WorldWideScience

Sample records for acidulants

  1. Effect of acidulants on the recovery of milk constituents and quality of Mozzarella processed cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seth, Karuna; Bajwa, Usha

    2015-03-01

    The investigation was undertaken to study the effect of acidulants on the recovery of milk constituents and composition of Mozzarella pre-cheese and physical, chemical and sensory characteristics and texture profile analysis (TPA) of processed cheese prepared there from. The pre-cheese was made by direct acidification technique using citric, acetic and lactic acid and processed with 1 % tri-sodium citrate. The acidulants significantly (p cheese. These also had a significant (p processed cheese.

  2. Corrosion behavior of zirconia in acidulated phosphate fluoride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anie Thomas

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective The corrosion behavior of zirconia in acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF representing acidic environments and fluoride treatments was studied. Material and Methods Zirconia rods were immersed in 1.23% and 0.123% APF solutions and maintained at 37°C for determined periods of time. Surfaces of all specimens were imaged using digital microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Sample mass and dimensions were measured for mass loss determination. Samples were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD to detect changes in crystallinity. A biosensor based on electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS was used to detect ion dissolution of material into the immersion media. Results Digital microscopy revealed diminishing luster of the materials and SEM showed increased superficial corrosion of zirconia submerged in 1.23% APF. Although no structural change was found, the absorption of salts (sodium phosphate onto the surface of the materials bathed in 0.123% APF was significant. EIS indicated a greater change of impedance for the immersion solutions with increasing bathing time. Conclusion Immersion of zirconia in APF solutions showed deterioration limited to the surface, not extending to the bulk of the material. Inferences on zirconia performance in acidic oral environment can be elucidated from the study.

  3. Agronomic Potential of Partially Acidulated Rock Phosphates in Acid Soils of Subtropical China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIONGLI-MING; B.TRUONG; 等

    1995-01-01

    A glasshouse experiment was conducted to evaluate the agronomic potential of four partially acidulated rock phosphates(PARP) in three representative solis sampled from subtripical China.The PARPs were manufactured by attacking a moderately reactive phosphate rock either with sulfuric acid alone or with combination of sulfuric and phosphoric acids at 30 or 60 percent of acidulation.Shoot dry weight and P accumulation of six successive cuttings of ryegrass were used to compare the agronomic potential of these fertilizers with that of the raw rock phosphate(RP) and monocalcium phosphate (MCP).Results indicated that the effectiveness of various phosphates was determined both by the solubility of the phosphates and by the acidity and P-fixing capacity of the soils.The higher the watersoluble P contained,the better the effectiveness of the fertilizer was.Although plant P accumulation of PARP treatments was constantly lower than that of MCP treatment,some PARPs could still get a dry matter production similar to that of MCP treatment.PARP SP60,which was acidulated with a mixture of sulfuric acid and phosphoric acid at 60 percent of acidulation and contained the highest soluble,P,was as effective as MCP in terms of dry matter production on all the soils.S60 and C1 which were both acidulated with sulfuric acid with the former at 60 percent of acidulation and the latter at 30 percent but with a further addition of monoammonium phosphate,were more than 80 percent as efective as MCP,Raw RP also showed a reasonable effectiveness which increased with soil acidity.It was suggested from the study that some of these APRPs could be expected to have a comparable field performance as soluble P fertilizers in the acid soil regions.

  4. Comparison of acidulated phosphate fluoride gel and hydrofluoric acid etchants for porcelain-composite repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tylka, D F; Stewart, G P

    1994-08-01

    Hydrofluoric acid etches porcelain to produce a porous surface visible under scanning electron microscopy when compared to an acidulated phosphate fluoride gel. Some investigators have suggested the greater porosity of the hydrofluoric acid etch produces a greater composite-to-porcelain bond. This investigation tested that assumption with two common fluoride etchants. The etched surfaces were first viewed under scanning electron microscopy to ensure that a characteristic etch was achieved. Both etchants yielded bond strengths that produced cohesive failure of all samples. This suggested that the intraoral use of hydrofluoric acid is no more effective than the less dangerous acidulated phosphate fluoride gel.

  5. Simultaneous analysis of acidulants and preservatives in food samples by using capillary zone electrophoresis with indirect UV detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Kenji; Saito, Shintaro; Sakuragawa, Akio

    2011-08-01

    Capillary zone electrophoresis with indirect UV detection was developed for the simultaneous analysis of acidulants and preservatives in food samples. When a solution of tris (hydroxymethyl) aminomethane, trimellitic acid and poly (vinyl alcohol) was used as the background electrolyte, the nine acidulants and four preservatives listed in the Japanese Food Sanitation Law were detected within 8min. The calibration curves plotted from the peak height of each analyte were linear with a correlation coefficient of 0.99. The relative standard deviations (n=10) of the peak height ranged from 1.2% to 4.7%. The detection limits for these species ranged from 0.6 to 5.3mg/L at a signal-to-noise ratio of three. The method developed method was applied to the simultaneous analysis of acidulants and preservatives in a wide variety of food samples.

  6. Acidulants for japanese quails housed at high stocking rates at finishing phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula de Oliveira Saccomani

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The quail for being an alternative species will be able to supply a new market niche due to its fast growth, high laying rate, low feed intake, in addition to the increase of the acceptance of its products by the consumer. A growing interest in raising the stocking rates in the cages as an alternative to increase the performance of the stock is noticed; although studies demonstrate that high densities can result into unfavorable environment to the birds’ welfare with alterations in the performance of the flocks and as a stressing factor being able to alter the production and profitability of the flock. At high stocking rates, the birds become predisposed to aggressiveness reactions, presenting cannibalism behavior, besides the combination of factors such as pH, temperature, ventilation and humidity deficiency which create environmental conditions favorable for certain benign bacteria which utilize uric acid of the manure through their enzymatic complexes and produce ammonia, causing stress to birds and which can cause damages to performance with significant economic losses to the producer.  The experiment with 112-day duration was conducted with the objective of evaluating the inclusion of acidulants in the Japanese quails’ drinking water and verifying the effect on the stocking rate in cages. A completely randomized design with four treatments (2 stocking rates of quails x 2 additions of and 5 replications of 24 and 36 birds per cage, corresponding to the stocking rates of 141.67 and 94.44 cm2/bird, respectively, receiving or not acidulant in the water (acetic, lactic and phosphoric acid was utilized. Performance was evaluated through egg weight (EWg, egg yield (%Laying., egg mass (EMg/bird/day, feed intake (FIg/bird/day, feed conversion (FCkg/dz and FCkg/kg and mortality (%Mort. No significant statistical differences about the performance (P>0.05 were found. There was a significant effect (P<0.05 of the density for daily feed intake with

  7. Water intake and digestive metabolism of broilers fed all-vegetable diets containing acidulated soybean soapstock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SL Vieira

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to compare live performance and digestive metabolism of broiler chickens fed all-vegetable diets (All-Veg compared to a regular diet including animal by-products. Three feeds were formulated and provided to broilers according to the feeding program: pre-starter from 1 to 10 days, starter from 11 to 21 days, and grower from 21 to 35 days. All feeds had corn and soybean meal as major ingredients; however, two of them were all-vegetable diets having either Degummed Soybean Oil (DSO or Acidulated Soybean Soapstock (ASS as fat sources. The third diet included poultry by-product and poultry fat. A total number of 360 day-old broiler chicks were allocated to 1m² battery cages, 10 chicks in each, and 12 replicates per treatment. Live performance was similar between groups of birds receiving the different diets with the exception of weight gain, which was increased for birds fed the All-Veg diet with ASS. Birds fed All-Veg diets had increased water intake and produced more excreta with a concurrent reduced feed metabolizability at both ages, regardless of fat source. Metabolizable Energy was not different for the three diets.

  8. Effect of Acidulated Phosphate Fluoride (APF on the Mcroleakage of Composite Flow and Fssure Sealant Restorations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Poorsattar Bejeh Mir

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: A large number of investigations have revealed that physical and chemical alterations and weight loss could occur in composite materials exposed to acidic phosphate fluoride (APF gel. The purpose of this study was to assess the microleakage of a fissure sealant and a flow composite exposed to acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF gel. Materials and Methods: In this in vitro study, 60 intact human extracted premolar teeth were used. After preparing the occlusal groove, the teeth were divided into two groups (n=30. Teeth were filled with either Helioseal fissure sealant (Vivadent, Germany or Tetric flow composite (Vivadent, Germany. After that, each group was divided into two subgroups (n=15: 1.23% APF gel (Sultan, U.S.A was applied in the case subgroups, while control subgroups were preserved in normal saline solution. All of teeth were covered with 2 layers of nail varnish except for the filling zone and 1mm around the border of filling. After submerging in 0.5% fushin solution, specimens were sectioned bucco-lingually. Then dye penetration through the filling and fissure sealant was assessed by means of a stereo-microscope. The depth of dye penetration was scored. The data were analyzed using One-way ANOVA and Levene test. Results: The mean values of dye penetration were 1.26±1.09, 1.4±1.05, 1.2±1.37, and 1.4±1.35 for fissure sealant+gel, composite+gel, composite+normal saline, and normal saline groups, respectively. No significant difference was found in inter-groups (P=0.96. Conclusion: Considering the result of the present research, APF gel had no significant effect on the microleakage of Tetric flow composite filling and Helioseal fissure sealant and thus, it can be applied for routine usage.

  9. Staining potential of acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF foam on dental restorations in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Lin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To identify the staining potential of acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF foam on restorations in vitro. Materials and Methods: Two hundred ovine molars were used. Except 40 teeth remained unrestored as the controls, each was randomly selected to receive one of four restorative materials including preparation without restoration, glass ionomer cement (GIC, resin modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC, or composite resin (CR. Following the procedure, topical APF was applied with a predetermined frequency. Staining formation was then evaluated. Results: APF-treated teeth and restorations appeared with a darker shade, an orange-colored surface and/or a brown margin. The staining rates on GIC, RMGIC, and CR were 50%, 27.5%, and 17.5%, respectively. GIC had a higher staining potential than RMGIC (χ2 = 4.266, df = 1, P = 0.039 and CR (χ2 = 9.448, df = 1, P = 0.002, whereas the difference between RMGIC and CR was indiscernible (χ2 = 1.147, df = 1, P = 0.284. Repeated applications of topical APF increased the risk of staining on RMGIC (χ2 = 8.436 df = 1, P = 0.004 and CR (χ2 = 6.873, df = 1, P = 0.009 but not on GIC (χ2 = 0, df = 1, P = 1 and the controls (χ2 = 4.051, df = 3, P = 0.256. Conclusions: APF-foam-related staining was confirmed in vitro. GIC was more susceptible to fluoride staining. This study suggested aesthetic implications when applying fluorides to restored teeth.

  10. In vitro DISSOLUTION OF ACIDULATED ROCK PHOSPHATE BY PHOSPHATE SOLUBILIZING MICROORGANISMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángela Patricia Moreno Quevedo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The low availability of phosphorus (P in the soil and the high cost of P fertilization are factors that limit agricultural productivity. A biotechnological alternative for to handle this problem is to use soil microorganisms capable of dissolving rock phosphate (RP, thus improving its effectiveness as a P fertilizer. This study was carried out with the objective of determining the effectiveness of Aspergillus niger –As-, Penicillium sp. –Pn-, Bacillus sp –B-. and an unidentified actinomycete –At- in the in vitro dissolution of two partially acidulated rock phosphates. The treatments consisted of 2x16 factorial arrangement [2 levels of RP: either Boyaca RP or Norte de Santander RP; 16 levels of inoculum: an uninoculated control, individual inoculations (with As, Pn, B, At, dual inoculations (AsPn, AsB, AsAt, PnB, PnAt, BAt, triple inoculations (AsPnB, AsPnAt, AsBAt, PnBAt, and quadruple inoculation (AsPnBAt]. Each treatment was replicated three times. Each treatment was replicated three times. It was found that the microbial effectiveness in the in vitro dissolution of RP depended on the type of RP, the composition of the inoculum used and the interaction of both factors. The best results were obtained with the Norte de Santander RP and A. niger used alone. When this fungus combined with the other microorganisms, its capacity to dissolve RP was significantly reduced.RESUMENLa baja disponibilidad de fósforo (P en el suelo y el costo de la fertilización fosfórica son limitantes para la productividad agrícola. Una alternativa biotecnológica para manejar este problema es mediante el uso de microorganismos del suelo capaces de disolver rocas fosfóricas (RP y así mejorar su efectividad como fertilizante fosfórico. Con este fin se realizó un ensayo para determinar la efectividad microbial en la disolución in vitro de dos RP (Norte de Santander y Boyacá parcialmente aciduladas. Los tratamientos consistieron en un arreglo factorial 2x16

  11. The effectiveness of ozone and acidulant treatments in extending the refrigerated shelf life of fresh-cut potatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calder, Beth L; Skonberg, Denise I; Davis-Dentici, Katherine; Hughes, Brianna H; Bolton, Jason C

    2011-10-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the effectiveness of acidulant dip treatments (with or without aqueous ozone) to reduce enzymatic browning and to extend the shelf life of fresh-cut potato slices during refrigerated storage (4 °C) for 28 d. Potato slices subjected to aqueous ozone (2 ppm) had significantly (P≤ 0.05) higher L-values and lower a-values, but ozone did not appear to have any effect on aerobic plate counts (APCs) or polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity. NatureSeal (NS) and sodium acid sulfate (SAS) were the most effective acidulant treatments in reducing browning (significantly [P≤ 0.05] higher L-values, lower a-values, and browning index values) regardless of ozone treatment. NS and SAS also had lower PPO activity compared to other treatments on days 0 and 28, and significantly (P≤ 0.05) lower APCs (≤2.00 log CFU/g) over refrigerated storage. Therefore, the SAS treatment was comparable to NS, a commercially available product, and showed promise as an effective antibrowning dip to reduce browning and spoilage in fresh-cut potato products. Practical Application:  A 1% SAS dip treatment which included 1% citric and 1% ascorbic acid was found to be an effective antibrowning dip for fresh-cut potatoes along with NatureSeal®'s PS-10, compared to other treatments. They were both effective in maintaining low microbial counts over refrigerated storage. Additionally, aqueous ozone washes (2 ppm) showed significant benefits to reduce browning; however, ozone did not affect microbial counts or PPO enzyme activity. Therefore, the SAS treatment could have potential use in the fruit and vegetable industry to reduce browning and spoilage in fresh-cut potato products.

  12. Effect of water and citrate solubility on agronomic effectiveness of acidulated phosphates in three consecutive corn crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. I. Prochnow

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available In the process of phosphate rock acidulation, several impure P compounds may be formed along with the desirable Ca and NH4 phosphates. Such compounds normally reduce the content of water-soluble P and thus the agronomic effectiveness of commercial fertilizers. In order to study this problem, a greenhouse experiment consisting of three consecutive corn crops was conducted in samples of a Red-Yellow Latosol (Typical Hapludox in a completely randomized design (6 x 2 x 2, with four replicates. Six commercial fertilizers were added to 2 kg of soil at a rate of 70 mg kg-1 P, based on the content of soluble P in neutral ammonium citrate plus water (NAC + H2O of the fertilizers. Fertilizer application occurred either in the original form or leached to remove the water-soluble fraction, either by mixing the fertilizer with the whole soil in the pots or with only 1 % of its volume. The corn plants were harvested 40 days after emergence to determine the shoot dry matter and accumulated P. For the first crop and localized application, the elimination of water-soluble P from the original fertilizers resulted in less bioavailable P for the plants. For the second and third crops, the effects of P source, leaching and application methods were not as evident as for the first, suggesting that the tested P sources may have similar efficiencies when considering successive cropping. The conclusion was drawn that the water-insoluble but NAC-soluble fractions of commercial P fertilizers are not necessarily inert because they can provide P in the long run.

  13. Efficacy of silver diamine fluoride as an antibacterial as well as antiplaque agent compared to fluoride varnish and acidulated phosphate fluoride gel: An in vivo study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalin Shah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Silver diamine fluoride (SDF is already proven as an antibacterial agent in vitro. Present study was formulated to compare the efficacy of SDF as an antibacterial as well as antiplaque agent in vivo with fluoride varnish and acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF gel. Study Design: Total 123 children (male = 82, female = 41 were included in the study for a period of 18 months. Children were divided into three different groups-Group 1: SDF; Group 2: fluoride varnish; and Group 3: APF gel. All subjects were evaluated via plaque score at 6 th , 12 th , and 18 th months as well as Streptococcus mutans counts in saliva at 72 h, 6 th , 12 th , and 18 th months of follow-up. Results: Significant reduction was found in plaque score as well as S. mutans counts irrespective of group division. On intergroup comparison, no statistically significant difference was found in plaque score, but significant reduction in S. mutans counts was found in Group 1 as compared with Groups 2 and 3, while no significant difference was found between Groups 2 and 3. Conclusion: In vivo application of SDF on enamel significantly decreases S. mutans counts as compared to fluoride varnish and APF gel.

  14. Comparison of the Effect of Topical Acidulated Phosphate Fluoride Application on Surface Roughness of Two Fissure Sealants and One Flowable Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Pishevar

    Full Text Available Introduction: fluoride application and fissure sealant therapy have an important cariostatic effect in pediatric dentistry. Investigations are indicative for effects of topical fluoride specially APF (Acidulated Phosphate Fluoride gel on the restorative materials. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of repeated application of APF (1. 23% gel on the surface roughness of two fissure sealants and one flowable composite. Materials & Methods: In this experimental study, 81 specimens of two fissure sealants and one flowable composite were prepared, using special polymer mold in three groups of 27 including: unfilled resin sealant (Fissurite F, Voco, filled resin sealant (Fissurit FX, Voco and one flowable composite (Arabesk Flow, Voco. Then, these three groups were divided into three sub groups of 9 as follows: Group 1, 4, 7 (control: No treatment. Group 2, 5, 8: Single application of APF gel. Group 3, 6, 9: Six times application of APF gel. The APF gel was applied on the surface of specimens each time for 4 minutes. Then, the specimens were stored in the distilled water. Finally, the surface roughness of the sealants was measured by Profilometer. The statistical analysis was performed by 2-Way ANOVA & One-Way ANOVA. Results: The results of the study showed a significant statistical different between the surface roughness according to the type of material (P0.05. Conclusion: All three materials were resistant to the destructive effects of APF gel and no significant surface roughness was detected on them.

  15. Energy utilization of by-products from the soybean oil industry by broiler chickens: acidulated soapstock, lecithin, glycerol and their mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JEM Peña

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Acidulated soy soapstock (ASS and lecithin (LEC are by-products from processing soy oil (SO for human consumption, whereas glycerol (GLY can be obtained through the transesterification of vegetable oils during the production of biodiesel. These are valuable by-products for poultry feeds that have been underutilized in many parts of the world. One study was conducted to estimate the AMEn of ASS, LEC, GLY as well as of their mixture (MIX: 85% ASS, 5% LEC and 10% GLY. Two hundred and sixty Cobb 500 female broilers of 20 days of age were housed in steel wire battery cages in a controlled temperature room for broilers. A completely randomized (energy sources x fat inclusion level factorial design was applied, with 4 replicates of three birds per treatment. Birds were fed a corn-soybean meal control diet without supplemental fat or with the addition of 2, 4, or 6 % of the four energy sources. Total excreta collection was performed from 26 to 28 days. The AMEn values of by-products were calculated using regression analysis as well as by the difference method. The average AMEn values calculated by regression analysis were: 9,232, 7,502, 5,447 and 8,404, whereas results with the difference method were: 7,951, 6,579, 3,979 and 8,101 kcal/kg for, in both cases for ASS, LEC, GLY and MIX, respectively. It is concluded that these energy sources can be for broilers and that there are significant differences between the methods used to estimate AMEn of fats.

  16. Performance of broilers fed increased levels energy in the pre-starter diet and on subsequent feeding programs having with acidulated soybean soapstock supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SL Vieira

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate broiler responses to increases in feed energy (2,870, 3,000 and 3,100 kcal ME/kg and the inclusion of Acidulated Soybean Soapstock (ASS when compared to Degummed Soybean Oil (DSO in feeds from placement to 7 days of age. From 7 to 42 days ASS or DSO were included in diets that contained similar energy and nutrient levels. Metabolizable energy values used to formulate the diets for ASS and DSO were 8,351 and 7,701 kcal ME/kg in the first week and 9,314 and 8,559 kcal ME/kg afterwards, respectively. Diets were based on corn and soybean meal and were fed to 1,600 one-d-old male broiler chicks randomly placed in 40 floor pens. No differences in performance due to fat source were seen at 7 days. However, the increase in energy levels to 3,100 kcal ME/kg reduced feed intake, whereas feed conversion was improved with energy at 3,000 kcal ME/kg. Live performance, and the yields of carcass and commercial cuts were not affected by the type of fat included in the feeds from 7 to 42 days, except for increased body weight at 21 and 35 days with ASS supplementation. Litter moisture at 7, 21, 35 and 42 days was not affected by any of the factors and there were no residual effects of treatments at 21, 35 and 42 days of age. On the other hand, body weight at 35 days was affected by the interaction of diets fed in the first week with those provided afterwards. The results showed that ME values used for DSO and ASS are adequate and that ASS may be used as fat source in broiler feeds from placement to 42 days of age.

  17. Utilização da Energia de Dietas para Frangos de Corte Formuladas com Óleo Ácido de Soja Energy Utilization of Broiler Feeds Formulated with Acidulated Soybean Soapstock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SL Vieira

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available O produto comercialmente chamado "óleo ácido de soja", resulta da acidificação da borra residual do processo de refino do óleo de soja. Este tem sido muito utilizado na indústria de rações animais, ainda que com vários questinamentos a cerca de sua eficiência, tais como a adulteração com outros ácidos graxos de baixo valor nutricional, nível de peroxidação, presença de impurezas, e valores energéticos não confiáveis. Neste estudo, foi avaliado o desempenho de frangos de corte consumindo dietas contendo óleo de soja ou óleo ácido de soja nos níveis de 4 e 8% ou a mistura das duas fontes em partes iguais de 2 e 4% cada. Essas dietas foram fornecidas para frangos de corte alojados em baterias climatizadas a partir dos 7 dias de idade. As aves que receberam misturas equivalentes de óleo ácido de soja e óleo de soja apresentaram menor peso corporal no final do experimento (aos 42 dias quando comparadas com aquelas que consumiram apenas óleo ou óleo ácido de soja, independentemente do nível adicionado. O nível de inclusão de óleo de soja ou óleo ácido de soja não influenciou o peso final das aves. Foi verificado maior consumo de ração pelos animais que receberam dietas de menor nível de inclusão, o que contribuiu para piorar a conversão alimentar dos mesmos. O óleo ácido de soja demonstrou ser uma fonte energética alternativa de alto potencial econômico para uso em dietas comerciais para frangos de corte, apresentando valor energético de 8.114 kcal EMAn/kg de MS, valor 5% inferior ao determinado para o óleo de soja degomado.Acidulated soapstock, a by-product from the vegetable oil industry has been widely used in poultry nutrition. It is produced by the acid treatment of the residue left after refining vegetable oils. Several concerns exist on the use of this product, such as: adulteration, peroxidation, impurity, and uncertain energetic value. The current experiment focused on the use of the acidulated

  18. Atomic force microscopic comparison of remineralization with casein-phosphopeptide amorphous calcium phosphate paste, acidulated phosphate fluoride gel and iron supplement in primary and permanent teeth: An in-vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikita Agrawal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Demineralization of tooth by erosion is caused by frequent contact between the tooth surface and acids present in soft drinks. Aim: The present study objective was to evaluate the remineralization potential of casein-phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP paste, 1.23% acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF gel and iron supplement on dental erosion by soft drinks in human primary and permanent enamel using atomic force microscopy (AFM. Materials and Methods: Specimens were made from extracted 15 primary and 15 permanent teeth which were randomly divided into three treatment groups: CPP-ACP paste, APF gel and iron supplement. AFM was used for baseline readings followed by demineralization and remineralization cycle. Results and Statistics: Almost all group of samples showed remineralization that is a reduction in surface roughness which was higher with CPP-ACP paste. Statistical analysis was performed using by one-way ANOVA and Mann-Whitney U-test with P < 0.05. Conclusions: It can be concluded that the application of CPP-ACP paste is effective on preventing dental erosion from soft drinks.

  19. A comparison of tensile weld strength and microstructural changes in four arch wires, before and after immersion in 1.23% acidulated phosphate fluoride solution: An in-vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shantanu Tela

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The objective of this study is to evaluate and to compare the tensile weld strengths and microstructural changes in four archwires namely beta titanium, stainless steel (SS, blue elgiloy and timolium before and after immersion in 1.23% acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF solution. Materials and Methods: The mean tensile weld strength of a weld joint of four arch wires were compared pre-fluoride (Group 1 with post fluoride (Group 2 and the microstructural characteristics of weld joints were evaluated under an optical microscope. Results: The mean tensile weld strength for beta titanium was 445.64 N/mm 2 , blue elgiloy was 363.26 N/mm 2 , SS was 358.30 N/mm 2 and timolium was 308.62 N/mm 2 . After immersion in fluoride the mean tensile strength for beta titanium was 427.16 N/mm 2 , blue elgiloy was 359.86 N/mm 2 , SS is 349.44 N/mm 2 and timolium is 294.86 N/mm 2 . After immersion in fluoride, the beta titanium and SS had a smooth fusion at the center of weld assembly with characteristic nugget formation. The beta titanium weld assembly had greater tensile weld strength than other welded assemblies. Blue elgiloy ranked second, whereas SS and timolium were third and fourth respectively. Conclusion: The wires in descending order of their mean tensile weld strength, on evaluation of their weld joints were found to be: Beta titanium > blue elgiloy > SS > timolium. The reduction in tensile weld strength was statistically insignificant for all the archwires after exposure to 1.23% APF at 37°C for 90 min.

  20. Óleo de Soja, Óleo Ácido de Soja e Sebo Bovino Como Fontes de Gordura em Rações de Frangos de Corte Soybean Oil, Acidulated Soapstock, Beef Tallow, and Mixtures of Fat Sources in Broilers Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JB Gaiotto

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available O experimento avaliou o desempenho de frangos de corte suplementados em 4% na ração com três fontes de gordura: óleo ácido de soja (OAS4 e sebo bovino (SEBO4, óleo de soja (SOJA4 e misturas de 2% entre estas: (OAS2/SEBO2, (OAS2/SOJA2 e (SOJA2/SEBO2. Foram utilizados blocos casualizados, com 6 tratamentos, 6 repetições e 40 aves por parcela. Foram avaliadas as variáveis: consumo de ração (CR, ganho de peso (GP, peso vivo (PV, conversão alimentar (CA, fator de produção (FP e viabilidade (VB, aos 42 dias de idade. Para análise, foram utilizados contrastes não ortogonais: 1- SOJA4 X (OAS4 + SEBO4 + OAS2/SEBO2; 2- SOJA4 X (OAS2/SOJA2 + SOJA2/SEBO2; 3- OAS2/SOJA2 X SOJA2/SEBO2; 4- OAS4 X OAS2/SOJA2; 5- OAS4 X OAS2/SEBO2. No contraste 1, observou-se um menor CR, melhor CA, superior GP, PV e FP para SOJA4 em relação a média OAS4, SEBO4 e OAS2/SEBO2. A comparação do SOJA4 com (OAS2/SOJA2 + SOJA2/SEBO2 do contraste 2 não foi significativa. O contraste 3 não indicou diferença entre OAS2/SOJA2 e SOJA2/SEBO2, exceto para VB. No contraste 4, OAS2/SOJA2 resultou em maior GP, PV e FP e melhor CA que OAS4. A mistura (OAS2/SEBO2 não foi vantajosa ao OAS4 para as variáveis (contraste 5. A gordura abdominal não foi afetada pelos tratamentos, somente a composição dos ácidos graxos das gorduras. O óleo de soja proporcionou melhor desempenho das aves, tanto em misturas 1:1 quanto como fonte única adicionada à ração. O óleo ácido de soja, o sebo e a mistura destes resultaram em depressão do desempenho das aves.The objective of this research was to evaluate less expensive fat sources as alternatives to soybean oil in broiler diets. A total of 1,440 day-old male Ross chicks were raised to 42 days of age in a randomized block design of six treatments and six replicates, fed diets containing 4% supplemental fat from the sources: soybean oil (SOY4, beef tallow (TAL4, acidulated soapstock (SOAP4, mixtures 2%:2% (SOAP2/TAL2, (SOAP2/SOY2

  1. Desempenho, metabolismo e níveis plasmáticos de colesterol e triglicerídeos em frangos de corte alimentados com óleo ácido e óleo de soja Performance, metabolism and plasma levels of cholesterol and triglycerides in broilers chickens fed with acidulated soybean soapstock and soybean oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Roberto Raber

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho são relatados três experimentos (EXP realizados, sendo dois de desempenho e um de metabolismo. O primeiro experimento de desempenho utilizou 384 pintos de corte machos, da linhagem Cobb 500, e foi conduzido com animais de um a 20 dias de idade. O segundo EXP de desempenho foi realizado com as mesmas aves, após homogeneização de todas elas, com 21 a 34 dias de idade, utilizando-se 256 frangos. O ensaio de metabolismo usou 32 frangos e foi realizado com animais de 21 a 34 dias de idade. Testou-se o óleo ácido de soja (OAS e o óleo degomado de soja (ODS incluídos na dieta em quatro níveis (2, 3, 4 e 5%, constituindo oito tratamentos com quatro repetições cada, dispostos em fatorial 2x4. Foram avaliados o desempenho e o metabolismo das aves e o coeficiente de metabolismo da matéria seca (CMMS, da gordura bruta (CMGB e da energia bruta (CMEB das dietas, além de teores de triglicerídios e colesterol sanguíneo no 34o dia de idade. Nenhuma interação foi observada entre os óleos e os níveis utilizados (P>0,05. Com o aumento do nível de óleo na dieta, observou-se maior peso final das aves (PThree experiments (EXP were carried on; in two of them the focus was performance and the third consisted in a metabolism study. The first EXP used 384 male Cobb 500 strain chicks and was conducted from one to 20 days of age. The second EXP was conducted with the same birds after all of them were homogenized, from 21 to 34 days, using 256 broilers. The metabolism assay utilized 32 broilers and was carried on from 21 to 34 days. Acidulated soybean soapstock (ASS and soybean oil (SO included in four levels (2; 3; 4 and 5% were compared, forming eight treatments with four replication each, arranged in a 2x4 factorial. Performance, diet coefficient of metabolism of dry matter (CMDM, of crude fat (CMCF and of gross energy (CMCE and also the contents of triglycerides and blood serum cholesterol on the 34th day were evaluated. There was no

  2. Production of aromatic green gasoline additives via catalytic pyrolysis of acidulated peanut oil soap stock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilten, R; Speir, R; Kastner, J; Das, K C

    2011-09-01

    Catalytic pyrolysis was used to generate gasoline-compatible fuel from peanut oil soap stock (PSS), a high free fatty acid feedstock, using a fixed-bed reactor at temperatures between 450 and 550°C with a zeolite catalyst (HZSM-5). PSS fed at 81 gh(-1) along with 100 mL min(-1) inert gas was passed across a 15 g catalyst bed (WHSV=5.4h(-1), gas phase residence time=34s). Results indicate that fuel properties of PSS including viscosity, heating value, and O:C ratio were improved significantly. For PSS processed at 500°C, viscosity was reduced from 59.6 to 0.9 mm(2)s(-1), heating value was increased from 35.8 to 39.3 MJL(-1), and the O:C ratio was reduced from 0.07 to 0.02. Aromatic gasoline components (e.g., BTEX), were formed in concentrations as high as 94% (v/v) in catalytically-cracked PSS with yields ranging from 22% to 35% (v/v of PSS feed).

  3. Survival of Salmonella in home-style mayonnaise and acid solutions as affected by acidulant type and preservatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Junli; Li, Jianrong; Chen, Jinru

    2012-03-01

    Mayonnaise made from contaminated eggs has been linked to outbreaks of Salmonella infections. This study was undertaken to determine the fate of salmonellae in home-style mayonnaise and acid solutions with or without chemical preservatives. Egg yolks were inoculated with different levels of a three-serotype (Typhimurium, Heidelberg, and Enteritidis [untypeable phage type]) mixture of Salmonella or a three-phage-type (4, 8, and 13) mixture of Salmonella Enteritidis. The inoculated yolks were used to make mayonnaise with 2, 3, or 4 teaspoons of a commercial wine vinegar or lemon juice. The mayonnaise was sampled for salmonellae over a 15-day period at 4°C, and negative samples were tested further by a three-tube most-probable-number assay. The same Salmonella mixtures were respectively inoculated into six acid solutions including wine vinegar, lemon juice, and acetic or citric solutions with or without chemical preservatives. The Salmonella populations of the Salmonella Enteritidis mixture were more persistent than those of the other Salmonella mixture in mayonnaise. Both Salmonella mixtures survived longer in mayonnaise made with vinegar than with lemon juice during storage at 4°C. In the acid solutions, however, the populations of the two Salmonella mixtures were not significantly different. The numbers of the two Salmonella mixtures in acetic or citric acid solutions with the preservatives were significantly lower than those in vinegar, lemon juice, and the solutions without the preservatives. Results suggest that Salmonella in contaminated egg yolks could survive the mayonnaise-making process. The inhibition of Salmonella by vinegar and lemon juice is due to the hurdle effect of organic acids and chemical preservatives.

  4. Phosphogypsum amendments and irrigation with acidulated water affect tomato nutrition in reclaimed marsh soils from SW Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose M. Quintero

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Phosphogypsum (PG is a by-product of the P fertilizer industry usually valorised as amendment for acidic and sodic soils. This work was aimed to study the effects of PG on nutrient uptake by industrial tomato plants in an originally sodic soil. A completely randomized experiment was performed involving two factors: (i acidification with nitric acid (mimics cleaning techniques in drip irrigation, and (ii PG rate (equivalents to 0, 20, 60, and 200 Mg ha–1. The highest PG rate resulted in an increased dry matter yield, which can be ascribed at least in part to an increased water use efficiency. PG decreased K, Mg and P concentrations in shoots, and P and Cu concentrations in fruits. At the highest rate, PG increased B concentration in shoots and total B content in the aerial parts of plants when acid was applied. The highest PG rate also increased Ca concentration in fruits, which can be considered positive in view of reducing the incidence of blossom end rot. The total content of Ni and Mo in aerial parts increased with PG, probably related to a decreased adsorption of these nutrients in soils. Acid application increased the concentration of all micronutrients in shoots and the concentration of Fe, Cu and B in fruits. In conclusion, PG promoted positive effects on B, Ni, Mo, and Ca nutrition, and some negative nutritional effects through antagonisms or affecting nutrient cycling in the soils, which however did not result in decreasing yields, even at a large dose which mimics the cumulative application during 20-30 years. Acid treatments resulted in improved micronutrient nutrition of tomato plants.

  5. 钙基调理剂对酸化农田土壤的调控效果研究①%Regulatory Effect of Calcium-based Conditioner on the Acidulated Soil of Farmland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯宪文; 张梁; 邹雨坤; 李光义

    2015-01-01

    农田土壤酸化已成为制约农业发展的全球性问题,在强降雨淋溶地区尤为严重。本研究利用硝酸磷肥生产过程中所产生的中间产物制造的低pH值土壤调理剂来改良酸化土壤。结果表明:该调理剂按用量1 g/kg (折合亩施150 kg)即可显著地提高土壤pH值,且其在不同pH值土壤上的施用效果有所差异;施用后短期内存在返酸现象;该调理剂与约一半用量的生石灰的调控效果相当;调理剂对土壤有效磷含量的影响因土壤性质不同而异;施用调理剂对土壤有效钾的影响不显著。%Farmland soil acidification has become a global problem which has been restricted the development of agriculture. And it is particularly serious in heavy rainfall and eluvial area. This experiment uses a kind of low pH value soil conditioner which is made by intermediate product from producing the nitrophosphate fertilizer. The results show that the soil conditioner can improve soil pH value significantly with the dosage of 1 g/kg (that is the dosage 150 kg/mu), but the effects of application were different when the soil pH value were different. The soil became sour again after applying the soil conditioner within a period. Regulatory effect of the soil conditioner was the same when we halve the amount of quick lime. The effect of soil conditioner on available phosphorus content differed with soil property. The soil conditioner did not impact on content of available potassium significantly.

  6. Study on the antioxidant activity of xanthohumol and acidulants%黄腐酚与食品酸味剂的协同抗氧化活性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴婕; 刘玉梅

    2015-01-01

    黄腐酚是啤酒花中的一种重要的生物黄酮,具有多种生理功效.文章在研究了黄腐酚的稳定性基础上,选取了β-胡萝卜素亚油酸体系和DPPH体系,以协同系数(SE)为衡量指标,考察了黄腐酚与柠檬酸、柠檬酸钠、维生素C的协同抗氧化作用.实验结果表明,在β-胡萝卜素亚油酸体系中,当黄腐酚浓度小于1.5mg/mL时,黄腐酚与各种酸味剂均不存在协同抗氧化作用,而当浓度大于1.5mg/mL时,黄腐酚与各种酸味剂之间均存在协同抗氧化活性,但相对于DPPH体系,其协同作用较弱;而对于DPPH体系,黄腐酚在0.5 ~ 3.0mg/mL的浓度范围内与各种酸味剂之间均存在协同抗氧化活性,且协同作用的高低随黄腐酚的浓度提高变化并不明显.

  7. Influência da aplicação tópica de flúor fosfato acidulado sobre a rugosidade superficial do esmalte humano e de diferentes materiais restauradores = Influence of topical acidulated phosphate fluoride on surface roughness of human enamel and different restorative materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botta, Ana Carolina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Este estudo avaliou a influência da aplicação tópica de flúor fosfato acidulado sobre a rugosidade do esmalte e de diferentes materiais restauradores. Metodologia: Amostras de cimento de ionômero de vidro modificado por resina (Vitremer - V, resina composta microhíbrida com flúor (Tetric Ceram - T e resina nanopartículada sem flúor em sua composição (Z350 - Z foram confeccionadas. Metade das amostras recebeu aplicação tópica de flúor fosfato acidulado a 1,23% (FFA (grupos VF, TF, ZF e EF e a outra metade não, totalizando 6 grupos experimentais (n=10. Dez terceiros molares humanos hígidos foram utilizados para confecção de amostras de esmalte (E, constituindo os grupos controles (n=10. A rugosidade média superficial (Ra dos materiais restauradores e do esmalte, com e sem flúor, foi analisada pelo rugosímetro. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância, testes de Tukey, t-Student e de Dunn-Bonferroni a 5% de significância. Resultados: Os valores médios de rugosidade, em micrometros, foram: Z=0,60; TF=1,00; ZF=1,05; VF=1,18; T=2,10; V=2,70; E=16,99 e EF=21,19. E e EF apresentaram Ra significativamente superior aos grupos experimentais. Conclusão: Concluiu-se que o FFA aumentou a rugosidade do esmalte, diminuiu a do cimento de ionômero de vidro e da resina microhíbrida com flúor e não alterou a rugosidade da resina nanoparticulada sem flúor

  8. Application of carbon and hydrogen stable isotope analyses to detect exogenous citric acid in Japanese apricot liqueur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akamatsu, Fumikazu; Oe, Takaaki; Hashiguchi, Tomokazu; Hisatsune, Yuri; Kawao, Takafumi; Fujii, Tsutomu

    2017-08-01

    Japanese apricot liqueur manufacturers are required to control the quality and authenticity of their liqueur products. Citric acid made from corn is the main acidulant used in commercial liqueurs. In this study, we conducted spiking experiments and carbon and hydrogen stable isotope analyses to detect exogenous citric acid used as an acidulant in Japanese apricot liqueurs. Our results showed that the δ(13)C values detected exogenous citric acid originating from C4 plants but not from C3 plants. The δ(2)H values of citric acid decreased as the amount of citric acid added increased, whether the citric acid originated from C3 or C4 plants. Commercial liqueurs with declared added acidulant provided higher δ(13)C values and lower δ(2)H values than did authentic liqueurs and commercial liqueurs with no declared added acidulant. Carbon and hydrogen stable isotope analyses are suitable as routine methods for detecting exogenous citric acid in Japanese apricot liqueur.

  9. APF and dentifrice effect on root dentin demineralization and biofilm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.C. Vale; C.P.M. Tabchoury; A.A. Del Bel Cury; L.M.A. Tenuta; J.M. ten Cate; J.A. Cury

    2011-01-01

    Because dentin is more caries-susceptible than enamel, its demineralization may be more influenced by additional fluoride (F). We hypothesized that a combination of professional F, applied as acidulated phosphate F (APF), and use of 1100-ppm-F dentifrice would provide additional protection for denti

  10. Metabolic engineering of Rhizopus oryzae: Effects of overexpressing pyc and pepc genes on fumaric acid biosynthesis from glucose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fumaric acid, a dicarboxylic acid used as a food acidulant and in manufacturing synthetic resins, can be produced from glucose in fermentation by Rhizopus oryzae. However, the fumaric acid yield is limited by the co-production of ethanol and other byproducts. To increase fumaric acid production, ove...

  11. Microbiologic effects of SnF2 and NaF mouthrinses in subjects with high caries activity: results after one year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinanoff, N; Klock, B; Camosci, D A; Manwell, M A

    1983-08-01

    Twenty-two adults, considered to have high caries activity, rinsed for one yr with either SnF2 or acidulated NaF mouthrinses. Total colony-forming units and numbers of S. mutans and lactobacilli were estimated from saliva samples. Large reductions were found in the number of recoverable S. mutans in subjects rinsing with SnF2 but not in the NaF group.

  12. Nd:YAG laser in caries prevention: a clinical study; Avaliacao clinica da eficiencia do laser de Nd:YAG associado ao fluor fosfato acidulado na prevencao de caries de sulcos e fissuras de criancas e adolescentes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boari, Heloisa Gomes Dimiranda

    2000-07-01

    The caries prevention by using laser irradiation has been investigated during the last 30 years. The Nd: YAG laser associated with acidulated phosphate fluoride has been shown as a very promising technique for enamel caries prevention. The aim of this work was to clinically evaluate the efficiency of Nd: YAG laser associated with acidulated phosphate fluoride in pit and fissure caries prevention of children and adolescents. In this work it was determined the dye that enhance the effect of Nd: YAG laser in enamel. It was selected 242 pre-molar and molar teeth from 33 children and adolescents, aged from 7 to 15 years old. The selected teeth were free from caries or decalcification marks (active white marks) to the clinical and radiographic exams. The teeth were divided into two groups: the first group was laser irradiated and their homologous remained as a control. The right side teeth were dye-assisted Nd:YAG laser irradiated. The dye solution was a moisture of dust coal and equal parts of water and alcohol. The irradiation conditions were 60 mJ/10 Hz, optical fiber in contact mode, with diameter of 300 {mu}m, resulting in an energy density of 84,9 J/cm{sup 2}. The oclusal surface of the teeth was completely irradiated, specially on the slopes and in the deepest part of the pits and fissures. This procedure was repeated three times. In the sequence it was applied the acidulated phosphate fluoride for 4 minutes. On the left side teeth - control group- only acidulated phosphate fluoride was applied for the same time. The final examination considered the presence of caries and active white marks after a period of one year. There were statistical significant differences (p < 0.01) between the lased + fluoride group and the non irradiated group. The present study concluded that the technique used in this work can be an alternative clinical method for caries prevention. (author)

  13. Preventing enamel decalcification during orthodontic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillery, T J; Hembree, J H; Weber, F N

    1976-10-01

    One hundred thirty-two extracted premolar teeth were selected and divided into four equal groups. The first group of thirty-three teeth received a topical application of acidulated phosphate fluoride; the second group, a topical application of stannous fluoride; the third group, an application of a polymeric adhesive coating; the fourth group was left untreated to serve as a control. On each tooth a loosely fitted orthodontic band was cemented to place. After cementation, the band was broken to simulate a loose orthodontic band in vivo. The four groups of teeth were simultaneously immersed in a decalcifying gelatin and were left undisturbed for 11 weeks. The teeth were then removed and a record was made of the decalcification produced. A chi-square test was used to compare the teeth in each group to those in every other group. Compared to a control group of teeth, those teeth treated with polymeric adhesive coating, acidulated phosphate fluoride, or stannous fluoride produced a statistically significant reduction in decalcification of the tooth surfaces beneath loose orthodontic bands. For a one-application technique, the polymeric adhesive coating provided more protection against decalcification of teeth under loose orthondontic bands than did either acidulated phosphate fluoride or stannous flouride.

  14. Effects of the low-intensity laser therapy on the prevention of dental caries induced in rats; Efeitos da radiacao laser em baixa intensidade na prevencao de carie dental induzida em ratos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Karin Praia

    2004-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of low intensity laser therapy, associated or not to an acidulated phosphate fluoride, on the prevention of dental caries induced in rats. It was used 40 wistar rats, female, weaned with 18 days, fed with a cariogenic diet during 48 days and inoculated orally with Streptococcus mutans by three consecutive days starting from the second day of the diet. On the fifth day of experiment the animals were divided into five groups: G{sub c} (control) the animas were no submitted to any treatment; G{sub L} (laser) irradiation with low power laser (GaAlAs, {lambda}=660 nm, P=30 mW, {delta}t=5 sec, 5 J/cm{sup 2}); G{sub F} (fluoride) topical application of acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF 1,23%) for four minutes; G{sub LF} (laser + fluoride) irradiation with low power laser followed by topical application of acidulated phosphate fluoride; G{sub FL} (fluoride + laser) topical application of acidulated phosphate fluoride followed by low power laser. The animals were sacrificed after 48 days; the molars were extracted and prepared to determine the dental caries lesions area by optical microscopy, enamel microhardness and analysis of the calcium and phosphorus ratio (Ca/P) by energy dispersive spectroscopy. The results were statistically analyzed by ANOVA (pacidulated phosphate fluoride reduces the caries area and could be an alternative in the prevention of the dental caries. (author)

  15. Acceptability and solubility of iron and zinc contents of modified Moringa oleifera sauces consumed in the Far-north region of Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawouma, Saliou; Ponka, Roger; Mbofung, Carl Moses

    2017-03-01

    Consumption of Moringa oleifera leaves is a local and inexpensive solution to iron and zinc deficiencies in the Far-north region of Cameroon. However, traditional household's cooking techniques result in sauces with high pH levels and low leaves incorporation rates that compromise the bioavailability of iron and zinc. The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of modifying a standard Moringa sauce on consumer acceptability and the solubility of iron and zinc, which is an indicator of their bioavailability. Lime juice or tamarind pulp was added to a standard recipe in order to reduce the pH by about one unit, and Moringa leaf powder was incorporated in each acidulated sauce at three levels (1, 2, and 4 g/100 g of sauce). All the formulations were evaluated for their acceptability by 30 housewives using a five-point hedonic scale. The pH was measured by a digital electronic pH-meter. Moisture and ash were determined by AOAC methods. Total iron and zinc contents were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, and soluble iron and zinc by HCl-extractability. The lime juice-acidulated sauce and the tamarind pulp-acidulated sauce enriched with 1 g of Moringa leaf powder were the most acceptable formulations with scores of 3.4 and 3.6, respectively. Their chemical analysis showed a reduced pH (6.4 and 6.1, respectively), compared to the Control (7.2). Lime juice-acidulated sauce improved iron and zinc solubility from 42.19 to 66.38% and 54.03 to 82.03%, respectively. Tamarind pulp-acidulated sauce enriched with 1 g of Moringa leaf powder showed a decrease in iron solubility from 42.19 to 38.26% and an increase in zinc solubility from 54.03 to 72.86%. These results confirm the beneficial effect of lime juice in improving iron and zinc bioavailability.

  16. Influence of enamel matrix derivative (Emdogain) and sodium fluoride on the healing process in delayed tooth replantation: histologic and histometric analysis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poi, Wilson Roberto; Carvalho, Roberta Martinelli; Panzarini, Sônia Regina; Sonoda, Celso Koogi; Manfrin, Thais Mara; Rodrigues, Thais da Silveira

    2007-02-01

    Although it has already been shown that enamel matrix derivative (Emdogain) promotes periodontal regeneration in the treatment of intrabony periodontal defects, there is little information concerning its regenerative capacity in cases of delayed tooth replantation. To evaluate the alterations in the periodontal healing of replanted teeth after use of Emdogain, the central incisors of 24 Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus albinus) were extracted and left on the bench for 6 h. Thereafter, the dental papilla and the enamel organ of each tooth were sectioned for pulp removal by a retrograde way and the canal was irrigated with 1% sodium hypochlorite. The teeth were assigned to two groups: in group I, root surface was treated with 1% sodium hypochlorite for 10 min (changing the solution every 5 min), rinsed with saline for 10 min and immersed in 2% acidulated-phosphate sodium fluoride for 10 min; in group II, root surfaces were treated in the same way as described above, except for the application of Emdogain instead of sodium fluoride. The teeth were filled with calcium hydroxide (in group II right before Emdogain was applied) and replanted. All animals received antibiotic therapy. The rats were killed by anesthetic overdose 10 and 60 days after replantation. The pieces containing the replanted teeth were removed, fixated, decalcified and paraffin-embedded. Semi-serial 6-microm-thick sections were obtained and stained with hematoxylin and eosin for histologic and histometric analyses. The use of 2% acidulated-phosphate sodium fluoride provided more areas of replacement resorption. The use of Emdogain resulted in more areas of ankylosis and was therefore not able to avoid dentoalveolar ankylosis. It may be concluded that neither 2% acidulated-phosphate sodium fluoride nor Emdogain were able to prevent root resorption in delayed tooth replantation in rats.

  17. Uso de estiércol líquido de bovino acidulado en la producción de pimiento morrón

    OpenAIRE

    J. Capulín-Grande; R. Núñez-Escobar; J. L. Aguilar-Acuña; M Estrada-Botello; P. Sánchez-García; J. J. Mateo-Sánchez

    2007-01-01

    En este experimento se probó el comportamiento del extracto líquido de estiércol bovino (ELEB), acidulado con ácidos orgánicos e inorgánicos, en la nutrición de pimiento morrón en un sistema hidropónico con recirculación de la solución nutritiva. Los resultados indicaron que el estiércol líquido contiene todos los nutrimentos esenciales para el desarrollo de plantas; sin embargo, el calcio, el nitrato, el sulfato, el hierro y fósforo se encuentran en cantidades insuficientes. Cuando se acidul...

  18. Influence factors on stress corrosion cracking of P110 tubing steel under CO2 injection well annulus environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘然克; 贾静焕; 杜翠薇; 李晓刚

    2016-01-01

    Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) behavior of P110 tubing steel in simulated CO2 injection well annulus environments was investigated through three-point bent tests, potentiodynamic polarization and EIS measurements. The results demonstrate that SCC of P110 tubing steel could occur in acidulous simulated environment, and the sensitivity of SCC increases with the decrease of pH, as well as increase of sulfide concentration and total environmental pressure. Both anodic dissolution and hydrogen embrittlement make contributions to the SCC. Adequate concentration of corrosion inhibitor can inhibit the occurrence of SCC on account of the inhibition of localized anodic dissolution and cathodic hydrogen evolution.

  19. Listeria innocua and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus employ different strategies to cope with acid stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shabala, Lana; McMeekin, Tom; Budde, Birgitte Bjørn

    2006-01-01

    Responses of Listeria innocua and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus to a rapid change in extracellular pH (pHex) from pHex 6 to a range of concentrations down to pHex 3.0 were examined, using HCl and lactic acid (LA) as acidulants. A new fluorescent probe 5-(and-6)-carboxy-2', 7...... pHi and H+ -fluxes being more severely affected by LA compared to HCl. Overall, our data demonstrated different adaptive strategies in these two bacteria. While L. innocua expels protons to maintain a constant pHi, L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus allows proton entry after acidic treatment so that p...

  20. Effects of dietary oregano essential oil and vitamin E on the lipid oxidation stability of cooked chicken breast meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila-Ramos, F; Pro-Martínez, A; Sosa-Montes, E; Cuca-García, J M; Becerril-Pérez, C M; Figueroa-Velasco, J L; Narciso-Gaytán, C

    2012-02-01

    The antioxidant effect of oregano essential oil and vitamin E was evaluated in cooked chicken breast meat. In total, 480 broilers were randomly assigned to 6 treatments and 4 replications. Broilers were raised with a corn-soybean meal diet including either crude soybean oil or acidulated soybean oil soapstock, each supplemented with vitamin E at 10 or 100 mg or oregano essential oil at 100 mg/kg of feed. At 42 d, broilers were slaughtered and their breast meat was prepared into strips (1.5 × 10 cm) or patties (150 g). Fatty acid composition of the muscle was determined. For lipid oxidation stability, both meat strips and patties were cooked to an internal temperature of 74°C and malonaldehyde contents were assessed during 0, 3, 6, and 9 d of storage at 4°C. Each storage day had 4 replications per treatment. The meat lipid oxidative stability was estimated by content of malonaldehyde values. Results showed that feed consumption, weight gain, and feed conversion were not affected by the dietary oils or antioxidants, except for the mortality in acidulated soybean oil soapstock with the 10-mg vitamin E treatment. The fatty acid composition of the meat was similar between the 2 diets given the same antioxidant supplement. The oxidation stability of meat lipids in both types of meats showed a significant (P oregano essential oil, and then the 100-mg vitamin E treatment at 9 d of storage, whereas the value of oregano essential oil in the acidulated soybean oil soapstock diet was the highest, followed by the 10-mg vitamin E, and then the 100-mg vitamin E treatment during the 9 d of storage. In conclusion, the dietary oils and antioxidants used can be included in broiler diets without negative effects on their productivity. The antioxidant effect of vitamin E was higher with a higher supplementation level, regardless of the oil treatment, whereas the antioxidant effect of oregano essential oil was better in crude soybean oil than in the acidulated soybean oil soapstock

  1. Anticaries Potential of Low Fluoride Dentifrices Found in The Brazilian Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Adriana de Cássia; Tenuta, Livia Maria Andaló; Tabchoury, Cínthia Pereira Machado; Cury, Jaime Aparecido

    2016-01-01

    Low-fluoride (F) dentifrices (market, using a validated and tested pH-cycling model. Enamel blocks were selected by surface hardness (SH) and randomized into four treatment groups (n=12): non-F dentifrice (negative control), low-F dentifrice (500 μg F/g), low-F acidulated dentifrice (550 μg F/g) and 1,100 μg F/g dentifrice (positive control). The blocks were subjected to pH-cycling regimen for 8 days and were treated 2x/day with dentifrice slurries prepared in water (1:3, w/v). The pH of the slurries was checked, and only the acidulated one had low pH. After the pH cycling, SH was again determined and the percentage of surface hardness loss was calculated as indicator of demineralization. Loosely- and firmly-bound F concentrations in enamel were also determined. The 1,100 μg F/g dentifrice was more effective than the low-F ones to reduce enamel demineralization and was the only one that differed from the non-F (pmarket, irrespective of their formulation, do not have anticaries potential.

  2. Effect of grinding and fluoride-gel exposure on strength of ion-exchanged porcelain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anusavice, K J; Hojjatie, B; Chang, T C

    1994-08-01

    Strengthening of dental porcelain through a diffusion heat treatment at 450 degrees C of a potassium-enriched, ion-exchange surface coating has been demonstrated in several recent studies. However, little attention has been focused on the potential strength reduction of these materials when the treated surfaces are ground or etched under clinically simulated conditions. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that partial removal of the surface layers of ion-exchanged porcelains by grinding or exposure to acidulated fluoride gel will significantly reduce their flexure strength. Nine groups of body porcelain disks were ion-exchanged at 450 degrees C for 30 min. One of these groups was subjected to ion exchange and no further surface treatment. Eight specimen groups were subjected to the following procedures after ion exchange: grinding to depths of 50 microns, 100 microns, 150 microns, 200 microns, and 250 microns, and exposure to acidulated fluoride for 30 min, 60 min, and 300 min. A tenth group (FC) was fired at 960 degrees C and fast-cooled in air, but the disks were not subjected to the ion-exchange treatment. Surface stress was calculated from measured values of cracks induced in the treated surfaces. Fluoride exposure for up to 60 min resulted in a significant decrease in surface compression (P 0.05).

  3. Characterization of treated porcelain surfaces via dynamic contact angle analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phoenix, R D; Shen, C

    1995-01-01

    Successful porcelain repair requires conditioning of porcelain surfaces. Conditioning is intended to facilitate wetting by repair materials and improve interfacial bonding. The objective of this investigation was to determine the effects of selected surface treatments upon the wettability of a representative feldspathic porcelain. Dynamic contact angle analysis and scanning electron microscopy were used to characterize the effects of such treatments. Standardized porcelain specimens were subjected to the following five treatment regimens: (1) control (no treatment); (2) airborne particle abrasion using 50 microns aluminum oxide; (3) etching with ammonium bifluoride gel; (4) etching with acidulated phosphate fluoride gel; and (5) etching with hydrofluoric acid gel. Following treatment, specimens were cleansed and dried. Advancing contact angles were quantified using dynamic contact angle analysis. Mean values and 95% confidence intervals were (in degrees): control, 63.8 +/- 2.7; ammonium bifluoride, 39.4 +/- 2.0; airborne particle abrading, 29.1 +/- 2.9; acidulated phosphate fluoride, 24.9 +/- 1.7; and hydrofluoric acid, 16.5 +/- 1.2. Significant differences were found between all treatment groups (P = .05). Subsequent scanning electron microscopy examination of treated surfaces indicated lesser contact angles were associated with surfaces displaying deeper and wider grooves. Apparently, the resultant increase in surface area produces increased wettability. It is inferred that an increase in surface area may correspond to enhanced resin-porcelain bonding.

  4. Development and Application of a Multifuntionnal Pressure Test Unit in Downhole%多功能井下管柱试压装置研制与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶红

    2012-01-01

    为解决油水井挤灰、酸化等作业施工中油管漏失的问题,研制了多功能井下管柱试压装置.该装置设计了双球试压结构,可实现对油管柱试压,并能顺利打开液流通道,进行挤水泥或酸化施工作业.实现了1趟管柱的试压与施工同步,保证了施工质量,节省了1趟管柱作业费用,现场试验效果良好.%In order to solve the problem of leakage in tubing when the operation of injection cementing and acidulation.a multifunctional pressure test unit in downhole was developed. The unit was designed with double balls to realize the test tubing pressure. The channel was opened well to carry out the cementing and acidulation through it. Test pressure and other operation in one tubing was realized, the operation quality was insured. The outside test proved its good effectiveness.

  5. A study in vitro on radiation effects by Er:YAG laser combined with the fluorine therapy in the acid resistance of the dental enamel submitted to orthodontical brackets; Um estudo in vitro sobre os efeitos da irradiacao pelo laser de Er:YAG combinado com a terapia com fluor na resistencia acida do esmalte de dentes submetidos a aparelho ortodontico fixo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshiyasu, Roseli Y.A

    2001-07-01

    Several researches have been demonstrating an increase in the resistance acid of the enamel surface when irradiated by some lasers types as Nd:YAG, C0{sub 2}, Er:YAG, and others, mainly when combined with the fluoride therapy after the irradiation of the laser. This study in vitro used the laser of Er:YAG which density of energy of 8.1 J/cm{sup 2} on the enamel about of orthodontical brackets of teeth extracted pre-molars. These teeth were then submitted to a rich way in S. mutans for twenty one days. The cases were analyzed: (1) enamel surface without any treatment, (2) enamel surface without any irradiation laser, but with therapy with acidulated phosphate fluoride, (3) enamel surface irradiated with laser of Er:YAG and (4) enamel surface irradiated by laser of Er:YAG and with application of acidulated phosphate fluoride. The results were analyzed through optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The morphologic changes observed to the scanning electron microscopy suggest increase in the acid resistance of the enamel surface. However, to the optical microscopy, it was still possible to visualize undesirable white stains in the surface of the enamel. (author)

  6. Cariostatic effect of fluoride-containing restorative materials associated with fluoride gels on root dentin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Tavares Borges

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Secondary caries is still the main cause of restoration replacement, especially on the root surface OBJECTIVE: This in vitro study evaluated the cariostatic effects of fluoride-containing restorative materials associated with fluoride gels, on root dentin. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A randomized complete block design was used to test the effects of the restorative systems, fluoride regimes and the interactions among them at different distances from restoration margins. Standardized cavities were prepared on 240 bovine root specimens and randomly assigned to 15 groups of treatments (n=16. Cavities were filled with the following restorative materials: Ketac-Fil (3M-ESPE; Vitremer (3M-ESPE; Dyract/Prime & Bond NT (Dentsply; Charisma/Gluma One Bond (Heraeus Kulzer and the control, Z250/Single Bond (3M-ESPE. The specimens were subjected to a pH-cycling model designed to simulate high-caries activity. During the cycles, 1.23% acidulated phosphate fluoride, 2.0% neutral sodium fluoride or deionized/distilled water (control was applied to the specimens for 4 min. The surface Knoop microhardness test was performed before (KHNi and after (KHNf the pH cycles at 100, 200 and 300 mm from the margins. Dentin microhardness loss was represented by the difference in initial and final values (KHNi - KHNf. Data were analyzed by Friedman's and Wilcoxon's tests, ANOVA and Tukey's test (α=5%. RESULTS: The interaction of restorative systems and topical treatments was not significant (p=0.102. Dentin microhardness loss was lowest closer to the restoration. Ketac-fil presented the highest cariostatic effect. Vitremer presented a moderate effect, while Dyract and Charisma did not differ from the control, Z250. The effects of neutral and acidulated fluoride gels were similar to each other and higher than the control. CONCLUSION: Conventional and resin-modified glass ionomer cements as well as neutral and acidulated fluoride gels inhibit the progression of artificial caries

  7. STUDY OF PHENOLCARBONIC ACIDS OF SALIX TRIANDRA L. TENDRILS GROWING IN THE NORTH CAUCASUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. G. Sannikova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Qualitative and quantitative composition of phenolcarbonic acids in one year tendrils of Salix triandra L. was determined. Identification in quantitative determination of certain phenolcarbonic acids was carried out using high-performance liquid chromatography. Six individual substances were discovered. The total content of the sum of phenolcarbonic acids was determined with extractionphotometric method, based on a selective extraction from acidulous solution into ethyl acetate. The highest content of phenolcarbonic acids (about 0.47% was detected in the leaves of Salix triandra L., the lowest content was detected in the tendrils without leaves (about 0.40%. Phenolcarbonic acids discovered in the tendrils of Salix triandra L. may significantly contribute to the total pharmacological effect.

  8. Development and validation of a liquid chromatography method for anthocyanins in strawberry (Fragaria spp.) and complementary studies on stability, kinetics and antioxidant power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canuto, Gisele A B; Oliveira, Daniel R; da Conceição, Lucas S M; Farah, João P S; Tavares, Marina F M

    2016-02-01

    A RPLC-DAD method for the analysis of eight anthocyanins was developed, validated and applied to strawberry extracts. The chromatographic method was conducted under gradient elution in acidulated water-methanol mobile phase and octadecyl-silica columns. An ultrasound extraction procedure was optimized by a 3(2) factorial design (%HCl in methanol, temperature, and time) and response surface methodology. Method validation was performed according to the following parameters: linearity (R(2)>0.99, p-value725), LOD (3-7 μmol L(-1)) and LOQ (9-22 μmol L(-1)), selectivity/specificity (baseline separation of all analytes and peak purity), instrumental precision (strawberry extracts were quantified (average values: 24.2 μg/g for cyanidin-3-glucoside and 49.1 μg/g for pelargonidin-3-glucoside).

  9. Effect of the temperature on the synthesis of dicalcium phosphate dihydrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhiba, D.; Hakam, A.; El Khoukhi, H.; Albourine, A.; Nounah, A.

    2005-03-01

    The use of calcium phosphates as biomaterials was largely developed during the last decades. Among the phosphorous compounds solid minerals of biological interest, the dicalcium phosphate dihydrate, (DCPD or brushite) (CaHPO{4}, 2H{2}O), disserves a special attention. It can be prepared in different ways. The manufacture of inorganic phosphate, it is usually produced by the acidulation of limestone form of calcium with phosphoric acid. The synthesis of this phosphate depends on many operational parameters. This study was performed in order to verify the influence of temperature and the time on the chemical purity and the yield of precipitation. All the samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, infrared spectrometry and chemical analysis.

  10. Encapsulation of Red Cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var.capitata L. f. rubra Anthocyanins by Spray Drying using Different Encapsulating Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anahi Bernstein

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to evaluate the influence of the drying air temperature (140 and 160°C and the concentration of encapsulating agents gum Arabic and polydextrose (10 and 15% on the physicochemical characteristics of the red cabbage extract obtained through extraction in acidulated water and drying using a spray dryer. The anthocyanin retention, antioxidant activity, water activity, solubility, color and microstructure of the final product were analyzed. Results showed that increase in the temperature did not cause significant changes in the anthocyanin quantity and antioxidant activity. The microscopic analysis revealed that for both the encapsulating agents, the absence of fissures and porosity in the particle surfaces produced powder with high solubility in water. The principal component analyses showed a strong correlation between the anthocyanin content and the antioxidant activity (r = 0.82 and luminosity (r = 0.81.

  11. Medna bijela (Vitis vinifera L. - Ampelographic properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Pezo

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Medna bijela is an autochthonous cultivar of the third Adriatic vine-growing subregion. Its synonyms in use are: Buboj, Bumba, Medna, Rizavac, Zložder etc. No detailed ampelographic study has been made to date; based on our research this cultivar is classified in the ecological-geographical group of Convarietas Pontica, Negr. Subconvarietas Balcanica, Provarietas Mesocarpa, Nem., Subprovarietas Dalmatica Nem. It is a medium lush wine cultivar with some 16-17 % of sugar and 6.0-7.0 g/l of total acidity, with a yield of 2.5-3.5 kg of grapes per grapevine and a load of 16 buds per grapevine. The wines are light, acidulous, with a specific fine aroma of honey, which is implied in the very name of the cultivar. It is recommended that the research should be continued, particularly on clonal selection.

  12. Fluoride Rinses, Gels and Foams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Twetman, Svante; Keller, Mette K

    2016-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this conference paper was to systematically review the quality of evidence and summarize the findings of clinical trials published after 2002 using fluoride mouth rinses, fluoride gels or foams for the prevention of dental caries. METHODS: Relevant papers were selected after...... (6 on fluoride mouth rinse, 10 on fluoride gel and 3 on fluoride foam); 6 had a low risk of bias while 2 had a moderate risk. All fluoride measures appeared to be beneficial in preventing crown caries and reversing root caries, but the quality of evidence was graded as low for fluoride mouth rinse......, moderate for fluoride gel and very low for acidulated fluoride foam. No conclusions could be drawn on the cost-effectiveness. CONCLUSIONS: This review, covering the recent decade, has further substantiated the evidence for a caries-preventive effect of fluoride mouth rinse, fluoride gel and foam...

  13. HPLC-UV Analysis Coupled with Chemometry to Identify Phenolic Biomarkers from Medicinal Plants, used as Ingredients in Two Food Supplement Formulas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca Maria Pop

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available . High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC with UV detection is nowadays the reference method to identify and quantify the biomarkers of quality and authenticity of plants and food supplements. Seven medicinal plants were collected from wild flora: Taraxacum officinalis (1, Cynara scolimus (2, Silybum marianum (3, Hypericum perforatum (4,  Chelidonium majus (5, Lycopodium clavatum (6 and  Hippophae rhamnoides (7  leaves and fruits.  Two products (A and B were obtained by mixing individual plant powders. Therefore product A was obtained by mixing dandelion, artichoke and milk thistle, 1:1:1 while product B by mixing St John’s wort, Celandine and Wolf’s claw, 1:1:1. The methanolic extracts of individual plants as well as three different extracts of products A and B (using acidulated water, neutral water and acidulated methanol were analyzed using HPLC-UV for their phenolics’ fingerprint and composition. The qualitative (untargeted analysis and quantitative (targeted analysis results were further compared using Principal Component Analysis (PCA in order to identify their specific biomarkers. Thus, quantitative evaluation of individual phenolics in case of individual plants and products A and B extracts, showed specific and significant differences of composition. Both products A and B contained elagic acid as major compound. For product A, good biomarkers were trans-cinnamic, chlorogenic, caffeic and p-coumaric acids, as well silymarin and silibine originating from milk thistle. For product B, good biomarkers were quercetin and kaempherol, gallic and protocatecuic acids, this product being rich in flavonoids. In conclusion, HPLC-UV coupled with PCA analysis proved to be a rapid and useful way to identify the main biomarkers of plants’ authentication, as well of final products’ quality and safety.

  14. COMPONENŢA AMINOACIZILOR DIN BIOMASA ALGEI CIANOFITE NOSTOC GELATINOSUM (SCHOUSB ELENK.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergiu DOBROJAN

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available În articol este analizată componenţa aminoacizilor din biomasa algei cianofite Nostoc gelatinosum (Schousb Elenk. colectate de pe mediul nutritiv Drew. Din grupa aminoacizilor esenţiali în biomasa algei Nostoc gelatinosum (Schousb Elenk. se conţine în cantităţi majore leucina (2,142±0,06 mg/100 mg, treonina (1,188±0,02 mg/100 mg şi valina (1,085±0,03 mg/100 mg. Din aminoacizii neesenţiali predomină acidul aspartic (4,523±0,11 mg/100 mg şi acidul glutamic (2,774±0,07 mg/100 mg. Alga Nostoc gelatinosum (Schousb Elenk. are un conţinut bogat de aminoacizi şi poate servi ca sursă pentru vaste domenii de aplicare.THE AMINO ACIDS COMPOSITION OF THE BLUE-GREEN ALGANOSTOC GELATINOSUM (SCHOUSB ELENKThis article presents the amino acid content of the blue-green alga Nostoc gelatinosum (Schousb Elenk. collected from the Drew nutritive medium. From the essential amino group in Nostoc gelatinosum (Schousb Elenk. biomass, major amounts are contained leucine (2,142 ± 0,06 mg/100 mg, threonine (1,188 ± 0,02 mg/100 mg and valine (1,085 ± 0,03 mg/100 mg. From nonessential amino acids predominates aspartic acid (4,523 ± 0,11 mg/100 mg and glutamic acid (2,774 ± 0.07 mg/100 mg. The alga Nostoc gelatinosum (Schousb Elenk. has a high content of amino acids and can serve as a source for vast areas of application. 

  15. Improvement of the quality of wood derived biofuel-oils; Puuperaeisten biopolttooeljyjen laadun parantaminen. Raakasuovan terminen nestefaasikaesittely hiilivety-polttoaineiksi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oasmaa, A.; McKeough, P.; Kuoppala, E.; Kylloenen, H.; Levander, J.; Tapola, E.; Haekkinen, R.

    1995-12-31

    Liquid-phase thermochemical processing of tall oil soap has been experimentally investigated. The organic matter of tall oil soap, which is a by-product of kraft pulping, originates mainly from wood extractives. Conventional processing of tall oil soap involves acidulation to yield crude tall oil and subsequent distillation of the oil at centralized refineries. Because tall oil originating from birch wood is far less valuable than that from pine, there is an economic incentive in the Nordic countries to develop alternative conversion processes for the tall oil soap produced at pulp mills where birch is widely used as feedstock. Both catalytic hydrotreatment and liquid-phase thermal treatment of a mixed pine/birch soap have been investigated in the laboratory. Liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons were the principal products formed in both types of treatment. Although the liquid product formed under hydrotreatment conditions contained a higher proportion of aliphatic compounds, it was clear that the thermal treatment process would be, economically, the more favorable option. In the thermal process, a predominantly hydrocarbon oil product was obtained at 450 deg C using a residence time of at least 60 min. About 50 % of the energy content of the tall oil soap was recovered as oil product, about 30 % as gases, and about 20 % as organic material contained in an aqueous slurry phase. When the oil product was carefully separated from the aqueous slurry phase, only trace amounts of impurities, such as water, sodium and organic acid salts were present in the product. A techno-economic evaluation of the process concept has been performed. The economics of the thermal treatment process appear to be favorable in comparison with those of the conventional acidulation process

  16. Oral fluoride retention after professional topical application in children with caries activity: comparison between 1.23% fluoride foam and fluoride gel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecília Claudia Costa Ribeiro

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study evaluated fluoride retention in the saliva of children with caries activity after topical fluoride application in the form of gel and foam. Methods: A cross-sectional, blind and randomized study, conducted with ten caries-active children aged between 8 and 10 years, in two stage, with a washout interval of two weeks between them. The treatments consisted of: a application of 2mL acidulated phosphate fluoride of the gel type in a mold and b application of 2mL acidulated phosphate fluoride of the foam type in a mold. After the washout, the treatments were inverted. Non-stimulated saliva was collected from the children at the times of 5, 15, 30 and 60 minutes after topical fluoride application. For statistical analysis the Student’s-t test was used, with a level of significance of 5%. Results: Saliva analysis was performed using a fluoride-specific electrode (ISE25F/ Radiometer, Copenhagen, Denmark at the Aquatic Science Center of the Federal University of Marana, which revealed differences after 5 minutes (p=0.0055 and 15 minutes (p=0.0208. The topical application of fluoride in the gel form revealed a higher concentration of fluoride in the saliva. Conclusion: There were differences in the retention of fluoride in the saliva of children with caries activity after the topical application of fluoride gel and the topical application of fluoride foam after 5 and 15 minutes of their application. The topical application of fluoride foam is recommended, on the basis of the lower probability of toxicity during its use.

  17. Efecto residual de dos rocas fosfóricas puras y parcialmente aciduladas, comparadas con SFT, sobre la aprovechabilidad del P por Panicum maximum L., en un oxisol de los Llanos Orientales de Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejo M. Doris

    1986-03-01

    Full Text Available Panicum maximum L. se sembró, en condiciones de invernadero, en un Oxisol de los Llanos Orientales de Colombia, 18 meses después de la aplicación de las fuentes (rocas fosfóricas de Pesca - Colombia y Sechura - Perú crudas y aciduladas al 20 % con H3 P04, en dosis de 25, 50 Y 100 ppm de P. La roca fosfórica Sechura cruda y parcialmente acidulada junto con SFT, tuvieron el mejor efecto residual sobre el rendimiento y captación de P y mantuvieron los más altos niveles de P asimilable en el suelo al final del ensayo. Con las dosis superiores se obtuvo un nivel más alto de P asimilable en el suelo y mayor absorción de P por la planta.In order to study the residual effect of the Pesca (Colombia and Sechura (Perú phosphate rocks, both crude and acidulated in 20 % by H3P04, comparatively with SFT, Panicum rnaximum L. was planted under glasshouse conditions, in an Oxisol from the Eastern plains of Colombia, 18 months after sources application, with rates of 25. 50 and 100 ppm of P. Crude and partially acidulated Sechura phosphate rock, together with TSP, had the best residual effect on yield and P absorption and had the highest available P levels in the soil at the end of the trial. The highest available P level in the soil and P uptake by the plant was obtained with higher P rates.

  18. Characterization of caries progression on dentin after irradiation with Nd:YAG laser by FTIR spectroscopy and fluorescence imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ana, P. A.; Brito, A. M. M.; Zezell, D. M.; Lins, E. C. C. C.

    2015-06-01

    Considering the use of high intensity lasers for preventing dental caries, this blind in vitro study evaluated the compositional and fluorescence effects promoted by Nd:YAG laser (λ=1064 nm) when applied for prevention of progression of dentin caries, in association or not with topical application of acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF). Sixty bovine root dentin slabs were prepared and demineralized by 32h in order to create early caries lesions. After, the slabs were distributed into six experimental groups: G1- untreated and not submitted to a pH-cycling model; G2- untreated and submitted to a pH-cycling model; G3- acidulated phosphate fluoride application (APF); G4- Nd:YAG irradiation (84.9 J/cm2, 60 mJ/pulse); G5- treated with Nd:YAG+APF; G6- treated with APF+Nd:YAG. After treatments, the samples of groups G2 to G6 were submitted to a 4-day pH-cycling model in order to simulate the progression of early caries lesions. All samples were characterized by the micro-attenuated total reflection technique of Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (μATR-FTIR), using a diamond crystal, and by a fluorescence imaging system (FIS), in which it was used an illuminating system at λ= 405±30 nm. Demineralization promoted reduction in carbonate and phosphate contents, exposing the organic matter; as well, it was observed a significant reduction of fluorescence intensity. Nd:YAG laser promoted additional chemical changes, and increased the fluorescence intensity even with the development of caries lesions. It was concluded that the compositional changes promoted by Nd:YAG, when associated to APF, are responsible for the reduction of demineralization progression observed on root dentin.

  19. Soluble phosphate fertilizer production using acid effluent from metallurgical industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattiello, Edson M; Resende Filho, Itamar D P; Barreto, Matheus S; Soares, Aline R; Silva, Ivo R da; Vergütz, Leonardus; Melo, Leônidas C A; Soares, Emanuelle M B

    2016-01-15

    Preventive and effective waste management requires cleaner production strategies and technologies for recycling and reuse. Metallurgical industries produce a great amount of acid effluent that must be discarded in a responsible manner, protecting the environment. The focus of this study was to examine the use of this effluent to increase reactivity of some phosphate rocks, thus enabling soluble phosphate fertilizer production. The effluent was diluted in deionized water with the following concentrations 0; 12.5; 25; 50; 75% (v v(-1)), which were added to four natural phosphate rocks: Araxá, Patos, Bayovar and Catalão and then left to react for 1 h and 24 h. There was an increase in water (PW), neutral ammonium citrate (PNAC) and citric acid (PCA) soluble phosphorus fractions. Such increases were dependent of rock type while the reaction time had no significant effect (p fertilizers with low toxic metal concentrations and a high level of micronutrients were produced compared to the original natural rocks. The minimum amount of total P2O5, PNAC and PW, required for national legislation for phosphate partially acidulated fertilizer, were met when using Catalão and the effluent at the concentration of 55% (v v(-1)). Fertilizer similar to partially acidulated phosphate was obtained when Bayovar with effluent at 37.5% (v v(-1)) was used. Even though fertilizers obtained from Araxá and Patos did not contain the minimum levels of total P2O5 required by legislation, they can be used as a nutrient source and for acid effluent recycling and reuse.

  20. Effect of APF gel on micromorphology of resin modified glass-ionomer cements and flowable compomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benderli, Y; Gökçe, K; Kazak, M

    2005-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the surface micromorphology of resin modified glass-ionomer cements and flowable compomers. In the study two resin modified glass-ionomers and two flowable compomers were used to prepare standardized 20 cylinderic samples. Samples were divided into four groups. Surface treatments with APF gel for experimental groups (group B,C,D) or distilled water as a control (group A) were performed four times. In group B, only APF gel was applied. In group C, after the APF gel application, the samples were immersed into the demineralizing and remineralizing solutions. In group D, before the APF gel application, the buffer solution was applied. The examinations of the surface micromorphology of the materials were made by using scanning electron microscope (SEM). Results showed that in group B all of the materials except Compoglass Flow, and in group C all of the materials showed erratic behaviours. In group D, severe erratic effect (score 2) was obtained on the surfaces of Vivaglassliner and Dyract Flow, and for the others score 1 signals were found. The moderate degradation was obtained by applying of only APF gel on the surfaces of both material groups. The addition of pH circulation caused increasing of micromorphologic changes on the surfaces of all materials. The effect of application of buffer solution on the surfaces before APF gel changed according to the materials. If acidulated fluoride gel is preferred for prophylactic therapy in patients' mouth, for the success, either buffer or neutral fluoride have to be applied on the restored teeth by resin based materials before acidulated fluoride application.

  1. Effects of dietary lipid sources on performance and apparent total tract digestibility of lipids and energy when fed to nursery pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, S M; van Heugten, E

    2014-02-01

    Acidulated fats and oils are by-products of the fat-refining industry. They contain high levels of FFA and are 10% to 20% less expensive than refined fats and oils. Two studies were designed to measure the effects of dietary lipid sources low or high in FFA on growth performance and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of lipids and GE in nursery pigs. In Exp. 1, 189 pigs at 14 d postweaning (BW of 9.32 ± 0.11 kg) were used for 21 d with 9 replicate pens per treatment and 3 pigs per pen. Dietary treatments consisted of a control diet without added lipids and 6 diets with 6% inclusion of lipids. Four lipid sources were combined to create the dietary treatments with 2 levels of FFA (0.40% or 54.0%) and 3 degrees of fat saturation (iodine value [IV] = 77, 100, or 123) in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement. Lipid sources were soybean oil (0.3% FFA and IV = 129.4), soybean-cottonseed acid oil blend (70.5% FFA and IV = 112.9), choice white grease (0.6% FFA and IV = 74.8), and choice white acid grease (56.0% FFA and IV = 79.0). Addition of lipid sources decreased ADFI (810 vs. 872 g/d; P = 0.018) and improved G:F (716 vs. 646 g/kg; P pigs at 7 d postweaning (BW of 7.0 ± 0.2 kg) were used for 28 d with 9 replicate pens per treatment and 4 pigs per pen. Diets included a control diet without added lipids and 6 treatments with 2.5%, 5.0%, or 7.5% of lipids from either poultry fat (1.9% FFA) or acidulated poultry fat (37.8% FFA) in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement. Addition of lipids increased (P < 0.001) final BW (19.9 vs. 18.4 kg) and ADG (460 vs. 405 g/d) regardless of source. Fat increased (P < 0.001) ADFI when added at 2.5% and then decreased ADFI with each further increment (663, 740, 681, and 653 g for 0%, 2.5%, 5.0%, and 7.5% fat, respectively). Inclusion of lipids linearly (P < 0.001) improved G:F (615, 615, 688, and 692 g/kg for 0%, 2.5%, 5.0%, and 7.5% fat, respectively) and ATTD of lipids (17.8%, 50.2%, 71.0%, and 77.3% for 0, 2.5, 5.0, and 7.5% fat, respectively

  2. Rendimento, composição e teor de ácidos graxos da carcaça de frangos de corte alimentados com diferentes fontes lipídicas Carcass yield, composition and fat acid percentage of carcass for broiler fed on different lipid source diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.J.C. LaraI

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito de diferentes fontes de lipídios da dieta (óleo degomado de soja, óleo de vísceras de aves, óleo ácido de soja, mistura de 50% de óleo de soja e 50% de óleo de vísceras e mistura de 50% de óleo de soja e 50% de óleo ácido de soja sobre rendimento, composição de peito, coxa e carcaça inteira e perfil de ácidos graxos da carcaça inteira de frangos de corte. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente ao acaso, com cinco tratamentos e seis repetições de uma ave cada. Não houve diferenças entre os tratamentos (P>0,05 para rendimentos de carcaça e cortes, composição de proteína bruta, umidade e extrato etéreo da carcaça inteira e da musculatura da coxa e do peito. As aves alimentadas com dietas com óleo de vísceras apresentaram maior percentual de ácidos graxos monoinsaturados na carcaça do que as alimentadas com dietas contendo as demais fontes lipídicas. A deposição de ácidos graxos poliinsaturados foi influenciada pela fonte lipídica das dietas. O perfil de ácidos graxos da carcaça inteira de frangos de corte foi influenciado pela fonte lipídica da dieta.A completely randomized design, with six replicates of one bird per experimental unit was used to evaluate the effect of different fat sources of diets (soybean oil, poultry fat, acidulated soybean oil soapstock and a mix of soybean oil plus poultry fat and soybean oil plus acidulated soybean oil soapstock on carcass yield, composition of the breast, thigh and whole chicken and fatty acid profile of the whole carcass of broilers. No effects of fat source on carcass yield and cuts, composition of crude protein, humidity and ether extract of the whole chicken, whole leg and breast were observed (P>0,05. The birds fed on poultry fat diet showed a higher percentage of monounsaturated fatty acid on the carcass than birds fed on diets with the others fat sources. The deposition of polyunsaturated fatty acids was influenced by fat source added

  3. Salivary retention after application of fluoride gel using toothbrush or tray: a crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Cecilia Claudia Costa; Lula, Estevam Carlos de Oliveira; Azevedo, Izabelle Maria Cabral de; Maia, Mariana de Figueiredo Lopes E; Lopes, Fernanda Ferreira

    2012-01-01

    Currently, there are no studies in the literature evaluating salivary fluoride retention after small amounts of fluoride gel are applied to children's teeth. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to compare salivary retention after gel application using a toothbrush or by traditional application with trays. In this crossover study, children with active caries (n = 10) were randomized into one of the following treatment groups: a) application of fluoride gel using a tray (control), or b) application of fluoride gel with a toothbrush (treatment). After a 7-day washout period, the treatments were inverted. Unstimulated saliva samples were collected at baseline and 0.5, 5, 15, 30, 60 and 120 minutes after acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF) gel application in order to analyze fluoride retention in saliva. The area under the curve (AUC) was also calculated. There were no differences in fluoride retention after application of small amounts of APF with a toothbrush compared to traditional gel application using trays at all time points studied, and no differences in AUC were observed (Student t-test, p > 0.05). These results suggest that application of fluoride gel in children using a toothbrush can be utilized as an option rather than traditional trays, since the same salivary retention of fluoride is obtained using a lower dose.

  4. RESEARCH ON THE TRENDS IN MILK PRODUCTION AND CONSUMPTION IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agatha POPESCU

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper was to analyze the main trends in the milk and dairy products market in Romania in the period 2007-2012 and to set up the forecast for the 2013-2015 horizon, based on the empirical data provided by the National Institute of Statistics and Eurostat and using the fixed basis index, average change method, and comparison method. Milk production for consumption reached 210 thou tons in 2012 registering a descending trend. Despite that milk production decreased in the period 2007-2012, the production diversification applied by dairies supported the growth of dairy products output as follows: by 13.54 % for milk, by 3.45 % for sour cream, and by 13 % for butter. The forecast for the year 2015 provides that the production of dairy products will account for: 223,936.6 tons milk for consumption, 48,709.4 tons sour cream, 166,674.2 tons acidulated milk, 9,937.6 tons butter and 66,584.4 tons cheese. The development of milk processing imposes the improvement of production technologies, products quality, efficiency and competitiveness. Due to the unbalanced demand/offer ratio, after the elimination of milk quota, the Romanian milk and dairy products market will be invaded by foreign products.

  5. Bioavailability of Micronutrients from Plant Foods: An Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platel, Kalpana; Srinivasan, Krishnapura

    2016-07-26

    Deficiencies of iron, zinc, iodine and vitamin A are widespread in the developing countries, poor bioavailability of these micronutrients from plant-based foods being the major reason for their wide prevalence. Diets predominantly vegetarian are composed of components that enhance as well as inhibit mineral bioavailability, the latter being predominant. However, prudent cooking practices and use of ideal combinations of food components can significantly improve micronutrient bioavailability. Household processing such as heat treatment, sprouting, fermentation and malting have been evidenced to enhance the bioavailability of iron and β-carotene from plant foods. Food acidulants amchur and lime are also shown to enhance the bioavailability of not only iron and zinc, but also of β-carotene. Recently indentified newer enhancers of micronutrient bioaccessibility include sulphur compound-rich Allium spices-onion and garlic, which also possess antioxidant properties, β-carotene-rich vegetables-carrot and amaranth, and pungent spices-pepper (both red and black) as well as ginger. Information on the beneficial effect of these dietary compounds on micronutrient bioaccessibility is novel. These food components evidenced to improve the bioavailability of micronutrients are common ingredients of Indian culinary, and probably of other tropical countries. Fruits such as mango and papaya, when consumed in combination with milk, provide significantly higher amounts of bioavailable β-carotene. Awareness of the beneficial influence of these common dietary ingredients on the bioavailability of micronutrients would help in devising dietary strategies to improve the bioavailability of these vital nutrients.

  6. CO2 Laser and Topical Fluoride Therapy in the Control of Caries Lesions on Demineralized Primary Enamel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Valério

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of CO2 laser irradiation and topical fluoride therapy in the control of caries progression on primary teeth enamel. 30 fragments (3×3×2 mm from primary canines were submitted to an initial cariogenic challenge that consisted of immersion on demineralizing solution for 3 hours and remineralizing solution for 21 hours for 5 days. Fragments were randomly assigned into three groups (n=10: L: CO2 laser (λ=10.6 μm, APF: 1.23% acidulated phosphate fluoride, and C: no treatment (control. CO2 laser was applied with 0.5 W power and 0.44 J/cm2 energy density. Fluoride application was performed with 0.1 g for 1 minute. Cariogenic challenge was conducted for 5 days following protocol previously described. Subsurface Knoop microhardness was measured at 30 μm from the edge. Obtained data were subjected to analysis the variance (ANOVA and Duncan test with significance of 5%. It was found that the L group showed greater control of deciduous enamel demineralization and were similar to those of APF group, while being statistically different from C group (P≤0.05 that showed the lowest microhardness values. It was concluded that CO2 laser can be an additional resource in caries control progression on primary teeth enamel.

  7. Influence of CO2 (10.6 μm) and Nd:YAG laser irradiation on the prevention of enamel caries around orthodontic brackets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seino, Priscila Yumi; Freitas, Patrícia Moreira; Marques, Márcia Martins; de Souza Almeida, Fernanda Campos; Botta, Sérgio Brossi; Moreira, Maria Stella Nunes Araújo

    2015-02-01

    One possible undesirable consequence of orthodontic therapy is the development of incipient caries lesions of enamel around brackets. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of CO2 (λ = 10.6 μm) and Nd:YAG (λ = 1,064 nm) lasers associated or not with topical fluoride application on the prevention of caries lesions around brackets. Brackets were bonded to the enamel of 65 premolars. The experimental groups (n = 13) were: G1--application of 1.23% acidulated fluoride phosphate gel (AFP, control); G2--Nd:YAG laser irradiation (0.6 W, 84.9 J/cm(2), 10 Hz, 110 μs, contact mode); G3--Nd:YAG laser irradiation associated with AFP; G4--CO2 laser irradiation (0.5 W, 28.6 J/cm(2), 50 Hz, 5 μs, and 10 mm focal distance); and G5--CO2 laser irradiation associated with AFP. Quantitative light-induced fluorescence was used to assess enamel demineralization. The data were statistically compared (α = 5%). The highest demineralization occurred in the Nd:YAG laser group (G2, 26.15% ± 1.94). The demineralization of all other groups was similar to that of the control group. In conclusion, CO2 laser alone was able to control enamel demineralization around brackets at the same level as that obtained with topical fluoride application.

  8. Sequential generation of hydrogen and methane from glutamic acid through combined photo-fermentation and methanogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Ao; Cheng, Jun; Lin, Richen; Liu, Jianzhong; Zhou, Junhu; Cen, Kefa

    2013-03-01

    Glutamic acid can hardly produce hydrogen via dark- or photo-fermentation without pretreatment. In this study, a novel process of acidogenic pretreatment with bacteria and zeolite treatment for NH4(+) removal was proposed to use glutamic acid as feedstock in photo-fermentation for efficient hydrogen production. Glutamic acid pretreated with acidogenic bacteria produces soluble metabolite products. After zeolite treatment, the acidulated solution, which mainly contains acetate, butyrate, and NH4(+), shows a decrease in NH4(+) concentration from 36.7mM to 3.2mM (NH4(+) removal efficiency of 91.1%). After NH4(+) removal, the treated solution is incubated with photosynthetic bacteria, exhibiting a maximum hydrogen yield of 292.9mL/g(-glutamic acid) during photo-fermentation. The residual solution from photo-fermentation is reused by methanogenic bacteria to produce a maximum methane yield of 102.7mL/g. The heating value conversion efficiency from glutamic acid to gas fuel significantly increases from 18.9% during photo-fermentation to 40.9% in the combined photo-fermentation and methanogenesis process.

  9. Effects of new formulas of bleaching gel and fluoride application on enamel microhardness: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Juliana B; Mazur, Rui Fernando

    2007-01-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the new formulas of bleaching products and the effect of subsequent applications of fluoride on the hardness of enamel during and after tooth bleaching. The crowns of 60 extracted intact human molars were sectioned longitudinally; the buccal part was embedded in acrylic resin, the occlusal part was ground flat, exposing enamel and dentin, and then polished. Baseline Knoop microhardness (KHN) of enamel was determined. The specimens were then randomly divided into six groups of 10 specimens, and each group was assigned to a specific 10% carbamide peroxide (CP) bleaching agent. A: Opalescence, B: Opalescence PF (3% potassium nitrate and 0.11% fluoride), C: Nite White Excel 3 (ACP), D: Opalescence + F (acidulated phosphate fluoride 1.23%), E: Opalescence PF + F, F: Nite White Excel 3 + F. The teeth were bleached for eight hours; after each procedure, the specimens were stored in artificial saliva at 37 degrees C. Immediately after day 21 of bleaching, the specimens in groups D, E and F received fluoride 1.23% for five minutes. KHN tests w ere performedbefore (baseline = control), during (14, 21) and two weeks (35 days) after the bleaching procedure and were statistically compared using ANOVA/Tukey's t-test (alpha formulas, the enamel was restored to a value similar to baseline.

  10. A Review of Temperature, pH, and Other Factors that Influence the Survival of Salmonella in Mayonnaise and Other Raw Egg Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keerthirathne, Thilini Piushani; Ross, Kirstin; Fallowfield, Howard; Whiley, Harriet

    2016-01-01

    Salmonellosis is one of the main causes of foodborne illnesses worldwide, with outbreaks predominately linked to contamination of eggs and raw egg products, such as mayonnaise. This review explores previous studies that have investigated Salmonella control mechanisms utilized in the production of raw egg mayonnaise and other food products. Apart from the use of pasteurized eggs, the main control mechanism identified is the pH of the raw egg products, which plays an important role in the consistency and stability while affecting the survival of Salmonella spp. However, currently there is no consensus regarding the critical pH limit for the control of Salmonella. The effectiveness of pH as a control mechanism is influenced by the type of acid used, with the effectiveness of lemon juice compared with vinegar highly debated. Additionally, Salmonella susceptibility to pH stresses may also be influenced by storage temperature (in some studies refrigeration temperatures protected Salmonella spp. from acidulants) and is further complicated by the development of Salmonella cross-tolerance-induced responses, pH homeostasis achieved by the cellular antiport and symport systems, and acid tolerance response (ATR). These mechanisms all provide Salmonella with an added advantage to ensure survival under various pH conditions. Other confounding factors include the fat content, and the addition of NaCl, garlic and plant essential oils (PEOs) from mint, cinnamon, cardamom and clove. PMID:27869756

  11. Novel efficient combined method for the treatment of wastewater from fluorescent agent production%荧光剂生产废水新型高效组合处理方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶汶銘; 张蒙茜; 郭士明; 刘静; 杨燕菲; 曹琦; 高建峰

    2015-01-01

    荧光增白剂废水对人体和环境有很大危害。采用回收废酸、H 2O 2、石灰等廉价试剂,通过酸性净化—微波+Fenton氧化法—碱化—生物法联合方法,处理某化工厂的荧光废水,使其COD从5480 mg/L降至75 mg/L。该方法以废治废,生产成本低,净化效果显著。%The wastewater from fluorescent-whitening agent production is very harmful to the ecological environment and human health. The wastewater of a chemical plant has been treated with recovered waste acid,H2O2,lime and other inexpensive reagents by the combined process,acidulation purification-microwave+Fenton oxidation-alkaliza-tion-biological method. Its COD can be decreased from 5 480 mg/L to 75 mg/L. This process is characterized by treating waste with waste,low cost,and remarkable purification effect.

  12. The importance of monitoring the identity and quality standards in fruit pulp industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edna Marinho de Oliveira Moura

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to the significant increase in consumption of fruits and their derivatives, it is necessary to invest in operations aimed at their use, minimizing the pre and post-harvest losses, due to its high perishability. The fruit processing pulp is a widely used technique because much of the population seeking convenience and a healthier diet, in addition to increase the product shelf life and can provide it to distant regions and periods off season. This study evaluated physicochemical and microbiological characteristics, in three consecutive months, 17 flavors of fruit pulp of a manufacturing company in order to use the final product control as a means to identify control gaps present in the acquisition of raw materials as well as during processing steps and packaging. It was noticed that about 60% of all pulps were unfit for human consumption, with the highest percentage in the physicochemical analysis (45%, followed by microbiological (30%. In the microbiological characteristics, the large amount of molds and yeasts suggest failure through cleaning and sanitizing fruits and in the processing area. For the physicochemical analysis, pH and total soluble solids content were the most alarming, verifying the possibility of water adittion (illegal and acidulant excess, which causes the pulp loses its fruit identity. The most problematic fruits were pineapple, prune, cajá, cashew, graviola, guava and passion fruit. The control of the final product proved essential to the company's quality assurance.

  13. Applications and functions of food-grade phosphates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampila, Lucina E

    2013-10-01

    Food-grade phosphates are used in the production of foods to function as buffers, sequestrants, acidulants, bases, flavors, cryoprotectants, gel accelerants, dispersants, nutrients, precipitants, and as free-flow (anticaking) or ion-exchange agents. The actions of phosphates affect the chemical leavening of cakes, cookies, pancakes, muffins, and doughnuts; the even melt of processed cheese; the structure of a frankfurter; the bind and hydration of delicatessen meats; the fluidity of evaporated milk; the distinctive flavor of cola beverages; the free flow of spice blends; the mineral content of isotonic beverages; and the light color of par-fried potato strips. In the United States, food-grade phosphates are generally recognized as safe, but use levels have been defined for some foods by the Code of Federal Regulations, specifically Titles 9 and 21 for foods regulated by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), respectively. Standards for food purity are defined nationally and internationally in sources such as the Food Chemicals Codex and the Joint Food and Agriculture Organization and World Health Organization (FAO/WHO) Expert Committee on Food Additives.

  14. Bioconversion of Cheese Waste (Whey)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohnert, G.W.

    1998-03-11

    The US dairy industry produces 67 billion pounds of cheese whey annually. A waste by-product of cheese production, whey consists of water, milk sugar (lactose), casein (protein), and salts amounting to about 7% total solids. Ultrafiltration is used to concentrate cheese whey into a protein-rich foodstuff; however, it too produces a waste stream, known as ''whey permeate,'' (rejected water, lactose, and salts from the membrane). Whey permeate contains about 4.5% lactose and requires treatment to reduce the high BOD (biological oxygen demand) before disposal. Ab Initio, a small business with strong chemistry and dairy processing background, desired help in developing methods for bioconversion of whey permeate lactose into lactic acid. Lactic acid is an organic acid primarily used as an acidulant in the food industry. More recently it has been used to produce polylactic acid, a biodegradable polymer and as a new method to treat meat carcasses to combat E. coli bacteria. Conversion of whey permeate to lactic acid is environmentally sound because it produces a valued product from an otherwise waste stream. FM&T has expertise in bioconversion processes and analytical techniques necessary to characterize biomass functions. The necessary engineering and analytical services for pilot biomass monitoring, process development, and purification of crude lactic acid were available at this facility.

  15. OBTENÇÃO DE BEBIDA A PARTIR DE SUCO DE CAJU (Anacardium occidentale, L. E EXTRATO DE GUARANÁ (Paullinia cupana sorbilis Mart. Ducke OBTENTION OF DRINK FROM CASHEW APPLE JUICE (Anacardium occidentale, L. AND GUARANA EXTRACT (Paullinia cupana sorbilis Mart. Ducke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LILIANA COSTA SOARES

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available A partir do extrato de semente de guaraná com 0,96% de cafeína, foram testadas várias formulações para obtenção de uma bebida, utilizando-se de suco de caju clarificado e concentrado, caramelo, aromatizantes artificiais de caju e guaraná e acidulante, tendo também como variável os diversos graus de doçura (ºBrix. As melhores formulações foram selecionadas de acordo com os resultados da avaliação sensorial, onde se utilizou o teste de ordenação. A formulação selecionada foi processada e envasada em embalagens de vidro. Para determinar a aceitabilidade, o produto final foi submetido a análises físico-químicas e sensoriais.From Guaraná seeds extract with 0,96% caffein content several formulations were evaluated in order to obtain a beverage using clarified cashew juice concentrate, caramel and guaraná artificial flavors and acidulant, using several sweetness grade a variable. The best formulations were selected according to sensorial evaluation results, using the ordenation test. The selected product (14 ºBrix formulation was manufactured and filled in glass bottles. In order to determine the acceptability the final product was submited to physical chemical and sensorial analysis.

  16. Development of bamboo-derived sorbents for mercury removal in gas phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Naved; Don, Jarlen; Mondal, Kanchan; Mahajan, Ajay

    2011-01-01

    Activated carbon sorbents were synthesized from bamboo precursors by carbonization in an inert atmosphere followed by physiochemical activation with carbon dioxide and finally acidulation in hydrochloric acid. Bamboo strips with and without the epidermal tissue (bark) were used. The morphology and specific surface area changes due to the treatment were analysed. The adsorption characteristics of these sorbents after each stage of treatment were also analysed and the data were correlated to the changes in the physical characteristics of the sorbents. Kinetic studies were conducted on these samples. The adsorption equilibrium and kinetics of elemental mercury adsorption on these carbons were evaluated at room temperature. Elemental mercury uptake at different sorbent loading and initial elemental mercury concentrations were examined. The adsorption rate constants and the mass transfer constants were estimated for the sorbents prepared under different conditions. Adsorption isotherms of the elemental mercury on these activated carbons were determined and correlated with Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherm equations. It was found that the overall process was mass transfer controlled and that the adsorption equilibrium could be described by a linear isotherm for the concentrations used in this study.

  17. Quantification of Carbonyl Compounds Generated from Ozone-Based Food Colorants Decomposition Using On-Fiber Derivatization-SPME-GC-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenda Zhu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Fruit leathers (FLs production produces some not-to-specification material, which contains valuable ingredients like fruit pulp, sugars and acidulates. Recovery of FL for product recycling requires decolorization. In earlier research, we proved the efficiency of an ozone-based decolorization process; however, it produces carbonyls as major byproducts, which could be of concern. A headspace solid-phase microextraction with on-fiber derivatization followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was developed for 10 carbonyls analysis in ozonated FL solution/suspension. Effects of dopant concentration, derivatization temperature and time were studied. The adapted method was used to analyze ozonated FL solution/suspension samples. Dopant concentration and derivatization temperature were optimized to 17 mg/mL and 60 °C, respectively. Competitive extraction was studied, and 5 s extraction time was used to avoid non-linear derivatization of 2-furfural. The detection limits (LODs for target carbonyls ranged from 0.016 and 0.030 µg/L. A much lower LOD (0.016 ppb for 2-furfural was achieved compared with 6 and 35 ppb in previous studies. Analysis results confirmed the robustness of the adapted method for quantification of carbonyls in recycled process water treated with ozone-based decolorization. Ethanal, hexanal, 2-furfural, and benzaldehyde were identified as byproducts of known toxicity but all found below levels for concern.

  18. Magnetite-Bridged Carbon Nanotubes/Graphene Sheets Three-Dimensional Network with Excellent Microwave Absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Renbo; Wang, Jialing; Wang, Zicheng; Tong, Lifen; Liu, Xiaobo

    2017-04-01

    A series of three-dimensional carbon nanotubes/graphene sheets network bridged by magnetite (Fe3O4-CNT/GS) is fabricated by solvothermal reaction and used as microwave absorption materials. Phthalonitrile-functionalized CNT (CNT-CN) and graphene oxide (GO-CN) are prepared by reacting acidulated CNT and GO with isophorone diisocyanate and 3-aminophenoxyphthalonitrile. The Fe3O4-CNT/GS is then obtained by the solvothermal reaction from CNT-CN and GO-CN with FeCl3·6H2O. Fe3O4-CNT/GS is characterized by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopic, x-ray diffraction and vibrating sample magnetometer, and its three-dimensional structure is confirmed by scanning electron microscope observation. Due to the formation of three-dimensional nano-architecture and the proper ratio of CNT and GS, the obtained Fe3O4-CNT/GS shows excellent microwave absorption with the minimum reflection loss as high as -45.3 dB at a thickness of 2.5 mm and a bandwidth below -10 dB of 3.8 GHz at a thickness of 1.5 mm. This Fe3O4-CNT/GS material will be a potential candidate as a microwave absorption material.

  19. WATER HARDNESS AS AN IMPORTANT PARAMETER OF PH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žigmund Tóth

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Quality of final product is to great extent influenced by intermediate products that are formed during beer production. In addition quality of pH is one of the most important properties that forms suitable medium for activity of enzymes complexes that have crucial influence on character of produced wort. Moreover enzymes influence the yield of production process and quality of final product as well. Quality of boiling water and especially its hardness have crucial task in terms of keeping optimal qualitative parameters. Water hardness is given by amount of salts, mainly calcium and magnesium salts. It is expressed as absolute hardness which is given by sum of temporary (carbonate and permanent (noncarbonate hardness. In our work we solved the effect of total water hardness on final pH of various intermediate products. We used different water samples and we prepared variants of total hardness by stirring of unpurified water with distilled water thus we achieved various values of hardness. For comparison we prepared several brews with regard to combinations of unpurified water and distilled water. Higher pH of boiling water was caused due to higher water alkalinity that negatively affected enzyme complex present in used malt. Presence of hydrogenphosphates in used malt had high buffering ability and pH lowering ability. Such unfavorable result could be adjust by use of various additions of acidulates that would have in great extent influence on beer final price therefore boiling water adjustment seems to be the most acceptable approach.

  20. Determination of torasemide by fluorescence quenching method with some dihalogenated fluorescein dyes as probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Zhiping; Liu, Shaopu; Liu, Zhongfang; Li, Yuanfang; Hu, Xiaoli; Tian, Jing

    2013-10-01

    A novel fluorescence quenching method for the determination of torasemide (TOR) with some dihalogenated fluorescein dyes as fluorescence probes was developed. In acidulous medium, TOR could interact with some dihalogenated fluorescein dyes such as dichlorofluorescein (DCF), dibromofluorescein (DBF) and diiodofluorescein (DIF) to form binary complexes, which could lead to fluorescence quenching of above dihalogenated fluorescein dyes. The maximum fluorescence emission wavelengths were located at 532 nm (TOR-DCF), 535 nm (TOR-DBF) and 554 nm (TOR-DIF). The relative fluorescence intensities (ΔF = F0 - F) were proportional to the concentration of TOR in certain ranges. The detection limits were 4.8 ng mL-1 for TOR-DCF system, 9.8 ng mL-1 for TOR-DBF system and 35.1 ng mL-1 for TOR-DIF system. The optimum reaction conditions, influencing factors were studied; and the effect of coexisting substances was investigated owing to the highest sensitivity of TOR-DCF system. In addition, the reaction mechanism, composition and structure of the complex were discussed by quantum chemical calculation and Job's method. The fluorescence quenching of dihalogenated fluorescein dyes by TOR was a static quenching process judging from the effect of temperature and the Stern-Volmer plots. The method was satisfactorily applied to the determination of TOR in tablets and human urine samples.

  1. Effects of the low-intensity red laser radiation on the fluoride uptake in enamel. A clinical trial; Avaliacao dos efeitos da radiacao laser de emissao vermelha em baixa intensidade na incorporacao de fluor no esmalte. Estudo clinico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakasone, Regina Keiko

    2004-07-01

    Fluoride has been the most important preventive method on development of the caries. This in vivo study evaluated the effects of low-intensity red laser radiation on the fluoride uptake in enamel. Ten healthy participants were recruited for this study. The two maxillary central incisors of each volunteer to be biopsied were used and divided into 4 groups: group G{sub C} (control, which was untreated; group G{sub F} (fluoride), which received topical acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF) 1,23% treatment for 4 minutes; group G{sub LF} (laser + fluoride), which was irradiated with a low-intensity diode laser ({lambda}= 660 nm and dose= 6 J/cm{sup 2}) with APF application after irradiation and group G{sub FL} (fluoride + laser), which received APF before irradiation using the same parameters as G{sub LF}. The determination of fluoride was performed using a fluoride ion electrode after an acid-etch enamel biopsy. The results show a significant increase of the fluoride uptake in enamel for groups G{sub F}, G{sub LF} and G{sub FL} when compared to control group. Although a percentage increase of 57% was observed for G{sub LF} with respect to G{sub F}, there were no statistical differences among treated groups. These findings suggest that low-intensity laser radiation used before APF could be employed in the clinical practice to prevent dental caries. (author)

  2. Shear bond strength between titanium alloys and composite resin: sandblasting versus fluoride-gel treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Bum-Soon; Heo, Seok-Mo; Lee, Yong-Keun; Kim, Cheol-We

    2003-01-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of fluoride gel treatment on the bond strength between titanium alloys and composite resin, and the effect of NaF solution on the bond strength of titanium alloys. Five titanium alloys and one Co-Cr-Mo alloy were tested. Surface of the alloys were treated with three different methods; SiC polishing paper (No. 2000), sandblasting (50-microm Al2O3), and commercially available acidulated phosphate fluoride gel (F-=1.23%, pH 3.0). After treatment, surfaces of alloy were analyzed by SEM/EDXA. A cylindrical gelatin capsule was filled with a light-curable composite resin. The composite resin capsule was placed on the alloy surface after the application of bonding agent, and the composite resin was light cured for 30 s in four different directions. Shear bond strength was measured with the use of an Instron. Fluoride gel did not affect the surface properties of Co-Cr-Mo alloy and Ni-Ti alloy, but other titanium alloys were strongly affected. Alloys treated with the fluoride gel showed similar bond strengths to the alloys treated with sandblasting. Shear bond strength did not show a significant difference (ptitanium alloys. To enhance the bond strength of composite resin to titanium alloys, fluoride-gel treatment may be used as an alternative technique to the sandblasting treatment.

  3. Discoloration and dissolution of titanium and titanium alloys with immersion in peroxide- or fluoride-containing solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, Tatsumi; Takemoto, Shinji; Hattori, Masayuki; Yoshinari, Masao; Kawada, Eiji; Oda, Yutaka

    2008-01-01

    This study compared differences in discoloration and dissolution in several titanium alloys with immersion in peroxide- or fluoride-containing solution. Commercially pure titanium (CP-Ti) and six titanium-based alloys were used: Ti-0.15Pd, Ti-6Al-4V, Ti-7Nb-6Al, Ti-55Ni, Ti-10Cu, and Ti-20Cr. Two test solutions were prepared for immersion of polished titanium and titanium alloys: one consisting of 0.2% NaF + 0.9% NaCl (pH 3.8 with lactic acid) and the other of 0.1 mol/l H2O2 + 0.9% NaCl (pH 5.5). Following immersion, color changes were determined with a color meter and released elements were measured using ICP-OES. Discoloration and dissolution rates differed between the two solutions. In the hydrogen peroxide-containing solution, color difference was higher in Ti-55Ni and Ti-6Al-4V than in any of the other alloys, and that Ti-55Ni showed the highest degree of dissolution. In the acidulated fluoride-containing solution, CP-Ti, Ti-0.15Pd, Ti-6Al-4V, Ti-7Nb-6Al, and Ti-10Cu alloys showed remarkable discoloration and dissolution with immersion. On the contrary, Ti-20Cr alloy showed very little discoloration and dissolution in either solution.

  4. Determination of 5-log reduction times for food pathogens in acidified cucumbers during storage at 10 and 25 degrees C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breidt, Fred; Hayes, Janet; McFeeters, Roger F

    2007-11-01

    Outbreaks of acid-resistant foodborne pathogens in acid foods with pH values below 4.0, including apple cider and orange juice, have raised concerns about the safety of acidified vegetable products. For acidified vegetable products with pH values between 3.3 and 4.6, previous research has demonstrated that thermal treatments are needed to achieve a 5-log reduction in the numbers of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, or Salmonella enterica. For some acidified vegetable products with a pH of 3.3 or below, heat processing can result in unacceptable product quality. The purpose of this study was to determine the holding times needed to achieve a 5-log reduction in E. coli O157:H7, L. monocytogenes, and S. enterica strains in acidified vegetable products with acetic acid as the primary acidulant, a pH of 3.3 or below, and a minimum equilibrated temperature of 10 degrees C. We found E. coli O157:H7 to be the most acid-resistant microorganism for the conditions tested, with a predicted time to achieve a 5-log reduction in cell numbers at 10 degrees C of 5.7 days, compared with 2.1 days (51 h) for Salmonella or 0.5 days (11.2 h) for Listeria. At 25 degrees C, the E. coli O157:H7 population achieved a 5-log reduction in 1.4 days (34.3 h).

  5. Influência da aplicação de flúor sobre a rugosidade superficial do ionômero de vidro Vitremer e adesão microbiana a este material Influence of the application of fluoride on the superficial roughness of Vitremer glass ionomer cement and microbial adhesion to this material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise PEDRINI

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Os cimentos ionoméricos representam importante opção de material restaurador em Odontologia e sua adesão à estrutura dental, diminuindo a infiltração marginal, somada à liberação de flúor, inibindo o metabolismo de microrganismos acidogênicos e favorecendo a remineralização dental, podem diminuir a ocorrência de cárie secundária. A aplicação tópica de géis acidulados ou neutros contendo flúor tem sido largamente utilizada em Odontologia. No entanto, este procedimento pode afetar a integridade dos materiais restauradores, aumentando sua rugosidade e a retenção de placa bacteriana. Dessa forma, o presente estudo avaliou o período de tempo no qual o cimento ionomérico Vitremer mantém sua capacidade inibitória sobre Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175 e a adesão dos mesmos sobre a superfície do material, bem como a influência da aplicação tópica de flúor acidulado e neutro sobre esses parâmetros microbiológicos e as características superficiais daquele material. Verificou-se que a atividade antimicrobiana do cimento ionomérico Vitremer se mantém por aproximadamente quatro dias e não é recuperada com o uso de flúor gel acidulado ou neutro. Observou-se, também, que Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175 adere ao material restaurador testado sendo que a aplicação tópica de flúor não influenciou esta adesão. As características superficiais desses materiais não se alteraram com a aplicação dos géis.Glass ionomer cements are important options in restorative and preventive dentistry due to their adhesion to the tooth surface and to fluoride release, which can decrease the risk of recurrent caries. The topical use of acidulated and neutral fluoride gels has been frequent in dentistry. However, this procedure can adversely affect the surface of restorative materials, increasing their roughness and the retention of dental plaque. Thus, this study evaluated the period in which Vitremer glass ionomer cement maintains

  6. Efficacy of various topical agents to prevent enamel demineralization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priska Lestari Hendrawan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Enamel demineralization is a common and undesirable side effect of fixed appliance orthodontic treatment. Many sudies showed that the prevalence varied between 2–96%. There are many ways to prevent demineralization and increased remineralization such as oral hygiene instruction and by topical application such as acidulated phosphate fluor (APF casein phospo peptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP, casein phospo peptide-amorphous calcium phosphate plus (CPP-ACPF. Purpose: The purpose of this in-vitro study was to evaluate the efficacy of various topical agents to prevent enamel demineralization. Methods: Fourty extracted human premolars were allocated to 1 of 4 groups: 1.23% APF gel; 10% CPP-ACP paste; 10% CPP-ACPF paste; and untreated control. All samples were subjected to pH cycling treatment for 12 days through a daily procedure of demineralization solution with pH 4 for 6 hours and remineralization solution with pH 7 for 18 hours. Microhardness testing were done before and after pH cycling and the delta hardness values were determined. Results: APF, CPP-ACP and CPP-ACPF application significantly prevent lowering of enamel microhardness value compared with untreated control group. Kruskal-Wallis, ANOVA, Mann-Whitney U, Tukey and Bonferroni Post-Hoc multiple comparison test showed significant difference between mean delta microhardness value of CPP-ACPF and CPP-ACP group with APF group, but there is no significant difference between mean delta microhardness value of CPP-ACPF and CPP-ACP group. Conclusion: APF, CPP-ACP and CPP-ACPF prevent enamel demineralization. CPP-ACP and CPP-ACPF prevent demineralization more than APF.Latar belakang: Demineralisasi email merupakan efek samping negatif yang sering dijumpai pada perawatan ortodontik cekat. Beberapa penelitian menyatakan bahwa prevalensinya bervariasi 2–96 persen. Ada beberapa cara untuk mencegah demineralisasi dan meningkatkan remineralisasi, misalnya dengan instruksi

  7. SUPPLEMENTATION OF GLYCEROL OR LECITHIN IN DIFFERENT LEVELS OF FREE FAT ACIDS IN BROILER DIETS SUPLEMENTAÇÃO DE GLICEROL OU DE LECITINA EM DIFERENTES NÍVEIS DE ÁCIDOS GRAXOS LIVRES EM DIETAS PARA FRANGOS DE CORTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre de Mello Kessler

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A metabolism trial was carried out with 95 male broilers, 24 day-old, of commercial line, subjected to 18+1 treatments with 5 replications. Three levels of free fat acid (FFA inclusion by the usage of soybean oil (SO, acidulated soybean soapstock (ASS, and the mixture between the two oils (50:50%, in two levels of inclusion (4 and 8% in the basal diet (BD and the supplementation of glycerol or emulsifier (0.5%, in substitution to starch were tested. The trial was conducted for 8 days. Birds performance, metabolizability coefficient of dry matter (MCDM, fat (MCCF and energy (MCCE were evaluated and the comparison among oils and supplements. The performance and the metabolism were not affected (P>0.05 by FFA levels or supplements tested.  It was observed that the use of lecithin improved added crude fat metabolism (P<0.01 and that birds used equally SO and ASS. Both SO and ASS are good sources of fat for broilers.

    KEY WORDS: Acidulated soybean soapstock, emulsification, lecithin, metabolism, performance.
    Realizou-se um experimento com 95 frangos de corte machos de 24 dias de idade, de linhagem comercial, submetidos a 18+1 tratamentos e cinco repetições. Testaram-se três níveis de inclusão de ácidos graxos livres (AGL,  pelo uso de óleo degomado de soja (ODS, óleo ácido de soja (OAS e a mistura entre os dois óleos (50:50%, em dois níveis de inclusão de óleo (4 e 8% na dieta basal e a suplementação glicerol ou lecitina (0,5% em substituição ao amido. Desenvolveu-se o ensaio em oito dias, com avaliação do desempenho das aves, do coeficiente de metabolizabilidade da matéria seca (CMMS, da gordura bruta (CMGB e da energia bruta (CMEB das dietas e comparação dos óleos e suplementos. O desempenho e o metabolismo não foram afetados (P>0,05 pelos níveis de AGL ou suplementos testados. Observou-se que o uso de lecitina proporcionou melhor aproveitamento da gordura bruta adicionada às dietas (P<0

  8. Sulphursoil - Delano Development Corporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1985-06-01

    A sizable amount of technical information has been accumulated on the effects of agricultural applications of the natural mineral product called Sul-Fe. This technical information supports the field observations of farmers, landscapers and gardeners who have used the product. Sul-Fe is often evaluated in terms of its sulphur content alone. When compared to elemental sulphur (100% sulphur), the 18 to 21% sulphur content of Sul-Fe seems relatively low. However, as the following technical data indicates, when judged on actual effects, Sul-Fe's complex mixture of minerals has several advantages over elemental sulphur. When judged on the basis of soil acidulation, Sul-Fe has more immediate effects than elemental sulphur. The rapid acidifying effect is due to Sul-Fe's content of crystalline sulphuric acid. Sul-Fe also has long-term effects on soil pH due to its content of sulphur and sulfides and the time required to oxidize these materials. Elemental sulphur contains sulphur in only one chemical form which must be microbially oxidized before it becomes reactive in the soil solution, a reaction that takes quite some time in some soils. Sul-Fe is thus better than elemental sulphur in terms of immediate effects and comparable in terms of long term effects. Applied blends of Sul-Fe supplemented with elemental sulphur may provide for a maximization of both short and long term effects. An additional benefit derived from the use of Sul-Fe is the addition to the soil of a variety of trace nutrients including iron, calcium, zinc, copper, manganese, magnesium, and molybdenum.

  9. Production and stability of chlorine dioxide in organic acid solutions as affected by pH, type of acid, and concentration of sodium chlorite, and its effectiveness in inactivating Bacillus cereus spores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hoikyung; Kang, Youngjee; Beuchat, Larry R; Ryu, Jee-Hoon

    2008-12-01

    We studied the production and stability of chlorine dioxide (ClO(2)) in organic acid solutions and its effectiveness in killing Bacillus cereus spores. Sodium chlorite (5000, 10,000, or 50,000 microg/ml) was added to 5% acetic, citric, or lactic acid solution, adjusted to pH 3.0, 4.0, 5.0, or 6.0, and held at 21 degrees C for up to 14 days. The amount of ClO(2) produced was higher as the concentration of sodium chlorite was increased and as the pH of the acid solutions was decreased. However, the stability in production of ClO(2) was enhanced by increasing the pH of the organic acid solutions. To evaluate the lethal activity of ClO(2) produced in various acid solutions as affected by acidulant and pH, suspensions of B. cereus spores were treated at 21 degrees C for 1, 3, 5, or 10 min in hydrochloric acid or organic acid solutions (pH 3.0, 4.0, 5.0, or 6.0) containing ClO(2) at concentrations of 100, 50, or 25 microg/ml. Populations of viable spores treated with ClO(2) at concentrations of 100 or 50 microg/ml in organic acid solutions decreased more rapidly than populations treated with the same concentrations of ClO(2) in HCl. Rates of inactivation tended to increase with higher pH of ClO(2) solutions. Results show that ClO(2) formed in organic acid solutions has higher stability and is more lethal to B. cereus spores than ClO(2) formed at the same concentration in HCl solution. This finding emphasizes the benefits of using organic acid solutions to prepare ClO(2) intended for use as an antimicrobial.

  10. CO2 laser and/or fluoride enamel treatment against in situ/ex vivo erosive challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    JORDÃO, Maísa Camillo; FORTI, Gustavo Manzano; NAVARRO, Ricardo Scarparo; FREITAS, Patrícia Moreira; HONÓRIO, Heitor Marques; RIOS, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective This in situ/ex vivo study investigated the effect of CO2 laser irradiation and acidulated phosphate fluoride gel (APF) application, separately and in combination, on enamel resistance to erosion. Material and Methods During 2 experimental 5-day crossover phases, 8 volunteers wore intraoral appliances containing bovine enamel blocks which were submitted to four groups: 1st phase - control, untreated and CO2 laser irradiation, 2nd phase - fluoride application and fluoride application before CO2 laser irradiation. Laser irradiation was performed at 10.6 µm wavelength, 5 µs pulse duration and 50 Hz frequency, with average power input and output of 2.3 W and 2.0 W, respectively (28.6 J/cm2). APF gel (1.23%F, pH 3.5) was applied on enamel surface with a microbrush and left on for 4 minutes. Then, the enamel blocks were fixed at the intraoral appliance level. The erosion was performed extraorally 4 times daily for 5 min in 150 mL of cola drink. Enamel loss was measured profilometrically after treatment and after the in situ phase. The data were tested using one-way Repeated Measures Anova and Tukey's test (p<0.05). Results CO2 laser alone (2.00±0.39 µm) did not show any significantly preventive effect against enamel erosion when compared with the control group (2.41±1.20 µm). Fluoride treated enamel, associated (1.50±0.30 µm) or not (1.47±0.63 µm) with laser irradiation, significantly differed from the control. Conclusion The APF application decreased enamel wear; however, CO2 laser irradiation did not enhance fluoride ability to reduce enamel wear. PMID:27383703

  11. Comparative efficacy of two treatment modalities for dentinal hypersensitivity: A clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparna S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dentin hypersensitivity is a recurrent condition causing discomfort and sometimes pain to the patient, which also deters him from maintaining adequate oral hygiene. Home care and office measures are used for treatment of this malady. Aim: To evaluate and compare the efficacy of 2 treatment modalities for dentinal hypersensitivity, iontophoresis with acidulated phosphate gel (APF gel, and dentin-bonding agent application. Materials and Methods: This split mouth randomized clinical study recruited subjects with a history of hypersensitivity with at least 2 teeth, verified by a light stroke with a dental explorer along the cervical third of the teeth. The patients were subjected to a 1-s air blast and cold water stimuli and their responses were recorded on a verbal rating scale. A total of 30 sites from 15 patients were divided into Group A-1.23% APF gel iontophoresis; and Group B-aqueous solution of hydroxyl-ethyl-methacrylate and glutaraldehyde. The teeth were evaluated immediately after the treatment and at the end of 2 weeks. In case of failure, the tooth was retreated with the same agent as before. Results: The results were statistically analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance and Mann-Whitney U tests. There was no statistically significant difference between the groups at the end of 2 weeks. However, Group A was more effective clinically, with fewer number of failures compared with Group B. Conclusion: Both the agents showed a statistically significant reduction in sensitivity compared with baseline; however, APF gel iontophoresis was more effective in reducing hypersensitivity over a longer time period.

  12. Use of sourdough lactobacilli and oat fibre to decrease the glycaemic index of white wheat bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Angelis, Maria; Rizzello, Carlo G; Alfonsi, Giuditta; Arnault, Philip; Cappelle, Stefan; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Gobbetti, Marco

    2007-12-01

    This work was aimed at decreasing the glycaemic index (GI) of white wheat bread. Breads made with wheat flour (WF) or wholemeal flour (WMF) and fermented with baker's yeast had similar values of resistant starch (RS; 1.4-1.7 %, starch basis). Sourdough Lactobacillus plantarum P1 and Lactobacillus brevis P2 favoured the highest formation of RS (approximately 5 %) when fermented with WF and WMF. The mixture (1:1) of WF and WMF (WF/WMF) was selected. The effect of dietary fibres, chemical or sourdough acidification on the hydrolysis index (HI) of WF/WMF bread was determined. Among fibres, only the addition of oat fibre (5 %) decreased the HI to 90.84 %. Lactic acid determined the lowest HI, and the effect was related to the decrease of pH. For the same decrease of pH, breads fermented with L. plantarum P1 and L. brevis P2 (sourdough WF/WMF) showed values of HI lower than chemical acidification. The glucose response and GI of WF bread or sourdough WF/WMF bread enriched with oat fibre was determined by using fifteen healthy volunteers. Anhydrous glucose was used as reference. The area under the glucose response curve and the value of GI (72 %) of WF bread were significantly (P sourdough WF/WMF bread enriched with oat fibre (GI = 53.7 %). The decrease of GI of the sourdough WF/WMF bread may be due to both fibre content and decreased pH. Compared to WMF bread, sourdough WF/WMF bread, enriched with oat fibre, had higher specific volume, better cell crumb structure and more appreciated acidulous smell, taste and aroma.

  13. EKSTRAKSI PEWARNA ALAMI DARI BUAH ARBEN (Rubus idaeus Linn. [Extraction of Natural Colorant from Red Raspberry (rubus idaeus linn. And its application in food sistem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tensiska1

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Red raspberry fruit has not been optimally utilized even though it contains anthocyanin pigment. The pigment can be used as a natural colorant which also function as antioxidant. The aim of this study was to determine the appropriate solvent for anthocyanin extraction from red raspberry fruit and its possibility for food colorant. The research was started with preliminary research to determine appropriate acidulants (citric, acetic and tartaric acid with levels of 0,1 ;0,25;0,5 ;0,75 and 1 %. The main research was divided into three stages, which were: (1 to determine the appropriate solvent of extraction (aquadest, ethanol and etil acetate; (2 the best extract was determined its color stability in pH of 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9 and (3 to examine the pigment solubility into some food system (aqua96%dest, 25% of acetic acid, 96% of ethanol and coconut oil. The best extract also was examined its solubility in carbonated drink (pH of 3.69, pasteurized milk (pH of 6.49 and yogurt (pH of 2.6. the results showed that the extraction using aquadest with 0.75% of tartaric acid resulted in the highest total anthocyanin and showed the best color intensity. This extract was stable at pH of 2-5 and its solubility was best in aquaeous system with low pHs, thus it can be applied for aqueous product with low pHs.

  14. CO2 laser irradiation enhances CaF2 formation and inhibits lesion progression on demineralized dental enamel-in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zancopé, Bruna R; Rodrigues, Lívia P; Parisotto, Thais M; Steiner-Oliveira, Carolina; Rodrigues, Lidiany K A; Nobre-dos-Santos, Marinês

    2016-04-01

    This study evaluated if Carbon dioxide (CO2) (λ 10.6 μm) laser irradiation combined with acidulated phosphate fluoride gel application (APF gel) enhances "CaF2" uptake by demineralized enamel specimens (DES) and inhibits enamel lesion progression. Thus, two studies were conducted and DES were subjected to APF gel combined or not with CO2 laser irradiation (11.3 or 20.0 J/cm(2), 0.4 or 0.7 W) performed before, during, or after APF gel application. In study 1, 165 DES were allocated to 11 groups. Fluoride as "CaF2 like material" formed on enamel was determined in 100 DES (n = 10/group), and the surface morphologies of 50 specimens were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) before and after "CaF2" extraction. In study 2, 165 DES (11 groups, n = 15), subjected to the same treatments as in study 1, were further subjected to a pH-cycling model to simulate a high cariogenic challenge. The progression of demineralization in DES was evaluated by cross-sectional microhardness and polarized light microscopy analyses. Laser at 11.3 J/cm(2) applied during APF gel application increased "CaF2" uptake on enamel surface. Laser irradiation and APF gel alone arrested the lesion progression compared with the control (p CO2 laser irradiation, combined with a single APF application enhanced "CaF2" uptake on enamel surface and a synergistic effect was found. However, regarding the inhibition of caries lesion progression, no synergistic effect could be demonstrated. In conclusion, the results have shown that irradiation with specific laser parameters significantly enhanced CaF2 uptake by demineralized enamel and inhibited lesion progression.

  15. Fluoride influences nickel-titanium orthodontic wires' surface texture and friction resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbassy, Mona Aly

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects exerted by the acidulated fluoride gel on stainless steel and nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti) orthodontic wires. Materials and Methods: Sixty stainless steel and Ni-Ti orthodontic archwires were distributed into forty archwires used for in vitro study and twenty for in situ study. Fluoride was applied for 1 h in the in vitro experiment while it was applied for 5 min in the in situ experiment. The friction resistance of all wires with ceramic brackets before/after topical fluoride application was measured using a universal testing machine at 1 min intervals of moving wire. Moreover, surface properties of the tested wires before/after fluoride application and before/after friction test were examined by a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Dunnett's t-test was used to compare frictional resistance of as-received stainless steel wires and Ni-Ti wires to the wires treated by fluoride in vitro and in situ (P < 0.05). Two-way ANOVA was used to compare the effect of fluoride application and type of wire on friction resistance in vitro and in situ (P < 0.05). Results: Ni-Ti wires recorded significantly high friction resistance after fluoride application when compared to stainless steel wires in vitro, P < 0.05. Fluoride application did not significantly affect the friction resistance of the tested wires in situ, P < 0.05. SEM observation revealed deterioration of the surface texture of the Ni-Ti wires after fluoride application in vitro and in situ. Conclusions: The in vitro fluoride application caused an increase in friction resistance of Ni-Ti wires when compared to stainless steel wires. In vitro and in situ fluoride application caused deterioration in surface properties of Ni-Ti wires. PMID:27843886

  16. Ozonation-based decolorization of food dyes for recovery of fruit leather wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wenda; Koziel, Jacek A; Cai, Lingshuang; Brehm-Stecher, Byron F; Ozsoy, H Duygu; van Leeuwen, J Hans

    2013-08-28

    Commercial manufacture of fruit leathers (FL) usually results in a portion of the product that is out of specification. The disposition of this material poses special challenges in the food industry. Because the material remains edible and contains valuable ingredients (fruit pulp, sugars, acidulates, etc.), an ideal solution would be to recover this material for product rework. A key practical obstacle to such recovery is that compositing of differently colored wastes results in an unsalable gray product. Therefore, a safe and scalable method for decolorization of FL prior to product rework is needed. This research introduces a novel approach utilizing ozonation for color removal. To explore the use of ozonation as a decolorization step, we first applied it to simple solutions of the commonly used food colorants 2-naphthalenesulfonic acid (Red 40), tartrazine (Yellow 5), and erioglaucine (Blue 1). Decolorization was measured by UV/vis spectrometry at visible wavelengths and with a Hunter colorimeter. Volatile and semivolatile byproducts from ozone-based colorant decomposition were identified and quantified with solid phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS). Removal of Yellow 5, Red 40 and Blue 1 of about 65%, 80%, and 90%, respectively, was accomplished with 70 g of ozone applied per 1 kg of redissolved and resuspended FL. Carbonyl compounds were identified as major byproducts from ozone-induced decomposition of the food colorants. A conservative risk assessment based on quantification results and published toxicity information of potentially toxic byproducts, determined that ozone-based decolorization of FL before recycling is acceptable from a safety standpoint. A preliminary cost estimate based on recycling of 1000 tons of FL annually suggests a potential of $275,000 annual profit from this practice at one production facility alone.

  17. Characterization and functional properties of new everbearing strawberry (Fragaria x ananasa Duch. cultivar, ‘Summertiara’ berries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Nagai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In recent years, a new everbearing strawberry cultivar, ‘Summertiara’ was cultivated to supply the strawberries in pre-harvest season from July to October in Japan. For highly research and development of processing of this cultivar, ‘Summertiara’ berries, the objective of this study was to characterize these berries, with relation to chemical parameters, total phenols, total flavonoids, total vitamin C, and total anthocyanins, and was to investigate the solubility and the stability of anthocyanins from the berries. Moreover, the functional properties such as antioxidative activity, active oxygen species scavenging activity, and antihypertensive activity were also evaluated. Methods: Chemical analysis, colour measurement, and sensory evaluation of new everbearing strawberry cultivar, ‘Summertiara’ berries were performed. Next, the solubility of anthocyanins from the berries and stability of these against pH, temperature, and an incandescent lighting were investigated. Moreover, functional properties of the extracts prepared from berries were elucidated using 5 different methods. Results: The contents of water, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, and ash were the same as those of other cultivar berries. The sugar-acid ratio in the berries was low; these were acidulous. By sensory evaluation, the main factors were vivid red colour, aroma, and acidity. The berries were rich in phenols, flavonoids, vitamin C, and anthocyanins. The anthocyanins of the berries Functional Foods in Health and Disease 2014; 4(1:1-22 Page 2 of 22 became unstable by heat treatment and light exposures such as visible rays. On the other hand, the extracts prepared from the berries showed the functionalities such as antioxidant activity, active oxygen species scavenging activities, and antihypertensive activity. Conclusions: The strawberry cultivar, ‘Summertiara’ berries were the most suitable for processing ingredient of strawberry-derived products

  18. Upgrading of raw tall oil soap into fuel oils and lubricants; Raakasuovan jalostus poltto- ja voiteluoeljyksi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oasmaa, A.; Arpiainen, V.; McKeough, P.; Tapola, E.; Haekkinen, R.; Kuoppala, E.; Koskela, K. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland). Energy Production Technologies

    1997-12-01

    Thermochemical processing of tall oil soap originating from various mixtures of birch and pine has been experimentally investigated. The organic matter of tall oil soap, which is a by- product of Kraft pulping, originates mainly from wood extractives. Conventional processing of tall oil soap involves acidulation with sulphuric acid to yield crude tall oil and subsequent distillation of the oil at centralised refineries. Because tall oil originating from birch wood is far less valuable than that from pine, there is an economic incentive in the Nordic countries to develop alternative conversion processes for the tall oil soap produced at pulp mills where birch is widely used as feedstock. Furthermore, thermochemical processing of tall oil soap does not introduce sulphur into the chemical recovery cycle. This would be a significant advantage in future mills employing closure of water circuits and/or sulphur-free pulping. In small-scale experiments tall oil soaps from wood mixtures with high birch content have been processed using both liquid-phase thermal treatment and pyrolysis. The liquid-phase thermal treatment at 450 deg C under a nitrogen atmosphere yielded a good-quality oil product at high yield (about 50 % of the energy content of the tall oil soap). In the atmospheric pyrolysis of birch tall oil soap a separation of inorganic and organic constituents was obtained. The energy value of the product gases was high. Both processes are promising, but the pyrolysis alternative has the greater economic potential, providing that the promising preliminary experimental results have given a true picture of the performance of the full-scale pyrolysis process. (orig.)

  19. An in vitro evaluation of the efficacy of a novel iontophoresis fluoride tray on remineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulusu, Tezer

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study is to determine the effects on remineralization of a novel iontophoresis device called ‘Fluorinex’, conventional (acidulated phosphat fluoride) APF gel treatment, and conventional ionthophoresis device comparatively by laser fluorescence measurements. Study Design: Artificial incipient carious lesions were created on immature, 60 intact premolar and molar teeth with no defects. The specimens were randomly allocated to four groups. In the first group 1.23% APF gel was applied to specimens by conventional method for 4 minutes and in the second group 2% (sodium fluoride) NaF solution applied by conventional iontophoresis device for 4 minutes. In Fluorinex group specimens were pretreated with (copper chloride) CuCl2 for 1 minute and then treated for 4 minutes with 1.23% APF gel in a Fluoritray. Control group was placed in distilled water for 4 minutes. After these applications all specimens were included to a pH cycling. DIAGNOdent pen measurement were obtained in three different time intervals; after incipient carious lesions, after fluoride treatments and after pH cycling. Specimens were studied by SEM(scanning electron microscopy) after artificial caries lesions and fluoride treatments. Results: Alterations on DIAGNOdent pen measurements before and after treatment, the Fluorinex group was statistically different from conventional APF gel (p=0.011), conventional NaF iontophoresis (pDIAGNOdent pen measurements before treatment and after pH cycling were compared, differences were statistically significant in Fluorinex and conventional APF gel groups (p<0.001). Conclusions: The results of this in vitro study has shown that fluoride application by Fluorinex was superior to the conventional APF gel application and NaF iontophoresis on incipient carious lesions. Key words:Fluoride, iontophoresis, remineralization. PMID:25593651

  20. The effect of APF-incorporated phosphoric acid etchant on shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnam Khosravanifard

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of adding acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF to phosphoric acid etchant on shear bond strength (SBS and adhesive remnant index (ARI of orthodontic brackets bonded to etched teeth. Methods: In this in vitro experimental study, 40 human premolars were etched with 37% phosphoric acid solution (Dentsply blended with 0, 25%, 50%, and 75% fractions of 1.23% APF (Dentsply. The brackets (Mini Dyna Lock, 3M were bonded (Transbond XT, 3M and were subjected to 96 hours of 37°C incubation and thermocycling procedures (2000 cycles, 5-55°C, dwell time = 30 s. Then, they were debonded at 1-mm crosshead speed to measure the SBS. The ARI was estimated at 10× magnification. The data were analyzed using the tests one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA, Tukey, chi-square, one-sample t-test, and Spearman correlation. Results: The SBS of the groups control, 25%, 50%, and 75% APF were 11.90±2.72, 8.01±3.13, 5.40±2.51, and 3.27±2.01 MPa, respectively. Mean ARI scores of these groups were 2.4 (control, 4.3, 4.7, and 4.8, respectively. According to the Tukey′s test, only the mean SBS of the second group (25% was not different from the control group (P=0.091. Conclusion: Adding about 20-25% of 1.23% APF to the phosphoric acid etchant might considerably reduce the amount of residual adhesive, without compromising the SBS.

  1. Natural synthesis of bioactive greigite by solid-gas reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igarashi, Kensuke; Yamamura, Yasuhisa; Kuwabara, Tomohiko

    2016-10-01

    Greigite, a ferrimagnetic iron sulfide Fe(II)Fe(III)2S4, is thought to have played an essential role in chemical evolution leading to the origin of life. Greigite contains a [4Fe-4S] cluster-like structure and has been synthesized in the laboratory by liquid-state reactions. However, it is unclear how greigite can be synthesized in nature. Herein, we show that greigite is synthesized by the solid-gas reaction of Fe(III)-oxide-hydroxides and H2S. We discovered that the hyperthermophilic hydrogenotrophic methanogen Methanocaldococcus jannaschii reduced elemental sulfur, and the resulting sulfide generated greigite from hematite. The time course and pH dependence of the reaction respectively indicated the involvement of amorphous FeS and H2S as reaction intermediates. An abiotic solid-gas reaction of hematite and H2S (g) under strictly anaerobic conditions was developed. The solid-gas reaction fully converted hematite to greigite/pyrite at 40-120 °C within 12 h and was unaffected by the bulk gas phase. Similar abiotic reactions occurred, but relatively slowly, with aqueous H2S in acidulous liquids using hematite, magnetite, or amorphous FeO(OH) as starting materials, suggesting that greigite was extensively produced in the Hadean Eon as these Fe(III)-oxide-hydroxides were shown to be present or routinely produced during that era. Surprisingly, the obtained greigite induced methanogenesis and growth of hydrogenotrophic methanogens, suggesting that the external greigite crystals enhanced reactions that would otherwise require enzymes, such as [4Fe-4S] cluster-harboring membrane-bound hydrogenases. These data suggested that the greigite produced by the solid-gas and solid-dissolved gas reactions was bioactive.

  2. Review of methods for the reduction of dietary content and toxicity of acrylamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Mendel; Levin, Carol E

    2008-08-13

    Potentially toxic acrylamide is largely derived from heat-induced reactions between the amino group of the free amino acid asparagine and carbonyl groups of glucose and fructose in cereals, potatoes, and other plant-derived foods. This overview surveys and consolidates the following dietary aspects of acrylamide: distribution in food originating from different sources; consumption by diverse populations; reduction of the acrylamide content in the diet; and suppression of adverse effects in vivo. Methods to reduce adverse effects of dietary acrylamide include (a) selecting potato, cereal, and other plant varieties for dietary use that contain low levels of the acrylamide precursors, namely, asparagine and glucose; (b) removing precursors before processing; (c) using the enzyme asparaginase to hydrolyze asparagine to aspartic acid; (d) selecting processing conditions (pH, temperature, time, processing and storage atmosphere) that minimize acrylamide formation; (e) adding food ingredients (acidulants, amino acids, antioxidants, nonreducing carbohydrates, chitosan, garlic compounds, protein hydrolysates, proteins, metal salts) that have been reported to prevent acrylamide formation; (f) removing/trapping acrylamide after it is formed with the aid of chromatography, evaporation, polymerization, or reaction with other food ingredients; and (g) reducing in vivo toxicity. Research needs are suggested that may further facilitate reducing the acrylamide burden of the diet. Researchers are challenged to (a) apply the available methods and to minimize the acrylamide content of the diet without adversely affecting the nutritional quality, safety, and sensory attributes, including color and flavor, while maintaining consumer acceptance; and (b) educate commercial and home food processors and the public about available approaches to mitigating undesirable effects of dietary acrylamide.

  3. Effect of different hydrocolloid on the quality of processed cream cheese%不同亲水胶体对再制奶油奶酪品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫蓓红; 吴润博; 郑远荣; 刘振民

    2013-01-01

    The effect of different hydrocolloid such as locust bean gum,carrageenan,sodium alginate,guar gum and xanthan gum on the quality of processed cream cheese made by cheddar cheese and directly acidified by acidulant was studied in order to find out the best hydrocolloid solution for the system.Hydrocolloid has significant impact on all the parameters of processed cream cheese,especially on the water binding capacity and oil binding capacity.Hydrocolloid without gelling can provide better product than gel-forming hydrocolloid.Xanthan gum Locus and bean gum are both good hydrocolloid for processed cream cheese and it is better to use them separately.%通过研究刺槐豆胶、卡拉胶、海藻酸钠、瓜尔豆胶和黄原胶5种不同亲水胶体对以切达奶酪为原料,直接酸化法得到的再制奶油奶酪品质的影响,来选择较佳的亲水胶体方案.实验结果表明,亲水胶体对样品各方面的性质影响显著,对持水性和持油性的影响尤为明显.本体系适用不凝胶的亲水胶体.黄原胶和刺槐豆胶是最佳的选择,并建议2种胶体单独使用.

  4. Effects of 960 nm diode laser irradiation on dental enamel in vitro: temperature and morphological analysis and evaluation of enamel demineralization; Estudo in vitro dos efeitos promovidos pelo laser de diodo em 960 nm no esmalte dental humano: analise de temperatura, analise morfologica e avaliacao da resistencia a desmineralizacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Ilka Tiemy

    2004-07-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the effects of diode laser irradiation on enamel demineralization. To achieve this goal appropriate photon absorbing substances for the laser radiation, safe laser parameters and adequate temperature measuring apparatus had to be determined. Next, the effects of diode laser and acidulated phosphate fluoride on enamel demineralization by calcium content analysis were evaluated with inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). In the first part of the study, five dyes consisting of vegetable coal diluted in five different liquids were analyzed and vegetable coal diluted in physiological solution was chosen for use as absorber. Methodologies to measure pulp chamber temperature were evaluated and modeling clay was chosen as fixture for the enamel samples held at body temperature. In the second part of the study, different energy density parameters (1.8 J/cm{sup 2}, 3.7 J/cm{sup 2}, 5.6 J/cm{sup 2}, 7.4 J/cm{sup 2} and 9.3 J/cm{sup 2}) exposure times (10, 15, 20, 25 e 30 seconds) and time intervals between dye application and laser irradiation (5, 30, 60, 90 e 120 seconds) were evaluated with respect to temperature changes in the pulp chamber. The enamel morphology was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. Acid resistance was measured using seventy five enamel specimens, divided in five groups (control, fluoride, laser, laser + fluoride and fluoride + laser). The amount of calcium lost during demineralization in lactic acid was measured by ICP-AES. The results obtained in this experiment permit the conclusion that diode laser irradiation did not increase acid resistance. When associated with fluoride, the acid resistance did not differ from the results obtained with fluoride alone. (author)

  5. Process characterization and influence of alternative carbon sources and carbon-to-nitrogen ratio on organic acid production by Aspergillus oryzae DSM1863.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochsenreither, Katrin; Fischer, Christian; Neumann, Anke; Syldatk, Christoph

    2014-06-01

    L-Malic acid and fumaric acid are C4 dicarboxylic organic acids and considered as promising chemical building blocks. They can be applied as food preservatives and acidulants in rust removal and as polymerization starter units. Molds of the genus Aspergillus are able to produce malic acid in large quantities from glucose and other carbon sources. In order to enhance the production potential of Aspergillus oryzae DSM 1863, production and consumption rates in an established bioreactor batch-process based on glucose were determined. At 35 °C, up to 42 g/L malic acid was produced in a 168-h batch process with fumaric acid as a by-product. In prolonged shaking flask experiments (353 h), the suitability of the alternative carbon sources xylose and glycerol at a carbon-to-nitrogen (C/N) ratio of 200:1 and the influence of different C/N ratios in glucose cultivations were tested. When using glucose, 58.2 g/L malic acid and 4.2 g/L fumaric acid were produced. When applying xylose or glycerol, both organic acids are produced but the formation of malic acid decreased to 45.4 and 39.4 g/L, respectively. Whereas the fumaric acid concentration was not significantly altered when cultivating with xylose (4.5 g/L), it is clearly enhanced by using glycerol (9.3 g/L). When using glucose as a carbon source, an increase or decrease of the C/N ratio did not influence malic acid production but had an enormous influence on fumaric acid production. The highest fumaric acid concentrations were determined at the highest C/N ratio (300:1, 8.44 g/L) and lowest at the lowest C/N ratio (100:1, 0.7 g/L).

  6. Comparison of Antibacterial Effect of Fluoride and Chlorhexidine on Two Cariogenic Bacteria: An in Vitro Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poureslami HR

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Statement of problem: Dental plaque is the main source for dental caries and there is no proper vaccine that can affect dental plaques. Objectives: Daily use of an efficient anti-plaque product can be very beneficial in plaque control and, thus, prevention of caries. This study aims to evaluate the antibacterial effects of four products of Chlorhexidine and Fluoride on two types of cariogenic bacteria. Materials and Methods: In this in vitro study, the antibacterial effect of Chlorhexidine and Fluoride (gel and solution against Streptococci Sanguis and Sobrinus was evaluated. Chlorhexidine gluconate 1% gel (Corosodyl, France, Chlorhexidine gluconate 2% solution (Consepsis, Ultradent, US, Sodium fluoride 0.2% solution (Oral-B, US and Acidulated Phosphate Fluoride 1.23% gel ( Denti-Care, Canada were used. The disc diffusion method was used for testing bacterial sensitivity. The data were analyzed using paired t-test and Chi-square test. Results: In comparison with the negative control, each of the four gels and solutions showed antibacterial effects but the effects were not statistically significant for fluoride solution (P=0.217. For S. Sobrinus, the mean diameter of inhibition zone around the discs coated with fluoride gel (F g, fluoride solution (F s, Chlorhexidine gel (CHX g and Chlorhexidine solution (CHX s were 19, 9, 21.5 and 27.5mm, respectively. For S. Sanguis, the mean diameter of inhibition zone around the discs coated with F g, F s, CHX g and CHX s were 17, 11, 17 and 25mm, respectively. CHX s had the most effect on both bacteria and F s had the least. CHX g and F g were less effective than CHX s, respectively. Conclusion: The results demonstrated that 2% CHX s and 1.23% F g can be effective on inhibition of the growth of some of cariogenic bacteria. Therefore, these agents can be used in the prevention of Early Childhood Caries.

  7. Effects of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP and fluoride on the microhardness of enamel treated with a bleaching agent: ex vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mügem Aslı Gürel Ekici

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the effects of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP and 1.23% acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF; pH 3.5 on the microhardness of enamel treated with a bleaching agent. Materials and Method: Enamel slices (n=32; 2×4 mm were obtained from 8 mandibular permanent molar teeth. Specimens were embedded into acrylic resin blocks with the enamel surfaces facing upwards. Vickers microhardness (VHN values of the specimens were recorded at baseline. The specimens were randomly divided into 4 experimental groups, and the experimental designation was as follows: Group 1: no treatment (control, Group 2: 35% hydrogen peroxide (HP, Group 3: HP + CPP-ACP, Group 4: HP + APF application. After treatments, VHN values were measured and recorded again. Specimens were stored in artificial saliva at 37 °C for 1 week. After 1 week second application was done and VHN of the specimens was registered once more. Data were statistically analyzed with ANOVA and Tukey post hoc tests. Values obtained at baseline, and first and second applications were compared using paired samples t-test (α=0.05. Results: In inter-group comparisons, no statistically significant difference in the enamel microhardness values was found between the baseline, and first and second applications (p>0.05. In intra-group comparisons, again, no statistically significant difference in the enamel microhardness values was found between the baseline, and first and second applications (p>0.05. Conclusion: According to the limitations of this study it can be concluded that neither the HP application nor the CPP-ACP or APF application after HP had any significant effect on the enamel microhardness.

  8. Effects of minimal processing on the respiration rate and quality of rambutan cv. ‘Rong-Rien’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buncha Ooraikul

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Respiration rate at 4oC and minimal processing of rambutan cv. ‘Rong-Rien’ were investigated. Rambutan was harvested from Amphur Ban Na San, Surat Thani Province, at the stage when its skin was turning into a combination of red, green and yellow. After harvesting, the fruits were size-graded to 27-30 fruits/kg, hydrocooled to 14oC, packed with ice in Styrofoam boxes and transported to the laboratory at Prince of Songkla University within 6 h. The respiration rate of fresh rambutan fruits was monitored. For minimal processing, the fruits were soaked in warm solution (55oC of 100 ppm sodium hypochlorite for one min and immediately cooled in cold water until their internal temperature reached 14oC. The minimal process included peeling, with and without coring. The peeled and peeled and cored rambutan samples were immersed in a solution of 0.5% citric acid + 0.5% CaCl2 at 4oC for 2 min. The average respiration rates (within 6 h at 4oC of whole fruit, peeled, and peeled and cored rambutan samples were measured and found to be 122, 134 and 143 mg CO2/kg/h, respectively. These findings indicated that a preparation style as peeled rambutan without coring, nylon/LLDPE bag, storage temperature of 4.0±1oC, were suitably applied for processed rambutans. To obtain a longer extended shelf life (>12 days of minimally processed peeled rambutans, further study on food additives, including acidulants and preservative used and gas composition in modified atmosphere packaging (MAP is needed.

  9. Physiological characterization of the high malic acid-producing Aspergillus oryzae strain 2103a-68.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knuf, Christoph; Nookaew, Intawat; Remmers, Ilse; Khoomrung, Sakda; Brown, Stephen; Berry, Alan; Nielsen, Jens

    2014-04-01

    Malic acid is a C₄ dicarboxylic acid that is currently mainly used in the food and beverages industry as an acidulant. Because of the versatility of the group of C₄ dicarboxylic acids, the chemical industry has a growing interest in this chemical compound. As malic acid will be considered as a bulk chemical, microbial production requires organisms that sustain high rates, yields, and titers. Aspergillus oryzae is mainly known as an industrial enzyme producer, but it was also shown that it has a very competitive natural production capacity for malic acid. Recently, an engineered A. oryzae strain, 2103a-68, was presented which overexpressed pyruvate carboxylase, malate dehydrogenase, and a malic acid transporter. In this work, we report a detailed characterization of this strain including detailed rates and yields under malic acid production conditions. Furthermore, transcript levels of the genes of interest and corresponding enzyme activities were measured. On glucose as carbon source, 2103a-68 was able to secrete malic acid at a maximum specific production rate during stationary phase of 1.87 mmol (g dry weight (DW))⁻¹ h⁻¹ and with a yield of 1.49 mol mol⁻¹. Intracellular fluxes were obtained using ¹³C flux analysis during exponential growth, supporting the success of the metabolic engineering strategy of increasing flux through the reductive cytosolic tricarboxylic acid (rTCA) branch. Additional cultivations using xylose and a glucose/xylose mixture demonstrated that A. oryzae is able to efficiently metabolize pentoses and hexoses to produce malic acid at high titers, rates, and yields.

  10. Study of“Back to the Blue”Phenomenon of Iodine Titration Sintering Flue Gas Desulfurization Ash%碘滴定烧结烟气脱硫灰“回蓝”现象研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    詹鹏; 杨新亚

    2013-01-01

    Calcium sulfate content in sintering flue gas desulfurization ash were determined by using iodometric titration method. It was found that the Fe3+gradually dissolved caused phenomenon of“back to the blue”and the use of phosphoric acid as acidifier could effective shield Fe3+to titration interference. By using phosphoric acid as acidulant and controlling the pH of solution from 1.5 to 2.5, the titration results of the relative standard deviation was only 0.15%, could measure the content of calcium sulfite in sintering flue gas desulfurization ash accurately.%对碘量法测定烧结烟气脱硫灰中亚硫酸钙含量进行了研究。通过在 I-溶液中调节试验变量,发现滴定结束后出现“回蓝”现象是脱硫灰在酸性条件下逐渐溶出的Fe3+造成的。使用磷酸作为酸化剂则能有效掩蔽Fe3+对滴定的干扰,从而减小实验误差。利用加酸量的改变调节滴定溶液的酸性,测出脱硫灰中亚硫酸钙的含量和加入的标准亚硫酸钙的回收率,得到用磷酸做酸化剂,控制 pH 在1.5~2.5范围内,滴定结果的相对标准偏差仅为0.15%,能够准确测定烧结烟气脱硫灰中亚硫酸钙的含量。

  11. Trace elements in rock phosphates and P containing mineral and organo-mineral fertilizers sold in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratz, Sylvia; Schick, Judith; Schnug, Ewald

    2016-01-15

    68 rock phosphates and 162 P containing (organo-)mineral fertilizers sold in Germany were evaluated with regard to trace element contents. While Al, As, B, Be, Cd, Cr, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Tl, U, and Zn were higher in sedimentary than in igneous rock phosphates, the opposite was true for Co, Cu, Sn, Mn, Ti, Fe, and Sr. Comparing element concentrations to the currently valid legal limit values defined by the German Fertilizer Ordinance, it was found that some PK and many straight P fertilizers (superphosphate, triple superphosphate, partly acidulated rock phosphates) exceeded the limit of 50 mg Cd/kg P2O5. Mean values for As, Ni, Pb, and Tl remained below legal limits in almost all cases. While no legal limit has been defined for U in Germany yet, the limit of 50 mg U/kg P2O5 for P containing fertilizers proposed by the German Commission for the Protection of Soils was clearly exceeded by mean values for all fertilizer types analyzed. A large share of the samples evaluated in this work contained essential trace elements at high concentrations, with many of them not being declared as such. Furthermore, trace elements supplied with these fertilizers at a fertilization rate leveling P uptake would exceed trace element uptake by crops. This may become most relevant for B and Fe, since many crops are sensitive to an oversupply of B, and Fe loads exceeding plant uptake may immobilize P supplies for the crops by forming Fe phosphate salts. The sample set included two products made from thermochemically treated sewage sludge ash. The products displayed very high concentrations of Fe and Mn and exceeded the legal limit for Ni, emphasizing the necessity to continue research on heavy metal removal from recycled raw materials and the development of environmentally friendly and agriculturally efficient fertilizer products.

  12. Nanostructural effect of acid-etching and fluoride application on human primary and permanent tooth enamels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheong, Youjin [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Healthcare Industry Research Institute, College of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Samjin [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Healthcare Industry Research Institute, College of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Department of Orthodontics, College of Dental Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, So Jung [Department of Pediatric Dentistry, College of Dental Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Hun-Kuk, E-mail: sigmoidus@khu.ac.kr [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Healthcare Industry Research Institute, College of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Program of Medical Engineering, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-07-01

    This study examined the nanostructural effects of fluoride application and the acid-etching time with respect to the time elapsed after fluoride application on the primary and permanent tooth enamel layers using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). 192 non-carious teeth were assigned to sixteen experimental groups (n = 12) including primary (1 to 8) and permanent (9 to 16) teeth, based on the timing of acid-etching with 37% phosphoric acid after an acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF) pre-treatment. The APF pre-treatment led to a decrease in surface roughness in both the primary and permanent teeth. After the APF treatment, the roughness in both primary and permanent teeth increased with the time elapsed. An acid-etching time of 40 s led to increased nanostructural changes in the enamel surfaces compared to the conventional acid-etching time of 20 s. This acid-etching process led to a higher roughness changes in the primary teeth than in the permanent teeth. To obtain proper enamel adhesion of a sealant after APF pre-treatment, it is important to apply acid-etching two weeks after pre-treatment. In addition, the acid-etching time should be prolonged to apply etching more quickly than two weeks, regardless of the primary and permanent teeth. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer APF pre-treatment led to decreased surface roughness in the enamel. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer After APF treatment, the more roughness increased with increasing time elapsed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Acid-etching should be performed two weeks after fluoride application.

  13. Effect of pretreatment with an Er:YAG laser and fluoride on the prevention of dental enamel erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Reis Derceli, Juliana; Faraoni-Romano, Juliana Jendiroba; Azevedo, Danielle Torres; Wang, Linda; Bataglion, César; Palma-Dibb, Regina Guenka

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the Er:YAG laser and its association with fluoride (1.23% acidulate phosphate fluoride gel) on the prevention of enamel erosion. Sixty specimens were obtained from bovine enamel (4 × 4 mm), which were ground flat, polished, and randomly divided into five groups according to the preventive treatments: control-fluoride application; L--Er:YAG laser; L+F--laser + fluoride; F+L--fluoride + laser; L/F--laser/fluoride simultaneously. Half of the enamel surface was covered with nail varnish (control area), and the other half was pretreated with one of the preventive strategies to subsequently be submitted to erosive challenge. When the laser was applied, it was irradiated for 10 s with a focal length of 4 mm and 60 mJ/2 Hz. Fluoride gel was applied for 4 min. Each specimen was individually exposed to regular Coca-Cola® for 1 min, four times/day, for 5 days. Wear analysis was performed with a profilometer, and demineralization was assessed with an optical microscope. Data were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test (wear)/Dunn test and ANOVA/Fisher's exact tests. The group L/F was similar to control group. The other groups showed higher wear, which did not present differences among them. In the demineralization assessment, the groups F+L and L/F showed lower demineralization in relation to the other groups. It can be concluded that none preventive method was able to inhibit dental wear. The treatments L/F and F+L showed lower enamel demineralization.

  14. Fluoride release and uptake capacities of fluoride-releasing restorative materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attar, Nuray; Turgut, Melek D

    2003-01-01

    Many fluoride-releasing dental materials are being sold on the basis of their cariostatic properties. However, the amount fluoride release of these materials is still uncertain. This study investigated the fluoride release and uptake characteristics of four flowable resin composites (Heliomolar Flow, Tetric Flow, Wave, Perma Flo), one flowable compomer (Dyract flow), one conventional glass ionomer cement mixed with two different powder/liquid ratios (ChemFlex Syringeable and ChemFlex Condensable), one packable resin composite (SureFil), one ion-releasing composite (Ariston pHc) and one resin-modified glass ionomer cement (Vitremer). Seven discs (6-mm diameter and 1.5-mm height) were prepared for each material. Each disc was immersed in 3.5 ml of deionized water within a plastic vial and stored at 37 degrees C. The deionized water was changed every 24 hours and the release of fluoride was measured for 30 days. At the end of this period, the samples were recharged with 2 ml of 1.23% acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF) gel for four minutes. Then, all samples were reassessed for an additional 10 days. The fluoride release of all samples was measured with a specific fluoride electrode and an ionanalyzer. Statistical analyses were conducted using two-way repeated measure ANOVA and Duncan's multiple range tests. For all tested materials, the greatest fluoride release was observed after the first day of the study (p0.05). Ariston pHc released the highest amount of fluoride, followed by ChemFlex Syringeable, Vitremer and ChemFlex Condensable. There were statistically significant differences among these materials (p<0.05). Fluoride release of all materials were significantly increased after the first day following refluoridation and Ariston pHc released the greatest among all materials (p<0.01). At the end of two days of refluoridation, the fluoride release rate for each material dropped quickly and stabilized within three days.

  15. Utilización de la pepsina de pollo como coagulante de la leche

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peña Rueda Aurora

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available Se molieron el proventrículo y la mezcla de proventrículo más intestino y se sometieron a tres condiciones microambientales (fuente enzimática, acidulante y antioxidante y a tres condiciones macroambientales: tiempo de almacenamiento (35, 70 Y 105 días, temperatura de almacenamiento (4,25 Y 35°C y temperatura del substrato (35 y 45°C. Se utilizó un diseño completamente al azar con dos repeticiones por tratamiento empleando un estándar de pepsina de cerdo con actividad enzimática conocida. Las variables de respuesta evaluadas fueron: actividad enzimática (en segundos, poder o fuerza de coagulación (mi de leche por gramo de enzima y rendimiento quesero (o/o. El análisis de varianza fue significativo al 1%, obteniéndose los mejores resultados con la mezcla proventrículos más intestino adicionado de H CI y antioxidante 35 días, almacenado a 4°C y 45°C de temperatura del substrato. Los análisis microbiológicos fueron negativos para la presencia de Salmonella y Clostridium. Los rendimientos queseros fueron mayores en las muestras experimentales.Utilization of chicken pepsine as milk coagulant. Ground of proventricle and proventricle more gut mix were subjected three rnicroenvironrnents conditions (enzimatic source, acidulant and antioxidating under macroenvironments conditions: storing time (35, 70 and 105 days, storing temperature (4, 25 and 35°C and substrate temperature (35 and 45°C. Absolutely aleatory design with two replications by treatment was used employing a pig pepsine standard with enzimatic activity known, responses variables evaluated were enzymatic activiry (seconds coagulation power or force (ml milk by enzimegram and cheese yield (o/o. Variance analysis was significant at 1 % obtaining better results mixing proventricle more gut added with H CI and antroxidating when its enzimatic activity was measured to 35 days, with 4°C storing temperature and 45°C substrate temperature. Microbiogical analysis were

  16. Double vacuum assisted resin infusion molding and property of carbon nanotube-glass fiber/epoxy resin laminates%碳纳米管-玻璃纤维/环氧层板双真空灌注工艺及性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵艳文; 顾轶卓; 李敏; 张佐光

    2011-01-01

    The carbon nanotube (CNT)-glass fiber/epoxy resin laminates were prepared by traditional vacuum assisted resin infusion molding (VARIM) and double vacuum assisted resin infusion molding (DVARIM),respectively. The defects of the laminates processed with the two methods were examined, and the mechanical properties including flexural property and interlaminar shear strength (ILSS) were measured. The distribution and the enhancement mechanism of CNT in the laminates with DVARIM were studied by the measurement of the resin properties and the observation of the fiber/resin interracial bonding. It shows that, compared with traditional VARIM, the defects in the fiber bundles decrease because the spaces within fibers increase and the resin infiltration improves in DVARIM. The mechanical properties of the laminates are enhanced by adding 0.05% mass fraction of acidulated CNT, especially for the laminates processed by DVARIM. In addition, the infusion process influences the distribution of CNT in the laminates, and further changes the effects of CNT on the interface bonding of fiber/resin,which is dependent on the compactness of the fabric.%针对碳纳米管(CNT)-玻璃纤维/环氧树脂体系,采用传统的真空灌注工艺(VARIM)和双真空灌注工艺(DVARIM)制备复合材料层板,分析了不同工艺方法下层板缺陷状况,测试了层板的弯曲性能和层间剪切性能,并结合树脂性能和纤维/树脂界面粘结状况观察,探讨了DVARIM对CNT分布的影响及碳管的增强机制.结果表明:与传统的VARIM相比,DVARIM能增加纤维的间距,提高树脂对纤维的浸润能力,减小纤维束内的孔隙缺陷;添加质量分数为0.05%的酸化CNT后层板性能提高,而且采用DVARIM性能提高更明显;不同灌注工艺对CNT的分布产生影响,从而改变了CNT对纤维/树脂界面粘接的影响,同时这种影响与织物结构的紧密程度有关.

  17. Evaluation of frictional resistance and surface characteristics after immersion of orthodontic brackets and wire in different chemical solutions: A comparative in vitrostudy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavitha Nanjundan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the changes of static and kinetic frictional forces between the brackets and wires following exposure to a soft drink, acidic food ingredient, and acidulated fluoride prophylactic agents. Materials and Methods: Two types of Roth prescription mandibular incisor brackets were used: 3M Unitek Victory stainless steel (SS brackets (n = 40 and Transcend 6000 polycrystalline alumina (PCA brackets (n = 40 as well as eighty 0.019 × 0.025" dimension ortho technology SS wires of 50 mm length each. Subsequently, brackets tied with SS wires divided into eight subgroups (n = 10 and were immersed in vinegar (pH = 3.5 ± 0.5, Pepsi ® (pH = 2.46, Colgate Phos-Flur mouth rinse (pH = 5.1, and artificial saliva (control group pH = 7 for 24 h. Changes in surface morphology under scanning electron microscope ×1000, surface roughness (Ra with surface profilometer (single bracket and single wire from each subgroup, and frictional resistance using universal testing machine were evaluated. Results: Highest mean (standard deviation static frictional force of 2.65 (0.25 N was recorded in Pepsi ® followed by 2.57 (0.25 N, 2.40 (0.22 N, and 2.36 (0.17 N for Vinegar, Colgate Phos-Flur mouth rinse, and artificial saliva groups, respectively. In a similar order, lesser mean kinetic frictional forces obtained. PCA brackets revealed more surface deterioration and higher frictional force values than SS brackets. A significant positive correlation was observed between frictional forces and bracket slot roughness (r = 0.861 and 0.802, respectively, for static and kinetic frictional forces, p < 0.001 for both and wire roughness (r = 0.243 and 0.242, respectively, for static and kinetic frictional forces, p < 0.05 for both. Conclusions: Findings may have long-term implications when acidic food substances are used during fixed orthodontic treatment. Further, in vivo studies are required to analyze the clinical effect of acidic mediums in the oral environment during

  18. The radiological impact of the Belgian phosphate industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanmarcke, H.; Paridaens, J. [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, SCK.CEN, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium)

    2006-07-01

    The Belgian phosphate industry processes huge amounts of phosphate ore (1.5 to 2 Mton/year) for a wide range of applications, the most important being the production of phosphoric acid, fertilizers and cattle food. Marine phosphate ores show high specific activities of the natural uranium decay series (usually indicated by Ra-226) (e.g. 1200 to 1500 Bq/kg for Moroccan ore). Ores of magmatic origin generally contain less of the uranium and more of the thorium decay series (up to 500 Bq/kg). These radionuclides turn up in by-products, residues or product streams depending on the processing method and the acid used for the acidulation of the phosphate rock. Sulfuric acid is the most widely used, but also hydrochloric acid and nitric acid are applied in Belgium. For Flanders, the northern part of Belgium, we already have a clear idea of the production processes and waste streams. The five Flemish phosphate plants, from 1920 to 2000, handled 54 million ton of phosphate ore containing 65 TBq of radium-226 and 2.7 TBq of thorium- 232. The total surface area of the phosphogypsum and calcium fluoride sludge deposits amounts to almost 300 ha. There is also environmental contamination along two small rivers receiving the waste waters of the hydrochloric production process: the Winterbeek (> 200 ha) and the Grote Laak (12 ha). The data on the impact of the phosphate industry in the Walloon provinces in Belgium is less complete. A large plant produced in 2004 0.8 Mton of phosphogypsum, valorizing about 70 % of the gypsum in building materials (plaster, cement), in fertilizers, and in other products such as paper. The remainder was stored on a local disposal site. The radiological impact of the Belgian phosphate industry on the local population will be discussed. At present most contaminated areas are still recognizable as waste deposits and inaccessible to the population. However as gypsum deposits and other contaminated areas quickly blend in with the landscape, it is

  19. Repairability of Compomers with Different Methods of Surface Conditioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.Samimi

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Considering the cost and amount of time and also the quantity of tooth loss in the process of cavity preparation, repair of the restoration instead of itsreplacement would be much more efficient.Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of different methods of surface conditioning on the shear bond strength of repaired compomers.Materials and Methods: Sixty blocks of compomer were prepared in acrylic molds and then they were randomly divided into five groups of 12. Group I (control groupreceived no treatment. The remaining samples were immersed in 37 ºC distilled water for one week, then the surfaces were roughened with a coarse diamond bur. Samples ineach group were prepared by different surface treatment and conditioning: In group II specimens were conditioned with 35% phosphoric acid for 20s. Specimens in group III were etched with 10% polyacrylic acid for 20s. In group IV 1.23% acidulated phosphatefluoride was applied for 30s, and compomer surfaces were sandblasted with 50μm Al2O3 powder in group V. After the initial preparations, all groups were treated with silane and resin before bonding of the second mix of compomer. Shear forces were applied with a universal testing machine at a cross-head speed of 5mm/min. The data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Duncan's multiple range tests.Results: The mean shear bond strengths and standard deviations (in parentheses for groups I to V were 31.56(10.86, 20.02(5.49, 17.74(7.34, 19.31(4.31 and 27.7(6.33MPa, respectively. The mean bond strengths for Groups I and V were significantly higher than that of the other groups (P<0.05.Conclusion: The results showed that among the surface treatments used in this study,sandblasting with alumina could be the best surface preparation method for repairing compomer restorations.

  20. Inactivation by lemon juice of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Enteritidis, and Listeria monocytogenes in beef marinating for the ethnic food kelaguen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jian; Lee, Delores; Afaisen, Shayna; Gadi, Rama

    2013-01-01

    Lemon juice, a major source of acidulant citric acid, is frequently used in the preparation of ethnic foods. Raw or partially cooked meats are marinated with lemon juice in the preparation of a popular Chamorro dish called kelaguen, which is, unfortunately, strongly associated with foodborne illness outbreaks in Guam. We investigated the efficacy of lemon juice in reducing numbers of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Enteritidis, and Listeria monocytogenes at stationary phase during marination. Beef inoculated with a three-strain mixture of E. coli O157:H7, S. Enteritidis, or L. monocytogenes at 10(6)CFU/mL was marinated with lemon juice from 0.2 to 10mL/g for 48h at 28°C. The decline of the pathogens during marination exhibited various degrees of deviation from first-order kinetics. Based on calculations with both linear regression and Weibull models, the decimal reduction time (4-D values) over the range of lemon concentrations was 366-5.1h for E. coli O157:H7, 282-2.4h for S. Enteritidis, and 104-2.4h for L. monocytogenes, indicating that E. coli O157:H7 was the most lemon-juice-resistant of the three. The pathogen reduction time (log 4-D values) plotted against undissociated titratable citric acid exhibited a biphasic pattern. The pathogen reduction time (log 4-D or δ values) was linearly correlated with the pH of the marinating beef (R(2)=0.92 to 0.98). The Z(pH) values (pH dependence of death rate) with beef marination were 1.03 for E. coli O157:H7, 0.92 for S. Enteritidis, and 1.29 for L. monocytogenes, indicating that L. monocytogenes was the most pH resistant of the three. L. monocytogenes exhibited less resistance to lemon juice than S. Enteritidis at pH of 3.5-4.4 but more resistance at pH of 2.6-2.8. In addition, at 4°C, all three pathogens exhibited 4-D values 1.7-4.1 times greater than those at 24°C at 5mL lemon juice/g beef. In conclusion, the usual beef marinating practice for kelaguen preparation (lemon juice/g beef for 1-12h) did not

  1. Disponibilidade de cádmio e chumbo para milho em solo adubado com fertilizantes fosfatados Cadmium and lead availability to corn in soil amended with phosphorus fertilizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eriberto Vagner de Souza Freitas

    2009-12-01

    and Pb concentrations were found in Gafsa rock phosphate. For the acidulated phosphates, simple superphosphate was the richest in Cd and Pb, while the Pb concentration was highest in Yoorin thermophosphate. Gafsa application induced the highest Pb concentration in corn shoots in the first crop cycle. This fertilizer was also responsible for the highest Cd concentration in plants in the second crop. Citric acid was the most efficient extractant for predicting the available soil Cd contents, whereas DTPA estimated Pb availability best.

  2. Alkali-soluble fluoride deposition on enamel after professional application of topical fluoride in vitro Formação de flúor fracamente ligado ao esmalte após a aplicação tópica profissional de flúor in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsue Fujimaki Hayacibara

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the efficacy of topical fluoride products is related to the fluoride (F availability and its reactivity with enamel, this study was conducted. The F concentration of the following materials was verified: I- acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF gel (1.23% F, II- APF foam (1.23% F and III- Varnish (2.26% F. Forty blocks of bovine enamel were divided into 4 groups and treated according to the materials described, being one of them used as control. Loosely bound fluoride (''CaF2'' was determined on enamel after extraction with 1.0M KOH and analyzed by ion-selective electrode. Total F concentration found in gel was 12,642, in foam 12,755 and in varnish 23,183 mg F/g. All products formed statistically higher amounts of ''CaF2'' on enamel compared to the control group (p 0.05. Thus, ''CaF2'' formation was not proportional to the total F content in the products, suggesting that the pH and the vehicle used are more important.Considerando que a eficácia dos produtos para aplicação tópica profissional de flúor (géis, espumas e vernizes está relacionada com a reatividade do flúor (F com o esmalte e sendo esta dependente da disponibilidade do F em cada produto, este estudo foi conduzido. A concentração de F nos seguintes produtos foi estudada: I - Flúor Fosfato Acidulado (FFA gel (1,23% F, II - FFA espuma (1,23% F e III- Verniz fluoretado (2,26% F. Foram confeccionados 40 blocos de esmalte bovino, tratados de acordo com os grupos descritos, sendo um deles utilizado como controle. O F fracamente ligado (''CaF2'' ao esmalte foi determinado após a extração com 1.0 M KOH e analisado em eletrodo específico. A concentração de F encontrada no gel foi de 12.642, na espuma 12.755 e no verniz 23.183 mg F/g. Todos os produtos formaram uma quantidade significantemente maior de ''CaF2'' na superfície do esmalte, comparado ao grupo controle (p 0,05. Assim, a formação de ''CaF2'' na superfície do esmalte não foi proporcional ao conteúdo de F nos

  3. In vitro study of morphological and chemical modification threshold of bovine dental enamel irradiated by the holmium laser; Estudo in vitro das alteracoes morfologicas e quimicas do esmalte dental bovino irradiado pelo laser de holmio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eduardo, Patricia Lerro de Paula

    2001-07-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the Ho:YLF laser effects on the dental enamel surface with regards to its morphology, thermal variations during its irradiation in the pulp chamber and its increased resistance to demineralization through quantitative analysis of calcium and phosphorous atoms reactive concentrations in samples. Twenty samples of bovine enamel were used and divided in four groups: control - acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF) application followed by demineralization treatment with lactic acid; irradiation with Ho:YLF laser (100 J/cm{sup 2}) followed by APF topic application and demineralization treatment with lactic acid; irradiation with Ho:YLF laser (350 J/cm{sup 2}) followed by APF topic application and demineralization treatment with lactic acid: and irradiation with Ho:YLF laser ( 450 J/cm{sup 2}) followed by APF topic application and demineralization treatment with lactic acid. Ali samples were quantified according to their calcium and phosphorous atoms relative concentrations before and after the treatments above. X-Ray fluorescence spectrochemical analysis and scanning electron microscopy were carried out. It was observed an increase on the calcium and phosphorous atoms concentration ratio and therefore the enamel demineralization reduction as a result of the lactic acid treatment in the samples irradiated with the holmium laser followed by the APF application. In order to evaluate the feasibility of this study for clinical purposes, morphological changes caused by the holmium laser irradiation were analyzed. Such modifications were characterized by melted and re-solidified regions of the enamel with consequent changes on its permeability and solubility. Temperature changes of ten human pre-molars teeth irradiated with 350 J/cm{sup 2} and 450 J/cm{sup 2} were also monitored in the pulp chamber in real time. Temperature increases over 4,20 C did not occur. The results obtained from this study along with the results from previous

  4. The effect of lanthanum,calcium,fluoride on enamel demineralization —— analysis of Microhardness.%镧、钙、氟对釉质脱矿的影响——显微硬度测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘大力; 王小平; 袁诗芬

    2001-01-01

    目的:比较镧、钙、氟对人牙釉质酸蚀脱矿影响,为镧的应用研究提供实验依据。方法:酸性凝胶化学致龋,测定釉质脱矿区剖面显微硬度,逐点单因素方差分析其显微硬度值。结果:釉质表层下25~150μm范围内,镧处理组、氟处理组的硬度值高于对照组;25~75μm范围内,镧处理组的硬度值高于钙处理组;50~150μm范围内,钙处理组的硬度值高于对照组,氟处理组的硬度值高于镧处理组。结论:脱矿凝胶中加入1g/L的Ca2+、La3+、F-均阻止釉质硬度的下降,氟的作用最强,钙的作用最弱,镧的作用界于氟和钙之间。%Objective:The study is designed to compare the effect ofLanthanum(La),Calcium(Ca),Fluoride(F) on enamel demineralization after etching,and to provide an experimental reference for the application of Lanthanum.Methods:We artifically induced caries with acidulous gel,measured the microhardness of enamel demineralization area,and analysed the microhardness values in spot by spot one-way analysis of variance(ANONA).Results:In the range 25 μm to 150μm from the enamel surface,the microhardness value of La and F groups were higher than that of control group;Range 25μm to 75μm from the surface,the value of La group was higher than Ca group;while under 50 to 150μm from the surface,the value of Ca group was higher than control group,La was lower than F group.Conclusion:The demineralization gels containing Ca2+,La3+,F- can reduce enamel demineralization,Among them the function of F was the toppest,then La,and Ca was the last.

  5. A Descriptive in vitro Electron Microscopic Study of Acidic Fluoride-Treated Enamel: Potential Anti-Erosion Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjortsjö, Carl; Young, Alix; Kiesow, Andreas; Cismak, Andreas; Berthold, Lutz; Petzold, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the surface zones of acidic fluoride-treated enamel. Human teeth were each divided into three or four enamel specimens that were treated for 10 min with solutions of 0.2 and 0.4% HF (pH 3.09 and 2.94), 1.74% SnF2 (pH 2.9), 0.68% TiF4 (pH 1.6) and 0.84% NaF (pH 4.5). Untreated specimens functioned as negative controls. The microstructure and elemental composition of the surface zones were studied by scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and nanospot-EDX following cross-sectional preparation using focused ion beam technology. TEM/EDX analyses of NaF-treated specimens showed a 500-nm-thick closed surface film containing 20-40 at% (atomic percent) F. HF-treated specimens had a distinct surface film 200-600 nm thick (dense, not globular) containing 45-47 at% F. TiF4-treated specimens had a surface film of 200-300 nm in thickness containing 8-11 at% Ti but no detectable fluoride. SnF2-treated specimens had a modified surface enamel layer varying in thickness from 200 to 800 nm with an inhomogeneous distribution of Sn. Local spots were detected with as high as 8 at% Sn (30 wt%, weight percent). The results suggest that the reaction mechanisms of SnF2 and TiF4 solutions with dental enamel differ from those occurring after enamel exposure to acidulated NaF and HF solutions. While the HF and NaF treatments resulted in the formation of CaF2-like material as shown by EDX, no significant surface fluoridation was found for SnF2 and TiF4 solutions within the TEM/EDX detection limits. These results suggest that the erosion-protective mechanisms of these latter compounds probably relate more to the formation of hardly soluble and acid-resistant reaction surface films and less to surface fluoride incorporation.

  6. Geodynamic and metabolic cycles in the Hadean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. T. Arndt

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available High-degree melting of hot dry Hadean mantle at ocean ridges and plumes resulted in a crust about 30km thick, overlain in places by extensive and thick mafic volcanic plateaus. Continental crust, by contrast, was relatively thin and mostly submarine. At constructive and destructive plate boundaries, and above the many mantle plumes, acidic hydrothermal springs at ~400°C contributed Fe and other transition elements as well as P and H2 to the deep ocean made acidulous by dissolved CO2 and minor HCl derived from volcanoes. Away from ocean ridges, submarine hydrothermal fluids were cool (≤100°C, alkaline (pH ~10, highly reduced and also H2-rich. Reaction of solvents in this fluid with those in ocean water was catalyzed in a hydrothermal mound, a natural self-restoring flow reactor and fractionation column made up of carbonates and freshly precipitated Fe-Ni sulfide and greenrust pores and bubbles, developed above the alkaline spring. Acetate and the amino acetate glycine were the main products, much of which was eluted to the ocean. Other organic byproducts were retained, concentrated and reacted within the compartments. These compartments comprising the natural hydrothermal reactor consisted partly of greigite (Fe5NiS8. It was from reactions between organic modules confined within these inorganic compartments that the first prokaryotic organism evolved. These acetogenic precursors to the Bacteria diversified and migrated down the mound and into the ocean floor to inaugurate the "deep biosphere". Once there the Bacteria, and the recently differentiated Archaea, were protected from cataclysmic heating events caused by large bolide impacts. Geodynamic forces led to the eventual obduction of the deep biosphere into the photic zone where, initially protected by a thin veneer of sediment, the use of solar energy was mastered and photosynthesis emerged. The further evolution to oxygenic photosynthesis was effected as catalytic [CaMn4+] bearing

  7. Trace elements in rock phosphates and P containing mineral and organo-mineral fertilizers sold in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kratz, Sylvia, E-mail: sylvia.kratz@jki.bund.de; Schick, Judith; Schnug, Ewald

    2016-01-15

    68 rock phosphates and 162 P containing (organo-)mineral fertilizers sold in Germany were evaluated with regard to trace element contents. While Al, As, B, Be, Cd, Cr, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Tl, U, and Zn were higher in sedimentary than in igneous rock phosphates, the opposite was true for Co, Cu, Sn, Mn, Ti, Fe, and Sr. Comparing element concentrations to the currently valid legal limit values defined by the German Fertilizer Ordinance, it was found that some PK and many straight P fertilizers (superphosphate, triple superphosphate, partly acidulated rock phosphates) exceeded the limit of 50 mg Cd/kg P{sub 2}O{sub 5}. Mean values for As, Ni, Pb, and Tl remained below legal limits in almost all cases. While no legal limit has been defined for U in Germany yet, the limit of 50 mg U/kg P{sub 2}O{sub 5} for P containing fertilizers proposed by the German Commission for the Protection of Soils was clearly exceeded by mean values for all fertilizer types analyzed. A large share of the samples evaluated in this work contained essential trace elements at high concentrations, with many of them not being declared as such. Furthermore, trace elements supplied with these fertilizers at a fertilization rate leveling P uptake would exceed trace element uptake by crops. This may become most relevant for B and Fe, since many crops are sensitive to an oversupply of B, and Fe loads exceeding plant uptake may immobilize P supplies for the crops by forming Fe phosphate salts. The sample set included two products made from thermochemically treated sewage sludge ash. The products displayed very high concentrations of Fe and Mn and exceeded the legal limit for Ni, emphasizing the necessity to continue research on heavy metal removal from recycled raw materials and the development of environmentally friendly and agriculturally efficient fertilizer products. - Highlights: • Mineral fertilizers (MF) sold in Germany often exceed legal limits for Cd • MF sold in Germany contain high

  8. Why and How Life is Driven into Being at Ancient Submarine Alkaline Springs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Michael

    2016-07-01

    The disequilibria between volcanic CO2 plus NO dissolved in acidulous oceans, as against the H2 plus CH4 exhaling through hot alkaline springs on the ocean floors of young wet rocky worlds, cannot be relaxed, much less put to useful biological work, through mere geochemical reactions. Instead their dissipation must be coupled to the production of essential thermodynamically 'up-hill' products. A metabolic pathway, involving disequilibria converting nano-engines, is the only way to achieve such tasks as fixing the otherwise intractable CO2. Indeed, hydrogenating CO2 is life's contribution to entropy generation in the Universe. Long-lived alkaline springs could have supplied the low entropy nourishment in the form of H2 as electrons and CH4 as a carbon source, while the CO2, nitrate, photolytic Fe3+ and Mn4+ in the earliest ocean could have accepted the waste electrons, i.e., the 'breathing' [1]. But what of life's first boundaries? These could be generated spontaneously at the vent, where natural precipitates of iron oxyhydroxides and sulfides would have acted as precipitate membranes, separating the reduced alkaline hydrothermal fluid from the acidulous carbonic ocean, thus imposing steep redox and protonic (ambient pmf) gradients with the potential to drive otherwise endergonic reactions such as the reduction of CO2 to formate or CO, and the oxidation of CH4 to methyl and formyl entities. In turn, the CO and the methyl group reacted to form acetate. Acetate was then hydrogenated and carbonated to pyruvate. However, these endergonic reactions could not progress by catalysis or mass action chemistry as often assumed. They would have required natural processors acting as nanoengines to couple the endergonic driven processes to appropriate exergonic driving reactions. This is what the nano-engines do in life. These mechanochemical 'engines' are protein complexes that are each precisely tuned to the specific driving and driven disequilibria pairs being converted. They

  9. Aprovechamiento de las oleinas residuales procedentes del proceso de refinado de los aceites vegetales comestibles, para la fabricación de biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvarez Mateos, P.

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available A procedure to obtain Biodiesel from “Oleinas” is studied. Biodiesel is a suitable product to replace diesel oil currently used to power the Diesel engines. It consists of a mixture of methyl esters of the fatty acids presents as triglycerides in vegetables oils (olive, sunflower, soya, rape oils. As a result of the refining of these oils for their use as food, a waste product is formed, the “oleinas” (acidulated soapstock. The oleinas consist of a mixture of triglycerides and free fatty acids, the latter amounting to 50% or more of the mixture and are subject to a fluctuating market, therefore it exist at times a problem for their disposal. In our research work we have tried to obtain biodiesel from oleinas. The process resulting from our experimental work is as follows: 1. Sterification of the free fatty acids with methanol, by acid catalysis, centrifuging the reaction product and removal of the acid-methanol phase. Drying of the latter. At this stage we have a product containing about 70% of methyl esters. 2. Transesterification of the triglycerides present in the sterified product with methanol by alkaline catalysis, washing the reaction product with a water methanol solution. Centrifuging and removal of the water-methanol phase. At this stage a biodiesel product is obtained containing about 90% of methyl esters. 3. Fractional vacuum distillation of the 90% biodiesel gives a final product with a methyl esters content higher than 98%.Se estudia un procedimiento para la obtención de Biodiesel a partir de las “Oleínas”. Biodiesel es un producto capaz de sustituir al combustible Diesel ordinario que se obtiene del petróleo y que consiste en una mezcla de ésteres metílicos de ácidos grasos. Las oleínas son unos residuos que resultan del proceso de refinado de aceites vegetales para su uso alimentario y se componen de una mezcla de triglicéridos y ácidos grasos libres, con un contenido de estos últimos

  10. Optimización del proceso de esterificación química del destilado de desodorización del aceite de soja previamente saponificado y acidulado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barrera-Arellano, Daniel

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available In this research work, it was optimized the reaction conditions for the chemistry esterification of unsaponifiable matter in soybean oil deodorizer distillate. The process involves (i alkaline hydrolysis of saponifiable matter; (ii acidulation of soaps and (iii acid catalyzed esterification of resulting total fatty acid. To determine the best process conditions to get the higher conversion rates of total fatty acids to ethylic esters, preserving the tocopherols, it was used, to analyze the results, the response surface methodology in a 2nd order factorial planning. In the step (i saponification of soybean oil deodorizer distillate saponifiable matter using NaOH:total fatty acids molar ratio = 2:1, temperature = 80º C and reaction time of 40 min. In the step (ii the resulting soaps were rapidly and stoichiometrically converted in free fatty acids with sulfuric acid (23 %, using an acid molar excess of 50 %, at 80º C, for 40 min and under atmospheric pressure. In the step (iii the optima conditions for the esterification reaction of soybean oil deodorizer distillate were: ethanol:total fatty acids molar ratio from 6.4 to 11.2:1, SO2H4 concentration from 0.9 to 1.5 % and reaction time from 1.3 to 2.6 h, with ethyl esters conversion rates up to 98 %. The mathematical model obtained is predictive and statistically significant (pEn esta investigación fueron optimizadas las condiciones de reacción de esterificación de la materia saponificable del destilado de desodorización del aceite de soja. El proceso engloba (i hidrólisis alcalina da materia saponificable; (ii acidulación de los jabones y (iii esterificación catalizada por ácido de los ácidos grasos totales resultantes. Las condiciones óptimas del proceso, para obtener el mayor rendimiento en ésteres etílicos y perdidas mínimas de tocoferoles, fueron determinadas usando la metodología de superficie de respuesta de un diseño factorial completo de 2a orden. Etapa (i saponificaci

  11. Avaliação qualitativa do efeito de agentes de limpeza na camada de lama dentinária: estudo ultra-estrutural em microscopia eletrônica de varredura Smear layer removal: a qualitative scanning electron microscopy study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Auxiliadora Junho de ARAÚJO

    1998-04-01

    surface was then removed with a water-cooled high speed carbide bur # 56 in order to obtain the smear layer. Different solutions were applied on the dentin surface for 30 seconds, which was then rinsed and dried. The specimens were mounted on metallic holder stubs, prepared, and examined under the scanning electron microscope (DSM 95-Zeiss. Removal of the smear layer by the tested solutions was qualitatively observed, and the solutions, rated according to their performance in increasing order of extent of removal, as follows: 1. air/water spray; 2. 2% NaF; 3. sodium hypochloride/anodic detergent; 4. 3% H2O2; 5. sandblasting with 50 mm aluminum oxide; 6. 1.27% acidulated fluoride; 7. 25% polyacrylic acid; 8. 10% phosphoric acid. The best solutions for the removal of the smear layer were the acid ones.

  12. Influence of disinfectant solutions on the tensile bond strength of a fourth generation dentin bonding agent Efeito de substâncias desinfetantes na adesão à dentina de um adesivo de quarta geração

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Saldivar BOCANGEL

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the influence of different disinfectant solutions on the tensile bond strength of a fourth generation dentin bonding agent. Forty non carious human molars were selected. Teeth were embedded in acrylic resin and ground until the exposure of a flat superficial dentin surface. Teeth were randomly divided in 4 groups and treated as follows: Group 1 - 2.5% NaOCl for 40 seconds; Group 2 - 2% chlorhexidine for 40 seconds; Group 3 - 1.23% acidulated fluoride for 4 minutes; and Group 4 - control (without disinfectant solution. Following treatments, Scotchbond Multipurpose Plus® (3M was used according to the manufacturer’s instructions. After that, the test specimens were built with composite resin (Z100®-3M, using a standard Teflon matrix. The specimens were stored in distilled water for 24 hours at a temperature of 37ºC. The tensile strength test was performed using a Mini Instrom testing machine. The mean values obtained for each group, in MPa, were: Group 1 - 7.37 (± 2.51; Group 2 - 11.25 (± 4.65; Group 3 - 9.80 (± 3.11; and Group 4 - 10.96 (± 3.37. The results were submitted to statistical analysis using the ANOVA test, and no statistical significant differences among the groups were found. It can be concluded that the different disinfectant substances used in this research do not adversely affect dentin adhesion.O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar a influência de diferentes substâncias de desinfecção cavitária na resistência à tração de um sistema adesivo de quarta geração. Foram selecionados 40 molares humanos livres de cáries. Os dentes foram incluídos em resina acrílica e desgastados até expor dentina superficial. Os dentes foram divididos aleatoriamente em 4 grupos e assim tratados: Grupo 1 - NaOCl a 2,5% por 40 segundos; Grupo 2 - clorexidina a 2% por 40 segundos; Grupo 3 - flúor-fosfato acidulado a 1,23% por 4 minutos; e Grupo 4 - controle. Após os diferentes

  13. In vitro comparison of the cariostatic effect between topical application of fluoride gels and fluoride toothpaste Comparação in vitro do efeito cariostático entre a aplicação tópica de flúor e dentifrício fluoretado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Carlos Botazzo Delbem

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the effect of topical fluoride products [acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF or neutral gel (NF x fluoride toothpaste (MFP], in respect to fluoride uptake and anticariogenic action. One hundred and twenty five blocks of human teeth, sorted in 5 groups according to the treatment, were submitted to pH cycling for ten days. The parameters analyzed were: fluoride uptake before and after pH cycling and surface (SMH and cross-sectional (CSMH microhardness of the enamel blocks. The results of fluoride concentration in enamel after the pH cycling showed an enhancement of fluoride uptake for all groups compared to sound control. No significant differences between APF and MFP were observed for surface microhardness, percentage change of surface microhardness and mineral loss. The volume percent mineral obtained from cross-sectional microhardness demonstrated that APF has a different lesion progression rate regarding subsurface carious lesion. The results suggest that professionally applied fluoride gel or frequent fluoride application in low concentration is a positive preventive measure for the control of dental caries.O objetivo do presente estudo foi comparar in vitro o efeito da aplicação tópica de flúor na forma de gel acidulado (FFA ou neutro (FFN com um dentifrício fluoretado (MFP, na incorporação e ação anticariogênica do flúor. Foram utilizados 125 blocos obtidos de esmalte humano, divididos em 5 grupos de acordo com o tratamento e submetidos à ciclagem de pH durante dez dias. Analisou-se o flúor incorporado antes e depois da ciclagem de pH; a microdureza superficial (SMH e a microdureza interna do esmalte (CSMH. Os resultados da concentração de flúor no esmalte após a ciclagem indicou uma maior quantidade de flúor incorporado para todos os grupos comparados ao grupo controle sadio. A microdureza superficial entre APF e MFP, assim como a porcentagem de alteração da microdureza superficial e

  14. In vitro study of demineralization resistance and fluoride retention in dental enamel irradiated with Er,Cr: YSGG laser; Estudo in vitro da resistencia a desmineralizacao e da retencao de fluor em esmalte dental irradiado com laser de Er, Cr: YSGG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ana, Patricia Aparecida da. E-mail: patriciadaana@yahoo.com.br

    2007-07-01

    This study aimed to establish irradiation conditions of Er,Cr:YSGG laser ({lambda} of 2.79 {mu}m) which could propitiate changes on human dental enamel and increase its resistance to demineralization, when associated or not with topical application of acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF). Fluences of 2,8 J/cm{sup 2}, 5,6 J/cm{sup 2} e 8,5 J/cm{sup 2} were selected; they were associated or not with previous application of a photo absorber (coal paste) and then APF was applied or not after laser irradiation. In a first step, the morphological findings, the surface temperatures, and the pupal temperatures were evaluated during laser irradiation. After that, the treated samples were submitted to a a ten-day pH-cycling model. After producing the incipient white-spots lesions, the following aspects were evaluated: the mineral loss, the loosely bound fluoride and the firmly bound fluoride. All the demineralizing and remineralizing pH-cycling solutions were evaluated with respect to their calcium (Ca), inorganic phosphorous (Pi) and fluoride (F{sup -}) concentrations. The data had their normality and homogeneity distribution statistically evaluated, and it was chosen an appropriated statistical test for each performed analysis according to the obtained results, considering 5% significant level. The fluences selected for this study created ablated surfaces; the fluences of 5.6 J/cm{sup 2} and 8.5 J/cm{sup 2} promoted increments in surface temperature above 110 deg C. The intrapupal temperature changes revealed that laser irradiation did not increase the pulpal temperatures above the critical threshold for induction of pulpitis. The coal paste did not promote any changes on surface morphology or in the intrapulpal temperature changes; however, this paste increased the surface temperatures during laser irradiation. Only laser irradiation at 8.5 J/cm{sup 2} was able to decrease the mineral loss when compared to the no-treatment group; although the association of coal paste

  15. Evaluating the effectiveness of phosphate fertilizers in some Venezuelan soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casanova, E. [Instituto de Edafologia, Facultad de Agronomia, Universidad Central de Venezuela, Maracay, Aragua (Venezuela)]. E-mail: casanova@pdvsa.com; Salas, A.M. [Instituto de Edafologia, Facultad de Agronomia, Universidad Central de Venezuela, Maracay, Aragua (Venezuela); Toro, M. [Instituto de Zoologia Tropical, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Central de Venezuela, Caraca (Venezuela)

    2002-05-15

    . In the greenhouse experiment, the crop response was related to the P fixing properties of the soil, the initial availability and the solubility of the P source used. The P in plant derived from the fertilizer and the Utilization Coefficient decreased significantly as the P fixing capacity of the soils increases indicating a lower availability of P for the the index plant (Agrostis sp.). The P in plant derived from the P fertilizers calculated by using the specific activity of each treatment and the one of the check plot showed that triple superphosphate had the highest values with acidulated Riecito rock phosphate (40%) having intermediate values, and Riecito rock phosphate having the lowest value. The use of {sup 32}P techniques as a powerful method to study soil P dynamics and P uptake from different P sources and the effectiveness of phosphate rocks (natural and modified) produced in Venezuela with respect to the water-soluble P source (imported), are some of the practical implications of this study. (author)

  16. Impregnation Solution Influence on the Pulp Color of Plantains (Musa paradisiaca / Influencia de Soluciones de Impregnación en el Color de la Pulpa de Plátano (Musa paradisiaca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cortés Rodríguez Misael

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The influence of antioxidant (sodium metabisulphiteNa2S2O5 and ascorbic acid C6H8O6 and acidulant (citric acidC6H8O7 solutions on the color of vacuum impregnated greenplantain pulp (GPP, stored (0, 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15 days; 4,20 and 30 ºC and vacuum packed (VP or packed withoutvacuuming (WV, was evaluated. The color was determined bythe CIE-L*a*b* coordinates, where the lightness (L* was themost important parameter for browning control (L*critical=70.Component concentrations in the impregnation solutions wereestablished to achieve levels of sodium benzoate (1,000 mg,EDTA (75 mg and sulphites (500, 1,000 y 1,500 mg, per kgof fresh GPP; and ascorbic acid (60, 90 and 120 mg and citricacid (100, 150 and 250 mg, per 100 g of fresh GPP. Significant differences were seen (PL*critical for 15 days were: sodium metabisulphite (500 mg/kg of GPP, WV and 0 mg/kg of GPP, VP, ascorbic acid (90 mg/100 g of GPP, WV and 60 mg/100 g of GPP, VP, citric acid (100 mg/100 g of GPP, VP and for the mixture of ascorbic acid (90 mg: citric acid (100 mg/100 g of GPP, VP. / Resumen. Se evaluó la influencia de soluciones antioxidantes (metabisulfito de sodio Na2S2O5 y ácido ascórbico C6H8O6 y acidulantes (ácido cítrico C6H8O7 sobre el color de la pulpa de plátano verde (PPV impregnadas al vacío, almacenadas (0, 3,6, 9, 12 y 15 días; 4, 20 y 30 ºC y empacadas con vacío (CV y sin vacío (SV. El color se determinó mediante las coordenadas CIE-L*a*b*, siendo la luminosidad (L* el parámetro de mayor importancia para el control del pardeamiento (L*crítico=70. Las concentraciones de los componentes en las soluciones de impregnación se fijaron para obtener en la PPV impregnado niveles de benzoato de sodio (1000 mg, EDTA (75 mg y sulfitos (500, 1.000 y 1.500 mg, por kg de PPV fresco; y de ácido ascórbico (60, 90 y 120 mg y ácido cítrico (100, 150 y 250 mg, por 100 g de PPV fresco. Se presentaron diferencias significativas (PL*crítico fueron: metabisulfito

  17. Delayed tooth replantation after root surface treatment with sodium hypochlorite and sodium fluoride: histomorphometric analysis in rats Reimplante dentário tardio após o tratamento da superfície radicular com hipoclorito de sódio e fluoreto de sódio: análise histomorfométrica em ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Dotto Sottovia

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available In cases of delayed tooth replantation, non-vital periodontal ligament remnants have been removed with sodium hypochlorite in an attempt to control root resorption. Nevertheless, reports of its irritating potential in contact with the alveolar connective tissue have been described. Therefore, this study evaluated the healing process on delayed replantation of rat teeth, after periodontal ligament removal by different treatment modalities. Twenty-four rats, assigned to 3 groups (n=8, had their upper right incisor extracted and left on the workbench for desiccation during 60 min. Afterwards, the teeth in group I were immersed in saline for 2 min. In group II, root surfaces were scrubbed with gauze soaked in saline for 2 min; and in group III, scrubbing was done with gauze soaked in 1% sodium hypochlorite solution. Thereafter, root surfaces were etched with 37% phosphoric acid and immersed in 2% acidulate-phosphate sodium fluoride solution, at pH 5.5. Root canals were filled with a calcium hydroxide-based paste and the teeth were replanted. The animals were sacrificed 60 days postoperatively and the pieces containing the replanted teeth were processed and paraffin- embedded. Semi-serial transversally sections were obtained from the middle third of the root and stained with hematoxylin and eosin for histomorphometric analysis. Data were analyzed statistically using Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn's tests. The results showed that root structure and cementum extension were more affected by resorption in group III (pEm reimplante dentário tardio, o ligamento periodontal desvitalizado tem sido removido empregando-se o hipoclorito de sódio, buscando o controle da reabsorção radicular. Relatos de efeito irritante no tecido conjuntivo alveolar após o seu uso, têm sido descritos. Isso justificou a realização deste trabalho buscando minimizar esse inconveniente. Para isso 24 ratos, divididos em 3 grupos de 8 animais, tiveram o incisivo superior direito extra

  18. 创伤后细胞损伤的监测与评价%Monitoring and evaluating on cell injury in patients with severe trauma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田利华; 胡耑; 白祥军; 周锡渊; 赵鸿

    2008-01-01

    目的 观测创伤后血清细胞因子、氧自由基及酸性产物的含量变化,探讨其细胞代谢的监控效应及评价细胞损伤的方法.方法 选取本院2005年5月至2007年2月间经规范程序救治,临床资料完整的创伤患者117例,采用损伤严重度评分(ISS)和急性生理学及慢性健康状况评分(APACHEⅡ)对其组织损伤程度和伤后病情危害状况进行层次分组,依据病情变化实时检测各组的动脉血乳酸(ABL)、动脉血碱缺失(BD)、超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)、脂质过氧化物(LPO)、肿瘤坏死因子(TNF-α)和白细胞介素-6(IL-6)的血清水平,数据以((x)±s)表示,多组资料采用方差分析后两两比较,以P<0.05为差异具有统计学意义.结果 本组监测指标伤后就可山现明显变化,随损伤严重程度或病情危害状况的加重而显示组间差异具有统计学:意义(P<0.05).若并发缺血缺氧或休克、全身炎症反应综合征(SIRS)或感染以及多器官功能障碍综合征(MODS)时其异常增向则更为显著差异具有统计学意义(P<0.01).患者发生病情恶化或器官衰竭危机时,各指标水平常呈现持续异常或紊乱状态,与未发生者比较差异具有统计学意义(P<0.01).结论 细胞损伤反应与损伤严重程度、病情演变、MODS危机及患者预后有关,其血清指标的片常变化多预示着病情危危,实时检测有助于提高临床监控水平.%Objective To observe the changes in cytokines, oxygen free radicals, acidulous production in serum and to investigate the effectiveness of monitoring metabolism of cells and the method for evaluating cell injury in patients with severe trauma. Method The detailed data of 117 patients rescued and managed carefully from May 2005 to February 2007 were assessed and stratified with ISS and APACHE Ⅱ , and the serum levels of arterial blood lactate(ABL) ,base deficit(BD) ,superoxide(SOD) ,lipid peroxide(LPO) ,TNF-α and IL-6 were measured in real

  19. Conservação de uvas "Crimson Seedless" e "Itália", submetidas a diferentes tipos de embalagens e dióxido de enxofre (SO2 Conservation of grapes "Crimson Seedless" and "Italia", submitted to different types of packings and sulfur dioxide (SO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Camargo Neves

    2008-03-01

    diferenças nos teores de SS entre os tratamentos, em ambas as variedades. (Apoio: Roraima Agrofrutas.It was studied the effect of different types of packages and, the action of sulfur dioxide (SO2, in post harvest of fine grapes var. Crimson Seedless and Italia. The fruits, harvested in a farm located in Boa Vista, State of Roraima (Lat. 2° 50' 06'' N and Long. 60° 40'28''W, showed, soluble solids (SS medium of 16.50 and 14.80°Brix, for the varieties Crimson Seedless and Italia, respectively. Prior to treatment, bunches were cleaned in sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl solution at 100 mg.L-1, previously acidulated, for 10 minutes. For the modified passive atmosphere were used bags of low density polyethylene (LDPE, not perforated, with 0.010, 0.015 and 0.020mm of thickness and, arranged in corrugated cardboard (4kg and wood (7.5kg boxes. To produce SO2 it was used Kraft papers of quickly liberation, with 3 and 8g of sodium metabysulfite (Na2S2O5. After the treatment, the fruits were storage in cold chamber at 4 ± lºC and 95 ± 3% of relative humidity (R.H. The evaluation were carried out in the moment of harvest and, at 7, 21, 35, 42 and 56 days of cold chamber, for cluster weight loss, percentage of detached and deteriorated berries, quality of stem and, content of SS of fruits. After eight weeks it was carried out a sensorial analysis for the two varieties. It was identified in both varieties, that grapes submitted to generate SO2, containing 3g of sodium metabysulfite and, wrapped in packages of LDPE of 0.020mm of thickness, regardless type of secondary package showed smaller weight loss, smaller percentage of detached and deteriorated berries and, best quality of stem. The results in the sensorial analysis had agreed to the physical-chemical results. There is no significant difference in the contents of SS between the treatments, in both varieties.

  20. Comparison of greenhouse and {sup 32}P isotopic laboratory methods for evaluating the agronomic effectiveness of natural and modified rock phosphates in some acid soils of Ghana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owusu-Bennoah, E. [Department of Soil Science, University of Ghana, Legon, Accra (Ghana); Zapata, F. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: F.Zapata@iaea.org; Fardeau, J.C. [Departement Environnement et Agronomie, INRA, Versailles (France)

    2002-05-15

    exchangeable P (E{sub 1}min < 5 mg P kg{sup -1}). The capacity factor and the fixation index of the soils were variable. Application of water-soluble P as TSP increased both the C{sub P} and E{sub 1} values of all the soils above the critical levels. Togo PR was least effective among the fertilizers tested for all soil soils, except in Boi soil. Acidulation of Togo PR (Togo PAPR-50%) was an effective means to increase its agronomic effectiveness. Direct application of natural Togo PR would be only feasible in the Boi soil series as reflected by its high Pdff% value in soil solution. Incubation with the P fertilizers caused an increase in the soil pH and a decline in the effectiveness of the applied P fertilizers, irrespective of the soil and the fertilizer utilized. Based upon the results of the greenhouse pot experiment, the relative crop response index (RCRI) in terms of increasing dry matter yield and P uptake followed the order of TSP > PAPR = Mali PR >Togo PR = Control. Both the laboratory index, Pdff% in soil solution derived from the isotopic method and the RCRI values obtained from the pot experiment produced similar results in ranking the P fertilizers tested according to their agronomic effectiveness. The isotopic kinetic method may be considered as an alternative to both greenhouse and field methods in the evaluation of agronomic effectiveness of P fertilizers in tropical acid soils when it offers comparative advantages in assessing the soil P status and its changes. But trained staff and adequate laboratory facilities are needed to perform this technique. Also the method can be used as a reference for comparison purposes as in this case. Further research is needed to assess the overall agronomic effectiveness (immediate and residual effects) of PR sources in predominant cropping systems of this region of Ghana. (author)

  1. Sources of phosphorus associated inoculation with Pseudomonas fluorescens in development and maize yieldFontes de fósforo associadas à inoculação com Pseudomonas fluorescens no desenvolvimento e produtividade do milho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Pinceli Chaves

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The increased use of fertilizers to raise phosphorus availability to plants has promoted a strong economic impact on agriculture. For the better efficiency of use of phosphate fertilizers, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of P sources linked to inoculation with Pseudomonas fluorescens via seeds, in the development and yield components of corn plants. The experiment was conducted in the field, in 6x2 factorial, in randomized block design with four replications. Were applied 120 kg ha-1 P in the soil through five sources: triple superphosphate (SFT, Gafsa rock phosphate, Itafos rock phosphate, SFT+Gafsa and SFT+Itafos, and a control treatment (no P. The seeds of the cultivar AG 8088 were subjected to inoculation or not with the Pseudomonas fluorescens strain 1008. The variables studied in the flowering were: plant height (AP, height of ear insertion (AIE, stem diameter (DC, leaf area AF, leaf dry mass (MSF, total dry weight (MST and leaf P content (PF. At harvest, there was the assessment of yield components: number of kernels per ear (NG, weight of 100 grains (M100, P content in grain (PG, yield (PROD, harvest index (IC and relative agronomic effectiveness (EAR. The inoculation with P. fluorescens to seeds increased the AIE and AP when used SFT. At control the rhizobacteria inoculation resulted in 87% of EAR. The applications of SFT and SFT+Itafos and SFT+Gafsa can be an alternative to farming systems, aiming to lower use of acidulated phosphate. The yield performance of corn was not altered by the P sources and levels of inoculation with P. fluorescens. A utilização crescente de fertilizantes para elevar a disponibilidade de P para as plantas tem promovido um forte impacto econômico no setor agrícola. Visando a melhor eficiência do uso dos fertilizantes fosfatados, este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito de fontes de P associados à inoculação com Pseudomonas fluorescens via sementes, no desenvolvimento e nos componentes de

  2. 菜籽油直接胺解法制备咪唑啉衍生物的缓蚀性能研究%Preparation of imidazoline derivatives from rapeseed oil by way of direct aminolysis and its inhibition behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊国栋; 崔梦雅; 林振宇

    2012-01-01

    The paper intends to introduce a new method of preparing imidazoline derivatives from rapeseed oil by way of direct aminolysis and its inhibition behavior. As is known, imidazoline derivative is a kind of environment-friendly corrosion-inhibitors, widely used in rust-removing of metal pickling, descaling by acid pickling of industrial e-quipmem and technology for acidulating oil extraction. In hoping to reduce the cost of raw materials and reduce the environmental pollution , this paper would like to introduce a new approach to synthesizing imidazoline intermediate (1M-1) by solvent method with rape- seed oil and 2-(aminoethylamino) ethanol. And next, we have modified the 1M - 1 by adding benzyl chloride and sulfamic acid to obtain cationic and arnphoteric derivate IM 2 and IM - 3, respectively. When the improved products were analyzed with IR spectrum and HNMR spectrum, it would be possible to select optimal inhibitor from the two said products by way of static weight-loss measurement. And then the amphoteric derivative IM - 3 can also be selected out of the original product through the following tests. Since the addition of inorganic anions 1- can help to raise the corrosion inhibition efficiency, it would be possible to gain finally a complex system (IM - 4) through selecting from and mixing them with KI (20:1) . Its inhibition behavior can be evaluated by static weight-loss measurement and dynamic weight-loss measurement. And, now, we can explore the film-forming behavior on the surface of A3 steel in different concentrations and different times with the newly prepared inhibitor IM - 4. Afterwards, we can apply the scanning electron microscope to the investigation of the shape patterns Dn the surface of A3 steel in hydrochloric acid before and after the corrosion. Comparing IM - 4 with other common inhibitors, such as thiourea and hexam-ethylenetetramine in inhibiting behavior, we can get the results that the IM - 4 has stronger corrosion inhibiting ability