aim of this study was to biochemically characterise a lipase from a new strain of Bacillus sp. ITP-001. The isoelectric point and molecular mass were 3.12 and 54 kDa, respectively. The optima lipase activity was 276 U g-1 at pH 7.0 and a temperature of 80 ºC, showing greater stability at pH 5.0 and 37 ºC. Enzymatic activity was stimulated by various ions and pyridine, and inhibited by Cu+ and ethanol. The values of Km and v max were 105.26 mmol and 0.116 mmol min-1 g-1, respectively determined by the Eadie-Scatchard method.

  6. Fluoranthene metabolism in Mycobacterium sp. strain KR20: identity of pathway intermediates during degradation and growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehmann, K; Hertkorn, N; Kettrup, A A

    2001-10-01

    Mycobacterium sp. strain KR20, which was isolated from a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contaminated soil of a former gaswork plant site, metabolized about 60% of the fluoranthene added (0.5 mg ml(-1)) to batch cultures in mineral salts medium within 10 d at 20 degrees C. It thereby increased its cell number about 30-fold and produced at least seven metabolites. Five metabolites, namely cis-2,3-fluoranthene dihydrodiol, Z-9-carboxymethylene-fluorene-1-carboxylic acid, cis-1,9a-dihydroxy-1-hydro-fluorene-9-one-8-carboxylic acid, 4-hydroxybenzochromene-6-one-7-carboxylic acid and benzene-1,2,3-tricarboxylic acid, could be identified by NMR and MS spectroscopic techniques and ascribed to an alternative fluoranthene degradation pathway. Besides fluoranthene, the isolate could not use any of the PAHs tested as a sole source of carbon and energy.

  7. Glaciimonas alpina sp. nov. isolated from alpine glaciers and reclassification of Glaciimonas immobilis Cr9-12 as the type strain of Glaciimonas alpina sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frasson, David; Udovičić, Matije; Frey, Beat; Lapanje, Aleš; Zhang, De-Chao; Margesin, Rosa; Sievers, Martin

    2015-06-01

    Psychrophilic bacterial strains were isolated from alpine glaciers in Switzerland and characterized taxonomically. On the basis of phylogenetic analysis of partial 16S rRNA and rpoB genes, three of those strains, strain 79 ( = CCOS 247), strain 4/58 ( = CCOS 250) and strain 4/56 ( = CCOS 258) clustered together with strain Cr9-12T and separately from the type strains Glaciimonas immobilis Cr9-30T and Glaciimonas singularis LMG 27070T. Strain Cr9-12T has been previously described as a strain of G. immobilis. The three newly isolated strains were compared phenotypically with strain Cr9-12T and with the type strains of the species G. immobilis and G. singularis. Cr9-12T and the three novel strains from an alpine glacier in Switzerland were Gram-stain-negative, non-motile, rod-shaped and psychrophilic and showed good growth throughout a temperature range of 1-20 °C and characteristically oxidized d-mannitol, l-fucose and bromosuccinic acid. The predominant cellular fatty acids of strain Cr9-12T and the three novel strains were summed feature 3 (C16 : 1ω7c and/or iso-C15 : 0 2-OH), C16 : 0 and C18 : 1ω7c. The respiratory quinone of these strains was ubiquinone 8 (UQ-8). The genomic DNA G+C content of Cr9-12T was 49.2 mol%. The combined data from phenotypic, phylogenetic and DNA-DNA relatedness studies strongly support the reclassification of strain Cr9-12T as representing a novel species. This strain and the isolates 79 ( = CCOS 247), 4/58 ( = CCOS 250) and 4/56 ( = CCOS 258) are representatives of a novel species of the genus Glaciimonas, for which the name Glaciimonas alpina sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Glaciimonas alpina is Cr9-12T ( = CCOS 761T = DSM 22814T).

  8. Biomass production and nutrients removal by a new microalgae strain Desmodesmus sp. in anaerobic digestion wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Fang; Liu, Ying; Hao, Rui; Li, Gang; Zhou, Yuguang; Dong, Renjie

    2014-06-01

    Anaerobic digestion wastewater (ADW), which contains large amount of nitrogen and phosphorus, particularly high concentration of ammonium, might lead to severely environmental pollution. A new unicellular green microalgae species from a wetland at the Olympic Forest Park, Beijing, China was screened based on its growth rates and nutrients removal capability under ADW. Results of 18s rDNA and ITS1 analysis indicated that this strain have a close relationship with Desmodesmus sp., named as EJ9-6. Desmodesmus sp. EJ9-6 could remove 100% NH4-N (68.691mg/L), TP (4.565mg/L) and PO4-P (4.053mg/L), and 75.50% TN (84.236mg/L) at 10.0% ADW, which the highest biomass production was 0.412g/L after 14d cultivation. Maximum nutrients removal was observed at 10.0% ADW with daily removal rates of TN, NH4-N, TP and PO4-P at 4.542, 5.284, 0.326 and 0.290mg/L/d, respectively. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. IMMOBILIZATION OF GLUCOSE OXIDASE ENZYME FROM Penicillium sp-3 LOCAL STRAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahyar Ahmad

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Immobilization of glucose oxidase (GOD enzyme from Penicillium sp-3 local strain has been carried out using ionotropically entrapping method in  Ca-alginate membrane coupled with Na-polyacrilate. The entrapment of the enzyme in diffusion membrane occur spontaneously by cross-linking between Na-alginate/Na-polyacrilate and CaCl2. The GOD enzyme immobilized by addition of 1 % Na-polyacrilate has the highest encapsulation efficiency, that is 87.13 % with the smallest percentage of diffusion, i.e. 23.37% and the relative activity of 50%. The GOD immobilized enzyme had good stability at the pH range 4 - 7 during 30 minutes of storage and was stable at a temperature of 20 oC. The activity of the GOD enzyme after being utilized continuously for 5 times only decrease up to 47,06 % compared to that in the initial utilization.   Keywords: immobilization, glucose oxidase, Penicillium sp-3, calcium alginate, sodium  polyacrilate.

  10. Taxonomic study of Marinomonas strains isolated from the seagrass Posidonia oceanica, with descriptions of Marinomonas balearica sp. nov. and Marinomonas pollencensis sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, Elena; Marco-Noales, Ester; Gómez, Daniel; Lucas-Elío, Patricia; Ordax, Mónica; Garcías-Bonet, Neus; Duarte, Carlos M; Sanchez-Amat, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    Novel aerobic, Gram-negative bacteria with DNA G+C contents below 50 mol% were isolated from the culturable microbiota associated with the Mediterranean seagrass Posidonia oceanica. 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses revealed that they belong to the genus Marinomonas. Strain IVIA-Po-186 is a strain of the species Marinomonas mediterranea, showing 99.77 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with the type strain, MMB-1(T), and sharing all phenotypic characteristics studied. This is the first description of this species forming part of the microbiota of a marine plant. A second strain, designated IVIA-Po-101(T), was closely related to M. mediterranea based on phylogenetic studies. However, it differed in characteristics such as melanin synthesis and tyrosinase, laccase and antimicrobial activities. In addition, strain IVIA-Po-101(T) was auxotrophic and unable to use acetate. IVIA-Po-101(T) shared 97.86 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with M. mediterranea MMB-1(T), but the level of DNA-DNA relatedness between the two strains was only 10.3 %. On the basis of these data, strain IVIA-Po-101(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Marinomonas, for which the name Marinomonas balearica sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is IVIA-Po-101(T) (=CECT 7378(T) =NCIMB 14432(T)). A third novel strain, IVIA-Po-185(T), was phylogenetically distant from all recognized Marinomonas species. It shared the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity (97.4 %) with the type strain of Marinomonas pontica, but the level of DNA-DNA relatedness between the two strains was only 14.5 %. A differential chemotaxonomic marker of this strain in the genus Marinomonas is the presence of the fatty acid C(17 : 0) cyclo. Strain IVIA-Po-185(T) is thus considered to represent a second novel species of the genus, for which the name Marinomonas pollencensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is IVIA-Po-185(T) (=CECT 7375(T) =NCIMB 14435(T)). An emended description of the genus Marinomonas

  11. Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7002 transcriptome: acclimation to temperature, salinity, oxidative stress and mixotrophic growth conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus eLudwig

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7002 is a unicellular, euryhaline cyanobacterium. It is a model organism for studies of cyanobacterial metabolism and has great potential for biotechnological applications. It exhibits an exceptional tolerance of high light irradiation and shows very rapid growth. The habitats from which this and closely related strains were isolated are subject to changes in several environmental factors, including light, nutrient supply, temperature, and salinity. In this study global transcriptome profiling via RNAseq has been used to perform a comparative and integrated study of global changes in cells grown at different temperatures, at different salinities and under mixotrophic conditions, when a metabolizable organic carbon source was present. Furthermore, the transcriptomes were investigated for cells that were subjected to a heat shock and that were exposed to oxidative stress. Lower growth temperatures caused relatively minor changes of the transcriptome; the most prominent changes affected fatty acid desaturases. A heat shock caused severe changes of the transcriptome pattern; transcripts for genes associated with major metabolic pathways declined and those for different chaperones increased dramatically. Oxidative stress, however, left the transcript pattern almost unaffected. When grown at high salinity, Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 had increased expression of genes involved in compatible solute biosynthesis and showed increased mRNA levels for several genes involved in electron transport. Transcripts of two adjacent genes dramatically increased upon growth at high salinity; the respective proteins are putatively involved in coping with oxidative stress and in triggering ion channels. Only minor changes were observed when cells were grown at low salinity or when the growth medium was supplemented with glycerol. However, the transcriptome data suggest that cells must acclimate to excess reducing equivalents when a reduced C

  12. Synechococcus sp. Strain PCC 7002 Transcriptome: Acclimation to Temperature, Salinity, Oxidative Stress, and Mixotrophic Growth Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Marcus; Bryant, Donald A

    2012-01-01

    Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7002 is a unicellular, euryhaline cyanobacterium. It is a model organism for studies of cyanobacterial metabolism and has great potential for biotechnological applications. It exhibits an exceptional tolerance of high-light irradiation and shows very rapid growth. The habitats from which this and closely related strains were isolated are subject to changes in several environmental factors, including light, nutrient supply, temperature, and salinity. In this study global transcriptome profiling via RNAseq has been used to perform a comparative and integrated study of global changes in cells grown at different temperatures, at different salinities, and under mixotrophic conditions, when a metabolizable organic carbon source was present. Furthermore, the transcriptomes were investigated for cells that were subjected to a heat shock and that were exposed to oxidative stress. Lower growth temperatures caused relatively minor changes of the transcriptome; the most prominent changes affected fatty acid desaturases. A heat shock caused severe changes of the transcriptome pattern; transcripts for genes associated with major metabolic pathways declined and those for different chaperones increased dramatically. Oxidative stress, however, left the transcript pattern almost unaffected. When grown at high salinity, Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 had increased expression of genes involved in compatible solute biosynthesis and showed increased mRNA levels for several genes involved in electron transport. Transcripts of two adjacent genes dramatically increased upon growth at high salinity; the respective proteins are putatively involved in coping with oxidative stress and in triggering ion channels. Only minor changes were observed when cells were grown at low salinity or when the growth medium was supplemented with glycerol. However, the transcriptome data suggest that cells must acclimate to excess reducing equivalents when a reduced C-source is present.

  13. Genome sequence of three Psychrobacter sp. strains with potential applications in bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasa, Aide; Romalde, Jesús L

    2017-06-01

    To date, the genus Psychrobacter consists of 37 recognized species isolated from different sources, however they are more frequently found in cold and other non-polar environments of low water activity. Some strains belonging to the genus have shown different enzymatic activities with potential applications in bioremediation or food industry. In the present study, the whole genome sequences of three Psychrobacter-like strains (C 20.9, Cmf 22.2 and Rd 27.2) isolated from reared clams in Galicia (Spain) are described. The sequenced genomes resulted in an assembly size of 3,143,782 bp for C 20.9 isolate, 3,168,467 bp for Cmf 22.2 isolate and 3,028,386 bp for Rd 27.2 isolate. Among the identified coding sequences of the genomes, mercury detoxification and biogeochemistry genes were found, as well as genes related to heavy metals and antibiotic resistance. Also virulence-related features were identified such as the siderophore vibrioferrin or an aerobactin-like siderophore. The phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene suggested that these strains may represent novel species of the Psychrobacter genus. The genome sequences of the Psychrobacter sp. strains have been deposited at DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank under the accession numbers MRYA00000000 (Cmf 22.2), MRYB00000000 (Rd 27.2) and MRYC00000000 (C 20.9), and the sequences could be found at the site https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/bioproject/PRJNA353858.

  14. Genome sequence of three Psychrobacter sp. strains with potential applications in bioremediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aide Lasa

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available To date, the genus Psychrobacter consists of 37 recognized species isolated from different sources, however they are more frequently found in cold and other non-polar environments of low water activity. Some strains belonging to the genus have shown different enzymatic activities with potential applications in bioremediation or food industry. In the present study, the whole genome sequences of three Psychrobacter-like strains (C 20.9, Cmf 22.2 and Rd 27.2 isolated from reared clams in Galicia (Spain are described. The sequenced genomes resulted in an assembly size of 3,143,782 bp for C 20.9 isolate, 3,168,467 bp for Cmf 22.2 isolate and 3,028,386 bp for Rd 27.2 isolate. Among the identified coding sequences of the genomes, mercury detoxification and biogeochemistry genes were found, as well as genes related to heavy metals and antibiotic resistance. Also virulence-related features were identified such as the siderophore vibrioferrin or an aerobactin-like siderophore. The phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene suggested that these strains may represent novel species of the Psychrobacter genus. The genome sequences of the Psychrobacter sp. strains have been deposited at DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank under the accession numbers MRYA00000000 (Cmf 22.2, MRYB00000000 (Rd 27.2 and MRYC00000000 (C 20.9, and the sequences could be found at the site https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/bioproject/PRJNA353858.

  15. sp

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vihar

    adopted as the first line drug. SP has few untoward effects if used carefully in therapeutic doses. Nausea, vomiting, generalized body weakness; diarrhea, skin rashes and hematological reactions are some of the associated side effects. The drug can cause severe skin reactions such as Steven Johnson's syndrome. This.

  16. Complete genome sequence of cyanobacterium Nostoc sp. NIES-3756, a potentially useful strain for phytochrome-based bioengineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, Yuu; Fujisawa, Takatomo; Ohtsubo, Yoshiyuki; Katayama, Mitsunori; Misawa, Naomi; Wakazuki, Sachiko; Shimura, Yohei; Nakamura, Yasukazu; Kawachi, Masanobu; Yoshikawa, Hirofumi; Eki, Toshihiko; Kanesaki, Yu

    2016-01-20

    To explore the diverse photoreceptors of cyanobacteria, we isolated Nostoc sp. strain NIES-3756 from soil at Mimomi-Park, Chiba, Japan, and determined its complete genome sequence. The Genome consists of one chromosome and two plasmids (total 6,987,571 bp containing no gaps). The NIES-3756 strain carries 7 phytochrome and 12 cyanobacteriochrome genes, which will facilitate the studies of phytochrome-based bioengineering. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Pathogenic Acinetobacter: from the Cell Surface to Infinity and Beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Brent S; Harding, Christian M; Feldman, Mario F

    2015-12-28

    The genus Acinetobacter encompasses multiple nosocomial opportunistic pathogens that are of increasing worldwide relevance because of their ability to survive exposure to various antimicrobial and sterilization agents. Among these, Acinetobacter baumannii, Acinetobacter nosocomialis, and Acinetobacter pittii are the most frequently isolated in hospitals around the world. Despite the growing incidence of multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter spp., little is known about the factors that contribute to pathogenesis. New strategies for treating and managing infections caused by multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter strains are urgently needed, and this requires a detailed understanding of the pathobiology of these organisms. In recent years, some virulence factors important for Acinetobacter colonization have started to emerge. In this review, we focus on several recently described virulence factors that act at the bacterial surface level, such as the capsule, O-linked protein glycosylation, and adhesins. Furthermore, we describe the current knowledge regarding the type II and type VI secretion systems present in these strains. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  18. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Acinetobacter spp. isolated from meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalheira, Ana; Casquete, Rocio; Silva, Joana; Teixeira, Paula

    2017-02-21

    The prevalence and antibiotic resistance of Acinetobacter spp. from fifty samples of meat (chicken, turkey, beef and pork) were evaluated. Acinetobacter spp. was recovered from all samples and the clonal relatedness of 223 isolates identified to belong to the genus Acinetobacter was established by PFGE. A high genetic diversity was observed and 166 isolates from different samples, 141 representing different PFGE profiles, were further identified to the species level by rpoB gene sequencing. Thirteen distinct Acinetobacter species were identified among 156 isolates. The remaining ten isolates may represent three putatively novel species since rpoB sequence homologies with type strains of all available described Acinetobacter species, were 10% (23.2%, 23.2%, 14.3%, 12.5%, 12.5%, respectively). However, resistances to meropenem, imipenem and minocycline were only sporadically observed (8.3%, 1.2% and 1.2%, respectively). Overall, 51.2% of the strains were considered as multidrug-resistant (MDR) and 9.6% as extensively drug-resistant (XDR). The prevalence of MDR strains within the A. baumannii group (38.7%) was lower than the prevalence within the others species identified (54.1%). Therefore, food of animal origin may be a vehicle of spread Acinetobacter strains resistant to several antibiotics in the community and in the hospital setting environment. This may led to nosocomial and community-acquired infections in susceptible individuals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Ageing of atrazine in manure amended soils assessed by bioavailability to Pseudomonas sp. strain ADP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glæsner, Nadia; Bælum, Jacob; Strobel, Bjarne W.

    2014-01-01

    Animal manure is applied to agricultural land in areas of high livestock production. In the present study, we evaluated ageing of atrazine in two topsoils with and without addition of manure and in one subsoil. Ageing was assessed as the bioavailability of atrazine to the atrazine mineralizing ba......-treated and untreated soil. The present study illustrates that not simply the organic carbon content influences adsorption and ageing of atrazine in soil but the origin and composition of organic matter plays an important role....... bacteria Pseudomonas sp. strain ADP. Throughout an ageing period of 90 days bioavailability was investigated at days 1, 10, 32, 60 and 90, where ~108 cells g−1 of the ADP strain was inoculated to the 14C-atrazine exposed soil and 14CO2 was collected over 7 days as a measure of mineralized atrazine. Even...... though the bioavailable residue decreased in all of the three soils as time proceeded, we found that ageing occurred faster in the topsoils rich in organic carbon than in subsoil. For one topsoil rich in organic carbon content, Simmelkær, we observed a higher degree of ageing when treated with manure...

  20. Premethylation of foreign DNA improves integrative transformation efficiency in Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Yu, Jianping; Zhang, Weiwen; Meldrum, Deirdre R

    2015-12-01

    Restriction digestion of foreign DNA is one of the key biological barriers against genetic transformation in microorganisms. To establish a high-efficiency transformation protocol in the model cyanobacterium, Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 (Synechocystis 6803), we investigated the effects of premethylation of foreign DNA on the integrative transformation of this strain. In this study, two type II methyltransferase-encoding genes, i.e., sll0729 (gene M) and slr0214 (gene C), were cloned from the chromosome of Synechocystis 6803 and expressed in Escherichia coli harboring an integration plasmid. After premethylation treatment in E. coli, the integration plasmid was extracted and used for transformation of Synechocystis 6803. The results showed that although expression of methyltransferase M had little impact on the transformation of Synechocystis 6803, expression of methyltransferase C resulted in 11- to 161-fold-higher efficiency in the subsequent integrative transformation of Synechocystis 6803. Effective expression of methyltransferase C, which could be achieved by optimizing the 5' untranslated region, was critical to efficient premethylation of the donor DNA and thus high transformation efficiency in Synechocystis 6803. Since premethylating foreign DNA prior to transforming Synechocystis avoids changing the host genetic background, the study thus provides an improved method for high-efficiency integrative transformation of Synechocystis 6803. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  1. Enhancement of the potential to utilize octopine in the nonfluorescent Pseudomonas sp. strain 92

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gill, S.S.; Boivin, R.; Dion, P. (Univ. Laval, Quebec City, Quebec (Canada))

    1991-08-01

    The nonfluorescent Pseudomonas sp. strain 92 requires the presence of a supplementary carbon source for growth on octopine, whereas the spontaneous mutant RB100 has acquired the capacity to utilize this opine as the sole carbon and nitrogen source. Insertional mutagenesis of RB100 with transposon Tn5 generated mutants which were unable to grow on octopine and others which grew slowly on this substrate. Both types of mutants yielded revertants that had regained the ability to utilize octopine. Some of the revertants had lost the transposon, whereas in others the transposon was retained but with rearrangements of the insertion site. Genes of octopine catabolism from strain 92 were cloned on a cosmid vector to generate pK3. The clone pK3 conferred the ability to utilize octopine as the sole carbon and nitrogen source on the host Pseudomonas putida KT2440. Although they conferred an equivalent growth phenotype, the mutant genes carried by RB100 and the cloned genes on pK3 differed in their regulation. Utilization of ({sup 14}C)octopine was inducible by octopine in RB100 and was constitutive in KT2440(pK3).

  2. Identifying and sequencing a Mycobacterium sp. strain F4 as a potential bioremediation agent for quinclorac.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingying Li

    Full Text Available Quinclorac is a widely used herbicide in rice filed. Unfortunately, quinclorac residues are phytotoxic to many crops/vegetables. The degradation of quinclorac in nature is very slow. On the other hand, degradation of quinclorac using bacteria can be an effective and efficient method to reduce its contamination. In this study, we isolated a quinclorac bioremediation bacterium strain F4 from quinclorac contaminated soils. Based on morphological characteristics and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, we identified strain F4 as Mycobacterium sp. We investigated the effects of temperature, pH, inoculation size and initial quinclorac concentration on growth and degrading efficiency of F4 and determined the optimal quinclorac degrading condition of F4. Under optimal degrading conditions, F4 degraded 97.38% of quinclorac from an initial concentration of 50 mg/L in seven days. Our indoor pot experiment demonstrated that the degradation products were non-phytotoxic to tobacco. After analyzing the quinclorac degradation products of F4, we proposed that F4 could employ two pathways to degrade quinclorac: one is through methylation, the other is through dechlorination. Furthermore, we reconstructed the whole genome of F4 through single molecular sequencing and de novo assembly. We identified 77 methyltransferases and eight dehalogenases in the F4 genome to support our hypothesized degradation path.

  3. Anilofos tolerance and its mineralization by the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PUPCCC 64.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D P Singh

    Full Text Available This study deals with anilofos tolerance and its mineralization by the common rice field cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PUPCCC 64. The organism tolerated anilofos up to 25 mg L(-1. The herbicide caused inhibitory effects on photosynthetic pigments of the test organism in a dose-dependent manner. The organism exhibited 60, 89, 96, 85 and 79% decrease in chlorophyll a, carotenoids, phycocyanin, allophycocyanin and phycoerythrin, respectively, in 20 mg L(-1 anilofos on day six. Activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and peroxidase increased by 1.04 to 1.80 times over control cultures in presence of 20 mg L(-1 anilofos. Glutathione content decreased by 26% while proline content was unaffected by 20 mg L(-1 anilofos. The test organism showed intracellular uptake and metabolized the herbicide. Uptake of herbicide by test organism was fast during initial six hours followed by slow uptake until 120 hours. The organism exhibited maximum anilofos removal at 100 mg protein L(-1, pH 8.0 and 30°C. Its growth in phosphate deficient basal medium in the presence of anilofos (2.5 mg L(-1 indicated that herbicide was used by the strain PUPCCC 64 as a source of phosphate.

  4. Unique ultrastructure in the elementary body of Chlamydia sp. strain TWAR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, E Y; Kuo, C C; Grayston, J T

    1987-08-01

    The ultrastructure of two prototype strains (TW-183 and AR-39) of Chlamydia sp. strain TWAR was described. The TWAR elementary body (EB) demonstrated a unique morphology and structure distinct from those of other chlamydial organisms. It was pleomorphic but typically pear shaped. The average size was 0.38 micron, with a long axis of 0.44 micron, a short axis of 0.31 micron, and a ratio of the long to the short axes of 1.42. The cytoplasmic mass was round, with an average diameter of 0.24 micron. There was a large periplasmic space. Small, round electron-dense bodies (0.05 micron in diameter), which were attached to the cytoplasm by a stringlike structure, were seen in the periplasmic space. These features are in contrast to those of other chlamydiae, which are typically round with a narrow or barely discernible periplasmic space. The TWAR reticulate body (RB) was morphologically and structurally similar to those of other Chlamydia species, having an average diameter of 0.51 micron and being circular in shape. The ultrastructural observations of the intracellular growth of TWAR in HeLa cells revealed that TWAR underwent the same developmental cycle as do other chlamydiae, i.e., transformation of EB to RB, multiplication by binary fission, and maturation by transformation of RB to EB via the intermediate-form stage.

  5. Identification and biotyping of Acinetobacter spp. isolated in Chilean hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez, M; Gonzalez, G; Bello, H; Garcia, A; Mella, S; Pinto, M E; Martinez, M A; Zemelman, R

    1995-08-01

    Two hundred and eighty-one isolates of Acinetobacter spp. obtained from clinical specimens in hospitals from five Chilean cities were identified to species level and biotyped. Respiratory tract and wound secretions were the main sources of the isolates. Acinetobacter baumannii was the most frequent species (96.8%), followed by Acinetobacter genospecies 3 (2.8%). Twelve different biotypes of A. baumannii strains were found of which biotypes 9, 8 and 6 were the most frequent. Isolates of other biotypes were rare. These results differ from most other Latin American and European countries.

  6. Multiple Mechanisms of Uranium Immobilization by Cellulomonas sp. Strain ES6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivaswamy, Vaideeswaran; Boyanov, Maxim I.; Peyton, Brent M.; Viamajala, Sridhar; Gerlach, Robin; Apel, William; Sani, Rajesh K.; Dohnalkova, Alice; Kemner, Kenneth M.; Borch, Thomas

    2011-02-24

    Removal of hexavalent uranium (U(VI)) from aqueous solution was studied using a Gram-positive facultative anaerobe, Cellulomonas sp. strain ES6, under anaerobic, non-growth conditions in bicarbonate and PIPES buffers. Inorganic phosphate was released by cells during the experiments providing ligands for formation of insoluble U(VI) phosphates. Phosphate release was most probably the result of anaerobic hydrolysis of intracellular polyphosphates accumulated by ES6 during aerobic growth. Microbial reduction of U(VI) to U(IV) was also observed. However, the relative magnitudes of U(VI) removal by abiotic (phosphate-based) precipitation and microbial reduction depended on the buffer chemistry. In bicarbonate buffer, X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy showed that U in the solid phase was present primarily as a non-uraninite U(IV) phase, whereas in PIPES buffer, U precipitates consisted primarily of U(VI)-phosphate. In both bicarbonate and PIPES buffer, net release of cellular phosphate was measured to be lower than that observed in U-free controls suggesting simultaneous precipitation of U and PO3-4 . In PIPES, U(VI) phosphates formed a significant portion of U precipitates and mass balance estimates of U and P along with XAFS data corroborate this hypothesis. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) of samples from PIPES treatments indeed showed both extracellular and intracellular accumulation of U solids with nanometer sized lath structures that contained U and P. In bicarbonate, however, more phosphate was removed than required to stoichiometrically balance the U(VI)/U(IV) fraction determined by XAFS, suggesting that U(IV) precipitated together with phosphate in this system. When anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS), a known electron shuttle, was added to the experimental reactors, the dominant removal mechanism in both buffers was reduction to a non-uraninite U(IV) phase. Uranium

  7. Multiple mechanisms of uranium immobilization by Cellulomonas sp. strain ES6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivaswamy, Vaideeswaran; Boyanov, Maxim I; Peyton, Brent M; Viamajala, Sridhar; Gerlach, Robin; Apel, William A; Sani, Rajesh K; Dohnalkova, Alice; Kemner, Kenneth M; Borch, Thomas

    2011-02-01

    Removal of hexavalent uranium (U(VI)) from aqueous solution was studied using a Gram-positive facultative anaerobe, Cellulomonas sp. strain ES6, under anaerobic, non-growth conditions in bicarbonate and PIPES buffers. Inorganic phosphate was released by cells during the experiments providing ligands for formation of insoluble U(VI) phosphates. Phosphate release was most probably the result of anaerobic hydrolysis of intracellular polyphosphates accumulated by ES6 during aerobic growth. Microbial reduction of U(VI) to U(IV) was also observed. However, the relative magnitudes of U(VI) removal by abiotic (phosphate-based) precipitation and microbial reduction depended on the buffer chemistry. In bicarbonate buffer, X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy showed that U in the solid phase was present primarily as a non-uraninite U(IV) phase, whereas in PIPES buffer, U precipitates consisted primarily of U(VI)-phosphate. In both bicarbonate and PIPES buffer, net release of cellular phosphate was measured to be lower than that observed in U-free controls suggesting simultaneous precipitation of U and PO₄³⁻. In PIPES, U(VI) phosphates formed a significant portion of U precipitates and mass balance estimates of U and P along with XAFS data corroborate this hypothesis. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) of samples from PIPES treatments indeed showed both extracellular and intracellular accumulation of U solids with nanometer sized lath structures that contained U and P. In bicarbonate, however, more phosphate was removed than required to stoichiometrically balance the U(VI)/U(IV) fraction determined by XAFS, suggesting that U(IV) precipitated together with phosphate in this system. When anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS), a known electron shuttle, was added to the experimental reactors, the dominant removal mechanism in both buffers was reduction to a non-uraninite U(IV) phase. Uranium

  8. Molecular cloning of the gene which encodes beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase from a marine bacterium, Alteromonas sp. strain O-7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujibo, H; Fujimoto, K; Tanno, H; Miyamoto, K; Kimura, Y; Imada, C; Okami, Y; Inamori, Y

    1995-01-01

    The gene encoding the periplasmic beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase (GlcNAcase B) from a marine Alteromonas sp. strain, O-7, was cloned and sequenced. The protein sequence of GlcNAcase B revealed a highly significant homology with Vibrio GlcNAcase and alpha- and beta-chains of human beta-hexosaminidase. PMID:7574618

  9. Molecular cloning of the gene which encodes beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase from a marine bacterium, Alteromonas sp. strain O-7.

    OpenAIRE

    Tsujibo, H; Fujimoto, K; Tanno, H; Miyamoto, K.; Kimura, Y.; Imada, C; Okami, Y; Inamori, Y

    1995-01-01

    The gene encoding the periplasmic beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase (GlcNAcase B) from a marine Alteromonas sp. strain, O-7, was cloned and sequenced. The protein sequence of GlcNAcase B revealed a highly significant homology with Vibrio GlcNAcase and alpha- and beta-chains of human beta-hexosaminidase.

  10. Preliminary Study and Improve the Production of Metabolites with Antifungal Activity by A Bacillus Sp Strain IBA 33

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Antonieta Gordillo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus sp strain IBA 33 metabolites, isolated from decaying lemon fruits, were evaluated for the control of pathogenic and non-pathogenic fungi (Penicillium digitatum, Geotrichum candidum, Penicillium expansum, Aspergillus clavatus, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, and Fusarium moniliforme. These metabolites were recovered from Landy medium (LM without aminoacids. In order to optimize metabolites production the LM was modified by adding different concentrations and sources of amino acids and carbohydrates at different culture conditions.Bacillus sp strain IBA 33 metabolites efficacy to control fungi were evaluated with in vitro and in vivo assays. A. flavus growth inhibition was 52% with the metabolites of Bacillus sp strain IBA 33 recovered from LM (MBLM in vitro assays. MBLM supplemented with 0.5% glutamic acid, inhibited the growth of P. digitatum, G. candidum, A. clavatus, A. niger and F. moniliforme by 65%, 88.44%, 84%, 34% and 92% respectively. The highest inhibition of P. expansum was 45% with MBLM supplemented with 0.5% aspartic acid. Similar results were obtained in vivo assays. These results showed that Bacillus sp strain IBA 33 metabolites specificity against fungi depended on the composition of the LM.

  11. Complete Genome Sequence of Salinarchaeum sp. Strain HArcht-Bsk1T, Isolated from Hypersaline Lake Baskunchak, Russia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dominova, I.N.; Sorokin, D.Y.; Kublanov, I.V.; Patrushev, M.V.; Toshchakova, S.V.

    2013-01-01

    The complete genome sequence of a novel halophilic archaeon, Salinarchaeum sp. strain HArcht-Bsk1T, was determined using next-generation sequencing. The genome comprises a 3,255,260-bp circular chromosome with a G+C content of 66.7%. Automatic annotation of the genome revealed a single rRNA operon,

  12. Cutinase-Like Enzyme from the Yeast Cryptococcus sp. Strain S-2 Hydrolyzes Polylactic Acid and Other Biodegradable Plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masaki, Kazuo; Kamini, Numbi Ramudu; Ikeda, Hiroko; Iefuji, Haruyuki

    2005-01-01

    A purified lipase from the yeast Cryptococcus sp. strain S-2 exhibited remote homology to proteins belonging to the cutinase family rather than to lipases. This enzyme could effectively degrade the high-molecular-weight compound polylactic acid, as well as other biodegradable plastics, including polybutylene succinate, poly (ɛ-caprolactone), and poly(3-hydroxybutyrate). PMID:16269800

  13. Draft Genome Sequence of Chryseobacterium sp. Strain GSE06, a Biocontrol Endophytic Bacterium Isolated from Cucumber (Cucumis sativus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jin-Ju; Park, Byeong Hyeok; Park, Hongjae

    2016-01-01

    Chryseobacterium sp. strain GSE06 is a biocontrol endophytic bacterium against the destructive soilborne oomycete Phytophthora capsici, which causes Phytophthora blight of pepper. Here, we present its draft genome sequence, which contains genes related to biocontrol traits, such as colonization, antimicrobial activity, plant growth promotion, and abiotic or biotic stress adaptation. PMID:27313310

  14. Physicochemical Parameters for Growth of the Sea Ice Bacteria Glaciecola punicea ACAM 611T and Gelidibacter sp. Strain IC158

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, D. S.; Greenhill, A. R.; Shadbolt, C. T.; Ross, T.; McMeekin, T. A.

    1999-01-01

    The water activity and pH ranges for growth of Glaciecola punicea (a psychrophile) were extended when this organism was grown at suboptimal rather than optimal temperatures. No such extension was observed for Gelidibacter sp. strain IC158 (a psychrotolerant bacterium) at analogous temperatures. Salinity and pH may be primary physicochemical parameters controlling bacterial community development in sea ice. PMID:10427082

  15. Draft Genome Sequence of MCPA-Degrading Sphingomonas sp. Strain ERG5, Isolated from a Groundwater Aquifer in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Tue Kjærgaard; Kot, Witold; Sørensen, Sebastian R

    2015-01-01

    Sphingomonas sp. strain ERG5 was isolated from a bacterial community, originating from a groundwater aquifer polluted with low pesticide concentrations. This bacterium degrades 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (MCPA) in a wide spectrum of concentrations and has been shown to function in bioaug...... in bioaugmented sand filters. Genes associated with MCPA degradation are situated on a putative conjugative plasmid....

  16. Preliminary Study and Improve the Production of Metabolites with Antifungal Activity by A Bacillus Sp Strain IBA 33

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Antonieta Gordillo

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus sp strain IBA 33 metabolites, isolated from decaying lemon fruits, were evaluated for the control of pathogenic and non-pathogenic fungi (Penicillium digitatum, Geotrichum candidum, Penicillium expansum, Aspergillus clavatus, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, and Fusarium moniliforme. These metabolites were recovered from Landy medium (LM without aminoacids. In order to optimize metabolites production the LM was modified by adding different concentrations and sources of amino acids and carbohydrates at different culture conditions. Bacillus sp strain IBA 33 metabolites efficacy to control fungi were evaluated with in vitro and in vivo assays. A. flavus growth inhibition was 52% with the metabolites of Bacillus sp strain IBA 33 recovered from LM (MBLM in vitro assays. MBLM supplemented with 0.5% glutamic acid, inhibited the growth of P. digitatum, G. candidum, A. clavatus, A. niger and F. moniliforme by 65%, 88.44%, 84%, 34% and 92% respectively. The highest inhibition of P. expansum was 45% with MBLM supplemented with 0.5% aspartic acid. Similar results were obtained in vivo assays. These results showed that Bacillus sp strain IBA 33 metabolites specificity against fungi depended on the composition of the LM.

  17. A 1,3-1,4-β-glucan utilization regulon in Paenibacillus sp. strain JDR-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virginia Chow; Young Sik Kim; Mun Su Rhee; Neha Sawhney; Franz J. St. John; Guang Nong; John D. Rice; James F. Preston

    2016-01-01

    Paenibacillus sp. strain JDR-2 (Paenibacillus JDR-2) secretes a multimodular cell-associated glycoside hydrolase family 10 (GH10) endoxylanase (XynA10A1) that catalyzes the depolymerization of methylglucuronoxylan (MeGXn) and rapidly assimilates the products of depolymerization....

  18. Growth of Arthrobacter sp. Strain JBH1 on Nitroglycerin as the Sole Source of Carbon and Nitrogen ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husserl, Johana; Spain, Jim C.; Hughes, Joseph B.

    2010-01-01

    Arthrobacter sp. strain JBH1 was isolated from nitroglycerin-contaminated soil by selective enrichment. Detection of transient intermediates and simultaneous adaptation studies with potential intermediates indicated that the degradation pathway involves the conversion of nitroglycerin to glycerol via 1,2-dinitroglycerin and 1-mononitroglycerin, with concomitant release of nitrite. Glycerol then serves as the source of carbon and energy. PMID:20061454

  19. Growth of Arthrobacter sp. strain JBH1 on nitroglycerin as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husserl, Johana; Spain, Jim C; Hughes, Joseph B

    2010-03-01

    Arthrobacter sp. strain JBH1 was isolated from nitroglycerin-contaminated soil by selective enrichment. Detection of transient intermediates and simultaneous adaptation studies with potential intermediates indicated that the degradation pathway involves the conversion of nitroglycerin to glycerol via 1,2-dinitroglycerin and 1-mononitroglycerin, with concomitant release of nitrite. Glycerol then serves as the source of carbon and energy.

  20. Alginate-Dependent Gene Expression Mechanism in Sphingomonas sp. Strain A1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Chie; Takase, Ryuichi; Momma, Keiko; Maruyama, Yukie; Murata, Kousaku

    2014-01-01

    Sphingomonas sp. strain A1, a Gram-negative bacterium, directly incorporates alginate polysaccharide into the cytoplasm through a periplasmic alginate-binding protein-dependent ATP-binding cassette transporter. The polysaccharide is degraded to monosaccharides via the formation of oligosaccharides by endo- and exotype alginate lyases. The strain A1 proteins for alginate uptake and degradation are encoded in both strands of a genetic cluster in the bacterial genome and inducibly expressed in the presence of alginate. Here we show the function of the alginate-dependent transcription factor AlgO and its mode of action on the genetic cluster and alginate oligosaccharides. A putative gene within the genetic cluster seems to encode a transcription factor-like protein (AlgO). Mutant strain A1 (ΔAlgO mutant) cells with a disrupted algO gene constitutively produced alginate-related proteins. DNA microarray analysis indicated that wild-type cells inducibly transcribed the genetic cluster only in the presence of alginate, while ΔAlgO mutant cells constitutively expressed the genetic cluster. A gel mobility shift assay showed that AlgO binds to the specific intergenic region between algO and algS (algO-algS). Binding of AlgO to the algO-algS intergenic region diminished with increasing alginate oligosaccharides. These results demonstrated a novel alginate-dependent gene expression mechanism. In the absence of alginate, AlgO binds to the algO-algS intergenic region and represses the expression of both strands of the genetic cluster, while in the presence of alginate, AlgO dissociates from the algO-algS intergenic region via binding to alginate oligosaccharides produced through the lyase reaction and subsequently initiates transcription of the genetic cluster. This is the first report on the mechanism by which alginate regulates the expression of the gene cluster. PMID:24816607

  1. Cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase production by new Bacillus sp. strains isolated from brazilian soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menocci, Vivian; Goulart, Antonio José; Adalberto, Paulo Roberto; Tavano, Olga Luisa; Marques, Daniela Parreira; Contiero, Jonas; Monti, Rubens

    2008-01-01

    Three strains of Bacillus sp. (BACRP, BACNC-1 and BACAR) were isolated from soil adhered to cassava husk. CGTase specific activity for the three isolated strains was higher when cultivated at 40°C. Potato starch, cassava starch, maltodextrin and glucose were used as carbon source and growth temperatures varied from 25 to 55°C. The three isolates presented higher CGTase specific activity when cultivated with potato starch at 40°C. Isolated BACRP and BACAR presented specific activity of 4.0×10–3 and 2.2×10–3 U/mg prot at pH 7.0, respectively, when cultivated in mediums added with NaCl 2%; at pH 10,0 their activities were of 3.4×10–3 and 3.0×10–3 U/mg prot, respectively, in the same concentration of NaCl. On the other hand, the isolated BACNC-1 presented activity specific of 2.4×10–3 U/mg prot when cultivated at pH 7.0 added of NaCl 1%, and at pH 10.0 the specific activity was of 3.4×10–3 U/mg prot without NaCl addition. This work also showed the presence of cyclodextrins formed during fermentation process and that precipitation with acetone or lyophilization followed by dialysis was efficient at removing CDs (cyclodextrins), thus, eliminating interference in the activity assays. The enzyme produced by the BACAR strain was partially purified and β-CD was liberated as a reaction product. PMID:24031289

  2. Geobacter lovleyi sp. nov. Strain SZ, a Novel Metal-Reducing and Tetrachloroethene-Dechlorinating Bacterium†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Youlboong; Fletcher, Kelly E.; Ritalahti, Kirsti M.; Apkarian, Robert P.; Ramos-Hernández, Natalia; Sanford, Robert A.; Mesbah, Noha M.; Löffler, Frank E.

    2006-01-01

    A bacterial isolate, designated strain SZ, was obtained from noncontaminated creek sediment microcosms based on its ability to derive energy from acetate oxidation coupled to tetrachloroethene (PCE)-to-cis-1,2-dichloroethene (cis-DCE) dechlorination (i.e., chlororespiration). Hydrogen and pyruvate served as alternate electron donors for strain SZ, and the range of electron acceptors included (reduced products are given in brackets) PCE and trichloroethene [cis-DCE], nitrate [ammonium], fumarate [succinate], Fe(III) [Fe(II)], malate [succinate], Mn(IV) [Mn(II)], U(VI) [U(IV)], and elemental sulfur [sulfide]. PCE and soluble Fe(III) (as ferric citrate) were reduced at rates of 56.5 and 164 nmol min−1 mg of protein−1, respectively, with acetate as the electron donor. Alternate electron acceptors, such as U(VI) and nitrate, did not inhibit PCE dechlorination and were consumed concomitantly. With PCE, Fe(III) (as ferric citrate), and nitrate as electron acceptors, H2 was consumed to threshold concentrations of 0.08 ± 0.03 nM, 0.16 ± 0.07 nM, and 0.5 ± 0.06 nM, respectively, and acetate was consumed to 3.0 ± 2.1 nM, 1.2 ± 0.5 nM, and 3.6 ± 0.25 nM, respectively. Apparently, electron acceptor-specific acetate consumption threshold concentrations exist, suggesting that similar to the hydrogen threshold model, the measurement of acetate threshold concentrations offers an additional diagnostic tool to delineate terminal electron-accepting processes in anaerobic subsurface environments. Genetic and phenotypic analyses classify strain SZ as the type strain of the new species, Geobacter lovleyi sp. nov., with Geobacter (formerly Trichlorobacter) thiogenes as the closest relative. Furthermore, the analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences recovered from PCE-dechlorinating consortia and chloroethene-contaminated subsurface environments suggests that Geobacter lovleyi belongs to a distinct, dechlorinating clade within the metal-reducing Geobacter group. Substrate versatility

  3. Geobacter lovleyi sp. nov. strain SZ, a novel metal-reducing and tetrachloroethene-dechlorinating bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Youlboong; Fletcher, Kelly E; Ritalahti, Kirsti M; Apkarian, Robert P; Ramos-Hernández, Natalia; Sanford, Robert A; Mesbah, Noha M; Löffler, Frank E

    2006-04-01

    A bacterial isolate, designated strain SZ, was obtained from noncontaminated creek sediment microcosms based on its ability to derive energy from acetate oxidation coupled to tetrachloroethene (PCE)-to-cis-1,2-dichloroethene (cis-DCE) dechlorination (i.e., chlororespiration). Hydrogen and pyruvate served as alternate electron donors for strain SZ, and the range of electron acceptors included (reduced products are given in brackets) PCE and trichloroethene [cis-DCE], nitrate [ammonium], fumarate [succinate], Fe(III) [Fe(II)], malate [succinate], Mn(IV) [Mn(II)], U(VI) [U(IV)], and elemental sulfur [sulfide]. PCE and soluble Fe(III) (as ferric citrate) were reduced at rates of 56.5 and 164 nmol min(-1) mg of protein(-1), respectively, with acetate as the electron donor. Alternate electron acceptors, such as U(VI) and nitrate, did not inhibit PCE dechlorination and were consumed concomitantly. With PCE, Fe(III) (as ferric citrate), and nitrate as electron acceptors, H(2) was consumed to threshold concentrations of 0.08 +/- 0.03 nM, 0.16 +/- 0.07 nM, and 0.5 +/- 0.06 nM, respectively, and acetate was consumed to 3.0 +/- 2.1 nM, 1.2 +/- 0.5 nM, and 3.6 +/- 0.25 nM, respectively. Apparently, electron acceptor-specific acetate consumption threshold concentrations exist, suggesting that similar to the hydrogen threshold model, the measurement of acetate threshold concentrations offers an additional diagnostic tool to delineate terminal electron-accepting processes in anaerobic subsurface environments. Genetic and phenotypic analyses classify strain SZ as the type strain of the new species, Geobacter lovleyi sp. nov., with Geobacter (formerly Trichlorobacter) thiogenes as the closest relative. Furthermore, the analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences recovered from PCE-dechlorinating consortia and chloroethene-contaminated subsurface environments suggests that Geobacter lovleyi belongs to a distinct, dechlorinating clade within the metal-reducing Geobacter group. Substrate

  4. Effects of nitrogen and carbon sources on the production of inulinase from strain Bacillus sp. SG113

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavrailov Simeon

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the carbon and nitrogen substrates on the growth of Bacillus sp. SG113 strain were studied. The use of organic nitrogen sources (peptone, beef extract, yeast extract, casein leads to rapid cellular growth and the best results for the Bacillus strain were obtained with casein hydrolysate. From the inorganic nitrogen sources studied, the (NH4 2SO4 proved to be the best nitrogen source. Casein hydrolysate and (NH4 2SO4 stimulated the invertase synthesis. In the presence of Jerusalem artichoke, onion and garlic extracts as carbon sources the strain synthesized from 6 to 10 times more inulinase.

  5. Selection of a new Pseudomonas chlororaphis strain for the biological control of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo PUOPOLO

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Fluorescent pseudomonads possess several physiological characteristics exploitable for the biological control of phytopathogenic fungi. A group of 11 pseudomonads able to inhibit tomato pathogenic fungi in vitro were identified using the Biolog test and the phylogenetic analysis of recA. Strain M71 of Pseudomonas chlororaphis was selected as a new potential biocontrol agent. This strain drastically reduced Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici pathogenicity on tomato plantlets in seed assays and greenhouse trials. Moreover, the strain produced several important secondary metabolites, including proteases, siderophores and antibiotics. The presence of a region involved in phenazine production and the biosynthesis of N-acyl homoserine lactones were also assessed.

  6. Identification of sesquiterpene synthases from Nostoc punctiforme PCC 73102 and Nostoc sp. strain PCC 7120.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agger, Sean A; Lopez-Gallego, Fernando; Hoye, Thomas R; Schmidt-Dannert, Claudia

    2008-09-01

    Cyanobacteria are a rich source of natural products and are known to produce terpenoids. These bacteria are the major source of the musty-smelling terpenes geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol, which are found in many natural water supplies; however, no terpene synthases have been characterized from these organisms to date. Here, we describe the characterization of three sesquiterpene synthases identified in Nostoc sp. strain PCC 7120 (terpene synthase NS1) and Nostoc punctiforme PCC 73102 (terpene synthases NP1 and NP2). The second terpene synthase in N. punctiforme (NP2) is homologous to fusion-type sesquiterpene synthases from Streptomyces spp. shown to produce geosmin via an intermediate germacradienol. The enzymes were functionally expressed in Escherichia coli, and their terpene products were structurally identified as germacrene A (from NS1), the eudesmadiene 8a-epi-alpha-selinene (from NP1), and germacradienol (from NP2). The product of NP1, 8a-epi-alpha-selinene, so far has been isolated only from termites, in which it functions as a defense compound. Terpene synthases NP1 and NS1 are part of an apparent minicluster that includes a P450 and a putative hybrid two-component protein located downstream of the terpene synthases. Coexpression of P450 genes with their adjacent located terpene synthase genes in E. coli demonstrates that the P450 from Nostoc sp. can be functionally expressed in E. coli when coexpressed with a ferredoxin gene and a ferredoxin reductase gene from Nostoc and that the enzyme oxygenates the NS1 terpene product germacrene A. This represents to the best of our knowledge the first example of functional expression of a cyanobacterial P450 in E. coli.

  7. Improved Triacylglycerol Production in Acinetobacter baylyi ADP1 by Metabolic Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karp Matti

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Triacylglycerols are used in various purposes including food applications, cosmetics, oleochemicals and biofuels. Currently the main sources for triacylglycerol are vegetable oils, and microbial triacylglycerol has been suggested as an alternative for these. Due to the low production rates and yields of microbial processes, the role of metabolic engineering has become more significant. As a robust model organism for genetic and metabolic studies, and for the natural capability to produce triacylglycerol, Acinetobacter baylyi ADP1 serves as an excellent organism for modelling the effects of metabolic engineering for energy molecule biosynthesis. Results Beneficial gene deletions regarding triacylglycerol production were screened by computational means exploiting the metabolic model of ADP1. Four deletions, acr1, poxB, dgkA, and a triacylglycerol lipase were chosen to be studied experimentally both separately and concurrently by constructing a knock-out strain (MT with three of the deletions. Improvements in triacylglycerol production were observed: the strain MT produced 5.6 fold more triacylglycerol (mg/g cell dry weight compared to the wild type strain, and the proportion of triacylglycerol in total lipids was increased by 8-fold. Conclusions In silico predictions of beneficial gene deletions were verified experimentally. The chosen single and multiple gene deletions affected beneficially the natural triacylglycerol metabolism of A. baylyi ADP1. This study demonstrates the importance of single gene deletions in triacylglycerol metabolism, and proposes Acinetobacter sp. ADP1 as a model system for bioenergetic studies regarding metabolic engineering.

  8. High-quality permanent draft genome sequence of the Lebeckia ambigua-nodulating Burkholderia sp. strain WSM4176.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Meyer, Sofie E; Tian, Rui; Seshadri, Rekha; Reddy, Tbk; Markowitz, Victor; Ivanova, Natalia; Pati, Amrita; Woyke, Tanja; Kyrpides, Nikos; Yates, Ron; Howieson, John; Reeve, Wayne

    2015-01-01

    Burkholderia sp. strain WSM4176 is an aerobic, motile, Gram-negative, non-spore-forming rod that was isolated from an effective N2-fixing root nodule of Lebeckia ambigua collected in Nieuwoudtville, Western Cape of South Africa, in October 2007. This plant persists in infertile, acidic and deep sandy soils, and is therefore an ideal candidate for a perennial based agriculture system in Western Australia. Here we describe the features of Burkholderia sp. strain WSM4176, which represents a potential inoculant quality strain for L. ambigua, together with sequence and annotation. The 9,065,247 bp high-quality-draft genome is arranged in 13 scaffolds of 65 contigs, contains 8369 protein-coding genes and 128 RNA-only encoding genes, and is part of the GEBA-RNB project proposal (Project ID 882).

  9. High-quality permanent draft genome sequence of the Mimosa asperata - nodulating Cupriavidus sp. strain AMP6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Meyer, Sofie E; Parker, Matthew; Van Berkum, Peter; Tian, Rui; Seshadri, Rekha; Reddy, T B K; Markowitz, Victor; Ivanova, Natalia; Pati, Amrita; Woyke, Tanja; Kyrpides, Nikos; Howieson, John; Reeve, Wayne

    2015-01-01

    Cupriavidus sp. strain AMP6 is an aerobic, motile, Gram-negative, non-spore-forming rod that was isolated from a root nodule of Mimosa asperata collected in Santa Ana National Wildlife Refuge, Texas, in 2005. Mimosa asperata is the only legume described so far to exclusively associates with Cupriavidus symbionts. Moreover, strain AMP6 represents an early-diverging lineage within the symbiotic Cupriavidus group and has the capacity to develop an effective nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with three other species of Mimosa. Therefore, the genome of Cupriavidus sp. strain AMP6 enables comparative analyses of symbiotic trait evolution in this genus and here we describe the general features, together with sequence and annotation. The 7,579,563 bp high-quality permanent draft genome is arranged in 260 scaffolds of 262 contigs, contains 7,033 protein-coding genes and 97 RNA-only encoding genes, and is part of the GEBA-RNB project proposal.

  10. Dinitrogenase-Driven Photobiological Hydrogen Production Combats Oxidative Stress in Cyanothece sp. Strain ATCC 51142

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadler, Natalie C.; Bernstein, Hans C.; Melnicki, Matthew R.; Charania, Moiz A.; Hill, Eric A.; Anderson, Lindsey N.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Smith, Richard D.; Beliaev, Alexander S.; Wright, Aaron T.; Nojiri, H.

    2016-10-14

    ABSTRACT

    Photobiologically synthesized hydrogen (H2) gas is carbon neutral to produce and clean to combust, making it an ideal biofuel.Cyanothecesp. strain ATCC 51142 is a cyanobacterium capable of performing simultaneous oxygenic photosynthesis and H2production, a highly perplexing phenomenon because H2evolving enzymes are O2sensitive. We employed a system-levelin vivochemoproteomic profiling approach to explore the cellular dynamics of protein thiol redox and how thiol redox mediates the function of the dinitrogenase NifHDK, an enzyme complex capable of aerobic hydrogenase activity. We found that NifHDK responds to intracellular redox conditions and may act as an emergency electron valve to prevent harmful reactive oxygen species formation in concert with other cell strategies for maintaining redox homeostasis. These results provide new insight into cellular redox dynamics useful for advancing photolytic bioenergy technology and reveal a new understanding for the biological function of NifHDK.

    IMPORTANCEHere, we demonstrate that high levels of hydrogen synthesis can be induced as a protection mechanism against oxidative stress via the dinitrogenase enzyme complex inCyanothecesp. strain ATCC 51142. This is a previously unknown feature of cyanobacterial dinitrogenase, and we anticipate that it may represent a strategy to exploit cyanobacteria for efficient and scalable hydrogen production. We utilized a chemoproteomic approach to capture thein situdynamics of reductant partitioning within the cell, revealing proteins and reactive thiols that may be involved in redox sensing and signaling. Additionally, this method is widely applicable across biological systems to achieve a greater understanding of how cells

  11. Growth, biomass, and chlorophyll-a and carotenoid content of Nannochloropsis sp. strain BJ17 under different light intensities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Fakhri

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT  Nannochloropsis sp. has been identified as sources of live feed and pigment in aquaculture. To increase the production, the optimal environmental conditions for microalgae are required. Light intensity is one of the important factors that significantly affects the biomass and pigment of microalgae. The study aimed to determine the effect of light intensity (1,500; 3,000; and 4,500 lux on growth, biomass production, chlorophyll-a, and carotenoid content of Nannochloropsis sp. strain BJ17. The results showed that different light intensities significantly affected the growth, biomass, chlorophyll-a and carotenoid contents of Nannochloropsis sp. strain BJ17. Increasing light intensity resulted in the increase of the growth rate, biomass, chlorophyll-a, and carotenoid contents of Nannochloropsis sp. strain BJ17. The cell achieved the highest specific growth rate of 1.729 %/day and the cell concentration of 43.333×106 cell/mL at a light intensity of 4,500 lux. The highest chlorophyll-a and carotenoid concentrations of algae were obtained at 4,500 lux (8.304 μg/mL and 3.892 μg/mL, respectively. This study suggested that increasing light intensity led to the increase in the growth, biomass, chlorophyll-a, and carotenoid content of Nannochloropsis sp. strain BJ17. Keywords: carotenoid, chlorophyll, biomass, growth rate, light intensity  ABSTRAK  Nannochloropsis sp. diketahui sebagai sumber pakan alami dan pigmen pada budidaya perikanan. Budidaya pada kondisi lingkungan yang optimal diperlukan untuk meningkatkan produksi mikroalga. Intensitas cahaya merupakan salah satu faktor esensial yang secara signifikan mempengaruhi biomassa dan pigmen mikroalga. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk menentukan pengaruh intensitas cahaya yang berbeda (1.500, 3.000, and 4.500 lux terhadap pertumbuhan, produksi biomassa, klorofil-a, dan karotenoid Nannochloropsis sp. strain BJ17. Hasil menunjukkan bahwa intensitas cahaya yang berbeda berpengaruh secara

  12. Characterization of 17 strains belonging to the Mycobacterium simiae complex and description of Mycobacterium paraense sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusco da Costa, Ana R; Fedrizzi, Tarcisio; Lopes, Maria L; Pecorari, Monica; Oliveira da Costa, Wana L; Giacobazzi, Elisabetta; da Costa Bahia, Jeann R; De Sanctis, Veronica; Batista Lima, Karla V; Bertorelli, Roberto; Grottola, Antonella; Fabio, Anna; Mariottini, Alessandro; Ferretti, Pamela; Di Leva, Francesca; Fregni Serpini, Giulia; Tagliazucchi, Sara; Rumpianesi, Fabio; Jousson, Olivier; Segata, Nicola; Tortoli, Enrico

    2015-02-01

    Fourteen mycobacterial strains isolated from pulmonary samples of independent patients in the state of Pará (Brazil), and three strains isolated in Italy, were characterized using a polyphasic approach. Thorough genetic investigation, including whole-genome sequencing, demonstrated that the strains belong to the M. simiae complex, being most closely related to Mycobacterium interjectum. For 14 of the strains, evidence emerged supporting their inclusion in a previously unreported species of the genus Mycobacterium, for which the name Mycobacterium paraense sp. nov. is proposed (type strain, IEC26(T) = DSM 46749(T) = CCUG 66121(T)). The novel species is characterized by slow growth, unpigmented or pale yellow scotochromogenic colonies, and a HPLC mycolic acid profile different from other known mycobacteria. In different genetic regions, high sequence microheterogeneity was detected. © 2015 IUMS.

  13. Cloning of a Novel Arylamidase Gene from Paracoccus sp. Strain FLN-7 That Hydrolyzes Amide Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Yin, Jin-Gang; Hang, Bao-Jian; Cai, Shu; Li, Shun-Peng

    2012-01-01

    The bacterial isolate Paracoccus sp. strain FLN-7 hydrolyzes amide pesticides such as diflubenzuron, propanil, chlorpropham, and dimethoate through amide bond cleavage. A gene, ampA, encoding a novel arylamidase that catalyzes the amide bond cleavage in the amide pesticides was cloned from the strain. ampA contains a 1,395-bp open reading frame that encodes a 465-amino-acid protein. AmpA was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 and homogenously purified using Ni-nitrilotriacetic acid affinity chromatography. AmpA is a homodimer with an isoelectric point of 5.4. AmpA displays maximum enzymatic activity at 40°C and a pH of between 7.5 and 8.0, and it is very stable at pHs ranging from 5.5 to 10.0 and at temperatures up to 50°C. AmpA efficiently hydrolyzes a variety of secondary amine compounds such as propanil, 4-acetaminophenol, propham, chlorpropham, dimethoate, and omethoate. The most suitable substrate is propanil, with Km and kcat values of 29.5 μM and 49.2 s−1, respectively. The benzoylurea insecticides (diflubenzuron and hexaflumuron) are also hydrolyzed but at low efficiencies. No cofactor is needed for the hydrolysis activity. AmpA shares low identities with reported arylamidases (less than 23%), forms a distinct lineage from closely related arylamidases in the phylogenetic tree, and has different biochemical characteristics and catalytic kinetics with related arylamidases. The results in the present study suggest that AmpA is a good candidate for the study of the mechanism for amide pesticide hydrolysis, genetic engineering of amide herbicide-resistant crops, and bioremediation of amide pesticide-contaminated environments. PMID:22544249

  14. Detection of diazotrophy in the acetylene-fermenting anaerobe Pelobacter sp. strain SFB93

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akob, Denise M.; Baesman, Shaun; Sutton, John M.; Fierst, Janna L.; Mumford, Adam; Shrestha, Yesha; Poret-Peterson, Amisha T.; Bennett, Stacy; Dunlap, Darren S.; Haase, Karl B.; Oremland, Ronald S.

    2017-01-01

    Acetylene (C2H2) is a trace constituent of the present Earth's oxidizing atmosphere, reflecting a mixture of terrestrial and marine emissions from anthropogenic, biomass-burning, and unidentified biogenic sources. Fermentation of acetylene was serendipitously discovered during C2H2 block assays of N2O reductase, and Pelobacter acetylenicus was shown to grow on C2H2 via acetylene hydratase (AH). AH is a W-containing, catabolic, low-redox-potential enzyme that, unlike nitrogenase (N2ase), is specific for acetylene. Acetylene fermentation is a rare metabolic process that is well characterized only in P. acetylenicus DSM3246 and DSM3247 and Pelobacter sp. strain SFB93. To better understand the genetic controls for AH activity, we sequenced the genomes of the three acetylene-fermenting Pelobacter strains. Genome assembly and annotation produced three novel genomes containing gene sequences for AH, with two copies being present in SFB93. In addition, gene sequences for all five compulsory genes for iron-molybdenum N2ase were also present in the three genomes, indicating the cooccurrence of two acetylene transformation pathways. Nitrogen fixation growth assays showed that DSM3426 could ferment acetylene in the absence of ammonium, but no ethylene was produced. However, SFB93 degraded acetylene and, in the absence of ammonium, produced ethylene, indicating an active N2ase. Diazotrophic growth was observed under N2 but not in experimental controls incubated under argon. SFB93 exhibits acetylene fermentation and nitrogen fixation, the only known biochemical mechanisms for acetylene transformation. Our results indicate complex interactions between N2ase and AH and suggest novel evolutionary pathways for these relic enzymes from early Earth to modern days.

  15. PERFORMA FOTOSINTESIS Kappaphycus sp. (strain Sumba) YANG DIUKUR BERDASARKAN EVOLUSI OKSIGEN TERLARUT PADA BEBERAPA TINGKAT SUHU DAN CAHAYA

    OpenAIRE

    Lideman Lideman; Asda Laining

    2015-01-01

    Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh suhu dan cahaya terhadap laju fotosintesis Kappaphycus sp. (strain Sumba) yang diukur berdasarkan perubahan oksigen terlarut. Pengukuran laju fotosintesis Kappaphycus sp. pertama-tama dilakukan pada suhu 20oC, 24oC, 28oC, dan 32oC pada tingkat cahaya 353 μmol photons m-2 s-1 untuk mendapatkan kurva fotosintesis versus suhu (kurva P-T). Selanjutnya, pengukuran laju fotosintesis dilakukan pada suhu 20oC, 24oC, dan 28oC dengan intensitas cahaya ...

  16. Cloning and characterization of two xyloglucanases from Paenibacillus sp. strain KM21.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaoi, Katsuro; Nakai, Tomonori; Kameda, Yoshiro; Hiyoshi, Ayako; Mitsuishi, Yasushi

    2005-12-01

    Two xyloglucan-specific endo-beta-1,4-glucanases (xyloglucanases [XEGs]), XEG5 and XEG74, with molecular masses of 40 kDa and 105 kDa, respectively, were isolated from the gram-positive bacterium Paenibacillus sp. strain KM21, which degrades tamarind seed xyloglucan. The genes encoding these XEGs were cloned and sequenced. Based on their amino acid sequences, the catalytic domains of XEG5 and XEG74 were classified in the glycoside hydrolase families 5 and 74, respectively. XEG5 is the first xyloglucanase belonging to glycoside hydrolase family 5. XEG5 lacks a carbohydrate-binding module, while XEG74 has an X2 module and a family 3 type carbohydrate-binding module at its C terminus. The two XEGs were expressed in Escherichia coli, and recombinant forms of the enzymes were purified and characterized. Both XEGs had endoglucanase active only toward xyloglucan and not toward Avicel, carboxymethylcellulose, barley beta-1,3/1,4-glucan, or xylan. XEG5 is a typical endo-type enzyme that randomly cleaves the xyloglucan main chain, while XEG74 has dual endo- and exo-mode activities or processive endo-mode activity. XEG5 digested the xyloglucan oligosaccharide XXXGXXXG to produce XXXG, whereas XEG74 digestion of XXXGXXXG resulted in XXX, XXXG, and GXXXG, suggesting that this enzyme cleaves the glycosidic bond of unbranched Glc residues. Analyses using various oligosaccharide structures revealed that unique structures of xyloglucan oligosaccharides can be prepared with XEG74.

  17. Toluene and ethylbenzene oxidation by purified naphthalene dioxygenase from Pseudomonas sp. strain NCIB 9816-4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, K; Gibson, D T

    1996-01-01

    Purified naphthalene dioxygenase (NDO) from Pseudomonas sp. strain NCIB 9816-4 oxidized toluene to benzyl alcohol and benzaldehyde by reactions involving benzylic monooxygenation and dioxygen-dependent alcohol oxidation, respectively. Xylene and nitrotoluene isomers were also oxidized to substituted benzyl alcohol and benzaldehyde derivatives. NDO oxidized ethylbenzene sequentially through (S)-1-phenethyl alcohol (77% enantiomeric excess) and acetophenone to 2-hydroxyacetophenone. In addition, NDO also oxidized ethylbenzene through styrene to (R)-1-phenyl-1,2-ethanediol (74% enantiomeric excess) by reactions involving desaturation and dihydroxylation, respectively. Isotope experiments with 18O2, H2 18O, and D2O suggest that 1-phenethyl alcohol is oxidized to acetophenone by a minor reaction involving desaturation followed by tautomerization. The major reaction in the conversion of 1-phenethyl alcohol and benzyl alcohol to acetophenone and benzaldehyde, respectively, probably involves monohydroxylation to form a gem-diol intermediate which stereospecifically loses the incoming hydroxyl group to leave the carbonyl product. These results are compared with similar reactions catalyzed by cytochrome P-450. PMID:8795196

  18. A debranching enzyme IsoM of Corallococcus sp. strain EGB with potential in starch processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhoukun; Ji, Kai; Zhou, Jie; Ye, Xianfeng; Wang, Ting; Luo, Xue; Huang, Yan; Cao, Hui; Cui, Zhongli; Kong, Yi

    2017-12-01

    Interest in use of resistant starch and maltooligosaccharides as functional foods and biopreservatives has grown in recent years. In this research, a novel debranching enzyme IsoM from Corallococcus sp. strain EGB was identified and expressed in P. pastoris GS115. Sequence alignments showed that IsoM was typical isoamylase with the specific activity up to 70,600U/mg, which belongs to glycoside hydrolase family 13 (GH 13). Enzymatic reaction pattern demonstrated that IsoM has high debranching efficiency against α-1,6-glycosidic bond of branched starch, and exhibited no activity towards α-1,4-glycosidic bond. The potential application of IsoM in starch processing was determined. IsoM was a potential candidate for the production of RS (70.9%) from raw starch, which was comparable with the commercial pullulanase (Promozyme(®)D2). IsoM also improved the maltohexaose yield in combination with maltohexaose-producing α-amylase AmyM (KM114206), the maltohexaose yield was improved by 63.3% compared with 21.9% improvement of Promozyme(®)D2. The results of RS production and combination with other amylases suggesting that IsoM is a potential candidate for the efficient conversion of starch. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Anti-Parasitic Compounds from Streptomyces sp. Strains Isolated from Mediterranean Sponges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidrun Moll

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Actinomycetes are prolific producers of pharmacologically important compounds accounting for about 70% of the naturally derived antibiotics that are currently in clinical use. In this study, we report on the isolation of Streptomyces sp. strains from Mediterranean sponges, on their secondary metabolite production and on their screening for anti-infective activities. Bioassay-guided isolation and purification yielded three previously known compounds namely, cyclic depsipeptide valinomycin, indolocarbazole alkaloid staurosporine and butenolide. This is the first report of the isolation of valinomycin from a marine source. These compounds exhibited novel anti-parasitic activities specifically against Leishmania major (valinomycin IC50 < 0.11 µM; staurosporine IC50 5.30 µM and Trypanosoma brucei brucei (valinomycin IC50 0.0032 µM; staurosporine IC50 0.022 µM; butenolide IC50 31.77 µM. These results underscore the potential of marine actinomycetes to produce bioactive compounds as well as the re-evaluation of previously known compounds for novel anti-infective activities.

  20. Trehalose promotes Rhodococcus sp. strain YYL colonization in activated sludge under tetrahydrofuran (THF) stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhixing; Zhang, Kai; Wang, Haixia; Lv, Zhenmei

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have focused on the role of compatible solutes in changing the microbial community structure in bioaugmentation systems. In this study, we investigated the influence of trehalose as a biostimulant on the microbial community in tetrahydrofuran (THF)-treated wastewater bioaugmentation systems with Rhodococcus sp. YYL. Functional gene profile changes were used to study the variation in the microbial community. Soluble di-iron monooxygenases (SDIMO), particularly group-5 SDIMOs (i.e., tetrahydrofuran and propane monooxygenases), play a significant role in the initiation of the ring cleavage of tetrahydrofuran. Group-5 SDIMOs genes are enriched upon trehalose addition, and exogenous tetrahydrofuran monooxygenase (thmA) genes can successfully colonize bioaugmentation systems. Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s) have a significant role in catalyzing the region- and stereospecific oxidation of non-activated hydrocarbons, and THF was reported to inhibit P450s in the environment. The CYP153 family was chosen as a representative P450 to study the inhibitory effects of THF. The results demonstrated that CYP153 family genes exhibited significant changes upon THF treatment and that trehalose helped maintain a rich diversity and high abundance of CYP153 family genes. Biostimulation with trehalose could alleviate the negative effects of THF stress on microbial diversity in bioaugmentation systems. Our results indicated that trehalose as a compatible solute plays a significant role for environmental strains under extreme conditions.

  1. Enzymatic saccharification of seaweeds into fermentable sugars by xylanase from marine Bacillus sp. strain BT21.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parab, Pankaj; Khandeparker, Rakhee; Amberkar, Ujwala; Khodse, Vishwas

    2017-10-01

    Enzymatic hydrolysis of seaweed biomass was studied using xylanase produced from marine bacteria Bacillus sp. strain BT21 through solid-state fermentation of wheat bran. Three types of seaweeds, Ahnfeltia plicata, Padina tetrastromatica and Ulva lactuca, were selected as representatives of red, brown, and green seaweeds, respectively. Seaweed biomass was pretreated with hot water. The efficiency of pretreated biomass to release reducing sugar by the action of xylanase as well as the type of monosaccharide released during enzyme saccharification of seaweed biomass was studied. It was seen that pretreated biomass of seaweed A. plicata, U. lactuca, and P. tetrastroma, at 121 °C for 45 min, followed by incubation with 50 IU xylanase released reducing sugars of 233 ± 5.3, 100 ± 6.1 and 73.3 ± 4.1 µg/mg of seaweed biomass, respectively. Gas chromatography analysis illustrated the release of xylose, glucose, and mannose during the treatment process. Hot water pre-treatment process enhanced enzymatic conversion of biomass into sugars. This study revealed the important role of xylanase in saccharification of seaweed, a promising feedstock for third-generation bioethanol production.

  2. Cyanobacterial photosynthesis under sulfidic conditions: insights from the isolate Leptolyngbya sp. strain hensonii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Trinity L; Klatt, Judith M; de Beer, Dirk; Macalady, Jennifer L

    2018-01-01

    We report the isolation of a pinnacle-forming cyanobacterium isolated from a microbial mat covering the sediment surface at Little Salt Spring—a flooded sinkhole in Florida with a perennially microoxic and sulfidic water column. The draft genome of the isolate encodes all of the enzymatic machinery necessary for both oxygenic and anoxygenic photosynthesis, as well as genes for methylating hopanoids at the C-2 position. The physiological response of the isolate to H2S is complex: (i) no induction time is necessary for anoxygenic photosynthesis; (ii) rates of anoxygenic photosynthesis are regulated by both H2S and irradiance; (iii) O2 production is inhibited by H2S concentrations as low as 1 μM and the recovery rate of oxygenic photosynthesis is dependent on irradiance; (iv) under the optimal light conditions for oxygenic photosynthesis, rates of anoxygenic photosynthesis are nearly double those of oxygenic photosynthesis. We hypothesize that the specific adaptation mechanisms of the isolate to H2S emerged from a close spatial interaction with sulfate-reducing bacteria. The new isolate, Leptolyngbya sp. strain hensonii, is not closely related to other well-characterized Cyanobacteria that can perform anoxygenic photosynthesis, which further highlights the need to characterize the diversity and biogeography of metabolically versatile Cyanobacteria. The isolate will be an ideal model organism for exploring the adaptation of Cyanobacteria to sulfidic conditions. PMID:29328062

  3. Trehalose promotes Rhodococcus sp. strain YYL colonization in activated sludge under tetrahydrofuran (THF stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhixing eHe

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have focused on the role of compatible solutes in changing the microbial community structure in bioaugmentation systems. In this study, we investigated the influence of trehalose as a biostimulant on the microbial community in THF-treated wastewater bioaugmentation systems with Rhodococcus sp. YYL. Functional gene profile changes were used to study the variation in the microbial community. Soluble di-iron monooxygenases (SDIMO, particularly group-5 SDIMOs (i.e., tetrahydrofuran and propane monooxygenases, play a significant role in the initiation of the ring cleavage of tetrahydrofuran. Group-5 SDIMOs genes are enriched upon trehalose addition, and exogenous tetrahydrofuran monooxygenase (thmA genes can successfully colonize bioaugmentation systems. Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s have a significant role in catalyzing the region- and stereospecific oxidation of non-activated hydrocarbons, and THF was reported to inhibit P450s in the environment. The CYP153 family was chosen as a representative P450 to study the inhibitory effects of THF. The results demonstrated that CYP153 family genes exhibited significant changes upon THF treatment and that trehalose helped maintain a rich diversity and high abundance of CYP153 family genes. Biostimulation with trehalose could alleviate the negative effects of THF stress on microbial diversity in bioaugmentation systems. Our results indicated that trehalose as a compatible solute plays a significant role for environmental strains under extreme conditions.

  4. p-Aminoacetophenonic Acids Produced by a Mangrove Endophyte Streptomyces sp. (strain HK10552

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangfang Wang

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Four new p-aminoacetophenonic acids, named (2E-11-(4′-aminophenyl-5,9-dihydroxy-4,6,8-trimethyl-11-oxo-undec-2-enoic acid (1, 9-(4′-aminophenyl-3,7-dihydroxy-2,4,6-trimethyl-9-oxo-nonoic acid(2, (2E-11-(4′-aminophenyl-5,9-O-cyclo-4,6,8-trimethyl-11-oxo-undec-2-enoic acid (3 and 9-(4′-aminophenyl-3,7-O-cyclo-2,4,6-trimethyl-9-oxo-nonoic acid(4, were isolated from an endophyte Streptomyces sp. (strain HK10552 of the mangrove plant Aegiceras corniculatum. The structures of 1–4 were elucidated by using spectroscopic analyses. The relative stereoconfigurations of compounds 3 and 4 were determined by NOESY experiments. In the bioassay test, 1–4 showed no cytotoxicity against the Hela cell lines. Compound 4 also showed no inhibitory bioactivity on HCV protease and SecA ATPase and wasn’t active against VSVG/HIV-luc pseudotyping virus.

  5. Toluene and ethylbenzene oxidation by purified naphthalene dioxygenase from Pseudomonas sp. strain NCIB 9816-4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, K; Gibson, D T

    1996-09-01

    Purified naphthalene dioxygenase (NDO) from Pseudomonas sp. strain NCIB 9816-4 oxidized toluene to benzyl alcohol and benzaldehyde by reactions involving benzylic monooxygenation and dioxygen-dependent alcohol oxidation, respectively. Xylene and nitrotoluene isomers were also oxidized to substituted benzyl alcohol and benzaldehyde derivatives. NDO oxidized ethylbenzene sequentially through (S)-1-phenethyl alcohol (77% enantiomeric excess) and acetophenone to 2-hydroxyacetophenone. In addition, NDO also oxidized ethylbenzene through styrene to (R)-1-phenyl-1,2-ethanediol (74% enantiomeric excess) by reactions involving desaturation and dihydroxylation, respectively. Isotope experiments with 18O2, H2 18O, and D2O suggest that 1-phenethyl alcohol is oxidized to acetophenone by a minor reaction involving desaturation followed by tautomerization. The major reaction in the conversion of 1-phenethyl alcohol and benzyl alcohol to acetophenone and benzaldehyde, respectively, probably involves monohydroxylation to form a gem-diol intermediate which stereospecifically loses the incoming hydroxyl group to leave the carbonyl product. These results are compared with similar reactions catalyzed by cytochrome P-450.

  6. Optimization of trehalose production by a novel strain Brevibacterium sp. SY361.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Huang, Rui; Gu, Guanbin; Fang, Hongying

    2008-10-01

    Trehalose production by a novel strain of Brevibacterium sp. SY361 was optimized in submerged fermentation. Different chemical and physical parameters such as carbon and nitrogen sources, inoculum level, initial pH, incubation temperature, aeration and time-course of fermentation, were studied in order to increase trehalose productivity. An optimal production medium containing 3% (w/v) glucose, 0.9% (v/v) corn steep liquor, 0.5% (w/v) KH(2)PO(4) and 0.4% (w/v) MgSO(4).7 H(2)O was found suitable for trehalose production. An optimal volume of medium in a 500 ml flask was 80 ml. The optimal levels of other parameters were 4.0% (v/v) of inoculum, initial pH of 6.0, incubation temperature of 28-32 degrees C and time-course of 60 h. Optimized parameters gave a maximum trehalose of 12.2 mg/ml with a conversion rate of 58.4%. (c) 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Mechanism of biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids in Pseudomonas sp. strain E-3, a psychrotrophic bacterium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wada, M.; Fukunaga, N.; Sasaki, S. (Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan))

    1989-08-01

    Biosynthesis of palmitic, palmitoleic, and cis-vaccenic acids in Pseudomonas sp. strain E-3 was investigated with in vitro and in vivo systems. (1-{sup 14}C)palmitic acid was aerobically converted to palmitoleate and cis-vaccenate, and the radioactivities on their carboxyl carbons were 100 and 43%, respectively, of the total radioactivity in the fatty acids. Palmitoyl coenzyme A desaturase activity was found in the membrane fraction. (1-{sup 14}C)stearic acid was converted to octadecenoate and C16 fatty acids. The octadecenoate contained oleate and cis-vaccenate, but only oleate was produced in the presence of cerulenin. (1-{sup 14}C)lauric acid was aerobically converted to palmitate, palmitoleate, and cis-vaccenate. Under anaerobic conditions, palmitate (62%), palmitoleate (4%), and cis-vaccenate (34%) were produced from (1-{sup 14}C)acetic acid, while they amounted to 48, 39, and 14%, respectively, under aerobic conditions. In these incorporation experiments, 3 to 19% of the added radioactivity was detected in released {sup 14}CO{sub 2}, indicating that part of the added fatty acids were oxidatively decomposed. Partially purified fatty acid synthetase produced saturated and unsaturated fatty acids with chain lengths of C10 to C18. These results indicated that both aerobic and anaerobic mechanisms for the synthesis of unsaturated fatty acid are operating in this bacterium.

  8. Improvement of Fish Sauce Quality by Strain CMC5-3-1: A Novel Species of Staphylococcus sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udomsil, Natteewan; Rodtong, Sureelak; Tanasupawat, Somboon; Yongsawatdigul, Jirawat

    2015-09-01

    Staphylococcus sp. CMC5-3-1 and CMS5-7-5 isolated from fermented fish sauce at 3 to 7 mo, respectively, showed different characteristics on protein hydrolysis and volatile formation. These Gram-positive cocci were able to grow in up to 15% NaCl with the optimum at 0.5% to 5% NaCl in tryptic soy broth. Based on ribosomal 16S rRNA gene sequences, Staphylococcus sp. CMC5-3-1 and CMS5-7-5 showed 99.0% similarity to that of Staphylococcus piscifermentans JCM 6057(T) , but DNA-DNA relatedness was Staphylococcus sp. CMC5-3-1 was 740.5 mM, which was higher than that inoculated by the strain CMS5-7-5 (662.14 mM, P Staphylococcus sp. CMC5-3-1 showed the highest content of total glutamic acid (P Staphylococcus sp. CMC5-3-1 was 2-methypropanal, contributing to the desirable dark chocolate note. Staphylococcus sp. CMC5-3-1 could be applied as a starter culture to improve the umami and aroma of fish sauce. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  9. Isolation and Characterization of a Novel Imidacloprid-Degrading Mycobacterium sp. Strain MK6 from an Egyptian Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandil, Mahrous M; Trigo, Carmen; Koskinen, William C; Sadowsky, Michael J

    2015-05-20

    Thus far, only a small number and types of bacteria with limited ability in degrading imidacloprid have been reported. Also, genes regulating imidacloprid (IMDA) degradation have yet to be discovered. To study this in more detail, an enrichment technique was used to isolate consortia and pure cultures of IMDA-degrading bacteria. Through this approach, we successfully isolated a novel bacterium capable of completely degrading IMDA as a sole nitrogen source. The bacterium was subsequently identified as Mycobacterium sp. strain MK6 by sequence analysis of its 16S rRNA gene (Genbank accession number KR052814 ). BLASTn searches indicated that 16S rRNA gene from Mycobacterium sp. strain MK6 was 99% identical to several Mycobacterium spp. Mycobacterium sp. strain MK6 transformed 99.7% added IMDA (150 μg mL(-1)) in <2 weeks (t1/2 = 1.6 days) to 6-chloronicotinic acid (6-CNA) as its major metabolite. Although the isolated strain and mixed bacterial consortia were able to degrade IMDA, they failed to grow further on 6-CNA, indicating a lack of IMDA mineralization to carbon dioxide. Small amounts of the desnitro-olefin and desnitro-degradates of IMDA were observed during the incubation but did not accumulate in culture medium.

  10. Tributyl phosphate biodegradation to butanol and phosphate and utilization by a novel bacterial isolate, Sphingobium sp. strain RSMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangu, Shyam Sunder; Muralidharan, Bindu; Tripathi, S C; Apte, Shree Kumar

    2014-03-01

    A Sphingobium sp. strain isolated from radioactive solid waste management site (RSMS) completely degraded 7.98 g/L of tributyl phosphate (TBP) from TBP containing suspensions in 3 days. It also completely degraded 20 mM dibutyl phosphate (DBP) within 2 days. The strain tolerated high levels of TBP and showed excellent stability with respect to TBP degradation over several repeated subcultures. On solid minimal media or Luria Bertani media supplemented with TBP, the RSMS strain showed a clear zone of TBP degradation around the colony. Gas chromatography and spectrophotometry analyses identified DBP as the intermediate and butanol and phosphate as the products of TBP biodegradation. The RSMS strain utilized both TBP and DBP as the sole source of carbon and phosphorous for its growth. The butanol released was completely utilized by the strain as a carbon source thereby leaving no toxic residue in the medium. Degradation of TBP or DBP was found to be suppressed by high concentration of glucose which also inhibited TBP or DBP dependent growth. The results highlight the potential of Sphingobium sp. strain RSMS for bioremediation of TBP and for further molecular investigation.

  11. Whole Genome Sequence Analysis of an Alachlor and Endosulfan Degrading Micrococcus sp. strain 2385 Isolated from Ochlockonee River, Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Ashish; Chauhan, Ashvini; Ewida, Ayman Y I; Stothard, Paul

    2016-01-01

    We recently isolated Micrococcus sp. strain 2385 from Ochlockonee River, Florida and demonstrated potent biodegradative activity against two commonly used pesticides- alachlor [(2-chloro-2`,6`-diethylphenyl-N (methoxymethyl)acetanilide)] and endosulfan [(6,7,8,9,10,10-hexachloro-1,5,5a,6,9,9a-hexahydro-6,9methano-2,3,4-benzo(e)di-oxathiepin-3-oxide], respectively. To further identify the repertoire of metabolic functions possessed by strain 2385, a draft genome sequence was obtained, assembled, annotated and analyzed. The genome sequence of Micrococcus sp. strain 2385 consisted of 1,460,461,440 bases which assembled into 175 contigs with an N50 contig length of 50,109 bases and a coverage of 600x. The genome size of this strain was estimated at 2,431,226 base pairs with a G+C content of 72.8 and a total number of 2,268 putative genes. RAST annotated a total of 340 subsystems in the genome of strain 2385 along with the presence of 2,177 coding sequences. A genome wide survey indicated that that strain 2385 harbors a plethora of genes to degrade other pollutants including caprolactam, PAHs (such as naphthalene), styrene, toluene and several chloroaromatic compounds.

  12. Detection of Diazotrophy in the Acetylene-Fermenting Anaerobe Pelobacter sp. Strain SFB93.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akob, Denise M; Baesman, Shaun M; Sutton, John M; Fierst, Janna L; Mumford, Adam C; Shrestha, Yesha; Poret-Peterson, Amisha T; Bennett, Stacy; Dunlap, Darren S; Haase, Karl B; Oremland, Ronald S

    2017-09-01

    Acetylene (C2H2) is a trace constituent of the present Earth's oxidizing atmosphere, reflecting a mixture of terrestrial and marine emissions from anthropogenic, biomass-burning, and unidentified biogenic sources. Fermentation of acetylene was serendipitously discovered during C2H2 block assays of N2O reductase, and Pelobacter acetylenicus was shown to grow on C2H2 via acetylene hydratase (AH). AH is a W-containing, catabolic, low-redox-potential enzyme that, unlike nitrogenase (N2ase), is specific for acetylene. Acetylene fermentation is a rare metabolic process that is well characterized only in P. acetylenicus DSM3246 and DSM3247 and Pelobacter sp. strain SFB93. To better understand the genetic controls for AH activity, we sequenced the genomes of the three acetylene-fermenting Pelobacter strains. Genome assembly and annotation produced three novel genomes containing gene sequences for AH, with two copies being present in SFB93. In addition, gene sequences for all five compulsory genes for iron-molybdenum N2ase were also present in the three genomes, indicating the cooccurrence of two acetylene transformation pathways. Nitrogen fixation growth assays showed that DSM3426 could ferment acetylene in the absence of ammonium, but no ethylene was produced. However, SFB93 degraded acetylene and, in the absence of ammonium, produced ethylene, indicating an active N2ase. Diazotrophic growth was observed under N2 but not in experimental controls incubated under argon. SFB93 exhibits acetylene fermentation and nitrogen fixation, the only known biochemical mechanisms for acetylene transformation. Our results indicate complex interactions between N2ase and AH and suggest novel evolutionary pathways for these relic enzymes from early Earth to modern days.IMPORTANCE Here we show that a single Pelobacter strain can grow via acetylene fermentation and carry out nitrogen fixation, using the only two enzymes known to transform acetylene. These findings provide new insights into

  13. Multidrug Resistant Acinetobacter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchanda, Vikas; Sanchaita, Sinha; Singh, NP

    2010-01-01

    Emergence and spread of Acinetobacter species, resistant to most of the available antimicrobial agents, is an area of great concern. It is now being frequently associated with healthcare associated infections. Literature was searched at PUBMED, Google Scholar, and Cochrane Library, using the terms ‘Acinetobacter Resistance, multidrug resistant (MDR), Antimicrobial Therapy, Outbreak, Colistin, Tigecycline, AmpC enzymes, and carbapenemases in various combinations. The terms such as MDR, Extensively Drug Resistant (XDR), and Pan Drug Resistant (PDR) have been used in published literature with varied definitions, leading to confusion in the correlation of data from various studies. In this review various mechanisms of resistance in the Acinetobacter species have been discussed. The review also probes upon the current therapeutic options, including combination therapies available to treat infections due to resistant Acinetobacter species in adults as well as children. There is an urgent need to enforce infection control measures and antimicrobial stewardship programs to prevent the further spread of these resistant Acinetobacter species and to delay the emergence of increased resistance in the bacteria. PMID:20927292

  14. Beta Glucan Production from Two Strains of Agrobacterium sp in Medium Containing of Molases and Uracil Combine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KUSMIATI

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Production of β-glucan by Agrobacterium sp is influenced by the composition of nutrition in the fermentation media. Molases has been used successfully by others in the fermentation media of S. cerevisiae to increase the yield of -glucan, and similarly, uracil has been used in the fermentation media of Agrobacterium sp to increase the yield of -glucan. Investigations to increase the yield of -glucan by two strains of Agrobacterium sp, i.e. A1.5 (reference and B4.4 (local strain, have been carried out by addition of various combination of molases and uracil into fermentation media, i.e. 5%(v/v molase-0,05%(b/v uracil; 5% molase-0,025% uracil; 10% molase-0,05% uracil; and 10% molase-0,025% uracil. The β-1,3-glucan and β-1,2-glucan fractions were separated by extraction method. Beta-glucan concentration was determined as the glucose monomer using the phenol-sulphate spectrophotometric method at 490 nm. The protein content was determined by a modified Lowry-spectrophotometric method at 750 nm. The results showed that all combination of molases and uracil in the fermentation media of Agrobacterium sp A1.5 and B4.4 strains have increased both the dry-weight yield of β-glucan (crude and the β¬glucan content, with the highest was in a medium containing 10% molases-0,025% uracil combination. In the above medium, the A1.5 strain produced the highest β-glucan (7,5% with the lowest protein content ( 8,4% in the β-1,3-glucan fraction, while the β-glucan content in the β-1,2-glucan fraction were all lower than in the control media, while the protein content were all higher than in the control media. In the above media, the B4.4 strain produced the highest β-glucan, 7,2% in the β-1,3-glucan fraction, and 13,1% in β-1,2-glucan fraction, while the lowest protein content ( 8,4% was in the β-1,3-glucan fraction. In conclusion, fermentation media of Agrobacterium sp A1.5 strain or B4.4 strain containing molase and uracil combination have increased both

  15. gyrB Multiplex PCR To Differentiate between Acinetobacter calcoaceticus and Acinetobacter Genomic Species 3 ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Higgins, Paul G.; Lehmann, Marlene; Wisplinghoff, Hilmar; Seifert, Harald

    2010-01-01

    A previously established multiplex PCR that identifies to the species level Acinetobacter baumannii and Acinetobacter genomic species 13TU (GS13TU) was expanded to include Acinetobacter calcoaceticus and Acinetobacter genomic species 3.

  16. Acinetobacter junii as an aetiological agent of corneal ulcer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broniek, G; Langwińska-Wośko, E; Szaflik, J; Wróblewska, M

    2014-12-01

    Rods of the Acinetobacter genus are present mainly in the external environment (e.g. water, soil) and in animals, while in humans they may comprise physiological flora. The main pathogenic species is Acinetobacter baumannii complex, which constitutes a common cause of nosocomial infections, particularly in patients with underlying diseases and risk factors (e.g. prior broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy, malignancy, central venous catheter, mechanical ventilation); however, infections of the eye caused by strains of Acinetobacter spp. are very rare. We report a unique case of community-acquired corneal ulcer caused by Acinetobacter non-baumannii (possibly A. junii), in a patient with no risk factors identified. The case highlights the need for obtaining a sample from the cornea for bacteriological culture in the case of suspected ophthalmic infection as identification of the pathogen, and assessment of its susceptibility profile enables proper antibiotic therapy, improves the outcome and may constitute an eyesight-saving management.

  17. Acinetobacter species in the hospital environment : tracing and epidemiology.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Dijkshoorn-de Bruin (Lenie)

    1990-01-01

    textabstractIn the course of the investigation a new taxonomic classification of Acinetobacter strains was introduced. The groups of this classification were established on the basis of DNA-DNA hybridization data of strains. In a final study of the present thesis, we investigated whether cell

  18. A Tn5051-like mer-containing transposon identified in a heavy metal tolerant strain Achromobacter sp. AO22

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhave Mrinal

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Achromobacter sp. AO22 (formerly Alcaligenes sp. AO22, a bacterial strain isolated from a lead-contaminated industrial site in Australia, was previously found to be resistant to moderate to high levels of mercury, copper and other heavy metals. However, the nature and location of the genetic basis for mercuric ion resistance in this strain, had not been previously identified. Findings Achromobacter sp. AO22 contains a functional mer operon with all four essential genes (merRTPA and shows >99% DNA sequence identity to that of Tn501. The mer operon was present on a transposon, designated TnAO22, captured by introducing a broad-host-range IncP plasmid into Achromobacter sp. AO22 and subsequently transferring it to E. coli recipients. The transposition frequency of TnAO22 was 10-2 to 10-3 per target plasmid transferred. Analysis of TnAO22 sequence revealed it belonged to the Tn21 subgroup of the Tn3 superfamily of transposons, with the transposition module having >99% identity with Tn5051 of a Pseudomonas putida strain isolated from a water sample in New York. Conclusion TnAO22 is thus a new variant of Tn5051 of the Tn3 superfamily and the transposon and its associated mercury resistance system are among the few such systems reported in a soil bacterium. Achromobacter sp. AO22 can thus be exploited for applications such as in situ mercury bioremediation of contaminated sites, or the mobile unit and mer operon could be mobilized to other bacteria for similar purposes.

  19. A Tn5051-like mer-containing transposon identified in a heavy metal tolerant strain Achromobacter sp. AO22.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Shee Ping; Davis, Belinda; Palombo, Enzo A; Bhave, Mrinal

    2009-03-07

    Achromobacter sp. AO22 (formerly Alcaligenes sp. AO22), a bacterial strain isolated from a lead-contaminated industrial site in Australia, was previously found to be resistant to moderate to high levels of mercury, copper and other heavy metals. However, the nature and location of the genetic basis for mercuric ion resistance in this strain, had not been previously identified. Achromobacter sp. AO22 contains a functional mer operon with all four essential genes (merRTPA) and shows >99% DNA sequence identity to that of Tn501. The mer operon was present on a transposon, designated TnAO22, captured by introducing a broad-host-range IncP plasmid into Achromobacter sp. AO22 and subsequently transferring it to E. coli recipients. The transposition frequency of TnAO22 was 10-2 to 10-3 per target plasmid transferred. Analysis of TnAO22 sequence revealed it belonged to the Tn21 subgroup of the Tn3 superfamily of transposons, with the transposition module having >99% identity with Tn5051 of a Pseudomonas putida strain isolated from a water sample in New York. TnAO22 is thus a new variant of Tn5051 of the Tn3 superfamily and the transposon and its associated mercury resistance system are among the few such systems reported in a soil bacterium. Achromobacter sp. AO22 can thus be exploited for applications such as in situ mercury bioremediation of contaminated sites, or the mobile unit and mer operon could be mobilized to other bacteria for similar purposes.

  20. Extension of Sphingobium sp. BHC-A to a 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid mineralizing strain by metabolic engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Feng; Chen, Xu; Wang, Xin; Liao, Xuewei; Jiao, Yiying; Hong, Qing; Zhang, Longjiang; Wu, Jun

    2013-07-20

    The gene cassette encoding for TftAB and TftCD proteins was integrated into the 16srDNA gene of the γ-hexachlorocyclohexane (γ-HCH) mineralizing strain Sphingobium sp. BHC-A by homologous recombination. The recombinant γ-HCH mineralizing strain may degrade 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid at a rate of 250nmol mg [protein](-1)h(-1), and the generated intermediate 2,5-dichlorohydroquinone may be further mineralized through γ-HCH downstream degradation pathway. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Phosphate solubilization and chromium (VI) remediation potential of Klebsiella sp. strain CPSB4 isolated from the chromium contaminated agricultural soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Pratishtha; Kumar, Vipin; Usmani, Zeba; Rani, Rupa; Chandra, Avantika

    2018-02-01

    In this study, an effort was made to identify an efficient phosphate solubilizing bacterial strain from chromium contaminated agricultural soils. Based on the formation of a solubilized halo around the colonies on Pikovskaya's agar amended with chromium (VI), 10 strains were initially screened out. Out of 10, strain CPSB4, which showed significantly high solubilization zone at different chromium concentrations, was selected for further study. The strain CPSB4 showed significant plant growth promotion traits with chromium (VI) stress under in-vitro conditions in broth. The plant growth promotion activities of the strain decreased regularly, but were not completely lost with the increase in concentration of chromium up to 200 mg L(-1). On subjected to FT-IR analysis, the presence of the functional group, indicating the organic acid aiding in phosphate solubilization was identified. At an optimal temperature of 30 (°)C and pH 7.0, the strain showed around 93% chromium (VI) reduction under in-vitro conditions in broth study. In soil condition, the maximum chromium (VI) reduction obtained was 95% under in-vitro conditions. The strain CPSB4 was identified as Klebsiella sp. on the basis of morphological, biochemical and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. This study shows that the diverse role of the bacterial strain CPSB4 would be useful in the chromium contaminated soil as a good bioremediation and plant growth promoting agent as well. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Final classification of Bisgaard taxon 9 as Actinobacillus arthritidis sp nov and recognition of a novel genomospecies for equine strains of Actinobacillus lignieresii

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik; Bisgaard, Magne; Angen, Øystein

    2002-01-01

    binding level. Actinobacillus arthritidis sp. nov. is proposed for 12 strains of the (-)D-sorbitol-positive group. Actinobacillus genomospecies 2 is suggested for the six strains of the (-)D-sorbitol-negative group. Phenotypically, strains of A. arthritidis and Actinobacillus genomospecies 2 differ...

  3. Influence of Carbon Sources and Electron Shuttles on Ferric Iron Reduction by Cellulomonas sp. Strain ES6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr Robin Gerlach; Erin K. Field; Sridhar Viamajala; Brent M. Peyton; William A. Apel; Al B. Cunningham

    2011-09-01

    Microbially reduced iron minerals can reductively transform a variety of contaminants including heavy metals, radionuclides, chlorinated aliphatics, and nitroaromatics. A number of Cellulomonas spp. strains, including strain ES6, isolated from aquifer samples obtained at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford site in Washington, have been shown to be capable of reducing Cr(VI), TNT, natural organic matter, and soluble ferric iron [Fe(III)]. This research investigated the ability of Cellulomonas sp. strain ES6 to reduce solid phase and dissolved Fe(III) utilizing different carbon sources and various electron shuttling compounds. Results suggest that Fe(III) reduction by and growth of strain ES6 was dependent upon the type of electron donor, the form of iron present, and the presence of synthetic or natural organic matter, such as anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS) or humic substances. This research suggests that Cellulomonas sp. strain ES6 could play a significant role in metal reduction in the Hanford subsurface and that the choice of carbon source and organic matter addition can allow for independent control of growth and iron reduction activity.

  4. Influence of carbon sources and electron shuttles on ferric iron reduction by Cellulomonas sp. strain ES6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlach, Robin; Field, Erin K; Viamajala, Sridhar; Peyton, Brent M; Apel, William A; Cunningham, Al B

    2011-09-01

    Microbially reduced iron minerals can reductively transform a variety of contaminants including heavy metals, radionuclides, chlorinated aliphatics, and nitroaromatics. A number of Cellulomonas spp. strains, including strain ES6, isolated from aquifer samples obtained at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford site in Washington, have been shown to be capable of reducing Cr(VI), TNT, natural organic matter, and soluble ferric iron [Fe(III)]. This research investigated the ability of Cellulomonas sp. strain ES6 to reduce solid phase and dissolved Fe(III) utilizing different carbon sources and various electron shuttling compounds. Results suggest that Fe(III) reduction by and growth of strain ES6 was dependent upon the type of electron donor, the form of iron present, and the presence of synthetic or natural organic matter, such as anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS) or humic substances. This research suggests that Cellulomonas sp. strain ES6 could play a significant role in metal reduction in the Hanford subsurface and that the choice of carbon source and organic matter addition can allow for independent control of growth and iron reduction activity.

  5. Reclassification of rhizosphere bacteria including strains causing corky root of lettuce and proposal of Rhizorhapis suberifaciens gen. nov., comb. nov., Sphingobium mellinum sp. nov., Sphingobium xanthum sp. nov. and Rhizorhabdus argentea gen. nov., sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Isolde M; Jochimsen, Kenneth N; De Vos, Paul; van Bruggen, Ariena H C

    2014-04-01

    The genus Rhizorhapis gen. nov. (to replace the illegitimate genus name Rhizomonas) is proposed for strains of Gram-negative bacteria causing corky root of lettuce, a widespread and important lettuce disease worldwide. Only one species of the genus Rhizomonas was described, Rhizomonas suberifaciens, which was subsequently reclassified as Sphingomonas suberifaciens based on 16S rRNA gene sequences and the presence of sphingoglycolipid in the cell envelope. However, the genus Sphingomonas is so diverse that further reclassification was deemed necessary. Twenty new Rhizorhapis gen. nov.- and Sphingomonas-like isolates were obtained from lettuce or sow thistle roots, or from soil using lettuce seedlings as bait. These and previously reported isolates were characterized in a polyphasic study including 16S rRNA gene sequencing, DNA-DNA hybridization, DNA G+C content, whole-cell fatty acid composition, morphology, substrate oxidation, temperature and pH sensitivity, and pathogenicity to lettuce. The isolates causing lettuce corky root belonged to the genera Rhizorhapis gen. nov., Sphingobium, Sphingopyxis and Rhizorhabdus gen. nov. More specifically, we propose to reclassify Rhizomonas suberifaciens as Rhizorhapis suberifaciens gen. nov., comb. nov. (type strain, CA1(T) = LMG 17323(T) = ATCC 49355(T)), and also propose the novel species Sphingobium xanthum sp. nov., Sphingobium mellinum sp. nov. and Rhizorhabdus argentea gen. nov., sp. nov. with the type strains NL9(T) ( = LMG 12560(T) = ATCC 51296(T)), WI4(T) ( = LMG 11032(T) = ATCC 51292(T)) and SP1(T) ( = LMG 12581(T) = ATCC 51289(T)), respectively. Several strains isolated from lettuce roots belonged to the genus Sphingomonas, but none of them were pathogenic.

  6. Construction of new synthetic biology tools for the control of gene expression in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zess, Erin K; Begemann, Matthew B; Pfleger, Brian F

    2016-02-01

    Predictive control of gene expression is an essential tool for developing synthetic biological systems. The current toolbox for controlling gene expression in cyanobacteria is a barrier to more in-depth genetic analysis and manipulation. Towards relieving this bottleneck, this work describes the use of synthetic biology to construct an anhydrotetracycline-based induction system and adapt a trans-acting small RNA (sRNA) system for use in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7002. An anhydrotetracycline-inducible promoter was developed to maximize intrinsic strength and dynamic range. The resulting construct, PEZtet , exhibited tight repression and a maximum 32-fold induction upon addition of anhydrotetracycline. Additionally, a sRNA system based on the Escherichia coli IS10 RNA-IN/OUT regulator was adapted for use in Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7002. This system exhibited 70% attenuation of target gene expression, providing a demonstration of the use of sRNAs for differential gene expression in cyanobacteria. These systems were combined to produce an inducible sRNA system, which demonstrated 59% attenuation of target gene expression. Lastly, the role of Hfq, a critical component of sRNA systems in E. coli, was investigated. Genetic studies showed that the Hfq homolog in Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7002 did not impact repression by the engineered sRNA system. In summary, this work describes new synthetic biology tools that can be applied to physiological studies, metabolic engineering, or sRNA platforms in Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7002. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Identification of Sesquiterpene Synthases from Nostoc punctiforme PCC 73102 and Nostoc sp. Strain PCC 7120▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Agger, Sean A.; Lopez-Gallego, Fernando; Hoye, Thomas R.; Schmidt-Dannert, Claudia

    2008-01-01

    Cyanobacteria are a rich source of natural products and are known to produce terpenoids. These bacteria are the major source of the musty-smelling terpenes geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol, which are found in many natural water supplies; however, no terpene synthases have been characterized from these organisms to date. Here, we describe the characterization of three sesquiterpene synthases identified in Nostoc sp. strain PCC 7120 (terpene synthase NS1) and Nostoc punctiforme PCC 73102 (terpene...

  8. Draft Genome Sequence of Donghicola sp. Strain KarMa, a Model Organism for Monomethylamine-Degrading Nonmethylotrophic Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zecher, Karsten; Suleiman, Marcel; Wibberg, Daniel; Winkler, Anika; Philipp, Bodo; Kalinowski, Jörn

    2017-02-16

    The C1-compound monomethylamine can serve as a nitrogen, carbon, and energy source for heterotrophic bacteria. The marine alphaproteobacterium Donghicola sp. strain KarMa can use monomethylamine as a source only for nitrogen and not for carbon. Its draft genome sequence is presented here and reveals putative gene clusters for the methylamine dehydrogenase and the N-methylglutamate pathways for monomethylamine metabolism. Copyright © 2017 Zecher et al.

  9. Draft Genome Sequence of Cellulolytic and Xylanolytic Cellulomonas sp. Strain B6 Isolated from Subtropical Forest Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccinni, Florencia; Murua, Yanina; Ghio, Silvina; Talia, Paola; Rivarola, Máximo

    2016-01-01

    Cellulomonas sp. strain B6 was isolated from a subtropical forest soil sample and presented (hemi)cellulose-degrading activity. We report here its draft genome sequence, with an estimated genome size of 4 Mb, a G+C content of 75.1%, and 3,443 predicted protein-coding sequences, 92 of which are glycosyl hydrolases involved in polysaccharide degradation. PMID:27563050

  10. Isolation and Characterization of an Atypical Metschnikowia sp. Strain from the Skin Scraping of a Dermatitis Patient

    OpenAIRE

    Kuan, Chee Sian; Ismail, Rokiah; Kwan, Zhenli; Yew, Su Mei; Yeo, Siok Koon; Chan, Chai Ling; Toh, Yue Fen; Na, Shiang Ling; Lee, Kok Wei; Hoh, Chee-Choong; Yee, Wai-Yan; Ng, Kee Peng

    2016-01-01

    A yeast-like organism was isolated from the skin scraping sample of a stasis dermatitis patient in the Mycology Unit Department of Medical Microbiology, University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The isolate produced no pigment and was not identifiable using chromogenic agar and API 20C AUX. The fungus was identified as Metschnikowia sp. strain UM 1034, which is close to that of Metschnikowia drosophilae based on ITS- and D1/D2 domain-based phylogenetic analysis. However...

  11. Complete genome of Pseudomonas sp. strain L10.10, a psychrotolerant biofertilizer that could promote plant growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    See-Too, Wah Seng; Lim, Yan-Lue; Ee, Robson; Convey, Peter; Pearce, David A; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Kok Gan

    2016-03-20

    Pseudomonas sp. strain L10.10 (=DSM 101070) is a psychrotolerant bacterium which was isolated from Lagoon Island, Antarctica. Analysis of its complete genome sequence indicates its possible role as a plant-growth promoting bacterium, including nitrogen-fixing ability and indole acetic acid (IAA)-producing trait, with additional suggestion of plant disease prevention attributes via hydrogen cyanide production. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Draft Genome Sequence of a Sulfide-Oxidizing, Autotrophic Filamentous Anoxygenic Phototrophic Bacterium, Chloroflexus sp. Strain MS-G (Chloroflexi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiel, Vera; Hamilton, Trinity L; Tomsho, Lynn P; Burhans, Richard; Gay, Scott E; Schuster, Stephan C; Ward, David M; Bryant, Donald A

    2014-09-04

    The draft genome sequence of the thermophilic filamentous anoxygenic phototrophic bacterium Chloroflexus sp. strain MS-G (Chloroflexi), isolated from Mushroom Spring (Yellowstone National Park, WY, USA) was sequenced and comprises 4,784,183 bp in 251 contigs. The draft genome is predicted to encode 4,059 protein coding genes, 49 tRNA encoding genes, and 3 rRNA operons. Copyright © 2014 Thiel et al.

  13. Effect of inoculation with the endophyte Clavibacter sp. strain Enf12 on chilling tolerance in Chorispora bungeana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Shuo; Huang, Cong-Lin; Sheng, Hong-Mei; Song, Chun-Li; Li, Ya-Bo; An, Li-Zhe

    2011-02-01

    Endophytic bacteria have been shown to increase resistance against biotic stress and tolerance to abiotic stress in many plants. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of an endophytic bacterium, Clavibacter sp. strain Enf12, in regenerated plantlets of Chorispora bungeana subjected to chilling stress (0°C). Aerial biomass and physiological markers for chilling stress, such as electrolyte leakage, lipid peroxidation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, proline content and activities of superoxide dismutase (EC 1.15.1.1), catalase (EC 1.11.1.6), guaiacol peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.7) and ascorbate peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.11), were assessed. We demonstrated that Clavibacter sp. strain Enf12 was capable of colonizing internal tissues of regenerated plantlets of C. bungeana and maintained stable population densities under both normal (20°C) and chilling (0°C) conditions. Inoculation enhanced plantlet growth under both conditions and significantly attenuated the chilling-induced electrolyte leakage, lipid peroxidation and ROS accumulation. The endophyte significantly increased the activities of antioxidant enzymes and proline content in C. bungeana plantlets under chilling stress. These findings suggest that Clavibacter sp. strain Enf12 inoculation stimulates the growth of C. bungeana plantlets and improves their tolerance to chilling stress through enhancing the antioxidant defense system.

  14. Degradation of Perennial Ryegrass Leaf and Stem Cell Walls by the Anaerobic Fungus Neocallimastix sp. Strain CS3b.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sijtsma, L; Tan, B

    1996-04-01

    The degradation of cell walls isolated from stems and leaves of perennial ryegrass by the anaerobic fungus Neocallimastix sp. strain CS3b was studied in a defined medium. The combined cellulose and hemicellulose fraction represented 53.1 (wt/wt) and 63.3% (wt/wt) of the dry weight of control grass leaf and stem cell walls, respectively. In both leaf and stem cell walls, glucose was the major neutral monosaccharide, followed by xylose, arabinose, and galactose. After 2 days of fermentation with Neocallimastix sp. strain CS3b, treated cell walls contained smaller amounts of neutral sugars compared with those of undigested cell walls. These results were more evident for glucose, xylose, and arabinose than for galactose. Furthermore, the sugar content of leaf cell walls decreased before a decline in the sugar content of stem cell walls was observed. Data from formate and hydrogen production indicated that the growth of Neocallimastix sp. strain CS3b was completed in 4 days in the culture system used. During this period, the fungus liberated about 95% of the fermentable sugars in untreated material. On a percentage basis, no significant differences were found in final extent of degradation of glucose, xylose, and arabinose. Galactose, however, was degraded to a lesser extent.

  15. Methane oxidation coupled to nitrate reduction under hypoxia by the Gammaproteobacterium Methylomonas denitrificans, sp. nov. type strain FJG1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kits, K Dimitri; Klotz, Martin G; Stein, Lisa Y

    2015-09-01

    Obligate methanotrophs belonging to the Phyla Proteobacteria and Verrucomicrobia require oxygen for respiration and methane oxidation; nevertheless, aerobic methanotrophs are abundant and active in low oxygen environments. While genomes of some aerobic methanotrophs encode putative nitrogen oxide reductases, it is not understood whether these metabolic modules are used for NOx detoxification, denitrification or other purposes. Here we demonstrate using microsensor measurements that a gammaproteobacterial methanotroph Methylomonas denitrificans sp. nov. strain FJG1(T) couples methane oxidation to nitrate reduction under oxygen limitation, releasing nitrous oxide as a terminal product. Illumina RNA-Seq data revealed differential expression of genes encoding a denitrification pathway previously unknown to methanotrophs as well as the pxmABC operon in M. denitrificans sp. nov. strain FJG1(T) in response to hypoxia. Physiological and transcriptome data indicate that genetic inventory encoding the denitrification pathway is upregulated only upon availability of nitrate under oxygen limitation. In addition, quantitation of ATP levels demonstrates that the denitrification pathway employs inventory such as nitrate reductase NarGH serving M. denitrificans sp. nov. strain FJG1(T) to conserve energy during oxygen limitation. This study unravelled an unexpected metabolic flexibility of aerobic methanotrophs, thereby assigning these bacteria a new role at the metabolic intersection of the carbon and nitrogen cycles. © 2015 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. A review of intravenous minocycline for treatment of multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, David J; Garavaglia-Wilson, Alexandria

    2014-12-01

    Options for treatment of multidrug-resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter baumannii infections are extremely limited. Minocycline intravenous is active against many MDR strains of Acinetobacter, and Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute breakpoints exist to guide interpretation of minocycline susceptibility results with Acinetobacter. In addition, minocycline intravenous holds a US Food and Drug Administration indication for treatment of infections caused by Acinetobacter. There is an accumulating amount of literature reporting successful use of minocycline intravenous for treatment of serious MDR Acinetobacter infections, particularly for nosocomial pneumonia. These results, coupled with the generally favorable tolerability of minocycline intravenous, support its use as a viable therapeutic option for treatment of MDR Acinetobacter infections. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Highly thermostable xylanase production from a thermophilic Geobacillus sp. strain WSUCF1 utilizing lignocellulosic biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya eBhalla

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstractEfficient enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulose to fermentable sugars requires a complete repertoire of biomass deconstruction enzymes. Hemicellulases play an important role in hydrolyzing hemicellulose component of lignocellulose to xylo-oligosaccharides and xylose. Thermostable xylanases have been a focus of attention as industrially important enzymes due to their long shelf life at high temperatures. Geobacillus sp. strain WSUCF1 produced thermostable xylanase activity (crude xylanase cocktail when grown on xylan or various inexpensive untreated and pretreated lignocellulosic biomasses such as prairie cord grass and corn stover. The optimum pH and temperature for the crude xylanase cocktail were 6.5 and 70ºC, respectively. The WSUCF1 crude xylanase was found to be highly thermostable with half-lives of 18 and 12 days at 60 and 70ºC, respectively. At 70ºC, rates of xylan hydrolysis were also found to be better with the WSUCF1 secretome than those with commercial enzymes, i.e., for WSUCF1 crude xylanase, CellicHTec2, and AccelleraseXY, the percent xylan conversions were 68.9, 49.4, and 28.92, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, WSUCF1 crude xylanase cocktail is among the most thermostable xylanases produced by thermophilic Geobacillus spp. and other thermophilic microbes (optimum growth temperature ≤70ºC. High thermostability, activity over wide range of temperatures, and better xylan hydrolysis than commercial enzymes make WSUCF1 crude xylanase suitable for thermophilic lignocellulose bioconversion processes.

  18. Interactions of Plutonium with Pseudomonas sp. Strain EPS-1W and Its Extracellular Polymeric Substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggs, Mark A; Jiao, Yongqin; Dai, Zurong; Zavarin, Mavrik; Kersting, Annie B

    2016-12-15

    Safe and effective nuclear waste disposal, as well as accidental radionuclide releases, necessitates our understanding of the fate of radionuclides in the environment, including their interaction with microorganisms. We examined the sorption of Pu(IV) and Pu(V) to Pseudomonas sp. strain EPS-1W, an aerobic bacterium isolated from plutonium (Pu)-contaminated groundwater collected in the United States at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) in Nevada. We compared Pu sorption to cells with and without bound extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). Wild-type cells with intact EPS sorbed Pu(V) more effectively than cells with EPS removed. In contrast, cells with and without EPS showed the same sorption affinity for Pu(IV). In vitro experiments with extracted EPS revealed rapid reduction of Pu(V) to Pu(IV). Transmission electron microscopy indicated that 2- to 3-nm nanocrystalline Pu(IV)O2 formed on cells equilibrated with high concentrations of Pu(IV) but not Pu(V). Thus, EPS, while facilitating Pu(V) reduction, inhibit the formation of nanocrystalline Pu(IV) precipitates. Our results indicate that EPS are an effective reductant for Pu(V) and sorbent for Pu(IV) and may impact Pu redox cycling and mobility in the environment. Additionally, the resulting Pu morphology associated with EPS will depend on the concentration and initial Pu oxidation state. While our results are not directly applicable to the Pu transport situation at the NNSS, the results suggest that, in general, stationary microorganisms and biofilms will tend to limit the migration of Pu and provide an important Pu retardation mechanism in the environment. In a broader sense, our results, along with a growing body of literature, highlight the important role of microorganisms as producers of redox-active organic ligands and therefore as modulators of radionuclide redox transformations and complexation in the subsurface. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  19. Comparative characterization of two distinct hydrogenases from Anabaena sp. strain 7120.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houchins, J P; Burris, R H

    1981-04-01

    Two distinct hydrogenases, hereafter referred to as "uptake" and "reversible" hydrogenase, were extracted from Anabaena sp. strain 7120 and partially purified. The properties of the two enzymes were compared in cell-free extracts. Uptake hydrogenase was largely particulate, and although membrane bound, it could catalyze an oxyhydrogen reaction. Particulate and solubilized uptake hydrogenase could catalyze H2 uptake with a variety of artificial electron acceptors which had midpoint potentials above 0 mV. Reversible hydrogenase was soluble, could donate electrons rapidly to electron acceptors of both positive and negative midpoint potential, and could evolve H2 rapidly when provided with reduced methyl viologen. Uptake hydrogenase was irreversibly inactivated by O2, whereas reversible hydrogenase was reversibly inactivated and could be reactivated by exposure to dithionite or H2. Reversible hydrogenase was stable to heating at 70 degrees C, but uptake hydrogenase was inactivated with a half-life of 12 min at this temperature. Uptake hydrogenase was eluted from Sephadex G-200 in a single peak of molecular weight 56,000, whereas reversible hydrogenase was eluted in two peaks with molecular weights of 165,000 and 113,000. CO was competitive with H2 for each enzyme; the Ki's for CO were 0.0095 atm for reversible hydrogenase and 0.039 atm for uptake hydrogenase. The pH optima for H2 evolution and H2 uptake by reversible hydrogenase were 6 and 9, respectively. Uptake hydrogenase existed in two forms with pH optima of 6 and 8.5. Both enzymes had very low Km's for H2, and neither was inhibited by C2H2.

  20. Co-production of polyhydroxyalkanoates and carotenoids through bioconversion of glycerol by Paracoccus sp. strain LL1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Prasun; Jun, Hang-Bae; Kim, Beom Soo

    2018-02-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) have emerged as a potential alternative to synthetic plastics, although its large-scale production is limited by the expenditure incurred in feed materials. Co-production of various valuable bioproducts along with PHA has been proposed to alleviate the overall production cost. Here, high-yield co-production of PHA and carotenoids was achieved in single step fermentation by Paracoccus sp. LL1. The halophilic bacterial strain could metabolize a wide range of substrates including methanol, lactose, galactose, glycerol, fructose, mannitol, etc. Under batch fermentation using mineral media supplemented with 2% glycerol, Paracoccus sp. LL1 synthesized 3.77gL-1 PHA with concomitant production of 3.6mgL-1 of carotenoids after 96h. An enhancement of 2.2-folds in total dry cell weight (DCW) was achieved through cell retention culture of Paracoccus sp. LL1, resulting in a maximum DCW (24.2gL-1) containing PHA (39.3%, ww-1) with concomitant enhancement in the production of total carotenoids. Paracoccus sp. LL1 could convert glycerol into carotenoids and PHA to a level of 7.14mgL-1 and 9.52gL-1, respectively. It is the first report showing value addition in PHA production process through co-production of high value carotenoids by Paracoccus sp. using glycerol as substrate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Pré-seleção de estirpes de Rhizobium sp. para amendoim Preliminary selection of peanut Rhizobium sp. strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Roberto Giardini

    1984-01-01

    Full Text Available Um ensaio foi conduzido em casa de vegetação, com solução nutritiva isenta de N, com o objetivo de selecionar estirpes de Rhizobium eficientes fixadoras de N2, quando associadas com amendoim (Arachis hypogaea L. cultivar Tatu. Foram testadas 35 estirpes de Rhizobium sp., isoladas de quinze diferentes espécies de leguminosas tropicais, e incluído um tratamento de inoculação com solo previamente cultivado com amendoim. Das 35 estirpes testadas, doze formaram nódulos e, entre essas, sete foram eficientes fixadoras de nitrogênio. Das doze estirpes que nodularam, sete foram isoladas de leguminosas da tribo Hedysareae (à qual pertence o género Arachis e, destas, apenas quatro foram eficientes fixadoras de nitrogênio. O peso e o número de nódulos não se mostraram como critérios adequados para avaliação da eficiência.An experiment was carried out in Leonard jars, in the greenhouse, with nitrogen-free nutrient solution to test the efficiency of 35 strains of rhizobia isolated from 15 species of tropical legumes. Twelve of the tested strains were capable of nodule formation in peanut. Seven of those strains were isolated from the trible Hedysareae, which includes the genus Arachis. Only four of the rhizobia strains with inducing nodulation were effective. Dry weight and number of nodules were not good criteria for evaluating effectiveness.

  2. [Activity of doripenem against Pseudomonas spp. and Acinetobacter spp. rods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogiel, Tomasz; Deptuła, Aleksander; Gospodarek, Eugenia

    2009-01-01

    Doripenem, the newest carbapenem was approved in 2008 by the European Medicines Agency for the treatment of complicated intra-abdominal infections and complicated urinary tract infections. Its spectrum of activity is similar to that of meropenem and imipenem/cilastatin. The aim of this study was to compare in vitro activity of doripenem against nonfermentative Gram-negative rods. A total of 235 strains of Pseudomonas spp. (74.9%) and Acinetobacter spp. (25.1%) were included into the study. Strains were isolated in The Department of Clinical Microbiology of the University Hospital No 1 in Bydgoszcz and identified using ID GN tests (bioMérieux). To determine susceptibility to doripenem and other carbapenems disc-diffusion method was applied. Percentage of doripenem resistant strains reached 28.4% and 39.0% for Pseudomonas spp. and Acinetobacter spp, respectively. All doripenem sensitive or intermediate Acinetobacter spp. strains were simultaneously sensitive to imipenem and meropenem. Activity of imipenem and meropenem among doripenem resistant Acinetobacter spp. were represented by 60.9% and 56.5% strains, respectively. Activity of imipenem and meropenem among doripenem resistant Pseudomonas spp. strains were represented by 12.0% and 18.0%, respectively. Occurence of one doripenem sensitive Pseudomonas spp. strain simultaneously resistant to imipenem and meropenem was observed.

  3. Antimicrobial activity of Rhizobium sp. strains against Pseudomonas savastanoi, the agent responsible for the olive knot disease in Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present investigation, six Rhizobium strains isolated from Algerian soil were checked for their antimicrobial activity against Pseudomonas savastanoi, the agent responsible for olive knot disease. Rhizobium sp. ORN 24 and ORN 83 were found to produce antimicrobial activities against Pseudomonas savastanoi. The antimicrobial activity produced by Rhizobium sp. ORN24 was precipitable with ammonium sulfate, between 1,000 and 10,000 KDa molecular weight, heat resistant but sensitive to proteases and detergents. These characteristics suggest the bacteriocin nature of the antimicrobial substance produced by Rhizobium sp. ORN24, named rhizobiocin 24. In contrast, the antimicrobial activity produced by Rhizobium sp. ORN83 was not precipitable with ammonium sulfate; it was smaller than 1,000 KDa molecular weight, heat labile, and protease and detergent resistant. These characteristics could indicate the relationship between the antimicrobial substance produced by Rhizobium sp. ORN 83 and the “small” bacteriocins described in other rhizobia.

    En la presente investigación, seis cepas de Rhizobium aisladas de suelos argelinos fueron estudiadas para conocer su actividad antimicrobiana contra Pseudomonas savastanoi, el agente causante de la tuberculosis del olivo. Rhizobium sp. ORN 24 y ORN 83 produjeron actividad antimicrobiana contra Pseudomonas savastanoi. La actividad antimicrobiana producida por Rhizobium sp. ORN 24 precipitó con sulfato amónico, tuvo un peso molecular entre 1000 y 10000 KDa, fue resistente al calor pero sensible a proteasas y detergentes. Estas características sugieren que la sustancia antimicrobial producida por Rhizobium sp. ORN 24 es la bacteriocina natural conocida como rizobiocina 24. Por el contrario, la actividad antimicrobiana producida por Rhizobium sp. ORN83 no fue precipitable con sulfato amónico, y tuvo un peso molecular menor de 1000 KDa, fue lábil al calor y resistente a detergentes y proteasas. Estas

  4. Marinomonas polaris sp. nov., a psychrohalotolerant strain isolated from coastal sea water off the subantarctic Kerguelen islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Pratima; Chaturvedi, Preeti; Pradhan, Suman; Delille, Daniel; Shivaji, Sisinthy

    2006-02-01

    Two aerobic, psychrohalotolerant, motile bacterial isolates, CK13T and CK16, isolated from sea-water samples collected off the subantarctic Kerguelen island, were characterized by using a polyphasic taxonomic approach. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence data, the strains were 99.6% similar and exhibited 93-97% similarity with the seven recognized species of Marinomonas. The most closely related species were Marinomonas pontica and Marinomonas primoryensis, with 97 and 96 % similarity at the 16S rRNA gene sequence level, respectively. DNA-DNA hybridization values between strain CK13T and M. pontica and M. primoryensis were only 58 and 40%, respectively. The major fatty acids present in strain CK13T were iso-C(16:0), C(16:0), C(16:1)omega7c and C(18:1)omega7c. The DNA G+C content of strain CK13T was 41.2 mol%. Phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylglycerol were identified as the predominant phospholipids. All the above characteristics support the affiliation of strain CK13T to the genus Marinomonas. Phylogenetic analysis and phenotypic and genotypic distinctiveness confirmed that strains CK13T and CK16 are members of a novel species of the genus Marinomonas, for which the name Marinomonas polaris sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is CK13T (=MTCC 6645T=DSM 16579T=JCM 12522T).

  5. Antimicrobial effect of copper alloys on Acinetobacter species isolated from infections and hospital environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Różańska, Anna; Chmielarczyk, Agnieszka; Romaniszyn, Dorota; Majka, Grzegorz; Bulanda, Małgorzata

    2018-01-01

    An increased proportion of Gram-negative bacteria have recently been reported among etiologic agents of infection. In Poland, Acinetobacter baumannii is a big problem for hospitals, especially intensive care units. Touch surfaces made from materials with antimicrobial properties, especially copper alloys, are recommended as a supplementary method of increasing biological safety in the hospital environment. The objective of this study is to determine the susceptibility to selected copper alloys of three clinical Acinetobacter baumannii strains, one Acinetobacter lwoffi and an A. pittii strain isolated from the hospital environment. The modification of the Japanese Standard, which the ISO 22196:2011 norm was used for testing antimicrobial properties of CuZn37, CuSn6 and CuNi18Zn20 and Cu-ETP and stainless steel as positive and negative control, respectively. The highest cidal efficiency, expressed as both time and the degree of reduction of the initial suspension density, against all of the tested Acinetobacter strains was found for ETP copper. But, the results of our study also confirmed effective activity (bacteriocidal or bacteriostatic) of copper alloys selected for the study, contrary to the stainless steel. The reduction in bacterial suspension density is significantly different depending on the strain and copper alloy composition. The results of our study confirmed the effective antibacterial activity of copper and its selected alloys against clinical Acinetobacter baumannii and Acinetobacter lwoffii strains, and Acinetobacter pittii strain isolated from the hospital environment.

  6. Characterization of a cypermethrin-degrading Methylobacterium sp. strain A-1 and molecular cloning of its carboxylesterase gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diegelmann, Corinna; Weber, Joachim; Heinzel-Wieland, Regina; Kemme, Michael

    2015-11-01

    A novel mesophilic bacterial strain, designated A-1, was isolated from microbially contaminated biopolymer microcapsules. The bacterium was able to withstand and grow in liquid cultures supplemented with the pyrethroid cypermethrin in concentrations up to 400 mg L(-1) . Furthermore, strain A-1 could use cypermethrin as sole carbon source and could degrade >50% of it in 12 h. Based on phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characterization, and phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequence, the strain A-1 was identified as Methylobacterium sp., which is the first reported cypermethrin degrader of methylotrophic bacteria. A role for esterase activity in cypermethrin biodegradation was presumed. Therefore, the carboxylesterase gene mse1 was amplified from the Methylobacterium sp. strain A-1 genome and the resulting 1 kb amplicon cloned into E. coli. Sequence analysis of the mse1-DNA insert revealed an open reading frame of 633 bp encoding for a putative carboxylesterase of 210 amino acid residues with a predicted molecular mass of 22 kDa. The amino acid sequence of the deduced enzyme MsE1 with the catalytic triad Ser106 , Asp156 , and His187 was found to be similar to that of α/β-hydrolase fold proteins. The active site Ser106 residue is located in the consensus pentapeptide motif Gly-X-Ser-X-Gly that is typical of esterases. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Draft genome sequence of two Shingopyxis sp. strains H107 and H115 isolated from a chloraminated drinking water distriburion system simulator

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Draft genome sequence of two Shingopyxis sp. strains H107 and H115 isolated from a chloraminated drinking water distriburion system simulator. This dataset is...

  8. Structural relationship of the lipid A acyl groups to activation of murine Toll-like receptor 4 by lipopolysaccharides from pathogenic strains of Burkholderia mallei, Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirill V Korneev

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4 is required for activation of innate immunity upon recognition of lipopolysaccharide (LPS of Gram-negative bacteria. The ability of TLR4 to respond to a particular LPS species is important since insufficient activation may not prevent bacterial growth while excessive immune reaction may lead to immunopathology associated with sepsis. Here we investigated the biological activity of LPS from Burkholderia mallei that causes glanders, and from the two well-known opportunistic pathogens Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (causative agents of nosocomial infections. For each bacterial strain, R-form LPS preparations were purified by hydrophobic chromatography and the chemical structure of lipid A, an LPS structural component, was elucidated by HR-MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. The biological activity of LPS samples was evaluated by their ability to induce production of proinflammatory cytokines, such as IL-6 and TNF, by bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM. Our results demonstrate direct correlation between the biological activity of LPS from these pathogenic bacteria and the extent of their lipid A acylation.

  9. Genome Sequence of Thermotoga sp Strain RQ2, a Hyperthermophilic Bacterium Isolated from a Geothermally Heated Region of the Seafloor near Ribeira Quente, the Azores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swithers, Kristen S [University of Connecticut, Storrs; DiPippo, Jonathan L [University of Connecticut, Storrs; Bruce, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Detter, J. Chris [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Tapia, Roxanne [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Han, Cliff [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Woyke, Tanja [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pennacchio, Len [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Nolan, Matt [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mikhailova, Natalia [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lykidis, A [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Stetter, Karl O [Universitat Regensburg, Regensburg, Germany; Nelson, Karen E [J. Craig Venter Institute; Gogarten, Peter [University of Connecticut, Storrs; Noll, Kenneth M [University of Connecticut, Storrs

    2011-01-01

    Thermotoga sp. strain RQ2 is probably a strain of Thermotoga maritima. Its complete genome sequence allows for an examination of the extent and consequences of gene flow within Thermotoga species and strains. Thermotoga sp. RQ2 differs from T. maritima in its genes involved in myo-inositol metabolism. Its genome also encodes an apparent fructose phosphotransferase system (PTS) sugar transporter. This operon is also found in Thermotoga naphthophila strain RKU-10 but no other Thermotogales. These are the first reported PTS transporters in the Thermotogales.

  10. CHARACTERIZATION OF A BOSEA SP. STRAIN SF5 (MTCC 10045 ISOLATED FROM COMPOST SOIL CAPABLE OF PRODUCING CELLULASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangrila Sadhu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A cellulase producing bacterium, designated SF5 was isolated from compost soil. The strain was identified as Bosea sp. based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and phenotypic characters including detail carbon sources utilization pattern. The effect of various carbohydrates such as Carboxy Methyl Cellulose (CMC avicel, starch, maltose, sucrose, glucose, fructose and lactose (as carbon source on cellulase production revealed that 0.75% CMC (with 8 days incubation was optimum. Among the various nitrogen sources, 0.15% NH4Cl gave optimal production of cellulase. The optimal conditions for the production of cellulase by strain SF5 were determined to be at 37 ºC temperature and at pH 7.0. The strain is also capable of producing xylanase and may have biotechnological potential.

  11. Carbapenem resistant Acinetobacter spp restricted the Therapeutic alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afshan, Naheed; Nawaz, Benish; Hamid, Maliha

    2017-01-01

    Carbapenem resistant Acinetobacter has appeared an organism of uncertain resistivity towards antimicrobial agents. Among non-fermenting bacterium Acinetobacter is the second-most-commonly-isolated organisms in human. The fast intensify of their resistance to antibiotics, especially global emergence and extend of Acinetobacter strains resistant to carbapenem more restricted the therapeutic alternatives. The importation of A. baumannii and subsequent presence in hospitals has been well documented. In this study we evaluate the resistivity of Acinetobacter against carbapenem antibiotics at Jinnah University for Women, Karachi. Total 439 isolates of Acinetobacter were collected from different clinical samples of hospitalized patients, identified by standard microbiological methods. Antibiograms were done on Mueller-Hinton agar plates with disk diffusion method (Kirby Bauer method). Disc tested: Meropenem (10μg/disk). Among 439 samples, 300 (68.3%) samples were resistant to Meropenem and the remaining that is 139 (31.7%) showed sensitivity to the drugs. In developing countries including Pakistan the contentment of multi drug resistance and their dissemination in Acinetobacter species is not a simple task. While multiple drug resistance is increasing in this pathogen and Carbapenem conflict is quickly spreading which may become a major threat in future.

  12. Organization of nif gene cluster in Frankia sp. EuIK1 strain, a symbiont of Elaeagnus umbellata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Chang Jae; Kim, Ho Bang; Kim, Jitae; Kim, Won Jin; Lee, Hyoungseok; An, Chung Sun

    2012-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence of a 20.5-kb genomic region harboring nif genes was determined and analyzed. The fragment was obtained from Frankia sp. EuIK1 strain, an indigenous symbiont of Elaeagnus umbellata. A total of 20 ORFs including 12 nif genes were identified and subjected to comparative analysis with the genome sequences of 3 Frankia strains representing diverse host plant specificities. The nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences showed highest levels of identity with orthologous genes from an Elaeagnus-infecting strain. The gene organization patterns around the nif gene clusters were well conserved among all 4 Frankia strains. However, characteristic features appeared in the location of the nifV gene for each Frankia strain, depending on the type of host plant. Sequence analysis was performed to determine the transcription units and suggested that there could be an independent operon starting from the nifW gene in the EuIK strain. Considering the organization patterns and their total extensions on the genome, we propose that the nif gene clusters remained stable despite genetic variations occurring in the Frankia genomes.

  13. Reduction of azo dyes by redox mediators originating in the naphthalenesulfonic acid degradation pathway of Sphingomonas sp. strain BN6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keck, A; Klein, J; Kudlich, M; Stolz, A; Knackmuss, H J; Mattes, R

    1997-01-01

    The anaerobic reduction of azo dyes by Sphingomonas sp. strain BN6 was analyzed. Aerobic conversion of 2-naphthalenesulfonate (2NS) by cells of strain BN6 stimulated the subsequent anaerobic reduction of the sulfonated azo dye amaranth at least 10-fold. In contrast, in crude extracts, the azo reductase activity was not stimulated. A mutant of strain BN6 which was not able to metabolize 2NS showed increased amaranth reduction rates only when the cells were resuspended in the culture supernatant of 2NS-grown BN6 wild-type cells. The same increase could be observed with different bacterial strains. This suggested the presence of an extracellular factor which was formed during the degradation of 2NS by strain BN6. The addition of 1,2-dihydroxynaphthalene, the first intermediate of the degradation pathway of 2NS, or its decomposition products to cell suspensions of the mutant of strain BN6 (2NS-) increased the activity of amaranth reduction. The presence of bacterial cells was needed to maintain the reduction process. Thus, the decomposition products of 1,2-dihydroxynaphthalene are suggested to act as redox mediators which are able to anaerobically shuttle reduction equivalents from the cells to the extracellular azo dye. PMID:9293019

  14. SACCHAROTHRIX SP. ABH26, A NEW ACTINOBACTERIAL STRAIN FROM ALGERIAN SAHARAN SOIL: ISOLATION, IDENTIFICATION AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelhadi Lahoum

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A new strain of actinobacteria, designated ABH26, was isolated from a Saharan soil in the Adrar region (Algeria, by the dilution agar plating method using a chitin-vitamins B medium supplemented with polymyxin and penicillin. The morphological studies showed that this strain represents a member of the Saccharothrix genus. Phylogenetic analysis showed that this strain had 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities ranging from 97.63% (with Saccharothrix violaceirubra NBRC 102064T to 99.86% (with Saccharothrix xinjiangensis NBRC 101911T. Furthermore, strain ABH26 presented a strong activity against mycotoxigenic and phytopathogenic fungi including Aspergillus carbonarius (M333, A. flavus (NRRL 3251, A. westerdijkiae (ATCC 3174, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lini (Fol and F. solani (Fsol. Additionally, the strain exhibited an important antimicrobial activity against many strains of the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans (M2, M3 and IPA200 and against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA 639c. Thus, four solvents (n-hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and n-butanol were used for the extraction of produced antibiotic compounds. The highest antimicrobial activities were obtained using the butanolic extract. The thin layer chromatography (TLC method showed two bioactive spots, named HAD1 and HAD2, which were reveled negatively by using chemical revelators (ninhydrin, naphtoresorcinol-sulfuric acid, ferrous iron chloride and formaldehyde-sulfuric. These results indicated the absence of amine group, sugar, hydroxamic acid, phenol and aromatic compound.

  15. Metabolic engineering and comparative performance studies of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 strains for effective utilization of xylose.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh eRanade

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Wood sugars such as xylose can be used as an inexpensive carbon source for biotechnological applications. The model cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 lacks the ability to catabolize wood sugars as an energy source. Here, we generated four Synechocystis strains that heterologously expressed XylAB enzymes, which mediate xylose catabolism, either in combination with or without one of three xylose transporters, namely XylE, GalP, or Glf. Except for glf, which is derived from the bacterium Zymomonas mobilis ZM4, the heterologous genes were sourced from Escherichia coli K-12. All of the recombinant strains were able to utilize xylose in the absence of catabolite repression. When xylose was the lone source of organic carbon, strains possessing the XylE and Glf transporters were most efficient in terms of dry biomass production and xylose consumption and the strain lacking a heterologous transporter was the least efficient. However, in the presence of a xylose-glucose mixed sugar source, the strains exhibited similar levels of growth and xylose consumption. This study demonstrates that various bacterial xylose transporters can boost xylose catabolism in transgenic Synechocystis strains, and paves the way for the sustainable production of bio-compounds and green fuels from lignocellulosic biomass.

  16. Acinetobacter pakistanensis Abbas et al. 2014 is a later heterotypic synonym of Acinetobacter bohemicus Krizova et al. 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemec, Alexandr; Radolfova-Krizova, Lenka

    2016-12-01

    Two novel species names, Acinetobacter bohemicus and Acinetobacter pakistanensis, appeared on validation list no. 161 (January 2015) under priority numbers 26 and 28, respectively. As the published data suggested a high similarity of the organisms associated with these names, we aimed to define their taxonomic relationship. The study set included all strains used in the original nomenclatural proposals, i.e. 25 strains of A. bohemicus and one strain of A. pakistanensis. The average nucleotide identity values (95.9 and 96.1 % based on blast and MUMmer, respectively) between the whole-genome sequences of A. bohemicus ANC 3994T and A. pakistanensis KCTC 42081T supported the identity of these type strains at the species level. Based on the genus-wide comparative analyses of the rpoB sequences and whole-cell fingerprints generated by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight MS, A. pakistanensis KCTC 42081T fell within the respective clusters formed by the 25 A. bohemicus strains. The same picture was obtained on the basis of comparative analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences of KCTC 42081T and three A. bohemicus strains. Finally, the metabolic and physiological features of KCTC 42081T were found to be congruent with those of A. bohemicus. Based on these results, we conclude that Acinetobacter pakistanensis is a later heterotypic synonym of Acinetobacter bohemicus.

  17. Anticancer activity of Cyanothece sp. strain extracts from Egypt: First record

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nermin Adel El Semary

    2015-12-01

    Conclusions: This is the first study to report the anticancer effect of aqueous extracts derived from the unicellular Cyanothece sp. from Egypt and its potential as a plausible candidate for future mass biotechnological applications.

  18. Characterization of Methylobacterium strains isolated from the phyllosphere and description of Methylobacterium longum sp nov

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knief, C.; Dengler, V.; Bodelier, P.L.E.; Vorholt, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    Methylobacterium strains are abundantly found in the phyllosphere of plants. Morphological, physiological and chemotaxonomical properties of 12 previously isolated strains were analyzed in order to obtain a more detailed overview of the characteristics of phyllosphere colonizing Methylobacterium

  19. Degradation of nicosulfuron by a novel isolated bacterial strain Klebsiella sp. Y1: condition optimization, kinetics and degradation pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin; Zhang, Xiaolin; Li, Yongmei

    2016-01-01

    A novel bacterial strain Klebsiella sp. Y1 was isolated from the soil of a constructed wetland, and it was identified based on the 16S rDNA sequence analysis. The co-metabolic degradation of nicosulfuron with glucose by Klebsiella sp. Y1 was investigated. The response surface methodology analysis indicated that the optimal pH and temperature were 7.0 and 35 °C, respectively, for the degradation of nicosulfuron. Under the optimal conditions, the degradation of nicosulfuron fitted Haldane kinetics model well. The removal of nicosulfuron was triggered by the acidification of glucose, which accelerated the hydrolysis of nicosulfuron. Then, the C-N bond of the sulfonylurea bridge was attacked and cleaved. Finally, the detected intermediate 2-amino-4,6-dimethoxypyrimidine was further biodegraded.

  20. Acinetobactercelticus sp. nov., a psychrotolerant species widespread in natural soil and water ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radolfova-Krizova, Lenka; Maixnerova, Martina; Nemec, Alexandr

    2016-12-01

    A novel, taxonomically unique group of six strains of the genus Acinetobacter was discovered during an exploratory study on strains culturable from soil and water natural ecosystems in the Bohemian part of the Czech Republic. Based on the comparative analyses of the 16S rRNA gene, gyrB and rpoB sequences, these strains formed strongly supported and internally coherent clusters (intracluster identities of ≥99.9, ≥96.1 and ≥97.3 %, respectively), which were clearly separated from all known species of the genus Acinetobacter (≤98.7, ≤83.2 and ≤88.9 %, respectively). The distinctness of the group at the species level was evidenced also by the results of the genus-wide analyses of the whole-cell mass fingerprints of the six strains generated by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight MS and the whole-genome sequence of a group member, ANC 4603T. Compared with the known species of the genus Acinetobacter, all six strains exhibited a unique phenotype, characterized by psychrotolerance (growth at 1 °C through 28 °C), the inability to grow at 32 °C and the ability to assimilate l-aspartate and malonate but not 2,3-butanediol or citrate. Based on these results, the name Acinetobacter celticus sp. nov. is proposed for the taxon represented by the six strains. The type strain is ANC 4603T (=CCM 8700T=CCUG 69239T=CNCTC 7549T).

  1. Transcriptional analysis of the multicopy hao gene coding for hydroxylamine oxidoreductase in Nitrosomonas sp. strain ENI-11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirota, Ryuichi; Kuroda, Akio; Ikeda, Tsukasa; Takiguchi, Noboru; Ohtake, Hisao; Kato, Junichi

    2006-08-01

    The nitrifying bacterium Nitrosomonas sp. strain ENI-11 has three copies of the gene encoding hydroxylamine oxidoreductase (hao(1), hao(2), and hao(3)) on its genome. Broad-host-range reporter plasmids containing transcriptional fusion genes between hao copies and lacZ were constructed to analyze the expression of each hydroxylamine oxidoreductase gene (hao) copy individually and quantitatively. beta-Galactosidase assays of ENI-11 harboring reporter plasmids revealed that all hao copies were transcribed in the wild-type strain. Promoter analysis of hao copies revealed that transcription of hao(3) was highest among the hao copies. Expression levels of hao(1) and hao(2) were 40% and 62% of that of hao(3) respectively. Transcription of hao(1) was negatively regulated, whereas a portion of hao(3) transcription was read through transcription from the rpsT promoter. When energy-depleted cells were incubated in the growth medium, only hao(3) expression increased. This result suggests that it is hao(3) that is responsible for recovery from energy-depleted conditions in Nitrosomonas sp. strain ENI-11.

  2. Biofilm formation in Acinetobacter baumannii

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Longo, Francesca; Vuotto, Claudia; Donelli, Gianfranco

    2014-01-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii has received much attention in recent years because of its increasing involvement in a number of severe infections and outbreaks occurring in clinical settings, and presumably...

  3. Identification and characterization of an archaeal kojibiose catabolic pathway in the hyperthermophilic Pyrococcus sp. strain ST04.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jong-Hyun; Seo, Dong-Ho; Holden, James F; Park, Cheon-Seok

    2014-03-01

    A unique gene cluster responsible for kojibiose utilization was identified in the genome of Pyrococcus sp. strain ST04. The proteins it encodes hydrolyze kojibiose, a disaccharide product of glucose caramelization, and form glucose-6-phosphate (G6P) in two steps. Heterologous expression of the kojibiose-related enzymes in Escherichia coli revealed that two genes, Py04_1502 and Py04_1503, encode kojibiose phosphorylase (designated PsKP, for Pyrococcus sp. strain ST04 kojibiose phosphorylase) and β-phosphoglucomutase (PsPGM), respectively. Enzymatic assays show that PsKP hydrolyzes kojibiose to glucose and β-glucose-1-phosphate (β-G1P). The Km values for kojibiose and phosphate were determined to be 2.53 ± 0.21 mM and 1.34 ± 0.04 mM, respectively. PsPGM then converts β-G1P into G6P in the presence of 6 mM MgCl2. Conversion activity from β-G1P to G6P was 46.81 ± 3.66 U/mg, and reverse conversion activity from G6P to β-G1P was 3.51 ± 0.13 U/mg. The proteins are highly thermostable, with optimal temperatures of 90°C for PsKP and 95°C for PsPGM. These results indicate that Pyrococcus sp. strain ST04 converts kojibiose into G6P, a substrate of the glycolytic pathway. This is the first report of a disaccharide utilization pathway via phosphorolysis in hyperthermophilic archaea.

  4. Unusual features of the sequences of copies of the 16S-23S rRNA internal transcribed spacer regions of Acinetobacter bereziniae, Acinetobacter guillouiae and Acinetobacter baylyi arise from horizontal gene transfer events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslunka, Christopher; Gürtler, Volker; Seviour, Robert

    2015-02-01

    The highly variable nature of the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) has been claimed to represent an ideal target for designing species-specific probes/primers capable of differentiating between closely related Acinetobacter species. However, several Acinetobacter species contain multiple ITS copies of variable lengths, and these include Acinetobacter bereziniae, Acinetobacter guillouiae and Acinetobacter baylyi. This study shows these length variations result from inter-genomic insertion/deletion events (indels) involving horizontal transfer of ITS fragments of other Acinetobacter species and possibly unrelated bacteria, as shown previously by us. In some instances, indel incorporation results in the loss of probe target sites in the recipient cell ITS. In other cases, some indel sequences contain target sites for probes designed from a single ITS sequence to target other Acinetobacter species. Hence, these can generate false positives. The largest of the indels that remove probe sites is 683 bp (labelled bay/i1-0), and it derives from the horizontal transfer of a complete ITS between A. bereziniae BCRC15423(T) and A. baylyi strain ADP1. As a consequence, ITS sequencing or fingerprinting cannot be used to distinguish between the 683 bp ITS in these two strains. © 2015 The Authors.

  5. Occurrence of High Catalase-containing Acinetobacter in Spacecraft Assembly Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, K. B.; Derecho, I.; La Duc, M. T.; Vaishampayan, P.; Venkateswaran, K. J.; Mogul, R.

    2010-04-01

    In summary, the measurement of high catalase specific activity values for spacecraft-associated Acinetobacter strains is potentially the result of adaptation towards the harsh conditions of the clean rooms and assembly process.

  6. Carbapenem-resistance and pathogenicity of bovine Acinetobacter indicus-like isolates

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Klotz, Peter; Göttig, Stephan; Leidner, Ursula; Semmler, Torsten; Scheufen, Sandra; Ewers, Christa

    2017-01-01

      The objective of this study was to characterize blaOXA-23 harbouring Acinetobacter indicus-like strains from cattle including genomic and phylogenetic analyses, antimicrobial susceptibility testing...

  7. [Study on the bioleaching mechanism of manganse (II) from manganese-electrolytic residue by manganese-resistant strain Fusarium sp].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu-Xia; Cao, Jian-Bing; Li, Xiao-Ming; Yang, Qi; Huang, Hua-Jun; Liu, Xian; Yang, Hui

    2011-09-01

    The manganse bioleaching mechanism by a manganese-resistant strain Fusarium sp. was investigated, through analyzing the bioleaching rate and manganese-electrolytic residue characterizations with the presence of Fusarium sp. and with the addition of organic acids. Special attention was paid to explore the relationship among the manganese's leaching rate, pH, and organic acid concentration during Fusarium sp. bioleaching process. The research results showed that, with the addition of Fusarium sp., some looser and more porous manganese-electrolytic residues could be obtained. And after 47 hours, the leaching rate reached to 84% which was 2.30 times higher than that leached by individual organic acid even after 130 hours; the leaching rate of manganese and the concentrations of organic acids increased at the initial stage and then decreased, while pH was the reversed. Additionally, the concentration of Succinic acid and L-Malic acid reached their crest value (11.12 g/L and 10.23 g/L) at 57 and 62 hours respectively. Yet the pH reached the lowest (4.09) at 29 h, which implied that, Fusarium sp. and organic acid produced played an important role in the leaching of manganese, leading to a high-efficiency and time-saving process. However, due to the high density of manganese-electrolytic residue and the concurrence of the produce and consumption of organic acid together with the adsorption and complexation, the relationship among the extraction rate for manganese ion, pH, and the concentration of organic acid produced could not be described by simple linear correlation and the leaching rate decreased significantly in the later stage.

  8. Draft genome sequence of Halomonas sp. strain KM-1, a moderately halophilic bacterium that produces the bioplastic poly(3-hydroxybutyrate).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawata, Yoshikazu; Kawasaki, Kazunori; Shigeri, Yasushi

    2012-05-01

    We report the draft genome sequence of Halomonas sp. strain KM-1, which was isolated in Ikeda City, Osaka, Japan, and which produces the bioplastic poly(3-hydroxybutyrate). The total length of the assembled genome is 4,992,811 bp, and 4,220 coding sequences were predicted within the genome. Genes encoding proteins that are involved in the production and depolymerization of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) were identified. The identification of these genes might be of use in the production of the bioplastic poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) and its monomer 3-hydroxybutyrate.

  9. Mode of action of metabolites from Bacillus sp. strain IBA 33 on Geotrichum citri-aurantii arthroconidia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordillo, María Antonieta; Navarro, Antonio R; Maldonado, María Cristina

    2015-11-01

    Geotrichum citri-aurantii is a postharvest phytopathogenic fungus of lemons. We studied the mode of action of antifungal metabolites from Bacillus sp. strain IBA 33 on arthroconidia of G. citri-aurantii. These metabolites are lipopeptides belonging to the iturin family. Membrane permeabilization of G. citri-aurantii was analyzed and mitochondrial respiratory rate was evaluated. Disturbance of the plasma membrane promotes the leakage of many cellular components into the surrounding media, and mitochondrial membrane disorganization promotes the inhibition of the respiratory rate. Our findings provide insights into the ability of lipopeptides to suppress plant fungal pathogens and their possible agronomical applications.

  10. Chemical Mechanism of the Phosphotriesterase from Sphingobium sp. Strain TCM1, an Enzyme Capable of Hydrolyzing Organophosphate Flame Retardants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigley, Andrew N; Xiang, Dao Feng; Ren, Zhongjie; Xue, Haoran; Hull, Kenneth G; Romo, Daniel; Raushel, Frank M

    2016-03-09

    The mechanism of action of the manganese-dependent phosphotriesterase from Sphingobium sp. strain TCM1 that is capable of hydrolyzing organophosphate flame retardants was determined. The enzyme was shown to hydrolyze the RP-enantiomer of O-methyl O-cyclohexyl p-nitrophenyl thiophosphate with net inversion of configuration and without the formation of a covalent reaction intermediate. These results demonstrate that the enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of substrates by activation of a nucleophilic water molecule for direct attack at the phosphorus center.

  11. Evidence for Increased Aggressiveness in a Recent Widespread Strain of Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici Causing Stripe Rust of Wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milus, Eugene A; Kristensen, Kristian; Hovmøller, Mogens S

    2009-01-01

    Stripe rust (yellow rust) of wheat, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, has become more severe in eastern United States, Australia, and elsewhere since 2000. Recent research has shown that this coincided with a global spread of two closely related strains that were similar based...... regimes for latent period, lesion length, lesion width, lesion area, and spore production on adult plants of a susceptible wheat cultivar with no known genes for resistance to stripe rust. "New" isolates (since 2000) were significantly more aggressive than "old" isolates (before 2000) for all variables...... that wheat rust fungi can adapt to warmer temperatures and cause severe disease in previously unfavorable environments...

  12. Draft Genome Sequence of Halomonas sp. Strain KM-1, a Moderately Halophilic Bacterium That Produces the Bioplastic Poly(3-Hydroxybutyrate)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Kazunori; Shigeri, Yasushi

    2012-01-01

    We report the draft genome sequence of Halomonas sp. strain KM-1, which was isolated in Ikeda City, Osaka, Japan, and which produces the bioplastic poly(3-hydroxybutyrate). The total length of the assembled genome is 4,992,811 bp, and 4,220 coding sequences were predicted within the genome. Genes encoding proteins that are involved in the production and depolymerization of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) were identified. The identification of these genes might be of use in the production of the bioplastic poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) and its monomer 3-hydroxybutyrate. PMID:22535927

  13. Draft Genome Sequence of Pseudoalteromonas sp. Strain XI10 Isolated from the Brine-Seawater Interface of Erba Deep in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Guishan

    2016-03-10

    Pseudoalteromonas sp. strain XI10 was isolated from the brine-seawater interface of Erba Deep in the Red Sea, Saudi Arabia. Here, we present the draft genome sequence of strain XI10, a gammaproteobacterium that synthesizes polysaccharides for biofilm formation when grown in liquid culture.

  14. Expression of the neutral protease gene from a thermophilic Bacillus sp BT1 strain in Bacillus subtilis and its natural host : Identification of a functional promoter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vecerek, B; Venema, G

    The expression of the neutral protease gene (npr) from the thermophilic Bacillus sp. BT1 strain was studied in its natural host and in mesophilic Bacillus subtilis. In the thermophilic BT1 strain, the transcription of the protease gene is initiated from its own promoter, just 5' to the gene. In

  15. Draft Whole-Genome Sequence of Serratia marcescens Strain MCB, Associated with Oscheius sp. MCB (Nematoda: Rhabditidae) Isolated from South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serepa, Mahloro H; Gray, Vincent M

    2014-09-18

    Here we report on the draft genome sequence of Serratia marcescens strain MCB associated with Oscheius sp. MCB (Nematoda: Rhabditidae) isolated from South African soil. S. marcescens strain MCB has 5,304,212-bp genome size with 4,877 genes and a G+C content of 59.1%. Copyright © 2014 Serepa and Gray.

  16. Draft Whole-Genome Sequence of Serratia marcescens Strain MCB, Associated with Oscheius sp. MCB (Nematoda: Rhabditidae) Isolated from South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Serepa, Mahloro H.; Vincent M. Gray

    2014-01-01

    Here we report on the draft genome sequence of Serratia marcescens strain MCB associated with Oscheius sp. MCB (Nematoda: Rhabditidae) isolated from South African soil. S. marcescens strain MCB has 5,304,212-bp genome size with 4,877 genes and a G+C content of 59.1%.

  17. Draft Genome Sequence of the Cellulolytic Strain Clostridium sp. Bc-iso-3 Isolated from an Industrial-Scale Anaerobic Digester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Li; Schnürer, Anna

    2016-10-27

    Clostridium sp. Bc-iso-3 is a cellulolytic strain isolated from a Swedish industrial-scale biogas digester. Here, we present the draft genome sequence of this strain, which consists of four contigs with a total length of 4,327,139 bp and an average coverage of 312.97×. Copyright © 2016 Sun and Schnürer.

  18. Draft Genome Sequence of Methylobacterium sp. Strain L2-4, a Leaf-Associated Endophytic N-Fixing Bacterium Isolated from Jatropha curcas L.

    OpenAIRE

    Madhaiyan, Munusamy; Chan, Kam Lock; Ji, Lianghui

    2014-01-01

    Methylobacterium sp. strain L2-4 is an efficient nitrogen-fixing leaf colonizer of biofuel crop Jatropha curcas. This strain is able to greatly improve the growth and seed yield of Jatropha curcas and is the second reported genome sequence of plant growth-promoting bacteria isolated from Jatropha curcas.

  19. Effects of Bacterial Community Members on the Proteome of the Ammonia-Oxidizing Bacterium Nitrosomonas sp. Strain Is79.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedlacek, Christopher J; Nielsen, Susanne; Greis, Kenneth D; Haffey, Wendy D; Revsbech, Niels Peter; Ticak, Tomislav; Laanbroek, Hendrikus J; Bollmann, Annette

    2016-08-01

    Microorganisms in the environment do not exist as the often-studied pure cultures but as members of complex microbial communities. Characterizing the interactions within microbial communities is essential to understand their function in both natural and engineered environments. In this study, we investigated how the presence of a nitrite-oxidizing bacterium (NOB) and heterotrophic bacteria affect the growth and proteome of the chemolithoautotrophic ammonia-oxidizing bacterium (AOB) Nitrosomonas sp. strain Is79. We investigated Nitrosomonas sp. Is79 in co-culture with Nitrobacter winogradskyi, in co-cultures with selected heterotrophic bacteria, and as a member of the nitrifying enrichment culture G5-7. In batch culture, N. winogradskyi and heterotrophic bacteria had positive effects on the growth of Nitrosomonas sp. Is79. An isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) proteomics approach was used to investigate the effect of N. winogradskyi and the co-cultured heterotrophic bacteria from G5-7 on the proteome of Nitrosomonas sp. Is79. In co-culture with N. winogradskyi, several Nitrosomonas sp. Is79 oxidative stress response proteins changed in abundance, with periplasmic proteins increasing and cytoplasmic proteins decreasing in abundance. In the presence of heterotrophic bacteria, the abundance of proteins directly related to the ammonia oxidation pathway increased, while the abundance of proteins related to amino acid synthesis and metabolism decreased. In summary, the proteome of Nitrosomonas sp. Is79 was differentially influenced by the presence of either N. winogradskyi or heterotrophic bacteria. Together, N. winogradskyi and heterotrophic bacteria reduced the oxidative stress for Nitrosomonas sp. Is79, which resulted in more efficient metabolism. Aerobic ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms play an important role in the global nitrogen cycle, converting ammonia to nitrite. In their

  20. Counts of Slackia sp. strain NATTS in intestinal flora are correlated to serum concentrations of equol both in prostate cancer cases and controls in Japanese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Yukiko; Nagata, Yoshie; Fukuta, Fumimasa; Takayanagi, Akio; Masumori, Naoya; Tsukamoto, Taiji; Akasaka, Hiroshi; Ohnishi, Hirofumi; Saito, Shigeyuki; Miura, Tetsuji; Moriyama, Kaoru; Tsuji, Hirokazu; Akaza, Hideyuki; Mori, Mitsuru

    2014-01-01

    Isoflavones, which are included in soybeans, have been suggested to protect against prostate cancer. Equol, one of isoflavones, is an intestinally derived bacterial metabolite of daidzein. A newly identified equol-producing bacterium, Slackia sp. strain NATTS, with a high equol-producing activity was isolated from human feces in Japanese adults. Counts of Slackia sp. strain NATTS in intestinal flora have not been assessed with regard to prostate cancer risk. In this study, we investigated the association of serum isoflavones and counts of Slackia sp. strain NATTS with prostate cancer risk in a case-control study. Concentrations of isoflavones and counts of Slackia sp. strain NATTS in feces were measured from 44 patients with prostate cancer and 28 hospital controls. The risk of prostate cancer was evaluated in terms of odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) by the logistic regression analysis. The detection proportions of Slackia sp. strain NATTS in cases and controls were 34.1% and 25.0%, respectively. Counts of Slackia sp. strain NATTS were significantly correlated with serum concentrations of equol both in cases and controls (Spearman correlation coefficients, rs=0.639 and rs=0.572, p<0.01, respectively). Serum concentrations of genistein, daidzein, glycitein, and equol were not significantly associated with risk of prostate cancer. This study found that counts of Slackia sp. strain NATTS correlated with serum concentrations of equol both in prostate cancer cases and controls, but serum isoflavone concentrations were not associated with risk of prostate cancer in our patients.

  1. Identification of a novel dihydrodaidzein racemase essential for biosynthesis of equol from daidzein in Lactococcus sp. strain 20-92.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Yoshikazu; Takahashi, Masayuki; Miyazawa, Norihiro; Abiru, Yasuhiro; Uchiyama, Shigeto; Hishigaki, Haretsugu

    2012-07-01

    Equol is metabolized from daidzein, a soy isoflavone, by the gut microflora. In this study, we identified a novel dihydrodaidzein racemase (L-DDRC) that is involved in equol biosynthesis in a lactic acid bacterium, Lactococcus sp. strain 20-92, and confirmed that histidine-tagged recombinant L-DDRC (L-DDRC-His) was able to convert both the (R)- and (S)-enantiomers of dihydrodaidzein to the racemate. Moreover, we showed that recombinant L-DDRC-His was essential for in vitro equol production from daidzein by a recombinant enzyme mixture and that efficient in vitro equol production from daidzein was possible using at least four enzymes, including L-DDRC. We also proposed a model of the metabolic pathway from daidzein to equol in Lactococcus strain 20-92.

  2. Identification of a Novel Dihydrodaidzein Racemase Essential for Biosynthesis of Equol from Daidzein in Lactococcus sp. Strain 20-92

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Masayuki; Miyazawa, Norihiro; Abiru, Yasuhiro; Uchiyama, Shigeto; Hishigaki, Haretsugu

    2012-01-01

    Equol is metabolized from daidzein, a soy isoflavone, by the gut microflora. In this study, we identified a novel dihydrodaidzein racemase (l-DDRC) that is involved in equol biosynthesis in a lactic acid bacterium, Lactococcus sp. strain 20-92, and confirmed that histidine-tagged recombinant l-DDRC (l-DDRC-His) was able to convert both the (R)- and (S)-enantiomers of dihydrodaidzein to the racemate. Moreover, we showed that recombinant l-DDRC-His was essential for in vitro equol production from daidzein by a recombinant enzyme mixture and that efficient in vitro equol production from daidzein was possible using at least four enzymes, including l-DDRC. We also proposed a model of the metabolic pathway from daidzein to equol in Lactococcus strain 20-92. PMID:22582059

  3. Prosthetic valve endocarditis caused by Bordetella holmesii, an Acinetobacter lookalike.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonckheere, Stijn; De Baere, Thierry; Schroeyers, Pascal; Soetens, Oriane; De Bel, Annelies; Surmont, Ignace

    2012-06-01

    We report a case of fulminant endocarditis on a prosthetic homograft aortic valve caused by Bordetella holmesii, which was successfully managed by surgical valve replacement and antibiotic treatment. B. holmesii, a strictly aerobic, small, Gram-negative coccobacillus, has been implicated as an infrequent cause of a pertussis-like syndrome and other respiratory illnesses. However, B. holmesii is also a rare cause of septicaemia and infective endocarditis, mostly in immunocompromised patients. To our knowledge, this is the first report of B. holmesii endocarditis on a prosthetic aortic valve. Routine laboratory testing initially misidentified the strain as Acinetobacter sp. Correct identification was achieved by 16S rRNA gene and outer-membrane protein A (ompA) gene sequencing. Interestingly, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry also produced an accurate species-level identification. Subsequent susceptibility testing and review of the literature revealed ceftazidime, cefepime, carbapenems, aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones, piperacillin/tazobactam, tigecycline and colistin as possible candidates to treat infections caused by B. holmesii.

  4. Weight and morphometric growth of different strains of tilapia (Oreochromis sp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Bezerra Allaman

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the morphometric growth and weight gain of strains of tilapia (Thai, Red, UFLA and Commercial by nonlinear models. Initially, 500 male fingerlings of each strain, at 85 (Red and UFLA and 86 (Thai and Commercial days of age, were stocked separately in raceways with 56 m³. Twenty fish of each strain were randomly sampled, weighed and measured monthly. Five nonlinear models (Brody, von Bertalanffy, Gompertz, logistic and exponential were tested, choosing one that best fit to the data. The variables studied were: weight, standard length (SL, head length (HL, height 1 (H1, height 2 (H2, height 3 (H3, first distance (D1, second distance (D2, first width (W1, second width (W2 and third width (W3. The exponential model had the best fit to weight and morphometric data, with the exception of W2, in which the best fitted model was von Bertalanffy. The convergence of the exponential model to data indicates that the cultivation period studied was not enough for the strains to reach maturity weight. The UFLA strain presented the lowest value for parameter "a" (initial weight estimate, 8.71 g, and the highest for parameter k (specific growth rate, 0.0127, when compared with other evaluated strains. However, the highest k of UFLA was not enough to overcome the final weight observed for the Commercial strain (603.1 g, which was higher than all other strains. Regarding the morphometric measurements, the UFLA strain also had the highest k for the variables SL, HL, HH, H1, H2, H3 and D2, and similar k to Commercial and Thai strains for the variables D1 and W3 respectively. The strains differ as to weight gain and morphometric growth.

  5. Emerging Acinetobacter schindleri in red eye infection of Pangasius ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplified 16s RNA was separated using agarose gel electrophoresis, eluted product was sequenced and BLAST analysis was carried out to identify the pathogens. Identified virulent bacterial strain Acinetobacter schindleri with LD50 108.35 initiated re-infection in experimentally in infected ...

  6. Prophage Induction by Ultraviolet Light in Acinetobacter calcoaceticus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berenstein, D.

    1986-01-01

    UV-induction of prophage P78 of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus increased with the UV-dose given to the lysogenic strain from the spontaneous induction frequency of about 0.8% to a maximal frequency of 10%. This 10- to 20-fold increase of induction frequency, as measured by the number of infective ce...

  7. Complete Genome Sequence of Methylobacterium sp. Strain AMS5, an Isolate from a Soybean Stem

    OpenAIRE

    Minami, Tomoyuki; Ohtsubo, Yoshiyuki; Anda, Mizue; Nagata, Yuji; Tsuda, Masataka; Mitsui, Hisayuki; Sugawara, Masayuki; Minamisawa, Kiwamu

    2016-01-01

    Nonrhizobial Methylobacterium spp. inhabit the phyllosphere of a wide variety of plants. We report here the complete genome sequence of Methylobacterium sp. AMS5, which was isolated from a soybean stem. The information is useful for understanding the molecular mechanisms of the interaction between nonrhizobial Methylobacterium spp. and plants.

  8. Mixotrophic growth of two thermophilic Methanosarcina strains, Methanosarcina thermophila TM-1 and Methanosarcina sp. SO-2P, on methanol and hydrogen/carbon dioxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mladenovska, Zuzana; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    1997-01-01

    Two thermophilic strains, Methanosarcina thermophila TM-1 and Methanosarcina sp. SO-2P, were capable of mixotrophic growth on methanol and H-2/CO2. Activated carbon was, however, found to be necessary to support good growth. Both strains used hydrogen and methanol simultaneously. When methanol...... was depleted, hydrogen utilization continued and methane was further produced with concurrent cell growth. UV epifluorescence microscopy revealed that aggregates of both strains exhibited a bright red fluorescence besides the usual blue-green fluorescence....

  9. Pesticide tolerant and phosphorus solubilizing Pseudomonas sp. strain SGRAJ09 isolated from pesticides treated Achillea clavennae rhizosphere soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajasankar, R; Manju Gayathry, G; Sathiavelu, A; Ramalingam, C; Saravanan, V S

    2013-05-01

    In this study, an attempt was made to identify an effective phosphate solubilizing bacteria from pesticide polluted field soil. Based on the formation of solubilization halo on Pikovskaya's agar, six isolates were selected and screened for pesticide tolerance and phosphate (P) solubilization ability through liquid assay. The results showed that only one strain (SGRAJ09) obtained from Achillea clavennae was found to tolerate maximum level of the pesticides tested and it was phylogenetically identified as Pseudomonas sp. It possessed a wide range of pesticide tolerance, ranging from 117 μg mL(-1) for alphamethrin to 2,600 μg mL(-1) for endosulfan. The available P concentrations increased with the maximum and double the maximum dose of monocrotophos and imidacloprid, respectively. On subjected to FT-IR and HPLC analysis, the presence of organic acids functional group in the culture broth and the production of gluconic acid as dominant acid aiding the P solubilization were identified. On comparison with control broth, monocrotophos and imidacloprid added culture broth showed quantitatively high organic acids production. In addition to gluconic acid production, citric and acetic acids were also observed in the pesticide amended broth. Furthermore, the Pseudomonas sp. strain SGRAJ09 possessed all the plant growth promoting traits tested. In presence of monocrotophos and imidacloprid, its plant growth promoting activities were lower than that of the pesticides unamended treatment.

  10. Approach toward enhancement of halophilic protease production by Halobacterium sp. strain LBU50301 using statistical design response surface methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julalak Chuprom

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A new potent halophilic protease producer, Halobacterium sp. strain LBU50301 was isolated from salt-fermented fish samples (budu and identified by phenotypic analysis, and 16S rDNA gene sequencing. Thereafter, sequential statistical strategy was used to optimize halophilic protease production from Halobacterium sp. strain LBU50301 by shake-flask fermentation. The classical one-factor-at-a-time (OFAT approach determined gelatin was the best nitrogen source. Based on Plackett–Burman (PB experimental design; gelatin, MgSO4·7H2O, NaCl and pH significantly influenced the halophilic protease production. Central composite design (CCD determined the optimum level of medium components. Subsequently, an 8.78-fold increase in corresponding halophilic protease yield (156.22 U/mL was obtained, compared with that produced in the original medium (17.80 U/mL. Validation experiments proved the adequacy and accuracy of model, and the results showed the predicted value agreed well with the experimental values. An overall 13-fold increase in halophilic protease yield was achieved using a 3 L laboratory fermenter and optimized medium (231.33 U/mL.

  11. Influence of growth medium on cometabolic degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by Sphingomonas sp. strain PheB4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong Yin; Wang Xiaowei [Sun Yat-Sen Univ., Guangzhou (China). State Key Lab. of Biocontrol; Futian-CityU Mangrove Research and Development Centre, Shenzhen (China). Futian National Nature Reserve; Luan Tiangang; Lan Chongyu [Sun Yat-Sen Univ., Guangzhou (China). State Key Lab. of Biocontrol; Tam, N.F.Y. [Futian-CityU Mangrove Research and Development Centre, Shenzhen (China). Futian National Nature Reserve; City Univ. of Hong Kong, Kowloon (China). Dept. of Biology and Chemistry

    2007-05-15

    The influence of growth medium on cometabolic degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was investigated when Sphingomonas sp. strain PheB4 isolated from surface mangrove sediments was grown in either phenanthrene-containing mineral salts medium (PMSM) or nutrient broth (NB). The NB-grown culture exhibited a more rapid cometabolic degradation of single and mixed non-growth substrate PAHs compared to the PMSM-grown culture. The concentrations of PAH metabolites were also lower in NB-grown culture than in PMSM-grown culture, suggesting that NB-grown culture removed metabolites at a faster rate, particularly, for metabolites produced from cometabolic degradation of a binary mixture of PAHs. Cometabolic pathways of single PAH (anthracene, fluorene, or fluoranthene) in NB-grown culture showed similarity to that in PMSM-grown culture. However, cometabolic pathways of mixed PAHs were more diverse in NB-grown culture than that in PMSM-grown culture. These results indicated that nutrient rich medium was effective in enhancing cometabolic degradation of mixed PAHs concomitant with a rapid removal of metabolites, which could be useful for the bioremediation of mixed PAHs contaminated sites using Sphingomonas sp. strain PheB4. (orig.)

  12. Influence of growth medium on cometabolic degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by Sphingomonas sp. strain PheB4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Yin; Luan, Tiangang; Wang, Xiaowei; Lan, Chongyu; Tam, Nora F Y

    2007-05-01

    The influence of growth medium on cometabolic degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was investigated when Sphingomonas sp. strain PheB4 isolated from surface mangrove sediments was grown in either phenanthrene-containing mineral salts medium (PMSM) or nutrient broth (NB). The NB-grown culture exhibited a more rapid cometabolic degradation of single and mixed non-growth substrate PAHs compared to the PMSM-grown culture. The concentrations of PAH metabolites were also lower in NB-grown culture than in PMSM-grown culture, suggesting that NB-grown culture removed metabolites at a faster rate, particularly, for metabolites produced from cometabolic degradation of a binary mixture of PAHs. Cometabolic pathways of single PAH (anthracene, fluorene, or fluoranthene) in NB-grown culture showed similarity to that in PMSM-grown culture. However, cometabolic pathways of mixed PAHs were more diverse in NB-grown culture than that in PMSM-grown culture. These results indicated that nutrient rich medium was effective in enhancing cometabolic degradation of mixed PAHs concomitant with a rapid removal of metabolites, which could be useful for the bioremediation of mixed PAHs contaminated sites using Sphingomonas sp. strain PheB4.

  13. Yeast extract promotes decolorization of azo dyes by stimulating azoreductase activity in Shewanella sp. strain IFN4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imran, Muhammad; Arshad, Muhammad; Negm, Fayek; Khalid, Azeem; Shaharoona, Baby; Hussain, Sabir; Mahmood Nadeem, Sajid; Crowley, David E

    2016-02-01

    Biological treatment of azo dyes commonly requires a combined anaerobic-aerobic process in which initial decolorization is achieved by reductive cleavage of azo bonds on the parent molecule. The present study was conducted to examine the relative importance of co-substrates for driving reductive decolorization of azo dyes by Shewanella sp. strain IFN4 using whole cells and enzyme assays. Results showed that the dye decolorization by strain IFN4 was faster in medium containing 1gL(-1) yeast extract (YE) as compared to nine other co-substrates. Moreover, only YE stimulated azoreductase activity (increased from 1.32 to 4.19U/mg protein). Increasing the level of YE up to 8gL(-)(1) resulted into 81% decolorization of the dye in 1h along with an increase in azoreductase activity up to 6.16U/mg protein. Among the components of YE, only riboflavin stimulated the decolorization process as well as enzyme activity. Moreover, strain IFN4 demonstrated flavin reductase activity, and a significant correlation (r(2)=0.98) between flavin reduction and dye reduction by this strain emphasized the involvement of flavin compounds in the decolorization process. The results of this study show that YE serves both as a source of reducing equivalents and an electron shuttle for catalyzing dye reduction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Analysing the dhaT gene in Colombian Clostridium sp. (Clostridia 1,3-propanediol-producing strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Milena Quilaguy-Ayure

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available To analyze the dhaT gene, one of the genes responsible for the 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PD production, in two native Clostridiumstrains. Materials and methods: The dhaT gene was amplified by Polimerase Chain Reaction with specific primers designed fromClostridium butyricum VPI1718 operon. Bioinformatics tools like BLASTN, ORF finder, BLASTP and ClustalW were used to determinethe identity of the sequence and to assign a function. Results: DNA amplification products were obtained from Colombian Clostridium sp.native strains (IBUN 13A and IBUN 158B and the Clostridium butyricum DSM 2478 strain, which were sequenced. According to thebioinformatics analysis of the above sequences, a high degree of similarity was found with the dhaT gene of different bacterial species. Thehighest percentage of identity was obtained with the Clostridium butyricum VPI 1718 strain. Conclusion: knowledge of the physicalstructure of the 1,3-PD operon in native strains opens the way for developing genetic and metabolic engineering strategies for improvingprocesses productivity.

  15. Microbial community dynamics during the bioremediation process of chlorimuron-ethyl-contaminated soil by Hansschlegelia sp. strain CHL1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liqiang Yang

    Full Text Available Long-term and excessive application of chlorimuron-ethyl has led to a series of environmental problems. Strain Hansschlegelia sp. CHL1, a highly efficient chlorimuron-ethyl degrading bacterium isolated in our previous study, was employed in the current soil bioremediation study. The residues of chlorimuron-ethyl in soils were detected, and the changes of soil microbial communities were investigated by phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA analysis. The results showed that strain CHL1 exhibited significant chlorimuron-ethyl degradation ability at wide range of concentrations between 10μg kg-1 and 1000μg kg-1. High concentrations of chlorimuron-ethyl significantly decreased the total concentration of PLFAs and the Shannon-Wiener indices and increased the stress level of microbes in soils. The inoculation with strain CHL1, however, reduced the inhibition on soil microbes caused by chlorimuron-ethyl. The results demonstrated that strain CHL1 is effective in the remediation of chlorimuron-ethyl-contaminated soil, and has the potential to remediate chlorimuron-ethyl contaminated soils in situ.

  16. Characterization of the Polyurethanolytic Activity of Two Alicycliphilus sp. Strains Able To Degrade Polyurethane and N-Methylpyrrolidone▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oceguera-Cervantes, Alejandro; Carrillo-García, Agustín; López, Néstor; Bolaños-Nuñez, Sandra; Cruz-Gómez, M. Javier; Wacher, Carmen; Loza-Tavera, Herminia

    2007-01-01

    Two bacterial strains (BQ1 and BQ8) were isolated from decomposed soft foam. These were selected for their capacity to grow in a minimal medium (MM) supplemented with a commercial surface-coating polyurethane (PU) (Hydroform) as the carbon source (MM-PUh). Both bacterial strains were identified as Alicycliphilus sp. by comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Growth in MM-PUh showed hyperbolic behavior, with BQ1 producing higher maximum growth (17.8 ± 0.6 mg·ml−1) than BQ8 (14.0 ± 0.6 mg·ml−1) after 100 h of culture. Nuclear magnetic resonance, Fourier transform infrared (IR) spectroscopy, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses of Hydroform showed that it was a polyester PU type which also contained N-methylpyrrolidone (NMP) as an additive. Alicycliphilus sp. utilizes NMP during the first stage of growth and was able to use it as the sole carbon and nitrogen source, with calculated Ks values of about 8 mg·ml−1. Enzymatic activities related to PU degradation (esterase, protease, and urease activities) were tested by using differential media and activity assays in cell-free supernatants of bacterial cultures in MM-PUh. Induction of esterase activity in inoculated MM-PUh, but not that of protease or urease activities, was observed at 12 h of culture. Esterase activity reached its maximum at 18 h and was maintained at 50% of its maximal activity until the end of the analysis (120 h). The capacity of Alicycliphilus sp. to degrade PU was demonstrated by changes in the PU IR spectrum and by the numerous holes produced in solid PU observed by scanning electron microscopy after bacterial culture. Changes in the PU IR spectra indicate that an esterase activity is involved in PU degradation. PMID:17693569

  17. Characterization of the polyurethanolytic activity of two Alicycliphilus sp. strains able to degrade polyurethane and N-methylpyrrolidone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oceguera-Cervantes, Alejandro; Carrillo-García, Agustín; López, Néstor; Bolaños-Nuñez, Sandra; Cruz-Gómez, M Javier; Wacher, Carmen; Loza-Tavera, Herminia

    2007-10-01

    Two bacterial strains (BQ1 and BQ8) were isolated from decomposed soft foam. These were selected for their capacity to grow in a minimal medium (MM) supplemented with a commercial surface-coating polyurethane (PU) (Hydroform) as the carbon source (MM-PUh). Both bacterial strains were identified as Alicycliphilus sp. by comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Growth in MM-PUh showed hyperbolic behavior, with BQ1 producing higher maximum growth (17.8 +/- 0.6 mg.ml(-1)) than BQ8 (14.0 +/- 0.6 mg.ml(-1)) after 100 h of culture. Nuclear magnetic resonance, Fourier transform infrared (IR) spectroscopy, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses of Hydroform showed that it was a polyester PU type which also contained N-methylpyrrolidone (NMP) as an additive. Alicycliphilus sp. utilizes NMP during the first stage of growth and was able to use it as the sole carbon and nitrogen source, with calculated K(s) values of about 8 mg.ml(-1). Enzymatic activities related to PU degradation (esterase, protease, and urease activities) were tested by using differential media and activity assays in cell-free supernatants of bacterial cultures in MM-PUh. Induction of esterase activity in inoculated MM-PUh, but not that of protease or urease activities, was observed at 12 h of culture. Esterase activity reached its maximum at 18 h and was maintained at 50% of its maximal activity until the end of the analysis (120 h). The capacity of Alicycliphilus sp. to degrade PU was demonstrated by changes in the PU IR spectrum and by the numerous holes produced in solid PU observed by scanning electron microscopy after bacterial culture. Changes in the PU IR spectra indicate that an esterase activity is involved in PU degradation.

  18. Draft genome sequences of eight bacteria isolated from the indoor environment: Staphylococcus capitis strain H36, S. capitis strain H65, S. cohnii strain H62, S. hominis strain H69, Microbacterium sp. strain H83, Mycobacterium iranicum strain H39, Plantibacter sp. strain H53, and Pseudomonas oryzihabitans strain H72.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lymperopoulou, Despoina S; Coil, David A; Schichnes, Denise; Lindow, Steven E; Jospin, Guillaume; Eisen, Jonathan A; Adams, Rachel I

    2017-01-01

    We report here the draft genome sequences of eight bacterial strains of the genera Staphylococcus, Microbacterium, Mycobacterium, Plantibacter, and Pseudomonas. These isolates were obtained from aerosol sampling of bathrooms of five residences in the San Francisco Bay area. Taxonomic classifications as well as the genome sequence and gene annotation of the isolates are described. As part of the "Built Environment Reference Genome" project, these isolates and associated genome data provide valuable resources for studying the microbiology of the built environment.

  19. Growth of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii in acetate-free medium when co-cultured with alginate-encapsulated, acetate-producing strains of Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Therien, Jesse B; Zadvornyy, Oleg A; Posewitz, Matthew C; Bryant, Donald A; Peters, John W

    2014-01-01

    The model alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii requires acetate as a co-substrate for optimal production of lipids, and the addition of acetate to culture media has practical and economic implications for algal biofuel production. Here we demonstrate the growth of C. reinhardtii on acetate provided by mutant strains of the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002. Optimal growth conditions for co-cultivation of C. reinhardtii with wild-type and mutant strains of Synechococcus sp. 7002 were established. In co-culture, acetate produced by a glycogen synthase knockout mutant of Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 was able to support the growth of a lipid-accumulating mutant strain of C. reinhardtii defective in starch production. Encapsulation of Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 using an alginate matrix was successfully employed in co-cultures to limit growth and maintain the stability. The ability of immobilized strains of the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 to produce acetate at a level adequate to support the growth of lipid-accumulating strains of C. reinhartdii offers a potentially practical, photosynthetic alternative to providing exogenous acetate into growth media.

  20. First Report of NDM-1-Producing Acinetobacter guillouiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bošnjak, Zrinka; Plecko, Vanda; Budimir, Ana; Mareković, Ivana; Bedenić, Branka

    2014-01-01

    Acinetobacter spp. is an opportunistic pathogen that has demonstrated increasing relevance in nosocomial infections. Carbapenem-resistant strains have been reported worldwide. Since 2014, screening for metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs) in all Acinetobacter spp. isolates using phenotypic methods and PCR has been implemented at the University Hospital Center Zagreb. The bacterial strain was isolated from the drain of a child hospitalized in a paediatric intensive care unit and identified as Acinetobacter guillouiae using a MALDI TOF automated system. The strain was resistant to meropenem, ceftazidime, cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, cefepime, sulbactam/ampicillin, gentamicin and ciprofloxacin, intermediately susceptible to piperacillin/tazobactam and imipenem, and susceptible to amikacin and colistin. The Hodge test and combined disk test with EDTA were positive. The MICs of meropenem and imipenem were not reduced by cloxacillin, but a small reduction of two dilutions was observed following the addition of sodium chloride, which indicated that OXA-58 was produced. PCR and sequencing of chromosomal DNA from boiled colonies revealed blaOXA-58 and blaNDM-1 genes. This is the first report of NDM-1 in Acinetobacter spp. in Croatia. The early detection of these genes will aid in the prevention and in the achievement of adequate infection control by limiting the spread of these organisms. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Complete Genome Sequence of the d-Amino Acid Catabolism Bacterium Phaeobacter sp. Strain JL2886, Isolated from Deep Seawater of the South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yingnan; Wang, Rui

    2016-01-01

    Phaeobacter sp. strain JL2886, isolated from deep seawater of the South China Sea, can catabolize d-amino acids. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of Phaeobacter sp. JL2886. It comprises ~4.06 Mbp, with a G+C content of 61.52%. A total of 3,913 protein-coding genes and 10 genes related to d-amino acid catabolism were obtained. PMID:27587825

  2. Bioaugmentation with Pseudomonas sp. strain MHP41 promotes simazine attenuation and bacterial community changes in agricultural soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgante, Verónica; López-López, Arantxa; Flores, Cecilia; González, Myriam; González, Bernardo; Vásquez, Mónica; Rosselló-Mora, Ramón; Seeger, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Bioremediation is an important technology for the removal of persistent organic pollutants from the environment. Bioaugmentation with the encapsulated Pseudomonas sp. strain MHP41 of agricultural soils contaminated with the herbicide simazine was studied. The experiments were performed in microcosm trials using two soils: soil that had never been previously exposed to s-triazines (NS) and soil that had >20 years of s-triazine application (AS). The efficiency of the bioremediation process was assessed by monitoring simazine removal by HPLC. The simazine-degrading microbiota was estimated using an indicator for respiration combined with most-probable-number enumeration. The soil bacterial community structures and the effect of bioaugmentation on these communities were determined using 16S RNA gene clone libraries and FISH analysis. Bioaugmentation with MHP41 cells enhanced simazine degradation and increased the number of simazine-degrading microorganisms in the two soils. In highly contaminated NS soil, bioaugmentation with strain MHP41 was essential for simazine removal. Comparative analysis of 16S rRNA gene clone libraries from NS and AS soils revealed high bacterial diversity. Bioaugmentation with strain MHP41 promoted soil bacterial community shifts. FISH analysis revealed that bioaugmentation increased the relative abundances of two phylogenetic groups (Acidobacteria and Planctomycetes) in both soils. Although members of the Archaea were metabolically active in these soils, their relative abundance was not altered by bioaugmentation.

  3. Complete Genome Sequencing of Mycobacterium bovis SP38 and Comparative Genomics of Mycobacterium bovis and M. tuberculosis Strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimpel, Cristina Kraemer; Brandão, Paulo E.; de Souza Filho, Antônio F.; de Souza, Robson F.; Ikuta, Cássia Y.; Ferreira Neto, José Soares; Camargo, Naila C. Soler; Heinemann, Marcos Bryan; Guimarães, Ana M. S.

    2017-01-01

    Mycobacterium bovis causes bovine tuberculosis and is the main organism responsible for zoonotic tuberculosis in humans. We performed the sequencing, assembly and annotation of a Brazilian strain of M. bovis named SP38, and performed comparative genomics of M. bovis genomes deposited in GenBank. M. bovis SP38 has a traditional tuberculous mycobacterium genome of 4,347,648 bp, with 65.5% GC, and 4,216 genes. The majority of CDSs (2,805, 69.3%) have predictive function, while 1,206 (30.07%) are hypothetical. For comparative analysis, 31 M. bovis, 32 M. bovis BCG, and 23 Mycobacterium tuberculosis genomes available in GenBank were selected. M. bovis RDs (regions of difference) and Clonal Complexes (CC) were identified in silico. Genome dynamics of bacterial groups were analyzed by gene orthology and polymorphic sites identification. M. bovis polymorphic sites were used to construct a phylogenetic tree. Our RD analyses resulted in the exclusion of three genomes, mistakenly annotated as virulent M. bovis. M. bovis SP38 along with strain 35 represent the first report of CC European 2 in Brazil, whereas two other M. bovis strains failed to be classified within current CC. Results of M. bovis orthologous genes analysis suggest a process of genome remodeling through genomic decay and gene duplication. Quantification, pairwise comparisons and distribution analyses of polymorphic sites demonstrate greater genetic variability of M. tuberculosis when compared to M. bovis and M. bovis BCG (p ≤ 0.05), indicating that currently defined M. tuberculosis lineages are more genetically diverse than M. bovis CC and animal-adapted MTC (M. tuberculosis Complex) species. As expected, polymorphic sites annotation shows that M. bovis BCG are subjected to different evolutionary pressures when compared to virulent mycobacteria. Lastly, M. bovis phylogeny indicates that polymorphic sites may be used as markers of M. bovis lineages in association with CC. Our findings highlight the need to

  4. Phenotypic and Genotypic Antimicrobial Resistance of Lactococcus Sp. Strains Isolated from Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus Mykiss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ture Mustafa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A current profile of antimicrobial resistance and plasmid of 29 Lactococcus garvieae and one Lactococcus lactis strains isolated from rainbow trouts (Oncorhynchus mykiss from farms throughout Turkey were investigated. All isolates were sensitive to penicillin G (90%, ampicillin (86.7%, florfenicol (83.3%, amoxicillin (80.1%, and tetracycline (73.4%, and resistant to trimethoprim+sulfamethoxazole (86.6% and gentamycin (46.6% by disc diffusion method. Twenty-eight (93% isolates had two to seven antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs determined by PCR. The most prevalent ARGs were tetracycline (tetB, erythromycin (ereB, and β-lactam (blaTEM. Bacterial strains were also screened for plasmid DNA by agarose gel electrophoresis and two strains harboured plasmids, with sizes ranging from 3 to 9 kb.

  5. Physicochemical effects on sulfite transformation in a lipid-rich Chlorella sp. strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Fang; Wen, Xiaobin; Luo, Liming; Geng, Yahong; Li, Yeguang

    2014-11-01

    SO2 is very rapidly hydrated to sulfurous acid in water solution at pH value above 6.0, whereby sulfite is yielded from the disassociation of protons. We aimed to improve the sulfite transformation efficiency and provide a basis for the direct utilization of SO2 from flue gas by a microalgal suspension. Chlorella sp. XQ-20044 was cultured in a medium with 20 mmol/L sodium sulfite under different physicochemical conditions. Under light conditions, sulfite concentration in the algal suspension reduced linearly over time, and was completely converted into sulfate within 8 h. The highest sulfite transformation rate (3.25 mmol/(L·h)) was obtained under the following conditions: 35°C, light intensity of 300 μmol/(m2·s), NaHCO3 concentration of 6 g/L, initial cell density (OD540) of 0.8 and pH of 9-10. There was a positive correlation between sulfite transformation rate and the growth of Chlorella, with the conditions favorable to algal growth giving better sulfite transformation. Although oxygen in the air plays a role in the transformation of SO2- 3 to SO2- 4, the transformation is mainly dependent on the metabolic activity of algal cells. Chlorella sp. XQ-20044 is capable of tolerating high sulfite concentration, and can utilize sulfite as the sole sulfur source for maintaining healthy growth. We found that sulfite ≤20 mmol/L had no obvious effect on the total lipid content and fatty acid profiles of the algae. Thus, the results suggest it is feasible to use flue gas for the mass production of feedstock for biodiesel using Chlorella sp. XQ-20044, without preliminary removal of SO2, assuming there is adequate control of the pH.

  6. Pseudomonas sp. strain MF30 suppresses Fusarium wilt of tomato in vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Berndt Gerhardson; Idress H. Attitalla; P. Maria Johansson; Sture Brishammar

    2001-01-01

    In a search of bacterial biological control agents, 50 bacterial isolates collected from roots of wild plants in northern Sweden were tested in vivo for suppression of wilt of tomato caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. Tomato plants were sown in 10-cm-diam. pots and after 21 d 7 ml of bacterial suspension (ca. 2x109 cfu ml-1) was poured into the soil around each plant. Two days later, 10 ml of pathogen suspension was soil-inoculated (106 conidia ml-1) around the same ...

  7. Colistin Dosage without Loading Dose Is Efficacious when Treating Carbapenem-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia Caused by Strains with High Susceptibility to Colistin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Marín, Rocío; López-Rojas, Rafael; Márquez, Juan Antonio; Gómez, María José; Molina, José; Cisneros, José Miguel; Ortiz-Leyba, Carlos; Aznar, Javier; Garnacho-Montero, José; Pachón, Jerónimo

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to analyze the mortality and the length of ICU stay (LOS) of A. baumannii VAP compared to respiratory colonization in patients with mechanical ventilation (MV). A prospective cohort study was performed in an ICU of adult patients (February 2010-June 2011). One hundred patients on MV with A. baumannii in lower respiratory airways were recruited, and classified as VAP or airways colonization according to CPIS criteria, with a punctuation ≥6. LOS, 30-days mortality, A. baumannii bacteremia, and clinical features including antibiotic therapy were recorded. Multivariate analysis (linear and Cox regression) and survival analysis (Kaplan-Meier curves) were performed. Fifty-seven VAP and 43 colonized A. baumannii patients were analyzed. Among the A. baumannii strains, 99% were non-susceptible to carbapenems and the MIC90 of colistin was 0.12 mg/l. Therapy was appropriate in 94.6% of VAP patients, most of them with colistin 6 MIU/day, although in 13 (23.6%) cases colistin was started 48 hours after the onset of VAP. Mortality was similar in both groups (VAP 24.6% vs. colonized 27.9%, p = 0.7). Bacteremia and acute kidney insufficiency were associated with decreased survival (p = 0.02 and p = 0.04, respectively) in VAP patients. LOS was 21.5 (11.5-42.75) vs. 9 (6-22) days for VAP and colonized patients (p = 0.004). VAP (p = 0.003) and age (p = 0.01) were independently related to a longer LOS. Multidrug-resistant A. baumannii VAP treated with colistin does not have a different mortality compared to lower airways colonization, among patients on mechanical-ventilation, in a setting of high susceptibility to colistin of A. baumannii.

  8. Draft Genome Sequence of Hymenobacter sp. Strain AT01-02, Isolated from a Surface Soil Sample in the Atacama Desert, Chile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anders Cai Holm; Paulino-Lima, Ivan Glaucio; Fujishima, Kosuke

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the 5.09-Mb draft genome sequence of Hymenobacter sp. strain AT01-02, which was isolated from a surface soil sample in the Atacama Desert, Chile. The isolate is extremely resistant to UV-C radiation and is able to accumulate high intracellular levels of Mn/Fe.......Here, we report the 5.09-Mb draft genome sequence of Hymenobacter sp. strain AT01-02, which was isolated from a surface soil sample in the Atacama Desert, Chile. The isolate is extremely resistant to UV-C radiation and is able to accumulate high intracellular levels of Mn/Fe....

  9. Penicillium donkii sp. nov. and some observations on sclerotial strains of Penicillium funiculosum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolk, Amelia C.

    1973-01-01

    A description and drawings of a new species of Penicillium, P. donkii, are presented. Penicillium purpurogenum Stoll var. rubri-sclerotium Thom is considered a synonym of P. funiculosum Thom. Some observations are recorded, especially in connection with the cultural appearance of sclerotial strains

  10. Degradation of 1,2-Dibromoethane by Mycobacterium sp. Strain GP1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poelarends, Gerrit J.; van Hylckama Vlieg, Johannes; Marchesi, Julian R.; Freitas dos Santos, Luisa M.; Janssen, Dick B.

    The newly isolated bacterial strain GP1 can utilize 1,2-dibromoethane as the sole carbon and energy source. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the organism was identified as a member of the subgroup which contains the fast-growing mycobacteria, The first step in 1,2-dibromoethane

  11. Phylogeny of bacteria isolated from Rhabditis sp. (Nematoda) and identification of novel entomopathogenic Serratia marcescens strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambong, James T

    2013-02-01

    Twenty-five bacterial strains isolated from entomopathogenic nematodes were characterized to the genus level by 16S rRNA phylogeny and BLAST analyses. Bacteria strains isolated could be affiliated with seven genera. Microbacterium-like isolates phylogenetically affiliated with M. oxydans while those of Serratia were highly similar to S. marcescens. 16S rRNA sequences of Bacillus isolates matched those of both B. mycoides and B. weihenstephanesis. One isolate each matched Pseudomonas mosselii, Rheinheimera aquimaris, Achromobacter marplatensis, or Staphylococcus hominis. Serratia isolates were examined further for their pathogenicity to Galleria mellonella larvae. All the Serratia isolates exhibited potent pathogenicity toward G. mellonella larvae and possessed a metalloprotease gene encoding for a novel serralysin-like protein. The nucleotide sequence of the metalloprotease gene had 60 synonymous and 8 nonsynonymous substitutions when compared to the closest genBank entry, S. marcescens E-15, with an insertion of a new aspartic acid residue. Tajima's test for equality of evolutionary rate was significant between the metalloprotease gene sequence of S. marcescens strain DOAB 216-82 (this study) and strain E-15. This new insecticidal metalloprotease gene and/or its product could have applications in agricultural biotechnology.

  12. Safety and persistence of orally administered human Lactobacillus sp. strains in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hütt, P; Kõll, P; Stsepetova, J; Alvarez, B; Mändar, R; Krogh-Andersen, K; Marcotte, H; Hammarström, L; Mikelsaar, M

    2011-03-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the safety and persistence of selected Lactobacillus strains in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of healthy adult volunteers after oral consumption of high doses of lactobacilli to identify potential candidates for probiotic and biotechnological applications. In the first phase of the study, nine individuals consumed capsules containing Lactobacillus gasseri 177 and E16B7, Lactobacillus acidophilus 821-3, Lactobacillus paracasei 317 and Lactobacillus fermentum 338-1-1 (each daily dose 1×1010 cfu) for 5 consecutive days. Data on gut health, blood parameters, and liver and kidney function were collected. The persistence of Lactobacillus strains was assessed by culturing combined with arbitrarily primed polymerase chain reaction (AP-PCR) and PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) on days 0, 5, 8, 10 and 20 from faecal samples. All strains survived gastrointestinal passage and were detected on the 5th day. L. acidophilus 821-3 was detected in four volunteers on the 8th day (4.3 to 7.0 log10 cfu/g) and in two on the 10th day (8.3 and 3.9 log10 cfu/g, respectively). In the second phase of the study, five additional volunteers consumed L. acidophilus 821-3 (daily 1×1010 cfu) for 5 consecutive days. The strain was subsequently detected in faeces of all individuals using real-time PCR on the 10th day (range 4.6-6.7; median 6.0 log10 cell/g) in both phases of the study for at least 5 days after discontinuation of consumption. The administration of high doses of different Lactobacillus strains did not result in any severe adverse effects in GIT and/or abnormal values of blood indices. Thus, the strain L. acidophilus 821-3 is a promising candidate for probiotic and biotechnological applications. Further studies will be performed to confirm the strain persistence and safety in a larger number of individuals.

  13. Two new antioxidant actinosporin analogues from the calcium alginate beads culture of sponge-associated Actinokineospora sp. strain EG49.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grkovic, Tanja; Abdelmohsen, Usama Ramadan; Othman, Eman Maher; Stopper, Helga; Edrada-Ebel, RuAngelie; Hentschel, Ute; Quinn, Ronald J

    2014-11-01

    Marine sponge-associated actinomycetes represent an exciting new resource for the identification of new and novel natural products . Previously, we have reported the isolation and structural elucidation of actinosporins A (1) and B (2) from Actinokineospora sp. strain EG49 isolated from the marine sponge Spheciospongia vagabunda. Herein, by employing different fermentation conditions on the same microorganism, we report on the isolation and antioxidant activity of structurally related metabolites, actinosporins C (3) and D (4). The antioxidant potential of actinosporins C and D was demonstrated using the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. Additionally, at 1.25 μM, actinosporins C and D showed a significant antioxidant and protective capacity from the genomic damage induced by hydrogen peroxide in the human promyelocytic (HL-60) cell line. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of maleylacetate reductase from Rhizobium sp. strain MTP-10005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, Tomomi; Goda, Yuko [Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Yoshida, Masahiro; Oikawa, Tadao [Department of Life Science and Biotechnology, Faculty of Chemistry, Materials and Bioengineering, Kansai University, Suita, Osaka 564-8680 (Japan); Hata, Yasuo, E-mail: hata@scl.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan)

    2008-08-01

    Maleylacetate reductase from Rhizobium sp. strain MTP-10005 has been crystallized using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method and microseeding. The crystals contained one dimeric molecule per asymmetric unit and diffracted to 1.79 Å resolution. Maleylacetate reductase (EC 1.3.1.32), which catalyzes the reduction of maleylacetate to 3-oxoadipate, plays an important role in the aerobic microbial catabolism of resorcinol. The enzyme has been crystallized at 293 K by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method supplemented with a microseeding technique, using ammonium sulfate as the precipitating agent. The crystal belonged to the monoclinic space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 56.85, b = 121.13, c = 94.09 Å, β = 101.48°, and contained one dimeric molecule in the asymmetric unit. It diffracted to 1.79 Å resolution.

  15. Molecular characterization and antibacterial effect of endophytic actinomycetes Nocardiopsis sp. GRG1 (KT235640 from brown algae against MDR strains of uropathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govindan Rajivgandhi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Our study is to evaluate the potential bioactive compound of Nocardiopsis sp. GRG1 (KT235640 and its antibacterial activity against multi drug resistant strains (MDRS on urinary tract infections (UTIs. Two brown algae samples were collected and were subjected to isolation of endophytic actinomycetes. 100 strains of actinomycetes were isolated from algal samples based on observation of morphology and physiological characters. 40 strains were active in antagonistic activity against various clinical pathogens. Among the strains, 10 showed better antimicrobial activity against MDRS on UTIs. The secondary metabolite of Nocardiopsis sp. GRG1 (KT235640 has showed tremendous antibacterial activity against UTI pathogens compared to other strains. Influence of various growth parameters were used for synthesis of secondary metabolites, such as optimum pH 7, incubation time 5–7 days, temperature (30 °C, salinity (5%, fructose and mannitol as the suitable carbon and nitrogen sources. At 100 μg/ml concentration MIC of Nocardiopsis sp. GRG1 (KT235640 showed highest percentage of inhibition against Proteus mirabilis (85%, and E.coli, Staphylococcus auerues, Psuedomonas aeroginasa, Enterobactor sp and Coagulinase negative staphylococci 78–85% respectively.

  16. THE RESISTANCE TO ANTIBIOTICS IN STRAINS OF E. COLI AND ENTEROCOCCUS SP. ISOLATED FROM RECTAL SWABS OF LAMBS AND CALVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IVANA NOVÁKOVÁ

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available he aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and antibiotic resistance of enterococcii and E. coli strains isolated from dairy calves and lambs. Susceptibilities of isolated enterococci were tested using the disk diffusion method. The interpretation of inhibition zones around the disks was according to CLSI 2004 Performance standards for antimicrobial susceptibility testing. In our study, all isolates (E. coli and enterococci were multiresistant (100% to tetracycline, streptomycin and compound sulphonamides. Lower levels of resistance to enrofloxacin were noted. Antimicrobial resistance profiles of Enterococcus sp. isolated from lambs indicated that the highest percentage of susceptibility was exhibited to tetracycline (100% and streptomycin (100% and compound sulphonamides (100%. The intermediate resistance was exhibited against compound enrofloxacin (80%. The high frequencies of resistant isolates of Enterococcus sp. from calves were documented in tetracycline (100%, streptomycin (100% and compound sulphonamides (100% and enrofloxacin (50%. The high percentage (compound sulphonamides-100%, tetracycline-100% and streptomycin- 100% of multiresistant E. coli (isolates from dairy calves was noticed. There were no significant correlations between groups.

  17. Direct Adherence of Fe(III Particles onto Sheaths of Leptothrix sp. Strain OUMS1 in Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuki Kunoh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Leptothrix species, one of the Fe/Mn-oxidizing bacteria, oxidize Fe(II and produce extracellular, microtubuar, Fe-encrusted sheaths. Since protein(s involved in Fe(II oxidation is excreted from Leptothrix cells, the oxidation from Fe(II to Fe(III and subsequent Fe(III deposition to sheaths have been thought to occur in the vicinity or within the sheaths. Previously, Fe(III particles generated in MSVP medium amended with Fe(II salts by abiotic oxidation were directly recruited onto cell-encasing and/or -free sheaths of L. cholodnii SP-6. In this study, whether this direct Fe(III adherence to sheaths also occurs in silicon-glucose-peptone (SGP medium amended with Fe(0 (SGP + Fe was investigated using another strain of Leptothrix sp., OUMS1. Preparation of SGP + Fe with Fe powder caused turbidity within a few hours due to abiotic generation of Fe(III particles via Fe(II, and the medium remained turbid until day 8. When OUMS1 was added to SGP + Fe, the turbidity of the medium cleared within 35 h as Fe(III particles adhered to sheaths. When primitive sheaths, cell-killed, cell-free, or lysozyme/EDTA/SDS- and proteinase K-treated sheath remnants were mixed with Fe(III particles, the particles immediately adhered to each. Thus, vital activity of cells was not required for the direct Fe(III particle deposition onto sheaths regardless of Leptothrix strains.

  18. Structure, Function, and Regulation of the Aldouronate Utilization Gene Cluster from Paenibacillus sp. Strain JDR-2▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Virginia; Nong, Guang; Preston, James F.

    2007-01-01

    Direct bacterial conversion of the hemicellulose fraction of hardwoods and crop residues to biobased products depends upon extracellular depolymerization of methylglucuronoxylan (MeGAXn), followed by assimilation and intracellular conversion of aldouronates and xylooligosaccharides to fermentable xylose. Paenibacillus sp. strain JDR-2, an aggressively xylanolytic bacterium, secretes a multimodular cell-associated GH10 endoxylanase (XynA1) that catalyzes depolymerization of MeGAXn and rapidly assimilates the principal products, β-1,4-xylobiose, β-1,4-xylotriose, and MeGAX3, the aldotetrauronate 4-O-methylglucuronosyl-α-1,2-xylotriose. Genomic libraries derived from this bacterium have now allowed cloning and sequencing of a unique aldouronate utilization gene cluster comprised of genes encoding signal transduction regulatory proteins, ABC transporter proteins, and the enzymes AguA (GH67 α-glucuronidase), XynA2 (GH10 endoxylanase), and XynB (GH43 β-xylosidase/α-arabinofuranosidase). Expression of these genes, as well as xynA1 encoding the secreted GH10 endoxylanase, is induced by growth on MeGAXn and repressed by glucose. Sequences in the yesN, lplA, and xynA2 genes within the cluster and in the distal xynA1 gene show significant similarity to catabolite responsive element (cre) defined in Bacillus subtilis for recognition of the catabolite control protein (CcpA) and consequential repression of catabolic regulons. The aldouronate utilization gene cluster in Paenibacillus sp. strain JDR-2 operates as a regulon, coregulated with the expression of xynA1, conferring the ability for efficient assimilation and catabolism of the aldouronate product generated by a multimodular cell surface-anchored GH10 endoxylanase. This cluster offers a desirable metabolic potential for bacterial conversion of hemicellulose fractions of hardwood and crop residues to biobased products. PMID:17921311

  19. Biodegradation of methyl red by Bacillus sp. strain UN2: decolorization capacity, metabolites characterization, and enzyme analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ming; Sun, Peng-Fei; Du, Lin-Na; Wang, Guan; Jia, Xiao-Ming; Zhao, Yu-Hua

    2014-05-01

    Azo dyes are recalcitrant and refractory pollutants that constitute a significant menace to the environment. The present study is focused on exploring the capability of Bacillus sp. strain UN2 for application in methyl red (MR) degradation. Effects of physicochemical parameters (pH of medium, temperature, initial concentration of dye, and composition of the medium) were studied in detail. The suitable pH and temperature range for MR degradation by strain UN2 were respectively 7.0-9.0 and 30-40 °C, and the optimal pH value and temperature were respectively 8.0 and 35 °C. Mg(2+) and Mn(2+) (1 mM) were found to significantly accelerate the MR removal rate, while the enhancement by either Fe(3+) or Fe(2+) was slight. Under the optimal degradation conditions, strain UN2 exhibited greater than 98 % degradation of the toxic azo dye MR (100 ppm) within 30 min. Analysis of samples from decolorized culture flasks confirmed biodegradation of MR into two prime metabolites: N,N'dimethyl-p-phenyle-nediamine and 2-aminobenzoic acid. A study of the enzymes responsible for the biodegradation of MR, in the control and cells obtained during (10 min) and after (30 min) degradation, showed a significant increase in the activities of azoreductase, laccase, and NADH-DCIP reductase. Furthermore, a phytotoxicity analysis demonstrated that the germination inhibition was almost eliminated for both the plants Triticum aestivum and Sorghum bicolor by MR metabolites at 100 mg/L concentration, yet the germination inhibition of parent dye was significant. Consequently, the high efficiency of MR degradation enables this strain to be a potential candidate for bioremediation of wastewater containing MR.

  20. Genetic and Biochemical Characterization of 2-Chloro-5-Nitrophenol Degradation in a Newly Isolated Bacterium, Cupriavidus sp. Strain CNP-8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Min

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Compound 2-chloro-5-nitrophenol (2C5NP is a typical chlorinated nitroaromatic pollutant. To date, the bacteria with the ability to degrade 2C5NP are rare, and the molecular mechanism of 2C5NP degradation remains unknown. In this study, Cupriavidus sp. strain CNP-8 utilizing 2-chloro-5-nitrophenol (2C5NP and meta-nitrophenol (MNP via partial reductive pathways was isolated from pesticide-contaminated soil. Biodegradation kinetic analysis indicated that 2C5NP degradation by this strain was concentration dependent, with a maximum specific degradation rate of 21.2 ± 2.3 μM h−1. Transcriptional analysis showed that the mnp genes are up-regulated in both 2C5NP- and MNP-induced strain CNP-8. Two Mnp proteins were purified to homogeneity by Ni-NTA affinity chromatography. In addition to catalyzing the reduction of MNP, MnpA, a NADPH-dependent nitroreductase, also catalyzes the partial reduction of 2C5NP to 2-chloro-5-hydroxylaminophenol via 2-chloro-5-nitrosophenol, which was firstly identified as an intermediate of 2C5NP catabolism. MnpC, an aminohydroquinone dioxygenase, is likely responsible for the ring-cleavage reaction of 2C5NP degradation. Gene knockout and complementation indicated that mnpA is necessary for both 2C5NP and MNP catabolism. To our knowledge, strain CNP-8 is the second 2C5NP-utilizing bacterium, and this is the first report of the molecular mechanism of microbial 2C5NP degradation.

  1. Enhanced degradation of isoproturon in an agricultural soil by a Sphingomonas sp. strain and a microbial consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Renyi; Dörfler, Ulrike; Munch, Jean Charles; Schroll, Reiner

    2017-02-01

    Isoproturon (IPU) degradation in an agricultural soil inoculated with an isolated IPU-degrader strain (Sphingomonas sp. strain AK1, IS) or a microbial consortium (MC) harboring this strain, with or without carrier material, were investigated in soil microcosm experiments during 46 days. Effect of the carrier material and inoculation size on IPU-degradation efficacy of the inoculants were studied. Mineralization, extractable residues and non-extractable residues of 14 C-labeled IPU were analyzed. The low IPU mineralization in untreated soil (7.0%) was enhanced to different extents by inoculation of IS (17.4%-46.0%) or MC (58.9%-67.5%). Concentrations of IPU residues in soils amended with MC (0.002-0.095 μg g dry soil -1 ) were significantly lower than in soils amended with IS (0.02-0.67 μg g dry soil -1 ) and approximately 10 times lower than in the uninoculated soil (0.06-0.80 μg g dry soil -1 ). Less extractable residues and non-extractable residues were detected in soil with higher IPU mineralization. Inoculation size (as indicated by the volume of liquid cultures or by the number of carrier particles) determined the IPU-removal efficacy of IS in soil, but this effect was less pronounced for MC. The low sorption of IPU to soil and the decreasing IPU-mineralizing rates suggested incapability of IS to establish the IPU-mineralizing function in the soil. The thorough removal of IPU and persistent IPU-mineralizing activity of soil inoculated with MC indicated a high persistence of IPU-metabolic trait. Our results showed that microbial consortia might be more efficient than single degrader strains to enhance clean-up of organic chemicals in soil. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Cloning, expression, and characterization of a novel methylglyoxal synthase from Thermus sp. strain GH5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazhang, Mohammad; Khajeh, Khosro; Asghari, S Mohsen; Falahati, Hanieh; Naderi-Manesh, Hossein

    2010-11-01

    A gene encoding methylglyoxal synthase from Thermus sp. GH5 (TMGS) was cloned, sequenced, overexpressed, and purified by Q-Sepharose. The TMGS gene was composed of 399 bp which encoded a polypeptide of 132 amino acids with a molecular mass of 14.3 kDa. The K (m) and k (cat) values of TMGS were 0.56 mM and 325 (s(-1)), respectively. The enzyme exhibited its optimum activity at pH 6 and 75 degrees C. Comparing the amino acid sequences and Hill coefficients of Escherichia coli MGS and TMGS revealed that the loss of Arg 150 in TMGS has caused a decrease in the cooperativity between the enzyme subunits in the presence of phosphate as an allosteric inhibitor. Gel filtration experiments showed that TMGS is a hexameric enzyme, and its quaternary structure did not change in the presence of phosphate.

  3. Biogenic formation of photoactive arsenic-sulfide nanotubes by Shewanella sp. strain HN-41

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ji-Hoon; Kim, Min-Gyu; Yoo, Bongyoung; Myung, Nosang V.; Maeng, Jongsun; Lee, Takhe; Dohnalkova, Alice; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Sadowsky, Michael J.; Hur, Hor-Gil

    2007-12-18

    Microorganisms facilitate the formation of a wide range of minerals that have unique physical and chemical properties as well as morphologies that are not produced by abiotic processes. Here, we report the production of an extensive extracellular network of filamentous, arsenic-sulfide (As-S) nanotubes (20–100 nm in diameter by 30 µm in length) by the dissimilatory metal-reducing bacterium Shewanella sp. HN-41. The As-S nanotubes, formed via the reduction of As(V) and S2O, were initially amorphous As2S3 but evolved with increasing incubation time toward polycrystalline phases of the chalcogenide minerals realgar (AsS) and duranusite (As4S). Upon maturation, the As-S nanotubes behaved as metals and semiconductors in terms of their electrical and photoconductive properties, respectively. The As-S nanotubes produced by Shewanella may provide useful materials for novel nano- and opto-electronic devices.

  4. Influence of Temperature on the Physiology and Virulence of the Insect Pathogen Serratia sp. Strain SCBI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Lauren M.

    2012-01-01

    The physiology of a newly recognized Serratia species, termed South African Caenorhabditis briggsae Isolate (SCBI), which is both a nematode mutualist and an insect pathogen, was investigated and compared to that of Serratia marcescens Db11, a broad-host-range pathogen. The two Serratia strains had comparable levels of virulence for Manduca sexta and similar cytotoxic activity patterns, but motility and lipase and hemolytic activities differed significantly between them. PMID:23042169

  5. Mercury remediation potential of a mercury resistant strain Sphingopyxis sp. SE2 isolated from contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahbub, Khandaker Rayhan; Krishnan, Kannan; Naidu, Ravi; Megharaj, Mallavarapu

    2017-01-01

    A mercury resistant bacterial strain SE2 was isolated from contaminated soil. The 16s rRNA gene sequencing confirms the strain as Sphingopyxis belongs to the Sphingomonadaceae family of the α-Proteobacteria group. The isolate showed high resistance to mercury with estimated concentrations of Hg that caused 50% reduction in growth (EC50) of 5.97 and 6.22mg/L and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 32.19 and 34.95mg/L in minimal and rich media, respectively. The qualitative detection of volatilized mercury and the presence of mercuric reductase enzyme proved that the strain SE2 can potentially remediate mercury. ICP-QQQ-MS analysis of the remaining mercury in experimental broths indicated that a maximum of 44% mercury was volatilized within 6hr by live SE2 culture. Furthermore a small quantity (23%) of mercury was accumulated in live cell pellets. While no volatilization was caused by dead cells, sorption of mercury was confirmed. The mercuric reductase gene merA was amplified and sequenced. Homology was observed among the amino acid sequences of mercuric reductase enzyme of different organisms from α-Proteobacteria and ascomycota groups. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Biological Efficacy of Streptomyces sp. Strain BN1 against the Cereal Head Blight Pathogen Fusarium graminearum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boknam Jung

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium head blight (FHB caused by the filamentous fungus Fusarium graminearum is one of the most severe diseases threatening the production of small grains. Infected grains are often contaminated with mycotoxins such as zearalenone and trichothecences. During survey of contamination by FHB in rice grains, we found a bacterial isolate, designated as BN1, antagonistic to F. graminearum. The strain BN1 had branching vegetative hyphae and spores, and its aerial hyphae often had long, straight filaments bearing spores. The 16S rRNA gene of BN1 had 100% sequence identity with those found in several Streptomyces species. Phylogenetic analysis of ITS regions showed that BN1 grouped with S. sampsonii with 77% bootstrap value, suggesting that BN1 was not a known Streptomyces species. In addition, the efficacy of the BN1 strain against F. graminearum strains was tested both in vitro and in vivo. Wheat seedling length was significantly decreased by F. graminearum infection. However, this effect was mitigated when wheat seeds were treated with BN1 spore suspension prior to F. graminearum infection. BN1 also significantly decreased FHB severity when it was sprayed onto wheat heads, whereas BN1 was not effective when wheat heads were point inoculated. These results suggest that spraying of BN1 spores onto wheat heads during the wheat flowering season can be efficient for plant protection. Mechanistic studies on the antagonistic effect of BN1 against F. graminearum remain to be analyzed.

  7. Iron-Dependent Enzyme Catalyzes the Initial Step in Biodegradation of N-Nitroglycine by Variovorax sp. Strain JS1663.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahan, Kristina M; Zheng, Hangping; Fida, Tekle T; Parry, Ronald J; Graham, David E; Spain, Jim C

    2017-08-01

    Nitramines are key constituents of most of the explosives currently in use and consequently contaminate soil and groundwater at many military facilities around the world. Toxicity from nitramine contamination poses a health risk to plants and animals. Thus, understanding how nitramines are biodegraded is critical to environmental remediation. The biodegradation of synthetic nitramine compounds such as hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) has been studied for decades, but little is known about the catabolism of naturally produced nitramine compounds. In this study, we report the isolation of a soil bacterium, Variovorax sp. strain JS1663, that degrades N-nitroglycine (NNG), a naturally produced nitramine, and the key enzyme involved in its catabolism. Variovorax sp. JS1663 is a Gram-negative, non-spore-forming motile bacterium isolated from activated sludge based on its ability to use NNG as a sole growth substrate under aerobic conditions. A single gene (nnlA) encodes an iron-dependent enzyme that releases nitrite from NNG through a proposed β-elimination reaction. Bioinformatics analysis of the amino acid sequence of NNG lyase identified a PAS (Per-Arnt-Sim) domain. PAS domains can be associated with heme cofactors and function as signal sensors in signaling proteins. This is the first instance of a PAS domain present in a denitration enzyme. The NNG biodegradation pathway should provide the basis for the identification of other enzymes that cleave the N-N bond and facilitate the development of enzymes to cleave similar bonds in RDX, nitroguanidine, and other nitramine explosives.IMPORTANCE The production of antibiotics and other allelopathic chemicals is a major aspect of chemical ecology. The biodegradation of such chemicals can play an important ecological role in mitigating or eliminating the effects of such compounds. N-Nitroglycine (NNG) is produced by the Gram-positive filamentous soil bacterium Streptomyces noursei This study reports the

  8. Draft genome sequence of Thermus sp. strain RL, isolated from a hot water spring located atop the Himalayan ranges at Manikaran, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Vatsala; Sangwan, Naseer; Nigam, Aeshna; Garg, Nidhi; Niharika, Neha; Khurana, Paramjit; Khurana, Jitendra P; Lal, Rup

    2012-07-01

    Thermus sp. strain RL was isolated from a hot water spring (90°C to 98°C) at Manikaran, Himachal Pradesh, India. Here we report the draft genome sequence (20,36,600 bp) of this strain. The draft genome sequence consists of 17 contigs and 1,986 protein-coding sequences and has an average G+C content of 68.77%.

  9. Draft Genome Sequence of Uncultivated Desulfosporosinus sp. Strain Tol-M, Obtained by Stable Isotope Probing Using [13C6]Toluene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Laban, Nidal; Tan, BoonFei; Dao, Anh; Foght, Julia

    2015-01-15

    A draft Desulfosporosinus genome was assembled from the metagenome of a methanogenic [(13)C6]toluene-degrading community. The Desulfosporosinus sp. strain Tol-M genome is distinguished from that of previously published Desulfosporosinus strain by containing bss, bbs, and bam genes encoding enzymes for anaerobic biodegradation of monoaromatic hydrocarbons and lacking dsrAB genes for dissimilatory sulfate reduction. Copyright © 2015 Abu Laban et al.

  10. Draft Genome Sequence of Chloroflexus sp. Strain isl-2, a Thermophilic Filamentous Anoxygenic Phototrophic Bacterium Isolated from the Strokkur Geyser, Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaisin, Vasil A; Ivanov, Timophey M; Kuznetsov, Boris B; Gorlenko, Vladimir M; Grouzdev, Denis S

    2016-07-21

    We report here the draft genome sequence of the thermophilic filamentous anoxygenic phototrophic bacterium Chloroflexus sp. strain isl-2, which was isolated from the Strokkur geyser, Iceland, and contains 5,222,563 bp with a G+C content of 59.65%. The annotated genome sequence offers the genetic basis for understanding the strain's ecological role as a phototrophic bacterium within the bacterial community. Copyright © 2016 Gaisin et al.

  11. Draft Genome Sequence of Sphingobium sp. Strain C100, a Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon-Degrading Bacterium from the Deep-Sea Sediment of the Arctic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Chunming; Bai, Xiuhua; Lai, Qiliang; Xie, Yanrong; Chen, Xin; Shao, Zongze

    2014-01-30

    Sphingobium sp. strain C100 was isolated from a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-degrading consortium from the deep-sea sediment of the Arctic Ocean. It can degrade two- to four-ring PAHs at 25°C. Here we present the draft genome sequence of this strain, which is 4,776,810 bp with a G+C content of 63.9%.

  12. Isolation and Characterization of Two Cryptic Plasmids in the Ammonia-Oxidizing Bacterium Nitrosomonas sp. Strain ENI-11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagata, Akira; Kato, Junichi; Hirota, Ryuichi; Kuroda, Akio; Ikeda, Tsukasa; Takiguchi, Noboru; Ohtake, Hisao

    1999-01-01

    Two plasmids were discovered in the ammonia-oxidizing bacterium Nitrosomonas sp. strain ENI-11, which was isolated from activated sludge. The plasmids, designated pAYS and pAYL, were relatively small, being approximately 1.9 kb long. They were cryptic plasmids, having no detectable plasmid-linked antibiotic resistance or heavy metal resistance markers. The complete nucleotide sequences of pAYS and pAYL were determined, and their physical maps were constructed. There existed two major open reading frames, ORF1 in pAYS and ORF2 in pAYL, each of which was more than 500 bp long. The predicted product of ORF2 was 28% identical to part of the replication protein of a Bacillus plasmid, pBAA1. However, no significant similarity to any known protein sequences was detected with the predicted product of ORF1. pAYS and pAYL had a highly homologous region, designated HHR, of 262 bp. The overall identity was 98% between the two nucleotide sequences. Interestingly, HHR-homologous sequences were also detected in the genomes of ENI-11 and the plasmidless strain Nitrosomonas europaea IFO14298. Deletion analysis of pAYS and pAYL indicated that HHR, together with either ORF1 or ORF2, was essential for plasmid maintenance in ENI-11. To our knowledge, pAYS and pAYL are the first plasmids found in the ammonia-oxidizing autotrophic bacteria. PMID:10348848

  13. Isolation of a novel strain of Monoraphidium sp. and characterization of its potential application as biodiesel feedstock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xuya; Zhao, Peng; He, Cian; Li, Junjun; Tang, Xianhua; Zhou, Junpei; Huang, Zunxi

    2012-10-01

    A novel green microalgae strain from Lake Fuxian has been isolated and identified as a potential feedstock for biodiesel production. The novel strain was named Monoraphidium sp. FXY-10 based on its morphological and genomic characterization. The lipid productivities, fatty acid profiles, and microalgae recovery efficiency (η(a)) of FXY-10 were investigated and compared under autotrophic and heterotrophic conditions. FXY-10 under autotrophic conditions exhibited a higher cellular lipid content (56.8%) than those under heterotrophic conditions (37.56%). However, FXY-10 growing under heterotrophic conditions exhibited more than 20-fold increase in lipid productivity compared with that under autotrophic conditions (148.74 mg L(-1)d(-1) versus 6.88 mg L(-1)d(-1)). Moreover, higher saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids (77.5%) of FXY-10 was obtained under heterotrophic culture conditions, suggesting its potential as a biodiesel feedstock. Gravity sedimentation was proposed as the harvesting biomass method based on the 97.9% microalgae recovery efficiency of heterotrophic cells after settling for 24h. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A new lipopeptide biosurfactant produced by Arthrobacter sp. strain MIS38.

    OpenAIRE

    Morikawa, M; Daido, H; Takao, T; Murata, S; Shimonishi, Y; Imanaka, T

    1993-01-01

    A biosurfactant termed arthrofactin produced by Arthrobacter species strain MIS38 was purified and chemically characterized as 3-hydroxydecanoyl-D-leucyl-D-asparagyl-D-threonyl-D- leucyl-D-leucyl-D-seryl-L-leucyl-D-seryl-L-isoleucyl-L-isoleucyl-L-as paragyl lactone. Surface activity of arthrofactin was examined, with surfactin as a control. Critical micelle concentration values of arthrofactin and surfactin were around 1.0 x 10(-5) M and 7.0 x 10(-5) M at 25 degrees C, respectively. Arthrofac...

  15. A Highly Expressed High-Molecular-Weight S-Layer Complex of Pelosinus sp. Strain UFO1 Binds Uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thorgersen, Michael P. [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology; Lancaster, W. Andrew [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology; Rajeev, Lara [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Biological Systems and Engineering Division; Ge, Xiaoxuan [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology; Vaccaro, Brian J. [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology; Poole, Farris L. [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology; Arkin, Adam P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Biological Systems and Engineering Division; Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Biological Systems and Engineering Division; Adams, Michael W. W. [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology

    2016-12-02

    Cell suspensions of Pelosinus sp. strain UFO1 were previously shown, using spectroscopic analysis, to sequester uranium as U(IV) complexed with carboxyl and phosphoryl group ligands on proteins. The goal of our present study was to characterize the proteins involved in uranium binding. Virtually all of the uranium in UFO1 cells was associated with a heterodimeric protein, which was termed the uranium-binding complex (UBC). The UBC was composed of two S-layer domain proteins encoded by UFO1_4202 and UFO1_4203. Samples of UBC purified from the membrane fraction contained 3.3 U atoms/heterodimer, but significant amounts of phosphate were not detected. The UBC had an estimated molecular mass by gel filtration chromatography of 15 MDa, and it was proposed to contain 150 heterodimers (UFO1_4203 and UFO1_4202) and about 500 uranium atoms. The UBC was also the dominant extracellular protein, but when purified from the growth medium, it contained only 0.3 U atoms/heterodimer. The two genes encoding the UBC were among the most highly expressed genes within the UFO1 genome, and their expressions were unchanged by the presence or absence of uranium. Therefore, the UBC appears to be constitutively expressed and is the first line of defense against uranium, including by secretion into the extracellular medium. Although S-layer proteins were previously shown to bind U(VI), here we showed that U(IV) binds to S-layer proteins, we identified the proteins involved, and we quantitated the amount of uranium bound. Widespread uranium contamination from industrial sources poses hazards to human health and to the environment. Here in this paper, we identified a highly abundant uranium-binding complex (UBC) from Pelosinus sp. strain UFO1. The complex makes up the primary protein component of the S-layer of strain UFO1 and binds 3.3 atoms of U(IV) per heterodimer. Finally, while other bacteria have been shown to bind U(VI) on their S-layer, we demonstrate here an example of U(IV) bound by

  16. The desA gene of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PCC6803 is the structural gene for delta 12 desaturase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, H