WorldWideScience

Sample records for acinar cells pathologic

  1. Acinar Cell Cyst adenoma (Acinar Cystic Transformation) of the Pancreas: the Radiologic-Pathologic Features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gumus, Mehmet; Algin, Oktay; Gundogdu, Haldun [Ataturk Training and Research Hospital, Ankara (Turkmenistan); Ugras, Serdar [Selcuk University, Selcuklu Medical Faculty, Konya (Turkmenistan)

    2011-02-15

    Acinar cystic transformation of the pancreas is also known as acinar cell cystadenoma (ACC), and this is an extremely rare benign lesion that was first described in April 2002. We report here on a case of a previously asymptomatic patient with pancreatic ACC and this was diagnosed by computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). To the best of our knowledge, there is no previous report concerning the CT or MRI features of ACC in the medical literature. We present here the CT, MRI and pathological findings of pancreatic ACC

  2. Acinar Cell Cyst adenoma (Acinar Cystic Transformation) of the Pancreas: the Radiologic-Pathologic Features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gumus, Mehmet; Algin, Oktay; Gundogdu, Haldun; Ugras, Serdar

    2011-01-01

    Acinar cystic transformation of the pancreas is also known as acinar cell cystadenoma (ACC), and this is an extremely rare benign lesion that was first described in April 2002. We report here on a case of a previously asymptomatic patient with pancreatic ACC and this was diagnosed by computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). To the best of our knowledge, there is no previous report concerning the CT or MRI features of ACC in the medical literature. We present here the CT, MRI and pathological findings of pancreatic ACC

  3. CT and MRI features of acinar cell carcinoma of the pancreas with pathological correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, M.-Y.; Pan, K.-T.; Chu, S.-Y.; Hung, C.-F.; Wu, R.-C.; Tseng, J.-H.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To document the computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of acinar cell carcinoma of the pancreas and to correlate them with pathological findings to determine the unique imaging manifestations of this rare subtype tumour of the pancreas. Materials and methods: From January 1986 to August 2008, six patients (five men and one woman, mean age 61.3 years) with histologically proven acinar cell carcinoma of the pancreas underwent CT (n = 6) and MRI (n = 4) examinations. The imaging features of each tumour were documented and compared with pathological findings. Results: The tumours were distributed in the head (n = 4), body (n = 1), and tail (n = 1) of the pancreas. Four masses (67%) were uniformly or partially well-defined with thin, enhancing capsules. Central cystic components were found in five tumours (83%). Two tumours (33%) exhibited intratumoural haemorrhage, and one tumour (17%) had amorphous intratumoural calcification. In both CT and MRI, the tumours enhanced less than the adjacent normal pancreatic parenchyma. The signal intensity on MRI was predominantly T1 hypointense and T2 iso- to hyperintense. Conclusion: Acinar cell carcinoma of the pancreas has distinct imaging features, and both CT and MRI are useful and complementary imaging methods.

  4. Ca2+ signaling in pancreatic acinar cells: physiology and pathophysiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.H. Petersen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The pancreatic acinar cell is a classical model for studies of secretion and signal transduction mechanisms. Because of the extensive endoplasmic reticulum and the large granular compartment, it has been possible - by direct measurements - to obtain considerable insights into intracellular Ca2+ handling under both normal and pathological conditions. Recent studies have also revealed important characteristics of stimulus-secretion coupling mechanisms in isolated human pancreatic acinar cells. The acinar cells are potentially dangerous because of the high intra-granular concentration of proteases, which become inappropriately activated in the human disease acute pancreatitis. This disease is due to toxic Ca2+ signals generated by excessive liberation of Ca2+ from both the endoplasmic reticulum and the secretory granules.

  5. Mixed acinar-endocrine carcinoma of the pancreas: new clinical and pathological features in a contemporary series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Run; Jih, Lily; Zhai, Jing; Nissen, Nicholas N; Colquhoun, Steven; Wolin, Edward; Dhall, Deepti

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the novel clinical and pathological features of mixed acinar-endocrine carcinoma of the pancreas. This was a retrospective review of medical records and surgical pathology specimens of patients with a diagnosis of mixed acinar-endocrine carcinoma of the pancreas at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center between 2005 and 2011. Additional immunohistochemistry was performed on the specimens of some patients. Five patients were identified. The median age at presentation was 74 years (range, 59-89 years), and all patients were male. The presenting symptoms were all related to tumor mass effects. The median size of the tumor was 10 cm (range, 3.9-16 cm). Preoperative clinical diagnosis aided by fine-needle aspiration biopsy was incorrect in all 5 cases. Most tumors (3/5) exhibited predominantly endocrine differentiation without hormonal production. Only 10% to 30% of cells were truly amphicrine, whereas most were differentiated into either endocrine or acinar phenotype. The clinical behavior ranged from moderate to aggressive with postoperative survival from 2.5 months to more than 3 years. Four patients received neoadjuvant or adjuvant chemotherapy with variable responses. Mixed acinar-endocrine carcinoma of the pancreas appears to be not uncommon in men, may harbor predominantly endocrine component, is often misdiagnosed by cytology, and exhibits variable clinical behavior. Mixed acinar-endocrine carcinoma of the pancreas should be considered in older patients with sizable pancreatic mass and may warrant aggressive surgical resection and chemotherapy.

  6. Acinar Cell Cystadenocarcinoma of the Pancreas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keita Aoto

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Acinar cell cystadenocarcinoma is a rare malignant epithelial neoplasm of the pancreas with a diffusely cystic, gross architecture in which the cysts are lined with neoplastic epithelial cells that demonstrate evidence of pancreatic exocrine enzyme production. This is the 10th case that has been reported in the literature. A 77-year-old male complaining of left hypochondrial pain was referred to our hospital for treatment of a pancreatic tumor. A huge, honeycomb-structured tumor was detected in the pancreatic tail. Distal pancreatectomy with total resection of the residual stomach and partial resection of the transverse colon were performed. Microscopically, there were variably sized cystic lesions in the tumor. Immunohistochemical examinations revealed that tumor cells were positive for alpha 1-antichymotrypsin and alpha 1-trypsin, showing that tumor cells had features of pancreatic acinar cells. Thus, the tumor was diagnosed as acinar cell cystadenocarcinoma. Herein, we report a rare case with acinar cell cystadenocarcinoma, which is the 10th case reported in the literature based on a PubMed search. We managed to resect the tumor completely by distal pancreatectomy with total resection of the residual stomach and partial resection of the transverse colon. The patient is still alive 26 months after surgery without any recurrence after 1 year of adjuvant chemotherapy with S-1.

  7. SOX2 regulates acinar cell development in the salivary gland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmerson, Elaine; May, Alison J; Nathan, Sara; Cruz-Pacheco, Noel; Lizama, Carlos O; Maliskova, Lenka; Zovein, Ann C; Shen, Yin; Muench, Marcus O; Knox, Sarah M

    2017-01-01

    Acinar cells play an essential role in the secretory function of exocrine organs. Despite this requirement, how acinar cells are generated during organogenesis is unclear. Using the acini-ductal network of the developing human and murine salivary gland, we demonstrate an unexpected role for SOX2 and parasympathetic nerves in generating the acinar lineage that has broad implications for epithelial morphogenesis. Despite SOX2 being expressed by progenitors that give rise to both acinar and duct cells, genetic ablation of SOX2 results in a failure to establish acini but not ducts. Furthermore, we show that SOX2 targets acinar-specific genes and is essential for the survival of acinar but not ductal cells. Finally, we illustrate an unexpected and novel role for peripheral nerves in the creation of acini throughout development via regulation of SOX2. Thus, SOX2 is a master regulator of the acinar cell lineage essential to the establishment of a functional organ. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.26620.001 PMID:28623666

  8. Marked differences in immunocytological localization of [3H]estradiol-binding protein in rat pancreatic acinar tumor cells compared to normal acinar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaudoin, A.R.; Grondin, G.; St Jean, P.; Pettengill, O.; Longnecker, D.S.; Grossman, A.

    1991-01-01

    [ 3 H]Estradiol can bind to a specific protein in normal rat pancreatic acinar cells. Electron microscopic immunocytochemical analysis has shown this protein to be localized primarily in the rough endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria. Rat exocrine pancreatic tumor cell lines, whether grown in tissue culture (AR42J) or as a tumor mass after sc injection into rats (DSL-2), lacked detectable amounts of this [ 3 H]estradiol-binding protein (EBP), as determined by the dextran-coated charcoal assay. Furthermore, primary exocrine pancreatic neoplasms induced with the carcinogen azaserine contained little or no detectable [ 3 H]estradiol-binding activity. However, electron immunocytochemical studies of transformed cells indicated the presence of material that cross-reacted with antibodies prepared against the [ 3 H]EBP. The immunopositive reaction in transformed cells was localized almost exclusively in lipid granules. Such lipid organelles in normal acinar cells, although present less frequently than in transformed cells, have never been observed to contain EBP-like immunopositive material. Presumably, the aberrant localization of EBP in these acinar tumor cells results in loss of function of this protein, which in normal pancreatic acinar cells appears to exert a modulating influence on zymogen granule formation and the process of secretion

  9. Using CRISPR/Cas9 to Knock out Amylase in Acinar Cells Decreases Pancreatitis-Induced Autophagy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Yasunaga

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer is a malignant neoplasm that originates from acinar cells. Acinar cells get reprogrammed to become duct cells, resulting in pancreatic cancer. Pancreatitis is an acinar cell inflammation, leading to “impaired autophagy flux”. Pancreatitis promotes acinar-to-ductal transdifferentiation. Expression of amylase gets eliminated during the progression of pancreatic cancer. Amylase is considered as an acinar cell marker; however, its function in cells is not known. Thus, we investigated whether amylase affects the acinar cell autophagy and whether it plays any role in development of pancreatitis. Here, we knocked out ATG12 in a pancreatic cancer cells and acinar cells using CRISPR/Cas9. Autophagy inhibition led to an increase in the expression of duct cell markers and a simultaneous decrease in that of acinar cell markers. It also caused an increase in cell viability and changes in mitochondrial morphology. Next, we knocked out amylase in acinar cells. Amylase deficiency decreased autophagy induced by pancreatitis. Our results suggest that amylase controls pancreatitis-induced autophagy. We found that eliminating amylase expression contributes to pancreatic cancer etiology by decreasing autophagy. Furthermore, our results indicate that amylase plays a role in selective pancreatitis-induced autophagy of pancreatic enzyme vesicles.

  10. Calcium signalling in the acinar environment of the exocrine pancreas: physiology and pathophysiology

    OpenAIRE

    Gryshchenko, Oleksiy; Gerasimenko, Julia V.; Peng, Shuang; Gerasimenko, Oleg V.; Petersen, Ole Holger

    2018-01-01

    Physiological Ca2+ signals in pancreatic acinar cells control fluid and\\ud enzyme secretion, whereas excessive Ca2+ signals induced by pathological agents\\ud induce destructive processes leading to acute pancreatitis. Ca2+ signals in the periacinar\\ud stellate cells may also play a role in the development of acute pancreatitis. In\\ud this study, we have explored Ca2+ signalling in the different cell types to be found in\\ud the acinar environment of the pancreatic tissue. We have, for the firs...

  11. Calcium signalling in the acinar environment of the exocrine pancreas: physiology and pathophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gryshchenko, Oleksiy; Gerasimenko, Julia V; Peng, Shuang; Gerasimenko, Oleg V; Petersen, Ole H

    2018-02-09

    Ca 2+ signalling in different cell types in exocrine pancreatic lobules was monitored simultaneously and signalling responses to various stimuli were directly compared. Ca 2+ signals evoked by K + -induced depolarization were recorded from pancreatic nerve cells. Nerve cell stimulation evoked Ca 2+ signals in acinar but not in stellate cells. Stellate cells are not electrically excitable as they, like acinar cells, did not generate Ca 2+ signals in response to membrane depolarization. The responsiveness of the stellate cells to bradykinin was markedly reduced in experimental alcohol-related acute pancreatitis, but they became sensitive to stimulation with trypsin. Our results provide fresh evidence for an important role of stellate cells in acute pancreatitis. They seem to be a critical element in a vicious circle promoting necrotic acinar cell death. Initial trypsin release from a few dying acinar cells generates Ca 2+ signals in the stellate cells, which then in turn damage more acinar cells causing further trypsin liberation. Physiological Ca 2+ signals in pancreatic acinar cells control fluid and enzyme secretion, whereas excessive Ca 2+ signals induced by pathological agents induce destructive processes leading to acute pancreatitis. Ca 2+ signals in the peri-acinar stellate cells may also play a role in the development of acute pancreatitis. In this study, we explored Ca 2+ signalling in the different cell types in the acinar environment of the pancreatic tissue. We have, for the first time, recorded depolarization-evoked Ca 2+ signals in pancreatic nerves and shown that whereas acinar cells receive a functional cholinergic innervation, there is no evidence for functional innervation of the stellate cells. The stellate, like the acinar, cells are not electrically excitable as they do not generate Ca 2+ signals in response to membrane depolarization. The principal agent evoking Ca 2+ signals in the stellate cells is bradykinin, but in experimental alcohol

  12. Expression of human cationic trypsinogen (PRSS1) in murine acinar cells promotes pancreatitis and apoptotic cell death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athwal, T; Huang, W; Mukherjee, R; Latawiec, D; Chvanov, M; Clarke, R; Smith, K; Campbell, F; Merriman, C; Criddle, D; Sutton, R; Neoptolemos, J; Vlatković, N

    2014-01-01

    Hereditary pancreatitis (HP) is an autosomal dominant disease that displays the features of both acute and chronic pancreatitis. Mutations in human cationic trypsinogen (PRSS1) are associated with HP and have provided some insight into the pathogenesis of pancreatitis, but mechanisms responsible for the initiation of pancreatitis have not been elucidated and the role of apoptosis and necrosis has been much debated. However, it has been generally accepted that trypsinogen, prematurely activated within the pancreatic acinar cell, has a major role in the initiation process. Functional studies of HP have been limited by the absence of an experimental system that authentically mimics disease development. We therefore developed a novel transgenic murine model system using wild-type (WT) human PRSS1 or two HP-associated mutants (R122H and N29I) to determine whether expression of human cationic trypsinogen in murine acinar cells promotes pancreatitis. The rat elastase promoter was used to target transgene expression to pancreatic acinar cells in three transgenic strains that were generated: Tg(Ela-PRSS1)NV, Tg(Ela-PRSS1*R122H)NV and Tg(Ela-PRSS1*N29I)NV. Mice were analysed histologically, immunohistochemically and biochemically. We found that transgene expression is restricted to pancreatic acinar cells and transgenic PRSS1 proteins are targeted to the pancreatic secretory pathway. Animals from all transgenic strains developed pancreatitis characterised by acinar cell vacuolisation, inflammatory infiltrates and fibrosis. Transgenic animals also developed more severe pancreatitis upon treatment with low-dose cerulein than controls, displaying significantly higher scores for oedema, inflammation and overall histopathology. Expression of PRSS1, WT or mutant, in acinar cells increased apoptosis in pancreatic tissues and isolated acinar cells. Moreover, studies of isolated acinar cells demonstrated that transgene expression promotes apoptosis rather than necrosis. We therefore

  13. SEC23B is required for pancreatic acinar cell function in adult mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoriaty, Rami; Vogel, Nancy; Hoenerhoff, Mark J.; Sans, M. Dolors; Zhu, Guojing; Everett, Lesley; Nelson, Bradley; Durairaj, Haritha; McKnight, Brooke; Zhang, Bin; Ernst, Stephen A.; Ginsburg, David; Williams, John A.

    2017-01-01

    Mice with germline absence of SEC23B die perinatally, exhibiting massive pancreatic degeneration. We generated mice with tamoxifen-inducible, pancreatic acinar cell–specific Sec23b deletion. Inactivation of Sec23b exclusively in the pancreatic acinar cells of adult mice results in decreased overall pancreatic weights from pancreatic cell loss (decreased pancreatic DNA, RNA, and total protein content), as well as degeneration of exocrine cells, decreased zymogen granules, and alterations in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), ranging from vesicular ER to markedly expanded cisternae with accumulation of moderate-density content or intracisternal granules. Acinar Sec23b deletion results in induction of ER stress and increased apoptosis in the pancreas, potentially explaining the loss of pancreatic cells and decreased pancreatic weight. These findings demonstrate that SEC23B is required for normal function of pancreatic acinar cells in adult mice. PMID:28539403

  14. Adrenoceptor-activated nitric oxide synthesis in salivary acinar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Looms, Dagnia; Dissing, Steen; Tritsaris, Katerina

    2000-01-01

    We investigated the cellular regulation of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity in isolated acinar cells from rat parotid and human labial salivary glands, using the newly developed fluorescent nitric oxide (NO) indicator, DAF-2. We found that sympathetic stimulation with norepinephrine (NE) caused...... a strong increase in NO synthesis that was not seen after parasympathetic stimulation with acetylcholine. In rat parotid acinar cells, we furthermore investigated to which extent the NOS activity was dependent on the intracellular free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) by simultaneously measuring NO synthesis...

  15. Acinar cell-specific knockout of the PTHrP gene decreases the proinflammatory and profibrotic responses in pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Vandanajay; Rastellini, Cristiana; Han, Song; Aronson, Judith F; Greeley, George H; Falzon, Miriam

    2014-09-01

    Pancreatitis is a necroinflammatory disease with acute and chronic manifestations. Accumulated damage incurred during repeated bouts of acute pancreatitis (AP) can lead to chronic pancreatitis (CP). Pancreatic parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) levels are elevated in a mouse model of cerulein-induced AP. Here, we show elevated PTHrP levels in mouse models of pancreatitis induced by chronic cerulein administration and pancreatic duct ligation. Because acinar cells play a major role in the pathophysiology of pancreatitis, mice with acinar cell-specific targeted disruption of the Pthrp gene (PTHrP(Δacinar)) were generated to assess the role of acinar cell-secreted PTHrP in pancreatitis. These mice were generated using Cre-LoxP technology and the acinar cell-specific elastase promoter. PTHrP(Δacinar) exerted protective effects in cerulein and pancreatic duct ligation models, evident as decreased edema, histological damage, amylase secretion, pancreatic stellate cell (PSC) activation, and extracellular matrix deposition. Treating acinar cells in vitro with cerulein increased IL-6 expression and NF-κB activity; these effects were attenuated in PTHrP(Δacinar) cells, as were the cerulein- and carbachol-induced elevations in amylase secretion. The cerulein-induced upregulation of procollagen I expression was lost in PSCs from PTHrP(Δacinar) mice. PTHrP immunostaining was elevated in human CP sections. The cerulein-induced upregulation of IL-6 and ICAM-1 (human acinar cells) and procollagen I (human PSCs) was suppressed by pretreatment with the PTH1R antagonist, PTHrP (7-34). These findings establish PTHrP as a novel mediator of inflammation and fibrosis associated with CP. Acinar cell-secreted PTHrP modulates acinar cell function via its effects on proinflammatory cytokine release and functions via a paracrine pathway to activate PSCs. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  16. Internalization and cellular processing of cholecystokinin in rat pancreatic acinar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izzo, R.S.; Pellecchia, C.; Praissman, M.

    1988-01-01

    To evaluate the internalization of cholecystokinin, monoiodinated imidoester of cholecystokinin octapeptide [ 125 I-(IE)-CCK-8] was bound to dispersed pancreatic acinar cells, and surface-bound and internalized radioligand were differentiated by treating with an acidified glycine buffer. The amount of internalized radioligand was four- and sevenfold greater at 24 and 37 degree C than at 4 degree C between 5 and 60 min of association. Specific binding of radioligand to cell surface receptors was not significantly different at these temperatures. Chloroquine, a lysosomotropic agent that blocks intracellular proteolysis, significantly increased the amount of CCK-8 internalized by 18 and 16% at 30 and 60 min of binding, respectively, compared with control. Dithiothreitol (DTT), a sulfhydryl reducing agent, also augmented the amount of CCK-8 radioligand internalized by 25 and 29% at 30 and 60 min, respectively. The effect of chloroquine and DTT on the processing of internalized radioligand was also considered after an initial 60 min of binding of radioligand to acinar cells. After 180 min of processing, the amount of radioligand internalized was significantly greater in the presence of chloroquine compared with controls, whereas the amount of radioligand declined in acinar cells treated with DTT. Internalized and released radioactivity from acinar cells was rebound to pancreatic membrane homogenates to determine the amount of intact radioligand during intracellular processing. Chloroquine significantly increased the amount of intact 125 I-(IE)-CCK-8 radioligand in released and internalized radioactivity while DTT increased the amount of intact radioligand only in internalized samples. This study shows that pancreatic acinar cells rapidly internalize large amounts of CCK-8 and that chloroquine and DTT inhibit intracellular degradation

  17. Pancreatic acinar cells-derived cyclophilin A promotes pancreatic damage by activating NF-κB pathway in experimental pancreatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Ge; Wan, Rong; Hu, Yanling; Ni, Jianbo; Yin, Guojian; Xing, Miao; Shen, Jie; Tang, Maochun; Chen, Congying; Fan, Yuting; Xiao, Wenqin; Zhao, Yan; Wang, Xingpeng

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • CypA is upregulated in experimental pancreatitis. • CCK induces expression and release of CypA in acinar cell in vitro. • rCypA aggravates CCK-induced acinar cell death and inflammatory cytokine production. • rCypA activates the NF-κB pathway in acinar cells in vitro. - Abstract: Inflammation triggered by necrotic acinar cells contributes to the pathophysiology of acute pancreatitis (AP), but its precise mechanism remains unclear. Recent studies have shown that Cyclophilin A (CypA) released from necrotic cells is involved in the pathogenesis of several inflammatory diseases. We therefore investigated the role of CypA in experimental AP induced by administration of sodium taurocholate (STC). CypA was markedly upregulated and widely expressed in disrupted acinar cells, infiltrated inflammatory cells, and tubular complexes. In vitro, it was released from damaged acinar cells by cholecystokinin (CCK) induction. rCypA (recombinant CypA) aggravated CCK-induced acinar cell necrosis, promoted nuclear factor (NF)-κB p65 activation, and increased cytokine production. In conclusion, CypA promotes pancreatic damage by upregulating expression of inflammatory cytokines of acinar cells via the NF-κB pathway

  18. Pancreatic acinar cells-derived cyclophilin A promotes pancreatic damage by activating NF-κB pathway in experimental pancreatitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Ge [Department of Gastroenterology, Shanghai Tenth People’s Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai (China); Wan, Rong [Department of Gastroenterology, Shanghai First People’s Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai (China); Hu, Yanling [Department of Gastroenterology, Shanghai Tenth People’s Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai (China); Ni, Jianbo [Department of Gastroenterology, Shanghai First People’s Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai (China); Yin, Guojian; Xing, Miao [Department of Gastroenterology, Shanghai Tenth People’s Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai (China); Shen, Jie [Department of Gastroenterology, Shanghai First People’s Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai (China); Tang, Maochun [Department of Gastroenterology, Shanghai Tenth People’s Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai (China); Chen, Congying [Department of Gastroenterology, Shanghai First People’s Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai (China); Fan, Yuting; Xiao, Wenqin; Zhao, Yan [Department of Gastroenterology, Shanghai Tenth People’s Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai (China); Wang, Xingpeng, E-mail: wangxingpeng@hotmail.com [Department of Gastroenterology, Shanghai Tenth People’s Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai (China); Department of Gastroenterology, Shanghai First People’s Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai (China); and others

    2014-01-31

    Highlights: • CypA is upregulated in experimental pancreatitis. • CCK induces expression and release of CypA in acinar cell in vitro. • rCypA aggravates CCK-induced acinar cell death and inflammatory cytokine production. • rCypA activates the NF-κB pathway in acinar cells in vitro. - Abstract: Inflammation triggered by necrotic acinar cells contributes to the pathophysiology of acute pancreatitis (AP), but its precise mechanism remains unclear. Recent studies have shown that Cyclophilin A (CypA) released from necrotic cells is involved in the pathogenesis of several inflammatory diseases. We therefore investigated the role of CypA in experimental AP induced by administration of sodium taurocholate (STC). CypA was markedly upregulated and widely expressed in disrupted acinar cells, infiltrated inflammatory cells, and tubular complexes. In vitro, it was released from damaged acinar cells by cholecystokinin (CCK) induction. rCypA (recombinant CypA) aggravated CCK-induced acinar cell necrosis, promoted nuclear factor (NF)-κB p65 activation, and increased cytokine production. In conclusion, CypA promotes pancreatic damage by upregulating expression of inflammatory cytokines of acinar cells via the NF-κB pathway.

  19. The exocrine pancreas: the acinar-ductal tango in physiology and pathophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegyi, Peter; Petersen, Ole H

    2013-01-01

    There are many reviews of pancreatic acinar cell function and also of pancreatic duct function, but there is an almost total absence of synthetic reviews bringing the integrated functions of these two vitally and mutually interdependent cells together. This is what we have attempted to do in this chapter. In the first part, we review the normal integrated function of the acinar-ductal system, with particular emphasis on how regulation of one type of cell also influences the other cell type. In the second part, we review a range of pathological processes, particularly those involved in acute pancreatitis (AP), an often-fatal human disease in which the pancreas digests itself, in order to explore how malfunction of one of the cell types adversely affects the function of the other.

  20. Ultrastructural morphometry of parotid acinar cells following fractionated irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grehn, A.-L.; Gustafsson, H.; Franzen, L.; Thornell, L.-E.; Henriksson, R.

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the long term effects on the ultrastructure of parotid glands after fractionated irradiation. The method implemented involved 5 x 6 Gy and 5 x 8 Gy, Monday to Friday 6 MV photons. By unilateral irradiation, the contralateral parotid gland served as a control. Although irradiation diminished the acinar cell density in light microscopic sections from 75 to 32% after 5 x 8 Gy of irradiation, ultrastructural morphometry could not detect any statistically significant differences in acinar cell size, nuclear size, nuclear density, granule area, mean granule size, or granule density. In general, greater differences were seen between rats receiving 30 or 40 Gy, on both the irradiated and the control side, than between the irradiated side and the control side. This was interpreted as due to differences in the nutritional state of the animals. This analysis concluded that individual acinar cells that survive irradiation seem not to be damaged in the long term when evaluated at the ultrastructural level. The study further stresses the importance of adequate sampling sizes and the use of adequate controls. (author)

  1. Transplantable pancreatic acinar carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, J.R.; Reddy, J.K.

    1981-01-01

    Fragments of the nafenopin-induced pancreatic acinar cell carcinoma of rat have been examined in vitro for patterns of intracellular protein transport and carbamylcholine-induced protein discharge. Continuous incubation of the fragments with [3H]-leucine for 60 minutes resulted in labeling of rough endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi cisternae, and mature zymogen granules, revealed by electron microscope autoradiography. This result indicates transport of newly synthesized protein from the rough endoplasmic reticulum to mature zymogen granules in approximately 60 minutes. The secretagogue carbamylcholine induced the discharge of radioactive protein by carcinoma fragments pulse-chase labeled with [3H]-leucine. A maximal effective carbamylcholine concentration of 10(-5) M was determined. The acinar carcinoma resembles normal exocrine pancreas in the observed rate of intracellular protein transport and effective secretagogue concentration. However, the acinar carcinoma fragments demonstrated an apparent low rate of carbamylcholine-induced radioactive protein discharge as compared with normal pancreatic lobules or acinar cells. It is suggested that the apparent low rate of radioactive protein discharge reflects functional immaturity of the acinar carcinoma. Possible relationships of functional differentiation to the heterogeneous cytodifferentiation of the pancreatic acinar carcinoma are discussed

  2. Adipose Stem Cell Therapy Mitigates Chronic Pancreatitis via Differentiation into Acinar-like Cells in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhen; Gou, Wenyu; Kim, Do-Sung; Dong, Xiao; Strange, Charlie; Tan, Yu; Adams, David B; Wang, Hongjun

    2017-11-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the capacity of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs) to mitigate disease progression in an experimental chronic pancreatitis mouse model. Chronic pancreatitis (CP) was induced in C57BL/6 mice by repeated ethanol and cerulein injection, and mice were then infused with 4 × 10 5 or 1 × 10 6 GFP + ASCs. Pancreas morphology, fibrosis, inflammation, and presence of GFP + ASCs in pancreases were assessed 2 weeks after treatment. We found that ASC infusion attenuated pancreatic damage, preserved pancreas morphology, and reduced pancreatic fibrosis and cell death. GFP + ASCs migrated to pancreas and differentiated into amylase + cells. In further confirmation of the plasticity of ASCs, ASCs co-cultured with acinar cells in a Transwell system differentiated into amylase + cells with increased expression of acinar cell-specific genes including amylase and chymoB1. Furthermore, culture of acinar or pancreatic stellate cell lines in ASC-conditioned medium attenuated ethanol and cerulein-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine production in vitro. Our data show that a single intravenous injection of ASCs ameliorated CP progression, likely by directly differentiating into acinar-like cells and by suppressing inflammation, fibrosis, and pancreatic tissue damage. These results suggest that ASC cell therapy has the potential to be a valuable treatment for patients with pancreatitis. Copyright © 2017 The American Society of Gene and Cell Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. ANF and exocrine pancreas: ultrastructural autoradiographic localization in acinar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chabot, J.G.; Morel, G.; Belles-Isles, M.; Jeandel, L.; Heisler, S.

    1988-01-01

    Atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) binding sites have been recently demonstrated to be present in exocrine pancreas by an in vitro autoradiographic approach. An autoradiographic study was carried out to identify the exocrine cells containing ANF binding sites and to monitor the fate of 125 I-labeled ANF in acinar cells after removal of pancreas at specific time intervals (1-30 min) after intravenous administration. At the light microscopic level, silver grains were found over acinar and centroacinar cells. Concomitant injection of an excess of unlabeled ANF inhibited the binding of labeled peptide by approximately 60%. At the electron microscopic level, the time-course study in acinar cells has revealed that of the cell compartments examined, plasma membrane, Golgi apparatus, mitochondria, and zymogen granules, the nucleus had distinct labeling patterns. Plasma membrane was maximally labeled 1 and 2 min after injection with 125 I-ANF. Golgi apparatus was significantly labeled from 2 to 30 min after injection, mitochondria from 1 to 30 min after injection, zymogen granules at 1 and 15 min, and the nucleus only at 30 min. The lysosomal compartment was not labeled during the 30-min observation period. These results suggest that after binding to the plasma membrane, ANF is rapidly internalized and distributed to the intracellular organelles as a function of time. Labeling of the zymogen granules suggests that they may bind ANF and that the atrial peptide may be secreted by acinar cells. The significance of association of radioactivity with mitochondria and nuclei remains to be elucidated but may represent intracellular sites of action of ANF complementary to those on plasma membranes

  4. Acinar cell ultrastructure after taurine treatment in rat acute necrotizing pancreatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ates, Y.; Mas, M. R.; Taski, I.; Comert, B.; Isik, A. T.; Mas, N. M.; Yener, N.

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate the organelle-based changes in acinar cells in experimental acute necrotizing pancreatitis (ANP) after taurine treatment and the association of electron microscopic findings with histopathalogical changes and oxidative stress markers. The study was performed in February 2005at Gulhane School of Medicine and Hacettepe University, Turkey. Forty-five rats were divided into 3 groups. Acute necrotizing pancreatitis was induced in groups II and III. Groups I and II were treated with saline and Group III with taurine 1000mg/kg/day, i.p, for 48 hours. Histopathological and ultrastructural examinations were determined using one-way analysis of variance and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Histopathologic findings improved significantly after taurine treatment. Degree of injury in rough and smooth endoplasmic reticulums, Golgi apparatus, mitochondria and nucleus of acinar cells also decreased with taurine in correlation with biochemical and histological results. Taurine improves acinar cell organelle structure, and ultrastructural recovery in ANP reflects histological improvement. (author)

  5. Salivary gland acinar cells regenerate functional glandular structures in modified hydrogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Swati

    Xerostomia, a condition resulting from irradiation of the head and neck, affects over 40,000 cancer patients each year in the United States. Direct radiation damage of the acinar cells that secrete fluid and protein results in salivary gland hypofunction. Present medical management for xerostomia for patients treated for upper respiratory cancer is largely ineffective. Patients who have survived their terminal diagnosis are often left with a diminished quality of life and are unable to enjoy the simple pleasures of eating and drinking. This project aims to ultimately reduce human suffering by developing a functional implantable artificial salivary gland. The goal was to create an extracellular matrix (ECM) modified hyaluronic acid (HA) based hydrogel culture system that allows for the growth and differentiation of salivary acinar cells into functional acini-like structures capable of secreting large amounts of protein and fluid unidirectionally and to ultimately engineer a functional artificial salivary gland that can be implanted into an animal model. A tissue collection protocol was established and salivary gland tissue was obtained from patients undergoing head and neck surgery. The tissue specimen was assessed by histology and immunohistochemistry to establish the phenotype of normal salivary gland cells including the native basement membranes. Hematoxylin and eosin staining confirmed normal glandular tissue structures including intercalated ducts, striated ducts and acini. alpha-Amylase and periodic acid schiff stain, used for structures with a high proportion of carbohydrate macromolecules, preferentially stained acinar cells in the tissue. Intercalated and striated duct structures were identified using cytokeratins 19 and 7 staining. Myoepithelial cells positive for cytokeratin 14 were found wrapped around the serous and mucous acini. Tight junction components including ZO-1 and E-cadherin were present between both ductal and acinar cells. Ductal and acinar

  6. Intracellular mediators of Na+-K+ pump activity in guinea pig pancreatic acinar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hootman, S.R.; Ochs, D.L.; Williams, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    The involvement of Ca 2+ and cyclic nucleotides in neurohormonal regulation of Na + -K + -ATPase (Na + -K + pump) activity in guinea pig pancreatic acinar cells was investigated. Changes in Na+-K+ pump activity elicited by secretagogues were assessed by [3H]ouabain binding and by ouabain-sensitive 86 Rb + uptake. Carbachol (CCh) and cholecystokinin octapeptide (CCK-8) each stimulated both ouabain-sensitive 86Rb+ uptake and equilibrium binding of [ 3 H]ouabain by approximately 60%. Secretin increased both indicators of Na+-K+ pump activity by approximately 40% as did forskolin, 8-bromo- and dibutyryl cAMP, theophylline, and isobutylmethylxanthine. Incubation of acinar cells in Ca 2+ -free HEPES-buffered Ringer (HR) with 0.5 mM EGTA reduced the stimulatory effects of CCh and CCK-8 by up to 90% but caused only a small reduction in the effects of secretin, forskolin, and cAMP analogues. In addition, CCh, CCK-8, secretin, and forskolin each stimulated ouabain-insensitive 86Rb+ uptake by acinar cells. The increase elicited by CCh and CCK-8 was greatly reduced in the absence of extracellular Ca 2+ , while that caused by the latter two agents was not substantially altered. The effects of secretagogues on free Ca 2+ levels in pancreatic acinar cells also were investigated with quin-2, a fluorescent Ca 2+ chelator. Basal intracellular Ca 2+ concentration ([Ca 2+ ]i) was 161 nM in resting cells and increased to 713 and 803 nM within 15 s after addition of 100 microM CCh or 10 nM CCK-8, respectively

  7. Functional somatostatin receptors on a rat pancreatic acinar cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viguerie, N.; Tahiri-Jouti, N.; Esteve, J.P.; Clerc, P.; Logsdon, C.; Svoboda, M.; Susini, C.; Vaysse, N.; Ribet, A.

    1988-01-01

    Somatostatin receptors from a rat pancreatic acinar cell line, AR4-2J, were characterized biochemically, structurally, and functionally. Binding of 125 I-[Tyr 11 ]Somatostatin to AR4-2J cells was saturable, exhibiting a single class of high-affinity binding sites with a maximal binding capacity of 258 ± 20 fmol/10 6 cells. Somatostatin receptor structure was analyzed by covalently cross-linking 125 I-[Tyr 11 ]somatostatin to its plasma membrane receptors. Gel electrophoresis and autoradiography of cross-linked proteins revealed a peptide containing the somatostatin receptor. Somatostatin inhibited vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)-stimulated adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) formation in a dose-dependent manner. The concentration of somatostatin that caused half-maximal inhibition of cAMP formation was close to the receptor affinity for somatostatin. Pertussis toxin pretreatment of AR4-2J cells prevented somatostatin inhibition of VIP-stimulated cAMP formation as well as somatostatin binding. The authors conclude that AR4-2J cells exhibit functional somatostatin receptors that retain both specificity and affinity of the pancreatic acinar cell somatostatin receptors and act via the pertussis toxin-sensitive guanine nucleotide-binding protein N i to inhibit adenylate cyclase

  8. Up-regulation of Store-operated Ca2+ Entry and Nuclear Factor of Activated T Cells Promote the Acinar Phenotype of the Primary Human Salivary Gland Cells*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Shyh-Ing; Ong, Hwei Ling; Liu, Xibao; Alevizos, Ilias; Ambudkar, Indu S.

    2016-01-01

    The signaling pathways involved in the generation and maintenance of exocrine gland acinar cells have not yet been established. Primary human salivary gland epithelial cells, derived from salivary gland biopsies, acquired an acinar-like phenotype when the [Ca2+] in the serum-free medium (keratinocyte growth medium, KGM) was increased from 0.05 mm (KGM-L) to 1.2 mm (KGM-H). Here we examined the mechanism underlying this Ca2+-dependent generation of the acinar cell phenotype. Compared with cells in KGM-L, those in KGM-H display enhancement of Orai1, STIM1, STIM2, and nuclear factor of activated T cells 1 (NFAT1) expression together with an increase in store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE), SOCE-dependent nuclear translocation of pGFP-NFAT1, and NFAT-dependent but not NFκB-dependent gene expression. Importantly, AQP5, an acinar-specific protein critical for function, is up-regulated in KGM-H via SOCE/NFAT-dependent gene expression. We identified critical NFAT binding motifs in the AQP5 promoter that are involved in Ca2+-dependent up-regulation of AQP5. These important findings reveal that the Ca2+-induced switch of salivary epithelial cells to an acinar-like phenotype involves remodeling of SOCE and NFAT signaling, which together control the expression of proteins critically relevant for acinar cell function. Our data provide a novel strategy for generating and maintaining acinar cells in culture. PMID:26903518

  9. A computer-based automated algorithm for assessing acinar cell loss after experimental pancreatitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John F Eisses

    Full Text Available The change in exocrine mass is an important parameter to follow in experimental models of pancreatic injury and regeneration. However, at present, the quantitative assessment of exocrine content by histology is tedious and operator-dependent, requiring manual assessment of acinar area on serial pancreatic sections. In this study, we utilized a novel computer-generated learning algorithm to construct an accurate and rapid method of quantifying acinar content. The algorithm works by learning differences in pixel characteristics from input examples provided by human experts. HE-stained pancreatic sections were obtained in mice recovering from a 2-day, hourly caerulein hyperstimulation model of experimental pancreatitis. For training data, a pathologist carefully outlined discrete regions of acinar and non-acinar tissue in 21 sections at various stages of pancreatic injury and recovery (termed the "ground truth". After the expert defined the ground truth, the computer was able to develop a prediction rule that was then applied to a unique set of high-resolution images in order to validate the process. For baseline, non-injured pancreatic sections, the software demonstrated close agreement with the ground truth in identifying baseline acinar tissue area with only a difference of 1% ± 0.05% (p = 0.21. Within regions of injured tissue, the software reported a difference of 2.5% ± 0.04% in acinar area compared with the pathologist (p = 0.47. Surprisingly, on detailed morphological examination, the discrepancy was primarily because the software outlined acini and excluded inter-acinar and luminal white space with greater precision. The findings suggest that the software will be of great potential benefit to both clinicians and researchers in quantifying pancreatic acinar cell flux in the injured and recovering pancreas.

  10. Up-regulation of Store-operated Ca2+ Entry and Nuclear Factor of Activated T Cells Promote the Acinar Phenotype of the Primary Human Salivary Gland Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Shyh-Ing; Ong, Hwei Ling; Liu, Xibao; Alevizos, Ilias; Ambudkar, Indu S

    2016-04-15

    The signaling pathways involved in the generation and maintenance of exocrine gland acinar cells have not yet been established. Primary human salivary gland epithelial cells, derived from salivary gland biopsies, acquired an acinar-like phenotype when the [Ca(2+)] in the serum-free medium (keratinocyte growth medium, KGM) was increased from 0.05 mm (KGM-L) to 1.2 mm (KGM-H). Here we examined the mechanism underlying this Ca(2+)-dependent generation of the acinar cell phenotype. Compared with cells in KGM-L, those in KGM-H display enhancement of Orai1, STIM1, STIM2, and nuclear factor of activated T cells 1 (NFAT1) expression together with an increase in store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE), SOCE-dependent nuclear translocation of pGFP-NFAT1, and NFAT-dependent but not NFκB-dependent gene expression. Importantly, AQP5, an acinar-specific protein critical for function, is up-regulated in KGM-H via SOCE/NFAT-dependent gene expression. We identified critical NFAT binding motifs in the AQP5 promoter that are involved in Ca(2+)-dependent up-regulation of AQP5. These important findings reveal that the Ca(2+)-induced switch of salivary epithelial cells to an acinar-like phenotype involves remodeling of SOCE and NFAT signaling, which together control the expression of proteins critically relevant for acinar cell function. Our data provide a novel strategy for generating and maintaining acinar cells in culture. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  11. Arginase-II Promotes Tumor Necrosis Factor-α Release From Pancreatic Acinar Cells Causing β-Cell Apoptosis in Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Yuyan; Yepuri, Gautham; Necetin, Sevil; Montani, Jean-Pierre; Ming, Xiu-Fen; Yang, Zhihong

    2017-06-01

    Aging is associated with glucose intolerance. Arginase-II (Arg-II), the type-II L -arginine-ureahydrolase, is highly expressed in pancreas. However, its role in regulation of pancreatic β-cell function is not known. Here we show that female (not male) mice deficient in Arg-II (Arg-II -/- ) are protected from age-associated glucose intolerance and reveal greater glucose induced-insulin release, larger islet size and β-cell mass, and more proliferative and less apoptotic β-cells compared with the age-matched wild-type (WT) controls. Moreover, Arg-II is mainly expressed in acinar cells and is upregulated with aging, which enhances p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) activation and release of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). Accordingly, conditioned medium of isolated acinar cells from old WT (not Arg-II -/- ) mice contains higher TNF-α levels than the young mice and stimulates β-cell apoptosis and dysfunction, which are prevented by a neutralizing anti-TNF-α antibody. In acinar cells, our study demonstrates an age-associated Arg-II upregulation, which promotes TNF-α release through p38 MAPK leading to β-cell apoptosis, insufficient insulin secretion, and glucose intolerance in female rather than male mice. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  12. An electron microscopic study on the effects of irradiation on the acinar cells of rat parotid gland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Kwang Jun; Lee, Sang Rae [Dept. of Oral Radiology, College of Dentistry, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1988-11-15

    The author studies the histopathologic changes according to a single or a split does and the time after irradiation on the acinar cells of rat parotid gland. 99 Sprague Dawley rats, weighing about 120 gm, were divided into control and 3 experimental groups. In experimental groups, Group I and II were delivered a single does of 15 Gy, 18 Gy and Group III and IV were delivered two equal split doses of 9 Gy, 10.5 Gy for a 4 hours interval, respectively. The experimental groups were delivered by a cobalt-60 teletherapy unit with a dose rate of 222 cGy/min, source-skin di stance of 50 cm, depth of 1 cm and a field size of 12 X 5 cm. The animals were sacrificed at 1, 2, 3, 6, 12 hours, 1, 3, 7 days after irradiation and examined by light and electro n microscopy. The results were as follows: 1. As the radiation dose increased and acinar cells delivered a single dose exposure were more damaged, and the change of acinar cells appeared faster than those of a split does exposure. 2. The histopathologic change of acinar cells appeared at 1 hour after irradiation. The recovery from damaged acinar cells appeared at 1 day after irradiation and there was a tendency that the recovery from damage of a split dose exposure was somewhat later than of a single dose exposure. 3. Light microscope showed atrophic change of acinar cells and nucleus, degeneration and vesicle formation of cytoplasm, widening of intercellular space and interlobular space. 4. Electron microscope showed loss of nuclear membrane, degeneration of nucleus and nucleoli, clumping of cytoplasm, widening and degeneration of rough endoplasmic reticulum, loss of cristae of mitochondria, lysosome, autophagosome and lipid droplet. 5. Electron microscopically, the change of rough endoplasmic reticulum was most prominent and this appeared at 1 hour after irradiation as early changes of acinar cells. The nuclear change appeared at 2 hours after irradiation and the loss of cristae of mitochondria was observed at 2 hours after

  13. An electron microscopic study on the effects of irradiation on the acinar cells of rat parotid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Kwang Jun; Lee, Sang Rae

    1988-01-01

    The author studies the histopathologic changes according to a single or a split does and the time after irradiation on the acinar cells of rat parotid gland. 99 Sprague Dawley rats, weighing about 120 gm, were divided into control and 3 experimental groups. In experimental groups, Group I and II were delivered a single does of 15 Gy, 18 Gy and Group III and IV were delivered two equal split doses of 9 Gy, 10.5 Gy for a 4 hours interval, respectively. The experimental groups were delivered by a cobalt-60 teletherapy unit with a dose rate of 222 cGy/min, source-skin di stance of 50 cm, depth of 1 cm and a field size of 12 X 5 cm. The animals were sacrificed at 1, 2, 3, 6, 12 hours, 1, 3, 7 days after irradiation and examined by light and electro n microscopy. The results were as follows: 1. As the radiation dose increased and acinar cells delivered a single dose exposure were more damaged, and the change of acinar cells appeared faster than those of a split does exposure. 2. The histopathologic change of acinar cells appeared at 1 hour after irradiation. The recovery from damaged acinar cells appeared at 1 day after irradiation and there was a tendency that the recovery from damage of a split dose exposure was somewhat later than of a single dose exposure. 3. Light microscope showed atrophic change of acinar cells and nucleus, degeneration and vesicle formation of cytoplasm, widening of intercellular space and interlobular space. 4. Electron microscope showed loss of nuclear membrane, degeneration of nucleus and nucleoli, clumping of cytoplasm, widening and degeneration of rough endoplasmic reticulum, loss of cristae of mitochondria, lysosome, autophagosome and lipid droplet. 5. Electron microscopically, the change of rough endoplasmic reticulum was most prominent and this appeared at 1 hour after irradiation as early changes of acinar cells. The nuclear change appeared at 2 hours after irradiation and the loss of cristae of mitochondria was observed at 2 hours after

  14. Ethanol exerts dual effects on calcium homeostasis in CCK-8-stimulated mouse pancreatic acinar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Sánchez, Marcela; del Castillo-Vaquero, Angel; Salido, Ginés M; González, Antonio

    2009-10-30

    A significant percentage of patients with pancreatitis often presents a history of excessive alcohol consumption. Nevertheless, the patho-physiological effect of ethanol on pancreatitis remains poorly understood. In the present study, we have investigated the early effects of acute ethanol exposure on CCK-8-evoked Ca2+ signals in mouse pancreatic acinar cells. Changes in [Ca2+]i and ROS production were analyzed employing fluorescence techniques after loading cells with fura-2 or CM-H2DCFDA, respectively. Ethanol, in the concentration range from 1 to 50 mM, evoked an oscillatory pattern in [Ca2+]i. In addition, ethanol evoked reactive oxygen species generation (ROS) production. Stimulation of cells with 1 nM or 20 pM CCK-8, respectively led to a transient change and oscillations in [Ca2+]i. In the presence of ethanol a transformation of 20 pM CCK-8-evoked physiological oscillations into a single transient increase in [Ca2+]i in the majority of cells was observed. Whereas, in response to 1 nM CCK-8, the total Ca2+ mobilization was significantly increased by ethanol pre-treatment. Preincubation of cells with 1 mM 4-MP, an inhibitor of alcohol dehydrogenase, or 10 microM of the antioxidant cinnamtannin B-1, reverted the effect of ethanol on total Ca2+ mobilization evoked by 1 nM CCK-8. Cinnamtannin B-1 blocked ethanol-evoked ROS production. ethanol may lead, either directly or through ROS generation, to an over stimulation of pancreatic acinar cells in response to CCK-8, resulting in a higher Ca2+ mobilization compared to normal conditions. The actions of ethanol on CCK-8-stimulation of cells create a situation potentially leading to Ca2+ overload, which is a common pathological precursor that mediates pancreatitis.

  15. Ethanol exerts dual effects on calcium homeostasis in CCK-8-stimulated mouse pancreatic acinar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salido Ginés M

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A significant percentage of patients with pancreatitis often presents a history of excessive alcohol consumption. Nevertheless, the patho-physiological effect of ethanol on pancreatitis remains poorly understood. In the present study, we have investigated the early effects of acute ethanol exposure on CCK-8-evoked Ca2+ signals in mouse pancreatic acinar cells. Changes in [Ca2+]i and ROS production were analyzed employing fluorescence techniques after loading cells with fura-2 or CM-H2DCFDA, respectively. Results Ethanol, in the concentration range from 1 to 50 mM, evoked an oscillatory pattern in [Ca2+]i. In addition, ethanol evoked reactive oxygen species generation (ROS production. Stimulation of cells with 1 nM or 20 pM CCK-8, respectively led to a transient change and oscillations in [Ca2+]i. In the presence of ethanol a transformation of 20 pM CCK-8-evoked physiological oscillations into a single transient increase in [Ca2+]i in the majority of cells was observed. Whereas, in response to 1 nM CCK-8, the total Ca2+ mobilization was significantly increased by ethanol pre-treatment. Preincubation of cells with 1 mM 4-MP, an inhibitor of alcohol dehydrogenase, or 10 μM of the antioxidant cinnamtannin B-1, reverted the effect of ethanol on total Ca2+ mobilization evoked by 1 nM CCK-8. Cinnamtannin B-1 blocked ethanol-evoked ROS production. Conclusion ethanol may lead, either directly or through ROS generation, to an over stimulation of pancreatic acinar cells in response to CCK-8, resulting in a higher Ca2+ mobilization compared to normal conditions. The actions of ethanol on CCK-8-stimulation of cells create a situation potentially leading to Ca2+ overload, which is a common pathological precursor that mediates pancreatitis.

  16. β-catenin is selectively required for the expansion and regeneration of mature pancreatic acinar cells in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew D. Keefe

    2012-07-01

    The size of the pancreas is determined by intrinsic factors, such as the number of progenitor cells, and by extrinsic signals that control the fate and proliferation of those progenitors. Both the exocrine and endocrine compartments of the pancreas undergo dramatic expansion after birth and are capable of at least partial regeneration following injury. Whether the expansion of these lineages relies on similar mechanisms is unknown. Although we have shown that the Wnt signaling component β-catenin is selectively required in mouse embryos for the generation of exocrine acinar cells, this protein has been ascribed various functions in the postnatal pancreas, including proliferation and regeneration of islet as well as acinar cells. To address whether β-catenin remains important for the maintenance and expansion of mature acinar cells, we have established a system to follow the behavior and fate of β-catenin-deficient cells during postnatal growth and regeneration in mice. We find that β-catenin is continuously required for the establishment and maintenance of acinar cell mass, extending from embryonic specification through juvenile and adult self-renewal and regeneration. This requirement is not shared with islet cells, which proliferate and function normally in the absence of β-catenin. These results make distinct predictions for the relative role of Wnt–β-catenin signaling in the etiology of human endocrine and exocrine disease. We suggest that loss of Wnt–β-catenin activity is unlikely to drive islet dysfunction, as occurs in type 2 diabetes, but that β-catenin is likely to promote human acinar cell proliferation following injury, and might therefore contribute to the resolution of acute or chronic pancreatitis.

  17. Activating transcription factor 3 promotes loss of the acinar cell phenotype in response to cerulein-induced pancreatitis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazio, Elena N; Young, Claire C; Toma, Jelena; Levy, Michael; Berger, Kurt R; Johnson, Charis L; Mehmood, Rashid; Swan, Patrick; Chu, Alphonse; Cregan, Sean P; Dilworth, F Jeffrey; Howlett, Christopher J; Pin, Christopher L

    2017-09-01

    Pancreatitis is a debilitating disease of the exocrine pancreas that, under chronic conditions, is a major susceptibility factor for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Although down-regulation of genes that promote the mature acinar cell fate is required to reduce injury associated with pancreatitis, the factors that promote this repression are unknown. Activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) is a key mediator of the unfolded protein response, a pathway rapidly activated during pancreatic insult. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by next-generation sequencing, we show that ATF3 is bound to the transcriptional regulatory regions of >30% of differentially expressed genes during the initiation of pancreatitis. Of importance, ATF3-dependent regulation of these genes was observed only upon induction of pancreatitis, with pathways involved in inflammation, acinar cell differentiation, and cell junctions being specifically targeted. Characterizing expression of transcription factors that affect acinar cell differentiation suggested that acinar cells lacking ATF3 maintain a mature cell phenotype during pancreatitis, a finding supported by maintenance of junctional proteins and polarity markers. As a result, Atf3 -/- pancreatic tissue displayed increased tissue damage and inflammatory cell infiltration at early time points during injury but, at later time points, showed reduced acinar-to-duct cell metaplasia. Thus our results reveal a critical role for ATF3 as a key regulator of the acinar cell transcriptional response during injury and may provide a link between chronic pancreatitis and PDAC. © 2017 Fazio et al. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  18. The nuclear hormone receptor family member NR5A2 controls aspects of multipotent progenitor cell formation and acinar differentiation during pancreatic organogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Michael A; Swift, Galvin H; Hoang, Chinh Q; Deering, Tye G; Masui, Toshi; Lee, Youn-Kyoung; Xue, Jumin; MacDonald, Raymond J

    2014-08-01

    The orphan nuclear receptor NR5A2 is necessary for the stem-like properties of the epiblast of the pre-gastrulation embryo and for cellular and physiological homeostasis of endoderm-derived organs postnatally. Using conditional gene inactivation, we show that Nr5a2 also plays crucial regulatory roles during organogenesis. During the formation of the pancreas, Nr5a2 is necessary for the expansion of the nascent pancreatic epithelium, for the subsequent formation of the multipotent progenitor cell (MPC) population that gives rise to pre-acinar cells and bipotent cells with ductal and islet endocrine potential, and for the formation and differentiation of acinar cells. At birth, the NR5A2-deficient pancreas has defects in all three epithelial tissues: a partial loss of endocrine cells, a disrupted ductal tree and a >90% deficit of acini. The acinar defects are due to a combination of fewer MPCs, deficient allocation of those MPCs to pre-acinar fate, disruption of acinar morphogenesis and incomplete acinar cell differentiation. NR5A2 controls these developmental processes directly as well as through regulatory interactions with other pancreatic transcriptional regulators, including PTF1A, MYC, GATA4, FOXA2, RBPJL and MIST1 (BHLHA15). In particular, Nr5a2 and Ptf1a establish mutually reinforcing regulatory interactions and collaborate to control developmentally regulated pancreatic genes by binding to shared transcriptional regulatory regions. At the final stage of acinar cell development, the absence of NR5A2 affects the expression of Ptf1a and its acinar specific partner Rbpjl, so that the few acinar cells that form do not complete differentiation. Nr5a2 controls several temporally distinct stages of pancreatic development that involve regulatory mechanisms relevant to pancreatic oncogenesis and the maintenance of the exocrine phenotype. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  19. ptf1a+, ela3l− cells are developmentally maintained progenitors for exocrine regeneration following extreme loss of acinar cells in zebrafish larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitner, Nicole; Kohno, Kenji

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The exocrine pancreas displays a significant capacity for regeneration and renewal. In humans and mammalian model systems, the partial loss of exocrine tissue, such as after acute pancreatitis or partial pancreatectomy induces rapid recovery via expansion of surviving acinar cells. In mouse it was further found that an almost complete removal of acinar cells initiates regeneration from a currently not well-defined progenitor pool. Here, we used the zebrafish as an alternative model to study cellular mechanisms of exocrine regeneration following an almost complete removal of acinar cells. We introduced and validated two novel transgenic approaches for genetically encoded conditional cell ablation in the zebrafish, either by caspase-8-induced apoptosis or by rendering cells sensitive to diphtheria toxin. By using the ela3l promoter for exocrine-specific expression, we show that both approaches allowed cell-type-specific removal of >95% of acinar tissue in larval and adult zebrafish without causing any signs of unspecific side effects. We find that zebrafish larvae are able to recover from a virtually complete acinar tissue ablation within 2 weeks. Using short-term lineage-tracing experiments and EdU incorporation assays, we exclude duct-associated Notch-responsive cells as the source of regeneration. Rather, a rare population of slowly dividing ela3l-negative cells expressing ptf1a and CPA was identified as the origin of the newly forming exocrine cells. Cells are actively maintained, as revealed by a constant number of these cells at different larval stages and after repeated cell ablation. These cells establish ela3l expression about 4-6 days after ablation without signs of increased proliferation in between. With onset of ela3l expression, cells initiate rapid proliferation, leading to fast expansion of the ela3l-positive population. Finally, we show that this proliferation is blocked by overexpression of the Wnt-signaling antagonist dkk1b. In

  20. ptf1a+ , ela3l- cells are developmentally maintained progenitors for exocrine regeneration following extreme loss of acinar cells in zebrafish larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitner, Nicole; Kohno, Kenji; Meyer, Dirk

    2017-03-01

    The exocrine pancreas displays a significant capacity for regeneration and renewal. In humans and mammalian model systems, the partial loss of exocrine tissue, such as after acute pancreatitis or partial pancreatectomy induces rapid recovery via expansion of surviving acinar cells. In mouse it was further found that an almost complete removal of acinar cells initiates regeneration from a currently not well-defined progenitor pool. Here, we used the zebrafish as an alternative model to study cellular mechanisms of exocrine regeneration following an almost complete removal of acinar cells. We introduced and validated two novel transgenic approaches for genetically encoded conditional cell ablation in the zebrafish, either by caspase-8-induced apoptosis or by rendering cells sensitive to diphtheria toxin. By using the ela3l promoter for exocrine-specific expression, we show that both approaches allowed cell-type-specific removal of >95% of acinar tissue in larval and adult zebrafish without causing any signs of unspecific side effects. We find that zebrafish larvae are able to recover from a virtually complete acinar tissue ablation within 2 weeks. Using short-term lineage-tracing experiments and EdU incorporation assays, we exclude duct-associated Notch-responsive cells as the source of regeneration. Rather, a rare population of slowly dividing ela3l- negative cells expressing ptf1a and CPA was identified as the origin of the newly forming exocrine cells. Cells are actively maintained, as revealed by a constant number of these cells at different larval stages and after repeated cell ablation. These cells establish ela3l expression about 4-6 days after ablation without signs of increased proliferation in between. With onset of ela3l expression, cells initiate rapid proliferation, leading to fast expansion of the ela3l -positive population. Finally, we show that this proliferation is blocked by overexpression of the Wnt-signaling antagonist dkk1b In conclusion, we

  1. Effect of irradiation on the acinar cells of submandibular gland in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Hyun; Hwang, Eui Hwan; Lee, Sang Rae

    2003-01-01

    To observe the histologic changes and clusterin expression in the acinar cells of the submandibular gland in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat following irradiation. Mature Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups: control, diabetic, and diabetic-irradiated groups. Diabetes mellitus was induced in the Sprague-Dawley rats by injecting streptozotocin, while the control rats were injected with citrate buffer only. After 5 days, rats in diabetic-irradiated group were irradiated with single absorbed dose of 10 Gy to the head and neck region. The rats were killed at 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days after irradiation. The specimen including the submandibular gland were sectioned and observed using histologic and immunohistochemical methods. Morphologic change of acinar cells was remarkable in the diabetic group, but was not observed in the diabetic-irradiated group. Necrotic tissues were observed in the diabetic-irradiated group. Coloring of toluidine blue stain was most increased at 14 days in the diabetic group, however there were no significant change throughout the period of the experiment in the diabetic-irradiated group. Expression of clusterin was most significant at 14 days in the diabetic group, but gradually decreased with time after 7 days in the diabetic-irradiated group. Degeneration of clusterin was observed in the diabetic-irradiated group. This experiment suggests that the acinar cells of submandibular gland in rats are physiologically apoptosis by the induction of diabetes, but that the apoptosis is inhibited and the acinar cells necrotized after irradiation.

  2. Establishment of functional acinar-like cultures from human salivary glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, S I; Ong, H L; Gallo, A; Liu, X; Illei, G; Alevizos, I

    2015-02-01

    Disorders of human salivary glands resulting from therapeutic radiation treatment for head and neck cancers or from the autoimmune disease Sjögren syndrome (SS) frequently result in the reduction or complete loss of saliva secretion. Such irreversible dysfunction of the salivary glands is due to the impairment of acinar cells, the major glandular cells of protein, salt secretion, and fluid movement. Availability of primary epithelial cells from human salivary gland tissue is critical for studying the underlying mechanisms of these irreversible disorders. We applied 2 culture system techniques on human minor salivary gland epithelial cells (phmSG) and optimized the growth conditions to achieve the maintenance of phmSG in an acinar-like phenotype. These phmSG cells exhibited progenitor cell markers (keratin 5 and nanog) as well as acinar-specific markers-namely, α-amylase, cystatin C, TMEM16A, and NKCC1. Importantly, with an increase of the calcium concentration in the growth medium, these phmSG cells were further promoted to acinar-like cells in vitro, as indicated by an increase in AQP5 expression. In addition, these phmSG cells also demonstrated functional calcium mobilization, formation of epithelial monolayer with high transepithelial electrical resistance (TER), and polarized secretion of α-amylase secretion after β-adrenergic receptor stimulation. Taken together, suitable growth conditions have been established to isolate and support culture of acinar-like cells from the human salivary gland. These primary epithelial cells can be useful for study of molecular mechanisms involved in regulating the function of acinar cells and in the loss of salivary gland function in patients. © International & American Associations for Dental Research 2014.

  3. Lysosome associated membrane proteins maintain pancreatic acinar cell homeostasis: LAMP-2 deficient mice develop pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mareninova, Olga A; Sendler, Matthias; Malla, Sudarshan Ravi; Yakubov, Iskandar; French, Samuel W; Tokhtaeva, Elmira; Vagin, Olga; Oorschot, Viola; Lüllmann-Rauch, Renate; Blanz, Judith; Dawson, David; Klumperman, Judith; Lerch, Markus M; Mayerle, Julia; Gukovsky, Ilya; Gukovskaya, Anna S

    2015-11-01

    The pathogenic mechanism of pancreatitis is poorly understood. Recent evidence implicates defective autophagy in pancreatitis responses; however, the pathways mediating impaired autophagy in pancreas remain largely unknown. Here, we investigate the role of lysosome associated membrane proteins (LAMPs) in pancreatitis. We analyzed changes in LAMPs in experimental models and human pancreatitis, and the underlying mechanisms: LAMP de-glycosylation and degradation. LAMP cleavage by cathepsin B (CatB) was analyzed by mass spectrometry. We used mice deficient in LAMP-2 to assess its role in pancreatitis. Pancreatic levels of LAMP-1 and LAMP-2 greatly decrease across various pancreatitis models and in human disease. Pancreatitis does not trigger LAMPs' bulk de-glycosylation, but induces their degradation via CatB-mediated cleavage of LAMP molecule close to the boundary between luminal and transmembrane domains. LAMP-2 null mice spontaneously develop pancreatitis that begins with acinar cell vacuolization due to impaired autophagic flux, and progresses to severe pancreas damage characterized by trypsinogen activation, macrophage-driven inflammation, and acinar cell death. LAMP-2 deficiency causes a decrease in pancreatic digestive enzymes content, stimulates the basal and inhibits CCK-induced amylase secretion by acinar cells. The effects of LAMP-2 knockout and acute cerulein pancreatitis overlap, which corroborates the pathogenic role of LAMP decrease in experimental pancreatitis models. The results indicate a critical role for LAMPs, particularly LAMP-2, in maintaining pancreatic acinar cell homeostasis, and provide evidence that defective lysosomal function, resulting in impaired autophagy, leads to pancreatitis. Mice with LAMP-2 deficiency present a novel genetic model of human pancreatitis caused by lysosomal/autophagic dysfunction.

  4. Acinar Cell Carcinoma of the Pancreas with Colon Involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoki Asayama

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of acinar cell carcinoma of the pancreas with colon involvement that was difficult to distinguish from primary colon cancer. A 60-year-old man was admitted with a 1-month history of diarrhea. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT revealed a large tumor (10.6×11.6 cm at the splenic flexure of the colon. Colonoscopy showed completely round ulcerative lesions, and biopsy revealed poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma. Left hemicolectomy, resection of the jejunum and pancreas body and tail, and splenectomy were performed based on a diagnosis of descending colon cancer (cT4N0M0, stage IIB, and surgery was considered to be curative. Diagnosis was subsequently confirmed as moderately differentiated acinar cell carcinoma of the pancreas by immunohistochemical staining (pT3N0M0, stage IIA. Multiple liver metastases with portal thrombosis were found 8 weeks postoperatively. Despite combination chemotherapy with oral S-1 and gemcitabine, the patient died of hepatic failure with no effect of chemotherapy 14 weeks postoperatively. Correct diagnosis was difficult to determine preoperatively from the clinical, CT, and colonoscopy findings. Moreover, the disease was extremely aggressive even after curative resection. Physicians should consider pancreatic cancer in the differential diagnosis of similar cases.

  5. Evidence of a generalized defect of acinar cell function in Shwachman-Diamond syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stormon, Michael O; Ip, Wan F; Ellis, Lynda; Schibli, Susanne; Rommens, Johanna M; Durie, Peter R

    2010-07-01

    : Because the acinar cells of the exocrine pancreas in patients with Shwachman-Diamond syndrome (SDS) are severely depleted, we hypothesized that a similar deficiency may be present in acinar cells of the parotid gland. : We determined serum pancreatic isoamylase and parotid amylase activities in 16 patients with SDS, 13 healthy controls, and 13 disease controls (cystic fibrosis or fibrosing pancreatitis). Parotid amylase and electrolyte concentrations were measured in stimulated parotid gland secretions. Starch digestion was assessed by breath hydrogen testing in patients with SDS (with and without enzyme supplements) and healthy controls. : Serum pancreatic and parotid isoamylase values were lower in the patients with SDS than in the healthy controls (P gland amylase concentration (units per milligram of protein) in patients with SDS was lower than that in the healthy controls (P = 0.04), whereas the disease controls were comparable to the healthy subjects (P = 0.09). Secreted parotid chloride concentration was inversely correlated with amylase concentration in the patients with SDS (P = 0.01), but no correlation was seen in the healthy controls or disease controls. When patients with SDS ingested starch without enzyme supplementation, their breath hydrogen excretion was significantly higher than that in the healthy controls (P = 0.009). Following starch ingestion with enzymes, breath hydrogen in the patients with SDS was lower (P functional abnormality of exocrine acinar cells.

  6. Pancreatic ductal bicarbonate secretion: challenge of the acinar acid load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter eHegyi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Acinar and ductal cells of the exocrine pancreas form a close functional unit. Although most studies contain data either on acinar or ductal cells, an increasing number of evidence highlights the importance of the pancreatic acinar-ductal functional unit. One of the best examples for this functional unit is the regulation of luminal pH by both cell types. Protons co-released during exocytosis from acini cause significant acidosis, whereas, bicarbonate secreted by ductal cells cause alkalization in the lumen. This suggests that the first and probably one of the most important role of bicarbonate secretion by pancreatic ductal cells is not only to neutralize the acid chyme entering into the duodenum from the stomach, but to neutralize acidic content secreted by acinar cells. To accomplish this role, it is more than likely that ductal cells have physiological sensing mechanisms which would allow them to regulate luminal pH. To date, four different classes of acid-sensing ion channels have been identified in the gastrointestinal tract (transient receptor potential ion channels, two-pore domain potassium channel, ionotropic purinoceptor and acid-sensing ion channel, however, none of these have been studied in pancreatic ductal cells. In this mini-review, we summarize our current knowledge of these channels and urge scientists to characterize ductal acid-sensing mechanisms and also to investigate the challenge of the acinar acid load on ductal cells.

  7. The novel cytokine interleukin-33 activates acinar cell proinflammatory pathways and induces acute pancreatic inflammation in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duraisamy Kempuraj

    Full Text Available Acute pancreatitis is potentially fatal but treatment options are limited as disease pathogenesis is poorly understood. IL-33, a novel IL-1 cytokine family member, plays a role in various inflammatory conditions but its role in acute pancreatitis is not well understood. Specifically, whether pancreatic acinar cells produce IL-33 when stressed or respond to IL-33 stimulation, and whether IL-33 exacerbates acute pancreatic inflammation is unknown.In duct ligation-induced acute pancreatitis in mice and rats, we found that (a IL-33 concentration was increased in the pancreas; (b mast cells, which secrete and also respond to IL-33, showed degranulation in the pancreas and lung; (c plasma histamine and pancreatic substance P concentrations were increased; and (d pancreatic and pulmonary proinflammatory cytokine concentrations were increased. In isolated mouse pancreatic acinar cells, TNF-α stimulation increased IL-33 release while IL-33 stimulation increased proinflammatory cytokine release, both involving the ERK MAP kinase pathway; the flavonoid luteolin inhibited IL-33-stimulated IL-6 and CCL2/MCP-1 release. In mice without duct ligation, exogenous IL-33 administration induced pancreatic inflammation without mast cell degranulation or jejunal inflammation; pancreatic changes included multifocal edema and perivascular infiltration by neutrophils and some macrophages. ERK MAP kinase (but not p38 or JNK and NF-kB subunit p65 were activated in the pancreas of mice receiving exogenous IL-33, and acinar cells isolated from the pancreas of these mice showed increased spontaneous cytokine release (IL-6, CXCL2/MIP-2α. Also, IL-33 activated ERK in human pancreatic tissue.As exogenous IL-33 does not induce jejunal inflammation in the same mice in which it induces pancreatic inflammation, we have discovered a potential role for an IL-33/acinar cell axis in the recruitment of neutrophils and macrophages and the exacerbation of acute pancreatic inflammation

  8. Label retaining cells (LRCs with myoepithelial characteristic from the proximal acinar region define stem cells in the sweat gland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne Leung

    Full Text Available Slow cycling is a common feature shared among several stem cells (SCs identified in adult tissues including hair follicle and cornea. Recently, existence of unipotent SCs in basal and lumenal layers of sweat gland (SG has been described and label retaining cells (LRCs have also been localized in SGs; however, whether these LRCs possess SCs characteristic has not been investigated further. Here, we used a H2BGFP LRCs system for in vivo detection of infrequently dividing cells. This system allowed us to specifically localize and isolate SCs with label-retention and myoepithelial characteristics restricted to the SG proximal acinar region. Using an alternative genetic approach, we demonstrated that SG LRCs expressed keratin 15 (K15 in the acinar region and lineage tracing determined that K15 labeled cells contributed long term to the SG structure but not to epidermal homeostasis. Surprisingly, wound healing experiments did not activate proximal acinar SG cells to participate in epidermal healing. Instead, predominantly non-LRCs in the SG duct actively divided, whereas the majority of SG LRCs remained quiescent. However, when we further challenged the system under more favorable isolated wound healing conditions, we were able to trigger normally quiescent acinar LRCs to trans-differentiate into the epidermis and adopt its long term fate. In addition, dissociated SG cells were able to regenerate SGs and, surprisingly, hair follicles demonstrating their in vivo plasticity. By determining the gene expression profile of isolated SG LRCs and non-LRCs in vivo, we identified several Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP pathway genes to be up-regulated and confirmed a functional requirement for BMP receptor 1A (BMPR1A-mediated signaling in SG formation. Our data highlight the existence of SG stem cells (SGSCs and their primary importance in SG homeostasis. It also emphasizes SGSCs as an alternative source of cells in wound healing and their plasticity for

  9. Nicotine as a mitogenic stimulus for pancreatic acinar cell proliferation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Parimal Chowdhury; Kodetthoor B Udupa

    2006-01-01

    Cell proliferation is an important process in life for growth of normal and cancer cells. The signal transduction pathways activated during this process are strictly regulated. This editorial focuses on the role of nicotine,a mitogen, in the induction of signaling pathways resulting in proliferation of pancreatic tumor cells and compares these events with those in normal acinar cells isolated from the rat pancreas. The data shows striking similarities between these two cellular systems.In addition, the editorial reviews very recent literature of the contribution of MAPK signaling in cell lines associated with human diseases. A prospective cellular model of nicotine induced activation of MAPK cascade is presented.

  10. NFATc4 Regulates Sox9 Gene Expression in Acinar Cell Plasticity and Pancreatic Cancer Initiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Hessmann

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Acinar transdifferentiation toward a duct-like phenotype constitutes the defining response of acinar cells to external stress signals and is considered to be the initial step in pancreatic carcinogenesis. Despite the requirement for oncogenic Kras in pancreatic cancer (PDAC development, oncogenic Kras is not sufficient to drive pancreatic carcinogenesis beyond the level of premalignancy. Instead, secondary events, such as inflammation-induced signaling activation of the epidermal growth factor (EGFR or induction of Sox9 expression, are required for tumor formation. Herein, we aimed to dissect the mechanism that links EGFR signaling to Sox9 gene expression during acinar-to-ductal metaplasia in pancreatic tissue adaptation and PDAC initiation. We show that the inflammatory transcription factor NFATc4 is highly induced and localizes in the nucleus in response to inflammation-induced EGFR signaling. Moreover, we demonstrate that NFATc4 drives acinar-to-ductal conversion and PDAC initiation through direct transcriptional induction of Sox9. Therefore, strategies designed to disrupt NFATc4 induction might be beneficial in the prevention or therapy of PDAC.

  11. Inhibitors of ORAI1 Prevent Cytosolic Calcium-Associated Injury of Human Pancreatic Acinar Cells and Acute Pancreatitis in 3 Mouse Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Li; Voronina, Svetlana; Javed, Muhammad A.; Awais, Muhammad; Szatmary, Peter; Latawiec, Diane; Chvanov, Michael; Collier, David; Huang, Wei; Barrett, John; Begg, Malcolm; Stauderman, Ken; Roos, Jack; Grigoryev, Sergey; Ramos, Stephanie; Rogers, Evan; Whitten, Jeff; Velicelebi, Gonul; Dunn, Michael; Tepikin, Alexei V.; Criddle, David N.; Sutton, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Background & Aims Sustained activation of the cytosolic calcium concentration induces injury to pancreatic acinar cells and necrosis. The calcium release–activated calcium modulator ORAI1 is the most abundant Ca2+ entry channel in pancreatic acinar cells; it sustains calcium overload in mice exposed to toxins that induce pancreatitis. We investigated the roles of ORAI1 in pancreatic acinar cell injury and the development of acute pancreatitis in mice. Methods Mouse and human acinar cells, as well as HEK 293 cells transfected to express human ORAI1 with human stromal interaction molecule 1, were hyperstimulated or incubated with human bile acid, thapsigargin, or cyclopiazonic acid to induce calcium entry. GSK-7975A or CM_128 were added to some cells, which were analyzed by confocal and video microscopy and patch clamp recordings. Acute pancreatitis was induced in C57BL/6J mice by ductal injection of taurolithocholic acid 3-sulfate or intravenous' administration of cerulein or ethanol and palmitoleic acid. Some mice then were given GSK-7975A or CM_128, which inhibit ORAI1, at different time points to assess local and systemic effects. Results GSK-7975A and CM_128 each separately inhibited toxin-induced activation of ORAI1 and/or activation of Ca2+ currents after Ca2+ release, in a concentration-dependent manner, in mouse and human pancreatic acinar cells (inhibition >90% of the levels observed in control cells). The ORAI1 inhibitors also prevented activation of the necrotic cell death pathway in mouse and human pancreatic acinar cells. GSK-7975A and CM_128 each inhibited all local and systemic features of acute pancreatitis in all 3 models, in dose- and time-dependent manners. The agents were significantly more effective, in a range of parameters, when given at 1 vs 6 hours after induction of pancreatitis. Conclusions Cytosolic calcium overload, mediated via ORAI1, contributes to the pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis. ORAI1 inhibitors might be developed

  12. Glycogen synthase kinase-3β ablation limits pancreatitis-induced acinar-to-ductal metaplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Li; Liou, Geou-Yarh; Schmitt, Daniel M; Storz, Peter; Zhang, Jin-San; Billadeau, Daniel D

    2017-09-01

    Acinar-to-ductal metaplasia (ADM) is a reversible epithelial transdifferentiation process that occurs in the pancreas in response to acute inflammation. ADM can rapidly progress towards pre-malignant pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN) lesions in the presence of mutant KRas and ultimately pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDAC). In the present work, we elucidate the role and related mechanism of glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK-3β) in ADM development using in vitro 3D cultures and genetically engineered mouse models. We show that GSK-3β promotes TGF-α-induced ADM in 3D cultured primary acinar cells, whereas deletion of GSK-3β attenuates caerulein-induced ADM formation and PanIN progression in Kras G12D transgenic mice. Furthermore, we demonstrate that GSK-3β ablation influences ADM formation and PanIN progression by suppressing oncogenic KRas-driven cell proliferation. Mechanistically, we show that GSK-3β regulates proliferation by increasing the activation of S6 kinase. Taken together, these results indicate that GSK-3β participates in early pancreatitis-induced ADM and thus could be a target for the treatment of chronic pancreatitis and the prevention of PDAC progression. Copyright © 2017 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Docosahexaenoic acid inhibits IL-6 expression via PPARγ-mediated expression of catalase in cerulein-stimulated pancreatic acinar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Eun Ah; Lim, Joo Weon; Kim, Hyeyoung

    2017-07-01

    Cerulein pancreatitis mirrors human acute pancreatitis. In pancreatic acinar cells exposed to cerulein, reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediate inflammatory signaling by Janus kinase (JAK) 2/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 3, and cytokine induction. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) acts as an agonist of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ (PPARγ), which mediates the expression of some antioxidant enzymes. We hypothesized that DHA may induce PPARγ-target catalase expression and reduce ROS levels, leading to the inhibition of JAK2/STAT3 activation and IL-6 expression in cerulein-stimulated acinar cells. Pancreatic acinar AR42J cells were treated with DHA in the presence or absence of the PPARγ antagonist GW9662, or treated with the PPARγ agonist troglitazone, and then stimulated with cerulein. Expression of IL-6 and catalase, ROS levels, JAK2/STAT3 activation, and nuclear translocation of PPARγ were assessed. DHA suppressed the increase in ROS, JAK2/STAT3 activation, and IL-6 expression induced nuclear translocation of PPARγ and catalase expression in cerulein-stimulated AR42J cells. Troglitazone inhibited the cerulein-induced increase in ROS and IL-6 expression, but induced catalase expression similar to DHA in AR42J cells. GW9662 abolished the inhibitory effect of DHA on cerulein-induced increase in ROS and IL-6 expression in AR42J cells. DHA-induced expression of catalase was suppressed by GW9662 in cerulein-stimulated AR42J cells. Thus, DHA induces PPARγ activation and catalase expression, which inhibits ROS-mediated activation of JAK2/STAT3 and IL-6 expression in cerulein-stimulated pancreatic acinar cells. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Effects of Baicalin on inflammatory mediators and pancreatic acinar cell apoptosis in rats with sever acute pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    zhang xiping

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available

    • BACKGROUND: To investigate the effects of Baicalin and Octreotide on inflammatory mediators and pancreatic acinar cells apoptosis of rats with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP.
    • METHODS: SD rats were randomly divided into sham operated group (I group, model control group (II group, Baicalin treated group (III group and Octreotide treated group (IV group. Each group was also divided into subgroup of 3, 6 and 12 h (n = 15. The mortality rate, ascites/body weight ratio as well as the level of endotoxin, NO and ET-1 in blood were measured. The pathological severity score of pancreas, apoptotic indexes, and expression levels of Bax and Bcl-2 proteins in each group were investigated.
    • RESULTS: The survival rate of III and IV group has a significant difference compared with II group (P12 h < 0.05. The ascites volume, contents of inflammatory mediators in blood and pathological severity score of pancreas of III and IV group declined at different degrees compared to II group (P < 0.05, P < 0.01 or P < 0.001. Apoptotic index in III group was significantly higher than that in II group at 3 and 6 h (P3, 6 h < 0.05. Apoptotic index in IV group was significantly higher than that in II group at pancreatic tail at 6 h (P6 h < 0.05. Expression level of Bax in III group was significantly higher than that in II group (pancreatic head P3 h,6 h < 0.01, pancreatic tail P3 h < 0.001.
    • CONCLUSIONS: Compared with Octreotide in the treatment of SAP, the protective mechanisms of Baicalin include reducing the excessive inflammatory mediators’ release, inducing the pancreatic acinar cells apoptosis.
    • KEY WORDS: Severe acute pancreatitis, baicalin, octreotide, inflammatory mediators, apoptosis, tissue microarrays.

  15. Nitric oxide-induced signalling in rat lacrimal acinar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Looms, Dagnia Karen; Tritsaris, K.; Dissing, S.

    2002-01-01

    -adrenergic stimulation and not by a rise in [Ca2+]i alone.   We show that in rat lacrimal acinar cells, NO and cGMP induce Ca2+ release from intracellular stores via G kinase activation. However, the changes in [Ca2+]i are relatively small, suggesting that this pathway plays a modulatory role in Ca2+ signalling, thus...... not by itself causing fast transient increases in [Ca2+]i. In addition, we suggest that endogenously produced NO activated by ß-adrenergic receptor stimulation, plays an important role in signalling to the surrounding tissue....

  16. Targeted Inhibition of Pancreatic Acinar Cell Calcineurin Is a Novel Strategy to Prevent Post-ERCP PancreatitisSummary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abrahim I. Orabi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims: There is a pressing need to develop effective preventative therapies for post–endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography pancreatitis (PEP. We showed that early PEP events are induced through the calcium-activated phosphatase calcineurin and that global calcineurin deletion abolishes PEP in mice. A crucial question is whether acinar cell calcineurin controls the initiation of PEP in vivo. Methods: We used a mouse model of PEP and examined the effects of in vivo acinar cell-specific calcineurin deletion by either generating a conditional knockout line or infusing a novel adeno-associated virus–pancreatic elastase improved Cre (I–iCre into the pancreatic duct of a calcineurin floxed line. Results: We found that PEP is dependent on acinar cell calcineurin in vivo, and this led us to determine that calcineurin inhibitors, infused within the radiocontrast, largely can prevent PEP. Conclusions: These results provide the impetus for launching clinical trials to test the efficacy of intraductal calcineurin inhibitors to prevent PEP. Keywords: Adeno-Associated Virus, Calcineurin B1, FK506, Cyclosporine A, Intraductal Delivery

  17. An alpha-adrenergic receptor mechanism controlling potassium permeability in the rat lacrimal gland acinar cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parod, R.J.; Putney, J.W. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Rat lacrimal gland slices, incubated in a balanced, buffered salt solution, were found to be physiologically stable for up to 2 hr with respect to 0 2 consumption, extracellular space, and water and ion content. The release of 86 Rb serves as a good substitute for 42 K in monitoring the movement of K through the cell membrane. Adrenaline appears to increase membrane permeability to K as evidenced by an increase in the rate of 86 Rb efflux. This response to adrenaline was blocked by phentolamine but not by propranolol and was mimicked by phenylephrine but not by isoprenaline. The magnitude of the 86 Rb release indicates that it is being released, at least in part, from the lacrimal gland acinar cell. It is concluded that the lacrimal gland acinar cell has an α-adrenergic receptor, activation of which leads to an increase in membrane permeability to K. (author)

  18. Nicotine promotes initiation and progression of KRAS-induced pancreatic cancer via Gata6-dependent dedifferentiation of acinar cells in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann, Patrick C; Sancho, Patricia; Cañamero, Marta; Martinelli, Paola; Madriles, Francesc; Michl, Patrick; Gress, Thomas; de Pascual, Ricardo; Gandia, Luis; Guerra, Carmen; Barbacid, Mariano; Wagner, Martin; Vieira, Catarina R; Aicher, Alexandra; Real, Francisco X; Sainz, Bruno; Heeschen, Christopher

    2014-11-01

    Although smoking is a leading risk factor for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), little is known about the mechanisms by which smoking promotes initiation or progression of PDAC. We studied the effects of nicotine administration on pancreatic cancer development in Kras(+/LSLG12Vgeo);Elas-tTA/tetO-Cre (Ela-KRAS) mice, Kras(+/LSLG12D);Trp53+/LSLR172H;Pdx-1-Cre (KPC) mice (which express constitutively active forms of KRAS), and C57/B6 mice. Mice were given nicotine for up to 86 weeks to produce blood levels comparable with those of intermediate smokers. Pancreatic tissues were collected and analyzed by immunohistochemistry and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction; cells were isolated and assayed for colony and sphere formation and gene expression. The effects of nicotine were also evaluated in primary pancreatic acinar cells isolated from wild-type, nAChR7a(-/-), Trp53(-/-), and Gata6(-/-);Trp53(-/-) mice. We also analyzed primary PDAC cells that overexpressed GATA6 from lentiviral expression vectors. Administration of nicotine accelerated transformation of pancreatic cells and tumor formation in Ela-KRAS and KPC mice. Nicotine induced dedifferentiation of acinar cells by activating AKT-ERK-MYC signaling; this led to inhibition of Gata6 promoter activity, loss of GATA6 protein, and subsequent loss of acinar differentiation and hyperactivation of oncogenic KRAS. Nicotine also promoted aggressiveness of established tumors as well as the epithelial-mesenchymal transition, increasing numbers of circulating cancer cells and their dissemination to the liver, compared with mice not exposed to nicotine. Nicotine induced pancreatic cells to acquire gene expression patterns and functional characteristics of cancer stem cells. These effects were markedly attenuated in K-Ras(+/LSL-G12D);Trp53(+/LSLR172H);Pdx-1-Cre mice given metformin. Metformin prevented nicotine-induced pancreatic carcinogenesis and tumor growth by up-regulating GATA6 and promoting

  19. New saliva secretion model based on the expression of Na+-K+ pump and K+ channels in the apical membrane of parotid acinar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almássy, János; Siguenza, Elias; Skaliczki, Marianna; Matesz, Klara; Sneyd, James; Yule, David I; Nánási, Péter P

    2018-04-01

    The plasma membrane of parotid acinar cells is functionally divided into apical and basolateral regions. According to the current model, fluid secretion is driven by transepithelial ion gradient, which facilitates water movement by osmosis into the acinar lumen from the interstitium. The osmotic gradient is created by the apical Cl - efflux and the subsequent paracellular Na + transport. In this model, the Na + -K + pump is located exclusively in the basolateral membrane and has essential role in salivary secretion, since the driving force for Cl - transport via basolateral Na + -K + -2Cl - cotransport is generated by the Na + -K + pump. In addition, the continuous electrochemical gradient for Cl - flow during acinar cell stimulation is maintained by the basolateral K + efflux. However, using a combination of single-cell electrophysiology and Ca 2+ -imaging, we demonstrate that photolysis of Ca 2+ close to the apical membrane of parotid acinar cells triggered significant K + current, indicating that a substantial amount of K + is secreted into the lumen during stimulation. Nevertheless, the K + content of the primary saliva is relatively low, suggesting that K + might be reabsorbed through the apical membrane. Therefore, we investigated the localization of Na + -K + pumps in acinar cells. We show that the pumps appear evenly distributed throughout the whole plasma membrane, including the apical pole of the cell. Based on these results, a new mathematical model of salivary fluid secretion is presented, where the pump reabsorbs K + from and secretes Na + to the lumen, which can partially supplement the paracellular Na + pathway.

  20. Sirtuin-1 regulates acinar-to-ductal metaplasia and supports cancer cell viability in pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wauters, Elke; Sanchez-Arévalo Lobo, Victor J; Pinho, Andreia V; Mawson, Amanda; Herranz, Daniel; Wu, Jianmin; Cowley, Mark J; Colvin, Emily K; Njicop, Erna Ngwayi; Sutherland, Rob L; Liu, Tao; Serrano, Manuel; Bouwens, Luc; Real, Francisco X; Biankin, Andrew V; Rooman, Ilse

    2013-04-01

    The exocrine pancreas can undergo acinar-to-ductal metaplasia (ADM), as in the case of pancreatitis where precursor lesions of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) can arise. The NAD(+)-dependent protein deacetylase Sirtuin-1 (Sirt1) has been implicated in carcinogenesis with dual roles depending on its subcellular localization. In this study, we examined the expression and the role of Sirt1 in different stages of pancreatic carcinogenesis, i.e. ADM models and established PDAC. In addition, we analyzed the expression of KIAA1967, a key mediator of Sirt1 function, along with potential Sirt1 downstream targets. Sirt1 was co-expressed with KIAA1967 in the nuclei of normal pancreatic acinar cells. In ADM, Sirt1 underwent a transient nuclear-to-cytoplasmic shuttling. Experiments where during ADM, we enforced repression of Sirt1 shuttling, inhibition of Sirt1 activity or modulation of its expression, all underscore that the temporary decrease of nuclear and increase of cytoplasmic Sirt1 stimulate ADM. Our results further underscore that important transcriptional regulators of acinar differentiation, that is, Pancreatic transcription factor-1a and β-catenin can be deacetylated by Sirt1. Inhibition of Sirt1 is effective in suppression of ADM and in reducing cell viability in established PDAC tumors. KIAA1967 expression is differentially downregulated in PDAC and impacts on the sensitivity of PDAC cells to the Sirt1/2 inhibitor Tenovin-6. In PDAC, acetylation of β-catenin is not affected, unlike p53, a well-characterized Sirt1-regulated protein in tumor cells. Our results reveal that Sirt1 is an important regulator and potential therapeutic target in pancreatic carcinogenesis. ©2012 AACR.

  1. Effects of Ghrelin miRNA on Inflammation and Calcium Pathway in Pancreatic Acinar Cells of Acute Pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiping; Tang, Guodu; Liang, Zhihai; Qin, Mengbin; Fang, Chunyun; Zhang, Luyi

    The study investigated the effects of endogenous targeted inhibition of ghrelin gene on inflammation and calcium pathway in an in vitro pancreatic acinar cell model of acute pancreatitis. Lentiviral expression vector against ghrelin gene was constructed and transfected into AR42J cells. The mRNA and protein expression of each gene were detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting, or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The concentration of intracellular calcium ([Ca]i) was determined by calcium fluorescence mark probe combined with laser scanning confocal microscopy. Compared with the control group, cerulein could upregulate mRNA and protein expression of inflammatory factors, calcium pathway, ghrelin, and [Ca]i. mRNA and protein expression of inflammatory factors increased significantly in cells transfected with ghrelin miRNA compared with the other groups. Intracellular calcium and expression of some calcium pathway proteins decreased significantly in cells transfected with ghrelin miRNA compared with the other groups. Targeted inhibition of ghrelin gene in pancreatic acinar cells of acute pancreatitis can upregulate the expression of the intracellular inflammatory factors and alleviate the intracellular calcium overload.

  2. Growth Factor Independence-1 (Gfi1) Is Required for Pancreatic Acinar Unit Formation and Centroacinar Cell Differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qu, Xiaoling; Nyeng, Pia; Xiao, Fan

    2015-01-01

    of granulocytes, inner ear hair cells, and the development of secretory cell types in the intestine. As GFI1/Gfi1 is expressed in human and rodent pancreas, we characterized the potential function of Gfi1 in mouse pancreatic development. METHODS: Gfi1 knockout mice were analyzed at histological and molecular...... levels, including qRT-PCR, in situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry, and electron microscopy. RESULTS: Loss of Gfi1 impacted formation and structure of the pancreatic acinar/centroacinar unit. Histologic and ultrastructural analysis of Gfi1-null pancreas revealed specific defects at the level...... was correlated with an exocrine organ defect. Postnatally, Gfi1 deficiency resulted in severe pancreatic acinar dysplasia, including loss of granulation, autolytic vacuolation, and a proliferative and apoptotic response. CONCLUSIONS: Gfi1 plays an important role in regulating the development of pancreatic CACs...

  3. Competence of failed endocrine progenitors to give rise to acinar but not ductal cells is restricted to early pancreas development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beucher, Anthony; Martín, Mercè; Spenle, Caroline; Poulet, Martine; Collin, Caitlin; Gradwohl, Gérard

    2012-01-15

    During mouse pancreas development, the transient expression of Neurogenin3 (Neurog3) in uncommitted pancreas progenitors is required to determine endocrine destiny. However it has been reported that Neurog3-expressing cells can eventually adopt acinar or ductal fates and that Neurog3 levels were important to secure the islet destiny. It is not known whether the competence of Neurog3-induced cells to give rise to non-endocrine lineages is an intrinsic property of these progenitors or depends on pancreas developmental stage. Using temporal genetic labeling approaches we examined the dynamic of endocrine progenitor differentiation and explored the plasticity of Neurog3-induced cells throughout development. We found that Neurog3(+) progenitors develop into hormone-expressing cells in a fast process taking less then 10h. Furthermore, fate-mapping studies in heterozygote (Neurog3(CreERT/+)) and Neurog3-deficient (Neurog3(CreERT/CreERT)) embryos revealed that Neurog3-induced cells have different potential over time. At the early bud stage, failed endocrine progenitors can adopt acinar or ductal fate, whereas later in the branching pancreas they do not contribute to the acinar lineage but Neurog3-deficient cells eventually differentiate into duct cells. Thus these results provide evidence that the plasticity of Neurog3-induced cells becomes restricted during development. Furthermore these data suggest that during the secondary transition, endocrine progenitor cells arise from bipotent precursors already committed to the duct/endocrine lineages and not from domain of cells having distinct potentialities. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. FDG PET imaging of Ela1-myc mice reveals major biological differences between pancreatic acinar and ductal tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abasolo, Ibane [Institut Municipal d' Investigacio Medica-Hospital del Mar, Parc de Recerca Biomedica de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Parc de Recerca Biomedica de Barcelona, Departament de Ciencies Experimentals i de la Salut, Barcelona (Spain); Institut d' Alta Tecnologia - CRC, Parc de Recerca Biomedica de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Pujal, Judit; Navarro, Pilar [Institut Municipal d' Investigacio Medica-Hospital del Mar, Parc de Recerca Biomedica de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Rabanal, Rosa M.; Serafin, Anna [Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Departament de Medicina i Cirurgia Animals, Barcelona (Spain); Millan, Olga [Institut d' Alta Tecnologia - CRC, Parc de Recerca Biomedica de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Real, Francisco X. [Institut Municipal d' Investigacio Medica-Hospital del Mar, Parc de Recerca Biomedica de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Parc de Recerca Biomedica de Barcelona, Departament de Ciencies Experimentals i de la Salut, Barcelona (Spain); Programa de Patologia Molecular, Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Oncologicas, Madrid (Spain)

    2009-07-15

    The aim was to evaluate FDG PET imaging in Ela1-myc mice, a pancreatic cancer model resulting in the development of tumours with either acinar or mixed acinar-ductal phenotype. Transversal and longitudinal FDG PET studies were conducted; selected tissue samples were subjected to autoradiography and ex vivo organ counting. Glucose transporter and hexokinase mRNA expression was analysed by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR); Glut2 expression was analysed by immunohistochemistry. Transversal studies showed that mixed acinar-ductal tumours could be identified by FDG PET several weeks before they could be detected by hand palpation. Longitudinal studies revealed that ductal - but not acinar - tumours could be detected by FDG PET. Autoradiographic analysis confirmed that tumour areas with ductal differentiation incorporated more FDG than areas displaying acinar differentiation. Ex vivo radioactivity measurements showed that tumours of solely acinar phenotype incorporated more FDG than pancreata of non-transgenic littermates despite the fact that they did not yield positive PET images. To gain insight into the biological basis of the differential FDG uptake, glucose transporter and hexokinase transcript expression was studied in microdissected tumour areas enriched for acinar or ductal cells and validated using cell-specific markers. Glut2 and hexokinase I and II mRNA levels were up to 20-fold higher in ductal than in acinar tumours. Besides, Glut2 protein overexpression was found in ductal neoplastic cells but not in the surrounding stroma. In Ela1-myc mice, ductal tumours incorporate significantly more FDG than acinar tumours. This difference likely results from differential expression of Glut2 and hexokinases. These findings reveal previously unreported biological differences between acinar and ductal pancreatic tumours. (orig.)

  5. FDG PET imaging of Ela1-myc mice reveals major biological differences between pancreatic acinar and ductal tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abasolo, Ibane; Pujal, Judit; Navarro, Pilar; Rabanal, Rosa M.; Serafin, Anna; Millan, Olga; Real, Francisco X.

    2009-01-01

    The aim was to evaluate FDG PET imaging in Ela1-myc mice, a pancreatic cancer model resulting in the development of tumours with either acinar or mixed acinar-ductal phenotype. Transversal and longitudinal FDG PET studies were conducted; selected tissue samples were subjected to autoradiography and ex vivo organ counting. Glucose transporter and hexokinase mRNA expression was analysed by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR); Glut2 expression was analysed by immunohistochemistry. Transversal studies showed that mixed acinar-ductal tumours could be identified by FDG PET several weeks before they could be detected by hand palpation. Longitudinal studies revealed that ductal - but not acinar - tumours could be detected by FDG PET. Autoradiographic analysis confirmed that tumour areas with ductal differentiation incorporated more FDG than areas displaying acinar differentiation. Ex vivo radioactivity measurements showed that tumours of solely acinar phenotype incorporated more FDG than pancreata of non-transgenic littermates despite the fact that they did not yield positive PET images. To gain insight into the biological basis of the differential FDG uptake, glucose transporter and hexokinase transcript expression was studied in microdissected tumour areas enriched for acinar or ductal cells and validated using cell-specific markers. Glut2 and hexokinase I and II mRNA levels were up to 20-fold higher in ductal than in acinar tumours. Besides, Glut2 protein overexpression was found in ductal neoplastic cells but not in the surrounding stroma. In Ela1-myc mice, ductal tumours incorporate significantly more FDG than acinar tumours. This difference likely results from differential expression of Glut2 and hexokinases. These findings reveal previously unreported biological differences between acinar and ductal pancreatic tumours. (orig.)

  6. Immunocytochemical localization of the [3H]estradiol-binding protein in rat pancreatic acinar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossman, A.; Oppenheim, J.; Grondin, G.; St Jean, P.; Beaudoin, A.R.

    1989-01-01

    Significant amounts of an estradiol-binding protein (EBP) are present in pancreatic acinar cells. This protein differs from the one found in female reproductive tissues and secondary sex organs (which is commonly referred to as estrogen receptor). EBP has now been purified from rat pancreas and was used as an antigen to induce polyclonal antibodies in rabbits. The antiserum obtained was purified initially by ammonium sulfate fractionation and then still further by interaction with a protein fraction from pancreas that was devoid of estradiol-binding activity. The latter procedure was used to precipitate nonspecific immunoglobulin Gs. Western blot analysis demonstrated that the anti-EBP antibody reacted specifically with a doublet of protein bands having mol wt of 64K and 66K. When this purified antibody was used as an immunocytochemical probe in conjunction with protein-A-gold, acinar cells were labeled on the surface of the endoplasmic reticulum, on the plasma membrane, and in mitochondria. This specific labeling pattern was not observed when preimmune serum was used. No labeling was observed over the nucleus, Golgi apparatus, or zymogen granules with purified anti-EBP antibodies. The unexpected distribution of EBP in both the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria is discussed

  7. Lysosome-Associated Membrane Proteins (LAMP Maintain Pancreatic Acinar Cell Homeostasis: LAMP-2–Deficient Mice Develop PancreatitisSummary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga A. Mareninova

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims: The pathogenic mechanism of pancreatitis is poorly understood. Recent evidence implicates defective autophagy in pancreatitis responses; however, the pathways mediating impaired autophagy in pancreas remain largely unknown. Here, we investigate the role of lysosome associated membrane proteins (LAMPs in pancreatitis. Methods: We analyzed changes in LAMPs in experimental models and human pancreatitis, and the underlying mechanisms: LAMP deglycosylation and degradation. LAMP cleavage by cathepsin B (CatB was analyzed by mass spectrometry. We used mice deficient in LAMP-2 to assess its role in pancreatitis. Results: Pancreatic levels of LAMP-1 and LAMP-2 greatly decrease across various pancreatitis models and in human disease. Pancreatitis does not trigger the LAMPs’ bulk deglycosylation but induces their degradation via CatB-mediated cleavage of the LAMP molecule close to the boundary between luminal and transmembrane domains. LAMP-2 null mice spontaneously develop pancreatitis that begins with acinar cell vacuolization due to impaired autophagic flux, and progresses to severe pancreas damage characterized by trypsinogen activation, macrophage-driven inflammation, and acinar cell death. LAMP-2 deficiency causes a decrease in pancreatic digestive enzymes content, and stimulates the basal and inhibits cholecystokinin-induced amylase secretion by acinar cells. The effects of LAMP-2 knockout and acute cerulein pancreatitis overlap, which corroborates the pathogenic role of LAMP decrease in experimental pancreatitis models. Conclusions: The results indicate a critical role for LAMPs, particularly LAMP-2, in maintaining pancreatic acinar cell homeostasis and provide evidence that defective lysosomal function, resulting in impaired autophagy, leads to pancreatitis. Mice with LAMP-2 deficiency present a novel genetic model of human pancreatitis caused by lysosomal/autophagic dysfunction. Keywords: Amylase Secretion, Autophagy

  8. Restoration of CFTR Activity in Ducts Rescues Acinar Cell Function and Reduces Inflammation in Pancreatic and Salivary Glands of Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Mei; Szymczak, Mitchell; Ahuja, Malini; Zheng, Changyu; Yin, Hongen; Swaim, William; Chiorini, John A; Bridges, Robert J; Muallem, Shmuel

    2017-10-01

    Sjögren's syndrome and autoimmune pancreatitis are disorders with decreased function of salivary, lacrimal glands, and the exocrine pancreas. Nonobese diabetic/ShiLTJ mice and mice transduced with the cytokine BMP6 develop Sjögren's syndrome and chronic pancreatitis and MRL/Mp mice are models of autoimmune pancreatitis. Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is a ductal Cl -  channel essential for ductal fluid and HCO 3 - secretion. We used these models to ask the following questions: is CFTR expression altered in these diseases, does correction of CFTR correct gland function, and most notably, does correcting ductal function correct acinar function? We treated the mice models with the CFTR corrector C18 and the potentiator VX770. Glandular, ductal, and acinar cells damage, infiltration, immune cells and function were measured in vivo and in isolated duct/acini. In the disease models, CFTR expression is markedly reduced. The salivary glands and pancreas are inflamed with increased fibrosis and tissue damage. Treatment with VX770 and, in particular, C18 restored salivation, rescued CFTR expression and localization, and nearly eliminated the inflammation and tissue damage. Transgenic overexpression of CFTR exclusively in the duct had similar effects. Most notably, the markedly reduced acinar cell Ca 2+ signaling, Orai1, inositol triphosphate receptors, Aquaporin 5 expression, and fluid secretion were restored by rescuing ductal CFTR. Our findings reveal that correcting ductal function is sufficient to rescue acinar cell function and suggests that CFTR correctors are strong candidates for the treatment of Sjögren's syndrome and pancreatitis. Copyright © 2017 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Homer2 protein regulates plasma membrane Ca²⁺-ATPase-mediated Ca²⁺ signaling in mouse parotid gland acinar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yu-Mi; Lee, Jiae; Jo, Hae; Park, Soonhong; Chang, Inik; Muallem, Shmuel; Shin, Dong Min

    2014-09-05

    Homer proteins are scaffold molecules with a domain structure consisting of an N-terminal Ena/VASP homology 1 protein-binding domain and a C-terminal leucine zipper/coiled-coil domain. The Ena/VASP homology 1 domain recognizes proline-rich motifs and binds multiple Ca(2+)-signaling proteins, including G protein-coupled receptors, inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptors, ryanodine receptors, and transient receptor potential channels. However, their role in Ca(2+) signaling in nonexcitable cells is not well understood. In this study, we investigated the role of Homer2 on Ca(2+) signaling in parotid gland acinar cells using Homer2-deficient (Homer2(-/-)) mice. Homer2 is localized at the apical pole in acinar cells. Deletion of Homer2 did not affect inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptor localization or channel activity and did not affect the expression and activity of sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase pumps. In contrast, Homer2 deletion markedly increased expression of plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase (PMCA) pumps, in particular PMCA4, at the apical pole. Accordingly, Homer2 deficiency increased Ca(2+) extrusion by acinar cells. These findings were supported by co-immunoprecipitation of Homer2 and PMCA in wild-type parotid cells and transfected human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells. We identified a Homer-binding PPXXF-like motif in the N terminus of PMCA that is required for interaction with Homer2. Mutation of the PPXXF-like motif did not affect the interaction of PMCA with Homer1 but inhibited its interaction with Homer2 and increased Ca(2+) clearance by PMCA. These findings reveal an important regulation of PMCA by Homer2 that has a central role on PMCA-mediated Ca(2+) signaling in parotid acinar cells. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  10. Transdifferentiation of mouse adipose-derived stromal cells into acinar cells of the submandibular gland using a co-culture system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jingu; Park, Sangkyu; Roh, Sangho

    2015-01-01

    A loss of salivary gland function often occurs after radiation therapy in head and neck tumors, though secretion of saliva by the salivary glands is essential for the health and maintenance of the oral environment. Transplantation of salivary acinar cells (ACs), in part, may overcome the side effects of therapy. Here we directly differentiated mouse adipose-derived stromal cells (ADSCs) into ACs using a co-culture system. Multipotent ADSCs can be easily collected from stromal vascular fractions of adipose tissues. The isolated ADSCs showed positive expression of markers such as integrin beta-1 (CD29), cell surface glycoprotein (CD44), endoglin (CD105), and Nanog. The cells were able to differentiate into adipocytes, osteoblasts, and neural-like cells after 14 days in culture. ADSCs at passage 2 were co-cultured with mouse ACs in AC culture medium using the double-chamber (co-culture system) to avoid mixing the cell types. The ADSCs in this co-culture system expressed markers of ACs, such as α-amylases and aquaporin5, in both mRNA and protein. ADSCs cultured in AC-conditioned medium also expressed AC markers. Cellular proliferation and senescence analyses demonstrated that cells in the co-culture group showed lower senescence and a higher proliferation rate than the AC-conditioned medium group at Days 14 and 21. The results above imply direct conversion of ADSCs into ACs under the co-culture system; therefore, ADSCs may be a stem cell source for the therapy for salivary gland damage. - Highlights: • ADSCs could transdifferentiate into acinar cells (ACs) using ACs co-culture (CCA). • Transdifferentiated ADSCs expressed ACs markers such as α-amylase and aquaporin5. • High proliferation and low senescence were presented in CCA at Day 14. • Transdifferentiation of ADSCs into ACs using CCA may be an appropriate method for cell-based therapy

  11. Transdifferentiation of mouse adipose-derived stromal cells into acinar cells of the submandibular gland using a co-culture system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jingu; Park, Sangkyu; Roh, Sangho, E-mail: sangho@snu.ac.kr

    2015-05-15

    A loss of salivary gland function often occurs after radiation therapy in head and neck tumors, though secretion of saliva by the salivary glands is essential for the health and maintenance of the oral environment. Transplantation of salivary acinar cells (ACs), in part, may overcome the side effects of therapy. Here we directly differentiated mouse adipose-derived stromal cells (ADSCs) into ACs using a co-culture system. Multipotent ADSCs can be easily collected from stromal vascular fractions of adipose tissues. The isolated ADSCs showed positive expression of markers such as integrin beta-1 (CD29), cell surface glycoprotein (CD44), endoglin (CD105), and Nanog. The cells were able to differentiate into adipocytes, osteoblasts, and neural-like cells after 14 days in culture. ADSCs at passage 2 were co-cultured with mouse ACs in AC culture medium using the double-chamber (co-culture system) to avoid mixing the cell types. The ADSCs in this co-culture system expressed markers of ACs, such as α-amylases and aquaporin5, in both mRNA and protein. ADSCs cultured in AC-conditioned medium also expressed AC markers. Cellular proliferation and senescence analyses demonstrated that cells in the co-culture group showed lower senescence and a higher proliferation rate than the AC-conditioned medium group at Days 14 and 21. The results above imply direct conversion of ADSCs into ACs under the co-culture system; therefore, ADSCs may be a stem cell source for the therapy for salivary gland damage. - Highlights: • ADSCs could transdifferentiate into acinar cells (ACs) using ACs co-culture (CCA). • Transdifferentiated ADSCs expressed ACs markers such as α-amylase and aquaporin5. • High proliferation and low senescence were presented in CCA at Day 14. • Transdifferentiation of ADSCs into ACs using CCA may be an appropriate method for cell-based therapy.

  12. Mixed acinar-neuroendocrine-ductal carcinoma of the pancreas: a tale of three lineages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Mark J; Kwong, Christina A; Atieh, Mohammed; Pappas, Sam G

    2016-06-02

    Most pancreatic cancers arise from a single cell type, although mixed pancreatic carcinomas represent a rare exception. The rarity of these aggressive malignancies and the limitations of fine-needle aspiration (FNA) pose significant barriers to diagnosis and appropriate management. We report a case of a 54-year-old man presenting with abdominal pain, jaundice and a hypodense lesion within the uncinate process on CT. FNA suggested poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma, which was subsequently resected via pancreaticoduodenectomy. Pathological analysis yielded diagnosis of invasive mixed acinar-neuroendocrine-ductal pancreatic carcinoma. Given the rare and deadly nature of these tumours, clinicians must be aware of their pathophysiology and do practice with a high degree of clinical suspicion, when appropriate. Surgical resection and thorough pathological analysis with immunohistochemical staining and electron microscopy remain the standards of care for mixed pancreatic tumours without gross evidence of metastasis. Diligent characterisation of the presentation and histological findings associated with these neoplasms should continue in order to promote optimal diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  13. Acinar autolysis and mucous extravasation in human sublingual glands: a microscopic postmortem study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Reis AZEVEDO-ALANIS

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Although some morphological investigations on aged human sublingual glands (HSG found eventual phenomena identified as autolysis and mucous extravasation, the exact meaning of these findings has not been elucidated.Objective The aim of this work is to investigate whether acinar autolysis and mucous extravasation are related to the aging process in human sublingual glands. We also speculate if autolytic changes may assist forensic pathologists in determining time of death.Material and Methods 186 cadavers’ glands were allocated to age groups: I (0–30 years; II (31–60, and III (61–90. Time and mode of death were also recorded. Acinar autolysis and mucous extravasation were classified as present or absent. Ultrastructural analysis was performed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM. Data were compared using Mann-Whitney U, Spearman’s correlation coefficient, Kruskal-Wallis, and Dunn tests (p<0.05.Results There was correlation between age and acinar autolysis (r=0.38; p=0.0001. However, there was no correlation between autolysis and time of death. No differences were observed between genders. TEM showed mucous and serous cells presenting nuclear and membrane alterations and mucous cells were more susceptible to autolysis.Conclusion Acinar autolysis occurred in all age groups and increased with age while mucous extravasation was rarely found. Both findings are independent. Autolysis degrees in HSG could not be used to determine time of death.

  14. Prostate specific antigen and acinar density: a new dimension, the "Prostatocrit".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Simon; Laniado, Marc; Montgomery, Bruce

    2017-01-01

    Prostate-specific antigen densities have limited success in diagnosing prostate cancer. We emphasise the importance of the peripheral zone when considered with its cellular constituents, the "prostatocrit". Using zonal volumes and asymmetry of glandular acini, we generate a peripheral zone acinar volume and density. With the ratio to the whole gland, we can better predict high grade and all grade cancer. We can model the gland into its acinar and stromal elements. This new "prostatocrit" model could offer more accurate nomograms for biopsy. 674 patients underwent TRUS and biopsy. Whole gland and zonal volumes were recorded. We compared ratio and acinar volumes when added to a "clinic" model using traditional PSA density. Univariate logistic regression was used to find significant predictors for all and high grade cancer. Backwards multiple logistic regression was used to generate ROC curves comparing the new model to conventional density and PSA alone. Prediction of all grades of prostate cancer: significant variables revealed four significant "prostatocrit" parameters: log peripheral zone acinar density; peripheral zone acinar volume/whole gland acinar volume; peripheral zone acinar density/whole gland volume; peripheral zone acinar density. Acinar model (AUC 0.774), clinic model (AUC 0.745) (P=0.0105). Prediction of high grade prostate cancer: peripheral zone acinar density ("prostatocrit") was the only significant density predictor. Acinar model (AUC 0.811), clinic model (AUC 0.769) (P=0.0005). There is renewed use for ratio and "prostatocrit" density of the peripheral zone in predicting cancer. This outperforms all traditional density measurements. Copyright® by the International Brazilian Journal of Urology.

  15. Early to Late Endosome Trafficking Controls Secretion and Zymogen Activation in Rodent and Human Pancreatic Acinar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messenger, Scott W; Thomas, Diana Dh; Cooley, Michelle M; Jones, Elaina K; Falkowski, Michelle A; August, Benjamin K; Fernandez, Luis A; Gorelick, Fred S; Groblewski, Guy E

    2015-11-01

    Pancreatic acinar cells have an expanded apical endosomal system, the physiological and pathophysiological significance of which is still emerging. Phosphatidylinositol-3,5-bisphosphate (PI(3,5)P 2 ) is an essential phospholipid generated by PIKfyve, which phosphorylates phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate (PI(3)P). PI(3,5)P 2 is necessary for maturation of early endosomes (EE) to late endosomes (LE). Inhibition of EE to LE trafficking enhances anterograde endosomal trafficking and secretion at the plasma membrane by default through a recycling endosome (RE) intermediate. We assessed the effects of modulating PIKfyve activity on apical trafficking and pancreatitis responses in pancreatic acinar cells. Inhibition of EE to LE trafficking was achieved using pharmacological inhibitors of PIKfyve, expression of dominant negative PIKfyve K1877E, or constitutively active Rab5-GTP Q79L. Anterograde endosomal trafficking was manipulated by expression of constitutively active and dominant negative Rab11a mutants. The effects of these agents on secretion, endolysosomal exocytosis of lysosome associated membrane protein (LAMP1), and trypsinogen activation in response to high-dose CCK-8, bile acids and cigarette toxin was determined. PIKfyve inhibition increased basal and stimulated secretion. Adenoviral overexpression of PIKfyve decreased secretion leading to cellular death. Expression of Rab5-GTP Q79L or Rab11a-GTP Q70L enhanced secretion. Conversely, dominant-negative Rab11a-GDP S25N reduced secretion. High-dose CCK inhibited endolysosomal exocytosis that was reversed by PIKfyve inhibition. PIKfyve inhibition blocked intracellular trypsin accumulation and cellular damage responses to high CCK-8, tobacco toxin, and bile salts in both rodent and human acini. These data demonstrate that EE-LE trafficking acutely controls acinar secretion and the intracellular activation of zymogens leading to the pathogenicity of acute pancreatitis.

  16. Regulation of CCK-induced ERK1/2 activation by PKC epsilon in rat pancreatic acinar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenwei Li

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The extracellular signal-regulated kinase ERK1/2 is activated in pancreatic acinar cells by cholecystokinin (CCK and other secretagogues with this activation mediated primarily by protein kinase C (PKC. To identify the responsible PKC isoform, we utilized chemical inhibitors, cell permeant inhibitory peptides and overexpression of individual PKC dominant negative variants by means of adenoviral vectors. While the broad-spectrum PKC inhibitor GF109203X strongly inhibited ERK1/2 activation induced by 100 pM CCK, Go6976 which inhibits the classical PKC isoforms (alpha, beta and gamma, as well as Rottlerin, a specific PKC delta inhibitor, had no inhibitory effect. To test the role of PKC epsilon, we used specific cell permeant peptide inhibitors which block PKC interaction with their intracellular receptors or RACKs. Only PP93 (PKC epsilon peptide inhibitor inhibited CCK-induced ERK1/2 activation, while PP95, PP101 and PP98, which are PKC alpha, delta and zeta peptide inhibitors respectively, had no effect. We also utilized adenovirus to express dominant negative PKC isoforms in pancreatic acini. Only PKC epsilon dominant negative inhibited CCK-induced ERK1/2 activation. Dominant negative PKC epsilon expression similarly blocked the effect of carbachol and bombesin to activate ERK1/2. Immunoprecipitation results demonstrated that CCK can induce an interaction of c-Raf-1 and PKC epsilon, but not that of other isoforms of Raf or PKC. We conclude that PKC epsilon is the isoform of PKC primarily involved with CCK-induced ERK1/2 activation in pancreatic acinar cells.

  17. Role of alveolar topology on acinar flows and convective mixing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofemeier, Philipp; Sznitman, Josué

    2014-06-01

    Due to experimental challenges, computational simulations are often sought to quantify inhaled aerosol transport in the pulmonary acinus. Commonly, these are performed using generic alveolar topologies, including spheres, toroids, and polyhedra, to mimic the complex acinar morphology. Yet, local acinar flows and ensuing particle transport are anticipated to be influenced by the specific morphological structures. We have assessed a range of acinar models under self-similar breathing conditions with respect to alveolar flow patterns, convective flow mixing, and deposition of fine particles (1.3 μm diameter). By tracking passive tracers over cumulative breathing cycles, we find that irreversible flow mixing correlates with the location and strength of the recirculating vortex inside the cavity. Such effects are strongest in proximal acinar generations where the ratio of alveolar to ductal flow rates is low and interalveolar disparities are most apparent. Our results for multi-alveolated acinar ducts highlight that fine 1 μm inhaled particles subject to alveolar flows are sensitive to the alveolar topology, underlining interalveolar disparities in particle deposition patterns. Despite the simplicity of the acinar models investigated, our findings suggest that alveolar topologies influence more significantly local flow patterns and deposition sites of fine particles for upper generations emphasizing the importance of the selected acinar model. In distal acinar generations, however, the alveolar geometry primarily needs to mimic the space-filling alveolar arrangement dictated by lung morphology.

  18. Bile acids induce necrosis in pancreatic stellate cells dependent on calcium entry and sodium‐driven bile uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubowska, Monika A.; Gerasimenko, Julia V.; Gerasimenko, Oleg V.; Petersen, Ole H.

    2016-01-01

    Key points Acute biliary pancreatitis is a sudden and severe condition initiated by bile reflux into the pancreas.Bile acids are known to induce Ca2+ signals and necrosis in isolated pancreatic acinar cells but the effects of bile acids on stellate cells are unexplored.Here we show that cholate and taurocholate elicit more dramatic Ca2+ signals and necrosis in stellate cells compared to the adjacent acinar cells in pancreatic lobules; whereas taurolithocholic acid 3‐sulfate primarily affects acinar cells.Ca2+ signals and necrosis are strongly dependent on extracellular Ca2+ as well as Na+; and Na+‐dependent transport plays an important role in the overall bile acid uptake in pancreatic stellate cells.Bile acid‐mediated pancreatic damage can be further escalated by bradykinin‐induced signals in stellate cells and thus killing of stellate cells by bile acids might have important implications in acute biliary pancreatitis. Abstract Acute biliary pancreatitis, caused by bile reflux into the pancreas, is a serious condition characterised by premature activation of digestive enzymes within acinar cells, followed by necrosis and inflammation. Bile acids are known to induce pathological Ca2+ signals and necrosis in acinar cells. However, bile acid‐elicited signalling events in stellate cells remain unexplored. This is the first study to demonstrate the pathophysiological effects of bile acids on stellate cells in two experimental models: ex vivo (mouse pancreatic lobules) and in vitro (human cells). Sodium cholate and taurocholate induced cytosolic Ca2+ elevations in stellate cells, larger than those elicited simultaneously in the neighbouring acinar cells. In contrast, taurolithocholic acid 3‐sulfate (TLC‐S), known to induce Ca2+ oscillations in acinar cells, had only minor effects on stellate cells in lobules. The dependence of the Ca2+ signals on extracellular Na+ and the presence of sodium–taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP) indicate a Na

  19. Postmortem acinar autolysis in rat sublingual gland: a morphometric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nery, Leticia Rodrigues; Moreira, Carla Ruffeil; Cestari, Tania Mary; Taga, Rumio; Damante, José Humberto

    2010-01-01

    To analyze and to quantify morphological acinar postmortem changes in rat sublingual glands (SLG). MATERIAL AND METHODSs: Fifty rats were divided into two groups of 25 animals each. Group I was used for morphological and morphometric evaluations and group II for the determination of gland density and processed gland volume. Acinar autolytic changes were studied at 0 (control group), 3, 6, 12 and 24 h postmortem periods. The morphometric analysis of the volume density (Vv) and total volume (Vt) of intact (ia) and autolyzed (aa) acini was performed under light microscopy using a Zeiss II integration grid with 100 symmetrically distributed points. Morphologically, temporal progressive nuclear alterations and gradual loss of the structural architecture of acinar cells were found. Regarding quantitative results, both the Vvaa and the Vvia showed statistically significant differences among all postmortem periods (p0.05), respectively. Vtaa increased from 0.18 mm³ at 0 h to 38.17 mm³ at 12 h, while Vtia showed a decrease from 33.47 mm³ to 0 mm³ between 3-24 h postmortem. Data concerning Vtaa were adjusted by two-variable linear regression, obtaining the equation: y=-3.54+3.38x (r²=0.90). The Vtaa growth rate calculated by this equation was 3.38 mm³/h between 0-12 h. Acinar autolysis on rat SLG demonstrated the most significant signs during the first 6 h postmortem and was widely spread through the gland at 12 h.

  20. Megamitochondria in the serous acinar cells of the submandibular gland of the neotropical fruit bat, Artibeus obscurus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandler, B; Nagato, T; Phillips, C J

    1997-05-01

    As part of a continuing investigation of the comparative ultrastructure of chiropteran salivary glands, we examined the submandibular glands of eight species of neotropical fruit bats in the genus Artibeus. We previously described secretory granules of unusual substructure in the seromucous demilunar cells of this organ in some species in this genus. In the present study, we turned our attention to the serous acinar cells in the same glands. Specimens of eight species of Artibeus were collected in neotropical localities. Salivary glands were extirpated in the field and thin slices were fixed by immersion in triple aldehyde-DMSO or in modified half-strength Karnovsky's fixative. Tissues were further processed for electron microscopy by conventional means. In contrast to seromucous cells, which exhibit species-specific diversification in bats of this genus, the secretory apparatus and secretory granules in the serous acinar cells are highly conserved across all seven species. The single exception involves the mitochondria in one species. In this instance, some of the serous cell mitochondria in Artibeus obscurus are modified into megamitochondria. Such organelles usually have short, peripheral cristae; a laminar inclusion is present in the matrix compartment of every outsized organelle. Inclusions of this nature never are present in normal-size mitochondria in the serous cells. None of the megamitochondria were observed in the process of degeneration. The giant mitochondria in A. obscurus have a matrical structure that is radically different from that of the only other megamitochondria reported to occur in bat salivary glands. The factors that lead to variation in megamitochondrial substructure in different species, as well as the functional capacities of such giant organelles, are unknown.

  1. Multimodal approach and long-term survival in a patient with recurrent metastatic acinar cell carcinoma of the pancreas: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauch, Sarah F; Morris, Van K; Jensen, Corey T; Kaseb, Ahmed O

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic acinar cell carcinoma is an uncommon neoplasm of the exocrine pancreas associated with a poor prognosis, especially when found to be metastatic. Since there are a lack of large studies and prospective, randomized data, no consensus treatment guidelines are available. Here, we report a case of a patient with recurrent metastatic acinar cell carcinoma involving the liver who had presented initially with pancreatic panniculitis. She received chemotherapy with capecitabine and oxaliplatin prior to resection of her primary tumor and liver metastases, after which she experienced a 30 months recurrence-free survival. Upon relapse, she was treated with a combination of capecitabine and oxaliplatin followed by maintenance capecitabine. Now, more than seven years after initial diagnosis, the patient remains stable without evidence of active disease. This case highlights the possibility of therapeutic success even for a patient initially deemed unresectable due to a poor performance status who responded to fluoropyrimidine-based therapy. Copyright © 2015 IAP and EPC. Published by Elsevier India Pvt Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Stem Cell Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Dah-Jiun; Miller, Andrew D; Southard, Teresa L; Flesken-Nikitin, Andrea; Ellenson, Lora H; Nikitin, Alexander Yu

    2018-01-24

    Rapid advances in stem cell biology and regenerative medicine have opened new opportunities for better understanding disease pathogenesis and the development of new diagnostic, prognostic, and treatment approaches. Many stem cell niches are well defined anatomically, thereby allowing their routine pathological evaluation during disease initiation and progression. Evaluation of the consequences of genetic manipulations in stem cells and investigation of the roles of stem cells in regenerative medicine and pathogenesis of various diseases such as cancer require significant expertise in pathology for accurate interpretation of novel findings. Therefore, there is an urgent need for developing stem cell pathology as a discipline to facilitate stem cell research and regenerative medicine. This review provides examples of anatomically defined niches suitable for evaluation by diagnostic pathologists, describes neoplastic lesions associated with them, and discusses further directions of stem cell pathology.

  3. Early events of secretory granule formation in the rat parotid acinar cell under the influence of isoproterenol. An ultrastructural and lectin cytochemical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F D’Amico

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The events involved in the maturation process of acinar secretory granules of rat parotid gland were investigated ultrastructurally and cytochemically by using a battery of four lectins [Triticum vulgaris agglutinin (WGA, Ulex europaeus agglutinin I (UEA-I, Glycine max agglutinin (SBA, Arachys hypogaea agglutinin (PNA]. In order to facilitate the study, parotid glands were chronically stimulated with isoproterenol to induce secretion. Specimens were embedded in the Lowicryl K4M resin. The trans-Golgi network (TGN derived secretory granules, which we refer to as immature secretory granules, were found to be intermediate structures in the biogenesis process of the secretory granules in the rat parotid acinar cell. These early structures do not seem to be the immediate precursor of the mature secretory granules: in fact, a subsequent interaction process between these early immature granule forms and TGN elements seems to occur, leading, finally, to the mature granules. These findings could explain the origin of the polymorphic subpopulations of the secretory granules in the normal acinar cells of the rat parotid gland. The lectin staining patterns were characteristic of each lectin. Immature and mature secretory gran- ules were labelled with WGA, SBA, PNA, and lightly with UEA-I. Cis and intermediate cisternae of the Golgi apparatus were labelled with WGA, and trans cisternae with WGA and SBA.

  4. CT and MR imaging of multilocular acinar cell cystadenoma: comparison with branch duct intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasia (IPMNs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delavaud, Christophe; Assignies, Gaspard d' ; Vilgrain, Valerie; Vullierme, Marie-Pierre [Hopital Beaujon, Service de Radiologie, Clichy (France); Cros, Jerome [Hopital Beaujon, Service d' Anatomopathologie, Clichy (France); Ruszniewski, Philippe; Hammel, Pascal; Levy, Philippe [Hopital Beaujon, Service de Pancreato-Gastro-Enterologie, Clichy (France); Couvelard, Anne [Hopital Bichat, Service d' Anatomopathologie, Paris (France); Sauvanet, Alain; Dokmak, Safi [Hopital Beaujon, Service de Chirurgie Hepato-Pancreato-Biliaire, Clichy (France)

    2014-09-15

    To describe CT and MR imaging findings of acinar cell cystadenoma (ACC) of the pancreas and to compare them with those of branch duct intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasia (BD-IPMN) to identify distinctive elements. Five patients with ACC and the 20 consecutive patients with histologically proven BD-IPMN were retrospectively included. Clinical and biological information was collected and histological data reviewed. CT and MR findings were analysed blinded to pathological diagnosis in order to identify imaging diagnostic criteria of ACC. Patients with ACC were symptomatic in all but one case and were younger than those with BD-IPMN (p = 0.006). Four radiological criteria allowed for differentiating ACC from IPMN: five or more cysts, clustered peripheral small cysts, presence of cyst calcifications and absence of communication with the main pancreatic duct (p < 0.05). Presence of at least two or three of these imaging criteria had a strong diagnostic value for ACC with a sensitivity of 100 % and 80 % and a specificity of 85 % and 100 %, respectively. Preoperative differential diagnosis between ACC and BD-IPMN can be achieved using a combination of four CT and/or MR imaging criteria. Recognition of ACC patients could change patient management and lead to more conservative treatment. (orig.)

  5. Acinar autolysis and mucous extravasation in human sublingual glands: a microscopic postmortem study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo-Alanis, Luciana Reis; Tolentino, Elen de Souza; de Assis, Gerson Francisco; Cestari, Tânia Mary; Lara, Vanessa Soares; Damante, José Humberto

    2015-10-01

    Although some morphological investigations on aged human sublingual glands (HSG) found eventual phenomena identified as autolysis and mucous extravasation, the exact meaning of these findings has not been elucidated. The aim of this work is to investigate whether acinar autolysis and mucous extravasation are related to the aging process in human sublingual glands. We also speculate if autolytic changes may assist forensic pathologists in determining time of death. 186 cadavers' glands were allocated to age groups: I (0-30 years); II (31-60), and III (61-90). Time and mode of death were also recorded. Acinar autolysis and mucous extravasation were classified as present or absent. Ultrastructural analysis was performed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Data were compared using Mann-Whitney U, Spearman's correlation coefficient, Kruskal-Wallis, and Dunn tests (pautolysis (r=0.38; p=0.0001). However, there was no correlation between autolysis and time of death. No differences were observed between genders. TEM showed mucous and serous cells presenting nuclear and membrane alterations and mucous cells were more susceptible to autolysis. Acinar autolysis occurred in all age groups and increased with age while mucous extravasation was rarely found. Both findings are independent. Autolysis degrees in HSG could not be used to determine time of death.

  6. Competence of failed endocrine progenitors to give rise to acinar but not ductal cells is restricted to early pancreas development

    OpenAIRE

    Beucher, Anthony; Martín, Mercè; Spenle, Caroline; Poulet, Martine; Collin, Caitlin; Gradwohl, Gérard

    2011-01-01

    During mouse pancreas development, the transient expression of Neurogenin3 (Neurog3) in uncommitted pancreas progenitors is required to determine endocrine destiny. However it has been reported that Neurog3-expressing cells can eventually adopt acinar or ductal fates and that Neurog3 levels were important to secure the islet destiny. It is not known whether the competence of Neurog3-induced cells to give rise to non-endocrine lineages is an intrinsic property of these progenitors or depends o...

  7. Metabolic Profile of Pancreatic Acinar and Islet Tissue in Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suszynski, Thomas M.; Mueller, Kathryn; Gruessner, Angelika C.; Papas, Klearchos K.

    2016-01-01

    The amount and condition of exocrine impurities may affect the quality of islet preparations especially during culture. In this study, the objective was to determine the oxygen demandand viability of islet and acinar tissue post-isolation and whether they change disproportionately while in culture. We compare the OCR normalized to DNA (OCR/DNA, a measure of fractional viability in units nmol/min/mg DNA), and percent change in OCR and DNA recoveries between adult porcine islet and acinar tissue from the same preparation (paired) over a 6-9 days of standard culture. Paired comparisons were done to quantify differences in OCR/DNA between islet and acinar tissue from the same preparation, at specified time points during culture; the mean (± standard error) OCR/DNA was 74.0 (±11.7) units higher for acinar (vs. islet) tissue on the day of isolation (n=16, p<0.0001), but 25.7 (±9.4) units lower after 1 day (n=8, p=0.03), 56.6 (±11.5) units lower after 2 days (n=12, p=0.0004), and 65.9 (±28.7) units lower after 8 days (n=4, p=0.2) in culture. DNA and OCR recoveries decreased at different rates for acinar versus islet tissue over 6-9 days in culture (n=6). DNA recovery decreased to 24±7% for acinar and 75±8% for islets (p=0.002). Similarly, OCR recovery decreased to 16±3% for acinar and remained virtually constant for islets (p=0.005). Differences in the metabolic profile of acinarand islet tissue should be considered when culturing impure islet preparations. OCR-based measurements may help optimize pre-IT culture protocols. PMID:25131082

  8. Successful Salvage Chemotherapy with FOLFIRINOX for Recurrent Mixed Acinar Cell Carcinoma and Ductal Adenocarcinoma of the Pancreas in an Adolescent Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Pfrommer

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic tumors are rare in children and adolescents. Here, we report the case of a 15-year-old boy who presented with a mixed acinar cell carcinoma/ductal adenocarcinoma with blastomatous components. He received multimodal treatment including various chemotherapy regimens and multistep surgery including liver transplantation. Introduction of FOLFIRINOX after relapse repeatedly achieved a durable metabolic and clinical response with good quality of life.

  9. The Acinar Cage: Basement Membranes Determine Molecule Exchange and Mechanical Stability of Human Breast Cell Acini.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aljona Gaiko-Shcherbak

    Full Text Available The biophysical properties of the basement membrane that surrounds human breast glands are poorly understood, but are thought to be decisive for normal organ function and malignancy. Here, we characterize the breast gland basement membrane with a focus on molecule permeation and mechanical stability, both crucial for organ function. We used well-established and nature-mimicking MCF10A acini as 3D cell model for human breast glands, with ether low- or highly-developed basement membrane scaffolds. Semi-quantitative dextran tracer (3 to 40 kDa experiments allowed us to investigate the basement membrane scaffold as a molecule diffusion barrier in human breast acini in vitro. We demonstrated that molecule permeation correlated positively with macromolecule size and intriguingly also with basement membrane development state, revealing a pore size of at least 9 nm. Notably, an intact collagen IV mesh proved to be essential for this permeation function. Furthermore, we performed ultra-sensitive atomic force microscopy to quantify the response of native breast acini and of decellularized basement membrane shells against mechanical indentation. We found a clear correlation between increasing acinar force resistance and basement membrane formation stage. Most important native acini with highly-developed basement membranes as well as cell-free basement membrane shells could both withstand physiologically relevant loads (≤ 20 nN without loss of structural integrity. In contrast, low-developed basement membranes were significantly softer and more fragile. In conclusion, our study emphasizes the key role of the basement membrane as conductor of acinar molecule influx and mechanical stability of human breast glands, which are fundamental for normal organ function.

  10. Duct- and Acinar-Derived Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinomas Show Distinct Tumor Progression and Marker Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rute M.M. Ferreira

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The cell of origin of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC has been controversial. Here, we show that identical oncogenic drivers trigger PDAC originating from both ductal and acinar cells with similar histology but with distinct pathophysiology and marker expression dependent on cell of origin. Whereas acinar-derived tumors exhibited low AGR2 expression and were preceded by pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasias (PanINs, duct-derived tumors displayed high AGR2 and developed independently of a PanIN stage via non-mucinous lesions. Using orthotopic transplantation and chimera experiments, we demonstrate that PanIN-like lesions can be induced by PDAC as bystanders in adjacent healthy tissues, explaining the co-existence of mucinous and non-mucinous lesions and highlighting the need to distinguish between true precursor PanINs and PanIN-like bystander lesions. Our results suggest AGR2 as a tool to stratify PDAC according to cell of origin, highlight that not all PanIN-like lesions are precursors of PDAC, and add an alternative progression route to the current model of PDAC development.

  11. Hypoxic vasoconstriction of partial muscular intra-acinar pulmonary arteries in murine precision cut lung slices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldenberg Anna

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute alveolar hypoxia causes pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV which serves to match lung perfusion to ventilation. The underlying mechanisms are not fully resolved yet. The major vascular segment contributing to HPV, the intra-acinar artery, is mostly located in that part of the lung that cannot be selectively reached by the presently available techniques, e.g. hemodynamic studies of isolated perfused lungs, recordings from dissected proximal arterial segments or analysis of subpleural vessels. The aim of the present study was to establish a model which allows the investigation of HPV and its underlying mechanisms in small intra-acinar arteries. Methods Intra-acinar arteries of the mouse lung were studied in 200 μm thick precision-cut lung slices (PCLS. The organisation of the muscle coat of these vessels was characterized by α-smooth muscle actin immunohistochemistry. Basic features of intra-acinar HPV were characterized, and then the impact of reactive oxygen species (ROS scavengers, inhibitors of the respiratory chain and Krebs cycle metabolites was analysed. Results Intra-acinar arteries are equipped with a discontinuous spiral of α-smooth muscle actin-immunoreactive cells. They exhibit a monophasic HPV (medium gassed with 1% O2 that started to fade after 40 min and was lost after 80 min. This HPV, but not vasoconstriction induced by the thromboxane analogue U46619, was effectively blocked by nitro blue tetrazolium and diphenyleniodonium, indicating the involvement of ROS and flavoproteins. Inhibition of mitochondrial complexes II (3-nitropropionic acid, thenoyltrifluoroacetone and III (antimycin A specifically interfered with HPV, whereas blockade of complex IV (sodium azide unspecifically inhibited both HPV and U46619-induced constriction. Succinate blocked HPV whereas fumarate had minor effects on vasoconstriction. Conclusion This study establishes the first model for investigation of basic characteristics of HPV

  12. Solo, a RhoA-targeting guanine nucleotide exchange factor, is critical for hemidesmosome formation and acinar development in epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Sachiko; Matsui, Tsubasa S; Ohashi, Kazumasa; Deguchi, Shinji; Mizuno, Kensaku

    2018-01-01

    Cell-substrate adhesions are essential for various physiological processes, including embryonic development and maintenance of organ functions. Hemidesmosomes (HDs) are multiprotein complexes that attach epithelial cells to the basement membrane. Formation and remodeling of HDs are dependent on the surrounding mechanical environment; however, the upstream signaling mechanisms are not well understood. We recently reported that Solo (also known as ARHGEF40), a guanine nucleotide exchange factor targeting RhoA, binds to keratin8/18 (K8/K18) intermediate filaments, and that their interaction is important for force-induced actin and keratin cytoskeletal reorganization. In this study, we show that Solo co-precipitates with an HD protein, β4-integrin. Co-precipitation assays revealed that the central region (amino acids 330-1057) of Solo binds to the C-terminal region (1451-1752) of β4-integrin. Knockdown of Solo significantly suppressed HD formation in MCF10A mammary epithelial cells. Similarly, knockdown of K18 or treatment with Y-27632, a specific inhibitor of Rho-associated kinase (ROCK), suppressed HD formation. As Solo knockdown or Y-27632 treatment is known to disorganize K8/K18 filaments, these results suggest that Solo is involved in HD formation by regulating K8/K18 filament organization via the RhoA-ROCK signaling pathway. We also showed that knockdown of Solo impairs acinar formation in MCF10A cells cultured in 3D Matrigel. In addition, Solo accumulated at the site of traction force generation in 2D-cultured MCF10A cells. Taken together, these results suggest that Solo plays a crucial role in HD formation and acinar development in epithelial cells by regulating mechanical force-induced RhoA activation and keratin filament organization.

  13. Early to Late Endosome Trafficking Controls Secretion and Zymogen Activation in Rodent and Human Pancreatic Acinar CellsSummary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott W. Messenger

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims: Pancreatic acinar cells have an expanded apical endosomal system, the physiologic and pathophysiologic significance of which is still emerging. Phosphatidylinositol-3,5-bisphosphate [PI(3,5P2] is an essential phospholipid generated by phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate 5-kinase (PIKfyve, which phosphorylates phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate (PI3P. PI(3,5P2 is necessary for maturation of early endosomes (EE to late endosomes (LE. Inhibition of EE to LE trafficking enhances anterograde endosomal trafficking and secretion at the plasma membrane by default through a recycling endosome (RE intermediate. We assessed the effects of modulating PIKfyve activity on apical trafficking and pancreatitis responses in pancreatic acinar cells. Methods: Inhibition of EE to LE trafficking was achieved using pharmacologic inhibitors of PIKfyve, expression of dominant negative PIKfyve K1877E, or constitutively active Rab5-GTP Q79L. Anterograde endosomal trafficking was manipulated by expression of constitutively active and dominant negative Rab11a mutants. The effects of these agents on secretion, endolysosomal exocytosis of lysosome associated membrane protein (LAMP1, and trypsinogen activation in response to supramaximal cholecystokinin (CCK-8, bile acids, and cigarette toxin was determined. Results: PIKfyve inhibition increased basal and stimulated secretion. Adenoviral overexpression of PIKfyve decreased secretion leading to cellular death. Expression of Rab5-GTP Q79L or Rab11a-GTP Q70L enhanced secretion. Conversely, dominant-negative Rab11a-GDP S25N reduced secretion. High-dose CCK inhibited endolysosomal exocytosis that was reversed by PIKfyve inhibition. PIKfyve inhibition blocked intracellular trypsin accumulation and cellular damage responses to supramaximal CCK-8, tobacco toxin, and bile salts in both rodent and human acini. Conclusions: These data demonstrate that EE-LE trafficking acutely controls acinar secretion and the intracellular

  14. Quantitative characterization of the protein contents of the exocrine pancreatic acinar cell by soft x-ray microscopy and advanced digital imaging methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loo, Jr., Billy W. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2000-06-01

    The study of the exocrine pancreatic acinar cell has been central to the development of models of many cellular processes, especially of protein transport and secretion. Traditional methods used to examine this system have provided a wealth of qualitative information from which mechanistic models have been inferred. However they have lacked the ability to make quantitative measurements, particularly of the distribution of protein in the cell, information critical for grounding of models in terms of magnitude and relative significance. This dissertation describes the development and application of new tools that were used to measure the protein content of the major intracellular compartments in the acinar cell, particularly the zymogen granule. Soft x-ray microscopy permits image formation with high resolution and contrast determined by the underlying protein content of tissue rather than staining avidity. A sample preparation method compatible with x-ray microscopy was developed and its properties evaluated. Automatic computerized methods were developed to acquire, calibrate, and analyze large volumes of x-ray microscopic images of exocrine pancreatic tissue sections. Statistics were compiled on the protein density of several organelles, and on the protein density, size, and spatial distribution of tens of thousands of zymogen granules. The results of these measurements, and how they compare to predictions of different models of protein transport, are discussed.

  15. Activated macrophages create lineage-specific microenvironments for pancreatic acinar- and β-cell regeneration in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criscimanna, Angela; Coudriet, Gina M; Gittes, George K; Piganelli, Jon D; Esni, Farzad

    2014-11-01

    Although the cells that contribute to pancreatic regeneration have been widely studied, little is known about the mediators of this process. During tissue regeneration, infiltrating macrophages debride the site of injury and coordinate the repair response. We investigated the role of macrophages in pancreatic regeneration in mice. We used a saporin-conjugated antibody against CD11b to reduce the number of macrophages in mice following diphtheria toxin receptor-mediated cell ablation of pancreatic cells, and evaluated the effects on pancreatic regeneration. We analyzed expression patterns of infiltrating macrophages after cell-specific injury or from the pancreas of nonobese diabetic mice. We developed an in vitro culture system to study the ability of macrophages to induce cell-specific regeneration. Depletion of macrophages impaired pancreatic regeneration. Macrophage polarization, as assessed by expression of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin 6, interleukin 10, and CD206, depended on the type of injury. The signals provided by polarized macrophages promoted lineage-specific generation of acinar or endocrine cells. Macrophage from nonobese diabetic mice failed to provide signals necessary for β-cell generation. Macrophages produce cell type-specific signals required for pancreatic regeneration in mice. Additional study of these processes and signals might lead to new approaches for treating type 1 diabetes or pancreatitis. Copyright © 2014 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Phosphorylated intermediate of (Ca2+ + K+)-stimulated Mg2+-dependent transport ATPase in endoplasmic reticulum from rat pancreatic acinar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imamura, K.; Schulz, I.

    1985-01-01

    Formation and decomposition of the phosphorylated intermediate of endoplasmic reticulum (Ca 2+ + Mg 2+ )-ATPase from pancreatic acinar cells have been studied using lithium dodecyl sulfate- and tetradecyltrimethylammonium bromide-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Incorporation of 32 P from [gamma- 32 P]ATP is Ca 2+ -dependent (approximate Km for free [Ca 2+ ] = 2-3 x 10(-8) mol/liter). Formation of the 100-kDa phosphoprotein is rapid, reaching maximal 32 P incorporation within 1 s at room temperature. At 4 degrees C, phosphorylation is slower and dephosphorylation is drastically decreased. For dephosphorylation, Mg 2+ and monovalent cations such as K + or Na + are necessary. Vanadate inhibits both 32 P incorporation and 32 P liberation dose dependently (Km = 3 x 10(-6) mol/liter), whereas mitochondrial inhibitors and ouabain have no effect. The phosphoprotein is stable at pH 2 and destabilizes with increasing pH being completely decomposed at pH 9. Reduction of 32 P incorporation in the presence of high concentrations of cold ATP and hydroxylamine suggests formation of acylphosphate present in the ATPase intermediate. The characteristics of Ca 2+ , cation, and pH dependencies of the ATPase activity are similar to those previously described for MgATP-dependent Ca 2+ transport into rough endoplasmic reticulum from pancreatic acinar cells. The data suggest that the 100-kDa phosphoprotein as described in this study is the intermediate of this Ca2+ transport ATPase

  17. c-MYC amplification and c-myc protein expression in pancreatic acinar cell carcinomas. New insights into the molecular signature of these rare cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Rosa, Stefano; Bernasconi, Barbara; Vanoli, Alessandro; Sciarra, Amedeo; Notohara, Kenji; Albarello, Luca; Casnedi, Selenia; Billo, Paola; Zhang, Lizhi; Tibiletti, Maria Grazia; Sessa, Fausto

    2018-05-02

    The molecular alterations of pancreatic acinar cell carcinomas (ACCs) and mixed acinar-neuroendocrine carcinomas (MANECs) are not completely understood, and the possible role of c-MYC amplification in tumor development, progression, and prognosis is not known. We have investigated c-MYC gene amplification in a series of 35 ACCs and 4 MANECs to evaluate its frequency and a possible prognostic role. Gene amplification was investigated using interphasic fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis simultaneously hybridizing c-MYC and the centromere of chromosome 8 probes. Protein expression was immunohistochemically investigated using a specific monoclonal anti-c-myc antibody. Twenty cases had clones with different polysomies of chromosome 8 in absence of c-MYC amplification, and 5 cases had one amplified clone and other clones with chromosome 8 polysomy, while the remaining 14 cases were diploid for chromosome 8 and lacked c-MYC amplification. All MANECs showed c-MYC amplification and/or polysomy which were observed in 54% pure ACCs. Six cases (15.3%) showed nuclear immunoreactivity for c-myc, but only 4/39 cases showed simultaneous c-MYC amplification/polysomy and nuclear protein expression. c-myc immunoreactivity as well as c-MYC amplification and/or chromosome 8 polysomy was not statistically associated with prognosis. Our study demonstrates that a subset of ACCs shows c-MYC alterations including gene amplification and chromosome 8 polysomy. Although they are not associated with a different prognostic signature, the fact that these alterations are present in all MANECs suggests a role in the acinar-neuroendocrine differentiation possibly involved in the pathogenesis of MANECs.

  18. Cytopathology and exocrine dysfunction induced in ex vivo rabbit lacrimal gland acinar cell models by chronic exposure to histamine or serotonin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Michelle L; Wang, Yanru; Selvam, Shivaram; Nakamura, Tamako; Chow, Robert H; Schechter, Joel E; Yiu, Samuel C; Mircheff, Austin K

    2009-07-01

    Lacrimal immunohistopathology has diverse clinical presentations, suggesting that inflammatory mediators exert diverse influences. Chronic exposure to agonistic acetylcholine receptor autoantibodies has been studied previously; the present work addressed mediators that signal through other G protein-coupled receptors. Acinus-like structures and reconstituted acinar epithelial monolayers from rabbit lacrimal glands were exposed to varying concentrations of histamine or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) for 20 hours. Net and vectorial beta-hexosaminidase secretion, cytosolic Ca(2+) (Ca(i)) elevation, apical recruitment of p150(Glued), actin microfilament meshwork organization, and ultrastructure were assessed. Histamine and 5-HT acutely stimulated beta-hexosaminidase secretion at lower, but not higher, concentrations. Neither of them acutely elevated Ca(i) levels. Both recruited p150(Glued) at concentrations that failed to induce secretion. Chronic exposure to 10 mM histamine inhibited carbachol (CCh)-induced beta-hexosaminidase secretion and prevented the formation of continuous monolayers; 1 mM 5-HT partially inhibited secretion at the apical medium. Neither altered secretion to the basal medium. Chronic exposure to histamine or 5-HT partially decreased CCh induced Ca(i) elevations and p150(Glued) recruitment, even at concentrations that did not inhibit secretion. Both expanded acinar lumina and thickened microfilament meshworks, and both caused homotypic fusion of secretory vesicles and formation of aqueous vacuoles in the apical and basal cytoplasm. Chronic exposure to forskolin, which activates adenylyl cyclase, induced similar cytopathologic changes but impaired secretion modestly and only at the highest concentration tested. Inflammatory mediators that signal through G protein-coupled receptors cause acinar cell cytopathology and dose-dependent reductions of CCh-induced beta-hexosaminidase secretion. Although agonistic acetylcholine receptor autoantibodies may cause

  19. Distinct cell clusters touching islet cells induce islet cell replication in association with over-expression of Regenerating Gene (REG protein in fulminant type 1 diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaoru Aida

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pancreatic islet endocrine cell-supporting architectures, including islet encapsulating basement membranes (BMs, extracellular matrix (ECM, and possible cell clusters, are unclear. PROCEDURES: The architectures around islet cell clusters, including BMs, ECM, and pancreatic acinar-like cell clusters, were studied in the non-diabetic state and in the inflamed milieu of fulminant type 1 diabetes in humans. RESULT: Immunohistochemical and electron microscopy analyses demonstrated that human islet cell clusters and acinar-like cell clusters adhere directly to each other with desmosomal structures and coated-pit-like structures between the two cell clusters. The two cell-clusters are encapsulated by a continuous capsule composed of common BMs/ECM. The acinar-like cell clusters have vesicles containing regenerating (REG Iα protein. The vesicles containing REG Iα protein are directly secreted to islet cells. In the inflamed milieu of fulminant type 1 diabetes, the acinar-like cell clusters over-expressed REG Iα protein. Islet endocrine cells, including beta-cells and non-beta cells, which were packed with the acinar-like cell clusters, show self-replication with a markedly increased number of Ki67-positive cells. CONCLUSION: The acinar-like cell clusters touching islet endocrine cells are distinct, because the cell clusters are packed with pancreatic islet clusters and surrounded by common BMs/ECM. Furthermore, the acinar-like cell clusters express REG Iα protein and secrete directly to neighboring islet endocrine cells in the non-diabetic state, and the cell clusters over-express REG Iα in the inflamed milieu of fulminant type 1 diabetes with marked self-replication of islet cells.

  20. Acinic cell carcinoma of parotid gland metastasis to left cavernous sinus: a case report and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIN Xiao-yan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the clinical manifestations and pathological features of parotid gland papillary acinic cell carcinoma metastasis to left cavernous sinus. Methods The clinical manifestations, pathological features and differential diagnosis were studied in one case of parotid papillary acinic cell carcinoma metastasis to left cavernous sinus. Related literatures were also reviewed. Results The patient was a 50-year-old female who presented paroxysmal dizziness for 5 months and blurred vision in her left eye for 10 months. The MRI examination showed left parasellar space-occupying mass in the cavernous sinus. In operation, the tumor was located in the superior wall of left cavernous sinus, soft and red-grey in color, with abundant blood supply. The histomorphological examination revealed the tumor cells were arranged in solid, acinar or papillary pattern. The tumor cells were large, with eosinophilic cytoplasm, round or oval nuclei and small nucleoli. Immunohistochemical staining found that the tumor cells expressed cytokeratin (CK, epithelial membrane antigen (EMA, vimentin (Vim and S-100 protein (S-100, and showed weak positive expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP and focal positive expression of P53 protein. Ki-67 labeling index was about 5%-10% . The tumor cells were negative for neuroendocrine markers and pituitary hormone protein markers. This case was difficult to differentiate from other primary intracalvarium tumors, including papillary meningioma, papillary tumor of choroid plexus, papillary ependymoma, papillary glioneuronal tumors as well as chordoma. According to the medical history and the comparison of histomorphology and immunophenotyping between parotid gland tumor cells and left cavernous sinus tumor cells, the final diagnosis was metastatic papillary parotid acinar cell carcinoma of the left cavernous sinus. The patient was followed for 21 months and no recurrence was seen. Conclusion It is very rare and

  1. COMPUTER-AIDED DETECTION OF ACINAR SHADOWS IN CHEST RADIOGRAPHS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Xu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Despite the technological advances in medical diagnosis, accurate detection of infectious tuberculosis (TB still poses challenges due to complex image features and thus infectious TB continues to be a public health problem of global proportions. Currently, the detection of TB is mainly conducted visually by radiologists examining chest radiographs (CXRs. To reduce the backlog of CXR examination and provide more precise quantitative assessment, computer-aided detection (CAD systems for potential lung lesions have been increasingly adopted and commercialized for clinical practice. CADs work as supporting tools to alert radiologists on suspected features that could have easily been neglected. In this paper, an effective CAD system aimed for acinar shadow regions detection in CXRs is proposed. This system exploits textural and photometric features analysis techniques which include local binary pattern (LBP, grey level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM and histogram of oriented gradients (HOG to analyze target regions in CXRs. Classification of acinar shadows using Adaboost is then deployed to verify the performance of a combination of these techniques. Comparative study in different image databases shows that the proposed CAD system delivers consistent high accuracy in detecting acinar shadows.

  2. Canine mammary minute oncocytomas with neuroendocrine differentiation associated with multifocal acinar cell oncocytic metaplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagahara, Rei; Kimura, Masayuki; Itahashi, Megu; Sugahara, Go; Kawashima, Masashi; Murayama, Hirotada; Yoshida, Toshinori; Shibutani, Makoto

    2016-11-01

    Two solitary and minute tumors of 1 and 1.5 mm diameter were identified by microscopy in the left fourth mammary gland of a 13-year-old female Labrador Retriever dog, in addition to multiple mammary gland tumors. The former tumors were well circumscribed and were composed of small-to-large polyhedral neoplastic oncocytes with finely granular eosinophilic cytoplasm, and were arranged in solid nests separated by fine fibrovascular septa. Scattered lumina of variable sizes containing eosinophilic secretory material were evident. Cellular atypia was minimal, and no mitotic figures were visible. One tumor had several oncocytic cellular foci revealing cellular transition, with perivascular pseudorosettes consisting of columnar epithelial cells surrounding the fine vasculature. Scattered foci of mammary acinar cell hyperplasia showing oncocytic metaplasia were also observed. Immunohistochemically, the cytoplasm of neoplastic cells of the 2 microtumors showed diffuse immunoreactivity to anti-cytokeratin antibody AE1/AE3, and finely granular immunoreactivity for 60-kDa heat shock protein, mitochondrial membrane ATP synthase complex V beta subunit, and chromogranin A. One tumor also had oncocytic cellular foci forming perivascular pseudorosettes showing cellular membrane immunoreactivity for neural cell adhesion molecule. The tumors were negative for smooth muscle actin, neuron-specific enolase, vimentin, desmin, S100, and synaptophysin. Ultrastructural observation confirmed the abundant mitochondria in the cytoplasm of both neoplastic and hyperplastic cells, the former cells also having neuroendocrine granule-like electron-dense bodies. From these results, our case was diagnosed with mammary oncocytomas accompanied by neuroendocrine differentiation. Scattered foci of mammary oncocytosis might be related to the multicentric occurrence of these oncocytomas. © 2016 The Author(s).

  3. Water permeability of acinar cell membranes in the isolated perfused rabbit mandibular salivary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steward, M C; Seo, Y; Rawlings, J M; Case, R M

    1990-01-01

    1. The diffusive water permeability of epithelial cell membranes in the perfused rabbit mandibular salivary gland was measured at 37 degrees C by a 1H nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation method using an extracellular relaxation reagent, gadolinium diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Gd(DTPA)). 2. In glands perfused with a HEPES-buffered solution containing 10 mmol l-1 Gd(DTPA), the spin-lattice (T1) relaxation of the water protons showed two exponential components. The water compartment responsible for the slower component corresponded in magnitude to 71 +/- 5% of the wet weight of the gland, and was attributed to the exchangeable intracellular water of the acinar cells. 3. The rate constant for water efflux from the cells was estimated to be 4.1 +/- 0.1 s-1 which would be consistent with a diffusive membrane permeability (Pd) of approximately 3 x 10(-3) cm s-1. Stimulation with acetylcholine (10(-6) mol l-1) did not cause any detectable change in membrane water permeability. 4. Since the basolateral membrane probably provides the main pathway for water efflux, the osmotic water permeability of this barrier (expressed per gland) was estimated to be less than 6.2 cm3 s-1. This would be insufficient to account for the generation of a near-isosmotic fluid at the flow rates observed during secretion, and suggests that a substantial fraction of the flow of water occurs via a paracellular route. PMID:1966053

  4. Expression of alveolar type II cell markers in acinar adenocarcinomas and adenoid cystic carcinomas arising from segmental bronchi. A study in a heterotopic bronchogenic carcinoma model in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    TenHave-Opbroek, A. A.; Hammond, W. G.; Benfield, J. R.; Teplitz, R. L.; Dijkman, J. H.

    1993-01-01

    The type II alveolar epithelial cell is one of two pluripotential stem cell phenotypes in normal mammalian lung morphogenesis; cells manifesting this phenotype have been found to constitute bronchioloalveolar regions of canine adenocarcinomas. We now studied type II cell expression in canine acinar adenocarcinomas and adenoid cystic (bronchial gland) carcinomas, using the same bronchogenic carcinoma model (subcutaneous bronchial autografts treated with 3-methylcholanthrene). Distinctive features of type II cells are the approximately cuboid cell shape, large and roundish nucleus, immunofluorescent staining of the cytoplasm for the surfactant protein SP-A, and presence of multilamellar bodies or their precursory forms. Cells with these type II cell characteristics were found in the basal epithelial layer of all tumor lesions and in upper layers as far as the lumen, singly or in clusters; they were also found in early invasive carcinomatous lesions but not in bronchial glands or bronchial epithelium before carcinogen exposure. Immunoblots of tumor homogenates showed reactive proteins within size classes of SP-A (28 to 36 kd) or its dimeric form (56 to 72 kd). These findings and those previously reported are consistent with the concept that chemical carcinogenesis in the adult bronchial epithelium may lead to type II cell carcinomas of varying glandular (acinar, adenoidcystic or bronchioloalveolar) growth patterns. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 Figure 17 Figure 18 Figure 19 Figure 20 Figure 21 Figure 22 PMID:8386445

  5. Acinar-to-Ductal Metaplasia Induced by Transforming Growth Factor Beta Facilitates KRASG12D-driven Pancreatic TumorigenesisSummary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Chuvin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims: Transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ acts either as a tumor suppressor or as an oncogene, depending on the cellular context and time of activation. TGFβ activates the canonical SMAD pathway through its interaction with the serine/threonine kinase type I and II heterotetrameric receptors. Previous studies investigating TGFβ-mediated signaling in the pancreas relied either on loss-of-function approaches or on ligand overexpression, and its effects on acinar cells have so far remained elusive. Methods: We developed a transgenic mouse model allowing tamoxifen-inducible and Cre-mediated conditional activation of a constitutively active type I TGFβ receptor (TβRICA in the pancreatic acinar compartment. Results: We observed that TβRICA expression induced acinar-to-ductal metaplasia (ADM reprogramming, eventually facilitating the onset of KRASG12D-induced pre-cancerous pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia. This phenotype was characterized by the cellular activation of apoptosis and dedifferentiation, two hallmarks of ADM, whereas at the molecular level, we evidenced a modulation in the expression of transcription factors such as Hnf1β, Sox9, and Hes1. Conclusions: We demonstrate that TGFβ pathway activation plays a crucial role in pancreatic tumor initiation through its capacity to induce ADM, providing a favorable environment for KRASG12D-dependent carcinogenesis. Such findings are highly relevant for the development of early detection markers and of potentially novel treatments for pancreatic cancer patients. Keywords: Pancreas, Cancer, TGFβ, Acinar-to-Ductal Metaplasia, KRASG12D

  6. LMW-E/CDK2 Deregulates Acinar Morphogenesis, Induces Tumorigenesis, and Associates with the Activated b-Raf-ERK1/2-mTOR Pathway in Breast Cancer Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, MyLinh T.; Akli, Said; Wei, Caimiao; Wingate, Hannah F.; Liu, Wenbin; Lu, Yiling; Yi, Min; Mills, Gordon B.; Hunt, Kelly K.; Keyomarsi, Khandan

    2012-01-01

    Elastase-mediated cleavage of cyclin E generates low molecular weight cyclin E (LMW-E) isoforms exhibiting enhanced CDK2–associated kinase activity and resistance to inhibition by CDK inhibitors p21 and p27. Approximately 27% of breast cancers express high LMW-E protein levels, which significantly correlates with poor survival. The objective of this study was to identify the signaling pathway(s) deregulated by LMW-E expression in breast cancer patients and to identify pharmaceutical agents to effectively target this pathway. Ectopic LMW-E expression in nontumorigenic human mammary epithelial cells (hMECs) was sufficient to generate xenografts with greater tumorigenic potential than full-length cyclin E, and the tumorigenicity was augmented by in vivo passaging. However, cyclin E mutants unable to interact with CDK2 protected hMECs from tumor development. When hMECs were cultured on Matrigel, LMW-E mediated aberrant acinar morphogenesis, including enlargement of acinar structures and formation of multi-acinar complexes, as denoted by reduced BIM and elevated Ki67 expression. Similarly, inducible expression of LMW-E in transgenic mice generated hyper-proliferative terminal end buds resulting in enhanced mammary tumor development. Reverse-phase protein array assay of 276 breast tumor patient samples and cells cultured on monolayer and in three-dimensional Matrigel demonstrated that, in terms of protein expression profile, hMECs cultured in Matrigel more closely resembled patient tissues than did cells cultured on monolayer. Additionally, the b-Raf-ERK1/2-mTOR pathway was activated in LMW-E–expressing patient samples, and activation of this pathway was associated with poor disease-specific survival. Combination treatment using roscovitine (CDK inhibitor) plus either rapamycin (mTOR inhibitor) or sorafenib (a pan kinase inhibitor targeting b-Raf) effectively prevented aberrant acinar formation in LMW-E–expressing cells by inducing G1/S cell cycle arrest. LMW

  7. Acinus-on-a-chip: a microfluidic platform for pulmonary acinar flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishler, Rami; Mulligan, Molly K; Sznitman, Josué

    2013-11-15

    Convective respiratory flows in the pulmonary acinus and their influence on the fate of inhaled particles are typically studied using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) or scaled-up experimental models. However, experiments that replicate several generations of the acinar tree while featuring cyclic wall motion have not yet been realized. Moreover, current experiments generally capture only flow dynamics, without inhaled particle dynamics, due to difficulties in simultaneously matching flow and particle dynamics. In an effort to overcome these limitations, we introduce a novel microfluidic device mimicking acinar flow characteristics directly at the alveolar scale. The model features an anatomically-inspired geometry that expands and contracts periodically with five dichotomously branching airway generations lined with alveolar-like cavities. We use micro-particle image velocimetry with a glycerol solution as the carrying fluid to quantitatively characterize detailed flow patterns within the device and reveal experimentally for the first time a gradual transition of alveolar flow patterns along the acinar tree from recirculating to radial streamlines, in support of hypothesized predictions from past CFD simulations. The current measurements show that our microfluidic system captures the underlying characteristics of the acinar flow environment, including Reynolds and Womersley numbers as well as cyclic wall displacements and alveolar flow patterns at a realistic length scale. With the use of air as the carrying fluid, our miniaturized platform is anticipated to capture both particle and flow dynamics and serve in the near future as a promising in vitro tool for investigating the mechanisms of particle deposition deep in the lung. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Synaptic Contacts Enhance Cell-to-Cell Tau Pathology Propagation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Calafate

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Accumulation of insoluble Tau protein aggregates and stereotypical propagation of Tau pathology through the brain are common hallmarks of tauopathies, including Alzheimer’s disease (AD. Propagation of Tau pathology appears to occur along connected neurons, but whether synaptic contacts between neurons are facilitating propagation has not been demonstrated. Using quantitative in vitro models, we demonstrate that, in parallel to non-synaptic mechanisms, synapses, but not merely the close distance between the cells, enhance the propagation of Tau pathology between acceptor hippocampal neurons and Tau donor cells. Similarly, in an artificial neuronal network using microfluidic devices, synapses and synaptic activity are promoting neuronal Tau pathology propagation in parallel to the non-synaptic mechanisms. Our work indicates that the physical presence of synaptic contacts between neurons facilitate Tau pathology propagation. These findings can have implications for synaptic repair therapies, which may turn out to have adverse effects by promoting propagation of Tau pathology.

  9. Synaptic Contacts Enhance Cell-to-Cell Tau Pathology Propagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calafate, Sara; Buist, Arjan; Miskiewicz, Katarzyna; Vijayan, Vinoy; Daneels, Guy; de Strooper, Bart; de Wit, Joris; Verstreken, Patrik; Moechars, Diederik

    2015-05-26

    Accumulation of insoluble Tau protein aggregates and stereotypical propagation of Tau pathology through the brain are common hallmarks of tauopathies, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Propagation of Tau pathology appears to occur along connected neurons, but whether synaptic contacts between neurons are facilitating propagation has not been demonstrated. Using quantitative in vitro models, we demonstrate that, in parallel to non-synaptic mechanisms, synapses, but not merely the close distance between the cells, enhance the propagation of Tau pathology between acceptor hippocampal neurons and Tau donor cells. Similarly, in an artificial neuronal network using microfluidic devices, synapses and synaptic activity are promoting neuronal Tau pathology propagation in parallel to the non-synaptic mechanisms. Our work indicates that the physical presence of synaptic contacts between neurons facilitate Tau pathology propagation. These findings can have implications for synaptic repair therapies, which may turn out to have adverse effects by promoting propagation of Tau pathology. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Stromal ETS2 Regulates Chemokine Production and Immune Cell Recruitment during Acinar-to-Ductal Metaplasia 1

    OpenAIRE

    Pitarresi, Jason R.; Liu, Xin; Sharma, Sudarshana M.; Cuiti?o, Maria C.; Kladney, Raleigh D.; Mace, Thomas A.; Donohue, Sydney; Nayak, Sunayana G.; Qu, Chunjing; Lee, James; Woelke, Sarah A.; Trela, Stefan; LaPak, Kyle; Yu, Lianbo; McElroy, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Preclinical studies have suggested that the pancreatic tumor microenvironment both inhibits and promotes tumor development and growth. Here we establish the role of stromal fibroblasts during acinar-to-ductal metaplasia (ADM), an initiating event in pancreatic cancer formation. The transcription factor V-Ets avian erythroblastosis virus E26 oncogene homolog 2 (ETS2) was elevated in smooth muscle actin?positive fibroblasts in the stroma of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) patient tissue...

  11. Occupation of low-affinity cholecystokinin (CCK) receptors by CCK activates signal transduction and stimulates amylase secretion in pancreatic acinar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinayek, R; Patto, R J; Menozzi, D; Gregory, J; Mrozinski, J E; Jensen, R T; Gardner, J D

    1993-03-10

    Based on the effects of monensin on binding of 125I-CCK-8 and its lack of effect on CCK-8-stimulated amylase secretion we previously proposed that pancreatic acinar cells possess three classes of CCK receptors: high-affinity receptors, low-affinity receptors and very low-affinity receptors [1]. In the present study we treated pancreatic acini with carbachol to induce a complete loss of high-affinity CCK receptors and then examined the action of CCK-8 on inositol trisphosphate IP3(1,4,5), cytosolic calcium and amylase secretion in an effort to confirm and extend our previous hypothesis. We found that first incubating pancreatic acini with 10 mM carbachol decreased binding of 125I-CCK-8 measured during a second incubation by causing a complete loss of high-affinity CCK receptors with no change in the low-affinity CCK receptors. Carbachol treatment of acini, however, did not alter the action of CCK-8 on IP3(1,4,5), cytosolic calcium or amylase secretion or the action of CCK-JMV-180 on amylase secretion or on the supramaximal inhibition of amylase secretion caused by CCK-8. The present findings support our previous hypothesis that pancreatic acinar cells possess three classes of CCK receptors and suggest that high-affinity CCK receptors do not mediate the action of CCK-8 on enzyme secretion, that low-affinity CCK receptors may mediate the action of CCK on cytosolic calcium that does not involve IP3(1,4,5) and produce the upstroke of the dose-response curve for CCK-8-stimulated amylase secretion and that very low-affinity CCK receptors mediate the actions of CCK on IP3(1,4,5) and cytosolic calcium and produce the downstroke of the dose-response curve for CCK-8-stimulated amylase secretion. Moreover, CCK-JMV-180 is a full agonist for stimulating amylase secretion by acting at low-affinity CCK receptors and is an antagonist at very low-affinity CCK receptors.

  12. Acinar cell carcinoma of the pancreas presenting as diffuse pancreatic enlargement: Two case reports and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yaping; Hu, Guilan; Ma, Yanru; Guo, Ning; Li, Fang

    2017-09-01

    Pancreatic acinar cell carcinoma (ACC) is a rare malignant tumor of exocrine pancreas. It is typically a well-marginated large solid mass arising in a certain aspect of the pancreas. Diffuse involvement of ACC in the pancreas is very rare, and may simulate pancreatitis in radiological findings. We report 2 cases of ACC presenting as diffuse enlargement of the pancreas due to tumor involvement without formation of a distinct mass. The patients consisted of a 41-year-old man with weight loss and a 77-year-old man who was asymptomatic. Computed tomography (CT) and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/CT showed diffuse enlargement of the pancreas forming a sausage-like shape with homogenously increased FDG activity. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided fine needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy of the pancreatic lesion was performed. Histopathology results from the pancreas confirmed the diagnosis of pancreatic ACC. Because diffuse enlargement of the pancreas is a common imaging feature of pancreatitis, recognition of this rare morphologic pattern of ACC is important for radiological diagnosis of this tumor.

  13. Molecular pathology of prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazares, L H; Drake, R R; Esquela-Kirscher, A; Lance, R S; Semmes, O J; Troyer, D A

    2010-01-01

    This chapter includes discussion of the molecular pathology of tissue, blood, urine, and expressed prostatic secretions. Because we are unable to reliably image the disease in vivo, a 12 core method that oversamples the peripheral zone is widely used. This generates large numbers of cores that need to be carefully processed and sampled. In spite of the large number of tissue cores, the amount of tumor available for study is often quite limited. This is a particular challenge for research, as new biomarker assays will need to preserve tissue architecture intact for histopathology. Methods of processing and reporting pathology are discussed. With the exception of ductal variants, recognized subtypes of prostate cancer are largely confined to research applications, and most prostate cancers are acinar. Biomarker discovery in urine and expressed prostatic secretions would be useful since these are readily obtained and are proximate fluids. The well-known challenges of biomarker discovery in blood and urine are referenced and discussed. Mediators of carcinogenesis can serve as biomarkers as exemplified by mutations in PTEN and TMPRSS2:ERG fusion. The use of proteomics in biomarker discovery with an emphasis on imaging mass spectroscopy of tissues is discussed. Small RNAs are of great interest, however, their usefulness as biomarkers in clinical decision making remains the subject of ongoing research. The chapter concludes with an overview of blood biomarkers such as circulating nucleic acids and tumor cells and bound/free isoforms of prostate specific antigen (PSA).

  14. Ionizing irradiation induces apoptotic damage of salivary gland acinar cells via NADPH oxidase 1-dependent superoxide generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tateishi, Yoshihisa; Sasabe, Eri; Ueta, Eisaku; Yamamoto, Tetsuya

    2008-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have important roles in various physiological processes. Recently, several novel homologues of the phagocytic NADPH oxidase have been discovered and this protein family is now designated as the Nox family. We investigated the involvement of Nox family proteins in ionizing irradiation-induced ROS generation and impairment in immortalized salivary gland acinar cells (NS-SV-AC), which are radiosensitive, and immortalized ductal cells (NS-SV-DC), which are radioresistant. Nox1-mRNA was upregulated by γ-ray irradiation in NS-SV-AC, and the ROS level in NS-SV-AC was increased to approximately threefold of the control level after 10 Gy irradiation. The increase of ROS level in NS-SV-AC was suppressed by Nox1-siRNA-transfection. In parallel with the suppression of ROS generation and Nox1-mRNA expression by Nox1-siRNA, ionizing irradiation-induced apoptosis was strongly decreased in Nox1-siRNA-transfected NS-SV-AC. There were no large differences in total SOD or catalase activities between NS-SV-AC and NS-SV-DC although the post-irradiation ROS level in NS-SV-AC was higher than that in NS-SV-DC. In conclusion, these results indicate that Nox1 plays a crucial role in irradiation-induced ROS generation and ROS-associated impairment of salivary gland cells and that Nox1 gene may be targeted for preservation of the salivary gland function from radiation-induced impairment

  15. Steady streaming: A key mixing mechanism in low-Reynolds-number acinar flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Haribalan; Tawhai, Merryn H.; Hoffman, Eric A.; Lin, Ching-Long

    2011-01-01

    Study of mixing is important in understanding transport of submicron sized particles in the acinar region of the lung. In this article, we investigate transport in view of advective mixing utilizing Lagrangian particle tracking techniques: tracer advection, stretch rate and dispersion analysis. The phenomenon of steady streaming in an oscillatory flow is found to hold the key to the origin of kinematic mixing in the alveolus, the alveolar mouth and the alveolated duct. This mechanism provides the common route to folding of material lines and surfaces in any region of the acinar flow, and has no bearing on whether the geometry is expanding or if flow separates within the cavity or not. All analyses consistently indicate a significant decrease in mixing with decreasing Reynolds number (Re). For a given Re, dispersion is found to increase with degree of alveolation, indicating that geometry effects are important. These effects of Re and geometry can also be explained by the streaming mechanism. Based on flow conditions and resultant convective mixing measures, we conclude that significant convective mixing in the duct and within an alveolus could originate only in the first few generations of the acinar tree as a result of nonzero inertia, flow asymmetry, and large Keulegan–Carpenter (KC) number. PMID:21580803

  16. β-Cell regeneration through the transdifferentiation of pancreatic cells: Pancreatic progenitor cells in the pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyo-Sup; Lee, Moon-Kyu

    2016-05-01

    Pancreatic progenitor cell research has been in the spotlight, as these cells have the potential to replace pancreatic β-cells for the treatment of type 1 and 2 diabetic patients with the absence or reduction of pancreatic β-cells. During the past few decades, the successful treatment of diabetes through transplantation of the whole pancreas or isolated islets has nearly been achieved. However, novel sources of pancreatic islets or insulin-producing cells are required to provide sufficient amounts of donor tissues. To overcome this limitation, the use of pancreatic progenitor cells is gaining more attention. In particular, pancreatic exocrine cells, such as duct epithelial cells and acinar cells, are attractive candidates for β-cell regeneration because of their differentiation potential and pancreatic lineage characteristics. It has been assumed that β-cell neogenesis from pancreatic progenitor cells could occur in pancreatic ducts in the postnatal stage. Several studies have shown that insulin-producing cells can arise in the duct tissue of the adult pancreas. Acinar cells also might have the potential to differentiate into insulin-producing cells. The present review summarizes recent progress in research on the transdifferentiation of pancreatic exocrine cells into insulin-producing cells, especially duct and acinar cells.

  17. Coupling of guanine nucleotide inhibitory protein to somatostatin receptors on pancreatic acinar membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamoto, C.; Matozaki, T.; Nagao, M.; Baba, S.

    1987-01-01

    Guanine nucleotides and pertussis toxin were used to investigate whether somatostatin receptors interact with the guanine nucleotide inhibitory protein (NI) on pancreatic acinar membranes in the rat. Guanine nucleotides reduced 125 I-[Tyr 1 ]somatostatin binding to acinar membranes up to 80%, with rank order of potency being 5'-guanylyl imidodiphosphate [Gpp(NH)p]>GTP>TDP>GMP. Scatchard analysis revealed that the decrease in somatostatin binding caused by Gpp(NH)p was due to the decrease in the maximum binding capacity without a significant change in the binding affinity. The inhibitory effect of Gpp(NH)p was partially abolished in the absence of Mg 2+ . When pancreatic acini were treated with 1 μg/ml pertussis toxin for 4 h, subsequent 125 I-[Tyr 1 ]somatostatin binding to acinar membranes was reduced. Pertussis toxin treatment also abolished the inhibitory effect of somatostatin on vasoactive intestinal peptide-stimulated increase in cellular content of adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) in the acini. The present results suggest that 1) somatostatin probably functions in the pancreas to regulate adenylate cyclase enzyme system via Ni, 2) the extent of modification of Ni is correlated with the ability of somatostatin to inhibit cAMP accumulation in acini, and 3) guanine nucleotides also inhibit somatostatin binding to its receptor

  18. DEAR1 is a dominant regulator of acinar morphogenesis and an independent predictor of local recurrence-free survival in early-onset breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven T Lott

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer in young women tends to have a natural history of aggressive disease for which rates of recurrence are higher than in breast cancers detected later in life. Little is known about the genetic pathways that underlie early-onset breast cancer. Here we report the discovery of DEAR1 (ductal epithelium-associated RING Chromosome 1, a novel gene encoding a member of the TRIM (tripartite motif subfamily of RING finger proteins, and provide evidence for its role as a dominant regulator of acinar morphogenesis in the mammary gland and as an independent predictor of local recurrence-free survival in early-onset breast cancer.Suppression subtractive hybridization identified DEAR1 as a novel gene mapping to a region of high-frequency loss of heterozygosity (LOH in a number of histologically diverse human cancers within Chromosome 1p35.1. In the breast epithelium, DEAR1 expression is limited to the ductal and glandular epithelium and is down-regulated in transition to ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS, an early histologic stage in breast tumorigenesis. DEAR1 missense mutations and homozygous deletion (HD were discovered in breast cancer cell lines and tumor samples. Introduction of the DEAR1 wild type and not the missense mutant alleles to complement a mutation in a breast cancer cell line, derived from a 36-year-old female with invasive breast cancer, initiated acinar morphogenesis in three-dimensional (3D basement membrane culture and restored tissue architecture reminiscent of normal acinar structures in the mammary gland in vivo. Stable knockdown of DEAR1 in immortalized human mammary epithelial cells (HMECs recapitulated the growth in 3D culture of breast cancer cell lines containing mutated DEAR1, in that shDEAR1 clones demonstrated disruption of tissue architecture, loss of apical basal polarity, diffuse apoptosis, and failure of lumen formation. Furthermore, immunohistochemical staining of a tissue microarray from a cohort of 123 young

  19. Evidence that Meningeal Mast Cells Can Worsen Stroke Pathology in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arac, Ahmet; Grimbaldeston, Michele A.; Nepomuceno, Andrew R.B.; Olayiwola, Oluwatobi; Pereira, Marta P.; Nishiyama, Yasuhiro; Tsykin, Anna; Goodall, Gregory J.; Schlecht, Ulrich; Vogel, Hannes; Tsai, Mindy; Galli, Stephen J.; Bliss, Tonya M.; Steinberg, Gary K.

    2015-01-01

    Stroke is the leading cause of adult disability and the fourth most common cause of death in the United States. Inflammation is thought to play an important role in stroke pathology, but the factors that promote inflammation in this setting remain to be fully defined. An understudied but important factor is the role of meningeal-located immune cells in modulating brain pathology. Although different immune cells traffic through meningeal vessels en route to the brain, mature mast cells do not circulate but are resident in the meninges. With the use of genetic and cell transfer approaches in mice, we identified evidence that meningeal mast cells can importantly contribute to the key features of stroke pathology, including infiltration of granulocytes and activated macrophages, brain swelling, and infarct size. We also obtained evidence that two mast cell-derived products, interleukin-6 and, to a lesser extent, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 7, can contribute to stroke pathology. These findings indicate a novel role for mast cells in the meninges, the membranes that envelop the brain, as potential gatekeepers for modulating brain inflammation and pathology after stroke. PMID:25134760

  20. G protein in stimulation of PI hydrolysis by CCK [cholecystokinin] in isolated rat pancreatic acinar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matozaki, Takashi; Sakamoto, Choitsu; Nagao, Munehiko; Nishizaki, Hogara; Baba, Shigeaki

    1988-01-01

    To clarify the possible role of a guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein) in the signal transducing system activated by cholecystokinin (CCK), actions of CCK on rat pancreatic acini were compared with those of fluoride, a well-known activator of stimulatory (G s ) or inhibitory (G i ) G protein. When acini were incubated with increasing concentrations of either CCK-octapeptide (CCK8) or NaF, a maximal stimulation of amylase release from acini occurred at 100 pM CCK8 or 10 mM NaF, respectively; this secretory rate decreased as CCK8 or NaF concentration was increased. NaF caused an increase in cytoplasmic Ca 2+ concentration from the internal Ca 2+ store and stimulated accumulation of inositol phosphates in acini, as observed with CCK. Guanylimidodiphosphate activated the generation of inositol phosphates in the [ 3 H]inositol-labeled pancreatic acinar cell membrane preparation, with half-maximal and maximal stimulation at 1 and 10 μM, respectively. Furthermore, the effects of submaximal CCK concentrations on inositol phosphate accumulation in membranes were markedly potentiated in the presence of 100 μM GTP, which alone was ineffective. Combined findings of the present study strongly suggest that pancreatic CCK receptors are probably coupled to the activation of polyphosphoinositide (PI) breakdown by a G protein, which appears to be fluoride sensitive but is other than G s - or G i -like protein

  1. Pathological and radiological correlation in an autopsy case of combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karata H

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Hiroki Karata,1 Tomonori Tanaka,1 Ryoko Egashira,2 Kazuhiro Tabata,1 Kyoko Otani,3 Ryuji Hayashi,4 Takashi Hori,5 Junya Fukuoka1 1Department of Pathology, Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki, Japan; 2Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Saga University, Saga, Japan; 3Department of Diagnostic Pathology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe, Japan; 4Department of Internal Medicine, University of Toyama, Faculty of Medicine, Toyama, Japan; 5Laboratory of Pathology, Toyama University Hospital, Toyama, Japan Abstract: We report an educational autopsy case of combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema. Radiological patterns of the upper lung were considered as mostly emphysema, but pathological observation revealed significant interstitial fibrosis of usual interstitial pneumonia as a major pathology. The patient eventually developed acute exacerbation of background interstitial pneumonia. Careful radiological and pathological correlation of the current case indicates that regions with distal acinar emphysema on computed tomography image may possess histologically marked dense fibrosis of lethal interstitial pneumonia. Keywords: interstitial pneumonia, CPFE, AEF, smoking, CT

  2. Stem cells and the pancreas: from discovery to clinical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica Dessì

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The existence of stem cells within the adult pancreas is supported by the ability of this organ to regenerate its endocrine component in various conditions such as pregnancy and following partial pancreatectomy. Several studies have shown that progenitor or adult stem cells may reside within the pancreas and particularly in the pancreatic ducts, including acinar cells and islets of Langerhans. The discovery of human pluripotent stem cells in the pancreas, and the possibility of development of strategies for generating these, represented a turning point for the therapeutic interventions of type 1 diabetes.Proceedings of the 2nd International Course on Perinatal Pathology (part of the 11th International Workshop on Neonatology · October 26th-31st, 2015 · Cagliari (Italy · October 31st, 2015 · Stem cells: present and future Guest Editors: Gavino Faa, Vassilios Fanos, Antonio Giordano

  3. Leucine Affects α-Amylase Synthesis through PI3K/Akt-mTOR Signaling Pathways in Pancreatic Acinar Cells of Dairy Calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Long; Liang, Ziqi; Zheng, Chen; Liu, Baolong; Yin, Qingyan; Cao, Yangchun; Yao, Junhu

    2018-05-23

    Dietary nutrient utilization, particularly starch, is potentially limited by digestion in dairy cow small intestine because of shortage of α-amylase. Leucine acts as an effective signal molecular in the mTOR signaling pathway, which regulates a series of biological processes, especially protein synthesis. It has been reported that leucine could affect α-amylase synthesis and secretion in ruminant pancreas, but mechanisms have not been elaborated. In this study, pancreatic acinar (PA) cells were used as a model to determine the cellular signal of leucine influence on α-amylase synthesis. PA cells were isolated from newborn Holstein dairy bull calves and cultured in Dulbecco's modifed Eagle's medium/nutrient mixture F12 liquid media containing four leucine treatments (0, 0.23, 0.45, and 0.90 mM, respectively), following α-amylase activity, zymogen granule, and signal pathway factor expression detection. Rapamycin, a specific inhibitor of mTOR, was also applied to PA cells. Results showed that leucine increased ( p synthesis of α-amylase as well as phosphorylation of PI3K, Akt, mTOR, and S6K1 while reduced ( p synthesis. In addition, the extracellular leucine dosage significantly influenced intracellular metabolism of isoleucine ( p synthesis through promoting the PI3K/Akt-mTOR pathway and reducing the GCN2 pathway in PA cells of dairy calves. These pathways form the signaling network that controls the protein synthesis and metabolism. It would be of great interest in future studies to explore the function of leucine in ruminant nutrition.

  4. Pathologic Stimulus Determines Lineage Commitment of Cardiac C-kit+ Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhongming; Zhu, Wuqiang; Bender, Ingrid; Gong, Wuming; Kwak, Il-Youp; Yellamilli, Amritha; Hodges, Thomas J; Nemoto, Natsumi; Zhang, Jianyi; Garry, Daniel J; van Berlo, Jop H

    2017-12-12

    Although cardiac c-kit + cells are being tested in clinical trials, the circumstances that determine lineage differentiation of c-kit + cells in vivo are unknown. Recent findings suggest that endogenous cardiac c-kit + cells rarely contribute cardiomyocytes to the adult heart. We assessed whether various pathological stimuli differentially affect the eventual cell fates of c-kit + cells. We used single-cell sequencing and genetic lineage tracing of c-kit + cells to determine whether various pathological stimuli would result in different fates of c-kit + cells. Single-cell sequencing of cardiac CD45 - c-kit + cells showed innate heterogeneity, indicative of the existence of vascular and mesenchymal c-kit + cells in normal hearts. Cardiac pressure overload resulted in a modest increase in c-kit-derived cardiomyocytes, with significant increases in the numbers of endothelial cells and fibroblasts. Doxorubicin-induced acute cardiotoxicity did not increase c-kit-derived endothelial cell fates but instead induced cardiomyocyte differentiation. Mechanistically, doxorubicin-induced DNA damage in c-kit + cells resulted in expression of p53. Inhibition of p53 blocked cardiomyocyte differentiation in response to doxorubicin, whereas stabilization of p53 was sufficient to increase c-kit-derived cardiomyocyte differentiation. These results demonstrate that different pathological stimuli induce different cell fates of c-kit + cells in vivo. Although the overall rate of cardiomyocyte formation from c-kit + cells is still below clinically relevant levels, we show that p53 is central to the ability of c-kit + cells to adopt cardiomyocyte fates, which could lead to the development of strategies to preferentially generate cardiomyocytes from c-kit + cells. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  5. Nonredundant functions of alphabeta and gammadelta T cells in acrolein-induced pulmonary pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borchers, Michael T; Wesselkamper, Scott C; Eppert, Bryan L; Motz, Gregory T; Sartor, Maureen A; Tomlinson, Craig R; Medvedovic, Mario; Tichelaar, Jay W

    2008-09-01

    Acrolein exposure represents a significant human health hazard. Repeated acrolein exposure causes the accumulation of monocytes/macrophages and lymphocytes, mucous cell metaplasia, and epithelial injury. Currently, the mechanisms that control these events are unclear, and the relative contribution of T-cell subsets to pulmonary pathologies following repeated exposures to irritants is unknown. To examine whether lymphocyte subpopulations regulate inflammation and epithelial cell pathology, we utilized a mouse model of pulmonary pathology induced by repeated acrolein exposures. The role of lymphocyte subsets was examined by utilizing transgenic mice genetically deficient in either alphabeta T cells or gammadelta T cells, and changes in cellular, molecular, and pathologic outcomes associated with repeated inhalation exposure to 2.0 and 0.5 ppm acrolein were measured. To examine the potential functions of lymphocyte subsets, we purified these cells from the lungs of mice repeatedly exposed to 2.0 ppm acrolein, isolated and amplified messenger RNA, and performed microarray analysis. Our data demonstrate that alphabeta T cells are required for macrophage accumulation, whereas gammadelta T cells are critical regulators of epithelial cell homeostasis, as identified by epithelial cell injury and apoptosis, following repeated acrolein exposure. This is supported by microarray analyses that indicated the T-cell subsets are unique in their gene expression profiles following acrolein exposures. Microarray analyses identified several genes that may contribute to phenotypes mediated by T-cell subpopulations including those involved in cytokine receptor signaling, chemotaxis, growth factor production, lymphocyte activation, and apoptosis. These data provide strong evidence that T-cell subpopulations in the lung are major determinants of pulmonary pathology and highlight the advantages of dissecting their effector functions in response to toxicant exposures.

  6. The value of cell-free DNA for molecular pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Caitlin M; Kothari, Prachi D; Mouliere, Florent; Mair, Richard; Somnay, Saira; Benayed, Ryma; Zehir, Ahmet; Weigelt, Britta; Dawson, Sarah-Jane; Arcila, Maria E; Berger, Michael F; Tsui, Dana Wy

    2018-04-01

    Over the past decade, advances in molecular biology and genomics techniques have revolutionized the diagnosis and treatment of cancer. The technological advances in tissue profiling have also been applied to the study of cell-free nucleic acids, an area of increasing interest for molecular pathology. Cell-free nucleic acids are released from tumour cells into the surrounding body fluids and can be assayed non-invasively. The repertoire of genomic alterations in circulating tumour DNA (ctDNA) is reflective of both primary tumours and distant metastatic sites, and ctDNA can be sampled multiple times, thereby overcoming the limitations of the analysis of single biopsies. Furthermore, ctDNA can be sampled regularly to monitor response to treatment, to define the evolution of the tumour genome, and to assess the acquisition of resistance and minimal residual disease. Recently, clinical ctDNA assays have been approved for guidance of therapy, which is an exciting first step in translating cell-free nucleic acid research tests into clinical use for oncology. In this review, we discuss the advantages of cell-free nucleic acids as analytes in different body fluids, including blood plasma, urine, and cerebrospinal fluid, and their clinical applications in solid tumours and haematological malignancies. We will also discuss practical considerations for clinical deployment, such as preanalytical factors and regulatory requirements. Copyright © 2018 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2018 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Mouse Pancreas Tissue Slice Culture Facilitates Long-Term Studies of Exocrine and Endocrine Cell Physiology in situ

    OpenAIRE

    Marciniak, Anja; Selck, Claudia; Friedrich, Betty; Speier, Stephan

    2013-01-01

    Studies on pancreatic cell physiology rely on the investigation of exocrine and endocrine cells in vitro. Particularly, in the case of the exocrine tissue these studies have suffered from a reduced functional viability of acinar cells in culture. As a result not only investigations on dispersed acinar cells and isolated acini were limited in their potential, but also prolonged studies on pancreatic exocrine and endocrine cells in an intact pancreatic tissue environment were unfeasible. To ove...

  8. Epidermal growth factor inhibits rat pancreatic cell proliferation, causes acinar cell hypertrophy, and prevents caerulein-induced desensitization of amylase release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morisset, J; Larose, L; Korc, M

    1989-06-01

    The in vivo effects of epidermal growth factor (EGF) on pancreatic growth and digestive enzyme concentrations were compared with the actions of the pancreatic secretagogue caerulein in the adult rat. EGF (10 micrograms/kg BW) did not alter pancreatic weight or protein content. However, this concentration of EGF inhibited [3H]thymidine incorporation into DNA by 44%, decreased DNA content by 20%, and increased the concentrations of amylase, chymotrypsinogen, and protein by 106%, 232%, and 42%, respectively. Pancreatic acini prepared from EGF-treated rats exhibited a characteristic secretory response to caerulein that was superimposable to that obtained in acini from saline-treated rats. In both groups of acini half-maximal and maximal stimulation of amylase release occurred at approximately 5 pM and 50 pM caerulein, respectively. In contrast to EGF, caerulein (1 microgram/kg BW) increased pancreatic weight by 29% and protein content by 59%, and enhanced [3H]thymidine incorporation into DNA by 70%. Although caerulein increased the concentrations of pancreatic amylase and chymotrypsinogen by 38% and 297%, respectively, pancreatic acini prepared from caerulein-treated rats were less sensitive to the actions of caerulein in vitro when compared with acini from control rats. Indeed, the EC50 was shift from 4.8 pM to 9.8 pM after 4 days of treatment. EGF potentiated the actions of caerulein on pancreatic weight, protein content, and chymotrypsinogen concentration, and prevented the caerulein-induced alteration in the secretory responsiveness of the acinar cell. Conversely, caerulein reversed the inhibitory effect of EGF on thymidine incorporation. These findings suggest that EGF may modulate the trophic effects of certain gastrointestinal hormones, and may participate in the regulation of pancreatic exocrine function in vivo.

  9. Coomassie Brilliant Blue G is a more potent antagonist of P2 purinergic responses than Reactive Blue 2 (Cibacron Blue 3GA) in rat parotid acinar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soltoff, S.P.; McMillian, M.K.; Talamo, B.R.

    1989-01-01

    The ability of Brilliant Blue G (Coomassie Brilliant Blue G) and Reactive Blue 2 (Cibacron Blue 3GA) to block the effects of extracellular ATP on rat parotid acinar cells was examined by evaluating their effects on ATP-stimulated 45Ca 2+ entry and the elevation of [Ca 2+ ]i (Fura 2 fluorescence). ATP (300 microM) increased the rate of Ca 2+ entry to more than 25-times the basal rate and elevated [Ca 2+ ]i to levels more than three times the basal value. Brilliant Blue G and Reactive Blue 2 greatly reduced the entry of 45 Ca 2+ into parotid cells, but the potency of Brilliant Blue G (IC50 approximately 0.4 microM) was about 100-times that of Reactive Blue 2. Fura 2 studies demonstrated that inhibitory concentrations of these compounds did not block the cholinergic response of these cells, thus demonstrating the selectivity of the dye compounds for purinergic receptors. Unlike Reactive Blue 2, effective concentrations of Brilliant Blue G did not substantially quench Fura 2 fluorescence. The greater potency of Brilliant Blue G suggests that it may be very useful in identifying P2-type purinergic receptors, especially in studies which utilize fluorescent probes

  10. The Microscope against Cell Theory: Cancer Research in Nineteenth-Century Parisian Anatomical Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loison, Laurent

    2016-07-01

    This paper examines the reception of cell theory in the field of French anatomical pathology. This reception is studied under the lens of the concept of the cancer cell, which was developed in Paris in the 1840s. In the medical field, cell theory was quickly accessible, understood, and discussed. In the wake of research by Hermann Lebert, the cancer cell concept was supported by a wealth of high-quality microscopic observations. The concept was constructed in opposition to cell theory, which appears retrospectively paradoxical and surprising. Indeed, the biological atomism inherent in cell theory, according to which the cell is the elementary unit of all organs of living bodies, appeared at the time incompatible with the possible existence of pathological cells without equivalent in healthy tissues. Thus, the postulate of atomism was used as an argument by Parisian clinicians who denied the value of the cancer cell. This study shows that at least in the field of anatomical pathology, cell theory did not directly result from the use of the microscope but was actually hindered by it. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Bone marrow-derived cells are differentially involved in pathological and physiological retinal angiogenesis in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou, He [Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Otani, Atsushi, E-mail: otan@kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Oishi, Akio; Yodoi, Yuko; Kameda, Takanori; Kojima, Hiroshi; Yoshimura, Nagahisa [Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan)

    2010-01-08

    Purpose: Bone marrow-derived cells have been shown to play roles in angiogenesis. Although these cells have been shown to promote angiogenesis, it is not yet clear whether these cells affect all types of angiogenesis. This study investigated the involvement of bone marrow-derived cells in pathological and physiological angiogenesis in the murine retina. Materials and methods: The oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR) model was used as a retinal angiogenesis model in newborn mice. To block the influence of bone marrow-derived cells, the mice were irradiated with a 4-Gy dose of radiation from a {sup 137}Cs source. Irradiation was performed in four different conditions with radio dense 2-cm thick lead disks; (1) H group, the head were covered with these discs to protect the eyes from radiation; (2) A group, all of the body was covered with these discs; (3) N group, mice were completely unshielded; (4) C group, mice were put in the irradiator but were not irradiated. On P17, the retinal areas showing pathological and physiological retinal angiogenesis were measured and compared to the retinas of nonirradiated mice. Results: Although irradiation induced leukocyte depletion, it did not affect the number of other cell types or body weight. Retinal nonperfusion areas were significantly larger in irradiated mice than in control mice (P < 0.05), indicating that physiological angiogenesis was impaired. However, the formation of tuft-like angiogenesis processes was more prominent in the irradiated mice (P < 0.05), indicating that pathological angiogenesis was intact. Conclusions: Bone marrow-derived cells seem to be differentially involved in the formation of physiological and pathological retinal vessels. Pathological angiogenesis in the murine retina does not require functional bone marrow-derived cells, but these cells are important for the formation of physiological vessels. Our results add a new insight into the pathology of retinal angiogenesis and bolster the hypothesis that

  12. Bone marrow-derived cells are differentially involved in pathological and physiological retinal angiogenesis in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou, He; Otani, Atsushi; Oishi, Akio; Yodoi, Yuko; Kameda, Takanori; Kojima, Hiroshi; Yoshimura, Nagahisa

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Bone marrow-derived cells have been shown to play roles in angiogenesis. Although these cells have been shown to promote angiogenesis, it is not yet clear whether these cells affect all types of angiogenesis. This study investigated the involvement of bone marrow-derived cells in pathological and physiological angiogenesis in the murine retina. Materials and methods: The oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR) model was used as a retinal angiogenesis model in newborn mice. To block the influence of bone marrow-derived cells, the mice were irradiated with a 4-Gy dose of radiation from a 137 Cs source. Irradiation was performed in four different conditions with radio dense 2-cm thick lead disks; (1) H group, the head were covered with these discs to protect the eyes from radiation; (2) A group, all of the body was covered with these discs; (3) N group, mice were completely unshielded; (4) C group, mice were put in the irradiator but were not irradiated. On P17, the retinal areas showing pathological and physiological retinal angiogenesis were measured and compared to the retinas of nonirradiated mice. Results: Although irradiation induced leukocyte depletion, it did not affect the number of other cell types or body weight. Retinal nonperfusion areas were significantly larger in irradiated mice than in control mice (P < 0.05), indicating that physiological angiogenesis was impaired. However, the formation of tuft-like angiogenesis processes was more prominent in the irradiated mice (P < 0.05), indicating that pathological angiogenesis was intact. Conclusions: Bone marrow-derived cells seem to be differentially involved in the formation of physiological and pathological retinal vessels. Pathological angiogenesis in the murine retina does not require functional bone marrow-derived cells, but these cells are important for the formation of physiological vessels. Our results add a new insight into the pathology of retinal angiogenesis and bolster the hypothesis that bone

  13. MR imaging of renal cell carcinoma. Associations among signal intensity, tumor enhancement, and pathologic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yabuki, Takayuki; Togami, Izumi; Kitagawa, Takahiro; Sasai, Nobuya; Tsushima, Tomoyasu; Shirasaki, Yoshinori; Hiraki, Yoshio [Okayama Univ. (Japan). Graduate School of Medicine and Dentistry

    2003-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the MR characteristics of renal cell carcinomas against histologic findings and to assess the correlations among signal intensity, tumor enhancement, and pathologic findings. Fifty-four patients (56 lesions) were examined by MR imaging and then underwent partial or radical nephrectomy. The pathologic diagnosis of all lesions was renal cell carcinoma. All MR examinations were performed as dynamic studies using the same 1.5-T scanner. MR characteristics were compared against pathologic findings after resection, and the correlations among signal intensity, tumor enhancement, and pathologic findings were then assessed. A significant correlation was observed between tumor grade and tumor enhancement, with G3 lesions tending to show little enhancement. Regardless of the histologic classification, G3 tumors were found to contain highly heterotypic cancer cells and very few vessels by histopathologic examination. No significant correlations were noted between the other MR characteristics and pathologic findings. Renal cell carcinomas showing little enhancement tend to be highly malignant lesions based on the pathologic findings. Special consideration is required for these tumors with regard to the selection of surgical intervention and follow-up observation. (author)

  14. MR imaging of renal cell carcinoma. Associations among signal intensity, tumor enhancement, and pathologic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yabuki, Takayuki; Togami, Izumi; Kitagawa, Takahiro; Sasai, Nobuya; Tsushima, Tomoyasu; Shirasaki, Yoshinori; Hiraki, Yoshio

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the MR characteristics of renal cell carcinomas against histologic findings and to assess the correlations among signal intensity, tumor enhancement, and pathologic findings. Fifty-four patients (56 lesions) were examined by MR imaging and then underwent partial or radical nephrectomy. The pathologic diagnosis of all lesions was renal cell carcinoma. All MR examinations were performed as dynamic studies using the same 1.5-T scanner. MR characteristics were compared against pathologic findings after resection, and the correlations among signal intensity, tumor enhancement, and pathologic findings were then assessed. A significant correlation was observed between tumor grade and tumor enhancement, with G3 lesions tending to show little enhancement. Regardless of the histologic classification, G3 tumors were found to contain highly heterotypic cancer cells and very few vessels by histopathologic examination. No significant correlations were noted between the other MR characteristics and pathologic findings. Renal cell carcinomas showing little enhancement tend to be highly malignant lesions based on the pathologic findings. Special consideration is required for these tumors with regard to the selection of surgical intervention and follow-up observation. (author)

  15. Rap1 integrates tissue polarity, lumen formation, and tumorigenicpotential in human breast epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itoh, Masahiko; Nelson, Celeste M.; Myers, Connie A.; Bissell,Mina J.

    2006-09-29

    Maintenance of apico-basal polarity in normal breast epithelial acini requires a balance between cell proliferation, cell death, and proper cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix signaling. Aberrations in any of these processes can disrupt tissue architecture and initiate tumor formation. Here we show that the small GTPase Rap1 is a crucial element in organizing acinar structure and inducing lumen formation. Rap1 activity in malignant HMT-3522 T4-2 cells is appreciably higher than in S1 cells, their non-malignant counterparts. Expression of dominant-negative Rap1 resulted in phenotypic reversion of T4-2 cells, led to formation of acinar structures with correct apico-basal polarity, and dramatically reduced tumor incidence despite the persistence of genomic abnormalities. The resulting acini contained prominent central lumina not observed when other reverting agents were used. Conversely, expression of dominant-active Rap1 in T4-2 cells inhibited phenotypic reversion and led to increased invasiveness and tumorigenicity. Thus, Rap1 acts as a central regulator of breast architecture, with normal levels of activation instructing apical polarity during acinar morphogenesis, and increased activation inducing tumor formation and progression to malignancy.

  16. Optical diagnostics of tumour cells at different stages of pathology development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shcheglova, L S; Maryakhina, V S [Orenburg State University, Orenburg (Russian Federation); Abramova, L L [Orenburg State Agrarian University, Orenburg (Russian Federation)

    2013-11-30

    The differences in optical and biophysical properties between the cells of mammary gland tumour extracted from tumours of different diameter are described. It is shown that the spectral and spectrokinetic properties of fluorescent probes in the cells extracted from the tumours 1 – 3 cm in diameter are essentially different. Thus, the extinction coefficient of rhodamine 6G gradually increases with the pathology development. At the same time the rate of interaction of the triplet states of molecular probes with the oxygen, diluted in the tumour cells cytoplasm, decreases with the growth of the tumour capsule diameter. The observed regularities can be due to the changes in the cell structure, biochemical and biophysical properties. The reported data may be useful for developing optical methods of diagnostics of biotissue pathological conditions. (optical methods in biology and medicine)

  17. Pathological significance and prognostic roles of densities of CD57+ cells, CD68+ cells, and mast cells, and their ratios in clear cell renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Hiromi; Miyata, Yasuyoshi; Mochizuki, Yasushi; Yasuda, Takuji; Nakamura, Yuichiro; Araki, Kyohei; Sagara, Yuji; Matsuo, Tomohiro; Ohba, Kojiro; Sakai, Hideki

    2018-05-19

    The immune system is closely associated with malignant behavior in renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Therefore, understanding the pathological roles of immune cells in tumor stroma is essential to discuss the pathological characteristics of RCC. In this study, the clinical significance of densities of CD57+ cells, CD68+ cells, and mast cells, and their ratios were investigated in patients with clear cell RCC. The densities of CD57+, CD68+, and mast cells were evaluated by immunohistochemical techniques in 179 patients. Proliferation index (PI), apoptotic index (AI), and microvessel density (MVD) were evaluated by using anti-Ki-67, anti-cleaved caspase-3, and anti-CD31 antibodies, respectively. The density of CD57+ cell was negatively correlated with grade, pT stage, and metastasis, although densities of CD68+ cell and mast cell were positively correlated. Ratios of CD68+ cell/CD57+ cell and mast cell/CD57+ cell were significantly correlated with grade, pT stage, and metastasis. Survival analyses showed that the CD68+ cell/CD57+ cell ratio was a significant predictor for cause-specific survival by multi-variate analyses (hazard ratio=1.41, 95% confidential interval=1.03-1.93, P=.031), and was significantly correlated with PI, AI, and MVD (r=.47; P <. 001, r=-.31, P<.001, and r=.40, P<.001, respectively). In conclusion, CD57+ cell, CD68+ cell, and mast cell played important roles in malignancy in clear cell RCC. The CD68+ cell/CD57+ cell ratio was strongly correlated with pathological features and prognosis in these patients because this ratio reflected the status of cancer cell proliferation, apoptosis, and angiogenesis. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Stem cells in degenerative orthopaedic pathologies: effects of aging on therapeutic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atesok, Kivanc; Fu, Freddie H; Sekiya, Ichiro; Stolzing, Alexandra; Ochi, Mitsuo; Rodeo, Scott A

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to summarize the current evidence on the use of stem cells in the elderly population with degenerative orthopaedic pathologies and to highlight the pathophysiologic mechanisms behind today's therapeutic challenges in stem cell-based regeneration of destructed tissues in the elderly patients with osteoarthritis (OA), degenerative disc disease (DDD), and tendinopathies. Clinical and basic science studies that report the use of stem cells in the elderly patients with OA, DDD, and tendinopathies were identified using a PubMed search. The studies published in English have been assessed, and the best and most recent evidence was included in the current study. Evidence suggests that, although short-term results regarding the effects of stem cell therapy in degenerative orthopaedic pathologies can be promising, stem cell therapies do not appear to reverse age-related tissue degeneration. Causes of suboptimal outcomes can be attributed to the decrease in the therapeutic potential of aged stem cell populations and the regenerative capacity of these cells, which might be negatively influenced in an aged microenvironment within the degenerated tissues of elderly patients with OA, DDD, and tendinopathies. Clinical protocols guiding the use of stem cells in the elderly patient population are still under development, and high-level randomized controlled trials with long-term outcomes are lacking. Understanding the consequences of age-related changes in stem cell function and responsiveness of the in vivo microenvironment to stem cells is critical when designing cell-based therapies for elderly patients with degenerative orthopaedic pathologies.

  19. Renal cell carcinoma: incidental detection and pathological staging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siow, W Y; Yip, S K; Ng, L G; Tan, P H; Cheng, W S; Foo, K T

    2000-10-01

    In developed countries, there has been increased incidental detection of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). The incidence, pathological stage and survival of incidentally detected carcinoma in a developing country in Asia where, from 1990 to 1998, 165 renal cell carcinomas were identified. The clinical presentation, diagnostic-imaging modality employed, pathological staging and patient survival was reviewed. Incidental renal cancers included those that were diagnosed through health screening or detected incidentally through imaging studies for other conditions. The survival between these incidentally detected lesions and their symptomatic counterparts (suspected group) was compared. Sixty-four patients (39%) had their tumours detected incidentally, including 39 who were entirely asymptomatic and 25 who presented with non-specific symptoms, not initially suggestive of RCC. For the entire group, computed tomography provided the definitive diagnosis in 81% of cases. The incidental detection group had significantly smaller size of tumour (5.9 cm c.f. 7.6 cm), lower stage and lower histological grading. In particular, 78% of patients with incidental RCC had stage I or II diseases (TNM stage classification), compared with 57% of patients with suspected tumour (p c.f. 66% at last follow up; p < 0.05; log-rank test) over a mean follow up period of 33 months (range 1-91). Regression analysis showed that stage of disease was the only independent variable predictive of clinical outcome. In conclusion, that significant numbers of RCC were detected incidentally. These tumours were of a lower clinical pathological stage and had a better prognosis.

  20. Pancreatic growth and cell turnover in the rat fed raw soya flour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oates, P.S.; Morgan, R.G.

    1982-01-01

    Growth and differentiation of the pancreatic acinar cell was studied in rats fed raw soya flour (RSF) for up to a year. A second group of rats were fed a control diet. After 1 week of RSF feeding there was a 200% increase in tissue RNA and weight, indicating initial hypertrophy, which was maintained for the 1-year study period. By the second week and over the remainder of the period studied there was also a marked increase in total DNA, suggesting hyperplasia. Cell turnover, as measured by the rate of incorporation of 3H-thymidine into pancreatic DNA, was significantly higher in RSF-fed animals only from the second to fourth weeks; it then returned to control values. Autoradiography showed an 18-fold increase in duct cell labeling at the end of the first week and an 11-fold increase by the end of the second week. Acinar cell labeling doubled from the second to the twelfth week. These studies confirm previous reports that RSF produces pancreatic hypertrophy and hyperplasia. They furthermore show that there is initially marked stimulation of DNA synthesis in the duct cell compartment. The results suggest that cells with the morphologic characteristics of duct cells may be the precursors of acinar cells in hyperplastic pancreatic tissue

  1. Chronic Nicotine Exposure In Vivo and In Vitro Inhibits Vitamin B1 (Thiamin Uptake by Pancreatic Acinar Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padmanabhan Srinivasan

    Full Text Available Thiamin (vitamin B1, a member of the water-soluble family of vitamins, is essential for normal cellular functions; its deficiency results in oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. Pancreatic acinar cells (PAC obtain thiamin from the circulation using a specific carrier-mediated process mediated by both thiamin transporters -1 and -2 (THTR-1 and THTR-2; encoded by the SLC19A2 and SLC19A3 genes, respectively. The aim of the current study was to examine the effect of chronic exposure of mouse PAC in vivo and human PAC in vitro to nicotine (a major component of cigarette smoke that has been implicated in pancreatic diseases on thiamin uptake and to delineate the mechanism involved. The results showed that chronic exposure of mice to nicotine significantly inhibits thiamin uptake in murine PAC, and that this inhibition is associated with a marked decrease in expression of THTR-1 and THTR-2 at the protein, mRNA and hnRNAs level. Furthermore, expression of the important thiamin-metabolizing enzyme, thiamin pyrophosphokinase (TPKase, was significantly reduced in PAC of mice exposed to nicotine. Similarly, chronic exposure of cultured human PAC to nicotine (0.5 μM, 48 h significantly inhibited thiamin uptake, which was also associated with a decrease in expression of THTR-1 and THTR-2 proteins and mRNAs. This study demonstrates that chronic exposure of PAC to nicotine impairs the physiology and the molecular biology of the thiamin uptake process. Furthermore, the study suggests that the effect is, in part, mediated through transcriptional mechanism(s affecting the SLC19A2 and SLC19A3 genes.

  2. The contribution of Chlamydia-specific CD8⁺ T cells to upper genital tract pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlcek, Kelly R; Li, Weidang; Manam, Srikanth; Zanotti, Brian; Nicholson, Bruce J; Ramsey, Kyle H; Murthy, Ashlesh K

    2016-02-01

    Genital chlamydial infections lead to severe upper reproductive tract pathology in a subset of untreated women. We demonstrated previously that tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α-producing CD8(+) T cells contribute significantly to chlamydial upper genital tract pathology in female mice. In addition, we observed that minimal chlamydial oviduct pathology develops in OT-1 transgenic (OT-1) mice, wherein the CD8(+) T-cell repertoire is restricted to recognition of the ovalbumin peptide Ova(257-264), suggesting that non-Chlamydia-specific CD8(+) T cells may not be responsible for chlamydial pathogenesis. In the current study, we evaluated whether antigen-specific CD8(+) T cells mediate chlamydial pathology. Groups of wild-type (WT) C57BL/6J, OT-1 mice, and OT-1 mice replete with WT CD8(+) T cells (1 × 10(6) cells per mouse intravenously) were infected intravaginally with C. muridarum (5 × 10(4) IFU/mouse). Serum total anti-Chlamydia antibody and total splenic anti-Chlamydia interferon (IFN)-γ and TNF-α responses were comparable among the three groups of animals. However, Chlamydia-specific IFN-γ and TNF-α production from purified splenic CD8(+) T cells of OT-1 mice was minimal, whereas responses in OT-1 mice replete with WT CD8(+) T cells were comparable to those in WT animals. Vaginal chlamydial clearance was comparable between the three groups of mice. Importantly, the incidence and severity of oviduct and uterine horn pathology was significantly reduced in OT-1 mice but reverted to WT levels in OT-1 mice replete with WT CD8(+) T cells. Collectively, these results demonstrate that Chlamydia-specific CD8(+) T cells contribute significantly to upper genital tract pathology.

  3. A diagnostic dilemma in breast pathology – benign fibroadenoma with multinucleated stromal giant cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobbia Igdam

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Fibroadenomas are common benign breast tumours that display a characteristic pathological morphology, although several epithelial and stromal variations exist. A very rare histological finding is the presence of multinucleated giant cells throughout the stroma of a benign fibroadenoma. Cells of this type, which are more commonly found incidentally within the interlobular stroma of breast tissue, are benign and should not be mistaken for malignant cells on microscopic examination. Unfortunately a lack of awareness of this pathological entity can lead to diagnostic confusion amongst pathologists resulting in the multinucleate giant cells being mistaken for highly mitotic cells and consequently the fibroadenoma being mistaken for a malignant lesion. This may have serious implications for the subsequent management of the patient. The presence of this unusual cell type in the stroma does not alter the prognosis of otherwise benign lesion. We encountered two such cases at our institution in a six month period recently. We present their histories along with relevant radiological, microscopic and immunohistochemical features, followed by a discussion of this unusual pathological entity.

  4. Krüppel-like Factor 5, Increased in Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma, Promotes Proliferation, Acinar-to-Ductal Metaplasia, Pancreatic Intraepithelial Neoplasia, and Tumor Growth in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ping; Yang, Jong Won; Yang, Vincent W; Bialkowska, Agnieszka B

    2018-04-01

    Activating mutations in KRAS are detected in most pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (PDACs). Expression of an activated form of KRAS (KrasG12D) in pancreata of mice is sufficient to induce formation of pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanINs)-a precursor of PDAC. Pancreatitis increases formation of PanINs in mice that express KrasG12D by promoting acinar-to-ductal metaplasia (ADM). We investigated the role of the transcription factor Krüppel-like factor 5 (KLF5) in ADM and KRAS-mediated formation of PanINs. We performed studies in adult mice with conditional disruption of Klf5 (Klf5 fl/fl ) and/or expression of Kras G12D (LSL-Kras G12D ) via Cre ERTM recombinase regulated by an acinar cell-specific promoter (Ptf1a). Activation of Kras G12D and loss of KLF5 was achieved by administration of tamoxifen. Pancreatitis was induced in mice by administration of cerulein; pancreatic tissues were collected, analyzed by histology and immunohistochemistry, and transcriptomes were compared between mice that did or did not express KLF5. We performed immunohistochemical analyses of human tissue microarrays, comparing levels of KLF5 among 96 human samples of PDAC. UN-KC-6141 cells (pancreatic cancer cells derived from Pdx1-Cre;LSL-Kras G12D mice) were incubated with inhibitors of different kinases and analyzed in proliferation assays and by immunoblots. Expression of KLF5 was knocked down with small hairpin RNAs or CRISPR/Cas9 strategies; cells were analyzed in proliferation and gene expression assays, and compared with cells expressing control vectors. Cells were subcutaneously injected into flanks of syngeneic mice and tumor growth was assessed. Of the 96 PDAC samples analyzed, 73% were positive for KLF5 (defined as nuclear staining in more than 5% of tumor cells). Pancreata from Ptf1a-Cre ERTM ;LSL-Kras G12D mice contained ADM and PanIN lesions, which contained high levels of nuclear KLF5 within these structures. In contrast, Ptf1a-Cre ERTM ;LSL-Kras G12D ;Klf5 fl

  5. Splenic littoral cell angioma. Radio pathological correlation in two cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asensio, J.; Montero, N.; Perez-Cidoncha, P.

    2000-01-01

    We present two cases of Littoral Cell Angiomas (LCA), a recently described variant of splenic angioma which originates in the cells that line the sinusoids from the red pulp (littoral cell). The histopathological and immunohistochemical characteristics of this neoplasm verifies its origin in the littoral cell with an intermediate origin between the endothelial and histiocyte cell and makes it possible to consider it as a pathological entity which is differentiated from the hemangiomas. The imaging findings are indistinguishable from the other splenic vascular neoplasms and the role of the Magnetic Resonance (MRI) stands out. (Author) 21 refs

  6. [Histopathological and immunohistochemical studies on mucous cysts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, N

    1989-01-01

    The present study investigated the histopathology, histochemistry of mucopolysaccharides, and immunohistochemistry of oral mucous cysts. The materials were obtained from ninety cases that were histopathologically diagnosed as oral mucous cysts at the Department of Oral Pathology, Meikai University School of Dentistry. Mucopolysaccharide staining was done with PAS, alcian blue (AB, pH 2.5) and high iron diamine (HID). Immunohistochemical studies were focused on secretory component (SC), lactoferrin (Lf), alpha-amylase (Am), IgA, lysozyme (Ly), and keratin (Kr). The following results were obtained: 1. Histopathological findings. (1) Retention and/or retention-like type cysts occurred in was twenty-six cases and the extravasation type in sixty-four cases. (2) Cases showing epithelial lining of the cystic wall were only eight in number, and many cystic walls were contained granulation tissue (fifty cases). (3) As for inflammation of the cystic wall, the degree was slight, and infiltrated cells were mainly macrophages (so-called mucinophages) and lymphocytes. (4) Regarding adjoining salivary glands, acinar cells showed atrophic changes, and hypertrophy of mucous acinar cells was evident. Many ducts showed dilatation, and stromal connective tissue showed fibrosis and hyalinization. 2. Histochemical findings on mucopolysaccharides. (1) Mucous materials in cystic cavity, mucous acinar cells, and secretory materials in ductal lumens were intensely stained by PAS and AB. But stainability with AB was less than that with PAS staining. Serous acinar cells and ductal epithelium were negative to PAS and AB staining. (2) Stainability of the above with HID was less than at with PAS or AB. Cystic walls were not stained by HID. Mucous acinar cells reactive with HID were intensely stained, but the number of the positive cells was limited when compared with the numbers of PAS-and AB-positive cells. 3. Immunohistochemical findings. (1) As for mucous materials in the cystic cavity

  7. Mouse pancreas tissue slice culture facilitates long-term studies of exocrine and endocrine cell physiology in situ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciniak, Anja; Selck, Claudia; Friedrich, Betty; Speier, Stephan

    2013-01-01

    Studies on pancreatic cell physiology rely on the investigation of exocrine and endocrine cells in vitro. Particularly, in the case of the exocrine tissue these studies have suffered from a reduced functional viability of acinar cells in culture. As a result not only investigations on dispersed acinar cells and isolated acini were limited in their potential, but also prolonged studies on pancreatic exocrine and endocrine cells in an intact pancreatic tissue environment were unfeasible. To overcome these limitations, we aimed to establish a pancreas tissue slice culture platform to allow long-term studies on exocrine and endocrine cells in the intact pancreatic environment. Mouse pancreas tissue slice morphology was assessed to determine optimal long-term culture settings for intact pancreatic tissue. Utilizing optimized culture conditions, cell specificity and function of exocrine acinar cells and endocrine beta cells were characterized over a culture period of 7 days. We found pancreas tissue slices cultured under optimized conditions to have intact tissue specific morphology for the entire culture period. Amylase positive intact acini were present at all time points of culture and acinar cells displayed a typical strong cell polarity. Amylase release from pancreas tissue slices decreased during culture, but maintained the characteristic bell-shaped dose-response curve to increasing caerulein concentrations and a ca. 4-fold maximal over basal release. Additionally, endocrine beta cell viability and function was well preserved until the end of the observation period. Our results show that the tissue slice culture platform provides unprecedented maintenance of pancreatic tissue specific morphology and function over a culture period for at least 4 days and in part even up to 1 week. This analytical advancement now allows mid -to long-term studies on the cell biology of pancreatic disorder pathogenesis and therapy in an intact surrounding in situ.

  8. Mouse pancreas tissue slice culture facilitates long-term studies of exocrine and endocrine cell physiology in situ.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Marciniak

    Full Text Available Studies on pancreatic cell physiology rely on the investigation of exocrine and endocrine cells in vitro. Particularly, in the case of the exocrine tissue these studies have suffered from a reduced functional viability of acinar cells in culture. As a result not only investigations on dispersed acinar cells and isolated acini were limited in their potential, but also prolonged studies on pancreatic exocrine and endocrine cells in an intact pancreatic tissue environment were unfeasible. To overcome these limitations, we aimed to establish a pancreas tissue slice culture platform to allow long-term studies on exocrine and endocrine cells in the intact pancreatic environment. Mouse pancreas tissue slice morphology was assessed to determine optimal long-term culture settings for intact pancreatic tissue. Utilizing optimized culture conditions, cell specificity and function of exocrine acinar cells and endocrine beta cells were characterized over a culture period of 7 days. We found pancreas tissue slices cultured under optimized conditions to have intact tissue specific morphology for the entire culture period. Amylase positive intact acini were present at all time points of culture and acinar cells displayed a typical strong cell polarity. Amylase release from pancreas tissue slices decreased during culture, but maintained the characteristic bell-shaped dose-response curve to increasing caerulein concentrations and a ca. 4-fold maximal over basal release. Additionally, endocrine beta cell viability and function was well preserved until the end of the observation period. Our results show that the tissue slice culture platform provides unprecedented maintenance of pancreatic tissue specific morphology and function over a culture period for at least 4 days and in part even up to 1 week. This analytical advancement now allows mid -to long-term studies on the cell biology of pancreatic disorder pathogenesis and therapy in an intact surrounding in situ.

  9. What is the origin of pancreatic adenocarcinoma?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandey Krishan K

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The concept of pancreatic cancer origin is controversial. Acinar, ductal or islet cells have been hypothesized as the cell of origin. The pros and cons of each of these hypotheses are discussed. Based on the world literature and recent observations, pancreatic cells seem to have potential for phenotypical transdifferentiation, i.e ductal-islet, ductal-acinar, acinar-ductal, acinar-islet, islet-acinar and islet-ductal cells. Although the possibility is discussed that cancer may arise from either islet, ductal or acinar cells, the circumstances favoring the islet cells as the tumor cell origin include their greater transdifferentiation potency into both pancreatic and extrapancreatic cells, the presence of a variety of carcinogen-metabolizing enzymes, some of which are present exclusively in islet cells and the growth factor-rich environment of islets.

  10. Surgical and molecular pathology of pancreatic neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackeng, Wenzel M; Hruban, Ralph H; Offerhaus, G Johan A; Brosens, Lodewijk A A

    2016-06-07

    Histologic characteristics have proven to be very useful for classifying different types of tumors of the pancreas. As a result, the major tumor types in the pancreas have long been classified based on their microscopic appearance. Recent advances in whole exome sequencing, gene expression profiling, and knowledge of tumorigenic pathways have deepened our understanding of the underlying biology of pancreatic neoplasia. These advances have not only confirmed the traditional histologic classification system, but also opened new doors to early diagnosis and targeted treatment. This review discusses the histopathology, genetic and epigenetic alterations and potential treatment targets of the five major malignant pancreatic tumors - pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor, solid-pseudopapillary neoplasm, acinar cell carcinoma and pancreatoblastoma.

  11. Apoptosis of acinar cells in pancreas allograft rejection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonstra, J. G.; Wever, P. C.; Laterveer, J. C.; Bruijn, J. A.; van der Woude, F. J.; ten Berge, I. J.; Daha, M. R.

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recently it has been recognized that apoptosis of target cells may occur during liver and kidney allograft rejection and is probably induced by infiltrating cells. Pancreas rejection is also characterized by a cellular infiltrate, however, the occurrence of apoptosis has not been

  12. Paxillin: a crossroad in pathological cell migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María López-Colomé

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Paxilllin is a multifunctional and multidomain focal adhesion adapter protein which serves an important scaffolding role at focal adhesions by recruiting structural and signaling molecules involved in cell movement and migration, when phosphorylated on specific Tyr and Ser residues. Upon integrin engagement with extracellular matrix, paxillin is phosphorylated at Tyr31, Tyr118, Ser188, and Ser190, activating numerous signaling cascades which promote cell migration, indicating that the regulation of adhesion dynamics is under the control of a complex display of signaling mechanisms. Among them, paxillin disassembly from focal adhesions induced by extracellular regulated kinase (ERK-mediated phosphorylation of serines 106, 231, and 290 as well as the binding of the phosphatase PEST to paxillin have been shown to play a key role in cell migration. Paxillin also coordinates the spatiotemporal activation of signaling molecules, including Cdc42, Rac1, and RhoA GTPases, by recruiting GEFs, GAPs, and GITs to focal adhesions. As a major participant in the regulation of cell movement, paxillin plays distinct roles in specific tissues and developmental stages and is involved in immune response, epithelial morphogenesis, and embryonic development. Importantly, paxillin is also an essential player in pathological conditions including oxidative stress, inflammation, endothelial cell barrier dysfunction, and cancer development and metastasis.

  13. Natural killer T (NKT cells accelerate Shiga toxin type 2 (Stx2 pathology in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumiko eObata

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC is a leading cause of childhood renal disease He-molytic Uremic Syndrome (HUS. The involvement of renal cytokines and chemokines is sus-pected to play a critical role in disease progression. In current article, we tested the hypothesis that NKT cells are involved in Stx2-induced pathology in vivo. To address this hypothesis we compared Stx2 toxicity in WT and CD1 knockout (KO mice. In CD1KO mice, which lack nat-ural killer T (NKT cells, Stx2-induced pathologies such as weight loss, renal failure, and death were delayed. In WT mice, Stx2-specific selective increase in urinary albumin occurs in later time points, and this was also delayed in NKT cell deficient mice. NKT cell-associated cytokines such as IL-2, IL-4, IFN-γ and IL-17 were detected in kidney lysates of Stx2-injected WT mice with the peak around 36 h after Stx2 injection. In CD1KO, there was a delay in the kinetics, and increases in these cytokines were observed 60 h post Stx2 injection. These data suggest that NKT cells accelerate Stx2-induced pathology in mouse kidneys. To determine the mechanism by which NKT cells promote Stx2-associated disease, in vitro studies were performed using murine renal cells. We found that murine glomerular endothelial cells and podocytes express functional CD1d molecules and can present exogenous antigen to NKT cells. Moreover, we observed the direct interaction between Stx2 and the receptor Gb3 on the surface of mouse renal cells by 3D STORM-TIRF which provides single molecule imaging. Collectively, these data suggest that Stx2 binds to Gb3 on renal cells and leads to aberrant CD1d-mediated NKT cell activation. Therefore, strategies targeting NKT cells could have a significant impact on Stx2-associated renal pathology in STEC disease.

  14. Natural killer T (NKT) cells accelerate Shiga toxin type 2 (Stx2) pathology in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obata, Fumiko; Subrahmanyam, Priyanka B; Vozenilek, Aimee E; Hippler, Lauren M; Jeffers, Tynae; Tongsuk, Methinee; Tiper, Irina; Saha, Progyaparamita; Jandhyala, Dakshina M; Kolling, Glynis L; Latinovic, Olga; Webb, Tonya J

    2015-01-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is a leading cause of childhood renal disease Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome (HUS). The involvement of renal cytokines and chemokines is suspected to play a critical role in disease progression. In current article, we tested the hypothesis that NKT cells are involved in Stx2-induced pathology in vivo. To address this hypothesis we compared Stx2 toxicity in WT and CD1 knockout (KO) mice. In CD1KO mice, which lack natural killer T (NKT) cells, Stx2-induced pathologies such as weight loss, renal failure, and death were delayed. In WT mice, Stx2-specific selective increase in urinary albumin occurs in later time points, and this was also delayed in NKT cell deficient mice. NKT cell-associated cytokines such as IL-2, IL-4, IFN-γ, and IL-17 were detected in kidney lysates of Stx2-injected WT mice with the peak around 36 h after Stx2 injection. In CD1KO, there was a delay in the kinetics, and increases in these cytokines were observed 60 h post Stx2 injection. These data suggest that NKT cells accelerate Stx2-induced pathology in mouse kidneys. To determine the mechanism by which NKT cells promote Stx2-associated disease, in vitro studies were performed using murine renal cells. We found that murine glomerular endothelial cells and podocytes express functional CD1d molecules and can present exogenous antigen to NKT cells. Moreover, we observed the direct interaction between Stx2 and the receptor Gb3 on the surface of mouse renal cells by 3D STORM-TIRF which provides single molecule imaging. Collectively, these data suggest that Stx2 binds to Gb3 on renal cells and leads to aberrant CD1d-mediated NKT cell activation. Therefore, strategies targeting NKT cells could have a significant impact on Stx2-associated renal pathology in STEC disease.

  15. MR imaging of renal cell carcinoma: associations among signal intensity, tumor enhancement, and pathologic findings.

    OpenAIRE

    Yabuki, Takayuki; Togami, Izumi; Kitagawa, Takahiro; Sasai, Nobuya; Tsushima, Tomoyasu; Shirasaki, Yoshinori; Hiraki, Yoshio

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the MR characteristics of renal cell carcinomas against histologic findings and to assess the correlations among signal intensity, tumor enhancement, and pathologic findings. Fifty-four patients (56 lesions) were examined by MR imaging and then underwent partial or radical nephrectomy. The pathologic diagnosis of all lesions was renal cell carcinoma. All MR examinations were performed as dynamic studies using the same 1.5-T scanner. MR characteristics ...

  16. Ablation of Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase-γ Reduces the Severity of Acute Pancreatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupia, Enrico; Goffi, Alberto; De Giuli, Paolo; Azzolino, Ornella; Bosco, Ornella; Patrucco, Enrico; Vivaldo, Maria Cristina; Ricca, Marco; Wymann, Matthias P.; Hirsch, Emilio; Montrucchio, Giuseppe; Emanuelli, Giorgio

    2004-01-01

    In pancreatic acini, the G-protein-activated phosphoinositide 3-kinase-γ (PI3Kγ) regulates several key pathological responses to cholecystokinin hyperstimulation in vitro. Thus, using mice lacking PI3Kγ, we studied the function of this enzyme in vivo in two different models of acute pancreatitis. The disease was induced by supramaximal concentrations of cerulein and by feeding mice a choline-deficient/ethionine-supplemented diet. Although the secretive function of isolated pancreatic acini was identical in mutant and control samples, in both models, genetic ablation of PI3Kγ significantly reduced the extent of acinar cell injury/necrosis. In agreement with a protective role of apoptosis in pancreatitis, PI3Kγ-deficient pancreata showed an increased number of apoptotic acinar cells, as determined by terminal dUTP nick-end labeling and caspase-3 activity. In addition, neutrophil infiltration within the pancreatic tissue was also reduced, suggesting a dual action of PI3Kγ, both in the triggering events within acinar cells and in the subsequent neutrophil recruitment and activation. Finally, the lethality of the choline-deficient/ethionine-supplemented diet-induced pancreatitis was significantly reduced in mice lacking PI3Kγ. Our results thus suggest that inhibition of PI3Kγ may be of therapeutic value in acute pancreatitis. PMID:15579443

  17. Cancer Stem Cells in Primary Liver Cancers: Pathological Concepts and Imaging Findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joo, Ijin [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Haeryoung [Department of Pathology, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam 463-707 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jeong Min [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-01

    There is accumulating evidence that cancer stem cells (CSCs) play an integral role in the initiation of hepatocarcinogenesis and the maintaining of tumor growth. Liver CSCs derived from hepatic stem/progenitor cells have the potential to differentiate into either hepatocytes or cholangiocytes. Primary liver cancers originating from CSCs constitute a heterogeneous histopathologic spectrum, including hepatocellular carcinoma, combined hepatocellular-cholangiocarcinoma, and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma with various radiologic manifestations. In this article, we reviewed the recent concepts of CSCs in the development of primary liver cancers, focusing on their pathological and radiological findings. Awareness of the pathological concepts and imaging findings of primary liver cancers with features of CSCs is critical for accurate diagnosis, prediction of outcome, and appropriate treatment options for patients.

  18. Cancer Stem Cells in Primary Liver Cancers: Pathological Concepts and Imaging Findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joo, Ijin; Kim, Haeryoung; Lee, Jeong Min

    2015-01-01

    There is accumulating evidence that cancer stem cells (CSCs) play an integral role in the initiation of hepatocarcinogenesis and the maintaining of tumor growth. Liver CSCs derived from hepatic stem/progenitor cells have the potential to differentiate into either hepatocytes or cholangiocytes. Primary liver cancers originating from CSCs constitute a heterogeneous histopathologic spectrum, including hepatocellular carcinoma, combined hepatocellular-cholangiocarcinoma, and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma with various radiologic manifestations. In this article, we reviewed the recent concepts of CSCs in the development of primary liver cancers, focusing on their pathological and radiological findings. Awareness of the pathological concepts and imaging findings of primary liver cancers with features of CSCs is critical for accurate diagnosis, prediction of outcome, and appropriate treatment options for patients

  19. New advances in cell physiology and pathophysiology of the exocrine pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mössner, Joachim

    2010-01-01

    This review provides some aspects on the physiology of stimulation and inhibition of pancreatic digestive enzyme secretion and the pathophysiology of pancreatic acinar cell function leading to pancreatitis. Cholecystokinin (CCK) stimulates both directly via CCK-A receptors on acinar cells and indirectly via CCK-B receptors on nerves, followed by acetylcholine release, pancreatic enzyme secretion. It is still not known whether CCK-A receptors exist in human acinar cells, in contrast to acinar cells of rodents where CCK-A receptors have been well described. CCK has numerous actions both in the periphery and in the central nervous systems. CCK inhibits gastric motility and regulates satiety. Another major function of CCK is stimulation of gallbladder contraction. This function enables that bile acids act simultaneously with pancreatic lipolytic enzymes. Secretin is a major stimulator of bicarbonate secretion. Trypsinogen is activated by the gut mucosal enzyme enterokinase. The other pancreatic proenzymes are activated by trypsin. Termination of enzyme secretion may be regulated by negative feedback mechanisms via destruction of CCK-releasing peptides by trypsin. Furthermore, the ileum may act as a brake by release of inhibitory hormones such as PYY and somatostatin. In the pathophysiology of acute pancreatitis, fusion of zymogen granules with lysosomes leading to intracellular activation of trypsinogen is regarded as an initiation step. This activation of trypsinogen may be caused by the lysosomal enzyme cathepsin B. However, autoactivation of trypsinogen itself may be a possibility in pathogenesis. Autoactivation is enhanced in certain mutations of trypsinogen. Furthermore, an imbalance of protease inhibitors and active proteases may be involved. The role of pancreatic lipolytic enzymes, the role of bicarbonate secretion, and toxic Ca(2+) signals by excessive liberation from the endoplasmic reticulum have to be discussed in the pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis

  20. The thin-section CT, pathological and clinical findings of peripheral small squamous cell lung carcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Takahito; Saito, Haruhiro; Kondo, Tetsuro

    2010-01-01

    We analyzed thin-section CT, pathological, and clinical findings of peripheral lung squamous cell carcinomas, with diameters of less than 20 mm and compared these findings with solid type adenocarcinomas. CT findings of polygonal shapes, notches, pleural thickness, and cavities are more frequently found in squamous cell carcinomas than in adenocarcinomas. The pathological types can be classified in two groups: Solid types, Scirrhous types. The 5 year survival rate after resection is 64.5%, which is poorer than survival rate for solid type adenocarcinomas. It is vital to diagnose and treat peripheral squamous cell carcinomas as early as possible. (author)

  1. A case report of mixed acinar-endocrine carcinoma of the pancreas treated with S-1 chemotherapy: Does it work or induce endocrine differentiation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokode, Masataka; Itai, Ryosuke; Yamashita, Yukimasa; Zen, Yoh

    2017-11-01

    Acinar cell carcinomas (ACCs) and mixed acinar-endocrine carcinomas (MAECs) of the pancreas are rare, accounting for only 1% of pancreatic tumors. Although both typically present at an advanced stage, chemotherapeutic regimes have not yet been standardized. A 65-year-old man presented with a large mass in the pancreatic tail with multiple liver metastases. He was initially treated with gemcitabine for suspected ductal carcinoma of the pancreas, but no response was observed. S-1, administered as second-line chemotherapy, showed an approximately 38% reduction in the size of the primary tumor and metastatic deposits with therapeutic effects being maintained for 12 months. When the tumor progressed again, he underwent a percutaneous liver biopsy, which led to the diagnosis of MAEC. Combination therapy with cisplatin and etoposide targeting the endocrine component was administered, and this was based on the endocrine component potentially being less sensitive to S-1 than the ACC element. However, therapy was stopped due to the development of neutropenia, and the patient is currently receiving best supportive care. Given the previous studies suggested that S-1 is more effective for ACCs than gemcitabine, MAECs may also respond to S-1 chemotherapy, similar to ACCs. Another potential interpretation is that S-1 was effective when the condition was ACC, and eventually showed decreased effectiveness when the condition shifted to MAEC. Future studies are needed to conclude whether S-1 chemotherapy truly works against MAECs or induces endocrine differentiation in ACCs as a part of the drug-resistance process.

  2. Extracellular Membrane Vesicles as Vehicles for Brain Cell-to-Cell Interactions in Physiological as well as Pathological Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella Schiera

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular vesicles are involved in a great variety of physiological events occurring in the nervous system, such as cross talk among neurons and glial cells in synapse development and function, integrated neuronal plasticity, neuronal-glial metabolic exchanges, and synthesis and dynamic renewal of myelin. Many of these EV-mediated processes depend on the exchange of proteins, mRNAs, and noncoding RNAs, including miRNAs, which occurs among glial and neuronal cells. In addition, production and exchange of EVs can be modified under pathological conditions, such as brain cancer and neurodegeneration. Like other cancer cells, brain tumours can use EVs to secrete factors, which allow escaping from immune surveillance, and to transfer molecules into the surrounding cells, thus transforming their phenotype. Moreover, EVs can function as a way to discard material dangerous to cancer cells, such as differentiation-inducing proteins, and even drugs. Intriguingly, EVs seem to be also involved in spreading through the brain of aggregated proteins, such as prions and aggregated tau protein. Finally, EVs can carry useful biomarkers for the early diagnosis of diseases. Herein we summarize possible roles of EVs in brain physiological functions and discuss their involvement in the horizontal spreading, from cell to cell, of both cancer and neurodegenerative pathologies.

  3. SAJS SAJS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The acinar cells constitute most of the mass of the pancreas. Acinar cell carcinoma is a rare malignant tumour of the pancreatic exocrine cells; it comprises approximately 1% of malignant pancreatic tumours.1 The majority are pure acinar cell cancers; however, a minor endocrine component may occur. If the endocrine ...

  4. System in biology leading to cell pathology: stable protein-protein interactions after covalent modifications by small molecules or in transgenic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malina, Halina Z

    2011-01-19

    The physiological processes in the cell are regulated by reversible, electrostatic protein-protein interactions. Apoptosis is such a regulated process, which is critically important in tissue homeostasis and development and leads to complete disintegration of the cell. Pathological apoptosis, a process similar to apoptosis, is associated with aging and infection. The current study shows that pathological apoptosis is a process caused by the covalent interactions between the signaling proteins, and a characteristic of this pathological network is the covalent binding of calmodulin to regulatory sequences. Small molecules able to bind covalently to the amino group of lysine, histidine, arginine, or glutamine modify the regulatory sequences of the proteins. The present study analyzed the interaction of calmodulin with the BH3 sequence of Bax, and the calmodulin-binding sequence of myristoylated alanine-rich C-kinase substrate in the presence of xanthurenic acid in primary retinal epithelium cell cultures and murine epithelial fibroblast cell lines transformed with SV40 (wild type [WT], Bid knockout [Bid-/-], and Bax-/-/Bak-/- double knockout [DKO]). Cell death was observed to be associated with the covalent binding of calmodulin, in parallel, to the regulatory sequences of proteins. Xanthurenic acid is known to activate caspase-3 in primary cell cultures, and the results showed that this activation is also observed in WT and Bid-/- cells, but not in DKO cells. However, DKO cells were not protected against death, but high rates of cell death occurred by detachment. The results showed that small molecules modify the basic amino acids in the regulatory sequences of proteins leading to covalent interactions between the modified sequences (e.g., calmodulin to calmodulin-binding sites). The formation of these polymers (aggregates) leads to an unregulated and, consequently, pathological protein network. The results suggest a mechanism for the involvement of small molecules

  5. The role of Cajal cells in chronic prostatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozgur Haki Yuksel

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Types of prostatitis can be defined as groups of syndromes in adult men associated with infectious and noninfectious causes characterized frequently by lower abdominal and perineal signs and diverse clinical symptoms and complications. Etiopathogenesis of chronic prostatitis is not well defined. Moreover, its treatment outcomes are not satisfactory. Presence of c-kit positive interstitial cells in human prostate is already known. It has been demonstrated that these cells can be pacemaker cells which trigger spontaneous slow-wave electrical activity in the prostate and can be responsible for the transport of glandular secretion from acinar cells into major and minor prostatic ducts and finally into urethra. In the light of all these data, when presence of a possible inflammatory pathology is thought to involve prostate that secretes and has a reservoir which drains its secretion (for prostate, prostatic urethra, two points are worth mentioning. Impairment of secretion mechanism and collection of secretion within the organ with reflux of the microbial material from its reservoir back into prostate gland. Both of these potential conditions can be explained by ductal neuromuscular mechanism, which induces secretion. We think that in this neuromuscular mechanism interstitial Cajal cells have an important role in chronic prostatitis. Our hypothesis is that curability of prostatitis is correlated with the number of Cajal cells not subjected to apoptosis.

  6. The role of Cajal cells in chronic prostatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haki Yuksel, Ozgur; Urkmez, Ahmet; Verit, Ayhan

    2016-07-04

    Types of prostatitis can be defined as groups of syndromes in adult men associated with infectious and noninfectious causes characterized frequently by lower abdominal and perineal signs and diverse clinical symptoms and complications. Etiopathogenesis of chronic prostatitis is not well defined. Moreover, its treatment outcomes are not satisfactory. Presence of c-kit positive interstitial cells in human prostate is already known. It has been demonstrated that these cells can be pacemaker cells which trigger spontaneous slow-wave electrical activity in the prostate and can be responsible for the transport of glandular secretion from acinar cells into major and minor prostatic ducts and finally into urethra. In the light of all these data, when presence of a possible inflammatory pathology is thought to involve prostate that secretes and has a reservoir which drains its secretion (for prostate, prostatic urethra), two points are worth mentioning. Impairment of secretion mechanism and collection of secretion within the organ with reflux of the microbial material from its reservoir back into prostate gland. Both of these potential conditions can be explained by ductal neuromuscular mechanism, which induces secretion. We think that in this neuromuscular mechanism interstitial Cajal cells have an important role in chronic prostatitis. Our hypothesis is that curability of prostatitis is correlated with the number of Cajal cells not subjected to apoptosis.

  7. Ablation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase-gamma reduces the severity of acute pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupia, Enrico; Goffi, Alberto; De Giuli, Paolo; Azzolino, Ornella; Bosco, Ornella; Patrucco, Enrico; Vivaldo, Maria Cristina; Ricca, Marco; Wymann, Matthias P; Hirsch, Emilio; Montrucchio, Giuseppe; Emanuelli, Giorgio

    2004-12-01

    In pancreatic acini, the G-protein-activated phosphoinositide 3-kinase-gamma (PI3K gamma) regulates several key pathological responses to cholecystokinin hyperstimulation in vitro. Thus, using mice lacking PI3K gamma, we studied the function of this enzyme in vivo in two different models of acute pancreatitis. The disease was induced by supramaximal concentrations of cerulein and by feeding mice a choline-deficient/ethionine-supplemented diet. Although the secretive function of isolated pancreatic acini was identical in mutant and control samples, in both models, genetic ablation of PI3K gamma significantly reduced the extent of acinar cell injury/necrosis. In agreement with a protective role of apoptosis in pancreatitis, PI3K gamma-deficient pancreata showed an increased number of apoptotic acinar cells, as determined by terminal dUTP nick-end labeling and caspase-3 activity. In addition, neutrophil infiltration within the pancreatic tissue was also reduced, suggesting a dual action of PI3K gamma, both in the triggering events within acinar cells and in the subsequent neutrophil recruitment and activation. Finally, the lethality of the choline-deficient/ethionine-supplemented diet-induced pancreatitis was significantly reduced in mice lacking PI3K gamma. Our results thus suggest that inhibition of PI3K gamma may be of therapeutic value in acute pancreatitis.

  8. New Insights into the Pathogenesis of Pancreatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sah, Raghuwansh P.; Dawra, Rajinder K.; Saluja, Ashok K.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review In this article, we review important advances in our understanding of the mechanisms of pancreatitis. Recent Findings The relative contribution of intra-pancreatic trypsinogen activation and NFκB activation, the two major early independent cellular events in the etiology of pancreatitis, have been investigated using novel genetic models. Trypsinogen activation has traditionally held the spotlight for many decades as it is believed to be the central pathogenic event of pancreatitis However, recent experimental evidence points to the role of trypsin activation in early acinar cell damage but not in the inflammatory response of acute pancreatitis through NFκB activation. Further, chronic pancreatitis in the caerulein model develops independently of typsinogen activation. Sustained activation of the NFκB pathway, but not persistent intra-acinar expression of active trypsin, was shown to result in chronic pancreatitis. Calcineurin-NFAT signaling was shown to mediate downstream effects of pathologic rise in intracellular calcium. IL-6 was identified as a key cytokine mediating pancreatitis-associated lung injury. Summary Recent advances challenge the long-believed trypsin-centered understanding of pancreatitis. It is becoming increasingly clear that activation of intense inflammatory signaling mechanisms in acinar cells is crucial to the pathogenesis of pancreatitis, which may explain the strong systemic inflammatory response in pancreatitis. PMID:23892538

  9. Secretory vesicles in live cells are not free-floating but tethered to filamentous structures: A study using photonic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu-Hamdah, Rania; Cho, Won Jin; Hoerber, J.K.H.; Jena, Bhanu P.

    2006-01-01

    It is well established that actin and microtubule cytoskeletal systems are involved in organelle transport and membrane trafficking in cells. This is also true for the transport of secretory vesicles in neuroendocrine cells and neurons. It was however unclear whether secretory vesicles remain free-floating, only to associate with such cytoskeletal systems when needing transport. This hypothesis was tested using live pancreatic acinar cells in physiological buffer solutions, using the photonic force microscope (PFM). When membrane-bound secretory vesicles (0.2-1.2 μm in diameter) in live pancreatic acinar cells were trapped at the laser focus of the PFM and pulled, they were all found tethered to filamentous structures. Mild exposure of cells to nocodazole and cytochalasin B, disrupts the tether. Immunoblot analysis of isolated secretory vesicles, further demonstrated the association of actin, myosin V, and kinesin. These studies demonstrate for the first time that secretory vesicles in live pancreatic acinar cells are tethered and not free-floating, suggesting that following vesicle biogenesis, they are placed on their own railroad track, ready to be transported to their final destination within the cell when required. This makes sense, since precision and regulation are the hallmarks of all cellular process, and therefore would hold true for the transport and localization of subcellular organelles such as secretory vesicles

  10. Secretory vesicles in live cells are not free-floating but tethered to filamentous structures: A study using photonic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abu-Hamdah, Rania [Department of Physiology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, 5245 Scott Hall, 540 E. Canfield, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Cho, Won Jin [Department of Physiology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, 5245 Scott Hall, 540 E. Canfield, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Hoerber, J.K.H. [Department of Physics, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TD (United Kingdom); Jena, Bhanu P. [Department of Physiology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, 5245 Scott Hall, 540 E. Canfield, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States)]. E-mail: bjena@med.wayne.edu

    2006-06-15

    It is well established that actin and microtubule cytoskeletal systems are involved in organelle transport and membrane trafficking in cells. This is also true for the transport of secretory vesicles in neuroendocrine cells and neurons. It was however unclear whether secretory vesicles remain free-floating, only to associate with such cytoskeletal systems when needing transport. This hypothesis was tested using live pancreatic acinar cells in physiological buffer solutions, using the photonic force microscope (PFM). When membrane-bound secretory vesicles (0.2-1.2 {mu}m in diameter) in live pancreatic acinar cells were trapped at the laser focus of the PFM and pulled, they were all found tethered to filamentous structures. Mild exposure of cells to nocodazole and cytochalasin B, disrupts the tether. Immunoblot analysis of isolated secretory vesicles, further demonstrated the association of actin, myosin V, and kinesin. These studies demonstrate for the first time that secretory vesicles in live pancreatic acinar cells are tethered and not free-floating, suggesting that following vesicle biogenesis, they are placed on their own railroad track, ready to be transported to their final destination within the cell when required. This makes sense, since precision and regulation are the hallmarks of all cellular process, and therefore would hold true for the transport and localization of subcellular organelles such as secretory vesicles.

  11. [Impact of postoperative pathological features of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma on the prognosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lei; Li, Yin; Sun, Haibo; Zheng, Yan; Wang, Zongfei; Chen, Xiankai

    2017-12-25

    Esophageal cancer is located in the 8th position of the incidence of malignant tumors and the 6th most common cause of cancer-related mortality in the world, while China has the highest incidence and mortality of esophageal cancer. Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), the predominant histologic type of esophageal cancer in China, accounts for about 90%. Despite recent improvement of surgical techniques and philosophy, however, the prognosis of ESCC patients treated with surgery is still poor, and 5-year survival remains unsatisfactorily low. So far, the pathogenesis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma is still unclear, and effective prevention is also out of the question. To find the main factors affecting the prognosis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, and to improve the survival of patients, are the main directions of all scholars. Postoperative pathology of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma is considered to be one of the most important predictors of prognosis. Currently, the evaluation of postoperative esophageal prognosis mainly depends on TNM staging, but some criteria of its specific content and staging remains controversial. In this paper recent domestic and foreign related researches and clinical trials reports are collected, and the postoperative pathological features affecting esophageal squamous cell carcinoma prognosis were reviewed.

  12. Expression of Wnt-1, TGF-β and related cell–cell adhesion components following radiotherapy in salivary glands of patients with manifested radiogenic xerostomia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakim, Samer George; Ribbat, Julika; Berndt, Alexander; Richter, Petra; Kosmehl, Hartwig; Benedek, Geza A.; Jacobsen, Hans Christian; Trenkle, Thomas; Sieg, Peter; Rades, Dirk

    2011-01-01

    Background: Radiation-induced xerostomia still represents a common symptom following radiotherapy of head and neck malignancies, which significantly impairs the patient’s quality of life. In this cross-sectional study, human salivary glands were investigated to assess the role of Wnt/β-catenin and TGF-β pathways in the pathogenic process of radiogenic impairment of salivary function. Methods: Irradiated human salivary glands were investigated in patients with manifested xerostomia. Alteration of Wnt-1 and cell–cell adhesion was evaluated immunohistologically as well as changes in the expression of TGF-β were assessed in salivary gland tissue. Results: We assessed two alteration patterns in which Wnt-1 expression represents one change along with up-regulation of β-catenin and E-cadherin in irradiated but viable acinar cells. Increased expression of tenascin-C was observed in sites of epithelial–mesenchymal interaction and loss of cell–cell adhesion was assessed in translocated epithelial cells in the stroma. Conclusion: Increased transdifferentiation and remodeling of acinar structures was associated with decrease of viable acinar structures. The role of Wnt and TGF signaling may provide a potential therapeutic approach to prevent radiation-induced damage to salivary glands during radiotherapy for head and neck cancer.

  13. In Vivo Senescence in the Sbds-Deficient Murine Pancreas: Cell-Type Specific Consequences of Translation Insufficiency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina E Tourlakis

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Genetic models of ribosome dysfunction show selective organ failure, highlighting a gap in our understanding of cell-type specific responses to translation insufficiency. Translation defects underlie a growing list of inherited and acquired cancer-predisposition syndromes referred to as ribosomopathies. We sought to identify molecular mechanisms underlying organ failure in a recessive ribosomopathy, with particular emphasis on the pancreas, an organ with a high and reiterative requirement for protein synthesis. Biallelic loss of function mutations in SBDS are associated with the ribosomopathy Shwachman-Diamond syndrome, which is typified by pancreatic dysfunction, bone marrow failure, skeletal abnormalities and neurological phenotypes. Targeted disruption of Sbds in the murine pancreas resulted in p53 stabilization early in the postnatal period, specifically in acinar cells. Decreased Myc expression was observed and atrophy of the adult SDS pancreas could be explained by the senescence of acinar cells, characterized by induction of Tgfβ, p15(Ink4b and components of the senescence-associated secretory program. This is the first report of senescence, a tumour suppression mechanism, in association with SDS or in response to a ribosomopathy. Genetic ablation of p53 largely resolved digestive enzyme synthesis and acinar compartment hypoplasia, but resulted in decreased cell size, a hallmark of decreased translation capacity. Moreover, p53 ablation resulted in expression of acinar dedifferentiation markers and extensive apoptosis. Our findings indicate a protective role for p53 and senescence in response to Sbds ablation in the pancreas. In contrast to the pancreas, the Tgfβ molecular signature was not detected in fetal bone marrow, liver or brain of mouse models with constitutive Sbds ablation. Nevertheless, as observed with the adult pancreas phenotype, disease phenotypes of embryonic tissues, including marked neuronal cell death due to apoptosis

  14. In Vivo Senescence in the Sbds-Deficient Murine Pancreas: Cell-Type Specific Consequences of Translation Insufficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourlakis, Marina E.; Zhang, Siyi; Ball, Heather L.; Gandhi, Rikesh; Liu, Hongrui; Zhong, Jian; Yuan, Julie S.; Guidos, Cynthia J.; Durie, Peter R.; Rommens, Johanna M.

    2015-01-01

    Genetic models of ribosome dysfunction show selective organ failure, highlighting a gap in our understanding of cell-type specific responses to translation insufficiency. Translation defects underlie a growing list of inherited and acquired cancer-predisposition syndromes referred to as ribosomopathies. We sought to identify molecular mechanisms underlying organ failure in a recessive ribosomopathy, with particular emphasis on the pancreas, an organ with a high and reiterative requirement for protein synthesis. Biallelic loss of function mutations in SBDS are associated with the ribosomopathy Shwachman-Diamond syndrome, which is typified by pancreatic dysfunction, bone marrow failure, skeletal abnormalities and neurological phenotypes. Targeted disruption of Sbds in the murine pancreas resulted in p53 stabilization early in the postnatal period, specifically in acinar cells. Decreased Myc expression was observed and atrophy of the adult SDS pancreas could be explained by the senescence of acinar cells, characterized by induction of Tgfβ, p15Ink4b and components of the senescence-associated secretory program. This is the first report of senescence, a tumour suppression mechanism, in association with SDS or in response to a ribosomopathy. Genetic ablation of p53 largely resolved digestive enzyme synthesis and acinar compartment hypoplasia, but resulted in decreased cell size, a hallmark of decreased translation capacity. Moreover, p53 ablation resulted in expression of acinar dedifferentiation markers and extensive apoptosis. Our findings indicate a protective role for p53 and senescence in response to Sbds ablation in the pancreas. In contrast to the pancreas, the Tgfβ molecular signature was not detected in fetal bone marrow, liver or brain of mouse models with constitutive Sbds ablation. Nevertheless, as observed with the adult pancreas phenotype, disease phenotypes of embryonic tissues, including marked neuronal cell death due to apoptosis, were determined to

  15. Allosuppressor- and allohelper-T cells in acute and chronic graft-vs.-host (GVH) disease. III. Different Lyt subsets of donor T cells induce different pathological syndromes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rolink, A.G.; Gleichmann, E.

    1983-01-01

    Previous work from this laboratory has led to the hypothesis that the stimulatory pathological symptoms of chronic graft-vs.-host disease (GVHD) are caused by alloreactive donor T helper (TH) cells, whereas the suppressive pathological symptoms of acute GVHD are caused by alloreactive T suppressor (TS) cells of the donor. We analyzed the Lyt phenotypes of B10 donor T cells required for the induction of either acute or chronic GVHD in H-2-different (B10 X DBA/2)F1 recipients. When nonirradiated F1 mice were used as the recipients, we found unseparated B10 T cells induced only a moderate formation of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)-like autoantibodies, but a high percentage of lethal GVHD (LGVHD). In contrast, Lyt-1+2- donor T cells were unable to induce LGVHD in these recipients but were capable of inducing a vigorous formation of SLE-like autoantibodies and severe immune-complex glomerulonephritis. Lyt-1-2+ T cells were incapable of inducing either acute or chronic GVHD. The sensitivity and accuracy of the GVH system were increased by using irradiated F1 mice as recipients and then comparing donor-cell inocula that contained similar numbers of T lymphocytes. Donor-cell inocula were used that had been tested for their allohelper and allosuppressor effects on F1 B cells in vitro. In the irradiated F1 recipients unseparated donor T cells were superior to T cell subsets in inducing LGVHD. In contrast Lyt-1+2- T cells, but neither unseparated T cells nor Lyt-1-2+ T cells, were capable of inducing a vigorous formation of SLE-like auto-antibodies. We conclude that the stimulatory pathological symptoms of chronic GVHD are caused by Lyt-1+2- allohelper T cells. In contrast, the development of the suppressive pathological symptoms of acute GVHD appears to involve alloreactive Lyt-1+2+ T suppressor cells

  16. Epithelial rotation is preceded by planar symmetry breaking of actomyosin and protects epithelial tissue from cell deformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viktorinová, Ivana; Henry, Ian; Tomancak, Pavel

    2017-11-01

    Symmetry breaking is involved in many developmental processes that form bodies and organs. One of them is the epithelial rotation of developing tubular and acinar organs. However, how epithelial cells move, how they break symmetry to define their common direction, and what function rotational epithelial motions have remains elusive. Here, we identify a dynamic actomyosin network that breaks symmetry at the basal surface of the Drosophila follicle epithelium of acinar-like primitive organs, called egg chambers, and may represent a candidate force-generation mechanism that underlies the unidirectional motion of this epithelial tissue. We provide evidence that the atypical cadherin Fat2, a key planar cell polarity regulator in Drosophila oogenesis, directs and orchestrates transmission of the intracellular actomyosin asymmetry cue onto a tissue plane in order to break planar actomyosin symmetry, facilitate epithelial rotation in the opposite direction, and direct the elongation of follicle cells. In contrast, loss of this rotational motion results in anisotropic non-muscle Myosin II pulses that are disorganized in plane and causes cell deformations in the epithelial tissue of Drosophila eggs. Our work demonstrates that atypical cadherins play an important role in the control of symmetry breaking of cellular mechanics in order to facilitate tissue motion and model epithelial tissue. We propose that their functions may be evolutionarily conserved in tubular/acinar vertebrate organs.

  17. The Transcriptional Coactivator Bob1 Is Associated With Pathologic B Cell Responses in Autoimmune Tissue Inflammation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levels, Maria J.; Van Tok, Melissa N.; Cantaert, Tineke; Canete, Juan D.; Kroese, Frans G. M.; Germar, Kristine; Spits, Hergen; Baeten, Dominique L. P.; Yeremenko, Nataliya G.

    Objective. The molecular mechanisms steering abnormal B cell responses in autoimmune diseases remain poorly understood. We undertook this study to identify molecular switches controlling pathologic B cell responses in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods. Candidate molecules were identified by gene

  18. Major salivary gland hypertrophy model in immature rats: morphometric and histochemical epithelial cell characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera V. Ivanova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to estimate the functional state of epithelial cells of acini and ducts of major salivary glands with hypertrophy caused by repeated incisor amputations in immature rats.Materials and methods. The experiment was carried out on immature (20 days, white male rats, divided into 3 groups: intact, control and group of rats with repeated incisor amputations. Animals were taken out in 2d, 3d, 4th, 6th, 8th, 10th and 12th weeks after the first incisor amputation. Morphofunctional state of rat major salivary glands was assessed by histological (hematoxylin and eosin, histochemistrical (Alcian blue, PAS-reaction, Brachet method and morphometrical (acini area, intralobular ducts volume methods.Results. Repeated incisor amputations led to the increase of acini area and the decrease of intralobular duct volume in submandibular glands in 2nd–4th weeks of the experiment. Cytoplasm pyroninophilia of submandibular gland acinar cells was less pronounced and intensity of PAS-reaction was more pronounced than in intact animals in 3rd week of the experiment. Morphological and functional changes of parotid and sublingual gland epithelial cells were not observed after repeated amputations of incisors in immature rats.Conclusion. Repeated incisor amputations in immature male rats lead to submandibular gland acinar cell hypertrophy in the early stages of the experiment (2d–4th weeks with accumulation of glycoproteins and protein synthesis weakening in these cells. Hypertrophy of acinar cells are accompanied by retardation in the development of granular convoluted tubule cells which are the source of synthesis and secretion of the endocrine biologically active factors of submandibular glands.

  19. Aberrant Hedgehog ligands induce progressive pancreatic fibrosis by paracrine activation of myofibroblasts and ductular cells in transgenic zebrafish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In Hye Jung

    Full Text Available Hedgehog (Hh signaling is frequently up-regulated in fibrogenic pancreatic diseases including chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer. Although recent series suggest exclusive paracrine activation of stromal cells by Hh ligands from epithelial components, debates still exist on how Hh signaling works in pathologic conditions. To explore how Hh signaling affects the pancreas, we investigated transgenic phenotypes in zebrafish that over-express either Indian Hh or Sonic Hh along with green fluorescence protein (GFP to enable real-time observation, or GFP alone as control, at the ptf1a domain. Transgenic embryos and zebrafish were serially followed for transgenic phenotypes, and investigated using quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR, in situ hybridization, and immunohistochemistry. Over-expression of Ihh or Shh reveals virtually identical phenotypes. Hh induces morphologic changes in a developing pancreas without derangement in acinar differentiation. In older zebrafish, Hh induces progressive pancreatic fibrosis intermingled with proliferating ductular structures, which is accompanied by the destruction of the acinar structures. Both myofibroblasts and ductular are activated and proliferated by paracrine Hh signaling, showing restricted expression of Hh downstream components including Patched1 (Ptc1, Smoothened (Smo, and Gli1/2 in those Hh-responsive cells. Hh ligands induce matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs, especially MMP9 in all Hh-responsive cells, and transform growth factor-ß1 (TGFß1 only in ductular cells. Aberrant Hh over-expression, however, does not induce pancreatic tumors. On treatment with inhibitors, embryonic phenotypes are reversed by either cyclopamine or Hedgehog Primary Inhibitor-4 (HPI-4. Pancreatic fibrosis is only prevented by HPI-4. Our study provides strong evidence of Hh signaling which induces pancreatic fibrosis through paracrine activation of Hh-responsive cells in vivo. Induction of

  20. LABILE IRON IN CELLS AND BODY FLUIDS . Physiology, Pathology and Pharmacology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zvi Ioav Cabantchik

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In living systems iron appears predominantly associated with proteins, but can also be detected in forms referred as labile iron, which denotes the combined redox properties of iron and its amenability to exchange between ligands, including chelators. The labile cell iron (LCI composition varies with metal concentration and substances with chelating groups but also with pH and the redox potential. Although physiologically in the lower µM range, LCI plays a key role in cell iron economy as cross-roads of metabolic pathways. LCI levels are continually regulated by an iron-responsive machinery that balances iron uptake versus deposition into ferritin. However, LCI rises aberrantly in some cell types due to faulty cell utilization pathways or infiltration by pathological iron forms that are found in hemosiderotic plasma. As LCI attains pathological levels, it can catalyze reactive O species (ROS formation that, at particular threshold, can surpass cellular anti-oxidant capacities and seriously damage its constituents. While in normal plasma and interstitial fluids, virtually all iron is securely carried by circulating transferrin (that renders iron essentially non-labile, in systemic iron overload (IO, the total plasma iron binding capacity is often surpassed by a massive iron influx from hyperabsorptive gut or from erythrocyte overburdened spleen and/or liver. As plasma transferrin approaches iron saturation, labile plasma iron (LPI emerges in forms that can infiltrate cells by unregulated routes and raise LCI to toxic levels. Despite the limited knowledge available on LPI speciation in different types and degrees of iron overload, LPI measurements can be and are in fact used for identifying systemic IO and for initiating/adjusting chelation regimens to attain full-day LPI protection. A recent application of labile iron assay is the detection of labile components in iv iron formulations per se as well as in plasma (LPI following parenteral iron

  1. Targeting Trypsin-Inflammation Axis for Pancreatitis Therapy in a Humanized Pancreatitis Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    foster mothers , confirming genotype of new pups using standard genotyping techniques, and weaning and delivering of SPF R122H mice to the Principal...present The activities in this part of the project involve the use of freshly isolated pancreatic acini (clusters of acinar cells ) obtained from wild...acinar cells . However, when use experimentally at supra-physiological concentrations, CCK induces acinar cell damage and pancreatitis responses

  2. Pancreatic β-cell regeneration: Facultative or dedicated progenitors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afelik, Solomon; Rovira, Meritxell

    2017-04-15

    The adult pancreas is only capable of limited regeneration. Unlike highly regenerative tissues such as the skin, intestinal crypts and hematopoietic system, no dedicated adult stem cells or stem cell niche have so far been identified within the adult pancreas. New β cells have been shown to form in the adult pancreas, in response to high physiological demand or experimental β-cell ablation, mostly by replication of existing β cells. The possibility that new β cells are formed from other sources is currently a point of major controversy. Under particular injury conditions, fully differentiated pancreatic duct and acinar cells have been shown to dedifferentiate into a progenitor-like state, however the extent, to which ductal, acinar or other endocrine cells contribute to restoring pancreatic β-cell mass remains to be resolved. In this review we focus on regenerative events in the pancreas with emphasis on the restoration of β-cell mass. We present an overview of regenerative responses noted within the different pancreatic lineages, following injury. We also highlight the intrinsic plasticity of the adult pancreas that allows for inter-conversion of fully differentiated pancreatic lineages through manipulation of few genes or growth factors. Taken together, evidence from a number of studies suggest that differentiated pancreatic lineages could act as facultative progenitor cells, but the extent to which these contribute to β-cell regeneration in vivo is still a matter of contention. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Pathological evaluation of ganglion cells in biopsies from upper side of the dentate line in patients with perianal problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan Joudi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Constipation is one of the most common complaints of individuals, which may present with complication like hemorrhoid and fissure. Hirschsprung is a disease presenting with chronic constipation and its diagnosis may be delayed until adulthood. It is diagnosed by biopsies from anorectal transitional zone. This study aimed to evaluate the association between Hirschsprung and anorectal problems. Method: Sixty three patients with anorectal problems who underwent surgery enrolled in this study. Some consecutive biopsies were obtained from anal canal at 2, 4 and 6 cm above the dentate line. Biopsies were assessed for ganglion cells changes. Patients' data and biopsies results were analyzed with SPSS version18. Results: Out of 63 patients 29 (46 % patients were female and 34 (54 % were male with the mean of 32.65 ± 13.73 years. Fifty six (73 % patients complained from constipation with the mean time of 57.65 ± 45.21 months. Aganglionic zone were reported in six patients with the mean length of 43.33 mm. There was not any relation between anal ganglion cells pathology and constipation (p=0.363, but there was a significant relation between duration of constipation and pathologic changes (p=0.001. The ratio of constipation duration to age was related to anal ganglion cell pathology (p=0.001. Hemorrhoid degree was also affected anal ganglion cells pathology (p=0.037. Conclusion: The relation between Hirschsprung's disease and anorectal problems in adults were significant. The pathologic findings were more presented in younger patients, and those with longer history of constipation and lower degree hemorrhoids. Key words: Anal ganglion cells, Hemorrhoids, Constipation  

  4. Cation depletion by the sodium pump in red cells with pathologic cation leaks. Sickle cells and xerocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joiner, C H; Platt, O S; Lux, S E

    1986-12-01

    The mechanism by which sickle cells and xerocytic red cells become depleted of cations in vivo has not been identified previously. Both types of cells exhibit elevated permeabilities to sodium and potassium, in the case of sickle cells, when deoxygenated. The ouabain-insensitive fluxes of sodium and potassium were equivalent, however, in both cell types under these conditions. When incubated 18 hours in vitro, sickle cells lost cations but only when deoxygenated. This cation depletion was blocked by ouabain, removal of external potassium, or pretreatment with 4,4'-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonate, which blocks the increase in cation permeability induced by deoxygenation. The loss of cation exhibited by oxygenated xerocytes similarly incubated was also blocked by ouabain. These data support the hypothesis that the elevated "passive" cation fluxes of xerocytes and deoxygenated sickle cells are not directly responsible for cation depletion of these cells; rather, these pathologic leaks interact with the sodium pump to produce a net loss of cellular cation.

  5. Regulation of Breast Cancer Stem Cells by Tissue Rigidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    of acini having no1mal aspect ratios. as determined in panel (C). ***P<O.OOl. mamma1y acinar structme desensitize mammaty epithelial cells to...mechanics. Nat Commun. 2012;3:792. 4. Lucero HA, Kagan HM. Lysyl oxidase: an oxidative enzyme and effector of cell function. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2006;63(19...predicted as a potential phosphorylation site. This provided a very attractive potential mechanism by which increased matrix stiffness activates

  6. Quantitative & qualitative analysis of endothelial cells of donor cornea before & after penetrating keratoplasty in different pathological conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aruna K.R. Gupta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Endothelial cells of the donor cornea are known to be affected quantitatively and qualitatively in different pathological conditions after penetrating keratoplasty (PK and this has direct effect on the clarity of vision obtained after PK. This study was undertaken to analyze the qualitative and quantitative changes in donor endothelial cells before and after PK in different pathological conditions. Methods: A prospective investigational analysis of 100 consecutive donor corneas used for penetrating keratoplasty between June 2006 and June 2008, was conducted. The patients were evaluated on the first day, at the end of first week, first month, third and six months and one year. Results: A decrease was observed in endothelial cell count in all pathological conditions. After one year of follow up the loss was 33.1 per cent in corneal opacity, 45.9 per cent in acute infective keratitis (AIK, 58.5 per cent in regrafts, 28.5 per cent in pseudophakic bullous keratopathy (PBK, 37 per cent in descemetocele, 27 per cent in keratoconus and 35.5 per cent in aphakic bullous keratopathy (ABK cases. Interpretation & conclusions: The endothelial cell loss was highest in regraft cases which was significant (P<0.05, while the least endothelial cell loss was seen in keratoconus cases. The cell loss was associated with increase in coefficient of variation (CV, i.e. polymegathism and pleomorphism. Inspite of this polymegathism and pleomorphism, the clarity of the graft was maintained.

  7. Myofiber-specific TEAD1 overexpression drives satellite cell hyperplasia and counters pathological effects of dystrophin deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southard, Sheryl; Kim, Ju-Ryoung; Low, SiewHui; Tsika, Richard W; Lepper, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    When unperturbed, somatic stem cells are poised to affect immediate tissue restoration upon trauma. Yet, little is known regarding the mechanistic basis controlling initial and homeostatic ‘scaling’ of stem cell pool sizes relative to their target tissues for effective regeneration. Here, we show that TEAD1-expressing skeletal muscle of transgenic mice features a dramatic hyperplasia of muscle stem cells (i.e. satellite cells, SCs) but surprisingly without affecting muscle tissue size. Super-numeral SCs attain a ‘normal’ quiescent state, accelerate regeneration, and maintain regenerative capacity over several injury-induced regeneration bouts. In dystrophic muscle, the TEAD1 transgene also ameliorated the pathology. We further demonstrate that hyperplastic SCs accumulate non-cell-autonomously via signal(s) from the TEAD1-expressing myofiber, suggesting that myofiber-specific TEAD1 overexpression activates a physiological signaling pathway(s) that determines initial and homeostatic SC pool size. We propose that TEAD1 and its downstream effectors are medically relevant targets for enhancing muscle regeneration and ameliorating muscle pathology. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.15461.001 PMID:27725085

  8. Effect of irradiation on the expression of caspase-3 in the submandibular gland of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Heung Ki; Hwang, Eui Hwan; Lee, Sang Rae

    2005-01-01

    To observe the histopathological changes and caspace-3 expression in the submandibular gland in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats after irradiation. The male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing approximately 250gm were divided into four groups; control, diabetes, irradiation, and diabetes-irradiation groups. Diabetes mellitus was induced in the rats by injecting streptozotocin. Rats in the control and irradiation groups were injected with citrate buffer only. After 5 days, rats in irradiation, and diabetes-irradiation groups were irradiated with a single absorbed dose of 10 Gy to the head and neck region. All the rats were sacrificed at 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days after irradiation. The specimen including the submandibular gland were sectioned and observed using histopathological and immunohistochemical methods. In the irradiation group, the condensed nucleus, karyolysis, and degeneration of the acinar cells and atrophy of the duct cells were observed in the early experimental phase. However, the acinar cells were found to be normal at 28 days after irradiation. In the diabetes group, the condensed nucleus, karyolysis, atrophy, and degeneration of the acinar cells were observed in the early experimental phase. However, the acinar cells were found to be normal at 21 days, after diabetic state induction. In the diabetes-irradiation group, the ductal epithelial cells were predominant in their glandular tissues at 28 days after irradiation. In all of the experimental groups, the most prominent change of the acinar cells and ductal cells were observed at 14 days after diabetic state induction and irradiation. The expression of caspase-3 in the acinar cells and ductal cells of the submandibular gland was weak after irradiation, but that in the acinar cells, ductal cells, and fibrous cells of the submandibular gland was prominent after diabetic state induction.

  9. A multifunctional 3D co-culture system for studies of mammary tissue morphogenesis and stem cell biology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan J Campbell

    Full Text Available Studies on the stem cell niche and the efficacy of cancer therapeutics require complex multicellular structures and interactions between different cell types and extracellular matrix (ECM in three dimensional (3D space. We have engineered a 3D in vitro model of mammary gland that encompasses a defined, porous collagen/hyaluronic acid (HA scaffold forming a physiologically relevant foundation for epithelial and adipocyte co-culture. Polarized ductal and acinar structures form within this scaffold recapitulating normal tissue morphology in the absence of reconstituted basement membrane (rBM hydrogel. Furthermore, organoid developmental outcome can be controlled by the ratio of collagen to HA, with a higher HA concentration favouring acinar morphological development. Importantly, this culture system recapitulates the stem cell niche as primary mammary stem cells form complex organoids, emphasising the utility of this approach for developmental and tumorigenic studies using genetically altered animals or human biopsy material, and for screening cancer therapeutics for personalised medicine.

  10. Pathologic and Protective Roles for Microglial Subsets and Bone Marrow- and Blood-Derived Myeloid Cells in Central Nervous System Inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wlodarczyk, Agnieszka; Cédile, Oriane; Jensen, Kirstine Nolling

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation is a series of processes designed for eventual clearance of pathogens and repair of damaged tissue. In the context of autoimmune recognition, inflammatory processes are usually considered to be pathological. This is also true for inflammatory responses in the central nervous system...... (CNS). However, as in other tissues, neuroinflammation can have beneficial as well as pathological outcomes. The complex role of encephalitogenic T cells in multiple sclerosis and its animal model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) may derive from heterogeneity of the myeloid cells...... with which these T cells interact within the CNS. Myeloid cells, including resident microglia and infiltrating bone marrow-derived cells, such as dendritic cells (DC) and monocytes/macrophages [bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM)], are highly heterogeneous populations that may be involved in neurotoxicity...

  11. Climbing fiber-Purkinje cell synaptic pathology in tremor and cerebellar degenerative diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chi-Ying; Wang, Jie; Sims, Peter A.; Pan, Ming-Kai; Liou, Jyun-you; Lee, Danielle; Tate, William J.; Kelly, Geoffrey C.; Louis, Elan D.; Faust, Phyllis L.

    2017-01-01

    Changes in climbing fiber-Purkinje cell (CF-PC) synaptic connections have been found in the essential tremor (ET) cerebellum, and these changes are correlated with tremor severity. Whether these postmortem changes are specific to ET remains to be investigated. We assessed CF-PC synaptic pathology in the postmortem cerebellum across a range of degenerative movement disorders [10 Parkinson’s disease (PD) cases, 10 multiple system atrophy (MSA) cases, 10 spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 (SCA1) cases, and 20 ET cases] and 25 controls. We observed differences in terms of CF pathological features across these disorders. Specifically, PD cases and ET cases both had more CFs extending into the parallel fiber (PF) territory, but ET cases had more complex branching and increased length of CFs in the PF territory along with decreased CF synaptic density compared to PD cases. MSA cases and SCA1 cases had the most severely reduced CF synaptic density and a marked paucity of CFs extending into the PF territory. Furthermore, CFs in a subset of MSA cases formed collateral branches parallel to the PC layer, a feature not seen in other diagnostic groups. Using unsupervised cluster analysis, the cases and controls could all be categorized into four clusters based on the CF pathology and features of PC pathology, including counts of PCs and their axonal torpedoes. ET cases and PD cases co-segregated into two clusters, whereas SCA1 cases and MSA cases formed another cluster, separate from the control cluster. Interestingly, the presence of resting tremor seemed to be the clinical feature that separated the cases into the two ET-PD clusters. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that these degenerative movement disorders seem to differ with respect to the pattern of CF synaptic pathology they exhibit. It remains to be determined how these differences contribute to the clinical presentations of these diseases. PMID:27704282

  12. Interleukin-22: immunobiology and pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudakov, Jarrod A.; Hanash, Alan M.; van den Brink, Marcel R.M.

    2015-01-01

    Interleukin-22 (IL-22) is a recently described IL-10 family cytokine that is produced by T-helper (Th)-17 cells, γδ T cells, NKT cells and newly described innate lymphoid cells (ILCs). Knowledge of IL-22 biology has rapidly evolved since its discovery in 2000, and a role for IL-22 has been identified in numerous tissues including the intestines, lung, liver, kidney, thymus, pancreas and skin. IL-22 primarily targets non-hematopoietic epithelial and stromal cells where it can promote proliferation and play a role in tissue regeneration. In addition, IL-22 regulates host defense at barrier surfaces. However, IL-22 has also been linked to several conditions involving inflammatory tissue pathology. In this review, we will assess the current understanding of this cytokine, including its physiologic and pathologic effects on epithelial cell function. PMID:25706098

  13. Ultrastructure and pathology of desmoplastic small round cell tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Bin; Wang Bo; Gu Junlian; Li Xin; Li Yang

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To observe the change of ultrastructure and pathology of desmoplastic small round cell tumor (DSRCT) and recognize the characteristics of DSRCT and improve the standard of diagnosis. Methods: One case of primary DSRCT in right leg was observed by light microscope, immunohistochemical method and electron microscope and analyzed with review of the literatures. Results: The size of tumor was 3.2 cm x 2.4 cm x 1.3 cm with gray-yellow on cross-section. Foci of hemorrhage and necrosis were noted. Under light microscope, the tumor was composed of sharply demarcated nests of small rounded or oval cells. The cellular aggregates were surrounded and separated by abundant fibrous connective tissue. The tumor cells were uniform in size and shape, and showed small to moderate amounts of pale cytoplasm with indistinct cell borders. The nuclei were round to oval, with clumped chromatin and marked hyperchromasia. Some cells had one or two indistinct nucleoli. Numerous mitotic figures and areas of necrosis were dentified. The immunohistochemical results showed that the tumor cells were strongly positive for CK, EMA and NSE. There was focal positive staining for desmin with a perinuclear dot-like pattern. However, the tumor cells were negative for CgA, Myogenin, Syn, LCA, SMA, S-100, NF, GFAP, HMB45, HHF-35, CD3, CD10, Actin, CD99, and CD20. Under electron microscope, the tumor cells showed paranuclear cytoplasmic intermediate filaments arranging in globular or whorl array. Conclusion: DSRCT occurs both in the abdomen and at other sites. The patients with DSRCT range widely in age. DSRCT has distinctive histopathologic and ultrastructural features. This tumor shows immunohistochemical feature of epithelial, mesenchymal as well as neural multidirectional differentiation. RT-PCR may be served as an important diagnostic adjunct for DSRAT. The prognosis of the patients with DSRCT is very poor. (authors)

  14. Interruption of CXCL13-CXCR5 axis increases upper genital tract pathology and activation of NKT cells following chlamydial genital infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janina Jiang

    Full Text Available Regulation of immune responses is critical for controlling inflammation and disruption of this process can lead to tissue damage. We reported that CXCL13 was induced in fallopian tube tissue following C. trachomatis infection. Here, we examined the influence of the CXCL13-CXCR5 axis in chlamydial genital infection.Disruption of the CXCL13-CXCR5 axis by injecting anti-CXCL13 Ab to BALB/c mice or using Cxcr5-/- mice increased chronic inflammation in the upper genital tract (UGT; uterine horns and oviducts after Chlamydia muridarum genital infection (GT. Further studies in Cxcr5-/- mice showed an elevation in bacterial burden in the GT and increased numbers of neutrophils, activated DCs and activated NKT cells early after infection. After resolution, we noted increased fibrosis and the accumulation of a variety of T cells subsets (CD4-IFNγ, CD4-IL-17, CD4-IL-10 & CD8-TNFα in the oviducts. NKT cell depletion in vitro reduced IL-17α and various cytokines and chemokines, suggesting that activated NKT cells modulate neutrophils and DCs through cytokine/chemokine secretion. Further, chlamydial glycolipids directly activated two distinct types of NKT cell hybridomas in a cell-free CD1d presentation assay and genital infection of Cd1d-/- mice showed reduced oviduct inflammation compared to WT mice. CXCR5 involvement in pathology was also noted using single-nucleotide polymorphism analysis in C. trachomatis infected women attending a sub-fertility clinic. Women who developed tubal pathology after a C. trachomatis infection had a decrease in the frequency of CXCR5 SNP +10950 T>C (rs3922.These experiments indicate that disruption of the CXCL13-CXCR5 axis permits increased activation of NKT cells by type I and type II glycolipids of Chlamydia muridarum and results in UGT pathology potentially through increased numbers of neutrophils and T cell subsets associated with UGT pathology. In addition, CXCR5 appears to contribute to inter-individual differences in

  15. Endotoxin-induced basal respiration alterations of renal HK-2 cells: A sign of pathologic metabolism down-regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quoilin, C., E-mail: cquoilin@ulg.ac.be [Laboratory of Biomedical Spectroscopy, Department of Physics, University of Liege, 4000 Liege (Belgium); Mouithys-Mickalad, A. [Center of Oxygen Research and Development, Department of Chemistry, University of Liege, 4000 Liege (Belgium); Duranteau, J. [Department of Anaesthesia and Surgical ICU, CHU Bicetre, University Paris XI Sud, 94275 Le Kremlin Bicetre (France); Gallez, B. [Biomedical Magnetic Resonance Group, Louvain Drug Research Institute, Universite catholique de Louvain, 1200 Brussels (Belgium); Hoebeke, M. [Laboratory of Biomedical Spectroscopy, Department of Physics, University of Liege, 4000 Liege (Belgium)

    2012-06-29

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A HK-2 cells model of inflammation-induced acute kidney injury. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two oximetry methods: high resolution respirometry and ESR spectroscopy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Oxygen consumption rates of renal cells decrease when treated with LPS. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cells do not recover normal respiration when the LPS treatment is removed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This basal respiration alteration is a sign of pathologic metabolism down-regulation. -- Abstract: To study the mechanism of oxygen regulation in inflammation-induced acute kidney injury, we investigate the effects of a bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide, LPS) on the basal respiration of proximal tubular epithelial cells (HK-2) both by high-resolution respirometry and electron spin resonance spectroscopy. These two complementary methods have shown that HK-2 cells exhibit a decreased oxygen consumption rate when treated with LPS. Surprisingly, this cellular respiration alteration persists even after the stress factor was removed. We suggested that this irreversible decrease in renal oxygen consumption after LPS challenge is related to a pathologic metabolic down-regulation such as a lack of oxygen utilization by cells.

  16. A cell junction pathology of neural stem cells leads to abnormal neurogenesis and hydrocephalus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban M Rodríguez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Most cells of the developing mammalian brain derive from the ventricular (VZ and the subventricular (SVZ zones. The VZ is formed by the multipotent radial glia/neural stem cells (NSCs while the SVZ harbors the rapidly proliferative neural precursor cells (NPCs. Evidence from human and animal models indicates that the common history of hydrocephalus and brain maldevelopment starts early in embryonic life with disruption of the VZ and SVZ. We propose that a "cell junction pathology" involving adherent and gap junctions is a final common outcome of a wide range of gene mutations resulting in proteins abnormally expressed by the VZ cells undergoing disruption. Disruption of the VZ during fetal development implies the loss of NSCs whereas VZ disruption during the perinatal period implies the loss of ependyma. The process of disruption occurs in specific regions of the ventricular system and at specific stages of brain development. This explains why only certain brain structures have an abnormal development, which in turn results in a specific neurological impairment of the newborn. Disruption of the VZ of the Sylvian aqueduct (SA leads to aqueductal stenosis and hydrocephalus, while disruption of the VZ of telencephalon impairs neurogenesis. We are currently investigating whether grafting of NSCs/neurospheres from normal rats into the CSF of hydrocephalic mutants helps to diminish/repair the outcomes of VZ disruption.

  17. Role of autophagy in development and progression of acute pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YANG Shuli

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Acute pancreatitis is considered an autodigestive disorder in which inappropriate activation of trypsinogen to trypsin within pancreatic acinar cells leads to the development of pancreatitis. Autophagy is an evolutionarily preserved degradation process of cytoplasmic cellular constituents, and it is one of the early pathological processes in acute pancreatitis. Autophagic flux is impaired in acute pancreatitis, which mediates the key pathologic responses of this disease. Impaired autophagy, dysfunction of lysosomes, and dysregulation of autophagy suggest a disorder of the endolysosomal pathway in acute pancreatitis. The role of autophagy in acute pancreatitis is discussed from the aspects of autophagic process, autophagy and activation of trypsinogen, impaired autophagy and acute pancreatitis, and defective autophagy promoting inflammation.

  18. Numeric pathologic lymph node classification shows prognostic superiority to topographic pN classification in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugawara, Kotaro; Yamashita, Hiroharu; Uemura, Yukari; Mitsui, Takashi; Yagi, Koichi; Nishida, Masato; Aikou, Susumu; Mori, Kazuhiko; Nomura, Sachiyo; Seto, Yasuyuki

    2017-10-01

    The current eighth tumor node metastasis lymph node category pathologic lymph node staging system for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma is based solely on the number of metastatic nodes and does not consider anatomic distribution. We aimed to assess the prognostic capability of the eighth tumor node metastasis pathologic lymph node staging system (numeric-based) compared with the 11th Japan Esophageal Society (topography-based) pathologic lymph node staging system in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical records of 289 patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma who underwent esophagectomy with extended lymph node dissection during the period from January 2006 through June 2016. We compared discrimination abilities for overall survival, recurrence-free survival, and cancer-specific survival between these 2 staging systems using C-statistics. The median number of dissected and metastatic nodes was 61 (25% to 75% quartile range, 45 to 79) and 1 (25% to 75% quartile range, 0 to 3), respectively. The eighth tumor node metastasis pathologic lymph node staging system had a greater ability to accurately determine overall survival (C-statistics: tumor node metastasis classification, 0.69, 95% confidence interval, 0.62-0.76; Japan Esophageal Society classification; 0.65, 95% confidence interval, 0.58-0.71; P = .014) and cancer-specific survival (C-statistics: tumor node metastasis classification, 0.78, 95% confidence interval, 0.70-0.87; Japan Esophageal Society classification; 0.72, 95% confidence interval, 0.64-0.80; P = .018). Rates of total recurrence rose as the eighth tumor node metastasis pathologic lymph node stage increased, while stratification of patients according to the topography-based node classification system was not feasible. Numeric nodal staging is an essential tool for stratifying the oncologic outcomes of patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma even in the cohort in which adequate

  19. Pathologic bladder microenvironment attenuates smooth muscle differentiation of skin derived precursor cells: implications for tissue regeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Tolg

    Full Text Available Smooth muscle cell containing organs (bladder, heart, blood vessels are damaged by a variety of pathological conditions necessitating surgery or organ replacement. Currently, regeneration of contractile tissues is hampered by lack of functional smooth muscle cells. Multipotent skin derived progenitor cells (SKPs can easily be isolated from adult skin and can be differentiated in vitro into contractile smooth muscle cells by exposure to FBS. Here we demonstrate an inhibitory effect of a pathologic contractile organ microenvironment on smooth muscle cell differentiation of SKPs. In vivo, urinary bladder strain induces microenvironmental changes leading to de-differentiation of fully differentiated bladder smooth muscle cells. Co-culture of SKPs with organoids isolated from ex vivo stretched bladders or exposure of SKPs to diffusible factors released by stretched bladders (e.g. bFGF suppresses expression of smooth muscle markers (alpha SMactin, calponin, myocardin, myosin heavy chain as demonstrated by qPCR and immunofluorescent staining. Rapamycin, an inhibitor of mTOR signalling, previously observed to prevent bladder strain induced de-differentiation of fully differentiated smooth muscle cells in vitro, inhibits FBS-induced smooth muscle cell differentiation of undifferentiated SKPs. These results suggest that intended precursor cell differentiation may be paradoxically suppressed by the disease context for which regeneration may be required. Organ-specific microenvironment contexts, particularly prevailing disease, may play a significant role in modulating or attenuating an intended stem cell phenotypic fate, possibly explaining the variable and inefficient differentiation of stem cell constructs in in vivo settings. These observations must be considered in drafting any regeneration strategies.

  20. Clinico pathological spectrum of mycosis fungoides type cutaneous t-cell lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaikh, Z.I.; Rahman, S.B.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To determine the clinical, histological, and immuno phenotypic characteristics of mycosis fungoides type cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Design: Descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: This study was conducted from January 2000 to December 2004 at the Department of Dermatology, Military Hospital and the Department of Dermatopathology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Rawalpindi. Materials and Methods: The medical case records of patients with mycosis fungoides diagnosed during the period of study were surveyed. Data was collected pertaining to patients' characteristics, clinical descriptions, histopathological features, immuno phenotypic analysis and stage of disease at the time of diagnosis. Results: A total of 33 cases of mycosis fungoides were diagnosed between the years 2000 and 2004. There were 24 male and 9 female patients with male to female ratio of 2.6:1 The age ranged from 24 to 68 years and the duration of disease prior to diagnosis varied between 2 to 36 months. The number of skin biopsies performed for definite diagnosis ranged from 01 to 5. The various clinical presentations recorded in these patients were hypo pigmented patches in 7 (21.3%), infiltrated papules and plaques in 6 (18.2%), erythroderma in 5 (15.2%), psoriasiform lesions in 3 (9%), and nodular lesions in 3 (9%) patients. There were 2 (6%) cases respectively of noduloulcerative, ichthyosiform and poikilodermatous lesions, and 1 (3%) case each of follicular, morphoea-like and purpuric skin lesions. The predominant histological features were lymphocytic infiltrate in the upper dermis, epidermotropism, haloed lymphocytes in epidermis, Pautrier's micro abscesses, and interface dermatitis. The immunohistochemical studies (n=12) showed predominantly T helper cell immuno phenotype (CD3+, CD45RO+) in 11 (92%) cases and T suppressor cell immuno phenotype (CD3+, CD8+) in 1 (8%) patient. Conclusion: The mycosis fungoides type cutaneous T-cell lymphoma has a wide clinico

  1. The pathological significance of Notch1 in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Ryoji; Nagata, Masashi; Nakayama, Hideki; Niimori-Kita, Kanako; Hassan, Wael; Tanaka, Takuji; Shinohara, Masanori; Ito, Takaaki

    2013-10-01

    Notch signaling has been reported to be involved in several types of malignant tumors; however, the role and activation mechanism of Notch signaling in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) remains poorly characterized. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the pathological significance of Notch signaling and its activation mechanism in the development and progression of OSCC. In this study, we showed that the expression of Notch1 and intracellular Notch domain (NICD) are upregulated in OSCCs. In addition, Notch1 and NICD were found to be characteristically localized at the invasive tumor front. TNF-α, a major inflammatory cytokine, significantly activated Notch signaling in vitro. In a clinicopathological analysis, Notch1 expression correlated with both the T-stage and the clinical stage. Furthermore, loss of Notch1 expression correlated with the inhibition of cell proliferation and TNF-α-dependent invasiveness in an OSCC cell line. In addition, γ-secretase inhibitor (GSI) prevented cell proliferation and TNF-α-dependent invasion of OSCC cells in vitro. These results indicate that altered expression of Notch1 is associated with increased cancer progression and that Notch1 regulates the steps involved in cell metastasis in OSCC. Moreover, inactivating Notch signaling with GSI could therefore be a useful approach for treating patients with OSCC.

  2. Follicular helper T cells promote liver pathology in mice during Schistosoma japonicum infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojun Chen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Following Schistosoma japonicum (S. japonicum infection, granulomatous responses are induced by parasite eggs trapped in host organs, particular in the liver, during the acute stage of disease. While excessive liver granulomatous responses can lead to more severe fibrosis and circulatory impairment in chronically infected host. However, the exact mechanism of hepatic granuloma formation has remained obscure. In this study, we for the first time showed that follicular helper T (Tfh cells are recruited to the liver to upregulate hepatic granuloma formation and liver injury in S. japonicum-infected mice, and identified a novel function of macrophages in Tfh cell induction. In addition, our results showed that the generation of Tfh cells driven by macrophages is dependent on cell-cell contact and the level of inducible costimulator ligand (ICOSL on macrophages which is regulated by CD40-CD40L signaling. Our findings uncovered a previously unappreciated role for Tfh cells in liver pathology caused by S. japonicum infection in mice.

  3. Ulcerative Granular Cell Tumor: A Clinico pathological and Immunohistochemical Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Khalawan, M.; Mosbeh, A.; Abd-Al Salam, F.; Abou-Bakr, A.

    2011-01-01

    Granular cell tumor (GCT) is uncommonly presented with cutaneous ulcer. We examined the clinico pathological and immunohistochemical features of this ulcerative form in fourteen cases that may raise the awareness of this variant. The study included 11 males and 3 females with a mean age 31.5± 7.42 years. All cases were presented with large solitary ulcer with indurated base, elevated border, skin colored margin, and necrotic floor. Twelve lesions were located on the extremities and two lesions on the genital region. Histologically, the lesions showed dermal infiltrate composed of large polygonal cells with granular cytoplasm and characteristic infiltration of the dermal muscles in all cases. Immunostaining showed positive reaction for S100 (14/14), NSE (14/14), CD68 (5/14), and Vimentin (7/14) while HMB45, CK, EMA, and Desmin were negative. We hope that this paper increases the awareness of ulcerative GCT and consider it in the differential diagnosis of ulcerative lesions

  4. The Number of Pathologically Positive Lymph Nodes and Pathological Tumor Depth Predicts Prognosis in Patients With Poorly Differentiated Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Chung-Jan; Lin, Chien-Yu; Wang, Hung-Ming; Fan, Kang-Hsing; Ng, Shu-Hang; Lee, Li-Yu; Chen, I-How; Huang, Shiang-Fu

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The objective of this retrospective study was twofold: (1) to investigate prognostic factors for clinical outcomes in patients with poorly differentiated oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma and (2) to identify specific prognostic subgroups that may help to guide treatment decisions. Methods and Materials: We examined 102 patients with poorly differentiated oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma. All patients were followed for at least 24 months after surgery or until death. The 5-year rates of local control, neck control, distant metastasis, disease-free, disease-specific, and overall survival served as main outcome measures. Results: The 5-year rates were as follows: local control (79%), neck control (64%), distant metastases (27%), disease-free survival (48%), disease-specific survival (52%), and overall survival (42%). Multivariable analysis showed that the number of pathologically positive nodes (≥4 vs. ≤3) was a significant predictor of neck control, distant metastasis, and disease-free, disease-specific, and overall survival rates. In addition, the presence of tumor depth of ≥11 mm (vs. <11 mm) was a significant predictor of distant metastasis, disease-specific survival, and overall survival rates. The combination of the two predictors (26.5%, 27/102) was independently associated with poorer neck control (p = 0.0319), distant metastasis (p < 0.0001), and disease-free (p < 0.0001), disease-specific (p < 0.0001), and overall survival (p < 0.0001) rates. Conclusions: In patients with poorly differentiated oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma, the presence of at least 4 pathologically positive lymph nodes and of a pathological tumor depth ≥11 mm identifies a subset of subjects with poor clinical outcomes. Patients carrying both risk factors are suitable candidates for the development of novel therapeutic approaches.

  5. A B Cell-Driven Autoimmune Pathway Leading to Pathological Hallmarks of Progressive Multiple Sclerosis in the Marmoset Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bert A. ’t Hart

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The absence of pathological hallmarks of progressive multiple sclerosis (MS in commonly used rodent models of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE hinders the development of adequate treatments for progressive disease. Work reviewed here shows that such hallmarks are present in the EAE model in marmoset monkeys (Callithrix jacchus. The minimal requirement for induction of progressive MS pathology is immunization with a synthetic peptide representing residues 34–56 from human myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG formulated with a mineral oil [incomplete Freund’s adjuvant (IFA]. Pathological aspects include demyelination of cortical gray matter with microglia activation, oxidative stress, and redistribution of iron. When the peptide is formulated in complete Freund’s adjuvant, which contains mycobacteria that relay strong activation signals to myeloid cells, oxidative damage pathways are strongly boosted leading to more intensive pathology. The proven absence of immune potentiating danger signals in the MOG34–56/IFA formulation implies that a narrow population of antigen-experienced T cells present in the monkey’s immune repertoire is activated. This novel pathway involves the interplay of lymphocryptovirus-infected B cells with MHC class Ib/Caja-E restricted CD8+ CD56+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes.

  6. Non-invasive stem cell therapy in a rat model for retinal degeneration and vascular pathology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaomei Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Retinitis pigmentosa (RP is characterized by progressive night blindness, visual field loss, altered vascular permeability and loss of central vision. Currently there is no effective treatment available except gene replacement therapy has shown promise in a few patients with specific gene defects. There is an urgent need to develop therapies that offer generic neuro-and vascular-protective effects with non-invasive intervention. Here we explored the potential of systemic administration of pluripotent bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs to rescue vision and associated vascular pathology in the Royal College Surgeons (RCS rat, a well-established animal model for RP. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Animals received syngeneic MSCs (1x10(6 cells by tail vein at an age before major photoreceptor loss. PRINCIPAL RESULTS: both rod and cone photoreceptors were preserved (5-6 cells thick at the time when control animal has a single layer of photoreceptors remained; Visual function was significantly preserved compared with controls as determined by visual acuity and luminance threshold recording from the superior colliculus; The number of pathological vascular complexes (abnormal vessels associated with migrating pigment epithelium cells and area of vascular leakage that would ordinarily develop were dramatically reduced; Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis indicated there was upregulation of growth factors and immunohistochemistry revealed that there was an increase in neurotrophic factors within eyes of animals that received MSCs. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results underscore the potential application of MSCs in treating retinal degeneration. The advantages of this non-invasive cell-based therapy are: cells are easily isolated and can be expanded in large quantity for autologous graft; hypoimmunogenic nature as allogeneic donors; less controversial in nature than other stem cells; can be readministered with minor discomfort

  7. TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusions are infrequent in prostatic ductal adenocarcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotan, Tamara L; Toubaji, Antoun; Albadine, Roula; Latour, Mathieu; Herawi, Mehsati; Meeker, Alan K; DeMarzo, Angelo M; Platz, Elizabeth A; Epstein, Jonathan I; Netto, George J

    2009-03-01

    Ductal adenocarcinoma of the prostate is an unusual subtype that may be associated with a more aggressive clinical course, and is less responsive to conventional therapies than the more common prostatic acinar adenocarcinoma. However, given its frequent association with an acinar component at prostatectomy, some have challenged the concept of prostatic ductal adenocarcinoma as a distinct clinicopathologic entity. We studied the occurrence of the TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusion, in 40 surgically resected ductal adenocarcinoma cases, and in their associated acinar component using fluorescence in situ hybridization. A group of 38 'pure' acinar adenocarcinoma cases matched with the ductal adenocarcinoma group for pathological grade and stage was studied as a control. Compared with the matched acinar adenocarcinoma cases, the TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusion was significantly less frequently observed in ductal adenocarcinoma (45 vs 11% of cases, P=0.002, Fisher's exact test). Here, of the ductal adenocarcinoma cases with the gene fusion, 75% were fused through deletion, and the remaining case was fused through translocation. The TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusion was also rare in the acinar component of mixed ductal-acinar tumors when compared with the pure acinar adenocarcinoma controls (5 vs 45%, P=0.001, Fisher's exact test). In 95% of the ductal adenocarcinoma cases in which a concurrent acinar component was analyzed, there was concordance for presence/absence of the TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusion between the different histologic subtypes. In the control group of pure acinar adenocarcinoma cases, 59% were fused through deletion and 41% were fused through translocation. The presence of the TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusion in some cases of prostatic ductal adenocarcinoma supports the concept that ductal adenocarcinoma and acinar adenocarcinoma may be related genetically. However, the significantly lower rate of the gene fusion in pure ductal adenocarcinoma cases underscores the fact that genetic and biologic

  8. A review of novel optical imaging strategies of the stroke pathology and stem cell therapy in stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus eAswendt

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Transplanted stem cells can induce and enhance functional recovery in experimental stroke. Invasive analysis has been extensively used to provide detailed cellular and molecular characterization of the stroke pathology and engrafted stem cells. But post mortem analysis is not appropriate to reveal the time scale of the dynamic interplay between the cell graft, the ischemic lesion and the endogenous repair mechanisms. This review describes non-invasive imaging techniques which have been developed to provide complementary in vivo information. Recent advances were made in analyzing simultaneously different aspects of the cell graft (e.g. number of cells, viability state and cell fate, the ischemic lesion (e.g. blood brain barrier consistency, hypoxic and necrotic areas and the neuronal and vascular network. We focus on optical methods, which permit simple animal preparation, repetitive experimental conditions, relatively medium-cost instrumentation and are performed under mild anesthesia, thus nearly under physiological conditions. A selection of recent examples of optical intrinsic imaging, fluorescence imaging (FLI and bioluminescence imaging (BLI to characterize the stroke pathology and engrafted stem cells are discussed. Special attention is paid to novel optimal reporter genes/probes for genetic labeling and tracking of stem cells and appropriate transgenic animal models. Requirements, advantages and limitations of these imaging platforms are critically discussed and placed into the context of other non-invasive techniques, e.g. magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and positron emission tomography (PET, which can be joined with optical imaging in multimodal approaches.

  9. Exenatide Induces Impairment of Autophagy Flux to Damage Rat Pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhiqiang; Huang, Lihua; Yu, Xiao; Yu, Can; Zhu, Hongwei; Li, Xia; Han, Duo; Huang, Hui

    2017-01-01

    The study aimed to explore the alteration of autophagy in rat pancreas treated with exenatide. Normal Sprague-Dawley rats and diabetes-model rats induced by 2-month high-sugar and high-fat diet and streptozotocin injection were subcutaneously injected with exenatide, respectively, for 10 weeks, with homologous rats treated with saline as control. Meanwhile, AR42J cells, pancreatic acinar cell line, were cultured with exenatide at doses of 5 pM for 3 days. The pancreas was disposed, and several sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin. Immunohistochemistry was used to measure the expressions of glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor (GLP-1R) and cysteine-aspartic acid protease-3 in rat pancreas, and Western blot was used to test the expressions of GLP-1R, light chain 3B-I and -II, and p62 in rat pancreas and AR42J cells. The data were expressed as mean (standard deviation) and analyzed by unpaired Student's t-test. Exenatide can induce pathological changes in rat pancreas. The GLP-1R, p62, light chain 3B-II, and cysteine-aspartic acid protease-3 in rat pancreas and AR42J cells treated with exenatide were significantly overexpressed. Exenatide can activate and upregulate its receptor, GLP-1R, then impair autophagy flux and activate apoptosis in the pancreatic acinar cell, thus damaging rat pancreas.

  10. Expression of CXCR3 on Adaptive and Innate Immune Cells Contributes Oviduct Pathology throughout Chlamydia muridarum Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Janina; Maxion, Heather; Champion, Cheryl I.; Liu, Guangchao; Kelly, Kathleen A.

    2017-01-01

    CXCR3 is a chemokine receptor expressed on a wide range of leukocytes, and it is involved in leukocyte migration throughout the blood and lymphatics. Specifically, CXCR3 is required for lymphocyte homing to the genital mucosa. When compared to wild type (WT) mice, CXCR3 deficiency (CXCR3−/−) mice infected with Chlamydia muridarum (C. muridarum) did not display impaired clearance and resolution of infection. However, they possessed significantly higher bacterial burden and lower levels of IFN-γ-producing TH1 cells. The knockouts also demonstrated a significant decrease in the level of activated conventional dendritic cells in the GT, ultimately leading to the decrease in activated TH1 cells. In addition, few activated plasmacytoid dendritic cells, which possess an inflammatory phenotype, were found in the lymph node of infected mice. This reduction in pDCs may be responsible for the decrease in neutrophils, which are acute inflammatory cells, in the CXCR3−/− mice. Due to the significantly reduced level of acute inflammation, these mice also possess a decrease in dilation and pathology in the oviduct. This demonstrates that the CXCR3−/− mice possess the ability to clear C. muridarum infections, but they do so without the increased inflammation and pathology in the GT. PMID:29552679

  11. Progressive Motor Neuron Pathology and the Role of Astrocytes in a Human Stem Cell Model of VCP-Related ALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire E. Hall

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Motor neurons (MNs and astrocytes (ACs are implicated in the pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, but their interaction and the sequence of molecular events leading to MN death remain unresolved. Here, we optimized directed differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs into highly enriched (> 85% functional populations of spinal cord MNs and ACs. We identify significantly increased cytoplasmic TDP-43 and ER stress as primary pathogenic events in patient-specific valosin-containing protein (VCP-mutant MNs, with secondary mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress. Cumulatively, these cellular stresses result in synaptic pathology and cell death in VCP-mutant MNs. We additionally identify a cell-autonomous VCP-mutant AC survival phenotype, which is not attributable to the same molecular pathology occurring in VCP-mutant MNs. Finally, through iterative co-culture experiments, we uncover non-cell-autonomous effects of VCP-mutant ACs on both control and mutant MNs. This work elucidates molecular events and cellular interplay that could guide future therapeutic strategies in ALS.

  12. The Pathological Spectrum of Systemic Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma (ALCL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivonne A. Montes-Mojarro

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL represents a group of malignant T-cell lymphoproliferations that share morphological and immunophenotypical features, namely strong CD30 expression and variable loss of T-cell markers, but differ in clinical presentation and prognosis. The recognition of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK fusion proteins as a result of chromosomal translocations or inversions was the starting point for the distinction of different subgroups of ALCL. According to their distinct clinical settings and molecular findings, the 2016 revised World Health Organization (WHO classification recognizes four different entities: systemic ALK-positive ALCL (ALK+ ALCL, systemic ALK-negative ALCL (ALK− ALCL, primary cutaneous ALCL (pC-ALCL, and breast implant-associated ALCL (BI-ALCL, the latter included as a provisional entity. ALK is rearranged in approximately 80% of systemic ALCL cases with one of its partner genes, most commonly NPM1, and is associated with favorable prognosis, whereas systemic ALK− ALCL shows heterogeneous clinical, phenotypical, and genetic features, underlining the different oncogenesis between these two entities. Recognition of the pathological spectrum of ALCL is crucial to understand its pathogenesis and its boundaries with other entities. In this review, we will focus on the morphological, immunophenotypical, and molecular features of systemic ALK+ and ALK− ALCL. In addition, BI-ALCL will be discussed.

  13. Correlation between metabolic tumor volume and pathologic tumor volume in squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, James D.; Chisholm, Karen M.; Daly, Megan E.; Wiegner, Ellen A.; Truong, Daniel; Iagaru, Andrei; Maxim, Peter G.; Loo, Billy W.; Graves, Edward E.; Kaplan, Michael J.; Kong, Christina; Le, Quynh-Thu

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To explore the relationship between pathologic tumor volume and volume estimated from different tumor segmentation techniques on 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) in oral cavity cancer. Materials and methods: Twenty-three patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the oral tongue had PET–CT scans before definitive surgery. Pathologic tumor volume was estimated from surgical specimens. Metabolic tumor volume (MTV) was defined from PET–CT scans as the volume of tumor above a given SUV threshold. Multiple SUV thresholds were explored including absolute SUV thresholds, relative SUV thresholds, and gradient-based techniques. Results: Multiple MTV’s were associated with pathologic tumor volume; however the correlation was poor (R 2 range 0.29–0.58). The ideal SUV threshold, defined as the SUV that generates an MTV equal to pathologic tumor volume, was independently associated with maximum SUV (p = 0.0005) and tumor grade (p = 0.024). MTV defined as a function of maximum SUV and tumor grade improved the prediction of pathologic tumor volume (R 2 = 0.63). Conclusions: Common SUV thresholds fail to predict pathologic tumor volume in head and neck cancer. The optimal technique that allows for integration of PET–CT with radiation treatment planning remains to be defined. Future investigation should incorporate biomarkers such as tumor grade into definitions of MTV.

  14. The Oral Pathology Related Articles Published in Iranian Journal of Pathology from 2006 to 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamim, Thorakkal

    2016-01-01

    There is a paucity of information about the oral pathology related articles published in a pathology journal. This study aimed to audit the oral pathology related articles published in Iranian Journal of Pathology (Iran J Pathol) from 2006 to 2015. Bibliometric analysis of issues of Iran J Pathol from 2006 to 2015 was performed using web-based search. The articles published were analyzed for type of article and individual topic of oral pathology. The articles published were also checked for authorship trends. Out of the total 49 published articles related to oral pathology, case reports (21) and original articles (18) contributed the major share. The highest number of oral pathology related articles was published in 2011, 2014 and 2015 with 8 articles each and the least published year was 2012 with 1 article. Among the oral pathology related articles published, spindle cell neoplasms (7) followed by salivary gland tumors (5), jaw tumors (4), oral granulomatous conditions (4), lymphomas (4), oral cancer (3) and odontogenic cysts (3) form the major attraction of the contributors. The largest numbers of published articles related to oral pathology were received from Tehran University of Medical Sciences; Tehran (7) followed by Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad (6) and Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (5). This paper may be considered as a baseline study for the bibliometric information regarding oral pathology related articles published in a pathology journal.

  15. Quantitation and renewal of alveolar and bronchiolar cell populations of rat lungs. Changes during some pathological processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritsch, Paul.

    1979-02-01

    The various cells of alveolar and bronchiolar tissues of rat lungs were studied qualitatively and quantitatively. In physiological conditions, the renewal rate of the cell populations is low and the frequency of the various cell types is constant. This stability, especially at the level of the alveolar tissue, was also found during the latency period and the development of radiation-induced lung cancers. A particular cellular population was demonstrated: marginated leukocyte pool at the level of the pulmonary circulation. This pool was different both qualitatively and quantitatively from the leukocytes of the systemic circulation and, in physiological conditions, behaved as a cellular reservoir of monocytes chiefly re-distributed according to the body needs. In pathological conditions, its fast migration contributed to the defence of the alveolar medium. A quantitative study of the renewal of alveolar macrophages showed that under 1 p. cent of the marginated leukocyte pool is used daily to keep up this population. This fraction undergoes a maturation stage by cellular division within the endoalveolar medium. In some pathological conditions, this division can be completely inhibited [fr

  16. Distribution and developmental changes of ghrelin-immunopositive cells in the pancreas of African ostrich chicks (Struthio camelus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J X; Li, P; Zhang, X T; Ye, L X

    2017-09-01

    Ghrelin, the endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R), is produced by multiple cell types and affects feeding behavior, metabolic regulation, and energy balance. In the mammalian pancreas, the types of endocrine cells that are immunoreactive to ghrelin vary. However, little was known about its distribution and developmental changes in the pancreas of African ostrich chicks (Struthio camelus). In the present study, the distribution, morphological characteristics, and developmental changes of ghrelin-immunopositive (ghrelin-ip) cells in the pancreas of African ostrich chicks were investigated using immunohistochemistry. Ghrelin-ip cells were found in both the pancreatic islets and acinar cell regions. The greatest number of ghrelin-ip cells were found in the pancreatic islets, and were primarily observed at the periphery of the islets; some ghrelin-ip cells were also located in the central portion of the pancreatic islets. Interestingly, from postnatal d 1 to d 90, there was a steady decrease in the number of ghrelin-ip cells in the pancreatic islets and acinar cell regions. These results clearly demonstrated that ghrelin-ip cells exist and decreased with age in the African ostrich pancreas from postnatal d 1 to d90. Thus, these findings indicated that ghrelin may be involved in the development of the pancreas in the African ostrich. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  17. Oleic acid and glucose regulate glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor expression in a rat pancreatic ductal cell line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Leshuai W.; McMahon Tobin, Grainne A.; Rouse, Rodney L., E-mail: rodney.rouse@fda.hhs.gov

    2012-10-15

    The glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor (GLP1R) plays a critical role in glucose metabolism and has become an important target for a growing class of drugs designed to treat type 2 diabetes. In vitro studies were designed to investigate the effect of the GLP1R agonist, exenatide (Ex4), in “on-target” RIN-5mF (islet) cells as well as in “off-target” AR42J (acinar) and DSL-6A/C1 (ductal) cells in a diabetic environment. Ex4 increased islet cell proliferation but did not affect acinar cells or ductal cells at relevant concentrations. A high caloric, high fat diet is a risk factor for impaired glucose tolerance and type-2 diabetes. An in vitro Oleic acid (OA) model was used to investigate the effect of Ex4 in a high calorie, high fat environment. At 0.1 and 0.4 mM, OA mildly decreased the proliferation of all pancreatic cell types. Ex4 did not potentiate the inhibitory effect of OA on cell proliferation. Akt phosphorylation in response to Ex4 was diminished in OA-treated ductal cells. GLP1R protein detected by western blot was time and concentration dependently decreased after glucose stimulation in OA-treated ductal cells. In ductal cells, OA treatment altered the intracellular localization of GLP1R and its co-localization with early endosome and recycling endosomes. Chloroquine (lysosomal inhibitor), N-acetyl-L-cysteine (reactive oxygen species scavenger) and wortmannin (a phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase inhibitor), fully or partially, rescued GLP1R protein in OA-pretreated, glucose-stimulated ductal cells. The impact of altered regulation on phenotype/function is presently unknown. However, these data suggest that GLP1R regulation in ductal cells can be altered by a high fat, high calorie environment. -- Highlights: ► Exenatide did not inhibit islet, acinar or ductal cell proliferation. ► GLP1R protein decreased after glucose stimulation in oleic acid-treated ductal cells. ► Oleic acid treatment altered localization of GLP1R with early and recycling

  18. Oleic acid and glucose regulate glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor expression in a rat pancreatic ductal cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Leshuai W.; McMahon Tobin, Grainne A.; Rouse, Rodney L.

    2012-01-01

    The glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor (GLP1R) plays a critical role in glucose metabolism and has become an important target for a growing class of drugs designed to treat type 2 diabetes. In vitro studies were designed to investigate the effect of the GLP1R agonist, exenatide (Ex4), in “on-target” RIN-5mF (islet) cells as well as in “off-target” AR42J (acinar) and DSL-6A/C1 (ductal) cells in a diabetic environment. Ex4 increased islet cell proliferation but did not affect acinar cells or ductal cells at relevant concentrations. A high caloric, high fat diet is a risk factor for impaired glucose tolerance and type-2 diabetes. An in vitro Oleic acid (OA) model was used to investigate the effect of Ex4 in a high calorie, high fat environment. At 0.1 and 0.4 mM, OA mildly decreased the proliferation of all pancreatic cell types. Ex4 did not potentiate the inhibitory effect of OA on cell proliferation. Akt phosphorylation in response to Ex4 was diminished in OA-treated ductal cells. GLP1R protein detected by western blot was time and concentration dependently decreased after glucose stimulation in OA-treated ductal cells. In ductal cells, OA treatment altered the intracellular localization of GLP1R and its co-localization with early endosome and recycling endosomes. Chloroquine (lysosomal inhibitor), N-acetyl-L-cysteine (reactive oxygen species scavenger) and wortmannin (a phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase inhibitor), fully or partially, rescued GLP1R protein in OA-pretreated, glucose-stimulated ductal cells. The impact of altered regulation on phenotype/function is presently unknown. However, these data suggest that GLP1R regulation in ductal cells can be altered by a high fat, high calorie environment. -- Highlights: ► Exenatide did not inhibit islet, acinar or ductal cell proliferation. ► GLP1R protein decreased after glucose stimulation in oleic acid-treated ductal cells. ► Oleic acid treatment altered localization of GLP1R with early and recycling

  19. Time course and cellular source of pancreatic regeneration following acute pancreatitis in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsaesser, H.P.A.; Adler, G.; Kern, H.F.

    1986-01-01

    The regenerative capacity of the different cell types in the rat exocrine pancreas has been studied in a model of hormone-induced acute pancreatitis in which pancreatic edema, inflammation, and acinar cell destruction were induced within 12 h of infusion of supramaximal concentrations of cerulein (5 micrograms/kg/h). A sequential biochemical and structural analysis of the pancreas in daily intervals was combined with the autoradiographic quantitation of labeling indices of five cell populations following 3 H-thymidine injection at days 1-7 after induction of pancreatitis. Desquamation of acinar cell apical cytoplasm and release of cytoplasmic segments into the acinar lumen on the first day following induction of pancreatitis led to formation of duct-like tubular complexes. Enzyme content in the pancreas decreased progressively following the formation of the edema to levels 15-20% of controls and remained reduced during the initial 5 days. Thymidine incorporation into total DNA showed a biphasic pattern with a distinct peak at day 1 and a second broader peak between days 4 and 7. Autoradiographic quantitation of labeling indices demonstrated the exclusive incorporation into intercalated duct cells and interstitial cells during the initial 24 h, while the second peak was predominantly due to labeling of acinar cells. Larger interlobular ducts and islets did not show changes in labeling index. In vivo labeling with 3 H-thymidine during the first day and analysis of labeling indices 14 days later showed the persistence of label in intercalated duct cells and interstitial cells and argued against the stem cell hypothesis and against transformation of duct cells into acinar cells

  20. Creating new β cells: cellular transmutation by genomic alchemy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Larry G

    2013-03-01

    To address insulin insufficiency, diabetes research has long focused on techniques for replacing insulin-producing β cells. Studies in mice have suggested that, under some conditions, α cells possess the capacity to transdifferentiate into β cells, although the mechanisms that drive this conversion are unclear. In this issue, Bramswig et al. analyzed the methylation states of purified human α, β, and acinar cells and found α cells exhibit intrinsic phenotypic plasticity associated with specific histone methylation profiles. In addition to expanding our understanding of this potential source of β cells, this compendium of carefully generated human gene expression and epigenomic data in islet cell subtypes constitutes a truly valuable resource for the field.

  1. Natural Infections With Pigeon Paramyxovirus Serotype 1: Pathologic Changes in Eurasian Collared-Doves ( Streptopelia decaocto) and Rock Pigeons ( Columba livia) in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isidoro-Ayza, M; Afonso, C L; Stanton, J B; Knowles, S; Ip, H S; White, C L; Fenton, H; Ruder, M G; Dolinski, A C; Lankton, J

    2017-07-01

    Pigeon paramyxovirus serotype 1 (PPMV-1) is a globally distributed, virulent member of the avian paramyxovirus serotype 1 serogroup that causes mortality in columbiformes and poultry. Following introduction into the United States in the mid-1980s, PPMV-1 rapidly spread causing numerous mortality events in Eurasian collared-doves ( Streptopelia decaocto) (ECDOs) and rock pigeons ( Columba livia) (ROPIs). The investigators reviewed pathological findings of 70 naturally infected, free-ranging columbiforms from 25 different mortality events in the United States. Immunohistochemistry targeting PPMV-1 nucleoprotein was used to determine the tissue distribution of the virus in a subset of 17 birds from 10 of the studied outbreaks. ECDOs (61 birds) and ROPIs (9 birds) were the only species in which PPMV-1-associated disease was confirmed by viral isolation and presence of histologic lesions. Acute to subacute tubulointerstitial nephritis and necrotizing pancreatitis were the most frequent histologic lesions, with immunolabeling of viral antigen in renal tubular epithelial cells and pancreatic acinar epithelium. Lymphoid depletion of bursa of Fabricius and spleen was common, but the presence of viral antigen in these organs was inconsistent among infected birds. Hepatocellular necrosis was occasionally present with immunolabeling of hypertrophic Kupffer cells, and immunopositive eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies were present in hepatocytes of 1 ECDO. Immunopositive lymphocytic choroiditis was present in 1 ECDO, while lymphocytic meningoencephalitis was frequent in ROPIs in absence of immunolabeling. This study demonstrates widespread presence of PPMV-1 antigen in association with histologic lesions, confirming the lethal potential of this virus in these particular bird species.

  2. Natural infections with pigeon paramyxovirus serotype 1: Pathologic changes in Eurasian collared-doves (Streptopelia decaocto) and rock pigeons (Columba livia) in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isidoro Ayza, Marcos; Afonso, C.L.; Stanton, J.B.; Knowles, Susan N.; Ip, Hon S.; White, C. LeAnn; Fenton, Heather; Ruder, M.G.; Dolinski, A. C.; Lankton, Julia S.

    2017-01-01

    Pigeon paramyxovirus serotype 1 (PPMV-1) is a globally distributed, virulent member of the avian paramyxovirus serotype 1 serogroup that causes mortality in columbiformes and poultry. Following introduction into the United States in the mid-1980s, PPMV-1 rapidly spread causing numerous mortality events in Eurasian collared-doves (Streptopelia decaocto) (ECDOs) and rock pigeons (Columba livia) (ROPIs). The investigators reviewed pathological findings of 70 naturally infected, free-ranging columbiforms from 25 different mortality events in the United States. Immunohistochemistry targeting PPMV-1 nucleoprotein was used to determine the tissue distribution of the virus in a subset of 17 birds from 10 of the studied outbreaks. ECDOs (61 birds) and ROPIs (9 birds) were the only species in which PPMV-1-associated disease was confirmed by viral isolation and presence of histologic lesions. Acute to subacute tubulointerstitial nephritis and necrotizing pancreatitis were the most frequent histologic lesions, with immunolabeling of viral antigen in renal tubular epithelial cells and pancreatic acinar epithelium. Lymphoid depletion of bursa of Fabricius and spleen was common, but the presence of viral antigen in these organs was inconsistent among infected birds. Hepatocellular necrosis was occasionally present with immunolabeling of hypertrophic Kupffer cells, and immunopositive eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies were present in hepatocytes of 1 ECDO. Immunopositive lymphocytic choroiditis was present in 1 ECDO, while lymphocytic meningoencephalitis was frequent in ROPIs in absence of immunolabeling. This study demonstrates widespread presence of PPMV-1 antigen in association with histologic lesions, confirming the lethal potential of this virus in these particular bird species.

  3. Exocrine pancreas glutamate secretion help to sustain enterocyte nutritional needs under protein restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araya, S; Kuster, E; Gluch, D; Mariotta, L; Lutz, C; Reding, T V; Graf, R; Verrey, F; Camargo, S M R

    2018-04-01

    Glutamine (Gln) is the most concentrated amino acid in blood and considered conditionally essential. Its requirement is increased during physiological stress, such as malnutrition or illness, despite its production by muscle and other organs. In the malnourished state, Gln has been suggested to have a trophic effect on the exocrine pancreas and small intestine. However, the Gln transport capacity, the functional relationship of these two organs, and the potential role of the Gln-glutamate (Glu) cycle are unknown. We observed that pancreatic acinar cells express lower levels of Glu than Gln transporters. Consistent with this expression pattern, the rate of Glu influx into acinar cells was approximately sixfold lower than that of Gln. During protein restriction, acinar cell glutaminase expression was increased and Gln accumulation was maintained. Moreover, Glu secretion by acinar cells into pancreatic juice and thus into the lumen of the small intestine was maintained. In the intestinal lumen, Glu absorption was preserved and Glu dehydrogenase expression was augmented, potentially providing the substrates for increasing energy production via the TCA cycle. Our findings suggest that one mechanism by which Gln exerts a positive effect on exocrine pancreas and small intestine involves the Gln metabolism in acinar cells and the secretion of Glu into the small intestine lumen. The exocrine pancreas acinar cells not only avidly accumulate Gln but metabolize Gln to generate energy and to synthesize Glu for secretion in the pancreatic juice. Secreted Glu is suggested to play an important role during malnourishment in sustaining small intestinal homeostasis. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Glutamine (Gln) has been suggested to have a trophic effect on exocrine pancreas and small intestine in malnourished states, but the mechanism is unknown. In this study, we suggest that this trophic effect derives from an interorgan relationship between exocrine pancreas and small intestine for Gln

  4. Bioluminescence imaging of β cells and intrahepatic insulin gene activity under normal and pathological conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tokio Katsumata

    Full Text Available In diabetes research, bioluminescence imaging (BLI has been applied in studies of β-cell impairment, development, and islet transplantation. To develop a mouse model that enables noninvasive imaging of β cells, we generated a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC transgenic mouse in which a mouse 200-kbp genomic fragment comprising the insulin I gene drives luciferase expression (Ins1-luc BAC transgenic mouse. BLI of mice was performed using the IVIS Spectrum system after intraperitoneal injection of luciferin, and the bioluminescence signal from the pancreatic region analyzed. When compared with MIP-Luc-VU mice [FVB/N-Tg(Ins1-lucVUPwrs/J] expressing luciferase under the control of the 9.2-kbp mouse insulin I promoter (MIP, the bioluminescence emission from Ins1-luc BAC transgenic mice was enhanced approximately 4-fold. Streptozotocin-treated Ins1-luc BAC transgenic mice developed severe diabetes concomitant with a sharp decline in the BLI signal intensity in the pancreas. Conversely, mice fed a high-fat diet for 8 weeks showed an increase in the signal, reflecting a decrease or increase in the β-cell mass. Although the bioluminescence intensity of the islets correlated well with the number of isolated islets in vitro, the intensity obtained from a living mouse in vivo did not necessarily reflect an absolute quantification of the β-cell mass under pathological conditions. On the other hand, adenovirus-mediated gene transduction of β-cell-related transcription factors in Ins1-luc BAC transgenic mice generated luminescence from the hepatic region for more than 1 week. These results demonstrate that BLI in Ins1-luc BAC transgenic mice provides a noninvasive method of imaging islet β cells and extrapancreatic activity of the insulin gene in the liver under normal and pathological conditions.

  5. Central nervous system lesions in adult T-cell leukaemia: MRI and pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitajima, M.; Korogi, Y.; Shigematsu, Y.; Liang, L.; Takahashi, M.; Matsuoka, M.; Yamamoto, T.; Jhono, M.; Eto, K.

    2002-01-01

    Adult T-cell leukaemia (ATL) is a T-cell lymphoid neoplasm caused by human T-cell leukaemia virus type I (HTLV-I). Radiological findings in central nervous system (CNS) involvement have not been well characterised. We reviewed the MRI of 18 patients with ATL who developed new neurological symptoms or signs, and pathology specimens from a 53-year-old woman who died of ATL. MRI findings were divided into three categories: definite, probable, and other abnormal. Definite and probable findings were defined as ATL-related. The characteristic findings were multiple parenchymal masses with or without contrast enhancement adjacent to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) spaced and the deep grey matter of both cerebral hemispheres, plus leptomeningeal lesion. One patient had both cerebral and spinal cord lesions. Other abnormal findings in eight patients included one case of leukoencephalopathy caused by methotrexate. The histology findings consisted of clusters of tumour cells along perivascular spaces, and scattered infiltration of the parenchyma, with nests of tumour cells. Leptomeningeal infiltration by tumour spread into the parenchyma and secondary degeneration of the neuronal tracts was observed. MRI was useful for detecting CNS invasion by ATL and differentiating it from other abnormalities. The MRI findings seemed to correlate well with the histological changes. (orig.)

  6. Central nervous system lesions in adult T-cell leukaemia: MRI and pathology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitajima, M.; Korogi, Y.; Shigematsu, Y.; Liang, L.; Takahashi, M. [Department of Radiology, Kumamoto University School of Medicine, Honjo, Kumamoto (Japan); Matsuoka, M. [Second Division of Internal Medicine, Kumamoto University School of Medicine, Honjo, Kumamoto (Japan); Yamamoto, T. [Department of Pathology, Kumamoto University School of Medicine, Honjo, Kumamoto (Japan); Jhono, M. [Department of Dermatology, Kumamoto University School of Medicine, Honjo, Kumamoto (Japan); Eto, K. [The National Institute for Minamata Disease, Minamata (Japan)

    2002-07-01

    Adult T-cell leukaemia (ATL) is a T-cell lymphoid neoplasm caused by human T-cell leukaemia virus type I (HTLV-I). Radiological findings in central nervous system (CNS) involvement have not been well characterised. We reviewed the MRI of 18 patients with ATL who developed new neurological symptoms or signs, and pathology specimens from a 53-year-old woman who died of ATL. MRI findings were divided into three categories: definite, probable, and other abnormal. Definite and probable findings were defined as ATL-related. The characteristic findings were multiple parenchymal masses with or without contrast enhancement adjacent to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) spaced and the deep grey matter of both cerebral hemispheres, plus leptomeningeal lesion. One patient had both cerebral and spinal cord lesions. Other abnormal findings in eight patients included one case of leukoencephalopathy caused by methotrexate. The histology findings consisted of clusters of tumour cells along perivascular spaces, and scattered infiltration of the parenchyma, with nests of tumour cells. Leptomeningeal infiltration by tumour spread into the parenchyma and secondary degeneration of the neuronal tracts was observed. MRI was useful for detecting CNS invasion by ATL and differentiating it from other abnormalities. The MRI findings seemed to correlate well with the histological changes. (orig.)

  7. Pathology of the region of the knee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aufdermaur, M.

    1981-01-01

    Radiological, clinical and pathologic-anatomical findings seen in four types of disorders of the region of the knee jointare described. An attempt is made to explain the clinical symptomatology on the basis of pathologic-anatomical findings. It is demonstrated that the histology of a giant cell neoplasm does not permit conclusions as to prognosis. Etiology and pathogenesis of villonodular synovitis and of chondrocalcinosis are unexplained. Pathologic-anatomical findings of chondromalacia patellae are those of early osteoarthrosis. (orig.) [de

  8. Pathology of the region of the knee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aufdermaur, M.

    1981-09-01

    Radiological, clinical and pathologic-anatomical findings seen in four types of disorders of the region of the knee jointare described. An attempt is made to explain the clinical symptomatology on the basis of pathologic-anatomical findings. It is demonstrated that the histology of a giant cell neoplasm does not permit conclusions as to prognosis. Etiology and pathogenesis of villonodular synovitis and of chondrocalcinosis are unexplained. Pathologic-anatomical findings of chondromalacia patellae are those of early osteoarthrosis.

  9. Pathology-Dependent Effects Linked to Small Heat Shock Proteins Expression: An Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.-P. Arrigo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Small heat shock proteins (small Hsps are stress-induced molecular chaperones that act as holdases towards polypeptides that have lost their folding in stress conditions or consequently of mutations in their coding sequence. A cellular protection against the deleterious effects mediated by damaged proteins is thus provided to cells. These chaperones are also highly expressed in response to protein conformational and inflammatory diseases and cancer pathologies. Through specific and reversible modifications in their phospho-oligomeric organization, small Hsps can chaperone appropriate client proteins in order to provide cells with resistance to different types of injuries or pathological conditions. By helping cells to better cope with their pathological status, their expression can be either beneficial, such as in diseases characterized by pathological cell degeneration, or deleterious when they are required for tumor cell survival. Moreover, small Hsps are actively released by cells and can act as immunogenic molecules that have dual effects depending on the pathology. The cellular consequences linked to their expression levels and relationships with other Hsps as well as therapeutic strategies are discussed in view of their dynamic structural organization required to interact with specific client polypeptides.

  10. Robust Nucleus/Cell Detection and Segmentation in Digital Pathology and Microscopy Images: A Comprehensive Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Fuyong; Yang, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Digital pathology and microscopy image analysis is widely used for comprehensive studies of cell morphology or tissue structure. Manual assessment is labor intensive and prone to interobserver variations. Computer-aided methods, which can significantly improve the objectivity and reproducibility, have attracted a great deal of interest in recent literature. Among the pipeline of building a computer-aided diagnosis system, nucleus or cell detection and segmentation play a very important role to describe the molecular morphological information. In the past few decades, many efforts have been devoted to automated nucleus/cell detection and segmentation. In this review, we provide a comprehensive summary of the recent state-of-the-art nucleus/cell segmentation approaches on different types of microscopy images including bright-field, phase-contrast, differential interference contrast, fluorescence, and electron microscopies. In addition, we discuss the challenges for the current methods and the potential future work of nucleus/cell detection and segmentation.

  11. Chronic pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleeff, Jorg; Whitcomb, David C; Shimosegawa, Tooru; Esposito, Irene; Lerch, Markus M; Gress, Thomas; Mayerle, Julia; Drewes, Asbjørn Mohr; Rebours, Vinciane; Akisik, Fatih; Muñoz, J Enrique Domínguez; Neoptolemos, John P

    2017-09-07

    Chronic pancreatitis is defined as a pathological fibro-inflammatory syndrome of the pancreas in individuals with genetic, environmental and/or other risk factors who develop persistent pathological responses to parenchymal injury or stress. Potential causes can include toxic factors (such as alcohol or smoking), metabolic abnormalities, idiopathic mechanisms, genetics, autoimmune responses and obstructive mechanisms. The pathophysiology of chronic pancreatitis is fairly complex and includes acinar cell injury, acinar stress responses, duct dysfunction, persistent or altered inflammation, and/or neuro-immune crosstalk, but these mechanisms are not completely understood. Chronic pancreatitis is characterized by ongoing inflammation of the pancreas that results in progressive loss of the endocrine and exocrine compartment owing to atrophy and/or replacement with fibrotic tissue. Functional consequences include recurrent or constant abdominal pain, diabetes mellitus (endocrine insufficiency) and maldigestion (exocrine insufficiency). Diagnosing early-stage chronic pancreatitis is challenging as changes are subtle, ill-defined and overlap those of other disorders. Later stages are characterized by variable fibrosis and calcification of the pancreatic parenchyma; dilatation, distortion and stricturing of the pancreatic ducts; pseudocysts; intrapancreatic bile duct stricturing; narrowing of the duodenum; and superior mesenteric, portal and/or splenic vein thrombosis. Treatment options comprise medical, radiological, endoscopic and surgical interventions, but evidence-based approaches are limited. This Primer highlights the major progress that has been made in understanding the pathophysiology, presentation, prevalence and management of chronic pancreatitis and its complications.

  12. Microglial pathology

    OpenAIRE

    Streit, Wolfgang J; Xue, Qing-Shan; Tischer, Jasmin; Bechmann, Ingo

    2014-01-01

    This paper summarizes pathological changes that affect microglial cells in the human brain during aging and in aging-related neurodegenerative diseases, primarily Alzheimer’s disease (AD). It also provides examples of microglial changes that have been observed in laboratory animals during aging and in some experimentally induced lesions and disease models. Dissimilarities and similarities between humans and rodents are discussed in an attempt to generate a current understanding of microglial ...

  13. ATP release, generation and hydrolysis in exocrine pancreatic duct cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kowal, Justyna Magdalena; Yegutkin, G.G.; Novak, Ivana

    2015-01-01

    Extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) regulates pancreatic duct function via P2Y and P2X receptors. It is well known that ATP is released from upstream pancreatic acinar cells. The ATP homeostasis in pancreatic ducts, which secrete bicarbonate-rich fluid, has not yet been examined. First, ou...... may be important in pancreas physiology and potentially in pancreas pathophysiology....... aim was to reveal whether pancreatic duct cells release ATP locally and whether they enzymatically modify extracellular nucleotides/sides. Second, we wished to explore which physiological and pathophysiological factors may be important in these processes. Using a human pancreatic duct cell line, Capan...

  14. Understanding pathologic variants of renal cell carcinoma: distilling therapeutic opportunities from biologic complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuch, Brian; Amin, Ali; Armstrong, Andrew J; Eble, John N; Ficarra, Vincenzo; Lopez-Beltran, Antonio; Martignoni, Guido; Rini, Brian I; Kutikov, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Once believed to represent a uniform malignant phenotype, renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is now viewed as a diverse group of cancers that arise from the nephron. To review the pathologic characteristics, clinical behavior, molecular biology, and systemic therapy options of recognized RCC histologic subtypes. A systematic review of English-language articles was performed using the Medline and Web of Science databases. Manuscripts were selected with consensus of the coauthors and evaluated using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) criteria. The major findings of the evaluated manuscripts are discussed with an emphasis on the description of the pathologic features, clinical behavior, prognosis, and therapeutic strategies. Classification schemes for kidney cancer have undergone dramatic changes over the past two decades. Improvements in these classification schemes are important, as pathologic variants differ not only in disease biology, but also in clinical behavior, prognosis, and response to systemic therapy. In the era of genomic medicine, further refinements in characterization of RCC subtypes will be critical to the progress of this burgeoning clinical space. Kidney cancer can be subdivided into related but different cancers that arise from the kidney's tubules. In this article we review current classifications for kidney cancer, discuss their characteristics, and provide an overview of each subtype's clinical behavior and treatment. We stress that each subtype harbors unique biology and thus responds differently to available treatment strategies. Copyright © 2014 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Surgical treatment of limbic epilepsy associated with extrahippocampal lesions: the problem of dual pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lévesque, M F; Nakasato, N; Vinters, H V; Babb, T L

    1991-09-01

    The authors present their review of 178 patients who underwent en bloc temporal lobectomies as surgical treatment for intractable epilepsy. Hippocampal cell density was quantitatively analyzed and the histology of the anterior temporal lobe was reviewed. Fifty-four patients (30.3%) had evidence of extrahippocampal lesions in addition to neuronal cell loss within the hippocampus (the dual pathology group). The pattern of cell loss was analyzed in the remaining 124 cases (69.7%) with no extrahippocampal pathology, and compared with that of the dual pathology group and a control group of four nonepileptic patients. Hippocampal cell loss was found in almost all epileptic patients compared to the control group. Severe cell loss greater than 30% of control values was found in 88.7% of patients without extrahippocampal lesions, but in only 51.8% of patients with dual pathology. The difference between these two groups was statistically significant (p less than 0.001). In the dual pathology group, lesions of different pathology had a significant relationship with the degree of hippocampal cell loss: all 12 patients with glioma had mild cell loss, whereas all 13 patients with heterotopia were associated with severe cell loss. Severity of hippocampal cell loss was also analyzed in relation to seizure history: a prior severe head injury was associated with severe cell loss. Other factors such as seizure duration, secondary generalization, or family history of seizures were not associated with hippocampal damage. Dual pathology may produce a combination of neocortical and temporolimbic epilepsies that warrants a precise definition of the true epileptogenic area prior to surgical treatment.

  16. Dual Pathology of Mandible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajurkar, Suday G; Deshpande, Mohan D; Kazi, Noaman; Jadhav, Dhanashree; Ranadive, Pallavi; Ingole, Snehal

    2017-01-01

    Aneurysmal Bone cyst (ABC)is a rare benign lesion of the bone which is infrequent in craniofacial region (12%). Rapid growth pattern causing bone expansion and facial asymmetry is a characteristic feature of ABC. Giant cell lesion is another distinct pathological entity. Here we present to you a rare case of dual pathology in an 11 year old female patient who presented with a large expansile lesion in the left hemimandible. All radiographic investigations were suggestive of ABC, aspiration of the lesion resulted in blood aspirate. However only after a histologic examination the dual nature of the lesion was revealed.

  17. Various ocular MR imaging in a mouse implanted with a new cell line of retinoblastoma and the correlation with the pathology: preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong Hun; Kim, Il Joong; Yang, Jae Han; Byun, Joo Nam; Lee, Bong Jae [Chosun University, College of Medicine, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jeong Hun; Yu, Young Suk [Seoul National University, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-05-15

    We wanted to show various MR and correlated pathologic images of retinoblastoma in nude mouse with a new human retinoblastoma cell line (SNUOT-Rb1), which was inoculated into the intravitreous cavity. The established cell line was inoculated into the intravitreous cavity of 36 eyeballs of 18 mice and the transplanted retinoblastoma was examined for 3 months. The T1-weighted (T1WI), T2-weighted (T2WI), and contrast enhanced (Gd-DTPA) T1-weighted images were obtained with using a small loop coil. After scanning, the mice's eyeballs were extracted and the hematoxylin and eosin stained specimens were examined with a microscope. We compared the MR imagings with pathologic findings and evaluated the character of the tumors. The innoculated cells in the eyeballs of the mice grew into retinoblastoma (23/36, 64%). The eyeballs with retinoblastoma protruded externally and showed focal hemorrhage. Most tumors showed iso-signal intensity on TIWI (13/23, 57%), high signal intensity on T2WI (17/23, 74%), and good enhancement (21/23, 91%) with contrast. Almost all of the tumors (n = 21) were located in the retina and three extraretinal tumors were confirmed by pathology. Involvement of the optic nerve was suspected on MRI and this was confirmed by pathology in 6 cases and 5 cases, respectively. We could demonstrate various MR imagings of transplanted retinoblastoma by using the new tumor cell line in vivo.

  18. Various ocular MR imaging in a mouse implanted with a new cell line of retinoblastoma and the correlation with the pathology: preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dong Hun; Kim, Il Joong; Yang, Jae Han; Byun, Joo Nam; Lee, Bong Jae; Kim, Jeong Hun; Yu, Young Suk

    2007-01-01

    We wanted to show various MR and correlated pathologic images of retinoblastoma in nude mouse with a new human retinoblastoma cell line (SNUOT-Rb1), which was inoculated into the intravitreous cavity. The established cell line was inoculated into the intravitreous cavity of 36 eyeballs of 18 mice and the transplanted retinoblastoma was examined for 3 months. The T1-weighted (T1WI), T2-weighted (T2WI), and contrast enhanced (Gd-DTPA) T1-weighted images were obtained with using a small loop coil. After scanning, the mice's eyeballs were extracted and the hematoxylin and eosin stained specimens were examined with a microscope. We compared the MR imagings with pathologic findings and evaluated the character of the tumors. The innoculated cells in the eyeballs of the mice grew into retinoblastoma (23/36, 64%). The eyeballs with retinoblastoma protruded externally and showed focal hemorrhage. Most tumors showed iso-signal intensity on TIWI (13/23, 57%), high signal intensity on T2WI (17/23, 74%), and good enhancement (21/23, 91%) with contrast. Almost all of the tumors (n = 21) were located in the retina and three extraretinal tumors were confirmed by pathology. Involvement of the optic nerve was suspected on MRI and this was confirmed by pathology in 6 cases and 5 cases, respectively. We could demonstrate various MR imagings of transplanted retinoblastoma by using the new tumor cell line in vivo

  19. Interleukin-6 from subchondral bone mesenchymal stem cells contributes to the pathological phenotypes of experimental osteoarthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaofeng; Cao, Lei; Li, Fan; Ma, Chao; Liu, Guangwang; Wang, Qiugen

    2018-01-01

    As a main cause of morbidity in the aged population, osteoarthritis (OA) is characterized by cartilage destruction, synovium inflammation, osteophytes, and subchondral bone sclerosis. To date its etiology remains elusive. Recent data highlight an important role of subchondral bone in the onset and progression of OA. Therefore, elucidating the mechanisms underlying abnormal subchondral bone could be of importance in the treatment of OA. Interleukin-6 is a proinflammatory cytokine involved in many physiological and pathological processes. Although in vitro and in vivo studies have indicated that IL-6 is an important cytokine in the physiopathogenesis of OA, its effects on subchondral bone have not been studied in OA animal models. In this study, we aimed to i) investigate the role of IL-6 in the pathological phenotypes of OA subchondral bone MSCs including increase in cell numbers, mineralization disorder and abnormal type I collagen production; ii) explore whether the systemic blockade of IL-6 signaling could alleviate the pathological phenotypes of experimental OA. We found that IL-6 was over-secreted by OA subchondral bone MSCs compared with normal MSCs and IL-6/STAT3 signaling was over-activated in subchondral bone MSCs, which contributed to the pathological phenotypes of OA subchondral bone MSCs. More importantly, systemic inhibition of IL-6/STAT3 signaling with IL-6 antibody or STAT3 inhibitor AG490 decreased the severity of pathological phenotypes of OA subchondral bone MSCs and cartilage lesions in OA. Our findings provide strong evidence for a pivotal role for IL-6 signaling in OA and open up new therapeutic perspectives. PMID:29736207

  20. Microglial pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streit, Wolfgang J; Xue, Qing-Shan; Tischer, Jasmin; Bechmann, Ingo

    2014-09-26

    This paper summarizes pathological changes that affect microglial cells in the human brain during aging and in aging-related neurodegenerative diseases, primarily Alzheimer's disease (AD). It also provides examples of microglial changes that have been observed in laboratory animals during aging and in some experimentally induced lesions and disease models. Dissimilarities and similarities between humans and rodents are discussed in an attempt to generate a current understanding of microglial pathology and its significance during aging and in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer dementia (AD). The identification of dystrophic (senescent) microglia has created an ostensible conflict with prior work claiming a role for activated microglia and neuroinflammation during normal aging and in AD, and this has raised a basic question: does the brain's immune system become hyperactive (inflamed) or does it become weakened (senescent) in elderly and demented people, and what is the impact on neuronal function and cognition? Here we strive to reconcile these seemingly contradictory notions by arguing that both low-grade neuroinflammation and microglial senescence are the result of aging-associated free radical injury. Both processes are damaging for microglia as they synergistically exhaust this essential cell population to the point where the brain's immune system is effete and unable to support neuronal function.

  1. Robust Nucleus/Cell Detection and Segmentation in Digital Pathology and Microscopy Images: A Comprehensive Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Fuyong; Yang, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Digital pathology and microscopy image analysis is widely used for comprehensive studies of cell morphology or tissue structure. Manual assessment is labor intensive and prone to inter-observer variations. Computer-aided methods, which can significantly improve the objectivity and reproducibility, have attracted a great deal of interest in recent literatures. Among the pipeline of building a computer-aided diagnosis system, nucleus or cell detection and segmentation play a very important role to describe the molecular morphological information. In the past few decades, many efforts have been devoted to automated nucleus/cell detection and segmentation. In this review, we provide a comprehensive summary of the recent state-of-the-art nucleus/cell segmentation approaches on different types of microscopy images including bright-field, phase-contrast, differential interference contrast (DIC), fluorescence, and electron microscopies. In addition, we discuss the challenges for the current methods and the potential future work of nucleus/cell detection and segmentation. PMID:26742143

  2. Salivary gland masses. Dynamic MR imaging and pathologic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jinho; Inoue, Shingo; Ishizuka, Yasuhito; Shindo, Hiroaki; Kawanishi, Masayuki; Kakizaki, Dai; Abe, Kimihiko; Ebihara, Yoshiro

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate the efficiency of dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the diagnosis of salivary gland masses. We retrospectively examined 19 salivary gland masses that were pathologically diagnosed by surgical operation or biopsy. We obtained T1- and T2-weighted images on MRI, performed dynamic studies on each mass and examined the correlation between enhancement patterns and pathological findings. Four enhancement patterns were recognized on contrast-enhanced MRI: type 1 showed marked, homogeneous enhancement; type 2 slights, homogeneous enhancement; type 3 marginal enhancement; and type 4 poor enhancement of the mass. Most pleomorphic adenomas had a type 1 enhancement pattern, but two had a type 2 pattern. Pathologically, each mass enhancement pattern had different tumor cell and matrix components. Warthin's tumor generally showed the type 4 pattern. Primary malignant tumors of the salivary gland all showed the type 3 pattern, and pathological specimens showed many tumor cells along the marginal portion of the tumor. One inflammatory cyst and one Warthin's tumor also showed the type 3 pattern. Except for metastatic renal cell carcinoma, the enhancement patterns of late phase images and dynamic study images were the same. Dynamic MRI added little diagnostic information about salivary gland masses, but the contrast-enhanced MR features correlated well with the pathological findings. (author)

  3. Incidentally discovered goblet cell carcinoid clinically presenting as acute intestinal obstruction: A case report with review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishat Afroz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Goblet cell carcinoid (GCC is a rare variant of carcinoid tumor that exclusively involves the appendix. It usually occurs in 5 th -6 th decade with the most common clinical presentation being acute appendicitis. The natural history of this tumor is intermediate between carcinoids and adenocarcinomas. We here report a case of GCC diagnosed incidentally in a patient presenting with acute intestinal obstruction. Ultrasonographic examination supported the clinical diagnosis of acute intestinal obstruction, following which the patient underwent laparotomy and resection of ileum along with appendix was done. On gross pathological examination, a nodular growth was present on the tip and body of appendix that was yellow in color with a semi-solid to mucoid consistency on cut section. On microscopy, lakes of mucin with few acinar structures floating in them were seen. The submucosa as well as serosa were infiltrated by clusters of goblet cells and well-formed acini, with little atypia. Glands and nests were positive for per-iodic acid Schiff and immunohistochemistry showed focal chromogranin positivity in glandular structures, thereby confirming the diagnosis of GCC. Although the prognosis of GCC is better than adenocarcinomas, it is one of the carcinoids having a poorer outcome when compared with other variants of carcinoid tumor. Therefore, it is important to rule out other differential diagnoses of goblet cell carcinoid, the most important being mucinous adenocarcinomas.

  4. A Simple Model to Study Tau Pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander L. Houck

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tau proteins play a role in the stabilization of microtubules, but in pathological conditions, tauopathies, tau is modified by phosphorylation and can aggregate into aberrant aggregates. These aggregates could be toxic to cells, and different cell models have been used to test for compounds that might prevent these tau modifications. Here, we have used a cell model involving the overexpression of human tau in human embryonic kidney 293 cells. In human embryonic kidney 293 cells expressing tau in a stable manner, we have been able to replicate the phosphorylation of intracellular tau. This intracellular tau increases its own level of phosphorylation and aggregates, likely due to the regulatory effect of some growth factors on specific tau kinases such as GSK3. In these conditions, a change in secreted tau was observed. Reversal of phosphorylation and aggregation of tau was found by the use of lithium, a GSK3 inhibitor. Thus, we propose this as a simple cell model to study tau pathology in nonneuronal cells due to their viability and ease to work with.

  5. Changes in functioning of rat submandibular salivary gland under streptozotocin-induced diabetes are associated with alterations of Ca2+ signaling and Ca2+ transporting pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedirko, N V; Kruglikov, I A; Kopach, O V; Vats, J A; Kostyuk, P G; Voitenko, N V

    2006-03-01

    Xerostomia and pathological thirst are troublesome complications of diabetes mellitus associated with impaired functioning of salivary glands; however, their cellular mechanisms are not yet determined. Isolated acinar cells were loaded with Ca2+ indicators fura-2/AM for measuring cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) or mag-fura-2/AM-inside the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). We found a dramatic decrease in pilocarpine-stimulated saliva flow, protein content and amylase activity in rats after 6 weeks of diabetes vs. healthy animals. This was accompanied with rise in resting [Ca2+]i and increased potency of acetylcholine (ACh) and carbachol (CCh) but not norepinephrine (NE) to induce [Ca2+]i transients in acinar cells from diabetic animals. However, [Ca2+]i transients mediated by Ca2+ release from ER stores (induced by application of either ACh, CCh, NE, or ionomycin in Ca2+-free extracellular medium) were decreased under diabetes. Application of inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate led to smaller Ca2+ release from ER under the diabetes. Both plasmalemma and ER Ca2+-ATPases activity was reduced and the latter showed the increased affinity to ATP under the diabetes. We conclude that the diabetes caused impairment of salivary cells functions that, on the cellular level, associates with Ca2+ overload, increased Ca2+-mobilizing ability of muscarinic but not adrenergic receptors, decreased Ca2+-ATPases activity and ER Ca2+ content.

  6. Pathological stage after neoadjuvant chemoradiation and esophagectomy superiorly predicts survival in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Chia-Chun; Cheng, Jason Chia-Hsien; Tsai, Chiao-Ling; Lee, Jang-Ming; Huang, Pei-Ming; Lin, Chia-Chi; Hsu, Chih-Hung; Hsieh, Min-Shu; Chang, Yih-Leong; Hsu, Feng-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose: To assess the usefulness of pathological stage according to the 7th edition of the Union for International Cancer Control–American Joint Committee on Cancer (UICC–AJCC) as a prognostic tool in patients undergoing neoadjuvant chemoradiation followed by esophagectomy (trimodality therapy, TMT) for locally advanced esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Material and methods: One hundred twenty-five eligible patients completing TMT were enrolled for analysis. The clinical (cTNM7) and pathological (ypTNM7) stage groups of their tumors were prospectively classified, and re-grouped by the 6th edition (ypTNM6). Survival was analyzed using the Kaplan–Meier method. The Cox proportional hazard model and the Akaike information criterion (AIC) were used to compare the performance of staging systems. Results: With a median follow-up of 24.6 months, 54 patients (43.2%) died. Forty patients (32%) achieved pathological complete remission (pCR). The median survival was 31.8 months. On multivariate analysis, ypTNM7 (but not pCR or pN) was the only independent factor affecting overall survival (p < 0.001). The ypTNM7 was superior to cTNM7 or ypTNM6 in predicting both overall and recurrence-free survival after TMT based on AIC values and Cox proportional hazard model analysis. Conclusions: In patients with locally advanced esophageal squamous cell carcinoma undergoing TMT, ypTNM7 is the best predictor of survival

  7. Light microscopic detection of sugar residues in glycoconjugates of salivary glands and the pancreas with lectin-horseradish peroxidase conjugates. I. Mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, B A; Spicer, S S

    1983-12-01

    Mouse salivary glands and pancreases were stained with a battery of ten horseradish peroxidase-conjugated lectins. Lectin staining revealed striking differences in the structure of oligosaccharides of stored intracellular secretory glycoproteins and glycoconjugates associated with the surface of epithelial cells lining excretory ducts. The percentage of acinar cells containing terminal alpha-N-acetylgalactosamine residues varied greatly in submandibular glands of 30 male mice, but all submandibular acinar cells contained oligosaccharides with terminal sialic acid and penultimate beta-galactose residues. The last named dimer was abundant in secretory glycoprotein of all mucous acinar cells in murine sublingual glands and an additional 20-50% of these cells in all glands contained terminal N-acetylglucosamine residues. In contrast, terminal alpha-N-acetylgalactosamine was abundant in sublingual serous demilune secretions. Serous acinar cells in the exorbital lacrimal gland, posterior lingual gland, parotid gland and pancreas exhibited a staining pattern unique to each organ. In contrast, the apical cytoplasm and surface of striated duct epithelial cells in the submandibular, sublingual, parotid and exorbital lacrimal gland stained similarly. A comparison of staining with conjugated lectins reported biochemically to have very similar carbohydrate binding specificity has revealed some remarkable differences in their reactivity, suggesting different binding specificity for the same terminal sugars having different glycosidic linkages or with different penultimate sugar residues.

  8. Cell-specific expression of the glucocorticoid receptor within granular convoluted tubules of the rat submaxillary gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antakly, T.; Zhang, C.X.; Sarrieau, A.; Raquidan, D.

    1991-01-01

    The submaxillary gland, a heterogeneous tissue composed essentially of two functionally distinct cell types (tubular epithelial and acinar), offers an interesting system in which to study the mechanisms of steroid-dependent growth and differentiation. One cell type, the granular convoluted tubular (GCT) cell, secretes a large number of physiologically important polypeptides, including epidermal and nerve growth factors. Two steroids, androgens and glucocorticoids, greatly influence the growth, differentiation, and secretory activity of GCT cells. Because glucocorticoids can partially mimic or potentiate androgen effects, it has been thought that glucocorticoids act via androgen receptors. Since the presence of glucocorticoid receptors is a prerequisite for glucocorticoid action, we have investigated the presence and cellular distribution of glucocorticoid receptors within the rat submaxillary gland. Binding experiments using [3H]dexamethasone revealed the presence of high affinity binding sites in rat submaxillary tissue homogenates. Most of these sites were specifically competed by dexamethasone, corticosterone, and a pure glucocorticoid agonist RU 28362. Neither testosterone nor dihydrotestosterone competed for glucocorticoid binding. The cellular distribution of glucocorticoid receptors within the submaxillary gland was investigated by immunocytochemistry, using two highly specific glucocorticoid receptor antibodies. The receptor was localized in the GCT cells, but not in the acinar cells of rat and mouse submaxillary tissue sections. In GCT cells, the glucocorticoid receptor colocalized with several secretory polypeptides, including epidermal growth factor, nerve growth factor, alpha 2u-globulin, and atrial natriuretic factor

  9. Pathological Gambling in Parkinson's Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callesen, Mette Buhl; Linnet, Jakob; Thomsen, Kristine Rømer

    Pathological Gambling in Parkinson’s Disease Mette Buhl Callesen, Jakob Linnet, Kristine Rømer Thomsen, Albert Gjedde, Arne Møller PET Center, Aarhus University Hospital and Center of Functionally Integrative Neuroscience, Aarhus University.   The neurotransmitter dopamine is central to many...... aspects of human functioning, e.g., reward, learning, and addiction, including Pathological Gambling (PG), and its loss is key to Parkinson’s Disease (PD). PD is a neurodegenrative disorder caused by progressive loss of dopamine-producing cells in the midbrain [1]. One type of treatment of PD symptoms...

  10. The combination of two Sle2 lupus-susceptibility loci and Cdkn2c deficiency leads to T cell-mediated pathology in B6.Faslpr mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhiwei; Croker, Byron P.; Morel, Laurence

    2013-01-01

    The NZM2410 Sle2c1 lupus susceptibility locus is responsible for the expansion of the B1a cell compartment and for the induction of T-cell induced renal and skin pathology on a CD95 deficient (Faslpr)-background. We have previously shown that deficiency in cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p18INK4c (p18) was responsible for the B1a cell expansion but was not sufficient to account for the pathology in B6.lpr mice. This study was designed to map the additional Sle2c1 loci responsible for autoimmune pathology when co-expressed with CD95 deficiency. The production, fine-mapping and phenotypic characterization of five recombinant intervals indicated that three interacting sub-loci were responsive for inducting autoimmune pathogenesis in B6.lpr mice. One of these sub-loci corresponds most likely to p18-deficiency. Another major locus mapping to a 2 Mb region at the telomeric end of Sle2c1 is necessary to both renal and skin pathology. Finally, a third locus centromeric to p18 enhances the severity of lupus nephritis. These results provide new insights into the genetic interactions leading to SLE disease presentation, and represent a major step towards the identification of novel susceptibility genes involved in T-cell mediated organ damage. PMID:23698709

  11. Pathology informatics fellowship training: Focus on molecular pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Mandelker

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pathology informatics is both emerging as a distinct subspecialty and simultaneously becoming deeply integrated within the breadth of pathology practice. As specialists, pathology informaticians need a broad skill set, including aptitude with information fundamentals, information systems, workflow and process, and governance and management. Currently, many of those seeking training in pathology informatics additionally choose training in a second subspecialty. Combining pathology informatics training with molecular pathology is a natural extension, as molecular pathology is a subspecialty with high potential for application of modern biomedical informatics techniques. Methods and Results: Pathology informatics and molecular pathology fellows and faculty evaluated the current fellowship program′s core curriculum topics and subtopics for relevance to molecular pathology. By focusing on the overlap between the two disciplines, a structured curriculum consisting of didactics, operational rotations, and research projects was developed for those fellows interested in both pathology informatics and molecular pathology. Conclusions: The scope of molecular diagnostics is expanding dramatically as technology advances and our understanding of disease extends to the genetic level. Here, we highlight many of the informatics challenges facing molecular pathology today, and outline specific informatics principles necessary for the training of future molecular pathologists.

  12. Pathology informatics fellowship training: Focus on molecular pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandelker, Diana; Lee, Roy E; Platt, Mia Y; Riedlinger, Gregory; Quinn, Andrew; Rao, Luigi K F; Klepeis, Veronica E; Mahowald, Michael; Lane, William J; Beckwith, Bruce A; Baron, Jason M; McClintock, David S; Kuo, Frank C; Lebo, Matthew S; Gilbertson, John R

    2014-01-01

    Pathology informatics is both emerging as a distinct subspecialty and simultaneously becoming deeply integrated within the breadth of pathology practice. As specialists, pathology informaticians need a broad skill set, including aptitude with information fundamentals, information systems, workflow and process, and governance and management. Currently, many of those seeking training in pathology informatics additionally choose training in a second subspecialty. Combining pathology informatics training with molecular pathology is a natural extension, as molecular pathology is a subspecialty with high potential for application of modern biomedical informatics techniques. Pathology informatics and molecular pathology fellows and faculty evaluated the current fellowship program's core curriculum topics and subtopics for relevance to molecular pathology. By focusing on the overlap between the two disciplines, a structured curriculum consisting of didactics, operational rotations, and research projects was developed for those fellows interested in both pathology informatics and molecular pathology. The scope of molecular diagnostics is expanding dramatically as technology advances and our understanding of disease extends to the genetic level. Here, we highlight many of the informatics challenges facing molecular pathology today, and outline specific informatics principles necessary for the training of future molecular pathologists.

  13. Dystrophic (senescent) rather than activated microglial cells are associated with tau pathology and likely precede neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streit, Wolfgang J; Braak, Heiko; Xue, Qing-Shan; Bechmann, Ingo

    2009-10-01

    The role of microglial cells in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) neurodegeneration is unknown. Although several works suggest that chronic neuroinflammation caused by activated microglia contributes to neurofibrillary degeneration, anti-inflammatory drugs do not prevent or reverse neuronal tau pathology. This raises the question if indeed microglial activation occurs in the human brain at sites of neurofibrillary degeneration. In view of the recent work demonstrating presence of dystrophic (senescent) microglia in aged human brain, the purpose of this study was to investigate microglial cells in situ and at high resolution in the immediate vicinity of tau-positive structures in order to determine conclusively whether degenerating neuronal structures are associated with activated or with dystrophic microglia. We used a newly optimized immunohistochemical method for visualizing microglial cells in human archival brain together with Braak staging of neurofibrillary pathology to ascertain the morphology of microglia in the vicinity of tau-positive structures. We now report histopathological findings from 19 humans covering the spectrum from none to severe AD pathology, including patients with Down's syndrome, showing that degenerating neuronal structures positive for tau (neuropil threads, neurofibrillary tangles, neuritic plaques) are invariably colocalized with severely dystrophic (fragmented) rather than with activated microglial cells. Using Braak staging of Alzheimer neuropathology we demonstrate that microglial dystrophy precedes the spread of tau pathology. Deposits of amyloid-beta protein (Abeta) devoid of tau-positive structures were found to be colocalized with non-activated, ramified microglia, suggesting that Abeta does not trigger microglial activation. Our findings also indicate that when microglial activation does occur in the absence of an identifiable acute central nervous system insult, it is likely to be the result of systemic infectious

  14. Increased protein kinase C gamma activity induces Purkinje cell pathology in a mouse model of spinocerebellar ataxia 14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Jingmin; Hassler, Melanie L; Shimobayashi, Etsuko; Paka, Nagendher; Streit, Raphael; Kapfhammer, Josef P

    2014-10-01

    Spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs) are hereditary diseases leading to Purkinje cell degeneration and cerebellar dysfunction. Most forms of SCA are caused by expansion of CAG repeats similar to other polyglutamine disorders such as Huntington's disease. In contrast, in the autosomal dominant SCA-14 the disease is caused by mutations in the protein kinase C gamma (PKCγ) gene which is a well characterized signaling molecule in cerebellar Purkinje cells. The study of SCA-14, therefore, offers the unique opportunity to reveal the molecular and pathological mechanism eventually leading to Purkinje cell dysfunction and degeneration. We have created a mouse model of SCA-14 in which PKCγ protein with a mutation found in SCA-14 is specifically expressed in cerebellar Purkinje cells. We find that in mice expressing the mutated PKCγ protein the morphology of Purkinje cells in cerebellar slice cultures is drastically altered and mimics closely the morphology seen after pharmacological PKC activation. Similar morphological abnormalities were seen in localized areas of the cerebellum of juvenile transgenic mice in vivo. In adult transgenic mice there is evidence for some localized loss of Purkinje cells but there is no overall cerebellar atrophy. Transgenic mice show a mild cerebellar ataxia revealed by testing on the rotarod and on the walking beam. Our findings provide evidence for both an increased PKCγ activity in Purkinje cells in vivo and for pathological changes typical for cerebellar disease thus linking the increased and dysregulated activity of PKCγ tightly to the development of cerebellar disease in SCA-14 and possibly also in other forms of SCA. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparison of telomere length and association with progenitor cell markers in lacrimal gland between Sjögren syndrome and non-Sjögren syndrome dry eye patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashima, Motoko; Kawakita, Tetsuya; Maida, Yoshiko; Kamoi, Mizuka; Ogawa, Yoko; Shimmura, Shigeto; Masutomi, Kenkichi; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2011-01-01

    Indicators of aging such as disruption of telomeric function due to shortening may be more frequent in dysfunctional lacrimal gland. The aims of this study were to 1) determine the viability of quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization of telomeres (telo-FISH) for the assessment of telomere length in lacrimal gland in Sjögren and non- Sjögren syndrome patients; and 2) investigate the relationship between progenitor cell markers and telomere length in both groups. Quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization with a peptide nucleic acid probe complementary to the telomere repeat sequence was performed on frozen sections from human lacrimal gland tissues. The mean fluorescence intensity of telomere spots was automatically quantified by image analysis as relative telomere length in lacrimal gland epithelial cells. Immunostaining for p63, nucleostemin, ATP-binding cassette, sub-family G, member 2 (ABCG2), and nestin was also performed. Telomere intensity in the Sjögren syndrome group (6,785.0±455) was significantly lower than that in the non-Sjögren syndrome group (7,494.7±477; p=0.02). Among the samples from the non-Sjögren syndrome group, immunostaining revealed that p63 was expressed in 1-3 acinar cells in each acinar unit and continuously in the basal layer of duct cells. In contrast, in the Sjögren syndrome group, p63 and nucleostemin showed a lower level of expression. ABCG2 was expressed in acinar cells in both sjogren and non-Sjogren syndrome. The results of this study indicate that 1) telo-FISH is a viable method of assessing telomere length in lacrimal gland, and 2) telomere length in Sjögren syndrome is shorter and associated with lower levels of expression of p63 and nucleostemin than in non-Sjögren syndrome.

  16. Transplantation of human amniotic epithelial cells repairs brachial plexus injury:pathological and biomechanical analyses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi Yang; Min Luo; Peng Li; Hai Jin

    2014-01-01

    A brachial plexus injury model was established in rabbits by stretching the C6 nerve root. Imme-diately after the stretching, a suspension of human amniotic epithelial cells was injected into the injured brachial plexus. The results of tensile mechanical testing of the brachial plexus showed that the tensile elastic limit strain, elastic limit stress, maximum stress, and maximum strain of the injured brachial plexuses were signiifcantly increased at 24 weeks after the injection. The treat-ment clearly improved the pathological morphology of the injured brachial plexus nerve, as seen by hematoxylin eosin staining, and the functions of the rabbit forepaw were restored. These data indicate that the injection of human amniotic epithelial cells contributed to the repair of brachial plexus injury, and that this technique may transform into current clinical treatment strategies.

  17. Endocrine pathology: past, present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asa, Sylvia L; Mete, Ozgur

    2018-01-01

    Endocrine pathology is the subspecialty of diagnostic pathology which deals with the diagnosis and characterisation of neoplastic and non-neoplastic diseases of the endocrine system. This relatively young subspecialty was initially focused mainly on thyroid and parathyroid pathology, with some participants also involved in studies of the pituitary, the endocrine pancreas, and the adrenal glands. However, the endocrine system involves much more than these traditional endocrine organs and the discipline has grown to encompass lesions of the dispersed neuroendocrine cells, including neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) of the lungs, gastrointestinal tract, thymus, breast and prostate, as well as paraganglia throughout the body, not just in the adrenals. Indeed, the production of hormones is the hallmark of the endocrine system, and some aspects of gynecological/testicular, bone and liver pathology also fall into the realm of this specialty. Many of the lesions that are the focus of this discipline are increasing in incidence and their pathology is becoming more complex with increased understanding of molecular pathology and a high incidence of familial disease. The future of endocrine pathology will demand a depth of understanding of structure, function, prognosis and prediction as pathologists play a key role in the multidisciplinary care team of patients with endocrine diseases. It is anticipated that new technologies will allow increased subspecialisation in pathology and growth of this important area of expertise. Copyright © 2017 Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Suspected natural lysosomal storage disease from ingestion of pink morning glory (Ipomoea carnea) in goats in northern Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos, Elvio E; Cholich, Luciana A; Chileski, Gabriela; García, Enrique N; Lértora, Javier; Gimeno, Eduardo J; Guidi, María G; Mussart, Norma; Teibler, Gladys P

    2015-07-01

    This study describes an occurrence of pink morning glory (Ipomoea carnea) intoxication in goats in northern Argentina. The clinical signs displayed by the affected animals were ataxia, lethargy, emaciation, hypertonia of the neck muscles, spastic paresis in the hind legs, abnormal postural reactions and death. The clinico-pathologic examination revealed that the affected animals were anemic and their serum level of aspartate aminotransferase was significantly increased. Cytoplasmic vacuolation in the Purkinje cells and pancreatic acinar cells was observed by histological examination. The neuronal lectin binding pattern showed a strong positive reaction to WGA (Triticum vulgaris), sWGA (succinylated T. vulgaris) and LCA (Lens culinaris). Although I. carnea is common in tropical regions, this is the first report of spontaneous poisoning in goats in Argentina.

  19. Cell Secretion: Current Structural and Biochemical Insights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Trikha

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Essential physiological functions in eukaryotic cells, such as release of hormones and digestive enzymes, neurotransmission, and intercellular signaling, are all achieved by cell secretion. In regulated (calcium-dependent secretion, membrane-bound secretory vesicles dock and transiently fuse with specialized, permanent, plasma membrane structures, called porosomes or fusion pores. Porosomes are supramolecular, cup-shaped lipoprotein structures at the cell plasma membrane that mediate and control the release of vesicle cargo to the outside of the cell. The sizes of porosomes range from 150nm in diameter in acinar cells of the exocrine pancreas to 12nm in neurons. In recent years, significant progress has been made in our understanding of the porosome and the cellular activities required for cell secretion, such as membrane fusion and swelling of secretory vesicles. The discovery of the porosome complex and the molecular mechanism of cell secretion are summarized in this article.

  20. Impact of FDG-PET/CT on Radiotherapy Volume Delineation in Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer and Correlation of Imaging Stage With Pathologic Findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faria, Sergio L.; Menard, Sonia; Devic, Slobodan; Sirois, Christian; Souhami, Luis; Lisbona, Robert; Freeman, Carolyn R.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET)/computed tomography (CT) is more accurate than CT in determining the extent of non-small-cell lung cancer. We performed a study to evaluate the impact of FDG-PET/CT on the radiotherapy volume delineation compared with CT without using any mathematical algorithm and to correlate the findings with the pathologic examination findings. Methods and Materials: A total of 32 patients with proven non-small-cell lung cancer, pathologic specimens from the mediastinum and lung primary, and pretreatment chest CT and FDG-PET/CT scans were studied. For each patient, two data sets of theoretical gross tumor volumes were contoured. One set was determined using the chest CT only, and the second, done separately, was based on the co-registered FDG-PET/CT data. The disease stage of each patient was determined using the TNM staging system for three data sets: the CT scan only, FDG-PET/CT scan, and pathologic findings. Results: Pathologic examination altered the CT-determined stage in 22 (69%) of 32 patients and the PET-determined stage in 16 (50%) of 32 patients. The most significant alterations were related to the N stage. PET altered the TNM stage in 15 (44%) of 32 patients compared with CT alone, but only 7 of these 15 alterations were confirmed by the pathologic findings. With respect to contouring the tumor volume for radiotherapy, PET altered the contour in 18 (56%) of 32 cases compared with CT alone. Conclusion: The contour of the tumor volume of non-small-cell lung cancer patients with co-registered FDG-PET/CT resulted in >50% alterations compared with CT targeting, findings similar to those of other publications. However, the significance of this change is unknown. Furthermore, pathologic examination showed that PET is not always accurate and histologic examination should be obtained to confirm the findings of PET whenever possible

  1. Basal Cell Epithelioma (A Clinico-pathological Study of 172 Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R L Solanki

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper deals with a clinico-pathological analysis of 172 cases of basal cell epithelioma representing 28% of the total skin cancer case. 1.44% of the total malignant tumours, 1% of the total tumours and 0.24% of the hospital admissions. M:F ratio was 1.26:1. The mean age was 54.06 years with the maximum number of cases in the fifth decade., Most (94% of the lesions were seen on the head and neck region. Histopathologically it showed solid (60.5%, adenoid cystic (15,7%, keratotic (9.3%, pigmented (6.4%, basi-squamous (3.5% and morphoea patterns (2.3%. Perineural lymphatic invasion was seen in 52% of the adenoid cystic basal call epithelioma. Amyloid (12.8% and amyloid like deposits (29.65% were seen in 42% of the case. Amyloid deposits were seen as lichen amyloidosis in 10.46% cases and in or around the tumour cell masses in 16.8% cases. It appeared as structureless homogeneous eosinophilic material and showed congophilia with apple green birefringence on polarising microscopy. It was found to be KMN04 sensitive (AA type protein- secondary amyloidosis. Amyloid like deposits appeared as less homogeneous,, basophilic, fractured material which showed non-specific congophilia with apple- green birefringence and stained with acid orcein stain indicating degenerated collagen (elastoid-degeneration.

  2. Blimp-1-Dependent IL-10 Production by Tr1 Cells Regulates TNF-Mediated Tissue Pathology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Montes de Oca

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tumor necrosis factor (TNF is critical for controlling many intracellular infections, but can also contribute to inflammation. It can promote the destruction of important cell populations and trigger dramatic tissue remodeling following establishment of chronic disease. Therefore, a better understanding of TNF regulation is needed to allow pathogen control without causing or exacerbating disease. IL-10 is an important regulatory cytokine with broad activities, including the suppression of inflammation. IL-10 is produced by different immune cells; however, its regulation and function appears to be cell-specific and context-dependent. Recently, IL-10 produced by Th1 (Tr1 cells was shown to protect host tissues from inflammation induced following infection. Here, we identify a novel pathway of TNF regulation by IL-10 from Tr1 cells during parasitic infection. We report elevated Blimp-1 mRNA levels in CD4+ T cells from visceral leishmaniasis (VL patients, and demonstrate IL-12 was essential for Blimp-1 expression and Tr1 cell development in experimental VL. Critically, we show Blimp-1-dependent IL-10 production by Tr1 cells prevents tissue damage caused by IFNγ-dependent TNF production. Therefore, we identify Blimp-1-dependent IL-10 produced by Tr1 cells as a key regulator of TNF-mediated pathology and identify Tr1 cells as potential therapeutic tools to control inflammation.

  3. Lesions induced in rodent pancreas by azaserine and other pancreatic carcinogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longnecker, D.S.

    1984-06-01

    Focal proliferative changes in the acinar cells of the pancreas of rats have been induced by several systemically administered carcinogens including azaserine, N-nitrosobis(2-oxopropyl)amine, N-nitroso(2-hydroxypropyl) (2-oxopropyl)amine, and Ndelta-(N-methyl-N-nitrosocarbamoyl)-L-ornithine (MNCO). Foci, nodules, and adenomas induced by these carcinogens are usually made up of atypical-appearing acinar cells that maintain a high degree of differentiation, but a minority of these lesions exhibit anaplastic cellular changes that suggest the development of malignant potential. Such anaplasia may occupy the whole of smaller lesions or may occur as a secondary focal change within larger nodules or adenomas. Many foci and nodules per pancreas have been induced by single or multiple exposures to these known genotoxic carcinogens, but relatively few of them develop into carcinomas. Azaserine and MNCO have induced acinar cell carcinomas in rats. Those induced by azaserine have exhibited a broad spectrum of histologic variants, including ductlike, cystic and undifferentiated patterns. Higher doses of MNCO have induced a second pattern of change in the pancreatic lobules of rats, which includes cystic and tubular ductlike structures that have been called cystic and tubular ductal complexes. MNCO has also induced focal acinar cell lesions, cystic and tubular ductal complexes, and adenocarcinomas in the pancreas of Syrian golden hamsters. In this species, ductal complexes are much more numerous than are proliferative lesions of acinar cells, and the histologic appearance of the carcinomas is ductlike. Hyperplasia and atypical changes were also seen in the epithelium of the intralobular ducts of hamsters. 20 references, 5 figures, 1 table.

  4. Computational Pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis, David N.; Feldman, Michael; Carter, Alexis B.; Dighe, Anand S.; Pfeifer, John D.; Bry, Lynn; Almeida, Jonas S.; Saltz, Joel; Braun, Jonathan; Tomaszewski, John E.; Gilbertson, John R.; Sinard, John H.; Gerber, Georg K.; Galli, Stephen J.; Golden, Jeffrey A.; Becich, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Context We define the scope and needs within the new discipline of computational pathology, a discipline critical to the future of both the practice of pathology and, more broadly, medical practice in general. Objective To define the scope and needs of computational pathology. Data Sources A meeting was convened in Boston, Massachusetts, in July 2014 prior to the annual Association of Pathology Chairs meeting, and it was attended by a variety of pathologists, including individuals highly invested in pathology informatics as well as chairs of pathology departments. Conclusions The meeting made recommendations to promote computational pathology, including clearly defining the field and articulating its value propositions; asserting that the value propositions for health care systems must include means to incorporate robust computational approaches to implement data-driven methods that aid in guiding individual and population health care; leveraging computational pathology as a center for data interpretation in modern health care systems; stating that realizing the value proposition will require working with institutional administrations, other departments, and pathology colleagues; declaring that a robust pipeline should be fostered that trains and develops future computational pathologists, for those with both pathology and non-pathology backgrounds; and deciding that computational pathology should serve as a hub for data-related research in health care systems. The dissemination of these recommendations to pathology and bioinformatics departments should help facilitate the development of computational pathology. PMID:26098131

  5. Differential induction and spread of tau pathology in young PS19 tau transgenic mice following intracerebral injections of pathological tau from Alzheimer’s disease or corticobasal degeneration brains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boluda, Susana; Iba, Michiyo; Zhang, Bin; Raible, Kevin M.; Lee, Virginia M-Y.; Trojanowski, John Q.

    2015-01-01

    Filamentous tau pathologies are hallmark lesions of several neurodegenerative tauopathies including Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and corticobasal degeneration (CBD) which show cell type-specific and topographically distinct tau inclusions. Growing evidence supports templated transmission of tauopathies through functionally interconnected neuroanatomical pathways suggesting that different self-propagating strains of pathological tau could account for the diverse manifestations of neurodegenerative tauopathies. Here, we describe the rapid and distinct cell type-specific spread of pathological tau following intracerebral injections of CBD or AD brain extracts enriched in pathological tau (designated CBD-Tau and AD-Tau, respectively) in young human mutant P301S tau transgenic (Tg) mice (line PS19) ~6–9 months before they show onset of mutant tau transgene-induced tau pathology. At 1 month post-injection of CBD-Tau, tau inclusions developed predominantly in oligodendrocytes of the fimbria and white matter near the injection sites with infrequent intraneuronal tau aggregates. In contrast, injections of AD-Tau in young PS19 mice induced tau pathology predominantly in neuronal perikarya with little or no oligodendrocyte involvement 1 month post-injection. With longer post-injection survival intervals of up to 6 months, CBD-Tau- and AD-Tau-induced tau pathology spread to different brain regions distant from the injection sites while maintaining the cell type-specific pattern noted above. Finally, CA3 neuron loss was detected 3 months post-injection of AD-Tau but not CBD-Tau. Thus, AD-Tau and CBD-Tau represent specific pathological tau strains that spread differentially and may underlie distinct clinical and pathological features of these two tauopathies. Hence, these strains could become targets to develop disease-modifying therapies for CBD and AD. PMID:25534024

  6. CD117 immunoexpression in canine mast cell tumours: correlations with pathological variables and proliferation markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pires Maria A

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cutaneous mast cell tumours are one of the most common neoplasms in dogs and show a highly variable biologic behaviour. Several prognosis tools have been proposed for canine mast cell tumours, including histological grading and cell proliferation markers. CD117 is a receptor tyrosine kinase thought to play a key role in human and canine mast cell neoplasms. Normal (membrane-associated and aberrant (cytoplasmic, focal or diffuse CD117 immunoexpression patterns have been identified in canine mast cell tumours. Cytoplasmic CD117 expression has been found to correlate with higher histological grade and with a worsened post-surgical prognosis. This study addresses the role of CD117 in canine mast cell tumours by studying the correlations between CD117 immunoexpression patterns, two proliferation markers (Ki67 and AgNORs histological grade, and several other pathological variables. Results Highly significant (p Conclusion These findings highlight the key role of CD117 in the biopathology of canine MCTs and confirm the relationship between aberrant CD117 expression and increased cell proliferation and higher histological grade. Further studies are needed to unravel the cellular mechanisms underlying focal and diffuse cytoplasmic CD117 staining patterns, and their respective biopathologic relevance.

  7. Comparing staging by positron emission tomography with contrast-enhanced computed tomography and by pathology in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qualliotine, J R; Mydlarz, W K; Chan, J Y K; Zhou, X; Wang, H; Agrawal, N

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the ability of positron emission tomography with contrast-enhanced computed tomography to correctly stage head and neck squamous cell carcinomas, in comparison with pathological staging. Positron emission tomography computed tomography was used to determine the tumour-node-metastasis classification and overall cancer stage in 85 head and neck squamous cell carcinoma patients who underwent pre-operative imaging using this modality and primary surgery between July 2010 and January 2013. Staging by positron emission tomography computed tomography was retrospectively compared with staging using pathological specimens. Agreement between imaging stage and pathological stage was examined by univariate and multivariate analysis both overall and for each primary tumour site. This imaging modality was 87.5 per cent sensitive and 44.8 per cent specific in identifying regional cervical metastases, and had false positive and false negative rates of 18.8 per cent and 8.2 per cent, respectively. The positive predictive and negative predictive values were 75.4 per cent and 65.0 per cent, respectively. Univariate and multivariate analyses revealed a significant agreement between positron emission tomography computed tomography and pathological node classification in older patients and for the oral cavity primary tumour site. There was significant agreement between both methods in the overall classification only for tumours classified as T3 or greater. Positron emission tomography computed tomography should be used with caution for the pre-operative staging of head and neck cancers because of its high false positive and false negative rates.

  8. Columnar cell lesions of the canine mammary gland: pathological features and immunophenotypic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassali Geovanni D

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been suggested that columnar cell lesions indicate an alteration of the human mammary gland involved in the development of breast cancer. They have not previously been described in canine mammary gland. The aim of this paper is describe the morphologic spectrum of columnar cell lesions in canine mammary gland specimens and their association with other breast lesions. Methods A total of 126 lesions were subjected to a comprehensive morphological review based upon the human breast classification system for columnar cell lesions. The presence of preinvasive (epithelial hyperplasia and in situ carcinoma and invasive lesions was determined and immunophenotypic analysis (estrogen receptor (ER, progesterone receptor (PgR, high molecular weight cytokeratin (34βE-12, E-cadherin, Ki-67, HER-2 and P53 was perfomed. Results Columnar cell lesions were identified in 67 (53.1% of the 126 canine mammary glands with intraepithelial alterations. They were observed in the terminal duct lobular units and characterized at dilated acini may be lined by several layers of columnar epithelial cells with elongated nuclei. Of the columnar cell lesions identified, 41 (61.2% were without and 26 (38.8% with atypia. Association with ductal hyperplasia was observed in 45/67 (67.1%. Sixty (89.5% of the columnar cell lesions coexisted with neoplastic lesions (20 in situ carcinomas, 19 invasive carcinomas and 21 benign tumors. The columnar cells were ER, PgR and E-cadherin positive but negative for cytokeratin 34βE-12, HER-2 and P53. The proliferation rate as measured by Ki-67 appeared higher in the lesions analyzed than in normal TDLUs. Conclusions Columnar cell lesions in canine mammary gland are pathologically and immunophenotypically similar to those in human breast. This may suggest that dogs are a suitable model for the comparative study of noninvasive breast lesions.

  9. Columnar cell lesions of the canine mammary gland: pathological features and immunophenotypic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Enio; Gobbi, Helenice; Saraiva, Bruna S; Cassali, Geovanni D

    2010-01-01

    It has been suggested that columnar cell lesions indicate an alteration of the human mammary gland involved in the development of breast cancer. They have not previously been described in canine mammary gland. The aim of this paper is describe the morphologic spectrum of columnar cell lesions in canine mammary gland specimens and their association with other breast lesions. A total of 126 lesions were subjected to a comprehensive morphological review based upon the human breast classification system for columnar cell lesions. The presence of preinvasive (epithelial hyperplasia and in situ carcinoma) and invasive lesions was determined and immunophenotypic analysis (estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PgR), high molecular weight cytokeratin (34βE-12), E-cadherin, Ki-67, HER-2 and P53) was perfomed. Columnar cell lesions were identified in 67 (53.1%) of the 126 canine mammary glands with intraepithelial alterations. They were observed in the terminal duct lobular units and characterized at dilated acini may be lined by several layers of columnar epithelial cells with elongated nuclei. Of the columnar cell lesions identified, 41 (61.2%) were without and 26 (38.8%) with atypia. Association with ductal hyperplasia was observed in 45/67 (67.1%). Sixty (89.5%) of the columnar cell lesions coexisted with neoplastic lesions (20 in situ carcinomas, 19 invasive carcinomas and 21 benign tumors). The columnar cells were ER, PgR and E-cadherin positive but negative for cytokeratin 34βE-12, HER-2 and P53. The proliferation rate as measured by Ki-67 appeared higher in the lesions analyzed than in normal TDLUs. Columnar cell lesions in canine mammary gland are pathologically and immunophenotypically similar to those in human breast. This may suggest that dogs are a suitable model for the comparative study of noninvasive breast lesions

  10. Follicular helper T cells poise immune responses to the development of autoimmune pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Martín, Diana; Díaz-Zamudio, Mariana; Romo-Tena, Jorge; Ibarra-Sánchez, María J; Alcocer-Varela, Jorge

    2011-04-01

    Follicular helper T cells (T(FH)) have been implicated as a lineage that provides sufficient help to B cells in order to become professional antibody producers. This T helper subset is characterized by a distinctive cell-surface phenotype (CD4(+)CD57(+)CXCR5(+)) and cytokine profile (IL-21, IL-6, and IL-27) as well as transcriptional program (BCL-6, ICOS, and PD-1). Evidence supports the concept that T(FH) subset development, as well as for other lineages, is dependent on microenvironment cues that modulate a particular transcriptional program, susceptible to plasticity. Recently, it has been shown that BCL-6 and IL-21 act as master regulators for the development and function of T(FH) cells. Moreover, costimulation via ICOS, as well as signaling proteins such as SAP constitute required elements of the regulatory network that modulates T(FH) functions. T(FH) dysregulation has been implicated in the development of autoimmune pathology, such as SLE. Indeed, the Sanroque mice associated to the mutation of Roquin, a ubiquitin ligase, essential for the regulation of ICOS and germinal center responses, constitutes a model that shares features with human SLE. Recently, the expansion of "circulating T(FH) cells" (CD4(+)CXCR5(+)ICOS(high)PD1(high)) has been described for a subset of SLE patients that share T(FH) dependent features of disease with Sanroque mice, such as glomerulonephritis and cytopenias. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Lungscape: resected non-small-cell lung cancer outcome by clinical and pathological parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Solange; Weder, Walter; Dafni, Urania; Kerr, Keith M; Bubendorf, Lukas; Meldgaard, Peter; O'Byrne, Kenneth J; Wrona, Anna; Vansteenkiste, Johan; Felip, Enriqueta; Marchetti, Antonio; Savic, Spasenija; Lu, Shun; Smit, Egbert; Dingemans, Anne-Marie; Blackhall, Fiona H; Baas, Paul; Camps, Carlos; Rosell, Rafael; Stahel, Rolf A

    2014-11-01

    The Lungscape project was designed to address the impact of clinical, pathological, and molecular characteristics on outcome in resected non-small- cell lung cancer (NSCLC). A decentralized biobank with fully annotated tissue samples was established. Selection criteria for participating centers included sufficient number of cases, tissue microarray building capability, and documented ethical approval. Patient selection was based on availability of comprehensive clinical data, radical resection between 2003 and 2009 with adequate follow-up, and adequate quantity and quality of formalin-fixed tissue. Fifteen centers contributed 2449 cases. The 5-year overall survival (OS) was 69.6% and 63.6% for stages IA and IB, 51.6% and 47.7% for stages IIA and IIB, and 29.0% and 13.0% for stages IIIA and IIIB, respectively (p < 0.001). Median and 5-year relapse-free survival (RFS) were 52.8 months and 47.3%, respectively. Distant relapse was recorded for 44.4%, local for 26.0%, and both for 16.9% of patients. Based on multivariate analysis for the OS, RFS, and time to relapse, the factors significantly associated with all of them are performance status and pathological stage. The aim of this report is to present the results from Lungscape, the first large series reporting on NSCLC surgical outcome measured not only by OS but also by RFS and time to relapse and including multivariate analysis by significant clinical and pathological prognostic parameters. As tissue from all patients is preserved locally and is available for detailed molecular investigations, Lungscape provides an excellent basis to evaluate the influence of molecular parameters on the disease outcome after radical resection, besides providing an overview of the molecular landscape of stage I to III NSCLC.

  12. Viral infection, proliferation, and hyperplasia of Hofbauer cells and absence of inflammation characterize the placental pathology of fetuses with congenital Zika virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, David A

    2017-06-01

    Attention is increasingly focused on the potential mechanism(s) for Zika virus infection to be transmitted from an infected mother to her fetus. This communication addresses current evidence for the role of the placenta in vertical transmission of the Zika virus. Placentas from second and third trimester fetuses with confirmed intrauterine Zika virus infection were examined with routine staining to determine the spectrum of pathologic changes. In addition, immunohistochemical staining for macrophages and nuclear proliferation antigens was performed. Viral localization was identified using RNA hybridization. These observations were combined with the recent published results of placental pathology to increase the strength of the pathology data. Results were correlated with published data from experimental studies of Zika virus infection in placental cells and chorionic villous explants. Placentas from fetuses with congenital Zika virus infection are concordant in not having viral-induced placental inflammation. Special stains reveal proliferation and prominent hyperplasia of placental stromal macrophages, termed Hofbauer cells, in the chorionic villi of infected placentas. Zika virus infection is present in Hofbauer cells from second and third trimester placentas. Experimental studies and placentae from infected fetuses reveal that the spectrum of placental cell types infected with the Zika virus is broader during the first trimester than later in gestation. Inflammatory abnormalities of the placenta are not a component of vertical transmission of the Zika virus. The major placental response in second and third trimester transplacental Zika virus infection is proliferation and hyperplasia of Hofbauer cells, which also demonstrate viral infection.

  13. Curriculum Guidelines for Pathology and Oral Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Dental Education, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Guidelines for dental school pathology courses describe the interrelationships of general, systemic, and oral pathology; primary educational goals; prerequisites; a core curriculum outline and behavioral objectives for each type of pathology. Notes on sequencing, faculty, facilities, and occupational hazards are included. (MSE)

  14. Beta Cell Mass Restoration in Alloxan-Diabetic Mice Treated with EGF and Gastrin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imane Song

    Full Text Available One week of treatment with EGF and gastrin (EGF/G was shown to restore normoglycemia and to induce islet regeneration in mice treated with the diabetogenic agent alloxan. The mechanisms underlying this regeneration are not fully understood. We performed genetic lineage tracing experiments to evaluate the contribution of beta cell neogenesis in this model. One day after alloxan administration, mice received EGF/G treatment for one week. The treatment could not prevent the initial alloxan-induced beta cell mass destruction, however it did reverse glycemia to control levels within one day, suggesting improved peripheral glucose uptake. In vitro experiments with C2C12 cell line showed that EGF could stimulate glucose uptake with an efficacy comparable to that of insulin. Subsequently, EGF/G treatment stimulated a 3-fold increase in beta cell mass, which was partially driven by neogenesis and beta cell proliferation as assessed by beta cell lineage tracing and BrdU-labeling experiments, respectively. Acinar cell lineage tracing failed to show an important contribution of acinar cells to the newly formed beta cells. No appearance of transitional cells co-expressing insulin and glucagon, a hallmark for alpha-to-beta cell conversion, was found, suggesting that alpha cells did not significantly contribute to the regeneration. An important fraction of the beta cells significantly lost insulin positivity after alloxan administration, which was restored to normal after one week of EGF/G treatment. Alloxan-only mice showed more pronounced beta cell neogenesis and proliferation, even though beta cell mass remained significantly depleted, suggesting ongoing beta cell death in that group. After one week, macrophage infiltration was significantly reduced in EGF/G-treated group compared to the alloxan-only group. Our results suggest that EGF/G-induced beta cell regeneration in alloxan-diabetic mice is driven by beta cell neogenesis, proliferation and recovery of

  15. Ultrastructural changes in aster yellows phytoplasma affected Limonium sinuatum Mill. plants II. Pathology of cortex parenchyma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Rudzińska-Langwald

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In Limonium sinuatum Mill, plants with severe symptoms of aster yellows infection phytoplasmas were present not only in the phloem but also in some cortex parenchymas cells. These parenchyma cells were situated at some distance from the conducting bundles. The phytoplasmas were observed directly in parenchyma cells cytoplasm. The number of phytoplasmas present in each selected cell varies. The cells with a small number of phytoplasmas show little pathological changes compared with the unaffected cells of the same zone of the stem as well with the cells of healthy plants. The cells filled with a number of phytoplasmas had their protoplast very much changed. The vacuole was reduced and in the cytoplasm a reduction of the number of ribosomes was noted and regions of homogenous structure appeared. Mitochondria were moved in the direction of the tonoplast and plasma membrane. Compared to the cells unaffected by phytoplasma, the mitochondria were smaller and had an enlarged cristae internal space. The chloroplasts from affected cells had a very significant reduction in size and the tylacoids system had disappeared. The role of these changes for creating phytoplasma friendly enviroment is discused.

  16. To evaluate disparity between clinical and pathological tumor-node-metastasis staging in oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma patients and its impact on overall survival: An institutional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Karan; Panda, Naresh K; Bakshi, Jaimanti; Das, Ashim

    2015-01-01

    Accurate clinical staging is important for patient counseling, treatment planning, prognostication, and rational design of clinical trials. In head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, discrepancy between clinical and pathological staging has been reported. To evaluate any disparity between clinical and pathological tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) staging in oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OCSCC) patients and any impact of the same on survival. Retrospective chart review from year 2007 to 2013, at a tertiary care center. All survival analyses were performed using SPSS for Windows version 15 (Chicago, IL, USA). Disease-free survival curves were generated using Kaplan-Meier algorithm. One hundred and twenty-seven patients with OCSCC were analyzed. Seventy-nine (62.2%) were males and 48 (37.8%) females with a mean age at presentation 43.6 years (29-79 years). The highest congruence between clinical and pathological T-staging seen for clinical stage T1 and T4 at 76.9% and 73.4% with pathological T-stage. Similarly, the highest congruence between clinical and pathological N-stage seen for clinical N0 and N3 at 86.4% and 91.7% with pathological N-stage. Of clinically early stage patients, 67.5% remained early stage, and 32.5% were upstaged to advanced stage following pathological analysis. Of the clinically advanced stage patients, 75% remained advanced, and 25% were pathologically downstaged. This staging discrepancy did not significantly alter the survival. Some disparity exists in clinical and pathological TNM staging of OCSCC, which could affect treatment planning and survival of patients. Hence, more unified and even system of staging for the disease is required for proper decision-making.

  17. TDP-43 causes differential pathology in neuronal versus glial cells in the mouse brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Sen; Wang, Chuan-En; Wei, Wenjie; Gaertig, Marta A; Lai, Liangxue; Li, Shihua; Li, Xiao-Jiang

    2014-05-15

    Mutations in TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) are associated with familial forms of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal lobar degeneration. Although recent studies have revealed that mutant TDP-43 in neuronal and glial cells is toxic, how mutant TDP-43 causes primarily neuronal degeneration in an age-dependent manner remains unclear. Using adeno-associated virus (AAV) that expresses mutant TDP-43 (M337V) ubiquitously, we found that mutant TDP-43 accumulates preferentially in neuronal cells in the postnatal mouse brain. We then ubiquitously or selectively expressed mutant TDP-43 in neuronal and glial cells in the striatum of adult mouse brains via stereotaxic injection of AAV vectors and found that it also preferentially accumulates in neuronal cells. Expression of mutant TDP-43 in neurons in the striatum causes more severe degeneration, earlier death and more robust symptoms in mice than expression of mutant TDP-43 in glial cells; however, aging increases the expression of mutant TDP-43 in glial cells, and expression of mutant TDP-43 in older mice caused earlier onset of phenotypes and more severe neuropathology than that in younger mice. Although expression of mutant TDP-43 in glial cells via stereotaxic injection does not lead to robust neurological phenotypes, systemic inhibition of the proteasome activity via MG132 in postnatal mice could exacerbate glial TDP-43-mediated toxicity and cause mice to die earlier. Consistently, this inhibition increases the expression of mutant TDP-43 in glial cells in mouse brains. Thus, the differential accumulation of mutant TDP-43 in neuronal versus glial cells contributes to the preferential toxicity of mutant TDP-43 in neuronal cells and age-dependent pathology.

  18. Clear cell renal cell carcinoma: validation of World Health Organization/International Society of Urological Pathology grading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagher, Julien; Delahunt, Brett; Rioux-Leclercq, Nathalie; Egevad, Lars; Srigley, John R; Coughlin, Geoffrey; Dunglinson, Nigel; Gianduzzo, Troy; Kua, Boon; Malone, Greg; Martin, Ben; Preston, John; Pokorny, Morgan; Wood, Simon; Yaxley, John; Samaratunga, Hemamali

    2017-12-01

    In 2012, the International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) introduced a novel grading system for clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) and papillary renal cell carcinoma. This system is incorporated into the latest World Health Organization renal tumour classification, being designated WHO/ISUP grading. This study was undertaken to compare WHO/ISUP and Fuhrman grading and to validate WHO/ISUP grading as a prognostic parameter in a series of clear cell RCC. Analysis of 681 cases of ccRCC showed that 144 tumours could not be assigned a Fuhrman grade on the basis of ambiguous grading features. The application of WHO/ISUP grading resulted in a general down-grading of cases when compared with Fuhrman grading. In a sub-group of 374 cases, for which outcome data were available, 9.3% were WHO/ISUP grade 1, 50.3% were grade 2, 24.1% grade 3 and 16.3% grade 4, while the distribution of Fuhrman grades was 0.4% grade 1, 48.7% grade 2, 29.4% grade 3 and 21.5% grade 4. There were no recurrence/metastases amongst patients with WHO/ISUP grade 1 tumours and there was a significant difference in outcome for WHO/ISUP grades 2, 3 and 4. For Fuhrman grading the cancer-free survival was not significantly different for grade 2 and grade 3 tumours. On multivariate analysis WHO/ISUP grade and pT staging category were found to retain prognostic significance. The study demonstrates that FG cannot be applied in >20% of cases of ccRCC and the WHO/ISUP provides superior prognostic information. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Xanthogranulomatous endometritis: an unusual pathological entity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Xanthogranulomatous endometritis is an unusual pathological entity mimicking endometrial carcinoma. This shows sheets of foamy histiocytes alongwith other inflammatory cells. We, hereby, report a case of 45 year multigravida female with irregular menstrual history, clinically diagnosed as carcinoma and ...

  20. F-18-FDG positron emission tomography findings correlate pathological proliferative activity of oral squamous cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyoizumi, Osamu; Oriuchi, Noboru; Miyakubo, Mitsuyuki

    2010-01-01

    It is still controversial whether fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake is correlated with cellular proliferation and prognosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSC). In this study, we performed positron emission tomography (PET) study and immunohistochemical analysis to elucidate the relationship between FDG uptake and expression of cellular proliferative markers and pathological prognostic markers in patients with OSC. FDG PET and immunohistochemical staining have been carried out in sixteen patients with OSC. Tumor uptake of FDG was expressed with standardized uptake value (SUV). The expression of Ki-67, Topoisomerase IIα (Topo IIα), p53, and p63 in cancer cells was quantitatively assessed with positivity of the immunohistochemical staining. SUV was compared with the results of immunohistochemical analysis. FDG PET study revealed that SUV ranged from 3.6 to 22.1 with average of 10.4. Average positive rate of Ki-67, Topo IIα, p53, and p63 was 68.9%, 58.9%, 72.0%, and 65.2%, respectively. Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient analysis revealed that SUV was significantly correlated with Ki-67 (r=0.616, p=0.01), Topo IIα (r=0.677, p=0.004), p53 (r=0.613, p=0.01), and p63 (r=0.710, p=0.002), respectively. The present preliminary study indicated that FDG uptake was closely correlated with pathological cellular proliferative and prognostic markers in patients with OSC. (author)

  1. Prox1-Heterozygosis Sensitizes the Pancreas to Oncogenic Kras-Induced Neoplastic Transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiannis Drosos

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The current paradigm of pancreatic neoplastic transformation proposes an initial step whereby acinar cells convert into acinar-to-ductal metaplasias, followed by progression of these lesions into neoplasias under sustained oncogenic activity and inflammation. Understanding the molecular mechanisms driving these processes is crucial to the early diagnostic and prevention of pancreatic cancer. Emerging evidence indicates that transcription factors that control exocrine pancreatic development could have either, protective or facilitating roles in the formation of preneoplasias and neoplasias in the pancreas. We previously identified that the homeodomain transcription factor Prox1 is a novel regulator of mouse exocrine pancreas development. Here we investigated whether Prox1 function participates in early neoplastic transformation using in vivo, in vitro and in silico approaches. We found that Prox1 expression is transiently re-activated in acinar cells undergoing dedifferentiation and acinar-to-ductal metaplastic conversion. In contrast, Prox1 expression is largely absent in neoplasias and tumors in the pancreas of mice and humans. We also uncovered that Prox1-heterozygosis markedly increases the formation of acinar-to-ductal-metaplasias and early neoplasias, and enhances features associated with inflammation, in mouse pancreatic tissues expressing oncogenic Kras. Furthermore, we discovered that Prox1-heterozygosis increases tissue damage and delays recovery from inflammation in pancreata of mice injected with caerulein. These results are the first demonstration that Prox1 activity protects pancreatic cells from acute tissue damage and early neoplastic transformation. Additional data in our study indicate that this novel role of Prox1 involves suppression of pathways associated with inflammatory responses and cell invasiveness.

  2. AR42J-B-13 cell: An expandable progenitor to generate an unlimited supply of functional hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, Karen; Fairhall, Emma A.; Charlton, Keith A.; Wright, Matthew C.

    2010-01-01

    Hepatocytes are the preparation of choice for Toxicological research in vitro. However, despite the fact that hepatocytes proliferate in vivo during liver regeneration, they are resistant to proliferation in vitro, do not tolerate sub-culture and tend to enter a de-differentiation program that results in a loss of hepatic function. These limitations have resulted in the search for expandable rodent and human cells capable of being directed to differentiate into functional hepatocytes. Research with stem cells suggests that it may be possible to provide the research community with hepatocytes in vitro although to date, significant challenges remain, notably generating a sufficiently pure population of hepatocytes with a quantitative functionality comparable with hepatocytes. This paper reviews work with the AR42J-B-13 (B-13) cell line. The B-13 cell was cloned from the rodent AR42J pancreatic cell line, express genes associated with pancreatic acinar cells and readily proliferates in simple culture media. When exposed to glucocorticoid, 75-85% of the cells trans-differentiate into hepatocyte-like (B-13/H) cells functioning at a level quantitatively similar to freshly isolated rat hepatocytes (with the remaining cells retaining the B-13 phenotype). Trans-differentiation of pancreatic acinar cells also appears to occur in vivo in rats treated with glucocorticoid; in mice with elevated circulating glucocorticoid and in humans treated for long periods with glucocorticoid. The B-13 response to glucocorticoid therefore appears to be related to a real pathophysiological response of a pancreatic cell to glucocorticoid. An understanding of how this process occurs and if it can be generated or engineered in human cells would result in a cell line with the ability to generate an unlimited supply of functional human hepatocytes in a cost effective manner.

  3. Intersection of FOXO- and RUNX1-mediated gene expression programs in single breast epithelial cells during morphogenesis and tumor progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lixin; Brugge, Joan S; Janes, Kevin A

    2011-10-04

    Gene expression networks are complicated by the assortment of regulatory factors that bind DNA and modulate transcription combinatorially. Single-cell measurements can reveal biological mechanisms hidden by population averages, but their value has not been fully explored in the context of mRNA regulation. Here, we adapted a single-cell expression profiling technique to examine the gene expression program downstream of Forkhead box O (FOXO) transcription factors during 3D breast epithelial acinar morphogenesis. By analyzing patterns of mRNA fluctuations among individual matrix-attached epithelial cells, we found that a subset of FOXO target genes was jointly regulated by the transcription factor Runt-related transcription factor 1 (RUNX1). Knockdown of RUNX1 causes hyperproliferation and abnormal morphogenesis, both of which require normal FOXO function. Down-regulating RUNX1 and FOXOs simultaneously causes widespread oxidative stress, which arrests proliferation and restores normal acinar morphology. In hormone-negative breast cancers lacking human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) amplification, we find that RUNX1 down-regulation is strongly associated with up-regulation of FOXO1, which may be required to support growth of RUNX1-negative tumors. The coordinate function of these two tumor suppressors may provide a failsafe mechanism that inhibits cancer progression.

  4. To evaluate disparity between clinical and pathological tumor-node-metastasis staging in oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma patients and its impact on overall survival: An institutional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karan Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Accurate clinical staging is important for patient counseling, treatment planning, prognostication, and rational design of clinical trials. In head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, discrepancy between clinical and pathological staging has been reported. Objective: To evaluate any disparity between clinical and pathological tumor-node-metastasis (TNM staging in oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OCSCC patients and any impact of the same on survival. Materials and Methods: Retrospective chart review from year 2007 to 2013, at a tertiary care center. Statistical Analysis: All survival analyses were performed using SPSS for Windows version 15 (Chicago, IL, USA. Disease-free survival curves were generated using Kaplan-Meier algorithm. Results: One hundred and twenty-seven patients with OCSCC were analyzed. Seventy-nine (62.2% were males and 48 (37.8% females with a mean age at presentation 43.6 years (29-79 years. The highest congruence between clinical and pathological T-staging seen for clinical stage T1 and T4 at 76.9% and 73.4% with pathological T-stage. Similarly, the highest congruence between clinical and pathological N-stage seen for clinical N0 and N3 at 86.4% and 91.7% with pathological N-stage. Of clinically early stage patients, 67.5% remained early stage, and 32.5% were upstaged to advanced stage following pathological analysis. Of the clinically advanced stage patients, 75% remained advanced, and 25% were pathologically downstaged. This staging discrepancy did not significantly alter the survival. Conclusion: Some disparity exists in clinical and pathological TNM staging of OCSCC, which could affect treatment planning and survival of patients. Hence, more unified and even system of staging for the disease is required for proper decision-making.

  5. Streaming submandibular gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zajicek, G.; Yagil, C.; Michaeli, Y.

    1985-01-01

    Twenty female young adult rats were injected with tritiated thymidine ( 3 HTdR). The animals were then killed in groups of five, at the following times: 1 hour, and 4, 16, and 23 days. Autoradiograms of sections through the submandibular gland were prepared, and the location of labelled cells in relationship to tubuli and acini was recorded. The different tubular and acinar cross sections could be distinguished by their cell number. Narrow tubuli had fewer nuclei than the wider ones. The nuclear number of a cross section was defined as its class and the location of a labelled epithelial cell was expressed in relationship to the class where it was found. The location of a labelled stromal cell was determined by the class of its neighboring tubular or acinar cross sections. The mean cell numbers of intercalated, granular, and striated duct cross sections were, respectively, 4.7, 10.5, and 10.2, while the average cell content of acini was 4.7 cells. One hour after labelling most labelled tubular epithelial and stromal cells were found in tubular cross sections (or low tubular classes), while in the acini, labelled epithelial and stromal cells were found mainly in wider cross sections (or higher acinar classes). Within the next 23 days labelled tubular cells and stroma proceeded into higher classes, while labelled acinar epithelium and stroma cells were displaced into narrower cross sections (or lower classes). The displaced tubular epithelium and stroma covered daily 0.26 classes. At this velocity the cell will reach the highest tubular class in 62 days and the estimated maximal tubular cell life span is 62 days

  6. Pathology Gross Photography: The Beginning of Digital Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampy, B Alan; Glassy, Eric F

    2015-06-01

    The underutilized practice of photographing anatomic pathology specimens from surgical pathology and autopsies is an invaluable benefit to patients, clinicians, pathologists, and students. Photographic documentation of clinical specimens is essential for the effective practice of pathology. When considering what specimens to photograph, all grossly evident pathology, absent yet expected pathologic features, and gross-only specimens should be thoroughly documented. Specimen preparation prior to photography includes proper lighting and background, wiping surfaces of blood, removing material such as tubes or bandages, orienting the specimen in a logical fashion, framing the specimen to fill the screen, positioning of probes, and using the right-sized scale. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparison of telomere length and association with progenitor cell markers in lacrimal gland between Sjögren syndrome and non-Sjögren syndrome dry eye patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashima, Motoko; Maida, Yoshiko; Kamoi, Mizuka; Ogawa, Yoko; Shimmura, Shigeto; Masutomi, Kenkichi; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Indicators of aging such as disruption of telomeric function due to shortening may be more frequent in dysfunctional lacrimal gland. The aims of this study were to 1) determine the viability of quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization of telomeres (telo-FISH) for the assessment of telomere length in lacrimal gland in Sjögren and non- Sjögren syndrome patients; and 2) investigate the relationship between progenitor cell markers and telomere length in both groups. Methods Quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization with a peptide nucleic acid probe complementary to the telomere repeat sequence was performed on frozen sections from human lacrimal gland tissues. The mean fluorescence intensity of telomere spots was automatically quantified by image analysis as relative telomere length in lacrimal gland epithelial cells. Immunostaining for p63, nucleostemin, ATP-binding cassette, sub-family G, member 2 (ABCG2), and nestin was also performed. Results Telomere intensity in the Sjögren syndrome group (6,785.0±455) was significantly lower than that in the non-Sjögren syndrome group (7,494.7±477; p=0.02). Among the samples from the non-Sjögren syndrome group, immunostaining revealed that p63 was expressed in 1–3 acinar cells in each acinar unit and continuously in the basal layer of duct cells. In contrast, in the Sjögren syndrome group, p63 and nucleostemin showed a lower level of expression. ABCG2 was expressed in acinar cells in both sjogren and non-Sjogren syndrome. Conclusions The results of this study indicate that 1) telo-FISH is a viable method of assessing telomere length in lacrimal gland, and 2) telomere length in Sjögren syndrome is shorter and associated with lower levels of expression of p63 and nucleostemin than in non-Sjögren syndrome. PMID:21655359

  8. Pathology Assistant (C - Gamechanger Of Pathology Diagnostic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asel Kudaybergenova

    2016-06-01

    When the competition ended, we received many favor- able reviews and we decided to start another project a little bit similar to the competition. Every month we show three interesting and difficult to diagnose cases provided by the leading Russian pathologists. The participants can look through the clinical data and digitized histological slides, and then discuss what they see among their professional society. There are 400  specialists  from  post  USSR countries.  Moreover, we get a few proposal of partnership to start a similar project in EU. And the last product in line is Pathology Assistant. It is a game changer. Pathology Assistant is a Digital Pathology©technology driven application for pathology diagnostics, tool to innovate pathology diagnostics in more simple, proven by analytical algo- rithm, automatically delivering anticipated support way. The service provides vast and structured database of validated cases, intuitive interface, fast and convenient system of analytical search. Pathology Assistant will streamline and simplify pathologist’s way to the right decision. Pathologists from Memorial Sloan Catering and biggest EU labs are working on preparing the con- tent for the project.  

  9. Early Pathologic Findings of Bronchiolitis Obliterans after Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: A Proposal from a Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rie Nakamoto-Matsubara

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bronchiolitis obliterans (BO is one of the serious, noninfectious pulmonary complications after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT. Early diagnosis of BO is usually difficult because patients are often asymptomatic at an initial stage of the disease and pathologic findings are available mostly at the late stages. Therefore, the diagnosis of the disease is based on the pulmonary function test using the National Institute of Health consensus criteria. Here, we report a case of slowly progressive BO. A biopsy specimen at an early stage demonstrated alveolar destruction with lymphocyte infiltration in bronchial walls and mild narrowing of bronchioles without fibrosis, those were strongly indicative of initial pathologic changes of BO. Definitive BO followed, which was proven by both clinical course and autopsy. While alloreactive lymphocytes associated with chronic graft-versus-host disease are believed to initiate BO, we present a rare case that directly implies such a scenario.

  10. MR imaging of clear cell sarcoma (malignant melanoma of the soft parts): a multicenter correlative MRI-pathology study of 21 cases and literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beuckeleer, L.H. de; Schepper, A.M. de; Vandevenne, J.E.; Bloem, J.L.; Davies, A.M.; Oudkerk, M.; Hauben, E.; Marck, E. van; Somville, J.; Vanel, D.; Steinbach, L.S.; Guinebretiere, J.M.; Hogendoorn, P.C.W.; Mooi, W.J.; Verstraete, K.; Zaloudek, C.; Jones, H.

    2000-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate MR imaging and pathology findings in order to define the characteristic features of clear cell sarcoma of the soft tissues (malignant melanoma of the soft parts).Design and patients. MR examinations of 21 patients with histologically proven clear cell sarcoma of the musculoskeletal system were retrospectively reviewed and assessed for shape, homogeneity, delineation, signal intensities on T1- and T2-weighted images, contrast enhancement, relationship with adjacent fascia or tendon, secondary bone involvement, and intratumoral necrosis. In 19 cases the pathology findings were available for review and for a comparative MR-pathology study.Results. On T1-weighted images, lesions were isointense (n=3), hypointense (n=7) or slightly hyperintense to muscle (n=11). Immunohistochemical examination was performed in 17 patients. All 17 specimens showed positivity for HMB-45 antibody. In nine of 11 lesions with slightly increased signal intensity on T1-weighted images, a correlative MR imaging-pathology study was possible. All nine were positive to HMB-45 antibody.Conclusions. Clear cell sarcoma of the musculoskeletal system often has a benign-looking appearance on MR images. In up to 52% of patients, this lesion with melanocytic differentiation has slightly increased signal intensity on T1-weighted images compared with muscle. As the presence of this relative higher signal intensity on T1-weighted images is rather specific for tumors displaying melanocytic differentiation, radiologists should familiarize themselves with this rare entity and include it in their differential diagnosis when confronted with a well-defined, homogeneous, strongly enhancing mass with slightly higher signal intensity compared with muscle on native T1-weighted images. (orig.)

  11. Simulators of Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Skin: Diagnostic Challenges on Small Biopsies and Clinico pathological Correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, K. B.; Tan, S. H.; Lee, Y. S.; Wee Aw, D. C.; Jaffar, H.; Lim, T. C.; Lee, S. J.

    2013-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is a common and important primary cutaneous malignancy. On skin biopsies, SCC is characterized by significant squamous cell atypia, abnormal keratinisation, and invasive features. Diagnostic challenges may occasionally arise, especially in the setting of small punch biopsies or superficial shave biopsies, where only part of the lesion may be assessable by the pathologist. Benign mimics of SCC include pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia, eccrine squamous syringometaplasia, inverted follicular keratosis, and keratoacanthoma, while malignant mimics of SCC include basal cell carcinoma, melanoma, and metastatic carcinoma. The careful application of time-honored diagnostic criteria, close clinico pathological correlation and a selective request for a further, deeper, or wider biopsy remain the most useful strategies to clinch the correct diagnosis. This review aims to present the key differential diagnoses of SCC, to discuss common diagnostic pitfalls, and to recommend ways to deal with diagnostically challenging cases

  12. Characterization of T cell clones from chagasic patients: predominance of CD8 surface phenotype in clones from patients with pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Washington R. Cuna

    1995-08-01

    Full Text Available Human Chagas' disease, caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, is associated with pathological processes whose mechanisms are not known. To address this question, T cell lines were developed from chronic chagasic patients peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC and cloned. These T cell clones (TCC were analyzed phenotypically with monoclonal antibodies by the use of a fluorescence microscope. The surface phenotype of the TCC from the asymptomatic patient were predominantly CD4 positive (86%. On the contrary, the surface phenotype CD8 was predominant in the TCC from the patients suffering from cardiomegaly with right bundle branch block (83%, bradycardia with megacolon (75 % and bradycardia (75%. Future studies will be developed in order to identify the antigens eliciting these T cell subpopulations.

  13. Simultaneous dual pathology in lymph node

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakas Kumar Mandal

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available [Abstract] Tubercuous lymphadenitis and Non Hodgkins’ Lymphoma are common in India. As both diseases can occur in elderly persons there is a definite chance of co-existence of both diseases; but that coexistence has not been reported. Here we present a unique case in an elderly woman who had synchronous double pathology of tuberculosis (TB and Diffuse Large B cell Lymphoma (DLBCL of the lymph nodes.     Key words:- lymph nodes, tuberculosis (TB, Diffuse Large B cell Lymphoma (DLBCL.

  14. Clinico-pathological studies of CSF dissemination of glioblastoma and medulloblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Kyozo; Yoshida, Jun; Kageyama, Naoki

    1986-01-01

    Clinico-pathological findings of CSF dissemination which was diagnosed on CT scan, were studied on 13 cases of glioblastoma and 9 cases of medulloblastoma. The type of CSF dissemination and the prognosis of patients were both different between glioblastoma and medulloblastoma. In the former, the dissemination was predominantly in ventricular walls and in the latter, in basal cisterns. The mean survival time after the diagnosis of dissemination is 6 months of glioblastoma as compared with 13 months of medulloblastoma. The Pathological studies show that subependymal and/or subpial infiltration of tumor cells, and thickness of arachnoid membrane by marked mesodermal reaction were demonstrated in cases of glioblastoma. On the contrary, tumor cells of medulloblastoma grow markedly in the subarachnoid space and/or on the ependymal layers. From these pathological findings of CSF dissemination, it will be resulted that the prognosis of glioblastoma is much more poor that of medulloblastoma. (author)

  15. Nanoparticle-based and bioengineered probes and sensors to detect physiological and pathological biomarkers in neural cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dusica eMaysinger

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology, a rapidly evolving field, provides simple and practical tools to investigate the nervous system in health and disease. Among these tools are nanoparticle-based probes and sensors that detect biochemical and physiological properties of neurons and glia, and generate signals proportionate to physical, chemical, and/or electrical changes in these cells. In this context, quantum dots (QDs, carbon-based structures (C-dots, graphene and nanodiamonds and gold nanoparticles are the most commonly used nanostructures. They can detect and measure enzymatic activities of proteases (metalloproteinases, caspases, ions, metabolites, and other biomolecules under physiological or pathological conditions in neural cells. Here, we provide some examples of nanoparticle-based and genetically engineered probes and sensors that are used to reveal changes in protease activities and calcium ion concentrations. Although significant progress in developing these tools has been made for probing neural cells, several challenges remain. We review many common hurdles in sensor development, while highlighting certain advances. In the end, we propose some future directions and ideas for developing practical tools for neural cell investigations, based on the maxim Measure what is measurable, and make measurable what is not so (Galileo Galilei.

  16. MULTIHORMONAL ISLET CELL CARCINOMAS IN THREE KOMODO DRAGONS (VARANUS KOMODOENSIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eustace, Ronan; Garner, Michael M; Cook, Kimberly; Miller, Christine; Kiupel, Matti

    2017-03-01

      Multihormonal pancreatic islet cell carcinomas were found in one female and two male captive geriatric Komodo dragons (Varanus komodoensis). Gross changes in the pancreas were visible in two of the cases. Clinical signs noted in the Komodo dragons were lethargy, weakness, and anorexia. Histologically, the tumors were comprised of nests and cords of well-differentiated neoplastic islet cells with scant amounts of eosinophilic cytoplasm and round, euchromatic nuclei, with rare mitoses. Infiltration by the islet cell tumor into the surrounding acinar tissue was observed in all cases, but no metastatic foci were seen. Multihormone expression was observed in all tumors, which labeled strongly positive for glucagon and somatostatin and focally positive for polypeptide. Pancreatic islet cell neoplasms should be considered in the differential diagnosis for geriatric Komodo dragons presenting with weakness, lethargy, and poor appetite.

  17. Pluripotent cell models of fanconi anemia identify the early pathological defect in human hemoangiogenic progenitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Naoya M; Niwa, Akira; Yabe, Miharu; Hira, Asuka; Okada, Chihiro; Amano, Naoki; Watanabe, Akira; Watanabe, Ken-Ichiro; Heike, Toshio; Takata, Minoru; Nakahata, Tatsutoshi; Saito, Megumu K

    2015-04-01

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is a disorder of genomic instability characterized by progressive bone marrow failure (BMF), developmental abnormalities, and an increased susceptibility to cancer. Although various consequences in hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells have been attributed to FA-BMF, the quest to identify the initial pathological event is still ongoing. To address this issue, we established induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from fibroblasts of six patients with FA and FANCA mutations. An improved reprogramming method yielded iPSC-like colonies from all patients, and iPSC clones were propagated from two patients. Quantitative evaluation of the differentiation ability demonstrated that the differentiation propensity toward the hematopoietic and endothelial lineages is already defective in early hemoangiogenic progenitors. The expression levels of critical transcription factors were significantly downregulated in these progenitors. These data indicate that the hematopoietic consequences in FA patients originate from the early hematopoietic stage and highlight the potential usefulness of iPSC technology for elucidating the pathogenesis of FA-BMF. ©AlphaMed Press.

  18. Target cell and mode of radiation injury in rhesus salivary glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephens, L.C.; Kian Ang, K.; Schultheiss, T.E.; King, G.K.; Brock, W.A.; Peters, L.J.

    1986-01-01

    Morphological alterations of parotid and submandibular salivary glands of rhesus monkeys were studied 1-72 h and 16-40 weeks postirradiation (PI) with single photon doses of 2.5-15.0 Gy, or 10.2 Gy given in 6 fractions. Acute degeneration and necrosis of serous cells in both parotid and submandibular glands were clearly expressed by 24 h PI and occurred in a dose-related fashion. In submandibular glands, doses of 12.5 or 15.0 Gy damaged mucous cells, but to a considerably lesser extent than the serous cells in the same glands. No significant sparing was evident with dose fractionation. These observations demonstrate the unique sensitivity of serous cells which appear to undergo interphase cell death after irradiation. The results also show that late atrophy was the direct result of acute loss of serous acini and reflects a lack of regeneration of acinar cells receiving acute injury. (Auth.)

  19. Cerebellar pathology in childhood-onset vs. adult-onset essential tremor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis, Elan D; Kuo, Sheng-Han; Tate, William J; Kelly, Geoffrey C; Faust, Phyllis L

    2017-10-17

    Although the incidence of ET increases with advancing age, the disease may begin at any age, including childhood. The question arises as to whether childhood-onset ET cases manifest the same sets of pathological changes in the cerebellum as those whose onset is during adult life. We quantified a broad range of postmortem features (Purkinje cell [PC] counts, PC axonal torpedoes, a host of associated axonal changes [PC axonal recurrent collateral count, PC thickened axonal profile count, PC axonal branching count], heterotopic PCs, and basket cell rating) in 60 ET cases (11 childhood-onset and 49 adult-onset) and 30 controls. Compared to controls, childhood-onset ET cases had lower PC counts, higher torpedo counts, higher heterotopic PC counts, higher basket cell plexus rating, and marginally higher PC axonal recurrent collateral counts. The median PC thickened axonal profile count and median PC axonal branching count were two to five times higher in childhood-onset ET than controls, but the differences did not reach statistical significance. Childhood-onset and adult-onset ET had similar PC counts, torpedo counts, heterotopic PC counts, basket cell plexus rating, PC axonal recurrent collateral counts, PC thickened axonal profile count and PC axonal branching count. In conclusion, we found that childhood-onset and adult-onset ET shared similar pathological changes in the cerebellum. The data suggest that pathological changes we have observed in the cerebellum in ET are a part of the pathophysiological cascade of events in both forms of the disease and that both groups seem to reach the same pathological endpoints at a similar age of death. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Inflammatory effects on human lung epithelial cells after exposure to diesel exhaust micron sub particles (PM1.0) and pollen allergens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzarella, G.; Esposito, V.; Bianco, A.; Ferraraccio, F.; Prati, M.V.; Lucariello, A.; Manente, L.; Mezzogiorno, A.; De Luca, A.

    2012-01-01

    Asthma is currently defined as a chronic inflammatory disease of the airway. Several evidence indicate that vehicle emissions in cities is correlated with the allergic respiratory diseases. In the present study, we evaluated in the A549 cells the production and release of IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 after treatment with sub-micron PM 1.0 particles (PM 1.0 ), Parietaria officinalis (ALL), and PM 1.0 + ALL together. Our data demonstrated that PM 1.0 + ALL together exhibited the greatest capacity to induce A549 cells to enhance the expression of IL-4 and IL-5 compared with the only PM 1.0 or ALL treatment. Interestingly, IL-13 that is necessary for allergen-induced airway hyper responsiveness, is increased in cells treated with PM 1.0 + ALL together, but is higher expressed when the cells are treated only with the allergen. Our data support the hypothesis that the urban environment damage the acinar lung units and activates cells of the immune system. - Highlights: ► The genetic factors plays a key role in the development of the asthma. ► Its development can only be made in the presence of specific environmental factors. ► We evaluated in the A549 cells the production and release of IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13. ► IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 expression increased when the A549 cells are treated with PM 1.0 + ALL together. - The urban environment with the combination of inhalable air pollution and particulate are able to damage the acinar lung units and are able to activate cells of the immune system.

  1. Pathology in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakellariou, S; Patsouris, E

    2015-11-01

    Pathology is the field of medicine that studies diseases. Ancient Greece hosted some of the earliest societies that laid the structural foundations of pathology. Initially, knowledge was based on observations but later on the key elements of pathology were established based on the dissection of animals and the autopsy of human cadavers. Christianized Greece under Ottoman rule (1453-1821) was not conducive to the development of pathology. After liberation, however, a series of events took place that paved the way for the establishment and further development of the specialty. The appointment in 1849 of two Professors of Pathology at the Medical School of Athens for didactical purposes proved to be the most important step in fostering the field of pathology in modern Greece. Presently in Greece there are seven university departments and 74 pathology laboratories in public hospitals, employing 415 specialized pathologists and 90 residents. The First Department of Pathology at the Medical School of Athens University is the oldest (1849) and largest in Greece, encompassing most pathology subspecialties.

  2. Characterization of Insulin-Immunoreactive Cells and Endocrine Cells Within the Duct System of the Adult Human Pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rong; Zhang, Xiaoxi; Yu, Lan; Zou, Xia; Zhao, Hailu

    2016-01-01

    The adult pancreatic duct system accommodates endocrine cells that have the potential to produce insulin. Here we report the characterization and distribution of insulin-immunoreactive cells and endocrine cells within the ductal units of adult human pancreas. Sequential pancreas sections from 12 nondiabetic adults were stained with biomarkers of ductal epithelial cells (cytokeratin 19), acinar cells (amylase), endocrine cells (chromogranin A; neuron-specific enolase), islet hormones (insulin, glucagon, somatostatin, pancreatic polypeptide), cell proliferation (Ki-67), and neogenesis (CD29). The number of islet hormone-immunoreactive cells increased from large ducts to the terminal branches. The insulin-producing cells outnumbered endocrine cells reactive for glucagon, somatostatin, or pancreatic polypeptide. The proportions of insulin-immunoreactive count compared with local islets (100% as a baseline) were 1.5% for the main ducts, 7.2% for interlobular ducts, 24.8% for intralobular ducts, 67.9% for intercalated ducts, and 348.9% for centroacinar cells. Both Ki-67- and CD29-labeled cells were predominantly localized in the terminal branches around the islets. The terminal branches also showed cells coexpressing islet hormones and cytokeratin 19. The adult human pancreatic ducts showed islet hormone-producing cells. The insulin-reactive cells predominantly localized in terminal branches where they may retain potential capability for β-cell neogenesis.

  3. Overlapping but distinct TDP-43 and tau pathologic patterns in aged hippocampi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Vanessa D; Bachstetter, Adam D; Ighodaro, Eseosa; Roberts, Kelly; Abner, Erin L; Fardo, David W; Nelson, Peter T

    2018-03-01

    Intracellular proteinaceous aggregates (inclusion bodies) are almost always detectable at autopsy in brains of elderly individuals. Inclusion bodies composed of TDP-43 and tau proteins often coexist in the same brain, and each of these pathologic biomarkers is associated independently with cognitive impairment. However, uncertainties remain about how the presence and neuroanatomical distribution of inclusion bodies correlate with underlying diseases including Alzheimer's disease (AD). To address this knowledge gap, we analyzed data from the University of Kentucky AD Center autopsy series (n = 247); none of the brains had frontotemporal lobar degeneration. A specific question for this study was whether neurofibrillary tangle (NFT) pathology outside of the Braak NFT staging scheme is characteristic of brains with TDP-43 pathology but lacking AD, that is those with cerebral age-related TDP-43 with sclerosis (CARTS). We also tested whether TDP-43 pathology is associated with comorbid AD pathology, and whether argyrophilic grains are relatively likely to be present in cases with, vs. without, TDP-43 pathology. Consistent with prior studies, hippocampal TDP-43 pathology was associated with advanced AD - Braak NFT stages V/VI. However, argyrophilic grain pathology was not more common in cases with TDP-43 pathology in this data set. In brains with CARTS (TDP-43[+]/AD[-] cases), there were more NFTs in dentate granule neurons than were seen in TDP-43[-]/AD[-] cases. These dentate granule cell NFTs could provide a proxy indicator of CARTS pathology in cases lacking substantial AD pathology. Immunofluorescent experiments in a subsample of cases found that, in both advanced AD and CARTS, approximately 1% of dentate granule neurons were PHF-1 immunopositive, whereas ∼25% of TDP-43 positive cells showed colocalized PHF-1 immunoreactivity. We conclude that NFTs in hippocampal dentate granule neurons are often present in CARTS, and TDP-43 pathology may be secondary to or

  4. Guards at the gate: physiological and pathological roles of tissue-resident innate lymphoid cells in the lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hang; Jin, Chengyan; Wu, Jing; Zhu, Shan; Liu, Yong-Jun; Chen, Jingtao

    2017-12-01

    The lung is an important open organ and the primary site of respiration. Many life-threatening diseases develop in the lung, e.g., pneumonia, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPDs), pulmonary fibrosis, and lung cancer. In the lung, innate immunity serves as the frontline in both anti-irritant response and anti-tumor defense and is also critical for mucosal homeostasis; thus, it plays an important role in containing these pulmonary diseases. Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs), characterized by their strict tissue residence and distinct function in the mucosa, are attracting increased attention in innate immunity. Upon sensing the danger signals from damaged epithelium, ILCs activate, proliferate, and release numerous cytokines with specific local functions; they also participate in mucosal immune-surveillance, immune-regulation, and homeostasis. However, when their functions become uncontrolled, ILCs can enhance pathological states and induce diseases. In this review, we discuss the physiological and pathological functions of ILC subsets 1 to 3 in the lung, and how the pathogenic environment affects the function and plasticity of ILCs.

  5. Multidetector CT and MRI findings in periportal space pathologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karcaaltincaba, Musturay [Department of Radiology, Hacettepe University School of Medicine, Ankara 06100 (Turkey)]. E-mail: musturayk@yahoo.com; Haliloglu, Mithat [Department of Radiology, Hacettepe University School of Medicine, Ankara 06100 (Turkey); Akpinar, Erhan [Department of Radiology, Hacettepe University School of Medicine, Ankara 06100 (Turkey); Akata, Deniz [Department of Radiology, Hacettepe University School of Medicine, Ankara 06100 (Turkey); Ozmen, Mustafa [Department of Radiology, Hacettepe University School of Medicine, Ankara 06100 (Turkey); Ariyurek, Macit [Department of Radiology, Hacettepe University School of Medicine, Ankara 06100 (Turkey); Akhan, Okan [Department of Radiology, Hacettepe University School of Medicine, Ankara 06100 (Turkey)

    2007-01-15

    Periportal region is an anatomic space around portal vein comprising hepatic artery, bile duct, nerves, lymphatics and a potential space. Periportal pathologies may involve any of these structures diffusely or focally with characteristic radiologic findings. Radiologic findings can be helpful in differential diagnosis of pathologies of periportal structures including periportal cavernomatous transformation, hepatic artery aneurysm, biliary diseases, neurofibromatosis, lymphoma, langerhans' cell histiocytosis, periportal fatty infiltration and other causes of periportal halo in adult and pediatric patients. Lobar/segmental intrahepatic involvement can be seen in neurofibromatosis, cavernomatous transformation, fatty infiltration and periportal edema. In this review, we discuss CT and MRI findings of periportal pathologies which can be in the form of diffuse or segmental/lobar involvement.

  6. Techniques for Maximizing the Performance of Molecular Pathology Testing: Responsibilities of All Pathologists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evren UZUN

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Molecular pathological analysis has an expanding role in patient diagnosis and management. The performance of these techniques relies on excellent laboratory procedures. However, the crucial step is obtaining the best samples for molecular analysis. Archiving and selection of these are the responsibilities of all pathologists even if they are not working at a center with molecular pathological facilities. This review focuses on the features of different types of materials for molecular pathological analysis. Many steps that might affect the results, including communication between the pathologist and the oncology team, features of different types of materials (cytological, tissue blocks, biopsy, circulating tumor cells (CTCs and cell-free circulating nucleic acids, effects of tissue processing, methods for selecting the best material, and tissue saving and tumor enrichment methods are discussed. The procedures for referral to a center for molecular pathological analysis are also mentioned. Awareness of the importance of the cytopathological and histopathological material of the patients for future molecular pathological analysis by pathologists is of the utmost importance.

  7. Primary colorectal lymphoma: spectrum of imaging findings with pathologic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hyun Ju; Han, Joon Koo; Kim, Tae Kyoung; Kim, Young Hoon; Kim, Ah Young; Kim, Kyoung Won; Choi, Ja Young; Choi, Byung Ihn

    2002-01-01

    Primary colorectal lymphoma is a very uncommon disease; therefore, it has received little attention in the radiology literature. Moreover, imaging features of newly described pathologic subtypes have not been reported such as low-grade B-cell lymphoma arising from mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue and peripheral T-cell lymphoma that involves colorectal area. We retrospectively reviewed double-contrast barium enema and CT scans in the patients with primary colorectal lymphoma. In this article the radiologic appearances of primary colorectal lymphoma are categorized into focal lesion and diffuse lesion. Focal lesion includes polypoid mass, circumferential infiltration with smooth mucosal surface, circumferential infiltration with extensive ulceration, cavitary mass, mucosal nodularity, and mucosal fold thickening. Diffuse lesion includes diffuse ulcerative lesion and diffuse nodular lesion. Peripheral T-cell lymphomas that involve the colon manifested as either a diffuse or focal segmental lesion and showed extensive mucosal ulceration. These findings are similar to those of Crohn's disease or tuberculous colitis and are different from those of previously reported colorectal lymphoma. Low-grade B-cell lymphoma arising from mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue manifest as multiple mucosal nodularity. The imaging features of primary colorectal lymphoma are quite variable and overlap with other colonic pathology; however, it is important for radiologists to know the imaging features of primary colorectal lymphoma with their pathologic correlation. (orig.)

  8. Integrative Genomic Analysis of Coincident Cancer Foci Implicates CTNNB1 and PTEN Alterations in Ductal Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillard, Marc; Lack, Justin; Pontier, Andrea; Gandla, Divya; Hatcher, David; Sowalsky, Adam G; Rodriguez-Nieves, Jose; Vander Griend, Donald; Paner, Gladell; VanderWeele, David

    2017-12-08

    Ductal adenocarcinoma of the prostate is an aggressive subtype, with high rates of biochemical recurrence and overall poor prognosis. It is frequently found coincident with conventional acinar adenocarcinoma. The genomic features driving evolution to its ductal histology and the biology associated with its poor prognosis remain unknown. To characterize genomic features distinguishing ductal adenocarcinoma from coincident acinar adenocarcinoma foci from the same patient. Ten patients with coincident acinar and ductal prostate cancer underwent prostatectomy. Laser microdissection was used to separately isolate acinar and ductal foci. DNA and RNA were extracted, and used for integrative genomic and transcriptomic analyses. Single nucleotide mutations, small indels, copy number estimates, and expression profiles were identified. Phylogenetic relationships between coincident foci were determined, and characteristics distinguishing ductal from acinar foci were identified. Exome sequencing, copy number estimates, and fusion genes demonstrated coincident ductal and acinar adenocarcinoma diverged from a common progenitor, yet they harbored distinct alterations unique to each focus. AR expression and activity were similar in both histologies. Nine of 10 cases had mutually exclusive CTNNB1 hotspot mutations or phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) alterations in the ductal component, and these were absent in the acinar foci. These alterations were associated with changes in expression in WNT- and PI3K-pathway genes. Coincident ductal and acinar histologies typically are clonally related and thus arise from the same cell of origin. Ductal foci are enriched for cases with either a CTNNB1 hotspot mutation or a PTEN alteration, and are associated with WNT- or PI3K-pathway activation. These alterations are mutually exclusive and may represent distinct subtypes. The aggressive subtype ductal adenocarcinoma is closely related to conventional acinar prostate cancer. Ductal foci

  9. Metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer: consensus on pathology and molecular tests, first-line, second-line, and third-line therapy: 1st ESMO Consensus Conference in Lung Cancer; Lugano 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Felip, E; Gridelli, C; Baas, P

    2011-01-01

    the conference, the expert panel prepared clinically relevant questions concerning five areas: early and locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), first-line metastatic NSCLC, second-/third-line NSCLC, NSCLC pathology and molecular testing, and small-cell lung cancer to be addressed through discussion......The 1st ESMO Consensus Conference on lung cancer was held in Lugano, Switzerland on 21 and 22 May 2010 with the participation of a multidisciplinary panel of leading professionals in pathology and molecular diagnostics, medical oncology, surgical oncology and radiation oncology. Before...... at the Consensus Conference. All relevant scientific literature for each question was reviewed in advance. During the Consensus Conference, the panel developed recommendations for each specific question. The consensus agreement on three of these areas: NSCLC pathology and molecular testing, the treatment of first-line...

  10. Hitchhiker's guide to multi-dimensional plant pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Diane G O

    2015-02-01

    Filamentous pathogens pose a substantial threat to global food security. One central question in plant pathology is how pathogens cause infection and manage to evade or suppress plant immunity to promote disease. With many technological advances over the past decade, including DNA sequencing technology, an array of new tools has become embedded within the toolbox of next-generation plant pathologists. By employing a multidisciplinary approach plant pathologists can fully leverage these technical advances to answer key questions in plant pathology, aimed at achieving global food security. This review discusses the impact of: cell biology and genetics on progressing our understanding of infection structure formation on the leaf surface; biochemical and molecular analysis to study how pathogens subdue plant immunity and manipulate plant processes through effectors; genomics and DNA sequencing technologies on all areas of plant pathology; and new forms of collaboration on accelerating exploitation of big data. As we embark on the next phase in plant pathology, the integration of systems biology promises to provide a holistic perspective of plant–pathogen interactions from big data and only once we fully appreciate these complexities can we design truly sustainable solutions to preserve our resources.

  11. The relationship of radiological findings and pathological types of primary lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Hye Jung; Baik, Dae Il; Han, Chang Yul; Park, Soo Sung

    1982-01-01

    The present study was intended to define the relationship of radiological findings and pathological types of primary lung cancer. The 85 cases was selected after confirmation of the cell types by bronchoscopic biopsy, cervical lymph node or thoracotomy biopsy and lung resection. Results of the study were presented below. 1. Primary lung cancer is frequently developed after 4th decade and males were affected more frequently than females with ratio of 2 to 1. 2. The frequencies of pathologic cell types of lung cancer were presented as follows. Squamous cell carcinoma 40% Adenocarcinoma 25% Undifferential cell carcinoma 30% Alveolar cell carcinoma 5% 3. The findings of plain chest radiography were presented as follows. In squamous cell carcinoma. hilar enlargement or hilar mass is the most frequent findings (53%) with atelectasis (26%) or obstructive pneumonitis (26%). In adenocarcinoma, pleural effusion is accompanied about half of cases (53%). In undifferential cell carcinoma, hilar mass with mediastinal widening and pleural effusion is frequent finding

  12. Comparison of Macroscopic Pathology Measurements With Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Assessment of Microscopic Pathology Extension for Colorectal Liver Metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Méndez Romero, Alejandra; Verheij, Joanne; Dwarkasing, Roy S.; Seppenwoolde, Yvette; Redekop, William K.; Zondervan, Pieter E.; Nowak, Peter J.C.M.; Ijzermans, Jan N.M.; Levendag, Peter C.; Heijmen, Ben J.M.; Verhoef, Cornelis

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To compare pathology macroscopic tumor dimensions with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measurements and to establish the microscopic tumor extension of colorectal liver metastases. Methods and Materials: In a prospective pilot study we included patients with colorectal liver metastases planned for surgery and eligible for MRI. A liver MRI was performed within 48 hours before surgery. Directly after surgery, an MRI of the specimen was acquired to measure the degree of tumor shrinkage. The specimen was fixed in formalin for 48 hours, and another MRI was performed to assess the specimen/tumor shrinkage. All MRI sequences were imported into our radiotherapy treatment planning system, where the tumor and the specimen were delineated. For the macroscopic pathology analyses, photographs of the sliced specimens were used to delineate and reconstruct the tumor and the specimen volumes. Microscopic pathology analyses were conducted to assess the infiltration depth of tumor cell nests. Results: Between February 2009 and January 2010 we included 13 patients for analysis with 21 colorectal liver metastases. Specimen and tumor shrinkage after resection and fixation was negligible. The best tumor volume correlations between MRI and pathology were found for T1-weighted (w) echo gradient sequence (r s = 0.99, slope = 1.06), and the T2-w fast spin echo (FSE) single-shot sequence (r s = 0.99, slope = 1.08), followed by the T2-w FSE fat saturation sequence (r s = 0.99, slope = 1.23), and the T1-w gadolinium-enhanced sequence (r s = 0.98, slope = 1.24). We observed 39 tumor cell nests beyond the tumor border in 12 metastases. Microscopic extension was found between 0.2 and 10 mm from the main tumor, with 90% of the cases within 6 mm. Conclusions: MRI tumor dimensions showed a good agreement with the macroscopic pathology suggesting that MRI can be used for accurate tumor delineation. However, microscopic extensions found beyond the tumor border indicate that caution is needed

  13. Radioprotective effect of vitamin E in parotid glands: a morphometric analysis in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, Carolina Cintra; Boscolo, Frab Norberto; Almeida, Solange Maria de; Ramos-Perez, Flavia Maria de Moraes; Perez, Danyel Elias da Cruz; Novaes, Pedro Duarte

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the radioprotective effect of vitamin E on rat parotid glands by morphometric analysis. Sixty male rats were divided into 5 groups (n=6): control, in which animals received olive oil solution; olive oil/irradiated, in which animals received olive oil and were irradiated with a dose of 15 Gy of gamma radiation; irradiated, in which animals were irradiated with a dose of 15 Gy gamma radiation; vitamin E, which received α-tocopherol acetate solution; vitamin E/irradiated, which received α-tocopherol acetate solution before irradiation with a dose of 15 Gy gamma rays. Half of the animals were euthanized at 8 h, and the remaining at 30 days after irradiation. Both parotid glands were surgically removed and morphometric analysis of acinar cells was performed. Data were subjected to two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (α=0.05). Morphometric analysis showed a significant reduction in the number of parotid acinar cells at 30 days in olive oil/irradiated and irradiated groups. In groups evaluated over time a significant reduction was shown at 30 days in olive oil/irradiated and irradiated groups, indicating that ionizing radiation caused tissue damage. The vitamin E/irradiated group presented more acinar cells than the irradiated group, but no statistically significant difference was observed (p>0.05). In conclusion, vitamin E seems to have failed as a radioprotective agent on acinar cells in rat parotid glands. (author)

  14. Radioprotective effect of vitamin E in parotid glands: a morphometric analysis in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, Carolina Cintra; Boscolo, Frab Norberto; Almeida, Solange Maria de [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Diagnostico Oral; Ramos-Perez, Flavia Maria de Moraes; Perez, Danyel Elias da Cruz, E-mail: flavia.ramosperez@ufpe.br [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Clinica e Odontologia Preventiva; Novaes, Pedro Duarte [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola de Odontologia. Dept. de Morfologia

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the radioprotective effect of vitamin E on rat parotid glands by morphometric analysis. Sixty male rats were divided into 5 groups (n=6): control, in which animals received olive oil solution; olive oil/irradiated, in which animals received olive oil and were irradiated with a dose of 15 Gy of gamma radiation; irradiated, in which animals were irradiated with a dose of 15 Gy gamma radiation; vitamin E, which received {alpha}-tocopherol acetate solution; vitamin E/irradiated, which received {alpha}-tocopherol acetate solution before irradiation with a dose of 15 Gy gamma rays. Half of the animals were euthanized at 8 h, and the remaining at 30 days after irradiation. Both parotid glands were surgically removed and morphometric analysis of acinar cells was performed. Data were subjected to two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test ({alpha}=0.05). Morphometric analysis showed a significant reduction in the number of parotid acinar cells at 30 days in olive oil/irradiated and irradiated groups. In groups evaluated over time a significant reduction was shown at 30 days in olive oil/irradiated and irradiated groups, indicating that ionizing radiation caused tissue damage. The vitamin E/irradiated group presented more acinar cells than the irradiated group, but no statistically significant difference was observed (p>0.05). In conclusion, vitamin E seems to have failed as a radioprotective agent on acinar cells in rat parotid glands. (author)

  15. [Apoptosis and pathological process].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rami, Mukhammed Salim Iusef

    2007-01-01

    Apoptosis (programmed cell death) occurs normally for maitenance of tissue homeostasis and play an important role in morphogenesis, embriogenesis and tissue growth. On the other hand, apoptosis may be involved in different pathological processes such as malignancy, infectious diseases and autoimmune disorders. Apoptosis is regulated by various mediators. Caspases, death receptors, mitochondria, Bcl-2 protoncogenes and tumor supressor genes are considered to be the most important of them. Advance in apoptosis regulation research suggests enormouse facilities for therapy of wide range of human illnesses.

  16. The pathobiological impact of cigarette smoke on pancreatic cancer development (review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittel, Uwe A; Momi, Navneet; Seifert, Gabriel; Wiech, Thorsten; Hopt, Ulrich T; Batra, Surinder K

    2012-07-01

    Despite extensive efforts, pancreatic cancer remains incurable. Most risk factors, such as genetic disposition, metabolic diseases or chronic pancreatitis cannot be influenced. By contrast, cigarette smoking, an important risk factor for pancreatic cancer, can be controlled. Despite the epidemiological evidence of the detrimental effects of cigarette smoking with regard to pancreatic cancer development and its unique property of being influenceable, our understanding of cigarette smoke-induced pancreatic carcinogenesis is limited. Current data on cigarette smoke-induced pancreatic carcinogenesis indicate multifactorial events that are triggered by nicotine, which is the major pharmacologically active constituent of tobacco smoke. In addition to nicotine, a vast number of carcinogens have the potential to reach the pancreatic gland, where they are metabolized, in some instances to even more toxic compounds. These metabolic events are not restricted to pancreatic ductal cells. Several studies show that acinar cells are also greatly affected. Furthermore, pancreatic cancer progenitor cells do not only derive from the ductal epithelial lineage, but also from acinar cells. This sheds new light on cigarette smoke-induced acinar cell damage. On this background, our objective is to outline a multifactorial model of tobacco smoke-induced pancreatic carcinogenesis.

  17. Diagnostic utility of alpha-methylacyl CoA racemase (P504S) on prostate needle biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhong; Woda, Bruce A

    2004-11-01

    Alpha-methylacyl CoA racemase (AMACR), also known as P504S, was identified by the analysis of cDNA library subtraction in conjunction with high throughput microarray screening from prostate tissue and has been proven to be one of the very few biomarkers that can distinguish cancer from benign cells with high sensitivity and specificity for prostate carcinoma. It is a successful example of the translation of molecular findings into clinical practice. This review focuses on the study of AMACR (P504S) expression in small focal prostate cancer and atypical small acinar proliferation (ASAP) on needle biopsies and emphasizes the utility of AMACR (P504S) in routine surgical pathology practice. We also discuss the potential pitfalls and caveats in the interpretation of immunostaining results.

  18. Comparative study of radiologic-pathologic findings of experimental clonorchiasis in rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Kyung Nam; Lim, Jae Hoon; Cho, You Jung; Yang, Moon Ho

    1993-01-01

    Radiological investigation in patients with clonorchiasis is very important as this is the only method of evaluating the severity of clonorchiasis. In order to correlate the radiologic and pathologic findings of clonorchiasis, fourteen rabbits infested with Clonorchis sinensis and five control rabbits were examined radiologically by ultrasonography, computed tomography and cholangiography and the results were correlated with pathologic findings. Dilatation of the intrahepatic small bile ducts of the liver was due to obstruction by flukes: oval or elliptical, small filling defects or irregular margin of the bile ducts on cholangiogram or intraluminal echoes on sonogram represented flukes per se; periductal thickening on sonogram and periductal enhancement of bile ducts on CT were due to inflammatory cell infiltration, adenomatous hyperplasia and periductal fibrosis; band like enhancement at the periphery of the liver on CT represented proliferated bile ducts, destruction of liver cells and resultant fibrosis. The study confirmed the pathological bases for the radiological findings of clonorchiasis in liver and bile ducts and will, perhaps, serve as a basis for the future radiologic-pathological correlation of clonorchiasis and in further clinical and experimental researches in the biliary tract diseases

  19. Comparative study of radiologic-pathologic findings of experimental clonorchiasis in rabbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Kyung Nam; Lim, Jae Hoon; Cho, You Jung; Yang, Moon Ho [College of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-01-15

    Radiological investigation in patients with clonorchiasis is very important as this is the only method of evaluating the severity of clonorchiasis. In order to correlate the radiologic and pathologic findings of clonorchiasis, fourteen rabbits infested with Clonorchis sinensis and five control rabbits were examined radiologically by ultrasonography, computed tomography and cholangiography and the results were correlated with pathologic findings. Dilatation of the intrahepatic small bile ducts of the liver was due to obstruction by flukes: oval or elliptical, small filling defects or irregular margin of the bile ducts on cholangiogram or intraluminal echoes on sonogram represented flukes per se; periductal thickening on sonogram and periductal enhancement of bile ducts on CT were due to inflammatory cell infiltration, adenomatous hyperplasia and periductal fibrosis; band like enhancement at the periphery of the liver on CT represented proliferated bile ducts, destruction of liver cells and resultant fibrosis. The study confirmed the pathological bases for the radiological findings of clonorchiasis in liver and bile ducts and will, perhaps, serve as a basis for the future radiologic-pathological correlation of clonorchiasis and in further clinical and experimental researches in the biliary tract diseases.

  20. Pathological jealousy and pathological love: Apples to apples or apples to oranges?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stravogiannis, Andrea Lorena da C; Kim, Hyoun S; Sophia, Eglacy C; Sanches, Cíntia; Zilberman, Monica L; Tavares, Hermano

    2018-01-01

    Pathological jealousy evokes emotions, thoughts, and behaviors that cause damage to social and interpersonal relationships. On the other hand, pathological love is the uncontrollable behavior of caring for a partner that results in neglecting the needs of the self. The aim of the present research was to assess the similarities and differences between the two psychopathologies of love. To this end, thirty-two individuals with pathological jealousy and 33 individuals with pathological love were compared on demographics, aspects of romantic relationship (jealousy, satisfaction, love style), psychiatric co-morbidities, personality and psychological characteristics (e.g., impulsivity). In a univariate analysis individuals with pathological jealousy were more likely to be in a current relationship and reported greater satisfaction. The avoidant attachment and the ludus love style were associated with pathological jealousy whereas the secure attachment and agape love style was associated with pathological love. Almost three-quarters (72.3%) of the sample met criteria for a current psychiatric disorder, however no differences emerged between the pathological jealousy and pathological love groups. In a binary logistic regression, relationship status and impairments in parenting significantly differentiated the groups. While both pathological jealousy and pathological love share similarities, they also present with unique differences, which may have important treatment implications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Long-Term Culture of Self-renewing Pancreatic Progenitors Derived from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie Trott

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Pluripotent stem cells have been proposed as an unlimited source of pancreatic β cells for studying and treating diabetes. However, the long, multi-step differentiation protocols used to generate functional β cells inevitably exhibit considerable variability, particularly when applied to pluripotent cells from diverse genetic backgrounds. We have developed culture conditions that support long-term self-renewal of human multipotent pancreatic progenitors, which are developmentally more proximal to the specialized cells of the adult pancreas. These cultured pancreatic progenitor (cPP cells express key pancreatic transcription factors, including PDX1 and SOX9, and exhibit transcriptomes closely related to their in vivo counterparts. Upon exposure to differentiation cues, cPP cells give rise to pancreatic endocrine, acinar, and ductal lineages, indicating multilineage potency. Furthermore, cPP cells generate insulin+ β-like cells in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that they offer a convenient alternative to pluripotent cells as a source of adult cell types for modeling pancreatic development and diabetes.

  2. Application of ADC measurement in characterization of renal cell carcinomas with different pathological types and grades by 3.0 T diffusion-weighted MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Xiaoduo, E-mail: yxd98@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Cancer Institute and Hospital, Peking Union Medical College, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing (China); Lin, Meng, E-mail: linmeng77xp@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Cancer Institute and Hospital, Peking Union Medical College, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing (China); Ouyang, Han, E-mail: hbybj@sohu.com [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Cancer Institute and Hospital, Peking Union Medical College, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing (China); Zhou, Chunwu, E-mail: cjr.zhouchunwu@163.vip.com [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Cancer Institute and Hospital, Peking Union Medical College, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing (China); Zhang, Hongtu, E-mail: zhanghongtu1010@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Pathology, Cancer Institute and Hospital, Peking Union Medical College, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing (China)

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: To test the feasibility of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value obtained with 3.0 T diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in the characterization of renal cell carcinomas (RCC) with different pathological subtypes and grades. Materials and methods: A total of 137 patients who were diagnosed with RCC and underwent DWI were included in this study. The diagnosis was confirmed by pathological examination of surgical specimens. Images of DWI were obtained with b values of 0 and 800 s/mm{sup 2}. The ADC values in the solid area of tumors and in the corresponding regions of contralateral normal renal parenchyma were measured and analyzed statistically. Results: The mean ADC value was significantly lower in RCC (1.381 {+-} 0.444 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s) than in normal renal parenchyma (2.232 {+-} 0.221 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s) (P < 0.001). The ADC value was also statistically different between clear cell RCC (CCRCC) and non-CCRCC, and between different grades of CCRCC except grade I vs II and grade III vs IV. Conclusion: ADC measurement on 3.0 T DWI provides useful information in diagnostic work-up of RCC in terms of differentiation of RCC and normal renal parenchyma, and characterization of RCC with different pathological subtypes and grades.

  3. Regenerating 1 and 3b gene expression in the pancreas of type 2 diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Calderari

    Full Text Available Regenerating (REG proteins are associated with islet development, β-cell damage, diabetes and pancreatitis. Particularly, REG-1 and REG-3-beta are involved in cell growth/survival and/or inflammation and the Reg1 promoter contains interleukin-6 (IL-6-responsive elements. We showed by transcriptome analysis that islets of Goto-Kakizaki (GK rats, a model of spontaneous type 2 diabetes, overexpress Reg1, 3α, 3β and 3γ, vs Wistar islets. Goto-Kakizaki rat islets also exhibit increased cytokine/chemokine expression/release, particularly IL-6. Here we analyzed Reg1 and Reg3β expression and REG-1 immuno-localization in the GK rat pancreas in relationship with inflammation. Isolated pancreatic islets and acinar tissue from male adult Wistar and diabetic GK rats were used for quantitative RT-PCR analysis. REG-1 immunohistochemistry was performed on paraffin sections with a monoclonal anti-rat REG-1 antibody. Islet cytokine/chemokine release was measured after 48 h-culture. Islet macrophage-positive area was quantified on cryostat sections using anti-CD68 and major histocompatibility complex (MHC class II antibodies. Pancreatic exocrine-to-endocrine Reg1 and Reg3β mRNA ratios were markedly increased in Wistar vs GK rats. Conversely, both genes were upregulated in isolated GK rat islets. These findings were unexpected, because Reg genes are expressed in the pancreatic acinar tissue. However, we observed REG-1 protein labeling in acinar peri-ductal tissue close to islets and around large, often disorganized, GK rat islets, which may retain acinar cells due to their irregular shape. These large islets also showed peri-islet macrophage infiltration and increased release of various cytokines/chemokines, particularly IL-6. Thus, IL-6 might potentially trigger acinar REG-1 expression and secretion in the vicinity of large diabetic GK rat islets. This increased acinar REG-1 expression might reflect an adaptive though unsuccessful response to deleterious

  4. Building blocks of the GIPU, Italian Group of Ultrastructural Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, V; Costa, R; Cenacchi, G

    2016-06-01

    The Italian Group of Ultrastructural Pathology, GIPU, is a scientific organization committed to promote the art and science of Electron Microscopy (EM) in the pathology field in Italy, sharing its professional work with a public audience. The history of the GIPU goes back to 1990s when a founder group set up the Italian Group of Ultrastructural Diagnostic (GIDU) in Milan. The central focus of annual meetings was on EM, transmission and scanning one, about interesting cases in which it was instrumental in diagnosis. In the 1990s, ultrastructure was still the gold standard for cell/tissue morphology, biology, biochemistry, diagnostic pathology, and played an important role in tailored medicine. So, especially transmission EM, could play a critical role in the diagnosis of various diseases as in human as in animals. Best topics of the annual scientific meetings of the group were kidney, muscle, heart, and liver pathology, infertility, neuropathology, respiratory diseases, skin diseases, storage diseases, tumor pathology, infectious diseases, parasitology, veterinary pathology and more. Nowadays, EM is a method whose importance for diagnosis and pathology is well established: it is still essential in several pathologies, helpful in others, and welcome implemented in eclectic research pathology. Omission of EM likely makes the studies suboptimal and wasteful. So, from 2007 the name of the group has been changed to the Italian Group of Ultrastructural Pathology (GIPU) to favor broader applications of EM also to pathology research field. During last decades, GIDU/GIPU has interconnected with international (Society for Ultrastructural Pathology) and european (European Society of Pathology and Joint Meeting with the European Electron Microscopy Working Group) scientific society, according its statute. By 1991, GIPU has had 40 members: membership in this Group is still open and welcome to all pathologists, PhD, electron microscopy technologists, pathology trainees, and

  5. Oral squamous cell carcinoma: clinicopathological features from 346 cases from a single Oral Pathology service during an 8-year period

    Science.gov (United States)

    PIRES, Fábio Ramôa; RAMOS, Amanda Barreto; de OLIVEIRA, Jade Bittencourt Coutinho; TAVARES, Amanda Serra; da LUZ, Priscilla Silva Ribeiro; dos SANTOS, Teresa Cristina Ribeiro Bartholomeu

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological data from oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is mostly derived from North American, European and East Asian populations. Objective The aim of this study was to report the demographic and clinicopathological features from OSCC diagnosed in an Oral Pathology service in southeastern Brazil in an 8-year period. Material and Methods All OSCC diagnosed from 2005 to 2012 were reviewed, including histological analysis of all hematoxylin and eosin stained slides and review of all demographic and clinical information from the laboratory records. Results A total of 346 OSCC was retrieved and males represented 67% of the sample. Mean age of the patients was 62.3 years-old and females were affected a decade older than males (pOral Pathology laboratory in southeastern Brazil and have highlighted several differences in clinicopathological features when comparing male and female OSCC-affected patients. PMID:24212993

  6. The pathology of cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania major in Sudan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaafar, A; el Kadaro, A Y; Theander, T G

    1995-01-01

    The pathology of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Sudan, where the disease is caused by Leishmania major, was studied by light and electron microscopy. Lesions were classified into four distinct groups based on the ratio of different cell types, especially lymphocytes, macrophages, and plasma cells...

  7. Dystrophic (senescent) rather than activated microglial cells are associated with tau pathology and likely precede neurodegeneration in Alzheimer?s disease

    OpenAIRE

    Streit, Wolfgang J.; Braak, Heiko; Xue, Qing-Shan; Bechmann, Ingo

    2009-01-01

    The role of microglial cells in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) neurodegeneration is unknown. Although several works suggest that chronic neuroinflammation caused by activated microglia contributes to neurofibrillary degeneration, anti-inflammatory drugs do not prevent or reverse neuronal tau pathology. This raises the question if indeed microglial activation occurs in the human brain at sites of neurofibrillary degeneration. In view of the recent work demonstrating presence of d...

  8. New developments in digital pathology: from telepathology to virtual pathology laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayser, Klaus; Kayser, Gian; Radziszowski, Dominik; Oehmann, Alexander

    2004-01-01

    To analyse the present status and future development of computerized diagnostic pathology in terms of work-flow integrative telepathology and virtual laboratory. Telepathology has left its childhood. The technical development of telepathology is mature, in contrast to that of virtual pathology. Two kinds of virtual pathology laboratories are emerging: a) those with distributed pathologists and distributed (>=1) laboratories associated to individual biopsy stations/surgical theatres, and b) distributed pathologists working in a centralized laboratory. Both are under technical development. Telepathology can be used for e-learning and e-training in pathology, as exemplarily demonstrated on Digital Lung Pathology Pathology (www.pathology-online.org). A virtual pathology institution (mode a) accepts a complete case with the patient's history, clinical findings, and (pre-selected) images for first diagnosis. The diagnostic responsibility is that of a conventional institution. The internet serves as platform for information transfer, and an open server such as the iPATH (http://telepath.patho.unibas.ch) for coordination and performance of the diagnostic procedure. The size of images has to be limited, and usual different magnifications have to be used. A group of pathologists is "on duty", or selects one member for a predefined duty period. The diagnostic statement of the pathologist(s) on duty is retransmitted to the sender with full responsibility. First experiences of a virtual pathology institution group working with the iPATH server (Dr. L. Banach, Dr. G. Haroske, Dr. I. Hurwitz, Dr. K. Kayser, Dr. K.D. Kunze, Dr. M. Oberholzer,) working with a small hospital of the Salomon islands are promising. A centralized virtual pathology institution (mode b) depends upon the digitalisation of a complete slide, and the transfer of large sized images to different pathologists working in one institution. The technical performance of complete slide digitalisation is still under

  9. Evaluation of skin pathologies by RGB autofluorescence imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lihachev, Alexey; Plorina, Emilija V.; Derjabo, Alexander; Lange, Marta; Lihacova, Ilze

    2017-12-01

    A clinical trial on autofluorescence imaging of malignant and non-malignant skin pathologies comprising 32 basal cell carcinomas (BCC), 4 malignant melanomas (MM), 1 squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), 89 nevi, 14 dysplastic nevi, 20 hemangiomas, 23 seborrheic keratoses, 4 hyperkeratoses, 3 actinic keratoses, 3 psoriasis, 1 dematitis, 2 dermatofibromas, 5 papillofibromas, 12 lupus erythematosus, 7 purpura, 6 bruises, 5 freckles, 3 fungal infections, 1 burn, 1 tattoo, 1 age spot, 1 vitiligo, 32 postoperative scars, 8 post cream therapy BCCs, 4 post radiation therapy scars, 2 post laser therapy scars, 1 post freezing scar as well as 114 reference images of healthy skin was performed. The sequence of autofluorescence images of skin pathologies were recorded by smartphone RGB camera under continuous 405 nm LED excitation during 20 seconds with 0.5 fps. Obtained image sequences further were processed with subsequent extraction of autofluorescence intensity and photobleaching parameters.

  10. Multidimensional scaling analysis identifies pathological and prognostically relevant profiles of circulating T-cells in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rissiek, Anne; Schulze, Christian; Bacher, Ulrike; Schieferdecker, Aneta; Thiele, Benjamin; Jacholkowski, Anita; Flammiger, Anna; Horn, Christiane; Haag, Friedrich; Tiegs, Gisa; Zirlik, Katja; Trepel, Martin; Tolosa, Eva; Binder, Mascha

    2014-11-15

    Antitumor immunity in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is hampered by highly dysfunctional T-cells. Although certain T-cell subsets have been reported to be of prognostic significance in this disease, their interplay is complex and it remains incompletely understood which of these subsets significantly drive CLL progression. Here, we determined immunological profiles of 24 circulating T-cell subsets from 79 untreated individuals by multiparametric flow cytometry. This screening cohort included healthy donors, patients with monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis (MBL), Rai 0 CLL and advanced CLL. We applied multidimensional scaling analysis as rigorous and unbiased statistical tool to globally assess the composition of the circulating T-cell environment and to generate T-cell scores reflecting its integrity. These scores allowed clear distinction between advanced CLL and healthy controls, whereas both MBL and Rai 0 CLL showed intermediate scores mirroring the biological continuum of CLL and its precursor stages. T-cell stimulation and suppression assays as well as longitudinal T-cell profiling showed an increasingly suppressive regulatory function initiating at the MBL stage. Effector function was impaired only after transition to CLL and partially recovered after chemoimmunotherapy. In an independent validation cohort of 52 untreated CLL cases, aberrant T-cell profiles were significantly associated with shorter time to treatment independently of other prognostic parameters. Random forest modeling predicted regulatory T-cell, gamma/delta and NKT-cells, as well as exhaustion of the CD8+ subset as potential drivers of progression. Our data illustrate a pathological T-cell environment in MBL that evolves toward a more and more suppressive and prognostically relevant profile across the disease stages. © 2014 UICC.

  11. The Use of Central Pathology Review With Digital Slide Scanning in Advanced-stage Mycosis Fungoides and Sézary Syndrome: A Multi-institutional and International Pathology Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gru, Alejandro A; Kim, Jinah; Pulitzer, Melissa; Guitart, Joan; Battistella, Maxime; Wood, Gary S; Cerroni, Lorenzo; Kempf, Werner; Willemze, Rein; Pawade, Joya; Querfeld, Christiane; Schaffer, Andras; Pincus, Laura; Tetzlaff, Michael; Duvic, Madeleine; Scarisbrick, Julia; Porcu, Pierluigi; Mangold, Aaron R; DiCaudo, David J; Shinohara, Michi; Hong, Eric K; Horton, Bethany; Kim, Youn H

    2018-06-01

    This pathology PILOT study aims to define the role and feasibility of centralized pathology review in a cohort of 75 patients from different centers in the United States and Europe using digital slide scanning. The pathologic material from 75 patients who had been diagnosed with mycosis fungoides/Sézary syndrome and were clinically staged as IIb or above was retrieved from 11 participating centers. Each pathology reviewer was provided with the pathologic diagnosis (by the referring pathologist), and the following list of histopathologic criteria (presence or absence) from the initial report: epidermotropism, folliculotropism (FT), large cell transformation, syringotropism, and granulomas. Patients with advance stage were selected for this study as this is a population where there is significant variability in the diagnosis of pathologic prognostic and predictive biomarkers. The slides were digitally scanned with an Aperio scanner and consensus review of cases occurred when major or minor discrepancies between the referral diagnosis and central pathology review occurred. Among the 75 cases, 70 (93.3%) had a final consensus diagnosis between the 3 central review pathologists. The overall agreement between the consensus review and the referring pathologist was 60%. The overall agreement was also higher between the reviewers and consensus review, compared with the referring pathologist and consensus. 65.3% of cases had some type of discrepancy (major or minor) between the outside and consensus review. Major discrepancies were seen in 34 of 73 cases (46.6%; 73 cases indicated a yes or no response). Minor discrepancies were seen in 32 of 75 (42.7%) of cases. Most of the major discrepancies were accounted by a difference in interpretation in the presence or absence of large cell transformation or FT. Most minor discrepancies were explained by a different interpretation in the expression of CD30. We found digital slide scanning to be a beneficial, reliable, and practical

  12. TissueCypher™: A systems biology approach to anatomic pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey W Prichard

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Current histologic methods for diagnosis are limited by intra- and inter-observer variability. Immunohistochemistry (IHC methods are frequently used to assess biomarkers to aid diagnoses, however, IHC staining is variable and nonlinear and the manual interpretation is subjective. Furthermore, the biomarkers assessed clinically are typically biomarkers of epithelial cell processes. Tumors and premalignant tissues are not composed only of epithelial cells but are interacting systems of multiple cell types, including various stromal cell types that are involved in cancer development. The complex network of the tissue system highlights the need for a systems biology approach to anatomic pathology, in which quantification of system processes is combined with informatics tools to produce actionable scores to aid clinical decision-making. Aims: Here, we describe a quantitative, multiplexed biomarker imaging approach termed TissueCypher™ that applies systems biology to anatomic pathology. Applications of TissueCypher™ in understanding the tissue system of Barrett's esophagus (BE and the potential use as an adjunctive tool in the diagnosis of BE are described. Patients and Methods: The TissueCypher™ Image Analysis Platform was used to assess 14 epithelial and stromal biomarkers with known diagnostic significance in BE in a set of BE biopsies with nondysplastic BE with reactive atypia (RA, n = 22 and Barrett's with high-grade dysplasia (HGD, n = 17. Biomarker and morphology features were extracted and evaluated in the confirmed BE HGD cases versus the nondysplastic BE cases with RA. Results: Multiple image analysis features derived from epithelial and stromal biomarkers, including immune biomarkers and morphology, showed significant differences between HGD and RA. Conclusions: The assessment of epithelial cell abnormalities combined with an assessment of cellular changes in the lamina propria may serve as an adjunct to conventional

  13. Clonal proliferation of multipotent stem/progenitor cells in the neonatal and adult salivary glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishi, Teruki; Takao, Tukasa; Fujita, Kiyohide; Taniguchi, Hideki

    2006-01-01

    Salivary gland stem/progenitor cells are thought to be present in intercalated ductal cells, but the fact is unclear. In this study, we sought to clarify if stem/progenitor cells are present in submandibular glands using colony assay, which is one of the stem cell assay methods. Using a low-density culture of submandibular gland cells of neonatal rats, we developed a novel culture system that promotes single cell colony formation. Average doubling time for the colony-forming cells was 24.7 (SD = ±7.02) h, indicating high proliferative potency. When epidermal growth factor (EGF) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) were added to the medium, the number of clonal colonies increased greater than those cultured without growth factors (13.2 ± 4.18 vs. 4.5 ± 1.73). The RT-PCR and immunostaining demonstrated expressing acinar, ductal, and myoepithelial cell lineage markers. This study demonstrated the presence of the salivary gland stem/progenitor cells that are highly proliferative and multipotent in salivary glands

  14. Telocytes in pancreas of the Chinese giant salamander (Andrias davidianus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Yu, Pengcheng; Zhong, Shengwei; Ge, Tingting; Peng, Shasha; Guo, Xiaoquan; Zhou, Zuohong

    2016-11-01

    Telocytes (TCs), novel interstitial cells, have been identified in various organs of many mammals. However, information about TCs of lower animals remains rare. Herein, pancreatic TCs of the Chinese giant salamanders (Andrias davidianus) were identified by CD34 immunohistochemistry (IHC) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The IHC micrographs revealed CD34 + TCs with long telopodes (Tps) that were located in the interstitium of the pancreas. CD34 + TCs/Tps were frequently observed between exocrine acinar cells and were close to blood vessels. The TEM micrographs also showed the existence of TCs in the interstitium of the pancreas. TCs had distinctive ultrastructural features, such as one to three very long and thin Tps with podoms and podomers, caveolae, dichotomous branching, neighbouring exosomes and vesicles. The Tps and exosomes were found in close proximity to exocrine acinar cells and α cells. It is suggested that TCs may play a role in the regeneration of acinar cells and α cells. In conclusion, our results demonstrated the presence of TCs in the pancreas of the Chinese giant salamander. This finding will assist us in a better understanding of TCs functions in the amphibian pancreas. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  15. The Carcinogenic Agent Azoxymethane (AOM) Enhances Early Inflammation-induced Colon Crypt Pathology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Venning, Freja Albjerg; Claesson, Mogens Helweg; Kissow, Hannelouise

    2013-01-01

    Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice transplanted with CD4+ T cells depleted of CD25+ regulatory T cells develop colitis within 2-3 weeks after the T cell transfer. In the present study we studied the effect of the carcinogen azoxymethane (AOM) on the colon crypt pathology of normal SCID...

  16. An analysis of the magnetic resonance imaging and pathology of intracal lymphoplasmacyte-rich meningioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jianli; Zhou Junlin; Ma Yongheng; Dong Chi

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the MRI features of the intracranial lymphoplasmacyte-rich meningioma and the correlation between the MRI features and pathology. Methods: Review retrospectively the MRI and pathologic data of seven patients with lymphoplasmacyte-rich meningioma which were confirmed by surgery and pathology. Results: The seven cases of lymphoplasmacyte-rich meningioma were solitary, six cases demonstrated flat growth along the meninges, five cases had not yet formed specific nodules, and two cases exhibited irregular lobulation. Seven cases had no clear boundary, peritumoral brain edema was obvious and adjacent brain tissues were invaded to varying degrees. After plain MRI scans, the focuses of seven cases exhibited lower-isointense signal in T1WI, five cases revealed higher-isointense signal and two cases showed lower-isointense signal in T2WI. Enhancement scans demonstrated marked enhancement in seven cases, and the meninges in six cases thicken irregularly and extensively. Pathology showed the richness and diversity of cells, an infiltration containing plasma cells and lymphocytes, as well as the unequal areas of neoplastic spindle cells and meninge epithelial cells. Conclusion: Lymphoplasmacyte-rich meningioma is a subtype meningioma of WHO I-grade, which is seldom seen and whose imaging appearances are varied from ordinary meningioma. Its features include growing flat along the meninges, irregular forms, unclear boundary, obvious edema, notable strengthening effect, usual invasion of adjacent brain tissues, and similar inflammation.

  17. Mechanisms of Autoantibody-Induced Pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf J. Ludwig

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Autoantibodies are frequently observed in healthy individuals. In a minority of these individuals, they lead to manifestation of autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis or Graves’ disease. Overall, more than 2.5% of the population is affected by autoantibody-driven autoimmune disease. Pathways leading to autoantibody-induced pathology greatly differ among different diseases, and autoantibodies directed against the same antigen, depending on the targeted epitope, can have diverse effects. To foster knowledge in autoantibody-induced pathology and to encourage development of urgently needed novel therapeutic strategies, we here categorized autoantibodies according to their effects. According to our algorithm, autoantibodies can be classified into the following categories: (1 mimic receptor stimulation, (2 blocking of neural transmission, (3 induction of altered signaling, triggering uncontrolled (4 microthrombosis, (5 cell lysis, (6 neutrophil activation, and (7 induction of inflammation. These mechanisms in relation to disease, as well as principles of autoantibody generation and detection, are reviewed herein.

  18. Aberrant innate immune activation following tissue injury impairs pancreatic regeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra E Folias

    Full Text Available Normal tissue architecture is disrupted following injury, as resident tissue cells become damaged and immune cells are recruited to the site of injury. While injury and inflammation are critical to tissue remodeling, the inability to resolve this response can lead to the destructive complications of chronic inflammation. In the pancreas, acinar cells of the exocrine compartment respond to injury by transiently adopting characteristics of progenitor cells present during embryonic development. This process of de-differentiation creates a window where a mature and stable cell gains flexibility and is potentially permissive to changes in cellular fate. How de-differentiation can turn an acinar cell into another cell type (such as a pancreatic β-cell, or a cell with cancerous potential (as in cases of deregulated Kras activity is of interest to both the regenerative medicine and cancer communities. While it is known that inflammation and acinar de-differentiation increase following pancreatic injury, it remains unclear which immune cells are involved in this process. We used a combination of genetically modified mice, immunological blockade and cellular characterization to identify the immune cells that impact pancreatic regeneration in an in vivo model of pancreatitis. We identified the innate inflammatory response of macrophages and neutrophils as regulators of pancreatic regeneration. Under normal conditions, mild innate inflammation prompts a transient de-differentiation of acinar cells that readily dissipates to allow normal regeneration. However, non-resolving inflammation developed when elevated pancreatic levels of neutrophils producing interferon-γ increased iNOS levels and the pro-inflammatory response of macrophages. Pancreatic injury improved following in vivo macrophage depletion, iNOS inhibition as well as suppression of iNOS levels in macrophages via interferon-γ blockade, supporting the impairment in regeneration and the

  19. PET CT Thresholds for Radiotherapy Target Definition in Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: How Close are we to the Pathologic Findings?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Kailiang; Ung, Yee C.; Hornby, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Optimal target delineation threshold values for positron emission tomography (PET) and computed tomography (CT) radiotherapy planning is controversial. In this present study, different PET CT threshold values were used for target delineation and then compared pathologically. Methods and Materials: A total of 31 non-small-cell lung cancer patients underwent PET CT before surgery. The maximal diameter (MD) of the pathologic primary tumor was obtained. The CT-based gross tumor volumes (GTV CT ) were delineated for CT window-level thresholds at 1,600 and -300 Hounsfield units (HU) (GTV CT1 ); 1,600 and -400 (GTV CT2 ); 1,600 and -450 HU (GTV CT3 ); 1,600 and -600 HU (GTV CT4 ); 1,200 and -700 HU (GTV CT5 ); 900 and -450 HU (GTV CT6 ); and 700 and -450 HU (GTV CT7 ). The PET-based GTVs (GTV PET ) were autocontoured at 20% (GTV 20 ), 30% (GTV 30 ), 40% (GTV 40 ), 45% (GTV 45 ), 50% (GTV 50 ), and 55% (GTV 55 ) of the maximal intensity level. The MD of each image-based GTV in three-dimensional orientation was determined. The MD of the GTV PET and GTV CT were compared with the pathologically determined MD. Results: The median MD of the GTV CT changed from 2.89 (GTV CT2 ) to 4.46 (GTV CT7 ) as the CT thresholds were varied. The correlation coefficient of the GTV CT compared with the pathologically determined MD ranged from 0.76 to 0.87. The correlation coefficient of the GTV CT1 was the best (r = 0.87). The median MD of GTV PET changed from 5.72cm to 2.67cm as the PET thresholds increased. The correlation coefficient of the GTV PET compared with the pathologic finding ranged from 0.51 to 0.77. The correlation coefficient of GTV 50 was the best (r = 0.77). Conclusion: Compared with the MD of GTV PET , the MD of GTV CT had better correlation with the pathologic MD. The GTV CT1 and GTV 50 had the best correlation with the pathologic results.

  20. Second opinion oral pathology referrals in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, B; Hussaini, H M; Rich, A M

    2017-04-01

    Referral for a second opinion is an important aspect of pathology practice, which reduces the rate of diagnostic error and ensures consistency with diagnoses. The Oral Pathology Centre (OPC) is the only specialist oral diagnostic centre in New Zealand. OPC provides diagnostic services to dentists and dental specialists throughout New Zealand and acts as a referral centre for second opinions for oral pathology specimens that have been sent to anatomical pathologists. The aim of this study was to review second opinion referral cases sent to the OPC over a 15-year period and to assess the levels of concordance between the original and final diagnoses. The findings indicated that the majority of referred cases were odontogenic lesions, followed by connective tissue, epithelial and salivary lesions. The most prevalent diagnoses were ameloblastoma and keratocystic odontogenic tumour, followed by oral squamous cell carcinoma. Discordant diagnoses were recorded in 24% of cases. Diagnostic discrepancies were higher in odontogenic and salivary gland lesions, resulting in the change of diagnoses. Second opinion of oral pathology cases should be encouraged in view of the relative rarity of these lesions in general pathology laboratories and the rates of diagnostic discrepancy, particularly for odontogenic and salivary gland lesions. Copyright © 2017 Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Podoplanin-positive myofibroblasts: a pathological hallmark of pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enomoto, Yasunori; Matsushima, Sayomi; Meguro, Shiori; Kawasaki, Hideya; Kosugi, Isao; Fujisawa, Tomoyuki; Enomoto, Noriyuki; Inui, Naoki; Nakamura, Yutaro; Suda, Takafumi; Iwashita, Toshihide

    2018-02-22

    Pathological differential diagnoses of pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis (PPFE) include usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) and pulmonary apical cap (PAC); however, there are no specific immunostaining makers to distinguish between these diseases. We performed immunohistochemistry using several pleural mesothelial cell-related markers, including cytokeratin-5/6, CAM5.2, WT-1, calretinin, desmin and podoplanin, for PPFE (n = 4), UIP (n = 10) and PAC (n = 3) lung sections. Among the examined markers, in PPFE and PAC lungs podoplanin commonly showed positivity for spindle cells both in thickened pleura and subpleural fibroelastosis lesions; these cells were also stained with α-smooth muscle actin, a marker of myofibroblasts. However, even in elastic fibre-rich cases, UIP lungs did not show such podoplanin-positive myofibroblasts in pleura/subpleura and fibroblastic foci. These findings were also verified using immunofluorescence. By contrast, immunohistochemically as well as morphologically, the difference between PPFE and PAC was not apparent. The presence of podoplanin-positive myofibroblasts could be a pathological hallmark of PPFE, suggesting a pathogenic process distinct from UIP but common to PAC. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Effect of different exercise intensities on the pancreas of animals with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Fernanda; Lima, Nathalia Ea; Ornelas, Elisabete; Simardi, Lucila; Fonseca, Fernando Luiz Affonso; Maifrino, Laura Beatriz Mesiano

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MS) comprises several metabolic disorders that are risk factors for cardiovascular disease and has its source connected to the accumulation of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and development of insulin resistance. Despite studies showing beneficial results of exercise on several risk factors for cardiovascular disease, studies evaluating the effects of different intensities of exercise training on the pancreas with experimental models are scarce. In total, 20 Wistar rats were used, divided into four groups: control (C), metabolic syndrome (MS and without exercise), metabolic syndrome and practice of walking (MSWalk), and metabolic syndrome and practice of running (MSRun). The applied procedures were induction of MS by fructose in drinking water; experimental protocol of walking and running; weighing of body mass and VAT; sacrifice of animals with blood collection and removal of organs and processing of samples for light microscopy using the analysis of volume densities (Vv) of the studied structures. Running showed a reduction of VAT weight (-54%), triglyceride levels (-40%), Vv[islet] (-62%), Vv[islet.cells] (-22%), Vv[islet.insterstitial] (-44%), and Vv[acinar.insterstitial] (-24%) and an increase of Vv[acini] (+21%) and Vv[acinar.cells] (+22%). Regarding walking, we observed a decrease of VAT weight (-34%) and triglyceride levels (-27%), an increase of Vv[islet.cells] (+72%) and Vv[acinar.cells] (+7%), and a decrease of Vv[acini] (-4%) and Vv[acinar.insterstitial] (-16%) when compared with those in the MS group. Our results suggest that the experimental model with low-intensity exercise (walking) seems to be more particularly recommended for preventing morphological and metabolic disorders occurring in the MS.

  3. Evidence from Human and Animal Studies: Pathological Roles of CD8(+) T Cells in Autoimmune Peripheral Neuropathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mu; Peyret, Corentin; Shi, Xiang Qun; Siron, Nicolas; Jang, Jeong Ho; Wu, Sonia; Fournier, Sylvie; Zhang, Ji

    2015-01-01

    Autoimmune peripheral neuropathies such as Guillain-Barre Syndrome (GBS) and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) affect millions of people worldwide. Despite significant advances in understanding the pathology, the molecular and cellular mechanisms of immune-mediated neuropathies remain elusive. T lymphocytes definitely play an important role in disease pathogenesis and CD4(+) T cells have been the main area of research for decades. This is partly due to the fact that the most frequent animal model to study autoimmune peripheral neuropathy is experimental allergic neuritis (EAN). As it is induced commonly by immunization with peripheral nerve proteins, EAN is driven mainly by CD4(+) T cells. However, similarly to what has been reported for patients suffering from multiple sclerosis, a significant body of evidence indicates that CD8(+) T cells may play a pathogenic role in GBS and CIDP disease development and/or progression. Here, we summarize clinical studies pertaining to the presence and potential role of CD8(+) T cells in autoimmune peripheral neuropathies. We also discuss the findings from our most recent studies using a transgenic mouse line (L31 mice) in which the T cell co-stimulator molecule B7.2 (CD86) is constitutively expressed in antigen presenting cells of the nervous tissues. L31 mice spontaneously develop peripheral neuropathy, and CD8(+) T cells are found accumulating in peripheral nerves of symptomatic animals. Interestingly, depletion of CD4(+) T cells accelerates disease onset and increases disease prevalence. Finally, we point out some unanswered questions for future research to dissect the critical roles of CD8(+) T cells in autoimmune peripheral neuropathies.

  4. Evidence from Human and Animal Studies: Pathological Roles of CD8+ T Cells in Autoimmune Peripheral Neuropathies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mu; Peyret, Corentin; Shi, Xiang Qun; Siron, Nicolas; Jang, Jeong Ho; Wu, Sonia; Fournier, Sylvie; Zhang, Ji

    2015-01-01

    Autoimmune peripheral neuropathies such as Guillain-Barre Syndrome (GBS) and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) affect millions of people worldwide. Despite significant advances in understanding the pathology, the molecular and cellular mechanisms of immune-mediated neuropathies remain elusive. T lymphocytes definitely play an important role in disease pathogenesis and CD4+ T cells have been the main area of research for decades. This is partly due to the fact that the most frequent animal model to study autoimmune peripheral neuropathy is experimental allergic neuritis (EAN). As it is induced commonly by immunization with peripheral nerve proteins, EAN is driven mainly by CD4+ T cells. However, similarly to what has been reported for patients suffering from multiple sclerosis, a significant body of evidence indicates that CD8+ T cells may play a pathogenic role in GBS and CIDP disease development and/or progression. Here, we summarize clinical studies pertaining to the presence and potential role of CD8+ T cells in autoimmune peripheral neuropathies. We also discuss the findings from our most recent studies using a transgenic mouse line (L31 mice) in which the T cell co-stimulator molecule B7.2 (CD86) is constitutively expressed in antigen presenting cells of the nervous tissues. L31 mice spontaneously develop peripheral neuropathy, and CD8+ T cells are found accumulating in peripheral nerves of symptomatic animals. Interestingly, depletion of CD4+ T cells accelerates disease onset and increases disease prevalence. Finally, we point out some unanswered questions for future research to dissect the critical roles of CD8+ T cells in autoimmune peripheral neuropathies. PMID:26528293

  5. Clinical and Pathologic Characterization of an Outbreak of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H7N8 in Commercial Turkeys in Southern Indiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burcham, Grant N; Ramos-Vara, José A; Murphy, Duane A

    2017-09-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) is a systemic lethal disease of poultry caused by several subtypes of influenza A virus and classified on the basis of serologic reactions to hemagglutinin and neuraminidase surface glycoproteins. In January 2016, a novel subtype of HPAI-H7N8-was diagnosed in a commercial turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) flock in southern Indiana. Clinical signs and history included increased mortality, dyspnea, head tremors, recumbency, and somnolent or unaware birds. Postmortem examination of six recently dead birds showed red-tinged mucous in the choana and trachea and marked pulmonary edema. Histologic lesions in the brain included severe, multifocal lymphohistiocytic meningoencephalitis with foci of malacia, neuronal necrosis, and neuronophagia. All anatomic locations of the brain were affected, although histologic changes in the cerebellum were considered mild. Other histologic lesions included pulmonary congestion and edema, splenic congestion and lymphoid depletion, fibrinoid necrosis of vessels within the spleen, and multifocal pancreatic acinar necrosis. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was weakly positive for influenza A in the brain; IHC was negative in other tissues tested. The clinical and pathologic characteristics of this case matched previously published material concerning HPAI and add to instances of known or suspected mutation of a low pathogenic virus to a highly pathogenic virus.

  6. Teaching digital pathology: The international school of digital pathology and proposed syllabus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Della Mea

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Digital pathology is an interdisciplinary field where competency in pathology, laboratory techniques, informatics, computer science, information systems, engineering, and even biology converge. This implies that teaching students about digital pathology requires coverage, expertise, and hands-on experience in all these disciplines. With this in mind, a syllabus was developed for a digital pathology summer school aimed at professionals in the aforementioned fields, as well as trainees and doctoral students. The aim of this communication is to share the context, rationale, and syllabus for this school of digital pathology.

  7. A comparative immunohistochemical study on amylase localization in the rat and human exocrine pancreas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aughsteen, Adib A.

    2001-01-01

    Objective was to localize amylase enzyme immunohistochemically in the pancreatic acinar cells of rats and humans using polyclonal sheep anti-human amylase antibody, and to compare between the intensities of their amylase-immunostaining. Indirect immunofluorescence method was applied on formaldehyde-fixed, and paraffin-embedded pancreatic sections obtained from adult male Wistar rats and autopsied human samples. Primary incubation was performed using sheep anti-amylase antibody followed by secondary incubation with fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled rabbit anti-sheep IgG serum. Control tests of amylase immunospecificity were also undertaken either by incubation with primary antibodies previously pre-adsorbed with an excess of human pancreatic amylase, or only with secondary antibodies. The amylase immunofluorescence was positively and homogenously detected in all acinar cells of both rat and human pancreatic stained sections. The immunostaining was clearly demonstrated in the cell apices and peri-nuclear areas, but it was consistently brighter and more intense in the human acinar cells compared with that of the rat pancreas. Control tests of amylase immunofluorescence revealed the specificity of the antibodies applied for amylase localization in rat and human pancreas. Although many previous immunohisto- and cytochemical reports have successfully localized amylase in the pancreas of different mammalian species, but all of them have used locally prepared anti-amylase antibodies. The present report successfully illustrates immuno-localization of amylase in the pancreatic acinar cells of rats and humans using commercial polyclonal sheep anti-human pancreatic amylase antibodies, and also suggests their useful application in the immunochemical studies on various mammalian species. Additionally, the results indicate a structural similarity between the human and rat pancreatic amylases, a concept required further exploration. (author)

  8. The Danish Pathology Register

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Beth; Larsen, Ole B

    2011-01-01

    The National Board of Health, Denmark in 1997 published guidelines for reporting of pathology data and the Danish Pathology Register (DPR) was established.......The National Board of Health, Denmark in 1997 published guidelines for reporting of pathology data and the Danish Pathology Register (DPR) was established....

  9. Pathological gambling and criminality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folino, Jorge Oscar; Abait, Patricia Estela

    2009-09-01

    To review research results on the relationship between pathological gambling and criminality, published in 2007 and 2008, in English and in Spanish. An important association between pathological gambling and criminality was confirmed in populations of anonymous gamblers, helpline callers and substance abusers. Helplines provide a timely service to gamblers who have not reached the maximum stages in the development of a pathological gambling pattern. Pathological gambling is associated with violence in couples and dysfunctional families. Inversely, violence is also an antecedent promoting vulnerability toward pathological gambling. Impulsiveness shows diverse relationships with pathological gambling and violence as well. A pathological gambler's involvement in crime is exceptionally considered without responsibility by justice, but it may be an indicator of the disorder severity and the need for special therapeutic tactics. While reviewing the present study, research work was published that contributed to a better understanding of the association between pathological gambling and criminality and went further into their complex relationship and the formulation of explanatory models related to impulsiveness.

  10. Blood-based biomarkers of microvascular pathology in Alzheimer's disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ewers, Michael

    2012-02-01

    Sporadic Alzheimer\\'s disease (AD) is a genetically complex and chronically progressive neurodegenerative disorder with molecular mechanisms and neuropathologies centering around the amyloidogenic pathway, hyperphosphorylation and aggregation of tau protein, and neurofibrillary degeneration. While cerebrovascular changes have not been traditionally considered to be a central part of AD pathology, a growing body of evidence demonstrates that they may, in fact, be a characteristic feature of the AD brain as well. In particular, microvascular abnormalities within the brain have been associated with pathological AD hallmarks and may precede neurodegeneration. In vivo assessment of microvascular pathology provides a promising approach to develop useful biological markers for early detection and pathological characterization of AD. This review focuses on established blood-based biological marker candidates of microvascular pathology in AD. These candidates include plasma concentration of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) that are increased in AD. Measures of endothelial vasodilatory function including endothelin (ET-1), adrenomedullin (ADM), and atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), as well as sphingolipids are significantly altered in mild AD or during the predementia stage of mild cognitive impairment (MCI), suggesting sensitivity of these biomarkers for early detection and diagnosis. In conclusion, the emerging clinical diagnostic evidence for the value of blood-based microvascular biomarkers in AD is promising, however, still requires validation in phase II and III diagnostic trials. Moreover, it is still unclear whether the described protein dysbalances are early or downstream pathological events and how the detected systemic microvascular alterations relate to cerebrovascular and neuronal pathologies in the AD brain.

  11. No Effect of Dietary Aspartame or Stevia on Pancreatic Acinar Carcinoma Development, Growth, or Induced Mortality in a Murine Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooley, James; Lagou, Vasiliki; Dresselaers, Tom; van Dongen, Katinka A.; Himmelreich, Uwe; Liston, Adrian

    2017-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer has an extremely poor prognosis, largely due to a poor record for early detection. Known risk factors for pancreatic cancer include obesity, diet, and diabetes, implicating glucose consumption and regulation as a key player. The role of artificial sweeteners may therefore be pertinent to disease kinetics. The oncogenic impact of artificial sweeteners is a highly controversial area. Aspartame, one of the most studied food additives, is widely recognized as being generally safe, although there are still specific areas where research is incomplete due to study limitations. Stevia, by contrast, has been the subject of relatively few studies, and the potential health benefits are based on extrapolation rather than direct testing. Here, we used longitudinal tracking of pancreatic acinar carcinoma development, growth, and lethality in a sensitized mouse model. Despite exposure to aspartame and stevia from the in utero stage onward, we found no disease modification activity, in either direction. These results contribute to the data on aspartame and stevia safety, while also reducing confidence in several of the purported health benefits. PMID:28232906

  12. Dynamic Contrast Enhanced MRI in Patients With Advanced Breast or Pancreatic Cancer With Metastases to the Liver or Lung

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-28

    Acinar Cell Adenocarcinoma of the Pancreas; Duct Cell Adenocarcinoma of the Pancreas; Liver Metastases; Lung Metastases; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Recurrent Pancreatic Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Stage IV Pancreatic Cancer

  13. Proinflammatory and proosteoclastogenic potential of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from Gaucher patients: Implication for bone pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucci, J M; Cuello, M F; Kisinovsky, I; Larroude, M; Delpino, M V; Rozenfeld, P A

    2015-08-01

    Gaucher disease (GD) is caused by mutations in the GBA gene that confer a deficient level of activity of glucocerebrosidase (GCase). This deficiency leads to the accumulation of the glycolipid glucocerebroside in the lysosomes of cells of monocyte/macrophage system. Bone compromise in Gaucher disease patients is the most disabling aspect of the disease. However, pathophysiological aspects of skeletal alterations are still poorly understood. On the other hand it is well known that inflammation is a key player in GD pathology. In this work, we revealed increased levels of the proinflammatory CD14(+)CD16(+) monocyte subset and increased inflammatory cytokine production by monocytes and T cells in the circulation of GD patients. We showed increased levels of osteoclast precursors in PBMC from patients and a higher expression of RANKL in the surface of T cells. PBMC from patients presented higher osteoclast differentiation compared to healthy controls when cultured in the presence of M-CSF alone or in combination with RANKL. In vitro treatment with Velaglucerase reduced osteoclast levels to control levels. On the other hand THP-1 derived osteoclast precursors cultured in the presence of conditioned media from PBMC of GD patients presented higher differentiation to active osteoclasts. This induction involved TNF-α and RANKL. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Ovarian Germline Stem Cells (OGSCs and the Hippo Signaling Pathway Association with Physiological and Pathological Ovarian Aging in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Li

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Hippo signaling pathway plays fundamental roles in stem cell maintenance in a variety of tissues and has thus implications for stem cell biology. Key components of this recently discovered pathway have been shown to be associated with primordial follicle activation. However, whether the Hippo signaling pathway plays a role in the development of Ovarian Germline Stem Cells (OGSCs during physiological and pathological ovarian aging in mice is unknown. Methods: Mice at the age of 7 days (7D, or of 2, 10, or 20 months (2M, 10M, 20M and mice at 2M treated with TPT and CY/BUS drugs were selected as physiological and pathological ovarian aging models, respectively. Immunohistochemistry was used to assess the development of follicles, and the co-localization of genes characteristic of OGSCs with MST1, LATS2 and YAP1 was assessed by immunofluorescence, western blotting and real-time PCR methods. Results: The Hippo signal pathway and MVH/OCT4 genes were co-expressed in the mouse ovarian cortex. The level and co-localization of LATS2, MST1, MVH, and OCT4 were significantly decreased with increased age, but YAP1 was more prevalent in the mouse ovarian cortex of 2M mice than 7D mice and was not observed in 20M mice. Furthermore, YAP1, MVH, and OCT4 were gradually decreased after TPT and CY/BUS treatment, and LATS2 mRNA and protein up-regulation persisted in TPT- and CY/BUS-treated mice. However, the expression of MST1 was lower in the TPT and CY/BUS groups compared with the control group. In addition, pYAP1 protein showed the highest expression in the ovarian cortexes of 7D mice compared with 20M mice, and the value of pYAP1/YAP1 decreased from 7D to 20M. Moreover, pYAP1 decreased in the TPT- and CY/BUS-treated groups, but the value of pYAP1/YAP1 increased in these groups. Conclusion: Taken together, our results show that the Hippo signaling pathway is associated with the changes that take place in OGSCs during physiological and pathological

  15. Epithelial NEMO/IKKγ limits fibrosis and promotes regeneration during pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Lap Kwan; Gerstenlauer, Melanie; Konukiewitz, Björn; Steiger, Katja; Weichert, Wilko; Wirth, Thomas; Maier, Harald Jakob

    2017-11-01

    Inhibitory κB kinase (IKK)/nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) signalling has been implicated in the pathogenesis of pancreatitis, but its precise function has remained controversial. Here, we analyse the contribution of IKK/NF-κB signalling in epithelial cells to the pathogenesis of pancreatitis by targeting the IKK subunit NF-κB essential modulator (NEMO) (IKKγ), which is essential for canonical NF-κB activation. Mice with a targeted deletion of NEMO in the pancreas were subjected to caerulein pancreatitis. Pancreata were examined at several time points and analysed for inflammation, fibrosis, cell death, cell proliferation, as well as cellular differentiation. Human samples were used to corroborate findings established in mice. In acute pancreatitis, NEMO deletion in the pancreatic parenchyma resulted in minor changes during the early phase but led to the persistence of inflammatory and fibrotic foci in the recovery phase. In chronic pancreatitis, NEMO deletion aggravated inflammation and fibrosis, inhibited compensatory acinar cell proliferation, and enhanced acinar atrophy and acinar-ductal metaplasia. Gene expression analysis revealed sustained activation of profibrogenic genes and the CXCL12/CXCR4 axis in the absence of epithelial NEMO. In human chronic pancreatitis samples, the CXCL12/CXCR4 axis was activated as well, with CXCR4 expression correlating with the degree of fibrosis. The aggravating effects of NEMO deletion were attenuated by the administration of the CXCR4 antagonist AMD3100. Our results suggest that NEMO in epithelial cells exerts a protective effect during pancreatitis by limiting inflammation and fibrosis and improving acinar cell regeneration. The CXCL12/CXCR4 axis is an important mediator of that effect and may also be of importance in human chronic pancreatitis. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  16. Immunolocalization and distribution of functional temperature-sensitive TRP channels in salivary glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobhan, Ubaidus; Sato, Masaki; Shinomiya, Takashi; Okubo, Migiwa; Tsumura, Maki; Muramatsu, Takashi; Kawaguchi, Mitsuru; Tazaki, Masakazu; Shibukawa, Yoshiyuki

    2013-11-01

    Transient receptor potential (TRP) cation channels are unique cellular sensors involved in multiple cellular functions. Their role in salivary secretion remains to be elucidated. The expression and localization of temperature-sensitive TRP channels in salivary (submandibular, sublingual and parotid) glands were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and quantitative real-time reverse transcription plus the polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The effects of various TRP channel agonists on carbachol (CCh)-induced salivary secretion in the submandibular gland and on the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) in a submandibular epithelial cell line were also investigated. Immunohistochemistry revealed the expression of TRP-melastatin subfamily member 8 (TRPM8) and TRP-ankyrin subfamily member 1 (TRPA1) in myoepithelial, acinar and ductal cells in the sublingual, submandibular and parotid glands. In addition, TRP-vanilloid subfamily member 1 (TRPV1), TRPV3 and TRPV4 were also expressed in myoepithelial, acinar and ductal cells in all three types of gland. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR results demonstrated the mRNA expression of TRPV1, TRPV3, TRPV4, TRPM8 and TRPA1 in acinar and ductal cells in these salivary glands. Perfusion of the entire submandibular gland with the TRPV1 agonist capsaicin (1 μM) via the submandibular artery significantly increased CCh-induced salivation, whereas perfusion with TRPM8 and TRPA1 agonists (0.5 μM WS12 and 100 μM allyl isothiocyanate) decreased it. Application of agonists for each of the thermosensitive TRP channels increased [Ca(2+)]i in a submandibular epithelial cell line. These results indicate that temperature-sensitive TRP channels are localized and distributed in acinar, ductal and myoepithelial cells in salivary glands and that they play a functional role in the regulation and/or modulation of salivary secretion.

  17. Lactoferrin in a Context of Inflammation-Induced Pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian L. Kruzel

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Much progress has been achieved to elucidate the function of lactoferrin (LTF, an iron-binding glycoprotein, in the milieu of immune functionality. This review represents a unique examination of LTF toward its importance in physiologic homeostasis as related to development of disease-associated pathology. The immunomodulatory nature of this protein derives from its unique ability to “sense” the immune activation status of an organism and act accordingly. Underlying mechanisms are proposed whereby LTF controls disease states, thereby pinpointing regions of entry for LTF in maintenance of various physiological pathways to limit the magnitude of tissue damage. LTF is examined as a first line mediator in immune defense and response to pathogenic and non-pathogenic injury, as well as a molecule critical for control of oxidative cell function. Mechanisms of interaction of LTF with its receptors are examined, with a focus on protective effects via regulation of enzyme activities and reactive oxygen species production, immune deviation, and prevention of cell apoptosis. Indeed, LTF serves as a critical control point in physiologic homeostasis, functioning as a sensor of immunological performance related to pathology. Specific mediation of tissue pathophysiology is described for maintenance of intestinal integrity during endotoxemia, elicited airway inflammation due to allergens, and pulmonary damage during tuberculosis. Finally, the role of LTF to alter differentiation of adaptive immune function is examined, with specific recognition of its utility as a vaccine adjuvant to control subsequent lymphocytic reactivity. Overall, it is clear that while the ability of LTF to both sequester iron and to direct reactive oxygen intermediates is a major factor in lessening damage due to excessive inflammatory responses, further effects are apparent through direct control over development of higher order immune functions that regulate pathology due to insult

  18. Endoplasmic reticulum redox state is not perturbed by pharmacological or pathological endoplasmic reticulum stress in live pancreatic β-cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irmgard Schuiki

    Full Text Available Accumulation of unfolded, misfolded and aggregated proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER causes ER stress. ER stress can result from physiological situations such as acute increases in secretory protein biosynthesis or pathological conditions that perturb ER homeostasis such as alterations in the ER redox state. Here we monitored ER redox together with transcriptional output of the Unfolded Protein Response (UPR in INS-1 insulinoma cells stably expressing eroGFP (ER-redox-sensor and mCherry protein driven by a GRP78 promoter (UPR-sensor. Live cell imaging, flow cytometry and biochemical characterization were used to examine these parameters in response to various conditions known to induce ER stress. As expected, treatment of the cells with the reducing agent dithiothreitol caused a decrease in the oxidation state of the ER accompanied by an increase in XBP-1 splicing. Unexpectedly however, other treatments including tunicamycin, thapsigargin, DL-homocysteine, elevated free fatty acids or high glucose had essentially no influence on the ER redox state, despite inducing ER stress. Comparable results were obtained with dispersed rat islet cells expressing eroGFP. Thus, unlike in yeast cells, ER stress in pancreatic β-cells is not associated with a more reducing ER environment.

  19. Alzheimer's disease pathological lesions activate the spleen tyrosine kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweig, Jonas Elias; Yao, Hailan; Beaulieu-Abdelahad, David; Ait-Ghezala, Ghania; Mouzon, Benoit; Crawford, Fiona; Mullan, Michael; Paris, Daniel

    2017-09-06

    The pathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by dystrophic neurites (DNs) surrounding extracellular Aβ-plaques, microgliosis, astrogliosis, intraneuronal tau hyperphosphorylation and aggregation. We have previously shown that inhibition of the spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) lowers Aβ production and tau hyperphosphorylation in vitro and in vivo. Here, we demonstrate that Aβ-overexpressing Tg PS1/APPsw, Tg APPsw mice, and tau overexpressing Tg Tau P301S mice exhibit a pathological activation of Syk compared to wild-type littermates. Syk activation is occurring in a subset of microglia and is age-dependently increased in Aβ-plaque-associated dystrophic neurites of Tg PS1/APPsw and Tg APPsw mice. In Tg Tau P301S mice, a pure model of tauopathy, activated Syk occurs in neurons that show an accumulation of misfolded and hyperphosphorylated tau in the cortex and hippocampus. Interestingly, the tau pathology is exacerbated in neurons that display high levels of Syk activation supporting a role of Syk in the formation of tau pathological species in vivo. Importantly, human AD brain sections show both pathological Syk activation in DNs around Aβ deposits and in neurons immunopositive for pathological tau species recapitulating the data obtained in transgenic mouse models of AD. Additionally, we show that Syk overexpression leads to increased tau accumulation and promotes tau hyperphosphorylation at multiple epitopes in human neuron-like SH-SY5Y cells, further supporting a role of Syk in the formation of tau pathogenic species. Collectively, our data show that Syk activation occurs following Aβ deposition and the formation of tau pathological species. Given that we have previously shown that Syk activation also promotes Aβ formation and tau hyperphosphorylation, our data suggest that AD pathological lesions may be self-propagating via a Syk dependent mechanism highlighting Syk as an attractive therapeutic target for the treatment of AD.

  20. Cytokines in Male Fertility and Reproductive Pathologies: Immunoregulation and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate L. Loveland

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Germline development in vivo is dependent on the environment formed by somatic cells and the differentiation cues they provide; hence, the impact of local factors is highly relevant to the production of sperm. Knowledge of how somatic and germline cells interact is central to achieving biomedical goals relating to restoring, preserving or restricting fertility in humans. This review discusses the growing understanding of how cytokines contribute to testicular function and maintenance of male reproductive health, and to the pathologies associated with their abnormal activity in this organ. Here we consider both cytokines that signal through JAKs and are regulated by SOCS, and those utilizing other pathways, such as the MAP kinases and SMADs. The importance of cytokines in the establishment and maintenance of the testis as an immune-privilege site are described. Current research relating to the involvement of immune cells in testis development and disease is highlighted. This includes new data relating to testicular cancer which reinforce the understanding that tumorigenic cells shape their microenvironment through cytokine actions. Clinical implications in pathologies relating to local inflammation and to immunotherapies are discussed.

  1. Primary signet-ring cell carcinoma of vermiform appendix clinically and pathologically presenting as acute appendicitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadashi Terada, MD, PhD

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Primary signet-ring cell carcinoma (SRCC of vermiform appendix is extremely rare; only three cases have been reported in the English literature. An 89-year-old man suddenly presented right lower abdominal pain, and transferred to a hospital, where he was diagnosed with acute appendicitis by physical data, blood data, and CT. He was further transferred to our hospital for emergency operation. Physical examination showed positive abdominal pain, Blunberg sign, and Rosenstein sign. Blood test showed leukocytosis and increased C-reactive protein. An appendectomy was performed. Gross examination during operation showed inflamed appendix, appendiceal adhesion, and acute peritonitis. Gross pathological examination showed no apparent tumor, but the proximal appendix showed wall thickening and luminal occlusion. The appendix was cut into three sections, and was observed under microscopically. Nests of carcinoma cells were seen in the proximal appendix. The carcinoma was composed of SRCC (70% and mucinous carcinoma (30%. The size of carcinoma was 6 × 7 mm. The carcinoma cells invaded into muscular layer. No lymphovascular permeation was seen. The cut margins were negative for carcinoma cells. Immunohistochemically, SRCC cells were positive for cytokeratin (CK AE1/3, CK CAM5.2, CK8, CK18, CK19, CK20, EMA, CEA, CA19-9, p53, Ki-67 (labeling = 30%, CDX2, MUC2, and MUC5AC. They were negative for CK34PE1, CK5/6, CK7, CK14, p63, vimentin, TTF-1, MUC1, MUC 5AC, NSE, synaptophysin, chromogranin, and CD56. No further treatments were performed, because the appendiceal carcinoma was small, the surgical margins were negative and the patient was very old. He was followed up by various imaging modalities. No recurrence or metastasis is found 17 months after the operation.

  2. Recommendations for the reporting of surgically resected specimens of renal cell carcinoma: the Association of Directors of Anatomic and Surgical Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, John P; McKenney, Jesse K; Brooks, James D; Argani, Pedram; Epstein, Jonathan I

    2009-04-01

    A checklist based approach to reporting the relevant pathologic details of renal cell carcinoma resection specimens improves the completeness of the report. Karyotypic evaluation of renal neoplasms has refined but also complicated their classification. The number of diagnostic possibilities has increased and the importance of distinguishing different tumor types has been underscored by dramatic variation in prognosis and the development of targeted therapies for specific subtypes. The increasing number of recognized renal neoplasms has implications for handling renal resection specimens. Furthermore, the prognostic significance of other features of renal neoplasms related to grade and stage has been demonstrated. This guideline for the handling of renal resection specimens will focus on problem areas in the evolving practice of diagnosis, grading, and staging of renal neoplasms. The accompanying checklist will serve to ensure that all necessary details of the renal resection specimen are included in the surgical pathology report.

  3. Salivary gland NK cells are phenotypically and functionally unique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlowe S Tessmer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural killer (NK cells and CD8(+ T cells play vital roles in containing and eliminating systemic cytomegalovirus (CMV. However, CMV has a tropism for the salivary gland acinar epithelial cells and persists in this organ for several weeks after primary infection. Here we characterize a distinct NK cell population that resides in the salivary gland, uncommon to any described to date, expressing both mature and immature NK cell markers. Using RORγt reporter mice and nude mice, we also show that the salivary gland NK cells are not lymphoid tissue inducer NK-like cells and are not thymic derived. During the course of murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV infection, we found that salivary gland NK cells detect the infection and acquire activation markers, but have limited capacity to produce IFN-γ and degranulate. Salivary gland NK cell effector functions are not regulated by iNKT or T(reg cells, which are mostly absent in the salivary gland. Additionally, we demonstrate that peripheral NK cells are not recruited to this organ even after the systemic infection has been controlled. Altogether, these results indicate that viral persistence and latency in the salivary glands may be due in part to the presence of unfit NK cells and the lack of recruitment of peripheral NK cells.

  4. The first case of acinic cell carcinoma of the breast within a fibroadenoma: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limite, G; Di Micco, R; Esposito, E; Sollazzo, V; Cervotti, M; Pettinato, G; Varone, V; Benassai, G; Monda, A; Luglio, G; Maisto, V; Izzo, G; Forestieri, P

    2014-01-01

    A case of acinic cell carcinoma of the breast is reported in a 26-year-old woman. She presented a lump in her right breast, that seemed to be a fibroadenoma. The open biopsy revealed a well-bordered fibroadenoma, together with a proliferation of cells characterized by serous acinar differentiation and eosinophilic cytoplasmic granules. Tumor cells stained for amylase, lysozyme, α-1-antichymotripsin, epithelial membrane antigen, S-100 protein, pan-cytokeratin, cytokeratin 7 and E-cadherin. Estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 overexpression, CD10, P63, smooth muscle actin, cytokeratin 5/6 were negative. The sentinel node was negative. 8 months after surgery she is in good clinical conditions without recurrence or metastases. Copyright © 2014 Surgical Associates Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Leukemia inhibitory factor and its role in physiologic and pathological processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grégory Alfonso García

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF is celular comunication mediator that shows a very wide range of biologic activities that include the cell differentiation, cell growth and proliferation, cell trophic and anti-apoptotic effect, cell protection of different cells and tissue types, regulating energetic and bone metabolism, neural development, embryogenesis, reparation and remodelation tissue, and modulation of inflammation. Due to its pleiotrophic activities, LIF is central in the pathologic events related to many disorders. In this review, the diverse topics are alluded to.

  6. [Diagnostic molecular pathology of lymphatic and myeloid neoplasms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klapper, W; Kreipe, H

    2015-03-01

    Molecular pathology has been an integral part of the diagnostics of tumors of the hematopoietic system substantially longer than for solid neoplasms. In contrast to solid tumors, the primary objective of molecular pathology in hematopoietic neoplasms is not the prediction of drug efficacy but the diagnosis itself by excluding reactive proliferation and by using molecular features for tumor classification. In the case of malignant lymphomas, the most commonly applied molecular tests are those for gene rearrangements for immunoglobulin heavy chains and T-cell receptors. However, this article puts the focus on new and diagnostically relevant assays in hematopathology. Among these are mutations of MYD88 codon 265 in lymphoplasmacytic lymphomas, B-raf V600E in hairy cell leukemia and Stat3 exon 21 in indolent T-cell lymphomas. In myeloproliferative neoplasms, MPL W515, calreticulin exon 9 and the BCR-ABL and JAK2 V617F junctions are the most frequently analyzed differentiation series. In myelodysplastic and myeloproliferative neoplasms, SRSF2, SETBP1 and CSF3R mutations provide important differential diagnostic information. Genes mutated in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are particularly diverse but their analysis significantly improves the differential diagnostics between reactive conditions and MDS. The most frequent changes in MDS include mutations of TET2 and various genes encoding splicing factors.

  7. Myoepithelial Cells: Their Origin and Function in Lacrimal Gland Morphogenesis, Homeostasis, and Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarenkova, Helen P; Dartt, Darlene A

    2015-09-01

    Lacrimal gland (LG) is an exocrine tubuloacinar gland that secretes the aqueous layer of the tear film. LG epithelium is composed of ductal, acinar, and myoepithelial cells (MECs) bordering the basal lamina and separating the epithelial layer from the extracellular matrix. Mature MECs have contractile ability and morphologically resemble smooth muscle cells; however, they exhibit features typical for epithelial cells, such as the presence of specific cytokeratin filaments. Increasing evidence supports the assertion that myoepithelial cells (MECs) play key roles in the lacrimal gland development, homeostasis, and stabilizing the normal structure and polarity of LG secretory acini. MECs take part in the formation of extracellular matrix gland and participate in signal exchange between epithelium and stroma. MECs have a high level of plasticity and are able to differentiate into several cell lineages. Here, we provide a review on some of the MEC characteristics and their role in LG morphogenesis, maintenance, and repair.

  8. Primary Small Cell Carcinoma of the Esophagus: Clinico- pathological Features and Therapeutic Options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevárez, Andrea; Saftoiu, A; Bhutani, M S

    2011-01-01

    Primary esophageal small cell carcinoma (SmCC) is a rare disease with a poor prognosis despite agressive multimodality combination treatment. This article presents the case of a 76-year old women diagnosed with pimary esophageal SmCC. The diagnosis was established by upper gastrointestinal endoscopy with biopsies that confirmed an esophageal SmCC positive to synaptophysin, chromogranin, CD56, TTF-1, and cytokeratin 8/18. Further staging procedures included CT, PET and EUS, followed by combination chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Restaging was then performed, again with PET and CT of the thorax, abdomen and pelvis. This was then followed by salvage esophagectomy due to the presence of residual tumor. Surgical pathology confirmed a 3 cm SmCC, with invasion of the submucosa and lymphovascular invasion. In conclusion, the article describes the rare occurrence of esophageal SmCC, together with the algorithm of diagnosis and staging based on state-of-the-art imaging methods. This was followed by combination chemoradiotherapy and surgical esophagectomy as the standard of care in this aggressive disease.

  9. Study on the correlation between SCT features and pathology, MVD, expressions of VEGF in renal cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xuejun; Gao Jianbo; Yang Xuehua; Zhou Zhigang; Guo Hua; Yue Songwei

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the correlation between spiral CT (SCT) features and pathology, MVD, and expressions of VEGF in renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Methods: Thirty-four patients with RCC diagnosed by pathology underwent SCT examinations. MVD and expressions of VEGF were examined immunohistochemically using SABC techniques. Results: (1) The detection and characterization as well as accuracy of staging in 34 RCC on two-phase enhanced SCT scans were 100%, 100%, and 94%, respectively. (2) Tumors with low density ring on SCT scans mostly had pseudocapsules at pathological examination. The nuclear grade was higher in groups of tumor without low density ring, with central necrosis, and the diameter larger than 3.0 cm than in those of tumor with low density ring, without central necrosis, and the diameter less than 3.0 cm (P<0.01, P<0.01, P<0.01, respectively). (3) In 34 cases of RCC, the mean MVD was 89.5 ± 56.0. The positive expression of VEGF was 70.6% (24/34). (4) The MVD and positive expressions of VEGF in groups of tumor without a low density ring, with central necrosis on SCT scans were higher than in those tumor with a low density ring, without central necrosis (P<0.05 respectively in each of the groups). On early enhanced scans, MVD was closely correlated with tumor enhancement (P<0.05). MVD was higher in tumors with intravenous tumor emboli than in tumors without emboli (P<0.01). Conclusion: (1) Two-phase enhanced SCT scan was a reliable technique in the detection, characterization and staging of RCC. (2) Some SCT features were closely correlated with MVD and expressions of VEGF in RCC, which could be a noninvasive method in predicting aggressiveness and metastasis. (authors)

  10. CD147 expression predicts biochemical recurrence after prostatectomy independent of histologic and pathologic features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, Tyler M; Ewald, Jonathan A; Huang, Wei; Ricke, William A

    2015-07-25

    CD147 is an MMP-inducing protein often implicated in cancer progression. The purpose of this study was to investigate the expression of CD147 in prostate cancer (PCa) progression and the prognostic ability of CD147 in predicting biochemical recurrence after prostatectomy. Plasma membrane-localized CD147 protein expression was quantified in patient samples using immunohistochemistry and multispectral imaging, and expression was compared to clinico-pathological features (pathologic stage, Gleason score, tumor volume, preoperative PSA, lymph node status, surgical margins, biochemical recurrence status). CD147 specificity and expression were confirmed with immunoblotting of prostate cell lines, and CD147 mRNA expression was evaluated in public expression microarray datasets of patient prostate tumors. Expression of CD147 protein was significantly decreased in localized tumors (pT2; p = 0.02) and aggressive PCa (≥pT3; p = 0.004), and metastases (p = 0.001) compared to benign prostatic tissue. Decreased CD147 was associated with advanced pathologic stage (p = 0.009) and high Gleason score (p = 0.02), and low CD147 expression predicted biochemical recurrence (HR 0.55; 95 % CI 0.31-0.97; p = 0.04) independent of clinico-pathologic features. Immunoblot bands were detected at 44 kDa and 66 kDa, representing non-glycosylated and glycosylated forms of CD147 protein, and CD147 expression was lower in tumorigenic T10 cells than non-tumorigenic BPH-1 cells (p = 0.02). Decreased CD147 mRNA expression was associated with increased Gleason score and pathologic stage in patient tumors but is not associated with recurrence status. Membrane-associated CD147 expression is significantly decreased in PCa compared to non-malignant prostate tissue and is associated with tumor progression, and low CD147 expression predicts biochemical recurrence after prostatectomy independent of pathologic stage, Gleason score, lymph node status, surgical margins, and tumor volume in multivariable

  11. Pathology in Undergraduate Training Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiva Raj K.C.

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Pathology is a study of disease which deals with etiology, pathogenesis and morphological features and the associated clinical features. Pathology acts as a bridge that fills the gap between basic sciences and clinical medicine. With proper understanding of pathological processes, one can understand the disease process. In Nepal, since the beginning of medical school teaching, Pathology as a basic science discipline and is a component of the preclinical medical school curriculum.Pathology teaching in 19th century was vague, disorganized and very little, though precious. The lectures used to be conducted by surgeons. At Barts, surgeon Sir James Paget had taught surgical pathology. The real revolution in pathology teaching began in the early 1900s when, spurred on by increasing understanding of disease mechanisms, pathology began to be accepted as a specialty in its own right.During the early and mid of 20th century, pathology teaching was a part of clinical teaching with daily, autopsy demonstration. By the late 1980s, significant change had taken place. In many medical schools, debate started regarding relevance of vigorous preclinical teaching. Then system-based approach was incorporated and traditional preclinical course had been abandoned. With this pathology teaching also began to change with pathologists being involved in teaching histology, often alongside pathology to highlight its clinical relevance. In medical schools the pathology teaching time was cut. Autopsy demonstrations, which had been so popular with generations of medical students, were becoming irregular and less well attended.Though teaching of pathology in blocks to ‘avoid fragmentation’ has disappeared in western countries; it is still practice in Nepal. In western countries there was traditional practice of teaching general pathology in the first two years and systemic pathology in the clinical years. Now pathology teaching is integrated throughout the course. A

  12. Comparison of radiologic and pathologic findings of gastric MALToma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dong Ho; Lee, Ju Hie; Ko, Young Tae [Kyunghee Univ. Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-02-01

    To evaluate the radiologic findings of gastric MALToma, and to correlate these with its pathologic findings. We retrospectively reviewed the pathologic slides of gastrectomy and gastroscopic biopsy specimens obtained between 1982 and 1996, and collected nine cases of gastric MALToma. Eight of these had been surgically confirmed, and one had been diagnosed by gastroscopic biopsy. A gastrointestinal series comprised eight cases; five involved sonography and five, CT. The lesions were located at the body in five cases, at the antrum in one, and at the body and antrum in three cases. Pathologic diagnosis was low grade MALToma in four cases, and mixed high and low grade MALToma in five cases. Initial radiologic diagnosis was gastric lymphoma in four cases, early gastric carcinoma in three, and advanced gastric carcinoma in two cases. On retrospective analysis, radiologic diagnosis was changed to lymphoma in both cases initially diagnosed as advanced gastric carcinomas. One case showed marked thickening of the gastric wall, with poor enhancement on CT, and the other case showed a very small and shallow ulcer in comparison to diffuse infiltration of tumor in the upper gastrointestinal series. The final radiologic diagnosis was gastric lymphoma in six cases, and early carcinoma in three. Radiologic findings of gastric MALToma were EGC II c-like lesion in three cases, marked gastric wall thickening in two, multiple discrete lesions in two, hyperugosity of gastric folds with discrete lesions in one, and diffuse infiltrative lesion with small ulcer in one case. The pathologic diagnosis of gastric MALToma was made by the presence of lymphoepithelial lesions, centrocyte-like cells, reactive follicles, plasma cell infiltration, and follicular colonization. There were no significant correlations between radiologic findings and pathologic results such as depth of tumor invasion, low grade MALToma or mixed high and low grade MALToma. There are no specific radiologic characteristics

  13. Mitochondrial function and malfunction in the pathophysiology of pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerasimenko, Oleg V; Gerasimenko, Julia V

    2012-07-01

    As a primary energy producer, mitochondria play a fundamental role in pancreatic exocrine physiology and pathology. The most frequent aetiology of acute pancreatitis is either gallstones or heavy alcohol consumption. Repeated episodes of acute pancreatitis can result in the development of chronic pancreatitis and increase the lifetime risk of pancreatic cancer 100-fold. Pancreatic cancer is one of the most common causes of cancer mortality with only about 3-4 % of patients surviving beyond 5 years. It has been shown that acute pancreatitis involves Ca²⁺ overload and overproduction of reactive oxygen species in pancreatic acinar cells. Both factors significantly affect mitochondria and lead to cell death. The pathogenesis of inflammation in acute and chronic pancreatitis is tightly linked to the induction of necrosis and apoptosis. There is currently no specific therapy for pancreatitis, but recent findings of an endogenous protective mechanism against Ca²⁺ overload--and particularly the potential to boost this protection--bring hope of new therapeutic approaches.

  14. Pathologic Findings in Primary Capsulectomy Specimens: Analysis of 2531 Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lapid, Oren; Noels, Eline C.; Meijer, Sybren L.

    2014-01-01

    After breast augmentation, additional operations are often needed for revision or explantation. Although the surgeon may elect to leave the capsule in situ during these procedures, excised capsule tissue may be examined histopathologically for cancer cells. The authors assessed pathologic findings

  15. Role of mitochondria in parvovirus pathology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonna Nykky

    Full Text Available Proper functioning of the mitochondria is crucial for the survival of the cell. Viruses are able to interfere with mitochondrial functions as they infect the host cell. Parvoviruses are known to induce apoptosis in infected cells, but the role of the mitochondria in parvovirus induced cytopathy is only partially known. Here we demonstrate with confocal and electron microscopy that canine parvovirus (CPV associated with the mitochondrial outer membrane from the onset of infection. During viral entry a transient depolarization of the mitochondrial transmembrane potential and increase in ROS level was detected. Subsequently, mitochondrial homeostasis was normalized shortly, as detected by repolarization of the mitochondrial membrane and decrease of ROS. Indeed, activation of cell survival signalling through ERK1/2 cascade was observed early in CPV infected cells. At 12 hours post infection, concurrent with the expression of viral non-structural protein 1, damage to the mitochondrial structure and depolarization of its membrane were apparent. Results of this study provide additional insight of parvovirus pathology and also more general information of virus-mitochondria association.

  16. STING Signaling Promotes Inflammation in Experimental Acute Pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qinglan; Wei, Yi; Pandol, Stephen J; Li, Lingyin; Habtezion, Aida

    2018-05-01

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) is characterized by severe inflammation and acinar cell death. Transmembrane protein 173 (TMEM173 or STING) is a DNA sensor adaptor protein on immune cells that recognizes cytosolic nucleic acids and transmits signals that activate production of interferons and the innate immune response. We investigated whether leukocyte STING signaling mediates inflammation in mice with AP. We induced AP in C57BL/6J mice (control) and C57BL/6J-Tmem173gt/J mice (STING-knockout mice) by injection of cerulein or placement on choline-deficient DL-ethionine supplemented diet. In some mice, STING signaling was induced by administration of a pharmacologic agonist. AP was also induced in C57BL/6J mice with bone marrow transplants from control or STING-knockout mice and in mice with disruption of the cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (Cgas) gene. Pancreata were collected, analyzed by histology, and acini were isolated and analyzed by flow cytometry, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, immunoblots, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Bone-marrow-derived macrophages were collected from mice and tested for their ability to detect DNA from dying acinar cells in the presence and absence of deoxyribonuclease (DNaseI). STING signaling was activated in pancreata from mice with AP but not mice without AP. STING-knockout mice developed less severe AP (less edema, inflammation, and markers of pancreatic injury) than control mice, whereas mice given a STING agonist developed more severe AP than controls. In immune cells collected from pancreata, STING was expressed predominantly in macrophages. Levels of cGAS were increased in mice with vs without AP, and cGAS-knockout mice had decreased edema, inflammation, and other markers of pancreatic injury upon induction of AP than control mice. Wild-type mice given bone marrow transplants from STING-knockout mice had less pancreatic injury and lower serum levels of lipase and pancreatic trypsin activity following induction of AP than

  17. Relationship between aquaporin-5 expression and saliva flow in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soyfoo, M S; Bolaky, N; Depoortere, I; Delporte, C

    2012-07-01

    To investigate the expression and distribution of AQP5 in submandibular acinar cells from sham- and streptozotocin (STZ)-treated mice in relation to the salivary flow. Mice were sham or STZ injected. Distribution of AQP5 subcellular expression in submandibular glands was determined by immunohistochemistry. AQP5 labelling indices (LI), reflecting AQP5 subcellular distribution, were determined in acinar cells. Western blotting was performed to determine the expression of AQP5 in submandibular glands. Blood glycaemia and osmolality and saliva flow rates were also determined. AQP5 immunoreactivity was primarily located at the apical and apical-basolateral membranes of submandibular gland acinar cells from sham- and STZ-treated mice. No significant differences in AQP5 protein levels were observed between sham- and STZ-treated mice. Compared to sham-treated mice, STZ-treated mice had significant increased glycaemia, while no significant differences in blood osmolality were observed. Saliva flow rate was significantly decreased in STZ-treated mice as compared to sham-treated mice. In STZ-treated mice, significant reduction in salivary flow rate was observed without any concomitant modification in AQP5 expression and localization. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  18. Histopathologic Review of Previously Negative Prostatic Core Needle Biopsies following a New Diagnosis of Adenocarcinoma of the Prostate by Core Needle Biopsies: Implications for Quality Assurance Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Patel

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Programs for quality assurance are increasingly important in surgical pathology. Many quality assurance (QA techniques for surgical pathology were adopted from procedures introduced in cytopathology. Surgical pathology specimens have diminished in size such that the majority of diagnostic biopsies of prostatic lesions are now core needle biopsies. These specimens raise issues similar to those of cytology specimens, including concerns regarding adequacy and the representative nature of the biopsy. Due to sample size, some neoplasms may not be diagnosed on initial biopsy, raising concerns regarding false negative results. Cytopathologists have instituted QA procedures including review of all previously negative slides received within five years prior to the new diagnosis of high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion or gynecologic malignancy. No such requirement exists in surgical pathology for review of core biopsies. The Department of Pathology at the University of Utah instituted a QA policy requiring review of prior negative prostatic needle biopsies following a new diagnosis of prostatic adenocarcinoma. We reviewed five years of QA records of prostate needle biopsy review. During this time, nine hundred and fifty-eight core biopsy sets were performed. Two hundred and ninety-five of these contained at least one biopsy with a diagnosis of adenocarcinoma. Two hundred and eight patients had a prior set of prostatic needle biopsies with a diagnosis of adenocarcinoma. The remaining 87 had prior biopsies with either a diagnosis of prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (23, small atypical acinar proliferation (21 or no evidence of malignancy (43. QA review of these 87 cases revealed two biopsies which revealed foci of adenocarcinoma. Both had been initially diagnosed as no evidence of malignancy. The false negative rate for core biopsy was 0.68%. In an additional twenty-one cases, microscopic foci of atypical small acinar proliferations were found in

  19. Intracellular lipid in papillary renal cell carcinoma (pRCC): T2 weighted (T2W) MRI and pathologic correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schieda, Nicola; Van der Pol, Christian B.; Moosavi, Bardia; McInnes, Matthew D.F. [The Ottawa Hospital, The University of Ottawa, Department of Medical Imaging, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Mai, Kien T.; Flood, Trevor A. [The Ottawa Hospital, The University of Ottawa, Department of Anatomical Pathology, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    2015-07-15

    To evaluate if pRCCs demonstrate intracellular lipid (i-lipid) at chemical-shift (CS) MRI, and assess T2W-MRI and pathologic characteristics. Sixty-two patients with a pRCC diagnosis underwent MRI over 11 years (IRB-approved). Two radiologists independently assessed for presence of i-lipid on CS-MRI and homogeneity on T2W-MRI. Inter-observer agreement was assessed via an intraclass correlation and results were compared using the Chi-square test. Discordant cases were reviewed to establish consensus. T2W SI-ratios (SI.tumor/SI.kidney) and CS-SI index were compared using independent t-tests and Spearman correlation. Two pathologists re-evaluated the histopathology. Nine of the 62 pRCCs (14.5 %) demonstrated i-lipid; agreement was moderate (ICC = 0.63). Pathology review depicted clear cells in four tumours and foamy histiocytes in five tumours. 25.8-35.4 % (ICC = 0.65) of tumours were homogeneous on T2W-MRI. No pRCC with i-lipid was considered homogeneous (p = 0.01-0.04). Overall, T2W SI-ratio and CS-SI index were 0.89 (±0.29) and -3.63 % (-7.27 to 11.42). pRCC with i-lipid had significantly higher T2W SI-ratio (p = 0.003). There was a correlation between the CS-SI index and T2W SI-ratio, (r = 0.44, p < 0.001). Intracellular lipid is uncommonly detected in pRCCs due to clear cell changes and foamy histiocytes. These tumours are associated with heterogeneously-increased SI in T2W-MRI. (orig.)

  20. The clinical pathologic research of invasive pituitary adenomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Lingchuan; Zheng Yushuang; Wang Shouli; Hui Guozhen; Li Xiangdong

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study the pathological morphologic characteristics of invasive pituitary tumor and the affect of vascularization to the tumor's invasion. Methods: One hundred and thirty cases of pituitary adenoma patients were divided into two groups, including invasive pituitary adenomas and non-invasive pituitary adenomas, and the clinical data of two groups were analysed and compared. Results : The difference was statistically significant between the invasive group and the non-invasive group in the incidence rate of pathological morphologic characteristics such as high nuclear cytoplasmic ratio, cell pleomorphism, nuclear atypia and nucleoli appearance (P<0.05); there were nuclear atypia and nucleolus margination in the invasive group through electron microscopy. And there was statistical significant difference in rate of MVD expression which was higher in the invasive group than that of noninvasive group (P<0.05). Conclusion: The pathological morphologic characteristics of pituitary tumor and the high expression of MVD are significantly reference valuable in tumor aggression diagnosis, which provides valuable indicators for early clinical diagnosis of tumor invasion. (authors)

  1. Isolation and characterization of human salivary gland cells for stem cell transplantation to reduce radiation-induced hyposalivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Jielin; Zwaag, Marianne van der; Stokman, Monique A.; Os, Ronald van; Coppes, Robert P.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Recently, we showed that transplantation of 100-300 c-Kit + stem cells isolated from cultured salispheres ameliorates radiation-damage in murine salivary glands. The aim of this study is to optimize and translate these findings from mice to man. Methods: Mouse and human non-malignant parotid and submandibular salivary gland tissue was collected and enzymatically digested. The remaining cell suspension was cultured according to our salisphere culture method optimized for murine salispheres. Salisphere cells were tested using 3D matrix culturing for their in vitro stem cell characteristics such as the potential to differentiate into tissue specific cell types. Several potential mouse and human salivary gland stem cells were selected using FACS. Results: In human salivary gland, c-Kit + cells were only detected in excretory ducts as shown previously in mice. From both human parotid and submandibular gland cell suspensions salispheres could be grown, which when placed in 3D culture developed ductal structures and mucin-expressing acinar-like cells. Moreover, cells dispersed from primary salispheres were able to form secondary spheres in matrigel, a procedure that could be repeated for at least seven passages. Approximately 3000 c-Kit + cells could be isolated from primary human salispheres per biopsy. Conclusion: Human salivary glands contain a similar 'putative' stem cell population as rodents, expressing c-kit and capable of in vitro differentiation and self-renewal. In the future, these cells may have the potential to reduce radiotherapy-induced salivary gland dysfunction in patients.

  2. Ionizing radiation induces heritable disruption of epithelial cell interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Catherine C.; Henshall-Powell, Rhonda L.; Erickson, Anna C.; Talhouk, Rabih; Parvin, Bahram; Bissell, Mina J.; Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen; Chatterjee, A. (Principal Investigator)

    2003-01-01

    Ionizing radiation (IR) is a known human breast carcinogen. Although the mutagenic capacity of IR is widely acknowledged as the basis for its action as a carcinogen, we and others have shown that IR can also induce growth factors and extracellular matrix remodeling. As a consequence, we have proposed that an additional factor contributing to IR carcinogenesis is the potential disruption of critical constraints that are imposed by normal cell interactions. To test this hypothesis, we asked whether IR affected the ability of nonmalignant human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) to undergo tissue-specific morphogenesis in culture by using confocal microscopy and imaging bioinformatics. We found that irradiated single HMEC gave rise to colonies exhibiting decreased localization of E-cadherin, beta-catenin, and connexin-43, proteins necessary for the establishment of polarity and communication. Severely compromised acinar organization was manifested by the majority of irradiated HMEC progeny as quantified by image analysis. Disrupted cell-cell communication, aberrant cell-extracellular matrix interactions, and loss of tissue-specific architecture observed in the daughters of irradiated HMEC are characteristic of neoplastic progression. These data point to a heritable, nonmutational mechanism whereby IR compromises cell polarity and multicellular organization.

  3. Human mesenchymal stem cells suppress donor CD4(+) T cell proliferation and reduce pathology in a humanized mouse model of acute graft-versus-host disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, L M; Healy, M E; English, K; Mahon, B P

    2013-05-01

    Acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) is a life-threatening complication following allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), occurring in up to 30-50% of patients who receive human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-matched sibling transplants. Current therapies for steroid refractory aGVHD are limited, with the prognosis of patients suboptimal. Mesenchymal stem or stromal cells (MSC), a heterogeneous cell population present in many tissues, display potent immunomodulatory abilities. Autologous and allogeneic ex-vivo expanded human MSC have been utilized to treat aGVHD with promising results, but the mechanisms of therapeutic action remain unclear. Here a robust humanized mouse model of aGVHD based on delivery of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) to non-obese diabetic (NOD)-severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) interleukin (IL)-2rγ(null) (NSG) mice was developed that allowed the exploration of the role of MSC in cell therapy. MSC therapy resulted in the reduction of liver and gut pathology and significantly increased survival. Protection was dependent upon the timing of MSC therapy, with conventional MSC proving effective only after delayed administration. In contrast, interferon (IFN)-γ-stimulated MSC were effective when delivered with PBMC. The beneficial effect of MSC therapy in this model was not due to the inhibition of donor PBMC chimerism, as CD45(+) and T cells engrafted successfully in this model. MSC therapy did not induce donor T cell anergy, FoxP3(+) T regulatory cells or cause PBMC apoptosis in this model; however, it was associated with the direct inhibition of donor CD4(+) T cell proliferation and reduction of human tumour necrosis factor-α in serum. © 2012 British Society for Immunology.

  4. Prognostic Significance of Clinical/Pathological Stage IA Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Showing Partially Solid or Solid Tumours on Radiological Exam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Yosuke; Nakao, Masayuki; Mun, Mingyon; Nakagawa, Ken; Ishikawa, Yuichi; Okumura, Sakae

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Although curative resection is expected to be effective in patients with clinical (c-) stage IA/pathological (p-) stage IA non-small-cell lung cancers, recurrence is often observed. Hence, the aim of this study was to identify predictors of recurrence. Methods: Between 2005 and 2009, 138 patients with c-stage IA/p-stage IA non-small-cell lung cancers underwent resection. Recurrence and recurrence-free survival (RFS) were compared with clinical, radiographic and pathological findings. Results: The 5-year cancer-specific survival rate was 97% and the RFS rate was 89% at a median follow-up time of 91 months. Recurrence was observed in 10 patients (7.2%). Significant differences were observed in RFS according to tumour dimensions on the mediastinal window image (>1.5 cm), serum carcinoembryonic antigen levels (>5.0 ng/mL), maximum standardised uptake values (SUVmax >2.5) and angiolymphatic invasion. Patients were grouped according to the number of risk factors for poor RFS. Patients with 0–1 of the identified risk factors had an RFS of 97%, where those with 2–4 factors had an RFS of 68% (p <0.001). Conclusion: Prognosis of patients exhibiting more than two of these risk factors is considerably poor. Thus, close observation and individualised adjuvant therapy may be beneficial to these patients. PMID:25740451

  5. Pathological links between stroke and cardiac arrest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shaila Ghanekar; Sydney Corey; Trenton Lippert; Cesar V.Borlongan

    2017-01-01

    There may be a pathological connection between cardiac failure and ischemic stroke.In this article we describe pertinent research that demonstrates subsequent death of cardiac and neural myocytes in the post ischemic stroke brain.Current stroke therapy overlooks the connection between cardiac and cerebrovascular events and fails to address the shared risk factors.Current pre-clinical stroke investigations have provided evidence that suggests the presence of an indirect cell death pathway in which toxic molecules emanate from the stroke brain and trigger cardiac cell death.On the other hand,other studies highlight the presence of a reverse cell death cascade in which toxic molecules from the heart,following cardiac arrest,travel to the brain and induce ischemic cell death.Further examination of these putative cell death pathways between ischemic stroke and cardiac arrest will prompt the advancement of innovative treatments specifically targeting both diseases,leading to ameliorated clinical results of patients diagnosed with heart failure and ischemic stroke.

  6. Fluorescence diagnosis of pre-invasive cervical pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. P. Aminodova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Results of local fluorescence spectroscopy in 185 women with underlying and pre-invasive disease of cervix and high-risk HPV infection are represented. Fluorescence study was performed 2h after intravenous injection of fotoditazin in a dose of 1 mg/kg (wavelength 636.5 nm. Accumulation of the photosensitizer was estimated by diagnostic parameter (DP value, calculated as mean value of fluorescence scaled to each type of tissue. For normal tissues DP accounted for 0.6±0.4, showing accumulation of the photosensitizer. According to the study the medication did not also accumulate in retention cysts (DP 0.3±0.1, explaining low efficiency of photodynamic therapy for this pathology. The accumulation of fotoditazin depends significantly on type of pathologic tissue. In patients with inflammation, leukoplakia and CIN I accumulation of the photosensitizer in pathologic foci was negligible: DP accounted for 1.7±0.2, 1.8±0.2 and 2.1±0.3, respectively. In sites of endometriosis and CIN II DP was significantly higher and accounted for 8.3±2.1 and 14.1±4.1, respectively. The greatest accumulation of the photosensitizer was registered in sites of CIN III, squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. Though DP value for these pathologies had almost no difference and accounted for 23.1±4.7, 22.7±1.8 and 23.3±1.4, respectively. For fluorescence diagnosis of severe dysplasia in 48% of patients borders of fluorescence regions were beyond lesions detected for extended colposcopy with additional areas of fluorescence. Targeted biopsy of these regions proved pathology in all patients: CIN II, CIN III, mild dysplasia or CIS. Thus, local spectroscopy allows to diagnosis multifocal lesions on cervix, to define correctly borders of lesion and consider excisional biopsy in-time.  

  7. Reporting and Staging of Testicular Germ Cell Tumors: The International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) Testicular Cancer Consultation Conference Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verrill, Clare; Yilmaz, Asli; Srigley, John R; Amin, Mahul B; Compérat, Eva; Egevad, Lars; Ulbright, Thomas M; Tickoo, Satish K; Berney, Daniel M; Epstein, Jonathan I

    2017-06-01

    The International Society of Urological Pathology held a conference devoted to issues in testicular and penile pathology in Boston in March 2015, which included a presentation and discussion led by the testis microscopic features working group. This conference focused on controversies related to staging and reporting of testicular tumors and was preceded by an online survey of the International Society of Urological Pathology members. The survey results were used to initiate discussions, but decisions were made by expert consensus rather than voting. A number of recommendations emerged from the conference, including that lymphovascular invasion (LVI) should always be reported and no distinction need be made between lymphatic or blood invasion. If LVI is equivocal, then it should be regarded as negative to avoid triggering unnecessary therapy. LVI in the spermatic cord is considered as category pT2, not pT3, unless future studies provide contrary evidence. At the time of gross dissection, a block should be taken just superior to the epididymis to define the base of the spermatic cord, and direct invasion of tumor in this block indicates a category of pT3. Pagetoid involvement of the rete testis epithelium must be distinguished from rete testis stromal invasion, with only the latter being prognostically useful. Percentages of different tumor elements in mixed germ cell tumors should be reported. Although consensus was reached on many issues, there are still areas of practice that need further evidence on which to base firm recommendations.

  8. Clinical pathology observation on orbit IgG4 related disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Hua Guo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To discuss clinical pathological features of orbit IgG4 related disease(IgG4-RD. METHODS: The clinical pathological materials of 23 patients(35 eyeswith orbit IgG4-RD were collected. They were observed in terms of histology and immunohistochemistry, and its clinical and pathologic characteristics were summarized. RESULTS: There were 23 patients(35 eyeswith orbit IgG4-RD(8 male patients, 9 eyes; 15 female patients, 26 eyes, with an average age of 52.1 year-old(from age 28 to 72. 19 patients(30 eyesoccured in lacrimal gland and 4 cases(5 eyesin other places, and they went to hospital for lacrimal gland cyst or exophthalmos. There were 11 cases in one side and 12 cases in both sides. The disease lasted from 1mo to 10a, averaging 27mo. It recureded in one patient(1 eyeafter 1mo. In general inspection: Gray nodular goiter, thin fibrous coat wrapping around the lacrimal gland could be observed. Histologic characteristics: lacrimal gland bubble and catheter group shrinked or even disappeared, substituted by lymphocyte, plasma cells and lymphoid follicle and accompanied with fibrosis. Immunohistochemical staining: IgG4 positive plasma cells of 23 cases(35 eyeswas >50/HPF, and IgG4/IgG ratio of positive plasma cells was >40%. CONCLUSION: Orbit IgG4-RD mainly occures in lacrimal gland tissue, and expression of IgG4 can be detected through histologic characteristics and immunohistochemical staining. IgG4-RD should be screened, prevented and treated in the early phase.

  9. Racial Variation in the Outcome of Subsequent Prostate Biopsies in Men With an Initial Diagnosis of Atypical Small Acinar Proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott Libby, Robert; Kramer, Jordan J; Tue Nguyen, Hoang Minh; Feibus, Allison; Thomas, Raju; Silberstein, Jonathan L

    2017-12-01

    African American (AA) men are known to have more aggressive prostate cancer (PCa) compared with Caucasian American men. We sought to determine predictors of subsequent detection and risk stratification of PCa in a racially diverse group of men with atypical small acinar proliferation (ASAP) on initial prostate biopsy. A retrospective analysis was conducted on data from men with ASAP on initial prostate biopsy who subsequently received confirmatory biopsies between September 2000 and July 2015. Biopsies with more than 3 years between initial and confirmatory biopsies were excluded. Race, age, body mass index, transrectal ultrasound volume, serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA), PSA velocity, PSA density, and elapsed time between biopsies were assessed for predictive value in subsequent PCa diagnosis after an initial finding of ASAP. Of 106 men analyzed, 75 (71%) were AA and 31 (29%) were non-AA. Baseline variables revealed AA men had higher PSA levels, PSA velocity, and PSA density (all P level, and PSA density were significant predictors of PCa. AA men diagnosed with ASAP on initial prostate biopsy do not have increased risk of PCa on confirmatory biopsy compared with non-AA men. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Synaptic Tau Seeding Precedes Tau Pathology in Human Alzheimer's Disease Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah L. DeVos

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is defined by the presence of intraneuronal neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs composed of hyperphosphorylated tau aggregates as well as extracellular amyloid-beta plaques. The presence and spread of tau pathology through the brain is classified by Braak stages and thought to correlate with the progression of AD. Several in vitro and in vivo studies have examined the ability of tau pathology to move from one neuron to the next, suggesting a “prion-like” spread of tau aggregates may be an underlying cause of Braak tau staging in AD. Using the HEK293 TauRD-P301S-CFP/YFP expressing biosensor cells as a highly sensitive and specific tool to identify the presence of seed competent aggregated tau in brain lysate—i.e., tau aggregates that are capable of recruiting and misfolding monomeric tau—, we detected substantial tau seeding levels in the entorhinal cortex from human cases with only very rare NFTs, suggesting that soluble tau aggregates can exist prior to the development of overt tau pathology. We next looked at tau seeding levels in human brains of varying Braak stages along six regions of the Braak Tau Pathway. Tau seeding levels were detected not only in the brain regions impacted by pathology, but also in the subsequent non-pathology containing region along the Braak pathway. These data imply that pathogenic tau aggregates precede overt tau pathology in a manner that is consistent with transneuronal spread of tau aggregates. We then detected tau seeding in frontal white matter tracts and the optic nerve, two brain regions comprised of axons that contain little to no neuronal cell bodies, implying that tau aggregates can indeed traverse along axons. Finally, we isolated cytosolic and synaptosome fractions along the Braak Tau Pathway from brains of varying Braak stages. Phosphorylated and seed competent tau was significantly enriched in the synaptic fraction of brain regions that did not have extensive cellular tau

  11. Opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome: Correlation of radiographic and pathological observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuchman, R.F.; Alvarez, L.A.

    1989-01-01

    We report a case of a child with opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome. Neuroradiological studies indicated a lesion in the cerebellar vermis. A cerebellar biopsy revealed changes consisting of Purkinje and granular cell loss with gliosis. This case report documents the correlation of radiologic and pathological findings in a patient with opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome. (orig.)

  12. Ultrastructural nasal pathology in children chronically and sequentially exposed to air pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, L; Valencia-Salazar, G; Rodríguez-Alcaraz, A; Gambling, T M; García, R; Osnaya, N; Villarreal-Calderón, A; Devlin, R B; Carson, J L

    2001-02-01

    Southwest Metropolitan Mexico City (SWMMC) children are repeatedly exposed to a complex mixture of air pollutants, including ozone, particulate matter, and aldehydes. Nasal biopsies taken from these children exhibit a wide range of histopathologic alterations: marked changes in ciliated and goblet cell populations, basal cell hyperplasia, squamous metaplasia, and mild dysplasias. We studied the ultrastructural features of 15 nasal biopsies obtained from clinically healthy children 4 to 15 yr of age, growing up in SWMMC. The results were compared with nasal biopsies from 11 children growing up in Veracruz and exposed to low pollutant levels. Ultrathin sections of nasal biopsies revealed an unremarkable mucociliary epithelium in control children, whereas SWMMC children showed an epithelium comprised of variable numbers of basal, ciliated, goblet, and squamous metaplastic as well as intermediate cells. Nascent ciliated cells, as evidenced by the presence of migratory kinetosomes, were common, as were ciliary abnormalities, including absent central microtubules, supernumerary central and peripheral tubules, ciliary microtubular discontinuities, and compound cilia. Dyskinesia associated with these abnormal cilia was suggested by the altered orientation of the central microtubules in closely adjacent cilia. A transudate was evident between epithelial cells, suggesting potential deficiencies in epithelial junction integrity. Particulate matter was present in heterolysosomal bodies in epithelial cells and it was also deposited in intercellular spaces. The severe structural alteration of the nasal epithelium together with the prominent acquired ciliary defects are likely the result of chronic airway injury in which ozone, particulate matter, and aldehydes are thought to play a crucial role. The nasal epithelium in SWMMC children is fundamentally disordered, and their mucociliary defense mechanisms are no longer intact. A compromised nasal epithelium has less ability to

  13. High Volume Washing of the Abdomen in Increasing Survival After Surgery in Patients With Pancreatic Cancer That Can Be Removed by Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-25

    Acinar Cell Carcinoma; Ampulla of Vater Adenocarcinoma; Cholangiocarcinoma; Duodenal Adenocarcinoma; Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma; Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma; Pancreatic Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Neoplasm, Pancreatobiliary-Type; Periampullary Adenocarcinoma

  14. Meningioangiomatosis: MR imaging and pathological correlation in two cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, W.-Y.; Kim, W.S.; Cheon, J.-E.; Yeon, K.M.; Kim, I.-O.

    2002-01-01

    Meningioangiomatosis is a rare, benign neoplastic disorder involving the cortex and leptomeninges. The pathological findings are characterised by proliferation of meningothelial cells and leptomeningeal vessels and calcifications within the mass. We experienced two cases of pathologically confirmed meningioangiomatosis, one as a solitary cortical mass with calcification and the other as a cortical lesion manifested as extensive intracranial haemorrhage. On MRI, the first case showed an isointense cortical mass in the left frontal lobe and homogeneous enhancement on the contrast-enhanced study. The second case showed a target-like lesion with a peripheral dark signal rim on T2-weighted images accompanied by extensive haemorrhage in the adjacent frontal lobe and lateral ventricles. (orig.)

  15. Cellular retinoic acid bioavailability in various pathologies and its therapeutic implication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osanai, Makoto

    2017-06-01

    Retinoic acid (RA), an active metabolite of vitamin A, is a critical signaling molecule in various cell types. We found that RA depletion caused by expression of the RA-metabolizing enzyme CYP26A1 promotes carcinogenesis, implicating CYP26A1 as a candidate oncogene. Several studies of CYP26s have suggested that the biological effect of RA on target cells is primarily determined by "cellular RA bioavailability", which is defined as the RA level in an individual cell, rather than by the serum concentration of RA. Consistently, stellate cells store approximately 80% of vitamin A in the body, and the state of cellular RA bioavailability regulates their function. Based on the similarities between stellate cells and astrocytes, we demonstrated that retinal astrocytes regulate tight junction-based endothelial integrity in a paracrine manner. Since diabetic retinopathy is characterized by increased vascular permeability in its early pathogenesis, RA normalized retinal astrocytes that are compromised in diabetes, resulting in suppression of vascular leakiness. RA also attenuated the loss of the epithelial barrier in murine experimental colitis. The concept of "cellular RA bioavailability" in various diseases will be directed at understanding various pathologies caused by RA insufficiency, implying the potential feasibility of a therapeutic strategy targeting the stellate cell system. © 2017 Japanese Society of Pathology and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  16. Gastric schwannomas: radiological features with endoscopic and pathological correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, H.S. [Department of Radiology, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seodaemoon-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ha, H.K. [Department of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Songpa-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: hkha@amc.seoul.kr; Won, H.J.; Byun, J.H.; Shin, Y.M.; Kim, A.Y.; Kim, P.N.; Lee, M.-G. [Department of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Songpa-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, G.H. [Internal Medicine, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Songpa-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, M.J. [Pathology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Songpa-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-05-15

    Aim: To describe the radiological, endoscopic, and pathological findings of gastric schwannomas in 16 patients. Materials and methods: The radiological, endoscopic, and pathological findings of 16 surgically proven cases of gastric schwannoma were retrospectively reviewed. All patients underwent computed tomography (CT) and four patients were evaluated with upper gastrointestinal series. Two radiologists reviewed the CT and upper gastrointestinal series images by consensus with regard to tumour size, contour, margin, and growth pattern, the presence or absence of ulcer, cystic change, and the CT enhancement pattern. Endoscopy was performed in eight of these 16 patients. Six patients underwent endoscopic ultrasonography. Pathological specimens were obtained from and reviewed in all 16 patients. Immunohistochemistry was performed for c-kit, CD34, smooth muscle actin, and S-100 protein. Results: On radiographic examination, gastric schwannomas appeared as submucosal tumours with the CT features of well-demarcated, homogeneous, and uncommonly ulcerated masses. Endoscopy with endoscopic ultrasonography demonstrated homogeneous, submucosal masses contiguous with the muscularis propria in all six examined cases. On pathological examination, gastric schwannomas appeared as well-circumscribed and homogeneous tumours in the muscularis propria and consisted microscopically of interlacing bundles of spindle cells. Strong positivity for S-100 protein was demonstrated in all 16 cases on immunohistochemistry. Conclusion: Gastric schwannomas appear as submucosal tumours of the stomach and have well-demarcated and homogeneous features on CT, endoscopic ultrasonography, and gross pathology. Immunohistochemistry consistently reveals positivity for S-100 protein in the tumours.

  17. Gastric schwannomas: radiological features with endoscopic and pathological correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, H.S.; Ha, H.K.; Won, H.J.; Byun, J.H.; Shin, Y.M.; Kim, A.Y.; Kim, P.N.; Lee, M.-G.; Lee, G.H.; Kim, M.J.

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To describe the radiological, endoscopic, and pathological findings of gastric schwannomas in 16 patients. Materials and methods: The radiological, endoscopic, and pathological findings of 16 surgically proven cases of gastric schwannoma were retrospectively reviewed. All patients underwent computed tomography (CT) and four patients were evaluated with upper gastrointestinal series. Two radiologists reviewed the CT and upper gastrointestinal series images by consensus with regard to tumour size, contour, margin, and growth pattern, the presence or absence of ulcer, cystic change, and the CT enhancement pattern. Endoscopy was performed in eight of these 16 patients. Six patients underwent endoscopic ultrasonography. Pathological specimens were obtained from and reviewed in all 16 patients. Immunohistochemistry was performed for c-kit, CD34, smooth muscle actin, and S-100 protein. Results: On radiographic examination, gastric schwannomas appeared as submucosal tumours with the CT features of well-demarcated, homogeneous, and uncommonly ulcerated masses. Endoscopy with endoscopic ultrasonography demonstrated homogeneous, submucosal masses contiguous with the muscularis propria in all six examined cases. On pathological examination, gastric schwannomas appeared as well-circumscribed and homogeneous tumours in the muscularis propria and consisted microscopically of interlacing bundles of spindle cells. Strong positivity for S-100 protein was demonstrated in all 16 cases on immunohistochemistry. Conclusion: Gastric schwannomas appear as submucosal tumours of the stomach and have well-demarcated and homogeneous features on CT, endoscopic ultrasonography, and gross pathology. Immunohistochemistry consistently reveals positivity for S-100 protein in the tumours

  18. Interictal psychosis following temporal lobe surgery: dentate gyrus pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thom, M; Kensche, M; Maynard, J; Liu, J; Reeves, C; Goc, J; Marsdon, D; Fluegel, D; Foong, J

    2014-10-01

    De novo interictal psychosis, albeit uncommon, can develop in patients following temporal lobe surgery for epilepsy. Pathological alterations of the dentate gyrus, including cytoarchitectural changes, immaturity and axonal reorganization that occur in epilepsy, may also underpin co-morbid psychiatric disorders. Our aim was to study candidate pathways that may be associated with the development of interictal psychosis post-operatively in patients with hippocampal sclerosis (HS). A total of 11 patients with HS who developed interictal psychosis (HS-P) post-operatively were compared with a matched surgical HS group without psychosis (HS-NP). Resected tissues were investigated for the extent of granule cell dispersion, mossy fibre sprouting and calbindin expression in the granule cells. We quantified doublecortin, mini-chromosome maintenance protein 2 (MCM2) and reelin-expressing neuronal populations in the dentate gyrus as well as the distribution of cannabinoid type 1 receptor (CBR1). The patterns of neuronal loss and gliosis were similar in both groups. HS-P patients demonstrated less mossy fibre sprouting and granule cell dispersion (p gyrus pathology found in HS-P patients could indicate underlying differences in the cellular response to seizures. These mechanisms may predispose to the development of psychosis in epilepsy and warrant further investigation.

  19. Interleukin-21 receptor deficiency increases the initial toll-like receptor 2 response but protects against joint pathology by reducing Th1 and Th17 cells during streptococcal cell wall arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marijnissen, Renoud J; Roeleveld, Debbie M; Young, Deborah; Nickerson-Nutter, Cheryl; Abdollahi-Roodsaz, Shahla; Garcia de Aquino, Sabrina; van de Loo, Fons A J; van Spriel, Annemiek B; Boots, Annemieke M H; van den Berg, Wim B; Koenders, Marije I

    2014-04-01

    The cytokine interleukin-21 (IL-21) can have both proinflammatory and immunosuppressive effects. The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential dual role of IL-21 in experimental arthritis in relation to Th17 cells. Antigen-induced arthritis (AIA) and chronic streptococcal cell wall (SCW) arthritis were induced in IL-21 receptor-deficient (IL-21R(-/-) ) and wild-type mice. Knee joints, synovial tissue, and serum were analyzed for arthritis pathology and inflammatory markers. During AIA and chronic SCW arthritis, IL-21R deficiency protected against severe inflammation and joint destruction. This was accompanied by suppressed serum IgG1 levels and antigen-specific T cell responses. Levels of IL-17 were reduced during AIA, and synovial lymphocytes isolated during SCW arthritis for flow cytometry demonstrated that mainly IL-17+ interferon-γ (IFNγ)-positive T cells were reduced in IL-21R(-/-) mice. However, during the acute phases of SCW arthritis, significantly higher joint swelling scores were observed, consistent with enhanced tumor necrosis factor and IL-6 expression. Interestingly, IL-21R(-/-) mice were significantly less capable of up-regulating suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS-1) and SOCS-3 messenger RNA. IL-21 stimulation also affected the Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR-2)/caspase recruitment domain 15 response to SCW fragments in vitro, indicating that impaired SOCS regulation in the absence of IL-21 signaling might contribute to the increased local activation during SCW arthritis. In contrast to the proinflammatory role of IL-21 in adaptive immunity, which drives IL-17+IFN+ cells and joint pathology during chronic experimental arthritis, IL-21 also has an important immunosuppressive role, presumably by inhibiting TLR signaling via SOCS-1 and SOCS-3. If this dual role of IL-21 in various immune processes is present in human disease, it could make IL-21 a difficult therapeutic target in rheumatoid arthritis. Copyright © 2014 by the American

  20. CD147 expression predicts biochemical recurrence after prostatectomy independent of histologic and pathologic features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauman, Tyler M.; Ewald, Jonathan A.; Huang, Wei; Ricke, William A.

    2015-01-01

    CD147 is an MMP-inducing protein often implicated in cancer progression. The purpose of this study was to investigate the expression of CD147 in prostate cancer (PCa) progression and the prognostic ability of CD147 in predicting biochemical recurrence after prostatectomy. Plasma membrane-localized CD147 protein expression was quantified in patient samples using immunohistochemistry and multispectral imaging, and expression was compared to clinico-pathological features (pathologic stage, Gleason score, tumor volume, preoperative PSA, lymph node status, surgical margins, biochemical recurrence status). CD147 specificity and expression were confirmed with immunoblotting of prostate cell lines, and CD147 mRNA expression was evaluated in public expression microarray datasets of patient prostate tumors. Expression of CD147 protein was significantly decreased in localized tumors (pT2; p = 0.02) and aggressive PCa (≥pT3; p = 0.004), and metastases (p = 0.001) compared to benign prostatic tissue. Decreased CD147 was associated with advanced pathologic stage (p = 0.009) and high Gleason score (p = 0.02), and low CD147 expression predicted biochemical recurrence (HR 0.55; 95 % CI 0.31–0.97; p = 0.04) independent of clinico-pathologic features. Immunoblot bands were detected at 44 kDa and 66 kDa, representing non-glycosylated and glycosylated forms of CD147 protein, and CD147 expression was lower in tumorigenic T10 cells than non-tumorigenic BPH-1 cells (p = 0.02). Decreased CD147 mRNA expression was associated with increased Gleason score and pathologic stage in patient tumors but is not associated with recurrence status. Membrane-associated CD147 expression is significantly decreased in PCa compared to non-malignant prostate tissue and is associated with tumor progression, and low CD147 expression predicts biochemical recurrence after prostatectomy independent of pathologic stage, Gleason score, lymph node status, surgical margins, and tumor volume in multivariable

  1. Spindle cell oncocytoma of adenohypophysis: Cytogenetics and β-catenin findings with pathology differential diagnosis and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianwu Xie

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Spindle cell oncocytoma (SCO is an extremely rare neoplasm arising in the anterior pituitary. We report comprehensive pathological description of a case of SCO in a 60 year-old male who presented with nausea, vomiting and severe hyponatremia, and pan hypopituitarism. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI showed a 3.1 × 2.3 × 2.0 cm homogeneously enhancing bilobed mass within the sella turcica and suprasellar cistern. Intraoperative frozen section and touch imprint cytology showed cohesive spindle cells with abundant oncocytic cytoplasm. Histologic sections revealed the tumor was composed of interlacing fascicles of compact spindled cells with abundant dense oncocytic cytoplasm. There was no mitosis or necrosis present. Ki-67 index varied in areas, with an average of 3%. By immunohistochemistry (IHC, the tumor cells were negative for Cam5.2, AE1/3, neurofilament (NF, NeuN, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP and synaptophysin, and strongly positive for vimentin, TTF-1 and EMA. S-100 showed focal weakly positivity. By electron microscopy (EM, the cytoplasm of the spindle cells contained numerous abundant, back-to-back, uniform, round, normal-sized mitochondria with long and lamellar cristae. Beta-catenin showed diffuse membranous and partial cytoplasmic positivity. Cytogenetic analysis showed extra copies of chromosome 1 (74%, up to 8 copies, and loss of chromosome 2 (35%. The histogenesis, classification and differential diagnosis are discussed.

  2. Pathologic correlation to internal echogenicity of atypical breast fibroadenoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Nariya; Oh, Ki Keun; Kwon, Ryang; Han, Jae Ho; Jung, Woo Hee; Lee, Hy De

    1998-01-01

    To understand the cause of a typical sonographic findings by analyzing their pathologic correlation to internal echogenicity of breast fibroadenoma. Materials and Methods : Between January 1995 and April 1997, the presence of 91 fibroadenomas in 81 patients was histopathologically proven. These mass lesions were sonographically interpreted and their descriptive criteria-internal echo content (both strength and homogeneity),the presence of septum, bilateral shadowing, and posterior echo pattern-were tabulated. A pathologist reviewed each case and independently recorded the following data : cell type, the presence of septum, duct dilatation,calcification, fibrosis, hyalinization, and vascularity. We analyzed the correlation of sonographic with pathologic findings. Results : There was significant correlation between increased vascularity and increased internal echo strength and between increased fibrosis and decreased internal echo strength. There was no significant correlation between internal echo homogeneity or posterior shadowing and vascularity or stromal fibrosis, nor between hyalinization or cell type and internal echo strength, homogeneity or posterior shadowing.There was correlation between absent or thin capsule and the absence of bilateral shadowing. Conclusion :Increased vascularity or decreased stromal fibrosis might be the cause of atypical fibroadenoma

  3. Pathologic correlation to internal echogenicity of atypical breast fibroadenoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Nariya; Oh, Ki Keun; Kwon, Ryang; Han, Jae Ho; Jung, Woo Hee; Lee, Hy De [Yonsei Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-07-01

    To understand the cause of a typical sonographic findings by analyzing their pathologic correlation to internal echogenicity of breast fibroadenoma. Materials and Methods : Between January 1995 and April 1997, the presence of 91 fibroadenomas in 81 patients was histopathologically proven. These mass lesions were sonographically interpreted and their descriptive criteria-internal echo content (both strength and homogeneity),the presence of septum, bilateral shadowing, and posterior echo pattern-were tabulated. A pathologist reviewed each case and independently recorded the following data : cell type, the presence of septum, duct dilatation,calcification, fibrosis, hyalinization, and vascularity. We analyzed the correlation of sonographic with pathologic findings. Results : There was significant correlation between increased vascularity and increased internal echo strength and between increased fibrosis and decreased internal echo strength. There was no significant correlation between internal echo homogeneity or posterior shadowing and vascularity or stromal fibrosis, nor between hyalinization or cell type and internal echo strength, homogeneity or posterior shadowing.There was correlation between absent or thin capsule and the absence of bilateral shadowing. Conclusion :Increased vascularity or decreased stromal fibrosis might be the cause of atypical fibroadenoma.

  4. Pathology of mitochondria in MELAS syndrome: an ultrastructural study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felczak, Paulina; Lewandowska, Eliza; Stępniak, Iwona; Ołdak, Monika; Pollak, Agnieszka; Lechowicz, Urszula; Pasennik, Elżbieta; Stępień, Tomasz; Wierzba-Bobrowicz, Teresa

    Ultrastructural changes in skeletal muscle biopsy in a 24-year-old female patient with clinically suspected mitochondrial encephalomyopathy lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) syndrome are presented. We observed proliferation and/or pleomorphism of mitochondria in skeletal muscle and smooth muscle cells of arterioles, as well as in pericytes of capillaries. Paracrystalline inclusions were found only in damaged mitochondria of skeletal muscle. Genetic testing revealed a point mutation in A3243G tRNALeu(UUR) typical for MELAS syndrome. We conclude that differentiated pathological changes of mitochondria in the studied types of cells may be associated with the different energy requirements of these cells.

  5. Evaluation of gross tumor size using CT, 18F-FDG PET, integrated 18F-FDG PET/CT and pathological analysis in non-small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Huiming; Liu Yunfang; Hou Ming; Liu Jie; Li Xiaonan; Yu Jinming

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The correlation of gross tumor sizes between combined 18 F-FDG PET/CT images and macroscopic surgical samples has not yet been studied in detail. In the present study, we compared CT, 18 F-FDG PET and combined 18 F-FDG PET/CT for the delineation of gross tumor volume (GTV) and validated the results through examination of the macroscopic surgical specimen. Methods: Fifty-two operable non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients had integrated 18 F-FDG PET/CT scans preoperatively and pathological examination post-operation. Four separate maximal tumor sizes at X (lateral direction), Y (ventro-dorsal direction) and Z (cranio-caudal direction) axis were measured on 18 F-FDG PET, CT, combined 18 F-FDG PET/CT and surgical specimen, respectively. Linear regression was calculated for each of the three imaging measurements versus pathological measurement. Results: No significant differences were observed among the tumor sizes measured by three images and pathological method. Compared with pathological measurement, CT size at X, Y, Z axis was larger, whereas combined 18 F-FDG PET/CT and 18 F-FDG PET size were smaller. Combined 18 F-FDG PET/CT size was more similar to the pathological size than that of 18 F-FDG PET or CT. Results of linear regressions showed that integrated 18 F-FDG PET/CT was the most accurate modality in measuring the size of cancer. Conclusions: 18 F-FDG PET/CT correlates more faithfully with pathological findings than 18 F-FDG PET or CT. Integrated 18 F-FDG PET/CT is an effective tool to define the target of GTV in radiotherapy.

  6. CD8+ T Cells Induce Fatal Brainstem Pathology during Cerebral Malaria via Luminal Antigen-Specific Engagement of Brain Vasculature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip A Swanson

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral malaria (CM is a severe complication of Plasmodium falciparum infection that results in thousands of deaths each year, mostly in African children. The in vivo mechanisms underlying this fatal condition are not entirely understood. Using the animal model of experimental cerebral malaria (ECM, we sought mechanistic insights into the pathogenesis of CM. Fatal disease was associated with alterations in tight junction proteins, vascular breakdown in the meninges / parenchyma, edema, and ultimately neuronal cell death in the brainstem, which is consistent with cerebral herniation as a cause of death. At the peak of ECM, we revealed using intravital two-photon microscopy that myelomonocytic cells and parasite-specific CD8+ T cells associated primarily with the luminal surface of CNS blood vessels. Myelomonocytic cells participated in the removal of parasitized red blood cells (pRBCs from cerebral blood vessels, but were not required for the disease. Interestingly, the majority of disease-inducing parasite-specific CD8+ T cells interacted with the lumen of brain vascular endothelial cells (ECs, where they were observed surveying, dividing, and arresting in a cognate peptide-MHC I dependent manner. These activities were critically dependent on IFN-γ, which was responsible for activating cerebrovascular ECs to upregulate adhesion and antigen-presenting molecules. Importantly, parasite-specific CD8+ T cell interactions with cerebral vessels were impaired in chimeric mice rendered unable to present EC antigens on MHC I, and these mice were in turn resistant to fatal brainstem pathology. Moreover, anti-adhesion molecule (LFA-1 / VLA-4 therapy prevented fatal disease by rapidly displacing luminal CD8+ T cells from cerebrovascular ECs without affecting extravascular T cells. These in vivo data demonstrate that parasite-specific CD8+ T cell-induced fatal vascular breakdown and subsequent neuronal death during ECM is associated with luminal, antigen

  7. Studies of rhodamine-123: effect on rat prostate cancer and human prostate cancer cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcadi, J A; Narayan, K S; Techy, G; Ng, C P; Saroufeem, R M; Jones, L W

    1995-06-01

    The effect of the lipophilic, cationic dye, Rhodamine-123 (Rh-123), on prostate cancer in rats, and on three tumor cell lines in vitro is reported here. The general toxicity of Rh-123 in mice has been found to be minimal. Lobund-Wistar (L-W) rats with the autochthonous prostate cancer of Pollard were treated for six doses with Rh-123 at a dose of 15 mg/kg subcutaneously every other day. Microscopic examination of the tumors revealed cellular and acinar destruction. The effectiveness of Rh-123 as a cytotoxic agent was tested by clonogenic and viability assays in vitro with three human prostate cancer cell lines. Severe (60-95%) growth inhibition was observed following Rh-123 exposure for 2-5 days at doses as low as 1.6 micrograms/ml in all three prostate cancer cell lines.

  8. Cardiac pathological changes of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) affected with heart and skeletal muscle inflammation (HSMI)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yousaf, Muhammad Naveed; Koppang, Erling Olaf; Skjødt, Karsten

    2012-01-01

    Heart and skeletal muscle inflammation (HSMI) is a disease of marine farmed Atlantic salmon where the pathological changes associated with the disease involve necrosis and an infiltration of inflammatory cells into different regions of the heart and skeletal muscle. The aim of this work...... with the cardiac pathology consisted of mainly CD3(+) T lymphocytes, moderate numbers of macrophages and eosinophilic granulocytes. Proliferative cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) immuno-reaction identified significantly increased nuclear and cytoplasmic staining as well as identifying hypertrophic nuclei. Strong...

  9. Pathology of the vestibulocochlear nerve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Foer, Bert [Department of Radiology, Sint-Augustinus Hospital, Oosterveldlaan 24, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium)], E-mail: bert.defoer@GZA.be; Kenis, Christoph [Department of Radiology, Sint-Augustinus Hospital, Oosterveldlaan 24, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium)], E-mail: christophkenis@hotmail.com; Van Melkebeke, Deborah [Department of Neurology, Sint-Augustinus Hospital, Oosterveldlaan 24, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium)], E-mail: Deborah.vanmelkebeke@Ugent.be; Vercruysse, Jean-Philippe [University Department of ENT, Sint-Augustinus Hospital, Oosterveldlaan 24, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium)], E-mail: jphver@yahoo.com; Somers, Thomas [University Department of ENT, Sint-Augustinus Hospital, Oosterveldlaan 24, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium)], E-mail: Thomas.somers@GZA.be; Pouillon, Marc [Department of Radiology, Sint-Augustinus Hospital, Oosterveldlaan 24, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium)], E-mail: marc.pouillon@GZA.be; Offeciers, Erwin [University Department of ENT, Sint-Augustinus Hospital, Oosterveldlaan 24, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium)], E-mail: Erwin.offeciers@GZA.be; Casselman, Jan W. [Department of Radiology, AZ Sint-Jan AV Hospital, Ruddershove 10, Bruges (Belgium); Consultant Radiologist, Sint-Augustinus Hospital, Oosterveldlaan 24, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Academic Consultent, University of Ghent (Belgium)], E-mail: jan.casselman@azbrugge.be

    2010-05-15

    There is a large scala of pathology affecting the vestibulocochlear nerve. Magnetic resonance imaging is the method of choice for the investigation of pathology of the vestibulocochlear nerve. Congenital pathology mainly consists of agenesis or hypoplasia of the vestibulocochlear nerve. Tumoral pathology affecting the vestibulocochlear nerve is most frequently located in the internal auditory canal or cerebellopontine angle. Schwannoma of the vestibulocochlear nerve is the most frequently found tumoral lesion followed by meningeoma, arachnoid cyst and epidermoid cyst. The most frequently encountered pathologies as well as some more rare entities are discussed in this chapter.

  10. Pathology of the vestibulocochlear nerve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Foer, Bert; Kenis, Christoph; Van Melkebeke, Deborah; Vercruysse, Jean-Philippe; Somers, Thomas; Pouillon, Marc; Offeciers, Erwin; Casselman, Jan W.

    2010-01-01

    There is a large scala of pathology affecting the vestibulocochlear nerve. Magnetic resonance imaging is the method of choice for the investigation of pathology of the vestibulocochlear nerve. Congenital pathology mainly consists of agenesis or hypoplasia of the vestibulocochlear nerve. Tumoral pathology affecting the vestibulocochlear nerve is most frequently located in the internal auditory canal or cerebellopontine angle. Schwannoma of the vestibulocochlear nerve is the most frequently found tumoral lesion followed by meningeoma, arachnoid cyst and epidermoid cyst. The most frequently encountered pathologies as well as some more rare entities are discussed in this chapter.

  11. Digital pathology in nephrology clinical trials, research, and pathology practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barisoni, Laura; Hodgin, Jeffrey B

    2017-11-01

    In this review, we will discuss (i) how the recent advancements in digital technology and computational engineering are currently applied to nephropathology in the setting of clinical research, trials, and practice; (ii) the benefits of the new digital environment; (iii) how recognizing its challenges provides opportunities for transformation; and (iv) nephropathology in the upcoming era of kidney precision and predictive medicine. Recent studies highlighted how new standardized protocols facilitate the harmonization of digital pathology database infrastructure and morphologic, morphometric, and computer-aided quantitative analyses. Digital pathology enables robust protocols for clinical trials and research, with the potential to identify previously underused or unrecognized clinically useful parameters. The integration of digital pathology with molecular signatures is leading the way to establishing clinically relevant morpho-omic taxonomies of renal diseases. The introduction of digital pathology in clinical research and trials, and the progressive implementation of the modern software ecosystem, opens opportunities for the development of new predictive diagnostic paradigms and computer-aided algorithms, transforming the practice of renal disease into a modern computational science.

  12. [Adolescent pathological gambling].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, A; Karila, L; Lejoyeux, M

    2015-05-01

    Although experts have long thought that the problems of gambling involved only adults, recent studies tend to show that teenagers are also affected. The objective of this paper is to show the characteristics of pathological gambling in adolescents. This review focuses on the clinical features, prevalence, psychopathology, prevention and treatment of this disorder. A review of the medical literature was conducted, using PubMed, using the following keywords alone or combined: pathological gambling, dependence, addiction and adolescents. We selected 12 English articles from 1997 to 2014. Recent work estimate that between 4 and 8% of adolescents suffer from problem gambling, and the prevalence of pathological gambling is 2-4 times higher in adolescents than in adults. The term adolescent pathological gambler starts early around the age of 10-12 years, with a quick change of status from casual to that of problem gambler and player. Complications appear quickly and comorbidities are common. There is no curative pharmacological treatment approved by health authorities. Pathological gambling among adolescents has grown significantly in recent years and should be promptly taken care of. Further studies must be performed to improve our understanding of this problem among adolescents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Future-proofing pathology: the case for clinical adoption of digital pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Bethany Jill; Bottoms, David; Treanor, Darren

    2017-12-01

    This document clarifies the strategic context of digital pathology adoption, defines the different use cases a healthcare provider may wish to consider as part of a digital adoption and summarises existing reasons for digital adoption and its potential benefits. The reader is provided with references to the relevant literature, and illustrative case studies. The authors hope this report will be of interest to healthcare providers, pathology managers, departmental heads, pathologists and biomedical scientists that are considering digital pathology, deployments or preparing business cases for digital pathology adoption in clinical settings. The information contained in this document can be shared and used in any documentation the reader wishes to present for their own institutional case for adoption report or business case. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  14. Next-Generation Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caie, Peter D; Harrison, David J

    2016-01-01

    The field of pathology is rapidly transforming from a semiquantitative and empirical science toward a big data discipline. Large data sets from across multiple omics fields may now be extracted from a patient's tissue sample. Tissue is, however, complex, heterogeneous, and prone to artifact. A reductionist view of tissue and disease progression, which does not take this complexity into account, may lead to single biomarkers failing in clinical trials. The integration of standardized multi-omics big data and the retention of valuable information on spatial heterogeneity are imperative to model complex disease mechanisms. Mathematical modeling through systems pathology approaches is the ideal medium to distill the significant information from these large, multi-parametric, and hierarchical data sets. Systems pathology may also predict the dynamical response of disease progression or response to therapy regimens from a static tissue sample. Next-generation pathology will incorporate big data with systems medicine in order to personalize clinical practice for both prognostic and predictive patient care.

  15. The normal and pathologic renal medulla: a comprehensive overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, José I; Larrinaga, Gorka; Kuroda, Naoto; Angulo, Javier C

    2015-04-01

    The renal medulla comprises an intricate system of tubules, blood vessels and interstitium that is not well understood by most general pathologists. We conducted an extensive review of the literature on the renal medulla, in both normal and pathologic conditions. We set out in detail the points of key interest to pathologists: normal and pathological development, physiology, microscopic anatomy, histology and immunohistochemistry; and the specific and most common other types of disease associated with this part of the kidney: developmental abnormalities, (multicystic dysplastic kidney, autosomal dominant and recessive polycystic kidney diseases, medullary cystic kidney disease), inflammatory conditions (xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis, malakoplakia), hyperplasia and dysplasia, and neoplastic processes (oncocytoma, atypical oncocytic tumors, chromophobe cell carcinoma, collecting duct carcinoma, urothelial carcinoma, other carcinomas, renal medullary fibroma and metastatic tumors). This condensed overview of the origin, function and pathology of the renal medulla, both in terms of development, inflammation and neoplastic processes, should help focus the interest of clinical pathologists on this widely overlooked part of the kidney. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Oxidative stress promotes pathologic polyploidization in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentric, Géraldine; Maillet, Vanessa; Paradis, Valérie; Couton, Dominique; L'Hermitte, Antoine; Panasyuk, Ganna; Fromenty, Bernard; Celton-Morizur, Séverine; Desdouets, Chantal

    2015-03-02

    Polyploidization is one of the most dramatic changes that can occur in the genome. In the liver, physiological polyploidization events occur during both liver development and throughout adult life. Here, we determined that a pathological polyploidization takes place in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), a widespread hepatic metabolic disorder that is believed to be a risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In murine models of NAFLD, the parenchyma of fatty livers displayed alterations of the polyploidization process, including the presence of a large proportion of highly polyploid mononuclear cells, which are rarely observed in normal hepatic parenchyma. Biopsies from patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) revealed the presence of alterations in hepatocyte ploidy compared with tissue from control individuals. Hepatocytes from NAFLD mice revealed that progression through the S/G2 phases of the cell cycle was inefficient. This alteration was associated with activation of a G2/M DNA damage checkpoint, which prevented activation of the cyclin B1/CDK1 complex. Furthermore, we determined that oxidative stress promotes the appearance of highly polyploid cells, and antioxidant-treated NAFLD hepatocytes resumed normal cell division and returned to a physiological state of polyploidy. Collectively, these findings indicate that oxidative stress promotes pathological polyploidization and suggest that this is an early event in NAFLD that may contribute to HCC development.

  17. Impaired growth of pancreatic exocrine cells in transgenic mice expressing human activin βE subunit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Osamu; Ushiro, Yuuki; Sekiyama, Kazunari; Yamaguchi, Osamu; Yoshioka, Kazuki; Mutoh, Ken-Ichiro; Hasegawa, Yoshihisa

    2006-01-01

    Activins, TGF-β superfamily members, have multiple functions in a variety of cells and tissues. Recently, additional activin β subunit genes, βC and βE, have been identified. To explore the role of activin E, we created transgenic mice overexpressing human activin βE subunit. There were pronounced differences in the pancreata of the transgenic animals as compared with their wild-type counterparts. Pancreatic weight, expressed relative to total body weight, was significantly reduced. Histologically, adipose replacement of acini in the exocrine pancreas was observed. There was a significant decrease in the number of PCNA-positive cells in the acinar cells, indicating reduced proliferation in the exocrine pancreas of the transgenic mice. However, quantitative pancreatic morphometry showed that the total number and mass of the islets of the transgenic mice were comparable with those of the nontransgenic control mice. Our findings suggest a role for activin E in regulating the proliferation of pancreatic exocrine cells

  18. Correlation between radiological and pathological findings in patients with Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi eTanaka

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Studies focused on the pathological-radiological correlation of human Mycoplasma (M pneumoniae pneumonia have rarely been reported. Therefore, we extensively reviewed the literature regarding pathological and radiological studies of Mycoplasma pneumonia, and compared findings between open lung biopsy specimen and computed tomography (CT. Major three correlations were summarized. 1 Peribronchial and perivascular cuffing characterized by mononuclear cells infiltration was correlated with bronchovascular bundles thickening on CT, which was the most common finding of this pneumonia. 2 Cellular bronchitis in the small airways accompanied with exudates or granulation tissue in the lumen revealed as centrilobular nodules on CT. 3 Neutrophils and exudates in the alveolar lumen radiologically demonstrated as air-apace consolidation or ground-glass opacities. In M.pulmonis-infected mice model, pathologic patterns are strikingly different according to host cell-mediated immunity (CMI levels; treatment with interleukin-2 lead to marked cellular bronchitis in the small airways and treatment with prednisolone or cyclosporin-A lead to neutrophils and exudates in the alveolar lumen. Patients with centrilobular nodules predominant radiologic pattern have a high level of CMI, measuring by tuberculin skin test. From these findings, up-regulation of host CMI could change radiological pattern to centrilobular nodules predominant, on the other hand down-regulation of host CMI would change radiological pattern to ground-glass opacity and consolidation. It was suggested the pathological features of M. pneumoniae pneumonia may be altered by the level of host CMI.

  19. Pathological modifications of plant stem cell destiny

    Science.gov (United States)

    In higher plants, the shoot apex contains undifferentiated stem cells that give rise to various tissues and organs. The fate of these stem cells determines the pattern of plant growth as well as reproduction; and such fate is genetically preprogrammed. We found that a bacterial infection can derai...

  20. Radiofrequency ablation of rabbit liver. Correlation between dual CT findings and pathological findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuda, Masashi; Rikimaru, Yuya; Saito, Haruo; Ishibashi, Tadashi; Takahashi, Shyoki; Miyachi, Hideo; Yamada, Syogo

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to present the time-related imaging findings and correlative pathologic findings of radiofrequency pulse-irradiated regions of the liver. Radiofrequency (RF) ablation was performed in 22 rabbit livers with 15-gauge RF probes inserted percutaneously. Regions were imaged with dual-phase CT at 3 days (n=6), 2 weeks (n=6), 4 weeks (n=6), and 12 weeks (n=4) after RF ablation. At 3 days, the regions showed a two-zone structure on plain CT and peripheral enhancement. The regions presented a three-zone structure on pathological study. Hepatocytes appeared as acidophilic bodies, and nuclei were pyknotic at the inner necrotic zone. The middle whitish zone showed enlarged sinusoids. The marginal zone was a regenerative band. At 2 weeks, the two-zone structure was obscured on unenhanced CT. The region showed a two-zone structure on pathological study. At the inner zone, acidophilic degeneration had progressed, however, cell structure remained. The marginal zone showed fibrous tissue bundles. At 12 weeks, the region was obscured on plain CT. Nuclei and cell structures had disappeared almost completely at the inner zone. Collagen fiber had replaced the marginal zone. Zone structural CT findings reflect the pathological findings and time-related changes after RF ablation. Peripheral enhancement in the arterial phase reflects the granulation tissue layer, and its time-related decrease reflects replacement by fibrous tissue. (author)