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Sample records for acids tfa sources

  1. Trans fatty acid intakes and food sources in the U.S. population: NHANES 1999-2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kris-Etherton, Penny M; Lefevre, Michael; Mensink, Ronald P; Petersen, Barbara; Fleming, Jennifer; Flickinger, Brent D

    2012-10-01

    Because of efforts to decrease trans fatty acids (TFA) in the food supply, intake should be assessed in the population to establish a baseline TFA intake. The 1999-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) was used to identify a benchmark for TFA intake. TFA was estimated by mean, median, and quintile of intake, TFA intake data were weighted using the NHANES 4-year sample weights. The main outcome measures included TFA intake in grams per day and percentage of energy in the top 25 food sources of TFA. Data are reported for 16,669 individuals ≥ 3 years of age. Median TFA intake was 2.3 % of calories (5 g/day) with 0.9-4.5 % of energy (1.5-13.1 g/day) over different quintiles of intake. Mean TFA intake was 2.5 % of energy (6.1 g/day). The range of TFA intake in the fifth quintile was very large, i.e., 3.5-12.5 % of energy or 8.8-92.4 g/day. Increasing quintiles of TFA intake were associated with increases in total fat (26.7-37.6 % of energy), saturated fat (7.6-10.5 % of energy), and calories (for those >20 years of age: 2,416-2,583 for men and 1,679-1,886 for women). Major food sources of dietary TFA were cakes, cookies, pies, and pastries. Based on current dietary guidance to consume as little industrial TFA as possible, much progress is needed to attain this goal, including food industry efforts to remove TFA from the food supply and educating the public about making healthy food choices. PMID:22903556

  2. 1-Methylimidazolium trifluoroacetate [Hmim]Tfa: Mild and efficient Brønsted acidic ionic liquid for Hantzsch reaction under microwave irradiation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jemin R Avalani; Devji S Patel; Dipak K Raval

    2012-09-01

    One pot synthesis of 1,4-dihydropyridine derivatives was achieved via condensation of various -ketoesters with aromatic/aliphatic aldehydes and ammonium acetate. The reaction was catalysed by a stable and reusable Brønsted acidic ionic liquid (IL), 1-methyl-imidazolium trifluoroacetate ([Hmim]Tfa), under microwave (MW) irradiation. The synergistic combination ofMWwith IL can potentially go a long way tomeet the increasing demand for chemical processes. This homogeneous catalytic procedure is simple and efficient. The catalyst can be reused at least four times with almost complete retention in its activity.

  3. Trans fatty acids (tFA: sources and intake levels, biological effects and content in commercial Spanish food Ácidos grasos trans (AGt: fuentes y niveles de ingesta, efectos biológicos y contenido en los alimentos comerciales españoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.-M. Fernández-San Juan

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies of dietary habits in children and adolescents performed in Spain show that a high percentage of the daily energy intake corresponds to fat (42.0-43.0%. These findings show an excessive contribution of saturated fatty acids and also a considerable supply of trans fatty acids. These compounds are formed generally during partial hydrogenation of vegetable oils, a process that converts vegetable oils into semisolid fats. Also, in some cases naturally occurring trans fatty acids in smaller amounts in meat and dairy products from ruminants (cows, sheep, these trans fatty acids are produced by the action of bacteria in the ruminant stomach by reactions of biohydrogenation. On the other hand, metabolic studies have clearly shown that trans fatty acids increase LDL cholesterol and reduce HDL cholesterol. Our results show that major sources of trans fatty acids in commercial Spanish foods are fast-food (hamburger, French fries, snacks, bakery products (cakes, donuts, biscuits, margarines and dehydrated soups.Estudios recientes sobre los hábitos alimentarios de niños y adolescentes llevados a cabo en nuestro país revelan que un alto porcentaje de las calorías que se ingieren en estos colectivos corresponden a las grasas (42,0-43,0%. Estos estudios muestran que existe una excesiva ingesta de ácidos grasos saturados y un preocupante incremento de la ingesta de ácidos grasos trans. Estos compuestos se forman generalmente en el proceso de hidrogenación catalítica parcial de los aceites vegetales comestibles, proceso que los convierte en grasas semisólidas, aunque en algunos casos también están presentes en pequeñas cantidades en carnes, leche y productos lácteos procedentes de animales rumiantes (vacas y ovejas ya que se originan de forma natural en reacciones de biohidrogenación producidas por la florabacteriana en el estómago de estos animales. Por otro lado, estudios metabólicos han demostrado que los ácidos grasos trans

  4. Trans Fatty Acid Intakes and Food Sources in the U.S. Population: NHANES 1999–2002

    OpenAIRE

    Kris-Etherton, Penny M.; Lefevre, Michael; Mensink, Ronald P.; Petersen, Barbara; Fleming, Jennifer; Flickinger, Brent D.

    2012-01-01

    Because of efforts to decrease trans fatty acids (TFA) in the food supply, intake should be assessed in the population to establish a baseline TFA intake. The 1999–2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) was used to identify a benchmark for TFA intake. TFA was estimated by mean, median, and quintile of intake, TFA intake data were weighted using the NHANES 4-year sample weights. The main outcome measures included TFA intake in grams per day and percentage of energy in t...

  5. Trans fatty acid isomers and the trans-9/trans-11 index in fat containing foods

    OpenAIRE

    Kuhnt, Katrin; Baehr, Melanie; Rohrer, Carsten; Jahreis, Gerhard

    2011-01-01

    To determine trans fatty acid (TFA) distribution of contemporary foods, especially regarding individual trans octadecenoic acids (trans C18:1), 339 German foods of six categories (semi-solid fats, deep-fried potato products, bakery products, confectioneries, instant products and butter) were analysed using two GC methods. Results showed a high variation of TFA content between and within the categories containing between 0 and 40.5% of FAME except in butter, which is a source of natural TFA. T...

  6. Effects of ruminant trans fatty acids on cardiovascular disease and cancer: a comprehensive review of epidemiological, clinical, and mechanistic studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are two predominant sources of dietary trans fatty acids in the food supply, those formed during the industrial partial hydrogenation of vegetable oils (iTFA) and those formed by biohydrogenation in ruminants (rTFA), including vaccenic acid and (VA) and rumenic acid [RA, a conjugated linoleic ...

  7. Dietary Intake of Trans Fatty Acids in Children Aged 4–5 in Spain: The INMA Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Scholz

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Trans fatty acid (TFA intake has been identified as a health hazard in adults, but data on preschool children are scarce. We analyzed the data from the Spanish INMA Project to determine the intake of total, industrial and natural TFA, their main sources and the associated socio-demographic and lifestyle factors in children aged 4–5 (n = 1793. TFA intake was estimated using a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire, and multiple linear regression was used to explore associated factors. The mean daily intakes of total, industrial and natural TFA were 1.36, 0.60, and 0.71 g/day, respectively. Ten percent of the children obtained >1% of their energy intake from TFA. The main sources of industrial TFA were fast food, white bread and processed baked goods. Milk, red and processed meat and processed baked goods were the main sources of natural TFA. Having parents from countries other than Spain was significantly associated with higher natural TFA (in mg/day intake (β 45.5 and television viewing was significantly associated with higher industrial TFA intake (β 18.3. Higher fruits and vegetables intake was significantly associated with lower intakes of all TFAs, whereas higher sweetened beverages intake was significantly associated with lower total and natural TFA intake. Thus, total and industrial TFA intake was associated with less healthy food patterns and lifestyles in Spanish preschool children.

  8. Dietary Intake of Trans Fatty Acids in Children Aged 4–5 in Spain: The INMA Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Alexander; Gimenez-Monzo, Daniel; Navarrete-Muñoz, Eva Maria; Garcia-de-la-Hera, Manuela; Fernandez-Somoano, Ana; Tardon, Adonina; Santa Marina, Loreto; Irazabal, Amaia; Romaguera, Dora; Guxens, Mònica; Julvez, Jordi; Llop, Sabrina; Lopez-Espinosa, Maria-Jose; Vioque, Jesus

    2016-01-01

    Trans fatty acid (TFA) intake has been identified as a health hazard in adults, but data on preschool children are scarce. We analyzed the data from the Spanish INMA Project to determine the intake of total, industrial and natural TFA, their main sources and the associated socio-demographic and lifestyle factors in children aged 4–5 (n = 1793). TFA intake was estimated using a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire, and multiple linear regression was used to explore associated factors. The mean daily intakes of total, industrial and natural TFA were 1.36, 0.60, and 0.71 g/day, respectively. Ten percent of the children obtained >1% of their energy intake from TFA. The main sources of industrial TFA were fast food, white bread and processed baked goods. Milk, red and processed meat and processed baked goods were the main sources of natural TFA. Having parents from countries other than Spain was significantly associated with higher natural TFA (in mg/day) intake (β 45.5) and television viewing was significantly associated with higher industrial TFA intake (β 18.3). Higher fruits and vegetables intake was significantly associated with lower intakes of all TFAs, whereas higher sweetened beverages intake was significantly associated with lower total and natural TFA intake. Thus, total and industrial TFA intake was associated with less healthy food patterns and lifestyles in Spanish preschool children. PMID:27735864

  9. Effects of TFA addition on the growth of sintered YBa2Cu3Oy superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kita, Ryusuke; Kuroda, Keita; Kato, Teppei; Miura, O.; Yamada, K.; Kaneko, K.

    The effects of trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) addition on the growth of a superconducting phase in sintered YBCO samples were investigated. YBCO samples with TFA addition were prepared by adding TFA (99.0%) to YBCO powder and then pressed into pellets and heated 1173 K - 1213 K for 12 - 20 hr in air. After the heat treatment, the TFA-added sample showed large grain sizes and highly c-axis oriented structures compared to pure YBCO samples, which indicates the enhancement of the grain growth of YBCO sintered samples by the TFA addition. The Jc (0) value and Jc/Jc (0T) properties of the sintered samples was improved by the TFA addition.

  10. Effects of Ruminant trans Fatty Acids on Cardiovascular Disease and Cancer: A Comprehensive Review of Epidemiological, Clinical, and Mechanistic Studies123

    OpenAIRE

    Gebauer, Sarah K; Chardigny, Jean-Michel; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre; Lamarche, Benoît; Lock, Adam L.; Proctor, Spencer D.; Baer, David J

    2011-01-01

    There are 2 predominant sources of dietary trans fatty acids (TFA) in the food supply, those formed during the industrial partial hydrogenation of vegetable oils (iTFA) and those formed by biohydrogenation in ruminants (rTFA), including vaccenic acid (VA) and the naturally occurring isomer of conjugated linoleic acid, cis-9, trans-11 CLA (c9,t11-CLA). The objective of this review is to evaluate the evidence base from epidemiological and clinical studies to determine whether intake of rTFA iso...

  11. Ruminant and industrially produced trans fatty acids: health aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Stender, Steen; Astrup, Arne; Dyerberg, Jørn

    2008-01-01

    Fatty acids of trans configuration in our food come from two different sources - industrially produced partially hydrogenated fat (IP-TFA) used in frying oils, margarines, spreads, and in bakery products, and from ruminant fat in dairy and meat products (RP-TFA). The first source may contain up to 60 % of the fatty acids in trans form, compared to the content in ruminant fat which generally not exceed 6%. In Western Europe, including Scandinavia, the average daily intake of IP-TFA has decreas...

  12. Substitution of trans fatty acids in foods on the Danish market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bysted, Anette; Mikkelsen, Aase Ærendahl; Leth, Torben

    2009-01-01

    Three surveys of the content of trans fatty acids (TFA) in foods on the Danish market were carried out before and after the Danish regulation was introduced in January 2004 restricting the use of industrially produced (IP)-TFA to a maximum of 2 g per 100 g fat in any food product. For this purpose......, in 68% of the products (e.g. sweets, cakes and cookies as well as fast food such as pie and tortilla), IP-TFA were mainly substituted with saturated fatty acids (SFA). In some cases, the SFA source was coconut fat, whereas in other products, palm oil was added instead of partially hydrogenated oils...

  13. Progress in Preparing YBCO Tapes by TFA-MOD Method%TFA-MOD制备YBCO带材工艺研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁发柱; 古宏伟; 李弢; 王连红

    2008-01-01

    由于第二代高温超导带材YBa2Cu3O7-z(简称YBCO)具有较高的不可逆磁场,可以在较高的温度和外加磁场下应用,是近年来高温超导材料研究的热点之一.采用三氟乙酸.金属有机沉积(trofluoroacetic acid-metal organic deposition,TFA-MOD)法制备第二代高温超导YBCO带材由于不需要真空系统,成本低,沉积速率快而广受关注.综述了TFA-MOD制备YBCO带材的工艺最新进展,并对TFA-MOD制备的YBCO带材性能进行了讨论.

  14. Effective role of trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) to enhance the photocatalytic activity of F-doped TiO2 prepared by modified sol-gel method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsudin, Emy Marlina; Hamid, Sharifah Bee Abd; Juan, Joon Ching; Basirun, Wan Jefrey; Kandjani, Ahmad Esmaielzadeh; Bhargava, Suresh K.

    2016-03-01

    Highly photoactive mesoporous F-doped TiO2 with improved physico-chemical characteristics is achieved using modified sol-gel method. The usage of trifluoroacetic as fluorine precursor significantly modifies the morphology, size, pore shape, crystal phase, crystal structure, surface chemical state and to a lesser extent, {1 0 1} and {0 0 1} facets. The accessibility of fluoride ions on Tisbnd Osbnd Ti polymer chains during crystal growth during the sol-gel process remarkably influences the properties of catalyst. To the best of our knowledge, preparation of F-doped TiO2 using modified sol-gel and trifluoroacetic acid are limited, and still not enough. Thus this work provides additional insight by using an approach which is less hazardous, less costly and practical for large scale agile development in the photocatalysis industry.

  15. Trans Fatty Acid Levels in Foods and Intakes among Population Aged 3 Years and above in Beijing and Guangzhou Cities, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Ai Dong; LI Jian Wen; LIU Zhao Ping; ZHOU Ping Ping; MAO Wei Feng; LI Ning; ZHANG Lei

    2015-01-01

    Objective To understand the dietary intake levels of trans fatty acids (TFA) in a Chinese population and establish a basis for health risk assessment of trans fatty acids. Methods The TFA contents data of 2613 food items and food consumption data of 10,533 people aged 3 years and above in two large cities in China were matched and a simple assessment method was used to estimate the distribution of dietary TFA intake. Results The mean content of TFA was highest in margarine (1.68±0.83 g/100g), followed by chocolate and candy (0.89±2.68 g/100g), edible vegetable oils (0.86±0.82 g/100g), milk (0.83±1.56 g/100g), and bakery foods (0.41±0.91 g/100g). TFA intake accounted for 0.34%, 0.30%, 0.32%, and 0.29%of the total energy intake in the 3-6, 7-12, 13-17, and≥18 year age groups, respectively. Of the populations studied, 0.42%demonstrated TFA intakes (as percentage of energy intake) greater than 1%. The main sources of dietary TFA intake were edible vegetable oils, milk, mutton, and beef, and baked foods, which accounted for 49.8%, 16.56%, 12.21%, and 8.87%, respectively. Conclusion The current intake of TFA among people in two cities did not appear to be of major health concern regarding the threshold of TFA intake as the percentage of total energy recommended by the World Health Organization. Because most TFA were derived from industrially processed foods, the government should reinforce nutrition labeling and regulate food producers to further reduce TFA in food and to provide scientific instruction for consumers to make sound choices.

  16. TFA and EPA Productivities of Nannochloropsis salina Influenced by Temperature and Nitrate Stimuli in Turbidostatic Controlled Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Heinrich Vanselow

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The influence of different nitrate concentrations in combination with three cultivation temperatures on the total fatty acids (TFA and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA content of Nannochloropsis salina was investigated. This was done by virtue of turbidostatic controlled cultures. This control mode enables the cultivation of microalgae under defined conditions and, therefore, the influence of single parameters on the fatty acid synthesis of Nannochloropsis salina can be investigated. Generally, growth rates decreased under low nitrate concentrations. This effect was reinforced when cells were exposed to lower temperatures (from 26 °C down to 17 °C. Considering the cellular TFA concentration, nitrate provoked an increase of TFA under nitrate limitation up to 70% of the biological dry mass (BDM. In contrast to this finding, the EPA content decreased under low nitrate concentrations. Nevertheless, both TFA and EPA contents increased under a low culture temperature (17 °C compared to moderate temperatures of 21 °C and 26 °C. In terms of biotechnological production, the growth rate has to be taken into account. Therefore, for both TFA and EPA production, a temperature of 17 °C and a nitrate concentration of 1800 µmol L-1 afforded the highest productivities. Temperatures of 21 °C and 26 °C in combination with 1800 µmol L-1 nitrate showed slightly lower TFA and EPA productivities.

  17. TFA pixel sensor technology for vertex detectors

    OpenAIRE

    Jarron, P.; Moraes, D.; Despeisse, M.; Dissertori, G.; Dunand, S.; Kaplon. J.; Miazza, C.; Shah, Arvind; Viertel, G M.; Wyrsch, Nicolas

    2008-01-01

    Pixel microvertex detectors at the SLHC and a future linear collider face very challenging issues: extreme radiation hardness, cooling design, interconnections density and fabrication cost. As an alternative approach we present a novel pixel detector based on the deposition of a Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon (a-Si:H) film on top of a readout ASIC. The Thin-Film on ASIC (TFA) technology is inspired by an emerging microelectronic technology envisaged for visible light Active Pixel Sensor (APS)...

  18. Trans fatty acids in Europe: where do we stand?

    OpenAIRE

    MOURATIDOU THEODORA; LIVANIOU ANASTASIA; MARTIN SABORIDO CARLOS; Wollgast, Jan; LOURO CALDEIRA SANDRA

    2014-01-01

    Trans fatty acids (TFA) are a particular type of unsaturated fatty acid. They are naturally present in food products made from ruminant animals such as dairy and meat from cattle, sheep or goat (naturally occurring ruminant TFA or rTFA) but can also be produced industrially (TFA of industrial origin or iTFA). Consumption of TFA is associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) states that ‘TFA intakes should be as low as is possibl...

  19. Tanks Focus Area (TFA) FY1999 Midyear Review Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the Tanks Focus Area (TFA) Midyear Review was to improve the quality and responsiveness of TFA technical solutions to identified user needs. This review goal was achieved through executing a multi-phased review approach. The first phase of the midyear review focused on the subset of FY99 work identified by Department of energy users as having continuing benefit in FY00-01. The TFA FY00-02 Technical Responses identified FY99 work that had continued applicability based on the most current set of site user needs. Each TFA FY00-02 Technical Response which included FY work scope was reviewed by the TFA Technical Advisory Group (TAG), in a meeting held in February 1999. Made up of technical experts from across the country, the TAG provides high-quality, short-turnaround, independent technical reviews for the TFA

  20. 中国部分城市水环境中TFA的初步研究%Prelimary Study of TFA in Surface Water of Some Cities over China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王巧云; 王新明

    2011-01-01

    Trifluoroacetic acid(TFA) is a stable organic pollutant with potential toxicity.The accumulation of TFA in water environment results in elevated concentration and also leads to ecological health risk.In this study,a total of 43 water samples,including tap water and surface water,were collected in 16 cities all over China.TFA in these water samples was pretreated through derivatization and analyzed by Gas Chromatography equipped with Mass Spectroscopy Detector.The results showed TFA was detectable in all water samples ranged from 13.7 ng·L-1 to 7 850 ng·L-1,and the values notably varied from city to city.Shanghai had the highest TFA concentration,with 3 054 ng·L-1 in tap water and 7 850 ng·L-1 in river water respectively.Spatial distribution analysis displayed that several areas in eastern China,like Shanghai,Anhui province,and Yantai in Shandong province,had relatively higher TFA concentrations as compared to other cities.The fluorochemical industrial area centralizes in eastern China,from which the direct or indirect emission of fluorochemicals as a source of TFA likely resulted in higher TFA concentrations in water environment in relevant areas.%三氟乙酸(trifluoroacetic acid,TFA)是稳定且有潜在毒害性的有机污染物,可在水环境中不断累积导致浓度持续升高,从而引起生态健康风险.本研究通过在全国16个城市采集自来水、河水、湖水等环境水样43个,用衍生化法-气相色谱-质谱联用技术检测水环境中TFA的浓度水平.结果表明,所有采样点的水样中均可检出TFA,浓度范围为13.7~7 850 ng.L-1,不同城市水环境中TFA的浓度差异显著.上海环境水中TFA浓度最高,自来水和河水中TFA的浓度分别为3 054 ng.L-1和7 850ng.L-1.TFA的地域分布显示位于华东地区的上海、安徽、山东烟台等地水环境中TFA水平明显高于其它城市.华东地区是中国氟化工业比较集中的区域,氟化工业生产过程直接或

  1. TFA-600系列产品介绍

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    凤凰音响灯光技术有限公司

    2010-01-01

    @@ (接2010年34卷4期90页) TFA-600H/TFA-600HDP 梯形三分频音箱,梯形三分频有源音箱 TFA-600H是一款三分频的可转换三放大/二放大的梯形全频音箱,箱体内置有一种专利申请中的Den-dritic 树状高频波导.

  2. Influence Factor of Preparing YBCO Tapes by TFA-MOD Method%TFA-MOD技术制备YBCO涂层导体影响因素研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕旭东; 古宏伟; 李弢; 丁发柱; 王连红

    2008-01-01

    采用三氟乙酸盐-金属有机物沉积法(trifluoroacetic acid-metall organic deposition,TFA-MOD)制备YB-CO带材,不需要真空系统,成本低,是近年来制备YBCO涂层导体研究的热点之一.对采用TFA-MOD技术制备YBCO涂层导体中的工艺做了较为系统的介绍,包括制备前驱物溶液、涂敷、低温烧结、高温烧结等环节,分析了加热温度,升温速率,水分压等参数的影响.并且讨论了如何从工艺环节提高YBCO涂层导体的性能.

  3. Trans fatty acids in the Portuguese food market

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Nádia; Cruz, Rebeca; Graça, Pedro; Breda, João; Casal, Susana

    2016-01-01

    Consistent evidence exist on the harmful health effects of industrial trans fatty acids (TFA). In order to have accurate data on TFA intake and implement adequate measures to reduce their intake, each country should have updated estimates of TFA content in the diet. The objective of the present study was to provide data on the TFA content in food commercialized in the Portuguese market. The results on the TFA content of 268 samples acquired between October and December 2013 are reported. Samp...

  4. Nutritional implications of trans fatty acids during perinatal period, in French pregnant women

    OpenAIRE

    Boue Carole; Combe Nicole; Billeaud Claude; Entressangles Bernard

    2001-01-01

    Some studies have demonstrated the transfer of trans fatty acids (TFA) across the human placenta. It was suggested that TFA might disturb the metabolism of essential fatty acids (EFA) in fetus and consequently might affect intrauterine human growth more or less according to the TFA intake level of the mother. In this context, the objective of this study was to assess, for French pregnant women, possible impact of their TFA intake on parameters of their term infants: 1/ TFA composition of the ...

  5. Teach for Australia (TFA): Can It Overcome Educational Disadvantage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skourdoumbis, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    This paper considers an alternative teacher certification pathway known as Teach for Australia (TFA) that is currently operating in the Australian state of Victoria. A discursive approach informed by critical theory is used in the paper to critically examine the specific case of TFA as an alternative teacher certification pathway charged with…

  6. Intake of ruminant trans fatty acids and risk of coronary heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre; Overvad, Kim; Dyerberg, Jørn;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies have shown a positive association between trans fatty acids (TFA) intake and risk of coronary heart disease (CHD), primarily accounted for by industrially produced TFA. Some of these studies indicate an inverse association between ruminant TFA (R-TFA) intake and CHD implying...

  7. Intake of ruminant trans fatty acids and risk of coronary heart disease - An overview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Marianne U.; Bysted, Anette; Andersen, Niels Lyhne;

    2006-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown a strong direct (positive) association between the intake of trans fatty acids (TRA) and the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD), primarily accounted for by industrially produced TFA (IP-TFA). However, comparisons, between ruminant TEA (R-TFA) and IP-TFA and risk...

  8. TFA pixel sensor technology for vertex detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pixel microvertex detectors at the SLHC and a future linear collider face very challenging issues: extreme radiation hardness, cooling design, interconnections density and fabrication cost. As an alternative approach we present a novel pixel detector based on the deposition of a Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon (a-Si:H) film on top of a readout ASIC. The Thin-Film on ASIC (TFA) technology is inspired by an emerging microelectronic technology envisaged for visible light Active Pixel Sensor (APS) devices. We present results obtained with a-Si:H sensor films deposited on a glass substrate and on ASIC, including the radiation hardness of this material up to a fluence of 3.5x1015 p/cm2

  9. Luminescent properties of [UO2(TFA)2(DMSO)3], a promising material for sensing and monitoring the uranyl ion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An uranyl complex [UO2(TFA)2(DMSO)3] (TFA=deprotonated trifluoroacetic acid; DMSO=dimethyl sulfoxide) has been successfully synthesized by reacting UO2(CH3COO)2 ·H2 O with one equivalent of (CF3 CO)2 O and DMSO. The complex has been characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, X-ray powder diffraction, elemental analysis, FTIR spectroscopy, thermal analysis and absorption and emission spectroscopies. The spectroscopic properties of the material make it suitable for its application in the sensing and monitoring of uranyl in the PUREX process. (author)

  10. Preparation of anhydrous TFA solution for deposition of YBa2Cu3O7-x thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The realisation of superconducting thin films by MOD is possible using different precursors; among them, the most promising approach is the use of trifluoroacetates (TFAMOD). However, one of the major drawbacks of this approach is the generation of water when trifluoroacetic acid (TFAH) is used. In this case, a lengthy purification process of the solution is necessary. As an alternative, trifluoroacetic anhydride (TFAA) has been used affording anhydrous TFA solutions without any additional purification. Anhydrous TFA solutions have allowed YBa2Cu3O7-x films to be obtained with high critical currents (Jc > 3-4 MA/cm2 at 77K, thickness 300nm)

  11. Cultivating Political Powerhouses: TFA Corps Members Experiences That Shape Local Political Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Rebecca; White, Rachel; Reckhow, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, Teach for America (TFA) has invested in developing corps members as leaders. Although TFA asks corps members for a two-year commitment, TFA celebrates the achievements of alumni who have gone on to careers in politics, public policy, and advocacy. Thus, many community leaders see the arrival of TFA corps members as having a…

  12. TFA and EPA Productivities of Nannochloropsis salina Influenced by Temperature and Nitrate Stimuli in Turbidostatic Controlled Experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Klaus Heinrich Vanselow; Kai Marxen; Rüdiger Schulz; Maren Hoffmann

    2010-01-01

    The influence of different nitrate concentrations in combination with three cultivation temperatures on the total fatty acids (TFA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) content of Nannochloropsis salina was investigated. This was done by virtue of turbidostatic controlled cultures. This control mode enables the cultivation of microalgae under defined conditions and, therefore, the influence of single parameters on the fatty acid synthesis of Nannochloropsis salina can be investigated. Generally, g...

  13. Enhancement of mononuclear procoagulant activity by platelet 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid.

    OpenAIRE

    Lorenzet, R; Niemetz, J; Marcus, A J; Broekman, M J

    1986-01-01

    Platelets induce generation of procoagulant tissue factor activity (TFa) by mononuclear leukocytes, and also enhance the TFa induced by endotoxin. Our present investigation demonstrated that arachidonic acid, which by itself had no effect on mononuclear TFa, greatly enhanced platelet-induced TFa. The effect was concentration dependent for both platelets and arachidonate (1-20 microM); other fatty acids tested were inactive. The enhancing effect of arachidonate was more pronounced if platelets...

  14. TFA Tanks Focus Area midyear review report FY 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LR Roeder-Smith

    2000-05-02

    In accordance with EM's office of Science and Technology (OST), the TFA is committed to assessing the maturity of technology development projects and ensuring their readiness for implementation and subsequent deployment. The TFA conducts an annual Midyear Review to document the status of ongoing projects, reaffirm and document user commitment to selected projects, and to improve the effective deployment of technology by determining and documenting the readiness of selected projects to move ahead. Since 1995, OST has used a linear technology maturation model that spans through seven defined stages of maturity, from basic research to implementation. Application of this Stage/Gate model to technology development resulted in prescriptive and somewhat cumbersome review procedures, resulting in limited and inconsistent use. Subsequently, in February 2000, OST issued revised guidance in an effort to streamline the technology tracking and review process. While the new OST guidance reinforces peer review requirements and the use of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) for independent reviews, it also implements a simplified Gate model. The TFA is now responsible for providing auditable documentation for passing only three stages of technology maturity: ready for research (Gate 0); ready for development (Gate 2); ready for demonstration (Gate 5). The TFA Midyear Review is a key element in the overall review procedure, as the tracking evidence for all active projects is required to be available at this time. While the Midyear Report contains an overview of the status of all TFA reviews and projects, not all the reviews were conducted during the Midyear Review. The TFA used a phased approach to accomplish the Midyear Review requirements.

  15. Tanks Focus Area (TFA) site needs assessment FY 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents the process used by the Tanks Focus Area (TFA) to analyze and develop responses to technology needs submitted by five major U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites with radioactive tank waste problems, and the initial results of the analysis. The sites are the Hanford Site, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), Savannah River Site (SRS), and West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP). During the past year, the TFA established a link with DOE's Fernald site to exchange, on a continuing basis, mutually beneficial technical information and assistance

  16. Trans fatty acids – A risk factor for cardiovascular disease

    OpenAIRE

    Iqbal, Mohammad Perwaiz

    2014-01-01

    Trans fatty acids (TFA) are produced either by hydrogenation of unsaturated oils or by biohydrogenation in the stomach of ruminant animals. Vanaspati ghee and margarine have high contents of TFA. A number of studies have shown an association of TFA consumption and increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). This increased risk is because TFA increase the ratio of LDL cholesterol to HDL cholesterol. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and World Health Organization have ...

  17. Adipose tissue trans fatty acids and changes in body weight and waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, C.P.; Berentzen, T.L.; Østergaard, J.N.;

    Previous studies have suggested that intake of trans fatty acids (TFA) may play a role in the development of obesity. For fatty acids not synthesized endogenously in humans, such as TFA, the proportions in adipose tissue tend to correlate well with the habitual dietary intake. Biomarkers may...... provide a more accurate measure of habitual TFA intake than dietary questionnaires. Our objective was to investigate the associations between specific TFA in adipose tissue and subsequent changes in body weight and waist circumference (WC)....

  18. The effect of the regulation on trans fatty acid content in Danish food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Torben; Jensen, Henrik G.; Mikkelsen, Aase Ærendahl;

    2006-01-01

    The content of trans fatty acids (TFA) in Danish food has been monitored for the last 30 years. In margarines and shortenings the content of TFA has steadily declined from about 10 g/100 g margarine in the seventies to practically no TFA in margarines in 1999. In order to efficiently reduce...... the health risk related to TFA, Denmark decided to impose a maximum level of 2 g/100 g fat on industrially produced TFA (IP-TFA) with the Danish Order no. 160 of March 2003, as labelling was deemed insufficient to protect the consumers, especially risk groups like children or people with high intake of fast...

  19. Rapid thermal decomposition for YBa2Cu3O7-δ films derived by DEA-modified TFA-MOD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Q. Q.; Zhao, S. C.; Liu, Z. Y.; Rui, R. S.; Qiu, W. B.; Guo, Y. Q.; Li, M. J.; Yang, W. T.; Cai, C. B.

    2014-05-01

    Thermal decomposition of YBa2Cu3O7-δ (YBCO) films derived by diethanolamine (DEA)-modified trifluoroacetic acid-metal organic deposition (TFA-MOD) was investigated with respect to the understanding of the correlation between the stress releasing and rapid decomposition. It is revealed that the evaporation of DEA and the decomposition of precursor films occur simultaneously. A pyrolysis time as 20 seconds is optimal to keep the proper amount of DEA which prevents the films from severe stress during the pyrolysis. Then smooth surface of resultant films appears. In case of a pyrolysis time longer than 40 s, cracks emerge in the films accompanied with complete evaporation of DEA and appearance of Cu-rich particles, while films with pyrolysis time shorter than 10s is excessively soft, with large amount of DEA and TFA remaining in the film, implying insufficient pyrolysis.

  20. A trans European Union difference in the decline in trans fatty acids in popular foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stender, Steen; Astrup, Arne; Dyerberg, Jørn

    2012-01-01

    To minimise the intake of industrial trans fatty acids (I-TFA) some countries have introduced labelling, while others have introduced legislative limits on the content of I-TFA in food. However, most countries still rely on food producers to voluntarily reduce the I-TFA content in food. The...

  1. Fabrication of YBCO coated conductor by TFA-MOD using the '211 process'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    YBCO film was fabricated by the TFA-MOD method based on the '211 process' in which precursors of Y2Ba1Cu1O x (Y211) and Ba3Cu5O8 powders, instead of Y-, Ba-, and Cu-based acetates, were dissolved in trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) in order to explore its possible application in coated conductors. We evaluated the effects of the humidity and firing temperature on the phase formation, texture formability, and critical temperature (T c) and current (I c) of the YBCO film. We successively synthesized pure YBCO films of which those fired in 12.1-20.0% humidified Ar gas showed the highest critical properties, viz. a T c-zero of 88.6 K and I c of 30 A/cm width. These improvements in the critical properties were attributed to the formation of pure YBCO phase, to the improved density and the large grain size. In addition, we observed that the I c varied significantly with the firing temperature. The variation of the I c with the firing temperature was correlated with the microstructural evolution

  2. High-rate fabrication of YBCO coated conductors using TFA-MOD method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakaoka, K.; Yoshizumi, M.; Usui, Y.; Izumi, T.; Shiohara, Y.

    The YBa2Cu3O7-y (YBCO) coated conductors derived from metal-organic deposition (MOD) method using the metal salts of trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) have been developed with high critical current property. The long-length YBCO coated conductors have been fabricated by multi-turn reel-to-reel system. Increasing the thickness per single coating in the multi-turn reel-to-reel system is a cost-effective technique for fabrication of the precursor films in the calcination process. In this work, we have developed a new starting solution consisting of non-fluorine salts of yttrium 4-oxopentanoate and copper 2-ethylhexanoate with focusing on increasing the thickness per single coating for a high-rate fabrication of the YBCO coated conductors by the TFA-MOD method. The critical thickness per single coating of the film fabricated from the new starting solution was 0.54 μm/coat. High critical current of 377 A/cm-width with high critical current density (3.0 MA/cm2) was obtained in the YBCO film fabricated on CeO2 buffered LaMnO3/MgO/Gd2Zr2O-7/HastelloyTM substrates using the new starting solution at the thickness per single coating of 0.42 μm/coat.

  3. Consumer protection through a legislative ban on industrially produced trans fatty acids in foods in Denmark

    OpenAIRE

    Stender, Steen; Dyerberg, Jørn; Astrup, Arne

    2006-01-01

    Legislation has, within a few years, virtually eliminated the intake of industrially produced trans fatty acids (IP-TFA) in Denmark, by banning any food with an IP-TFA content greater than 2% of total fat. This accomplishment has been obtained without noticeable effects on the availability, price or quality of foods previously containing high amounts of IP-TFA. Various public health organizations, including the World Health Organization, have recommended reducing the consumption of IP-TFA, an...

  4. AWARD LECTURES Trans — and conjugated fatty acids in food — contents and analytical aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Steinhart Hans; Winkler Kirstin; Rickert Rainer

    2001-01-01

    The current investigations on fatty acids are focused on long chain fatty acids, trans fatty acids (TFA) and conjugated fatty acids (CFA), especially isomers of linoleic acid (CLA). This paper deals with the origins of TFA and CLA and their physiological significance. Furthermore an overview is given of analytical procedures of both TFA and CLA. In addition the contents and isomeric distribution of these groups of fatty acids in foods are presented.

  5. AWARD LECTURES Trans — and conjugated fatty acids in food — contents and analytical aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steinhart Hans

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The current investigations on fatty acids are focused on long chain fatty acids, trans fatty acids (TFA and conjugated fatty acids (CFA, especially isomers of linoleic acid (CLA. This paper deals with the origins of TFA and CLA and their physiological significance. Furthermore an overview is given of analytical procedures of both TFA and CLA. In addition the contents and isomeric distribution of these groups of fatty acids in foods are presented.

  6. Study on sources of charging lead acid batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniş, C. M.; Popa, G. N.; Iagăr, A.

    2015-06-01

    The paper presents the general characteristics of lead acid batteries and two charging methods of these batteries. For charging of lead batteries was used an intelligent power source K 8012 (from Velleman). The power source allows fixing the level of the battery voltage and battery capacity. The intelligent power source uses the joint method (at constant current and, then, at constant voltage) and warning that indicates different situations in the charging process. Other method of charging presented in the paper is at constant voltage using a stabilized power source. In the paper experimental measurements were carried out using data acquisition card SER 10 BIT (from Conrad) for charging/ discharging of a lead acid battery 12V/9Ah (using an intelligent power source) and charging of another high capacity lead acid battery 12V/47Ah/390 A (using a stabilized power source). At the discharging of the lead acid batteries it were used automotive lamps as electric loads.

  7. High-Sensitivity TFA-free LC-MS for Profiling Histones

    OpenAIRE

    You, Jia; Wang, Liwen; Saji, Motoyasu; Olesik, Susan V.; Ringel, Matthew D.; Lucas, David M.; Byrd, John C.; Freitas, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    The analysis of proteins by reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) commonly involves the use of TFA as an ion-pairing agent, even though it forms adducts and suppresses sensitivity. The presence of adducts can complicate protein molecular weight assignment especially when protein isoforms coelute as in the case of histones. To mitigate the complicating effects of TFA adducts in protein LC-MS, we have optimized TFA-free methods for protein separation. Protein standards and histones were u...

  8. Trans fatty acids in adipose tissue and erythrocytes of Irish adults

    OpenAIRE

    Hogan, Linda

    2001-01-01

    Trans fatty acids (TFA) are produced by the partial hydrogenation of vegetable and marine oils. TFA are not synthesized in the human body. The fatty acid composition of adipose tissue reflects the habitual intake of TFA over the previous 1-2 years. Recent studies associate TFA with an increased serum level of low density lipoproteins (LDL) and therefore an increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). The objective of the present study was to assess the level of TFA in the subcutaneous fat ...

  9. Progress in TFA-MOD for Superconducting Coated Conductors%涂层导体中的TFA-MOD超导层技术进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金利华; 李成山; 闫果; 卢亚锋

    2008-01-01

    三氟乙酸金属有机沉积(TFA-MOD)技术在制备超导涂层导体长带方面具有低成本和高效的特点.简述了TFA-MOD技术的基本原理以及在长带技术方面的进展,讨论了利用TFA-MOD技术制备涂层导体时仍然存在的技术和基础科学问题,并展望了我国涂层导体技术的发展状况.

  10. Determination of trans fatty acid levels by FTIR in processed foods in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Justine; Barr, Daniel; Sinclair, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Health authorities around the world advise 'limiting consumption of trans fatty acid', however in Australia the trans fatty acid (TFA) content is not required to be listed in the nutrition information panel unless a declaration or nutrient claim is made about fatty acids or cholesterol. Since there is limited knowledge about trans fatty acid levels in processed foods available in Australia, this study aimed to determine the levels of TFA in selected food items known to be sources of TFA from previously published studies. Food items (n=92) that contain vegetable oil and a total fat content greater than 5% were included. This criterion was used in conjunction with a review of similar studies where food items were found to contain high levels of trans fatty acids. Lipids were extracted using solvents. Gravimetric methods were used to determine total fat content and trans fatty acid levels were quantified by Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy. High levels of trans fatty acids were found in certain items in the Australian food supply, with a high degree of variability. Of the samples analysed, 13 contained greater than 1 g of trans fatty acids per serving size, the highest value was 8.1 g/serving. Apart from when the nutrition information panel states that the content is less than a designated low level, food labels sold in Australia do not indicate trans fatty acid levels. We suggested that health authorities seek ways to assist consumers to limit their intakes of trans fatty acids. PMID:18818158

  11. Growth mechanism of YBCO film by TFA-MOD process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The growth rate expression in the TFA-MOD process for fabrication of coated conductors was revised according to the measurement of the growth rate using a long tape. The P(H2O) distribution along the gas flow-direction was calculated by the advection diffusion model. The above two outputs were combined to predict the minimum annealing time for complete reaction in the sample tape with a finite width. The prediction from the model was in good agreement with the experimental results

  12. Sources and Bioactive Properties of Conjugated Dietary Fatty Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessy, Alan A; Ross, Paul R; Fitzgerald, Gerald F; Stanton, Catherine

    2016-04-01

    The group of conjugated fatty acids known as conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers have been extensively studied with regard to their bioactive potential in treating some of the most prominent human health malignancies. However, CLA isomers are not the only group of potentially bioactive conjugated fatty acids currently undergoing study. In this regard, isomers of conjugated α-linolenic acid, conjugated nonadecadienoic acid and conjugated eicosapentaenoic acid, to name but a few, have undergone experimental assessment. These studies have indicated many of these conjugated fatty acid isomers commonly possess anti-carcinogenic, anti-adipogenic, anti-inflammatory and immune modulating properties, a number of which will be discussed in this review. The mechanisms through which these bioactivities are mediated have not yet been fully elucidated. However, existing evidence indicates that these fatty acids may play a role in modulating the expression of several oncogenes, cell cycle regulators, and genes associated with energy metabolism. Despite such bioactive potential, interest in these conjugated fatty acids has remained low relative to the CLA isomers. This may be partly attributed to the relatively recent emergence of these fatty acids as bioactives, but also due to a lack of awareness regarding sources from which they can be produced. In this review, we will also highlight the common sources of these conjugated fatty acids, including plants, algae, microbes and chemosynthesis. PMID:26968402

  13. A Racio-Economic Analysis of Teach for America: Counterstories of TFA Teachers of Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapayese, Yvette V.; Aldana, Ursula S.; Lara, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses Teach for America (TFA), one of the alternative education programs of the U.S. Department of Education designed to address the achievement gap of students of color in the country. Topics explored in this research include issues of racism and race in the recruitment and support of its teacher corp; how TFA educators of color…

  14. TFA and the Magical Thinking of the "Best and the Brightest"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenreich, Megan; Rogers, Bethany L.

    2016-01-01

    This article draws on oral history testimonies to examine the experiences of participants in the inaugural 1990 cohort of Teach For America (TFA)--a group of young people dubbed the "best and brightest" of their generation and tasked with "saving" urban education. For 25 years, TFA has operated according to the principle of the…

  15. Training the next Teachers for America: A Proposal for Reconceptualizing TFA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Megan

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author offers suggestions for reconceptualizing the Teach for America (TFA) program. She recommends that TFA develop a residency training model with the following features: (1) Extend the program's current two-year commitment to three years; (2) Require first-year corps members to complete a residency year in an experienced…

  16. Unfinishedness: Striving for a Viable Partnership between TFA and Its University Partner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Barbara; Fisher, Teresa R.; Alicea, Monica; Bloxson, Kolt M.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Context: Teach For America (TFA) affiliates with universities in most of its 40 regions nationally; however, few researchers intentionally study the content and processes of a partnership between TFA and a college of education. Purpose/Research Question/Focus of Study: To ensure that investments both organizations were making had a…

  17. Trifluoroacetic acid from degradation of HCFCs and HFCs: A three-dimensional modeling study

    OpenAIRE

    V. R. Kotamarthi; J. M. Rodriguez; Ko, M. K. W.; Tromp, T. K; Sze, N. D; Prather, Michael J

    1998-01-01

    Trifluoroacetic acid (TFA; CF3 COOH) is produced by the degradation of the halocarbon replacements HFC-134a, HCFC-124, and HCFC-123. The formation of TFA occurs by HFC/HCFC reacting with OH to yield CF3COX (X = F or Cl), followed by in-cloud hydrolysis of CF3COX to form TFA. The TFA formed in the clouds may be reevaporated but is finally deposited onto the surface by washout or dry deposition. Concern has been expressed about the possible long-term accumulation of TFA in certain aquatic envir...

  18. Pd layer on cube-textured substrates for MOD-TFA and PLD YBCO coated conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pd films were deposited on rolling assisted biaxially textured substrate (RABiTS) Ni-5 at.% W in order to exploit the Pd effect of the texture sharpening with respect to that of the substrate, for the development of YBa2Cu3O7-x (YBCO) coated conductors. The Pd sharpening effect was relevant in the out-of-plane direction where the reduction for the ω-scans' full width at half maximum (FWHM) ranged from 55 to 65%, depending on the substrate roughness. The obtained minimum values of the FWHM in the transverse rolling direction of the (002) Pd ω-scan and in the (111) Pd φ-scan were of about 2.50 and 50, respectively. The CeO2/YSZ/CeO2 (YSZ is Y2O3-stabilised ZrO2) heterostructure of the buffer layer was developed by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). In order to transfer the sharp orientation of the Pd film, both the seed CeO2 layer and the YSZ layer were deposited at low temperatures (450 deg. C ), low enough to avoid Pd/Ni-W interdiffusion. The YBCO, films deposited by both PLD and metal-organic deposition (MOD) using metal trifluoroacetate acid (TFA), exhibited rolling direction (005) ω-scan and the (113) φ-scan FWHM values of about 2 deg. and 5 deg., respectively. In spite of the complete interdiffusion between Ni and Pd during the YBCO film deposition, the coated conductors exhibit good adherence, as well as a smooth and crack-free surface. A zero-resistance critical temperature (TC0) of 90.8 K for the MOD-TFA YBCO films and critical current-density (JC) up to 2.2 MA cm-2 at 77 K and self-field for PLD YBCO films have been obtained

  19. Vortex creep in TFA-YBCO nanocomposite films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouco, V.; Bartolomé, E.; Maiorov, B.; Palau, A.; Civale, L.; Obradors, X.; Puig, T.

    2014-11-01

    Vortex creep in YBa2Cu3O7 - x (YBCO) films grown from the trifluoracetate (TFA) chemical route with BaZrO3 and Ba2YTaO6 second-phase nanoparticles (NPs) has been investigated by magnetic relaxation measurements. We observe that in YBCO nanocomposites the phenomenological crossover line from the elastic to the plastic creep regime is shifted to higher magnetic fields and temperatures. The origin of this shift lies on the new isotropic-strong vortex pinning contribution appearing in these nanocomposites, induced by local lattice distortions. As a consequence, we demonstrate that the addition of non-coherent NPs produces a decrease in the creep rate S in most of the phase diagram, particularly, in the range of fields and temperatures (T\\gt 60 K, {{μ }0}H\\gt 0.5 T) relevant for large scale applications.

  20. Progress on TFA-MOD coated conductor development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recent progress in coated conductor development by the TFA-MOD process was reviewed. Much progress was recognized in the R and D on TFA-MOD processing for satisfying several requirements, such as high superconducting performance, long tape production, high production rate, etc., considering the real application. For high superconducting performance, the high I c value of 413 A was achieved in a short sample with an architecture of MOD-YBCO/IBAD-GZO/IBAD-GZO/Hastelloy. It was realized by improving the in-plane crystal grain alignment of the CeO2 buffer layer and optimizing conditions of the heat treatments in the calcination and crystallization processes. In the calcination process, it was found that lower heating rate was effective to improve the morphology of the multi-layered precursor by preventing from pore generation and segregation of Cu elements. In the crystallization process, it was found that high humid gas partial pressure was effective to improve the J c values by reducing the amounts and size of pores in the YBCO layers. Furthermore, in the case of thicker firm, it was found that the low heating rate in the crystallization process was effective to prevent from the crack formation. On the other hand, in order to obtain the long tape with uniform I c values, in the crystallization process, the gas flow condition in a large scale equipment for the continuous long tape process was investigated using a computer simulation technique. Consequently, the 8.6 m YBCO on PLD-CeO2/IBAD-Gd2Zr2O7/Hastelloy tape which shows high I c performance of 119 A as an end-to-end value at 77.3 K in self fields, was successfully obtained. As a result, I c x L(length) value of 1024 A m was achieved

  1. Trans fatty acid content in Malaysian supermarket foods: a field-to-laboratory approach in assessing food risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karupaiah, Tilakavati; Tan, Hui Kuen; Ong, Wei Wen; Tan, Choon Heen; Sundram, Kalyana

    2014-01-01

    The extent of industrial trans fatty acids (TFA) in the food supply is unknown in Malaysia, whilst TFA disclosure on food labels is not mandatory by Malaysian food standards. Supermarket foods such as dairy products, fats and oils, meat products, snack foods, soups, and confectionery are commonly cited to be major contributors of TFA in the diet. A consumer survey (n = 622) was used to develop a food listing of these 'high risk' foods. TFA content of high-risk foods were analysed by gas chromatography. Food samples (n = 158) were analysed and their total TFA content were compared with Malaysian Food Standards. A wide variation in TFA content within food categories was indicated. Of the foods containing TFA, many food labels did not cite TFA content or the use of partially hydrogenated vegetable oils (PHVO) as an ingredient. Hypothesised estimates of TFA intake from these supermarket foods in a sample day's menu providing 2000 kcal projected a minimum intake of 0.5 g and a maximum intake of 5.2 g TFA. This study found there was no voluntary disclosure of TFA content on food labels or identifying PHVO as an ingredient. It appears that health education targeting consumers to minimise TFA consumption is required supported by mandatory PHVO disclosure on the food label.

  2. Towards sustainable sources for omega-3 fatty acids production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adarme-Vega, T Catalina; Thomas-Hall, Skye R; Schenk, Peer M

    2014-04-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docohexaenoic acid (DHA), provide significant health benefits for brain function/development and cardiovascular conditions. However, most EPA and DHA for human consumption is sourced from small fatty fish caught in coastal waters and, with depleting global fish stocks, recent research has been directed towards more sustainable sources. These include aquaculture with plant-based feeds, krill, marine microalgae, microalgae-like protists and genetically-modified plants. To meet the increasing demand for EPA and DHA, further developments are needed towards land-based sources. In particular large-scale cultivation of microalgae and plants is likely to become a reality with expected reductions in production costs, yield increasese and the adequate addressing of genetically modified food acceptance issues.

  3. Towards sustainable sources for omega-3 fatty acids production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adarme-Vega, T Catalina; Thomas-Hall, Skye R; Schenk, Peer M

    2014-04-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docohexaenoic acid (DHA), provide significant health benefits for brain function/development and cardiovascular conditions. However, most EPA and DHA for human consumption is sourced from small fatty fish caught in coastal waters and, with depleting global fish stocks, recent research has been directed towards more sustainable sources. These include aquaculture with plant-based feeds, krill, marine microalgae, microalgae-like protists and genetically-modified plants. To meet the increasing demand for EPA and DHA, further developments are needed towards land-based sources. In particular large-scale cultivation of microalgae and plants is likely to become a reality with expected reductions in production costs, yield increasese and the adequate addressing of genetically modified food acceptance issues. PMID:24607804

  4. Saturated and trans-fatty acids in UK takeaway food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Ian Glynn; Blackham, Toni; Jaworowska, Agnieszka; Taylor, Catherine; Ashton, Matthew; Stevenson, Leonard

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze the saturated fatty acid (SFA) and trans-fatty acid (TFA) contents of popular takeaway foods in the UK (including English, pizza, Chinese, Indian and kebab cuisine). Samples of meals were analyzed by an accredited public analyst laboratory for SFA and TFA. The meals were highly variable for SFA and TFA. English and Pizza meals had the highest median amount of SFA with 35.7 g/meal; Kebab meals were high in TFA with up to 5.2 g/meal. When compared to UK dietary reference values, some meals exceeded SFA and TFA recommendations from just one meal. Takeaway food would be an obvious target to reduce SFA and TFA contents and increase the potential of meeting UK recommendations. Strategies such as reformulation and smaller takeaway portion sizes warrant investigation. PMID:26911372

  5. Conjugated Linoleic Acid: Chemical Structure, Sources and Biological Properties

    OpenAIRE

    AYDIN, Rahim

    2005-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a group of geometrical and positional isomers of linoleic acid (C18:2, cis-9, cis-12). In contrast to linoleic acid, double bonds in CLA are usually located at positions 9 and 11 or 10 and 12 and each double bond can be either in the cis or trans configuration. Meat and dairy products from ruminant animals (such as milk, butter, yogurt and cheese) are the principal natural sources of CLA in the human diet. Egg and meat products from poultry contain less CLA t...

  6. Acetic Acid bacteria: physiology and carbon sources oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamlouk, Dhouha; Gullo, Maria

    2013-12-01

    Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are obligately aerobic bacteria within the family Acetobacteraceae, widespread in sugary, acidic and alcoholic niches. They are known for their ability to partially oxidise a variety of carbohydrates and to release the corresponding metabolites (aldehydes, ketones and organic acids) into the media. Since a long time they are used to perform specific oxidation reactions through processes called "oxidative fermentations", especially in vinegar production. In the last decades physiology of AAB have been widely studied because of their role in food production, where they act as beneficial or spoiling organisms, and in biotechnological industry, where their oxidation machinery is exploited to produce a number of compounds such as l-ascorbic acid, dihydroxyacetone, gluconic acid and cellulose. The present review aims to provide an overview of AAB physiology focusing carbon sources oxidation and main products of their metabolism.

  7. The source of carbon dioxide for gastric acid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steer, Howard

    2009-01-01

    The source of carbon dioxide for the chemical reaction leading to the production of gastric acid is unknown. The decarboxylation of an amino acid releases carbon dioxide. Pepsinogens provide a rich source of the amino acid arginine. Both the source of carbon dioxide, arginine, and the consequence of arginine decarboxylation, agmatine, have been studied. The site of carbon dioxide production has been related to the survival of the parietal cell. An immunohistochemical study has been carried out on glycol methacrylate embedded gastric biopsies from the normal stomach of 38 adult patients. The sections have been stained using polyclonal antibody to pepsinogen II, polyclonal antibody to agmatine, and polyclonal antibody to Helicobacter pylori. Pepsinogen II and agmatine are found in the parietal cell canaliculi. This is consistent with the production of carbon dioxide from arginine in the parietal cell canaliculi. Evidence is presented for the decarboxylation of arginine derived from the activation segment of pepsinogen as the source of carbon dioxide for the production of gastric acid. The production of carbon dioxide by the decarboxylation of arginine in the parietal cell canaliculus enables the extracellular hydration of carbon dioxide at the known site of carbonic anhydrase activity. The extracellular production of acid in the canaliculus together with the presence of agmatine helps to explain why the parietal cells are not destroyed during the formation of gastric acid. Agmatine is found in the mucus secreting cells of the stomach and its role in acid protection of the stomach is discussed. Anat Rec, 2009. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:18951509

  8. Trans fatty acids, insulin sensitivity and type 2 diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Risérus, Ulf

    2006-01-01

    Trans fatty acids (TFA) could affect cell membrane functions, and may therefore influence peripheral insulin sensitivity and the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. It is important to understand whether low amounts of TFA consumed during long periods may promote insulin resistance and have clinically relevant effects on diabetes risk. Data from controlled intervention studies examining the effects of TFA on insulin sensitivity and type 2 diabetes are reviewed. The results show no consistent e...

  9. 2012: No trans fatty acids in Spanish bakery products

    OpenAIRE

    D. Ansorena; Echarte, A. (Andrea); Olle, R. (Rebeca); Astiasaran, I. (Iciar)

    2013-01-01

    Trans fatty acids (TFA) are strongly correlated with an increased risk of cardiovascular and other chronic diseases. Current dietary recommendations exclude bakery products from frequent consumption basically due to their traditionally high content of TFA. The aim of this work was to analyze the lipid profile of different bakery products currently commercialized in Spain and with a conventionally high fat and TFA content. Premium and store brands for each product were included in the study...

  10. Trifluoroacetic acid as excipient destabilizes melittin causing the selective aggregation of melittin within the centrin-melittin-trifluoroacetic acid complexa)

    OpenAIRE

    Belinda Pastrana-Rios; Liliana del Valle Sosa; Jorge Santiago

    2015-01-01

    Trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) may be the cause of the bottleneck in high resolution structure determination for protein-peptide complexes. Fragment based drug design often involves the use of synthetic peptides which contain TFA (excipient). Our goal was to explore the effects of this excipient on a model complex: centrin-melittin-TFA. We performed Fourier transform infrared, two-dimensional infrared correlation spectroscopies and spectral simulations to analyze the amide I'/I'* band for the com...

  11. Rapid thermal decomposition for YBa2Cu3O7−δ films derived by DEA-modified TFA-MOD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermal decomposition of YBa2Cu3O7-δ (YBCO) films derived by diethanolamine (DEA)-modified trifluoroacetic acid-metal organic deposition (TFA-MOD) was investigated with respect to the understanding of the correlation between the stress releasing and rapid decomposition. It is revealed that the evaporation of DEA and the decomposition of precursor films occur simultaneously. A pyrolysis time as 20 seconds is optimal to keep the proper amount of DEA which prevents the films from severe stress during the pyrolysis. Then smooth surface of resultant films appears. In case of a pyrolysis time longer than 40 s, cracks emerge in the films accompanied with complete evaporation of DEA and appearance of Cu-rich particles, while films with pyrolysis time shorter than 10s is excessively soft, with large amount of DEA and TFA remaining in the film, implying insufficient pyrolysis.

  12. Luminescent properties of [UO{sub 2}(TFA){sub 2}(DMSO){sub 3}], a promising material for sensing and monitoring the uranyl ion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin-Ramos, Pablo; Silva, Manuela Ramos; Silva, Pedro S. Pereira da [Centro de Fisica da Universidade de Coimbra (CFisUC), Department of Physics, Universidade de Coimbra (Portugal); Costa, Ana L.; Melo, J. Sergio Seixas de [Centro de Quimica de Coimbra, Department of Chemistry, Universidade de Coimbra (Portugal); Pereira, Laura C.J. [Centro de Ciencias e Tecnologias Nucleares, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Bobadela LRS (Portugal); Martin-Gil, Jesus, E-mail: pmr@unizar.es [Advanced Materials Laboratory, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenierias Agrarias, University of Valladolid, Palencia (Spain)

    2016-03-15

    An uranyl complex [UO{sub 2}(TFA){sub 2}(DMSO){sub 3}] (TFA=deprotonated trifluoroacetic acid; DMSO=dimethyl sulfoxide) has been successfully synthesized by reacting UO{sub 2}(CH{sub 3}COO){sub 2} ·H{sub 2} O with one equivalent of (CF{sub 3} CO){sub 2} O and DMSO. The complex has been characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, X-ray powder diffraction, elemental analysis, FTIR spectroscopy, thermal analysis and absorption and emission spectroscopies. The spectroscopic properties of the material make it suitable for its application in the sensing and monitoring of uranyl in the PUREX process. (author)

  13. Plasma transport and mammary uptake of trans fatty acids in dairy cows

    OpenAIRE

    Vargas Bello Pérez, Einar

    2011-01-01

    In this thesis, aspects of metabolism of lipids in dairy cows were studied, particularly 18:1 trans fatty acid (tFA) concentrations in plasma and lipoprotein fractions, and transportation of FA in epithelial mammary gland cell cultures. Two in vivo studies were conducted to elucidate which lipoprotein fractions were involved in bovine plasma transport of tFA by infusing oils that induced different plasma tFA profiles. Fatty acid profiles of plasma and lipoprotein fractions [high (HDL), l...

  14. WRF/Chem study of dry and wet deposition of trifluoroacetic acid produced from the atmospheric degradation of a few short-lived HFCs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazil, J.; McKeen, S. A.; Kim, S.; Ahmadov, R.; Grell, G. A.; Talukdar, R. K.; Ravishankara, A. R.

    2011-12-01

    HFC-134a (1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane) is the prevalent (used in >80% passenger cars and commercial vehicles worldwide) refrigerant in automobile air conditioning units (MACs). With an atmospheric lifetime of ~14 years and a global warming potential (GWP) of 1430 on a 100-year time horizon, HFC-134a does not meet current and expected requirements for MAC refrigerants in many parts of the world. Therefore, substitutes with lower GWP are being sought. One of the simplest way to achieve lower GWP is to use chemicals with shorter atmospheric lifetimes. In this work, we investigate the dry and wet deposition and the rainwater concentration of trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) produced by the atmospheric oxidation of 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropene (TFP) and 1,2,3,3,3-pentafluoropropene (PFP). The WRF/Chem model was used to calculate dry and wet TFA deposition over the contiguous USA during the May-September 2006 period that would result from replacing HFC-134a in MACs with a 1:1 molar ratio mixture of 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropene (TFP) and 1,2,3,3,3-pentafluoropropene (PFP). The simulation is evaluated by comparing observations of precipitation and sulfate wet deposition at stations of the National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP). Simulated precipitation and sulfate wet deposition correlate well with the observations, but exhibit a positive bias for precipitation and a negative bias for sulfate wet deposition. Atmospheric lifetimes of TFP and PFP against oxidation by the hydroxyl radical OH, a prognostic species in WRF/Chem, are ~5 and ~4 days in the simulation, respectively. The model setup allows the attribution of dry and wet TFA deposition to individual source regions (California, Houston, Chicago, and the remaining contiguous USA in this work). TFA deposition is highest in the eastern USA because of numerous large sources and high precipitation in the region. West of the Continental Divide, TFA deposition is significantly lower, and its origin is dominated by emissions from

  15. Fabrication of YBCO coated conductor by TFA-MOD method in route of dissolving Y211 and Ba3Cu5O8 powders in TFA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We fabricated YBCO coated conductors using a new TFA-MOD method and evaluated the phase formation, texture evolution, and critical properties as a function of the firing temperature and oxygen heat treatment time, in order to explore its possible application in CCs fabrication. In the fabrication process, Y2Ba1Cu1O x and Ba3Cu5O8 powders were used as precursors, instead of Y-, Ba- and Cu-based acetate or organics, and dissolved in trifluoroacetic acid followed by firing and oxygen heat treatment. We observed that for the films fired at 725 deg. C, BaF2 and other second phases formed and T c was measured to be 66.5 K. In contrast, when the film was fired at 775 deg. C, strong and sharp (0 0 l) diffraction peaks of YBCO were observed, without the formation of the BaF2 phase. In addition, X-ray pole-figure analysis indicated that a strong biaxial texture was developed and the full-width at half-maximums of in-plane and out-of-plane textures were 4.38 deg. and 4.26 deg., respectively. The critical temperature and current were also increased to 85.3 K and 35.8 A/cm-width, respectively, at 77 K when the oxygen heat treatment time was increased to 20 h. Microstructure observation indicated that a crack-free surface was obtained and that there was no a-axis grain growth

  16. Trans Fatty Acids in the Hong Kong Food Supply

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, Stephen W. C.; S. K. Tong; Violette F. P. Lin; Melva Y. Y. Chen; Janny K. M. Ma; Xiao, Y; Ho, Y. Y.

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to examine trans fatty acids (TFA) content of 142 individual food items, including bakery, fast food, and other fatty food that may contain high level of TFA. TFA was detected in all samples, except for four samples including one plain bread, one sponge cake, and two batter-made foods (egg roll and eggette) samples. For those found to contain detectable TFA, the content ranged up to 4.7 g/100 g of food or 17.3% of total lipids. On a per 100 grams of food basis, the highest me...

  17. Impact of using sodium or calcium salts of fatty acids as sources of energy in buffalo rations during late gestation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    mammary adipose tissue and subsequent milk yield. Soapstock is produced from seeds oil refining processes as a by-product potentially harmful to the environment but can use it as dietary fat source. The aim of this study were to study impact of adding either Na-SFA or Ca-SFA as a energy source instead of corn grains in buffalo rations on rumen activities and performance of late pregnant buffalo. Thirty pregnant buffaloes expected to calve within 60-75 day were divided into three balanced groups. First group received the control ration consisted of concentrate diet (75% concentrate feed mixture with 25% yellow corn) plus berseem hay and rice straw. In the second and third rations, yellow corn was replaced with either Na-SFA or Ca-SFA. Chemical composition of Na-SFA, Ca- SFA and the experimental rations are presented. Content of AEE in Ca-SFA was lower than that of Na-SFA, while TFA's in Ca-SFA was higher. Incubation of teased rations in the rumen showed reduction in DM, OM and CP disappearances, also ED and PD with ration containing Na-SFA. Undegradable values increased with adding Na- SFA compared to adding Ca-SFA or control diet. As a result of foaming and physical coating of the fibre with added Na-SFA has been proposed as a possible theory for the sometimes observed depressed DM, OM and CP disappearances. Digestion coefficient of DM, OM, CP and WCS were decreased with feeding ration containing Na-SFA compared to that containing Ca-SFA, while no significant differences were found between ration containing Ca-SFA and control one. These results might be due to the effect of LCFA in Na-SFA, which reflects on rumen fermentation, and consequently affect fibre digestibility. Nutritive values as TDN and DCP were decreased (P 3-N. These results might be due to release of FFA's in the rumen when feeding Na-SFA decreased both NH3-N and TVFA's. Fatty acids, especially unsaturated fatty acids, are antimicrobial and interfere with normal function of the ruminal microbes

  18. Trifluoroacetic acid as excipient destabilizes melittin causing the selective aggregation of melittin within the centrin-melittin-trifluoroacetic acid complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastrana-Rios, Belinda; Del Valle Sosa, Liliana; Santiago, Jorge

    2015-07-01

    Trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) may be the cause of the bottleneck in high resolution structure determination for protein-peptide complexes. Fragment based drug design often involves the use of synthetic peptides which contain TFA (excipient). Our goal was to explore the effects of this excipient on a model complex: centrin-melittin-TFA. We performed Fourier transform infrared, two-dimensional infrared correlation spectroscopies and spectral simulations to analyze the amide I'/I'* band for the components and the ternary complex. Melittin (MLT) was observed to have increased helicity upon its interaction with centrin, followed by the thermally induced aggregation of MLT within the ternary complex in the TFA presence. PMID:26798810

  19. Sources of acidic storm flow in an Appalachian Headwater Stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swistock, Bryan R.; Dewalle, David R.; Sharpe, William E.

    1989-10-01

    A study was conducted to quantify the source of increased dissolved aluminum concentrations during acidic storm flows on a small Pennsylvania stream. Data for six episodes during fall 1986 and spring 1987 showed depressions in stream pH and increases in sulfates, conductivity, dissolved organic carbon, and dissolved aluminum. Flow separation analyses were conducted using 18O as a tracer in a three-component mass balance tracer model. Results showed that soil water and groundwater are the dominant flow sources, accounting for approximately 20 and 75% of total flow during storms, respectively. Channel precipitation generally provided less than 5% of total flows. Hydrograph separation using aluminum agreed with 18O results, while other chemical parameters produced unsatisfactory results. The data support Hewlett's (1982) variable source area concept of storm flow generation with inputs of older, deep circulating groundwater from low-elevation source areas early in an event and later inputs of younger soil water and possibly shallow groundwater from expanding source areas at higher elevations. The results suggest that the most toxic runoff events for aquatic life occur during large storms when the greatest inputs of soil water cause elevated stream dissolved aluminum concentrations. Reductions in storm flow acidity and dissolved aluminum concentrations on this catchment will be most dependent upon changes in soil water and/or groundwater chemistry.

  20. New processing technique of TFA-MOD YBCO coated conductors using the '211' process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We fabricated the YBCO films on single crystal LaAlO3 substrates via a metal organic deposition (MOD) process. In the process, Y2Ba1Cu1Ox and Ba3Cu5O8 powders were dissolved in trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) followed by calcining and firing heat treatments. To evaluate the effects of the firing temperature on YBCO phase formation and critical properties, the films were fired at 750 degrees C, 775 degrees C and 800 degrees C after calcining at 430 degrees C. Microstructure observation indicated that a crack-free surface formed and a strong biaxial texture was developed. The FWHM of out-of-plane texture was measured to be in the range of 4.3 - 7.0 degree for all the films. When the YBCO film was fired at 775 degrees C, it had the highest critical properties: 88.5 K of critical temperature and 16 A/cm-width of critical current (1MA/cm2 as critical current density). On the other hand, those properties were degraded as firing at 750 degrees C and 800 degrees C. It is considered that the improved critical values are partly owing to dense and homogeneous microstructure, strong texture, and high oxygen content.

  1. Fabrication of YBCO film by TFA-MOD process at low-pressure atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Influence of the process conditions, including the water partial pressure and the total annealing pressure, on YBa2Cu3O7-y (YBCO) film growth has been investigated in order to increase the growth rate. YBCO films have been fabricated on SrTiO3 substrate by metal-organic deposition using trifluoroacetates (TFA) as a solute source under the low-pressure atmosphere. It was observed that the growth rate of the YBCO film was in proportion to the square root of the water partial pressure and was in inverse proportion to the total pressure. A higher YBCO growth rate was achieved about 3 times as fast as that under the atmospheric fabrication conditions with maintaining the high Jc performance. On the other hand, the volume fraction of a-axis oriented grains in the YBCO film was strongly dependent on the growth rate, a-axis oriented YBCO grains were clearly recognized in the films grown with either very low or very high growth rate. As a result, it was found that the growth region should be controlled to prevent from the growth of the a-axis oriented grains

  2. The HMG-box mitochondrial transcription factor xl-mtTFA binds DNA as a tetramer to activate bidirectional transcription.

    OpenAIRE

    Antoshechkin, I; Bogenhagen, D F; Mastrangelo, I A

    1997-01-01

    The mitochondrial HMG-box transcription factor xl-mtTFA activates bidirectional transcription by binding to a site separating two core promoters in Xenopus laevis mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Three independent approaches were used to study the higher order structure of xl-mtTFA binding to this site. First, co-immunoprecipitation of differentially tagged recombinant mtTFA derivatives established that the protein exists as a multimer. Second, in vitro chemical cross-linking experiments provided e...

  3. Characterization of French Coriander Oil as Source of Petroselinic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelien Uitterhaegen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Coriander vegetable oil was extracted from fruits of French origin in a 23% yield. The oil was of good quality, with a low amount of free fatty acids (1.8% and a concurrently high amount of triacylglycerols (98%. It is a rich source of petroselinic acid (C18:1n-12, an important renewable building block, making up 73% of all fatty acids, with also significant amounts of linoleic acid (14%, oleic acid (6%, and palmitic acid (3%. The oil was characterized by a high unsaponifiable fraction, comprising a substantial amount of phytosterols (6.70 g/kg. The main sterol markers were β-sitosterol (35% of total sterols, stigmasterol (24%, and Δ7-stigmastenol (18%. Squalene was detected at an amount of 0.2 g/kg. A considerable amount of tocols were identified (500 mg/kg and consisted mainly of tocotrienols, with γ-tocotrienol as the major compound. The phospholipid content was low at 0.3%, of which the main phospholipid classes were phosphatidic acid (33%, phosphatidylcholine (25%, phosphatidylinositol (17%, and phosphatidylethanolamine (17%. About 50% of all phospholipids were non-hydratable. The β-carotene content was low at 10 mg/kg, while a significant amount of chlorophyll was detected at about 11 mg/kg. An iron content of 1.4 mg/kg was determined through element analysis of the vegetable oil. The influence of fruit origin on the vegetable oil composition was shown to be very important, particularly in terms of the phospholipids, sterols, and tocols composition.

  4. Characterization of French Coriander Oil as Source of Petroselinic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uitterhaegen, Evelien; Sampaio, Klicia A; Delbeke, Elisabeth I P; De Greyt, Wim; Cerny, Muriel; Evon, Philippe; Merah, Othmane; Talou, Thierry; Stevens, Christian V

    2016-01-01

    Coriander vegetable oil was extracted from fruits of French origin in a 23% yield. The oil was of good quality, with a low amount of free fatty acids (1.8%) and a concurrently high amount of triacylglycerols (98%). It is a rich source of petroselinic acid (C18:1n-12), an important renewable building block, making up 73% of all fatty acids, with also significant amounts of linoleic acid (14%), oleic acid (6%), and palmitic acid (3%). The oil was characterized by a high unsaponifiable fraction, comprising a substantial amount of phytosterols (6.70 g/kg). The main sterol markers were β-sitosterol (35% of total sterols), stigmasterol (24%), and Δ⁷-stigmastenol (18%). Squalene was detected at an amount of 0.2 g/kg. A considerable amount of tocols were identified (500 mg/kg) and consisted mainly of tocotrienols, with γ-tocotrienol as the major compound. The phospholipid content was low at 0.3%, of which the main phospholipid classes were phosphatidic acid (33%), phosphatidylcholine (25%), phosphatidylinositol (17%), and phosphatidylethanolamine (17%). About 50% of all phospholipids were non-hydratable. The β-carotene content was low at 10 mg/kg, while a significant amount of chlorophyll was detected at about 11 mg/kg. An iron content of 1.4 mg/kg was determined through element analysis of the vegetable oil. The influence of fruit origin on the vegetable oil composition was shown to be very important, particularly in terms of the phospholipids, sterols, and tocols composition. PMID:27617992

  5. Evaluation of the Impact of Ruminant Trans Fatty Acids on Human Health: Important Aspects to Consider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhnt, Katrin; Degen, Christian; Jahreis, Gerhard

    2016-09-01

    The definition and evaluation of trans fatty acids (TFA) with regard to foodstuffs and health hazard are not consistent. Based on the current situation, the term should be restricted only to TFA with isolated double bonds in trans-configuration. Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) should be separately assessed. Ideally, the origin of the consumed fat should be declared, i.e., ruminant TFA (R-TFA) and industrial TFA (non-ruminant; I-TFA). In ruminant fat, more than 50% of R-TFA consists of vaccenic acid (C18:1 t11). In addition, natural CLA, i.e., c9,t11 CLA is also present. Both are elevated in products from organic farming. In contrast to elaidic acid (t9) and t10, which occur mainly in partially hydrogenated industrial fat, t11 is partially metabolized into c9,t11 CLA via Δ9-desaturation. This is the major metabolic criterion used to differentiate between t11 and other trans C18:1. t11 indicates health beneficial effects in several studies. Moreover, CLA in milk fat is associated with the prevention of allergy and asthma. An analysis of the few studies relating to R-TFA alone makes clear that no convincing adverse physiological effect can be attributed to R-TFA. Only extremely high R-TFA intakes cause negative change in blood lipids. In conclusion, in most European countries, the intake of R-TFA is assessed as being low to moderate. Restriction of R-TFA would unjustifiably represent a disadvantage for organic farming of milk. PMID:25746671

  6. Intake of trans fatty acid and risk of cardiovascular disease in Asian population : a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Zherun; 王浙潤.王浙润

    2014-01-01

    Background Many studies in western countries have suggested a positive association between intake of trans fatty acid (TFA) and risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). In Asia, although intake of TFA was relatively low, it evidenced an increasing trend which was accompanied with an increasing prevalence of CVDs among the population. There was currently no systematic review on the relationship between intake of TFA and CVDs in Asian population. This systematic review was aimed to synthesiz...

  7. Trans Fatty Acids: Effects on Cardiometabolic Health and Implications for Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Micha, R.; Mozaffarian, D.

    2008-01-01

    In both developed and developing countries, trans fatty acids (TFA) are largely consumed from partially hydrogenated vegetable oils. This article focuses on TFA as a modifiable dietary risk factor for cardiovascular disease, reviewing the evidence for lipid and non lipid effects; the relations of trans fat intake with clinical endpoints; and current policy and legislative issues. In both observational cohort studies and randomized clinical trials, TFA adversely affect lipid profiles (includin...

  8. Uprooting an abscisic acid paradigm: Shoots are the primary source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAdam, Scott A M; Manzi, Matías; Ross, John J; Brodribb, Timothy J; Gómez-Cadenas, Aurelio

    2016-06-01

    In the past, a conventional wisdom has been that abscisic acid (ABA) is a xylem-transported hormone that is synthesized in the roots, while acting in the shoot to close stomata in response to a decrease in plant water status. Now, however, evidence from two studies, which we have conducted independently, challenges this root-sourced ABA paradigm. We show that foliage-derived ABA has a major influence over root development and that leaves are the predominant location for ABA biosynthesis during drought stress. PMID:27031537

  9. Development of Low AC Loss TFA-MOD Coated Conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, K.; Machi, T.; Nakamura, T.; Takagi, Y.; Nakaoka, K.; Yoshizumi, M.; Izumi, T.; Shiohara, Y.

    TFA-MOD process is expected to be promising for future applications since it can produce high performance YBCO coated conductors (CCs) with low cost. Applying YBCO CCs to the power electric devices such as transformers and power cables, the reduction of alternating current (AC) loss for long wire is necessary. Multi-filamentation process, which is one of the most effective approaches for AC loss reduction, has been developed by the scribing process. We have developed the filamentation process using chemical etching. MOD derived CCs are, however, easily damaged in the chemical etching process due to existence of pores in a YBCO layer, resulting in critical current (Ic)-degradation and weak delamination strength. Consequently, it is difficult to scribe MOD derived CCs into 1mm-wide filaments for long length using the chemical etching process. Accordingly, we have studied a scribing process using an excimer laser without chemical etching. We defined P' value in this study as a function of irradiated laser power [J] divided by processing speed[m/s]. We studied relationship between the P' value and the results of scribing. It was found that we could scribe the C.C. with a sufficient depth in the condition of large P' value. Furthermore, we found that the Ic was degraded with further increase of the P' value. A 5 mm wide short sample was divided into 10 filaments by the excimer laser scribing process at the P' of 9[J/(m/s)]. The sample revealed reduction of the hysteresis loss down to 1/10 which could be expected from a theoretical prediction using the numbers of the filaments. Ic-degradation was suppressed as 28%, which was smaller than that of the scribed sample using chemical etching (Ic degradation was 38%). Subsequently, we applied the technique to a 100m long YBCO CC. The hysteresis loss of the 100m long MOD derived CC was reduced down to 1/10 (1/the number of filaments) after the multi-filamentation.

  10. DFT study of Rb-TFA structure after high-pressure action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholtzová, Eva

    2011-12-01

    The pressure-induced A-B phase transition of synthetic Rb-tetra-ferri-annite (Rb-TFA) mica was studied theoretically by means of Density Functional Theory (DFT) method. The calculations show that Rb-TFA keeps a Franzini A-type structure up to at least 5.39 GPa of pressure, whereas at higher pressure, it transforms to a Franzini B-type structure. The negative value of the tetrahedral rotation angle α = -4.68° has appeared at 5.56 GPa of calculated pressure. This result is in a relatively good agreement with experimentally estimated phase transition area in the range of 3.36-3.84 GPa. The energy difference between the A and B structures is very small (ΔE = 8 kJ/mol). The detailed analysis of the optimized structural data shows minimal changes in the structure of Rb-TFA after the pressure-induced phase transition.

  11. Microstructure of YBCO thin films prepared by TFA-MOD method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The microstructure of the recently developed coated conductors was investigated by using electron back scatter diffraction pattern (EBSP). We prepared TFA (trifluoroacetates)-MOD (metal organic deposition) derived YBa2Cu3O7-x (YBCO) films on CeO2/LaMnO3/IBAD-MgO/Gd2Zr2O7/Hastelloy C276 substrates of 1 cm-width. The EBSP observation showed that there was a difference of surface microstructure between the midsection and the end of TFA-MOD YBCO film layer in the direction of width. This is attributed not to the local difference of the biaxial texture of CeO2 top layer but to the local difference of growth condition during TFA-MOD process.

  12. Nutritional quality of fresh and heated Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis Mill.) seed oil: trans-fatty acid isomers profiles and antioxidant properties

    OpenAIRE

    Dhibi, Madiha; Issaoui, Manel; Brahmi, Faten; Mechri, Beligh; Mnari, Amira; Cheraif, Imed; Skhiri, Fathia; Gazzah, Noureddine; Hammami, Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    Numerous studies have focused on trans fatty acids (TFA) technologically produced by partial hydrogenation of oils. However, TFA can also be present in fresh oils. For this reason, cis fatty acid (CFA), TFA and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) of fresh and heated Aleppo pine seed oil (APSO) at frying temperature (180 °C) were evaluated and correlated with the antioxidant characteristics. Results showed that fresh APSO had a low oleic/linoleic ratio O/L (0.4). Total TFA in fresh APSO reached 1%....

  13. Study of Modified TFA-MOD Method for YBCO Film Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, C. S.; Lu, Y. F.; Zhang, P. X.; Yu, Z. M.; Tao, B. W.; Feng, J. Q.; Jin, L. H.

    The traditional all-TFA precursor solution for coated conductors has sensitivity to the heating rate in pyrolysis process. This sensitivity could be weakened by using a modified precursor solution, which was prepared by the mixture of yttrium trifluoroacetate, barium trifluoroacetate, and copper benzoate. The YBCO films were deposited on buffered NiW substrates (NiW/Y2O3/YSZ/CeO2) with the modified precursor solution. The texture, microstructure and superconducting properties of YBCO films were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and four-probe method, respectively. The YBCO films prepared by modified TFA-MOD method demonstrated high performance.

  14. Trans Fatty Acid Derived Phospholipids Show Increased Membrane Cholesterol and Reduced Receptor Activation as Compared to Their Cis Analogs

    OpenAIRE

    Niu, Shui-Lin; Mitchell, Drake C.; Litman, Burton J.

    2005-01-01

    The consumption of trans fatty acid (TFA) is linked to the elevation of LDL cholesterol and is considered to be a major health risk factor for coronary heart disease. Despite several decades of extensive research on this subject, the underlying mechanism of how TFA modulates serum cholesterol levels remains elusive. In this study, we examined the molecular interaction of TFA-derived phospholipid with cholesterol and the membrane receptor rhodopsin in model membranes. Rhodopsin is a prototypic...

  15. Fabrication of YBCO film approached by the '211 process' in the TFA-MOD method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We fabricated YBCO film using a new approach to the TFA-MOD method. In the fabrication process, Y2Ba1Cu1Ox and Ba3Cu5O8 powders were used as precursors (the so called '211 process'), instead of Y-, Ba-, and Cu-based acetates, and dissolved in trifluoroacetic acid followed by calcining and firing heat treatment. Consequently, we successfully synthesized YBCO film and evaluated the phase formation, texture evolution, and critical properties as a function of the calcining and firing temperature and humidity, in order to explore its possible application in coated conductor fabrication. The films were calcined at 430-460 deg. C and then fired at 750-800 deg. C in a 0-20% humidified Ar-O2 atmosphere. We observed that the amount of BaF2 phase was effectively reduced and that a sharp and strong biaxial texture formed under a humidified atmosphere, leading to increased critical properties. In addition, we found that the microstructure varied significantly with the firing temperature; the grains grew further, the film became denser, and the degree of texture and phase purity varied as the firing temperature increased. For the film fired at 775 deg. C after calcining at 460 deg. C, the critical current was found to be 39 A cm-1 width (the corresponding critical current density is 2.0 MA cm-2), which was probably attributable to such factors as the enhanced phase purity and out-of-plane texture, the moderate film density and grain size, and the crack-free surface

  16. Intake of trans fatty acid in Japanese university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabata, Terue; Shigemitsu, Sachiko; Adachi, Naoko; Hagiwara, Chie; Miyagi, Shigeji; Shinjo, Sumie; Maruyama, Takenori; Sugano, Michihiro

    2010-01-01

    Because trans fatty acids (TFAs) are a potent risk factor for coronary heart disease, it is important to know the amount of TFA consumed. We estimated TFA intakes of Japanese university students by direct measurement. Subjects included 118 students (57 males and 61 females) in two regions of Japan: Kanto (Tokyo area) and Okinawa. A dietary survey was conducted over six consecutive days using dietary records and photographic records. A single-day meal in the survey period was reproduced to measure TFA content by gas chromatography. The median values of TFA intakes (and energy percentage) estimated by the contents of reproduced meals for men were 0.43 g/d (0.22%) in Kanto and 0.30 g/d (0.14%) in Okinawa. Corresponding values for women were 0.49 g/d (0.29%) and 0.73 g/d (0.35%), respectively. Compared to the group with a low TFA intake, the subjects with a high TFA intake consumed significantly more energy from total fat and saturated fatty acids, and had a high ratio of TFA/linoleic acid. In addition, multiple regression analysis showed the intakes of TFA were positively associated with those of saturated fatty acids and groups of nonessential groceries such as cookies, cakes and pastries. In conclusion, the TFA intakes of these survey subjects were relatively lower than the WHO recommended energy ratio (<1%). However, nutritional education on dietary habits seems indispensable for those subjects who are consuming high volumes of TFA. PMID:20651456

  17. Degradation and Isotope Source Tracking of Glyphosate and Aminomethylphosphonic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Joshi, Sunendra R; Jaisi, Deb P

    2016-01-27

    Glyphosate [N-(phosphonomethyl) glycine], an active ingredient of the herbicide Roundup, and its main metabolite, aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), have been frequently reported to be present in soils and other environments and thus have heightened public concerns on their potential adverse effects. Understanding the fate of these compounds and differentiating them from other naturally occurring compounds require a toolbox of methods that can go beyond conventional methods. Here, we applied individual isotope labeling technique whereby each compound or mineral involved in the glyphosate and AMPA degradation reaction was either synthesized or chosen to have distinct (18)O/(16)O ratios so that the source of incorporated oxygen in the orthophosphate generated and corresponding isotope effect during C-P bond cleavage could be identified. Furthermore, we measured original isotope signatures of a few commercial glyphosate sources to identify their source-specific isotope signatures. Our degradation kinetics results showed that the rate of glyphosate degradation was higher than that of AMPA in all experimental conditions, and both the rate and extent of degradation were lowest under anoxic conditions. Oxygen isotope ratios (δ(18)OP) of orthophosphate generated from glyphosate and AMPA degradation suggested that one external oxygen atom from ambient water, not from dissolved oxygen or mineral, was incorporated into orthophosphate with the other three oxygen atoms inherited from the parent molecule. Interestingly, δ(18)OP values of all commercial glyphosate products studied were found to be the lightest among all orthophosphates known so far. Furthermore, isotope composition was found to be unaffected due to variable degradation kinetics, light/dark, and oxic/anoxic conditions. These results highlight the importance of phosphate oxygen isotope ratios as a nonconventional tool to potentially distinguish glyphosate sources and products from other organophosphorus compounds

  18. Catalytic decarboxylations of fatty acids in immature oil source rocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李哲; 张再龙; 孙燕华; 劳永新; 蔺五正; 吴卫芳

    2003-01-01

    Catalytic decarboxylations of fatty acids in immature oil source rock samples were examined in this study. The rock samples were obtained from seven oil fields in China. In order to clarify the effect of each mineral matter in the rock samples, both the Fe M?ssbauer effect and the X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to determine the relative content of each mineral in the rock samples, and the catalytic activities of several minerals like clays, carbonates and pyrite were determined. The Fe M?ssbauer effect and the XRD studies show that clays are the main mineral components in the rock samples except for the samples from Biyang and Jianghan in which the main mineral component is ankerite. The other mineral components include calcite, plagioclase, quartz, feldspar, siderite, aragonite, pyrite, analcime, pyroxene and anhydrite. The studies of the catalytic decarboxylations of fatty acids suggest that carbonates and pyrite can make much greater contributions to the catalytic activities of the rock samples than clays. It is found that the overall catalytic activities of the rock samples are well related to the relative contents and the catalytic activities of clays, carbonates and pyrite in the rock samples.

  19. Intermediate phase evolution in YBCO thin films grown by the TFA process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The YBCO thin film growth process from TFA precursors involves a complex reaction path which includes several oxide, fluoride and oxyfluoride intermediate phases, and the final microstructure and properties of the films are strongly influenced by the morphological and chemical evolution of these intermediate phases. In this work we present a study of the evolution of the intermediate phases involved in the TFA YBCO growth process under normal pressure conditions and we show that the oxygen partial pressure during pyrolysis of the TFA precursors is an important parameter. The Cu phase after the TFA pyrolysis can be either CuO, Cu2O or a mixture of both as the oxygen partial pressure is modified. The kinetics evolution of the intermediate phases has been determined for films pyrolysed in oxygen and nitrogen atmospheres and it is concluded that non-equilibrium phase transformations influence the reaction path towards epitaxial YBCO films and its microstructure. The intermediate phase evolution in these two series of films is summarized in kinetic phase diagrams.

  20. National Affiliation or Local Representation: When TFA Alumni Run for School Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Rebecca; Linkow, Tamara Wilder

    2014-01-01

    Historically power to govern public schools has been delegated to local school boards. However, this arrangement of power has been shifting over the past half century and increasingly, local school boards are targeted as ineffective and antiquated. Teach For America (TFA), typically examined for its placement of teachers, also seeks to develop…

  1. Trans fatty acids in the Nordic countries

    OpenAIRE

    Aro, Antti; Becker, Wulf; Pederssen, Jan I.

    2006-01-01

    Trans fatty acids (TFA) comprise a variety of positional isomers, mainly with 18 carbon atoms and one double bond (C18:1). They are found in foods of ruminant animal origin and in partially hydrogenated vegetable oils. The isomeric composition of TFA in animal and vegetable foods differs, but no definite differences have been documented between the metabolic and health effects of the different isomers. In the Nordic countries the intake of TFA has declined during the past 10-15 years, mainly ...

  2. Consumption of industrial and ruminant trans fatty acids and risk of coronary heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendsen, Nathalie Tommerup; Christensen, R.; Bartels, Else Marie;

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to summarize the evidence from observational studies assessing the association between intake of trans fatty acids (TFA) and the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD), with a specific emphasis on distinguishing between TFA of industrial...

  3. Effect of trans fatty acid intake on LC-MS and NMR plasma profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gürdeniz, Gözde; Rago, Daniela; Bendsen, Nathalie Tommerup;

    2013-01-01

    The consumption of high levels of industrial trans fatty acids (TFA) has been related to cardiovascular disease, diabetes and sudden cardiac death but the causal mechanisms are not well known. In this study, NMR and LC-MS untargeted metabolomics has been used as an approach to explore the impact of...... TFA intake on plasma metabolites....

  4. Trends in Trans Fatty Acids Reformulations of US Supermarket and Brand-Name Foods From 2007 Through 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Otite, Fadar O.; Jacobson, Michael F.; Dahmubed, Aspan; Mozaffarian, Dariush

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Although some US food manufacturers have reduced trans fatty acids (TFA) in their products, it is unknown how much TFA is being reduced, whether pace of reformulation has changed over time, or whether reformulations vary by food type or manufacturer. Methods: In 2007, we identified 360 brand-name products in major US supermarkets that contained 0.5 g TFA or more per serving. In 2008, 2010, and 2011, product labels were re-examined to determine TFA content; ingredients lists were...

  5. A trans European Union difference in the decline in trans fatty acids in popular foods: a market basket investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Stender, Steen; Astrup, Arne; Dyerberg, Jørn

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To minimise the intake of industrial trans fatty acids (I-TFA) some countries have introduced labelling, while others have introduced legislative limits on the content of I-TFA in food. However, most countries still rely on food producers to voluntarily reduce the I-TFA content in food. The objective of the present study was to investigate the efficiency of these strategies in the EU. Design The potential consumption of I-TFA was assessed in a market basket investigation by analysi...

  6. Effect of humic acid source on humic acid adsorption onto titanium dioxide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erhayem, Mohamed; Sohn, Mary

    2014-02-01

    In many studies, different humic acid (HA) sources are used interchangeably to evaluate the effect of organic matter on geochemical processes in the environment. This research looks more specifically at the effect of HA source on HA adsorption onto nano-TiO2 and how HA adsorption affects the fate and transport of nano-TiO2. In this study, six humic acids (HAs) were studied which were derived from soils (SLHA), or from sediments (SDHA) all originating from the state of Florida. Humic acid adsorption onto titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nano-TiO2) and the sedimentation of HA-coated and uncoated nano-TiO2 were monitored by Ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy. Synchronous scan fluorescence (SSF) spectroscopy was used to complement the study of HA adsorption onto nano-TiO2. Phosphate buffer was found to reduce the amount of HA adsorbed onto nano-TiO2 relative to solutions of NaCl of the same pH and ionic strength. Adsorption constant values (Kads) for HAs varied in the order SLHA>FSDHA (freshwater sedimentary HA)>ESDHA (estuarine sedimentary HA). SSF results suggested that the more highly conjugated fractions of HA, which are more prevalent in SLHAs versus SDHAs, were preferentially adsorbed. In order to better understand the relationship between adsorption and aggregation, sedimentation studies were conducted and it was found that the percentage of nano-TiO2 sedimentation was preferentially enhanced in the order of the presence of SLHA>FSDHA>ESDHA. The extent of nano-TiO2 sedimentation was decreased with increasing HA concentration. TEM imaging of nano-TiO2 confirmed that nano-TiO2 was aggregated in the presence of HAs. The findings in this study suggest that HAs from different sources influence the fate and transport of nano-TiO2 in the environment differently. PMID:24140685

  7. Trifluoroacetic Acid Level in the Atmosphere of Beijing and Its Relationship with PM2.5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Junyu; Zhang, Jianbo

    2016-04-01

    Atmospheric concentrations of Trifluoroacetic Acid (TFA), one of the main degradation products of HCFC-123, HCFC-124 and HFC-134a, were detected in Beijing, China between 2013 and 2014. By analyzing the 137 atmospheric samples, the results showed that the annual mean atmospheric concentration of TFA was 1459±223 pg•m-3. TFA was mainly distributed in gaseous phase, for the concentration was 1396±225 pg•m-3, while that in particle phase was 62±8 pg•m-3. Considering the frequent occurrence of hazy weather in Beijing, the relationship between TFA and PM2.5 in atmosphere was analyzed. The correlation analysis shows that the proportion of particle phase in atmosphere concentration of TFA and mass concentration of PM2.5 are positively correlated with each other (PTFA. At the same time, when mass concentration of PM2.5 in atmosphere is high, atmospheric concentration of TFA is relatively low. According to the correlation analysis, mass concentration of PM2.5 and atmospheric concentration of TFA are negatively correlated with each other (P=0.005). The main reason is very likely that particle's extinction for light can be enhanced as particle level rises, which causes TFA precursors photolysis to weaken. The results indicate that PM2.5 has a significant impact on TFA.

  8. Evaluation of the Tone Fan Noise Design/Prediction System (TFaNS) at the NASA Glenn Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, L. Danielle

    1999-01-01

    Version 1.4 of TFaNS, the Tone Fan Noise Design/Prediction System. has recently been evaluated at the NASA Glenn Research Center. Data from tests of the Allison Ultra High Bypass Fan (UHBF) were used to compare to predicted farfield directivities for the radial stator configuration. There was good agreement between measured and predicted directivities at low fan speeds when rotor effects were neglected in the TFaNS calculations. At higher fan speeds, TFaNS is shown to be useful in predicting overall trends rather than absolute sound pressure levels.

  9. Naturally occurring fatty acids: source, chemistry and uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natural occurring fatty acids are a large and complex class of compounds found in plants and animals. Fatty acids are abundant and of interest because of their renewability, biodegradability, biocompatibility, low cost, and fascinating chemistry. Of the many fatty acids, only 20-25 of them are widel...

  10. The occurrence of fatty acids in immature source rocks and their distribution characteris-tics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The fatty acids in extractable bitumen and kerogen of immature source rocks of the Liaohe Basin and Jiyang sag were investigated in this study. The result showed that the bitumen fatty acids were mainly associated with non-hydrocarbon fraction and that the kerogen fatty acids with some tightly bound fatty acids were mainly bounded in a net structure of kerogen by ester bonds. For the investigated source rocks, the fatty acids in bitumen, bound fatty acids and tightly bound acids in kerogen ranged in 0.01% -0.073 9%, 0.005% - 0.045 5% and 0.005%- 0.010% respectively. Among the fatty acids analyzed in this study, mono-carboxylic acids, a, w-di-carboxylic acids and hydroxy acids accounted for 70%-100%, 0%-30% and <10% respec-tively. It was also found that the mono-carboxylic acids with longer chains mainly existed in bitumen, and that the a, w-di-carboxylic acids and hydroxy acids mainly existed in kerogen. From above, it was assumed that the mono-car- boxylic acids in bitumen might have played an important role in the hydrocarbon generation from fatty acids in imma-ture source rocks.

  11. Study on the growth of YBCO films deposited by rapid pyrolysis process TFA-MOD%快速前处理TFA-MOD制备YBCO超导薄膜的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁灵效; 陈文祥; 熊杰; 陶伯万

    2009-01-01

    三氟乙酸盐金属有机物沉积(TFA-MOD)方法是制备YBa2Cu3O7(YBCO)超导薄膜最有应用前景的方法之一.采用快速前处理TFA-MOD的方法在LaAlO3单晶基片上生长YBCO薄膜并与常规的TFA-MOD方法进行对比研究.XRD分析表明用快速前处理TFA-MOD方法制备的YBCO薄膜的c轴取向一致性,没有常规的TFA-MOD制备的YBCO薄膜好.SEM的分析表明快速前处理TFA-MOD制备的YBCO超导薄膜表面有孔洞和YBCO(103)取向生长的晶粒,常规方法制备的YBCO薄膜表面比较光滑,孔洞较少.虽然较常规方法制备的薄膜的临界电流密度(JC)低,但超导电性能分析表明,快速前处理方法制备的YBCO薄膜JC达到1mA/cm2以上,且前处理时间大幅缩短,对于提高YBCO薄膜制备的效率非常有效.

  12. Vortex oscillations in TFA-grown YBCO thin-films with BZO nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An ac susceptibility methodology has been applied to investigate the vortex dynamics of YBa2Cu3O7-x-BaZrO3 nanocomposites grown by the chemical solution deposition TFA route, close to the irreversibility line. By analysing the linear, non-dissipative Campbell regime at low ac fields, we determined the temperature and field dependence of the restoring pinning constant, αL(Hdc, T), characterising the harmonic oscillation of vortices inside their potential wells. Different than standard TFA-YBCO films, BZO nanocomposites displayed increasing αL(Hdc) curves in the whole studied (Hdc, T) phase diagram, a behavior not predicted by the standard collective theory. We suggest results may be explained by the softening of the vortex-lattice, owed to the microstrain induced by the nanoparticles in the YBCO matrix.

  13. Development of wide area reaction system for Reel-to-Reel TFA-MOD process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The previously developed numerical simulation method for the TFA-MOD process, which calculated the YBCO growth kinetics, gas element diffusion and gas flow, was applied to study the suitable gas flow mode for a multi-turning Reel-to-Reel tape conveyance system of a long YBCO coated conductors. The high YBCO production rate with uniform J c distribution among tape lines is desired in the system. It was found by the numerical simulation for the vertical gas flow onto the tape surface to realize the above demands even in a wider reaction area. We developed a new wide area reaction tube for the Reel-to-Reel TFA-MOD process according to the numerically designed gas flow configuration. The demand for the new tube was confirmed to be satisfied by experiments

  14. Use of polymeric compounds to produce thick YBCO films by TFA-MOD process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One route to achieve thick YBCO layers by a single deposition on single crystal substrates (LAO) has been to modify the viscosity of the solution by using different polymeric agents in precursor solutions. A screening investigation of several polymers with different molecular weights has been performed to choose the best additive based on the following criteria : to increase viscosity, to avoid any chemical reaction with the precursors and to keep the same decomposition temperature as compared to the pyrolysis of the TFA precursors. Solution viscosity, thermal and thermo-gravimetric analysis measurements have been used to characterize the TFA solutions with the additives. An increase of the YBCO films thickness of 100% (≥600nm) has been demonstrated keeping a high Jc ≥ 1.1 MA/cm2 (77K)

  15. High critical current YBCO films using advanced TFA-MOD process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a method of the fabrication process of YBa2Cu3O7-x (YBCO) coated conductors, the metalorganic deposition (MOD) process using metal trifluoroacetates (TFA) has been considered to be a strong candidate as a low cost fabrication process for coated conductors with high Jc. In the case of the MOD process using the TFA salts for the all three elements, it requires several tens hours in the calcination process for each single coated film to minimize the generation of pores in the film. In order to shorten the calcination time, a new combination of starting materials was developed. In this study, the new heating process for these new materials has been investigated. Consequently, the calcination time was shortened to be about 17%. Also, the overall transport Ic of 292 A and the Jc value of 2.0 MA/cm2 were achieved with 1.48 μm in thickness at 77 K in self-field

  16. Changes in Trans Fatty Acid Profiles for Selected Snack Foods in the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Historically, many snack foods had been formulated with partially hydrogenated vegetable oils, the primary contributor of trans fatty acids (TFA) in the US diet. Health concerns about TFA and saturated fat intake and increased risk for chronic health disorders have prompted some manufacturers to ref...

  17. Synthesis and Structural Characterization of One-dimensional Polynuclear Complex [La(bipyN2O2)(TFA)3]n

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A novel polymeric complex [La(bipyN2O2)(TFA)3]n(TFA= trifluoroacetylacetone) was prepared.The X-ray structure analysis revealed that the complex has an infinite one-dimensional supramolecule structure with the 4,4'-bipyridyl-N,N'-dioxide as a bridge.La(Ⅲ) is coordinated to eight oxygen atoms, six from three trifluoroacetylacetonate anions, two from two 4,4'-bipyridyl-N,N'-dioxide molecules.

  18. Conversion behavior comparison of TFA-MOD and non-fluorine solution-deposited YBCO films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The densification behavior during conversion of YBa2Cu3O7-x (YBCO) films formed by the trifluoroacetate (TFA)-based metal-organic deposition (MOD) technique was compared to a non-fluorine oxycarbonate-based MOD process and nitrate-based polymer-assisted deposition (PAD). The critical current densities obtained in all processes exceeded 106 A/cm2 in films at least 300 nm thick. Rapid densification of films was observed in all processes, beginning at 700 deg. C in the TFA and PAD processes and 650 deg. C in the oxycarbonate process. YBCO nucleation occurred shortly after densification began in all processes. Residual carbon measurements were performed using wavelength dispersive spectroscopy (WDS). Carbon persisted in films from all processes until after densification began, but it was reduced to background levels soon after YBCO nucleation. Film density and second phase morphology were controlled through adjustments to the ambient oxygen partial pressure. Morphological evidence of extensive transient liquid phase formation was observed in PAD films and is consistent with the densification and nucleation behavior. The common behavior between the PAD, oxycarbonate-MOD, and TFA-MOD processes suggests that a melt forms in all systems, but the extent of this melt varies.

  19. Low noise, low power front end electronics for pixelized TFA sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Poltorak, K; Dabrowski, W; Despeisse, M; Jarron, P; Kaplon, J; Wyrschb, N

    2009-01-01

    Thin Film on ASIC (TFA) technology combines advantages of two commonly used pixel imaging detectors, namely, Monolithic Active Pixels (MAPs) and Hybrid Pixel detectors. Thanks to direct deposition of a hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a- Si:H) sensor lm on top of the readout ASIC, TFA shows the similarity to MAP imagers, allowing, however, more sophisticated front–end circuitry to extract the signals, like in case of Hybrid Pixel technology. In this paper we present preliminary experimental results of TFA structures, obtained with 10 μm thick hydrogenated amorphous silicon sensors, deposited directly on top of integrated circuit optimized for tracking applications at linear collider experiments. The signal charges delivered by such a-Si:H n-i-p diode are small; about 37 e-/μm for minimum ionizing particles, therefore a low noise, high gain and very low power of the front- end are of primary importance. The developed demonstrator chip, designed in 250 nm CMOS technology, comprises an array of 64 by 64 pi...

  20. High speed production of YBCO precursor films by advanced TFA-MOD process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    YBa2Cu3O7-y (YBCO) long tapes derived from the metal-organic deposition (MOD) method using the starting solution containing trifluoroacetate (TFA) have been developed with high critical currents (Ic) over 200 A/cm-width. However, high speed production of YBCO films is simultaneously necessary to satisfy the requirements of electric power device applications in terms of cost and the amounts of the tapes. In this work, we developed a new TFA-MOD starting solution using F-free salt of Y, TFA salt of Ba and Cu-Octylate for application to the coating/calcination process and discussed several issues by using the Multi-turn (MT) Reel-to-Reel (RTR) system calcination furnace for the purpose of high throughput without degradation of the properties. The coating system was improved for uniform deposition qualities in both longitudinal and transversal directions. YBCO films using the new starting solution at the traveling rate of 10 m/h in coating/calcination by the MT-RTR calcination furnace showed the values of the critical current density of 1.6 MA/cm2 as thick as 1.5 μm at 77 K under the self fields after firing at the high heating rate in the crystallization.

  1. Improvement of Production Rate of YBCO Coated Conductors Fabricated by TFA-MOD Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakaoka, K.; Yoshizumi, M.; Usui, Y.; Izumi, T.; Shiohara, Y.

    The metal-organic deposition (MOD) method using trifluoroacetate (TFA) salts is considered to be an effective method for inexpensively fabricating YBa2Cu3O7-y (YBCO) coated conductors with high critical current density property. The long-length TFA-MOD YBCO coated conductors have been fabricated by multi-turn reel-to-reel system. Increasing the thickness per single coating in the multi-turn reel-to-reel system is a cost-effective technique for fabrication of the precursor films in the calcination process since it reduces the number of coatings and shortens the processing time. In this work, we have developed a new starting solution consisting of non-fluorine salts of yttrium propionate and copper 2-ethylhexanoate with focusing on increasing the thickness per single coating for a high-rate fabrication of the YBCO coated conductors by the TFA-MOD method. The critical thickness per single coating of the precursor film fabricated from the new starting solution was improved to 0.44 μm/coat. Furthermore, the addition of diacetoneacrylamide in the new starting solution increased the critical thickness per single coating to 0.79 μm/coat. High critical current of 791 A/cm-width with high critical current density of 2.7 MA/cm2 was obtained using the new starting solution with diacetoneacrylamide at the thickness per single coating of 0.49 μm/coat.

  2. Trans fatty acids in the Portuguese food market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Nádia; Cruz, Rebeca; Graça, Pedro; Breda, João; Casal, Susana

    2016-01-01

    Consistent evidence exist on the harmful health effects of industrial trans fatty acids (TFA). In order to have accurate data on TFA intake and implement adequate measures to reduce their intake, each country should have updated estimates of TFA content in the diet. The objective of the present study was to provide data on the TFA content in food commercialized in the Portuguese market. The results on the TFA content of 268 samples acquired between October and December 2013 are reported. Samples were categorized as margarines and shortenings (n = 16), spreadable chocolate fats (n = 6), fried potatoes and chips (n = 25), industrial bakery (n = 4), breakfast cereals (n = 3), pastry products (n = 120), seasonings (n = 5), instant soups (n = 5), instant desserts (n = 6), chocolate snacks (n = 4), microwave popcorn (n = 4), cookies, biscuits and wafers (n = 53), and fast-food (n = 13), with butter (n = 4) included for comparison purposes. TFA were quantified by gas chromatography. Total TFA content in the fat ranged from 0.06% to 30.2% (average 1.9%), with the highest average values in the “biscuits, wafers and cookies” group (3.4% TFA), followed by the pastry group (2.0%). Fifty samples (19%) had TFA superior to 2% in the fat. These findings highlight there is still much need for improvement in terms of the TFA content in Portuguese foods, particularly in traditional pastry. PMID:27274619

  3. Organic acids and aldehydes in rainwater in a northwest region of Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pena, R.M.; Garcia, S.; Herrero, C. [Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Lugo (Spain). Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia

    2002-11-01

    During a 1 year period, measurements of carboxylic acids and aldehydes were carried out in rainwater samples collected at nine different sites in NW Spain surrounding a thermal power plant in order to determine concentration levels and sources. In addition, certain major ions (Cl{sup -}, NO{sub 3}{sup -}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, Na{sup +}, NH{sub 4}{sup +}, K{sup +}, Mg{sup 2+}, Ca{sup 2+}) were also determined. Aldehyde and carboxylic acid concentration patterns and their effects on rainwater composition concerning temporal, seasonal and spatial variations were evaluated. Among carboxylic acids, formic and acetic were predominant (VWA 7.0 and 8.3 {mu}M), while formaldehyde and acroleine were the dominant aldehydes (VWA 0.42 and 1.25 {mu}M). Carboxylic acids were estimated to account for 27.5% of the total free acidity (TFA), whereas sulphuric and nitric acid accounted for 46.2% and 26.2%, respectively. Oxalic acid was demonstrated to be an important contributing compound to the acidification in rainwater representing 7.1% of the TFA. The concentration of aldehydes and carboxylic acids, which originated mainly from biogenic emissions in the area studied, was strongly dependent on the season of the year (growing and non-growing). The ratios of formic to acetic acids are considerably different in the two seasons suggesting that there exist distinct sources in both growing and non-growing seasons. Principal component analysis was applied in order to elucidate the sources of aldehydes and organic acids in rainwater. The prevalence of natural vegetative origins for both of these compounds versus anthropogenic emissions was demonstrated and the importance of the oxidation of aldehydes as a relevant source of organic acids was also established. (author)

  4. Omega-3 fatty acid production from enzyme saccharified hemp hydrolysate using a novel marine thraustochytrid strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Adarsha; Abraham, Reinu E; Barrow, Colin J; Puri, Munish

    2015-05-01

    In this work, a newly isolated marine thraustochytrid strain, Schizochytrium sp. DT3, was used for omega-3 fatty acid production by growing on lignocellulose biomass obtained from local hemp hurd (Cannabis sativa) biomass. Prior to enzymatic hydrolysis, hemp was pretreated with sodium hydroxide to open the biomass structure for the production of sugar hydrolysate. The thraustochytrid strain was able to grow on the sugar hydrolysate and accumulated polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). At the lowest carbon concentration of 2%, the PUFAs productivity was 71% in glucose and 59% in the sugars hydrolysate, as a percentage of total fatty acids. Saturated fatty acids (SFAs) levels were highest at about 49% of TFA using 6% glucose as the carbon source. SFAs of 41% were produced using 2% of SH. This study demonstrates that SH produced from lignocellulose biomass is a potentially useful carbon source for the production of omega-3 fatty acids in thraustochytrids, as demonstrated using the new strain, Schizochytrium sp. DT3.

  5. ROSMARINIC ACID AND ITS PLANT SOURCES IN THE CRIMEA

    OpenAIRE

    A. E. Paliy; F. M. Melikov; O. A. Grebennikova; V. D. Rabotyagov

    2015-01-01

    The article presents data on the content of phenolics and rosmarinic acid in 32 species of aromatic and medicinal plants from Lamiaceae, Asteraceae and Apiaceae families, native to the South Coast of the Crimea. The concentration of phenolic compounds in the studied species was 490.3 – 18511.0 mg/100g of plant raw materials. Rosmarinic acid was found in 15 species from Lamiaceae and Asteraceae families. Rosmarinic acid was not noticed in the studied plants from Apiaceae family. The concentrat...

  6. Intake of trans fatty acids from partially hydrogenated vegetable and fish oils and ruminant fat in relation to cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laake, Ida; Carlsen, Monica H; Pedersen, Jan I; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Selmer, Randi; Kirkhus, Bente; Thune, Inger; Veierød, Marit B

    2013-03-15

    Intake of trans fatty acids (TFA) may influence systemic inflammation, insulin resistance and adiposity, but whether TFA intake influences cancer risk is insufficiently studied. We examined the association between TFA intake from partially hydrogenated vegetable oils (PHVO-TFA), partially hydrogenated fish oils (PHFO-TFA), and ruminant fat (rTFA) and cancer risk in the Norwegian counties study, a large cohort study with a participation rate >80%. TFA intake was assessed three times in 1974-1988 by questionnaire. A total of 77,568 men and women were followed up through 2007, during which time 12,004 cancer cases occurred. Hazard ratios (HRs) and confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated with Cox regression for cancer sites with ≥150 cases during follow-up. Significantly increased or decreased risks were found when comparing the highest and lowest intake categories (HRs, 95% CIs) for PHVO-TFA and pancreatic cancer in men (0.52, 0.31-0.87) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) in both genders (0.70, 0.50-0.98); PHFO-TFA and rectal cancer (1.43, 1.09-1.88), prostate cancer (0.82, 0.69-0.96), and multiple myeloma (2.02, 1.24-3.28); and rTFA and all cancers (1.09, 1.02-1.16), cancer of the mouth/pharynx (1.59, 1.08-2.35), NHL (1.47, 1.06-2.04) and multiple myeloma (0.45, 0.24-0.84). Furthermore, positive trends were found for PHFO-TFA and stomach cancer (p(trend) = 0.01) and rTFA and postmenopausal breast cancer (p(trend) = 0.03). Inverse trends were found for PHVO-TFA and all cancers (p(trend) = 0.006) and cancer of the central nervous system in women (p(trend) = 0.005). PHFO-TFA, but not PHVO-TFA, seemed to increase cancer risk. The increased risks observed for rTFA may be linked to saturated fat. PMID:22821174

  7. YBa2Cu3O7-x films prepared by TFA-MOD method for coated conductor application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The epitaxial growth of YBCO films both on (001) SrTiO3 (STO) and Ni-W biaxially textured metallic substrates prepared by metal-organic deposition (MOD) using a trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) solution is reported. The degree of epitaxy of the YBCO films was investigated by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The as deposited films exhibit good morphological and structural properties. The ω-scan of the YBCO films grown on (001) SrTiO3 single crystal substrate and on Pd/CeO2/YSZ/CeO2 buffered biaxially textured Ni-5at%W (Ni-W) tapes has a full width at half maximum (FWHM) of 0.120 and 3.40, respectively. The φ-scan of (113) peak of YBCO film grown on Ni-W substrate has FWHM of 6.10. The YBCO/STO film has a zero resistance critical temperature of Tc(R = 0) = 92 K and a critical current density Jc > 2 MA/cm2 at 77 K and in zero magnetic field

  8. Novel ferulic acid esterases from Bifidobacterium sp. produced on selected synthetic and natural carbon sources

    OpenAIRE

    Dominik Szwajgier; Anna Dmowska

    2010-01-01

    Background. Ferulic acid esterases (or feruloyl esterases), a common group of hydrolases are very well distributed in the plant kongdom. The fungal feruloyl esterases were very extensively studied whereas probiotic lactic acid bacteria as the source of this enzyme were generally omitted. Free phenolic acids – strong antioxidants can be released from the dietary fiber by the action of intestinal lactic acid bacteria. The aim of this study was to examine the three probiotic Bifi...

  9. 一种新的四肽(TFA-Gly-Pro-Thr-Ala-oH)合成工艺%Synthesis Of TFA-Gly-Pro-Thr-Ala-OH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴修艮; 丁德平; 聂丽云; 高瑞银

    2010-01-01

    目的 确定一种新的四肤(TFA-Gly-Pro-Thr-Ala-0H)合成工艺.方法 以Boc-Gly-OSu、Boc-Thr-OSu、丙氨酸和脯氨酸为原料,选择适当的反应条件,得Boc-Gly-Pro-Thr-Ala-OH,再通过反应生成更稳定的目标产物.结果 收率较高,质量稳定.结论 本合成的新的四肽在收率、有关物质等方面都符合要求.

  10. The ortho backbone amide linker (o-BAL) is an easily prepared and highly acid-labile handle for solid-phase synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boas, Ulrik; Brask, Jesper; Christensen, J.B.;

    2002-01-01

    , followed by purification through steam distillation, Cleavage studies of Leu-enkephalin anchored to either o-BAL or p-BAL handles revealed that both handles were surprisingly acid-labile and released the peptide with dilute TFA (5% and even 1% TFA in CH2Cl2). This useful property allowed the synthesis of...

  11. Oils of insects and larvae consumed in Africa: potential sources of polyunsaturated fatty acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Womeni Hilaire Macaire

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to present the beneficial aspects of some insects consumed in sub-Saharan Africa, based on examples of insects consumed in Cameroon, to present their potential as sources of lipids and essential fatty acids. In Africa, termites, larvae of raphia weevil, caterpillars, crickets, bees, maggots, butterflies, weevil, etc. are significant sources of food. These insects belong mainly to the orders of : Isoptera, Orthoptera, Dictyoptera, Coleoptera, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera and Diptera. Depending on the species, insects are rich in proteins, minerals (K, Ca, Mg, Zn, P, Fe and/or vitamins (thiamine/B1, riboflavine/B2, pyridoxine/B6, acid pantothenic, niacin. The composition of oils extracted from the following six insects consumed in Cameroon was investigated : larvaes of raphia weevil (Rhynchophorus phoenicis, crickets (Homorocoryphus nitidulus, grasshopper (Zonocerus variegates, termites (Macrotermes sp., a variety of caterpillars (Imbrasia sp. and an unidentified caterpillar from the forest (UI carterpillar. The extraction yields of oil were 53.75%, 67.25%, 9.12%, 49.35%, 24.44% and 20.17% respectively for raphia weevil larvae, crickets, devastating crickets, termites, Imbrasia and UI caterpillar. The oil from raphia weevil mainly contains 37.60% of palmitoleic acid and 45.46% of linoleic acid. The oil from crickets is principally made up of palmitoleic acid (27.59%, linoleic acid (45.63% and α-linolenic acid (16.19%. The oil from grasshoppers is composed of palmitoleic acid (23.83%, oleic acid (10.71%, linoleic acid (21.07%, α-linolenic acid (14.76% and γ-linolenic acid (22.54%. The main components of termite oil are : palmitic acid (30.47%, oleic acid (47.52% and linoleic acid (8.79%. Palmitic acid (36.08% and linolenic acid (38.01% are the two dominant fatty acids of Imbrasia oil. As Imbrasia oil, UI caterpillar oil is composed of palmitic acid (30.80% and linolenic acid (41.79%. Stearic acid (7.04%, oleic acid

  12. Influence of dietary protein type and iron source on the absorption of amino acids and minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Llamas, F; Garaulet, M; Martínez, J A; Marín, J F; Larqué, E; Zamora, S

    2001-12-01

    The apparent digestibility coefficient (ADC) of amino acids and the balance of minerals (calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and iron) has been determined in rats fed four diets differing in the protein type (casein or soy protein) and iron source (ferrous sulphate or lactate) in order to study the possible interactions of these nutrients. The availability of amino acids, especially essential amino acids, was greater in the diet made with animal protein (casein). The iron source also affected the absorption of most amino acids in all the diets assayed with ferrous sulphate being greater. The balance of iron, magnesium and phosphorus was higher in the diets containing animal protein. The retention of calcium and magnesium was significantly greater when ferrous sulphate was used as iron source. These results demonstrate the important interaction between amino acids and minerals and between the minerals themselves, which must be carefully studied when selecting different types of protein or mineral sources in human or animal nutrition.

  13. Simulation experiments for evolution of fatty acids in immature source rocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The anhydrous, hydrous and bitumen-extrac- ted simulations were carried out for the immature source rocks from the Liaohe sag. It has been shown from the result that with increasing temperature in simulation experiments, the fatty acids content decreased at first and then increased. The decrease of fatty acids in immature rocks is presumably related to alkanes generation in immature oils, whilst the increase may be related to the fact that some additional fatty acids are generated from kerogen and the tightly bound fatty acids in kerogen are released as bound fatty acids in kerogen and unbound fatty acids in bitumen. The fact that the bitumen generated from kerogen contains fatty acids has demonstrated that some bound and tightly bound fatty acids in kerogen can be transferred into bitumen. The preferential fatty acids in the immature source rocks are found to be mono-carboxylic acids with longer chains, whilst krogen contains relatively more di-carboxylic acids. It has been found that the fatty acids in immature source rocks can be changed from that with more longer chains to that with more shorter chains when evolution extent has been increased. Based on simulation results and the fact that the majority of fatty acids in immature oils are those with longer chains, it is inferred that the contribution of fatty acids to forming alkanes in immature oils mainly takes place at the evolution stage with R0 (0.6%. The simulation experiments have also demonstrated that H2O could promote the generation of fatty acids with more di-carboxylic acids and delay alkanes formation from fatty acids.

  14. Acides gras trans : récents développements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morin Odile

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Some recent developments on trans fatty acids (TFA include aspects like regulation (limited levels in food for Denmark, labelling in USA and Canada, scientific data analysed by different expert committees (Codex Alimentarius, Efsa in Europe, Afssa in France, technology with process solutions already developed (some of them, for more than 10 years or in progress to decrease their occurrence. While most of the “natural” unsaturated fatty acids (UFA are in the cis configuration, TFA main dietary origins are: i products containing fats from ruminant animals (dairy products, meat…, where TFA are produced by the bacterial transformation of UFA in the rumen of animals – ii partially hydrogenated fats (vegetable and fish oils – iii oils heated at high temperature (like deodorisation during refining. If the Codex Alimentarius as well as USA and Canada have adopted a definition of TFA excluding conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs, or in the case of Denmark, excluding also the TFA from “natural” origin, the European and French Authorities (Efsa and Afssa define TFA as any UFA (MUFA or PUFA having at least one double bond in the trans configuration. TFA dietary intake surveys show a significant trend to decrease, but all the countries do not start from the same point (USA, Canada four times more than Greece, for instance. Within European countries, TFA consumptions are at least ten times lower than saturated fatty acids (SAFA intakes. 60% of the TFA intake contributing food are from animal origins (Afssa report. Considering the health effects of TFA, it is well established now that, as for SAFA, higher intakes (when compared to cis MUFA and PUFA increase the LDL-cholesterol level, and tend to decrease HDL-cholesterol (when compared to SAFA and cis MUFA and PUFA, with a linear dose-response and a probable threshold under which no effect can be observed (Aquitaine study. The nutritional status of CLAs is not that clear, and the expert position

  15. Iron dissolution of dust source materials during simulated acidic processing: the effect of sulfuric, acetic, and oxalic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haihan; Grassian, Vicki H

    2013-09-17

    Atmospheric organic acids potentially display different capacities in iron (Fe) mobilization from atmospheric dust compared with inorganic acids, but few measurements have been made on this comparison. We report here a laboratory investigation of Fe mobilization of coal fly ash, a representative Fe-containing anthropogenic aerosol, and Arizona test dust, a reference source material for mineral dust, in pH 2 sulfuric acid, acetic acid, and oxalic acid, respectively. The effects of pH and solar radiation on Fe dissolution have also been explored. The relative capacities of these three acids in Fe dissolution are in the order of oxalic acid > sulfuric acid > acetic acid. Oxalate forms mononuclear bidentate ligand with surface Fe and promotes Fe dissolution to the greatest extent. Photolysis of Fe-oxalate complexes further enhances Fe dissolution with the concomitant degradation of oxalate. These results suggest that ligand-promoted dissolution of Fe may play a more significant role in mobilizing Fe from atmospheric dust compared with proton-assisted processing. The role of atmospheric organic acids should be taken into account in global-biogeochemical modeling to better access dissolved atmospheric Fe deposition flux at the ocean surface.

  16. In Vivo Performance of a Novel Fluorinated Magnetic Resonance Imaging Agent for Functional Analysis of Bile Acid Transport

    OpenAIRE

    Vivian, Diana; Cheng, Kunrong; Khurana, Sandeep; Xu, Su; Kriel, Edwin H; Dawson, Paul A.; Raufman, Jean-Pierre; Polli, James E.

    2014-01-01

    A novel trifluorinated cholic acid derivative, CA-lys-TFA, was designed and synthesized for use as a tool to measure bile acid transport noninvasively using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In the present study, the in vivo performance of CA-lys-TFA for measuring bile acid transport by MRI was investigated in mice. Gallbladder CA-lys-TFA content was quantified using MRI and liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Results in wild-type (WT) C57BL/6J mice were compared to those in mice ...

  17. TFA Tank Focus Area - multiyear program plan FY98-FY00

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) continues to face a major radioactive waste tank remediation problem with hundreds of waste tanks containing hundreds of thousands of cubic meters of high-level waste (HLW) and transuranic (TRU) waste across the DOE complex. Approximately 80 tanks are known or assumed to have leaked. Some of the tank contents have reacted to form flammable gases, introducing additional safety risks. These tanks must be maintained in a safe condition and eventually remediated to minimize the risk of waste migration and/or exposure to workers, the public, and the environment. However, programmatic drivers are more ambitious than baseline technologies and budgets will support. Science and technology development investments are required to reduce the technical and programmatic risks associated with the tank remediation baselines. The Tanks Focus Area (TFA) was initiated in 1994 to serve as the DOE's Office of Environmental Management's (EM's) national technology development program for radioactive waste tank remediation. The national program was formed to increase integration and realize greater benefits from DOE's technology development budget. The TFA is responsible for managing, coordinating, and leveraging technology development to support DOE's four major tank sites: Hanford Site (Washington), Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) (Idaho), Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) (Tennessee), and Savannah River Site (SRS) (South Carolina). Its technical scope covers the major functions that comprise a complete tank remediation system: waste retrieval, waste pretreatment, waste immobilization, tank closure, and characterization of both the waste and tank with safety integrated into all the functions. The TFA integrates program activities across organizations that fund tank technology development EM, including the Offices of Waste Management (EM-30), Environmental Restoration (EM-40), and Science and Technology (EM-50)

  18. TFA Tanks Focus Area Multiyear Program Plan FY00-FY04

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BA Carteret; JH Westsik; LR Roeder-Smith; RL Gilchrist; RW Allen; SN Schlahta; TM Brouns

    1999-10-12

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) continues to face a major radioactive waste tank remediation problem with hundreds of waste tanks containing hundreds of thousands of cubic meters of high-level waste (HLW) and transuranic (TRU) waste across the DOE complex. Approximately 68 tanks are known or assumed to have leaked contamination to the soil. Some of the tank contents have reacted to form flammable gases, introducing additional safety risks. These tanks must be maintained in a safe condition and eventually remediated to minimize the risk of waste migration and/or exposure to workers, the public, and the environment. However, programmatic drivers are more ambitious than baseline technologies and budgets will support. Science and technology development investments are required to reduce the technical and programmatic risks associated with the tank remediation baselines. The Tanks Focus Area (TFA) was initiated in 1994 to serve as the DOE Office of Environmental Management's (EM's) national technology development program. for radioactive waste tank remediation. The national program was formed to increase integration and realize greater benefits from DOE's technology development budget. The TFA is responsible for managing, coordinating, and leveraging technology development to support DOE's five major tank sites: Hanford Site (Washington), Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) (Idaho), Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) (Tennessee), Savannah River Site (SRS) (South Carolina), and West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) (New York). Its technical scope covers the major functions that comprise a complete tank remediation system: waste retrieval, waste pretreatment, waste immobilization, tank closure, and characterization of both the waste and tank with safety integrated into all the functions. The TFA integrates program activities across EM organizations that fund tank technology development, including the Offices of Waste

  19. TFA Tank Focus Area - multiyear program plan FY98-FY00

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) continues to face a major radioactive waste tank remediation problem with hundreds of waste tanks containing hundreds of thousands of cubic meters of high-level waste (HLW) and transuranic (TRU) waste across the DOE complex. Approximately 80 tanks are known or assumed to have leaked. Some of the tank contents have reacted to form flammable gases, introducing additional safety risks. These tanks must be maintained in a safe condition and eventually remediated to minimize the risk of waste migration and/or exposure to workers, the public, and the environment. However, programmatic drivers are more ambitious than baseline technologies and budgets will support. Science and technology development investments are required to reduce the technical and programmatic risks associated with the tank remediation baselines. The Tanks Focus Area (TFA) was initiated in 1994 to serve as the DOE`s Office of Environmental Management`s (EM`s) national technology development program for radioactive waste tank remediation. The national program was formed to increase integration and realize greater benefits from DOE`s technology development budget. The TFA is responsible for managing, coordinating, and leveraging technology development to support DOE`s four major tank sites: Hanford Site (Washington), Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) (Idaho), Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) (Tennessee), and Savannah River Site (SRS) (South Carolina). Its technical scope covers the major functions that comprise a complete tank remediation system: waste retrieval, waste pretreatment, waste immobilization, tank closure, and characterization of both the waste and tank with safety integrated into all the functions. The TFA integrates program activities across organizations that fund tank technology development EM, including the Offices of Waste Management (EM-30), Environmental Restoration (EM-40), and Science and Technology (EM-50).

  20. TFA Tanks Focus Area Multiyear Program Plan FY00-FY04

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) continues to face a major radioactive waste tank remediation problem with hundreds of waste tanks containing hundreds of thousands of cubic meters of high-level waste (HLW) and transuranic (TRU) waste across the DOE complex. Approximately 68 tanks are known or assumed to have leaked contamination to the soil. Some of the tank contents have reacted to form flammable gases, introducing additional safety risks. These tanks must be maintained in a safe condition and eventually remediated to minimize the risk of waste migration and/or exposure to workers, the public, and the environment. However, programmatic drivers are more ambitious than baseline technologies and budgets will support. Science and technology development investments are required to reduce the technical and programmatic risks associated with the tank remediation baselines. The Tanks Focus Area (TFA) was initiated in 1994 to serve as the DOE Office of Environmental Management's (EM's) national technology development program. for radioactive waste tank remediation. The national program was formed to increase integration and realize greater benefits from DOE's technology development budget. The TFA is responsible for managing, coordinating, and leveraging technology development to support DOE's five major tank sites: Hanford Site (Washington), Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) (Idaho), Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) (Tennessee), Savannah River Site (SRS) (South Carolina), and West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) (New York). Its technical scope covers the major functions that comprise a complete tank remediation system: waste retrieval, waste pretreatment, waste immobilization, tank closure, and characterization of both the waste and tank with safety integrated into all the functions. The TFA integrates program activities across EM organizations that fund tank technology development, including the Offices of Waste Management (EM-30

  1. Etude chez une population d’Aquitaine de l’effet des acides gras trans alimentaires sur les lipides plasmatiques et le profil des lipoprotéines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boue Carole

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effect of dietary trans fatty acids (TFA on the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD development, in 90 pregnant and 97 non-pregnant women, who were recruited between 1996 and 1999, in the South-West of France. The contents of TFA in total lipids, cholesteryl esters (CE and total phospholipids (TPL of the women’s plasma, were determined using a combination of thin layer chromatography and capillary gas-liquid chromatography. Results indicate that the mean content of total TFA in plasma total lipids, expressed as proportion of all fatty acids, was 0.7%, with trans 18:1 being the most prevalent isomers (67%, followed by trans 18:2 (25% and trans 16:1 (8%. Trans 18:3 isomers were undetectable. In TPL, the TFA accounted for 0.7% of total fatty acids, whereas in CE, the mean TFA level was twice (0.3% as lower than in TPL. Moreover, these TFA were mainly represented by trans 18:1 isomers in TPL, and by trans 18:2 isomers in CE. Furthermore, there was no evidence of significant correlations between concentrations of low-density-lipoprotein (LDL or high-density-lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol and the TFA percentage in either adipose tissue or plasma. Overall, based on these results, it appears that the TFA intake level of French population does not induce an increase of CHD risk.

  2. Crystal grains alignment of SmBCO film by advanced TFA-MOD method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We grew SmBa2Cu3O7-y (SmBCO) films on LaAlO3 (LAO) single crystalline substrates by an advanced TFA-MOD method and discussed the effects of process conditions such as oxygen partial pressure in the crystallization step on the crystal grains alignment of SmBCO film. Oxygen partial pressure affected strongly on the orientation of SmBCO film. Formation of a-axis crystal grains of the SmBCO was suppressed, and, at the same time, c-axis crystal grains of the SmBCO increased with decreasing the oxygen concentration

  3. Decomposition and Oriented Growth of Films Prepared with Low Fluorine TFA-MOD Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaohui Zhao; Pan Zhang; Yabing Wang; Jie Xiong; Bowan Tao

    2013-01-01

    TFA-MOD approach of YBa2Cu3O7-x (YBCO) films has been approved to be the most promising method for mass production of low cost high temperature coated conductors. In order to reduce the decomposition time and improve the properties of YBCO films, copper propionate was used as the precursor and certain Lewis-bases were introduced into the precursor solution. The fluorine content of the solution was significantly reduced. High quality oriented YBCO films were prepared on LAO substrates with thi...

  4. Pork as a Source of Omega-3 (n-3) Fatty Acids

    OpenAIRE

    Michael E.R. Dugan; Payam Vahmani; Turner, Tyler D; Cletos Mapiye; Manuel Juárez; Nuria Prieto; Angela D. Beaulieu; Zijlstra, Ruurd T.; John F Patience; Aalhus, Jennifer L

    2015-01-01

    Pork is the most widely eaten meat in the world, but typical feeding practices give it a high omega-6 (n-6) to omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid ratio and make it a poor source of n-3 fatty acids. Feeding pigs n-3 fatty acids can increase their contents in pork, and in countries where label claims are permitted, claims can be met with limited feeding of n-3 fatty acid enrich feedstuffs, provided contributions of both fat and muscle are included in pork servings. Pork enriched with n-3 fatty acids is, ...

  5. Predicted Changes in Fatty Acid Intakes, Plasma Lipids, and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Following Replacement of trans Fatty Acid-Containing Soybean Oil with Application-Appropriate Alternatives

    OpenAIRE

    Lefevre, Michael; Mensink, Ronald P.; Kris-Etherton, Penny M.; Petersen, Barbara; Smith, Kim; Flickinger, Brent D.

    2012-01-01

    The varied functional requirements satisfied by trans fatty acid (TFA)—containing oils constrains the selection of alternative fats and oils for use as potential replacements in specific food applications. We aimed to model the effects of replacing TFA-containing partially hydrogenated soybean oil (PHSBO) with application-appropriate alternatives on population fatty acid intakes, plasma lipids, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2...

  6. Development and performance test of a continuous source of nitrous acid (HONO)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ammann, M.; Roessler, E.; Kalberer, M.; Bruetsch, S.; Schwikowski, M.; Baltensperger, U.; Zellweger, C.; Gaeggeler, H.W. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    Laboratory investigations involving nitrous acid (HONO) require a stable, continuous source of HONO at ppb levels. A flow type generation system based on the reaction of sodium nitrite with sulfuric acid has been developed. Performance and speciation of gaseous products were tested with denuder and chemiluminescence techniques. (author) 2 figs., 2 refs.

  7. Trans Fatty Acids in the Hong Kong Food Supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen W. C. Chung

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine trans fatty acids (TFA content of 142 individual food items, including bakery, fast food, and other fatty food that may contain high level of TFA. TFA was detected in all samples, except for four samples including one plain bread, one sponge cake, and two batter-made foods (egg roll and eggette samples. For those found to contain detectable TFA, the content ranged up to 4.7 g/100 g of food or 17.3% of total lipids. On a per 100 grams of food basis, the highest mean TFA content among the 18 food subgroups was the doughnuts/French toast subgroup (0.95 g, followed by the other pastries subgroup (0.49 g and the bread with filling/topping subgroup (0.44 g. Among the samples, the highest TFA content is from a doughnut (4.7 g/100 g, followed by two cream-filled bread with shredded coconut (1.8 and 1.4 g/100 g and a sweetheart cake (1.7 g/100 g. Only consuming one whole piece of doughnut would have reached 100% of the maximum daily TFA intake as recommended by WHO based on a 2000 kcal diet. About 78% of samples had TFA ≤0.3 g/100 g food. For the majority of the food samples available in Hong Kong, if TFA was present, C18:1 trans would possibly be the predominant one.

  8. Radiation grafting of 4-vinylpyridine onto poly-tetrafluoroethylene-perfluorovinylether (TFA) and poly-tetrafluoroethylene-polyethylene (ET) films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preparation of membranes of poly-tetrafluoroethylene-perfluorovinylether (TFA) and poly-tetrafluoroethylene-polyethylene (ET) films grafted with 4-vinylpyridine using γ-rays has been carried out. The appropriate reaction conditions were selected. Furthermore, quaternization of the pyridine of the grafted chains was conducted. The effect of monomer concentration on the rate of grafting was also investigated. The order of the grafting rate gram per hour depending on monomer concentration was found to be 0.94 and 1.0 for TFA and ET films, respectively. Some selected properties of the grafted films such as swelling behavior, dimensional stability, mechanical and electrical properties were investigated. The grafted film of TFA and ET showed a marked decrease in elongation with a significant increase in the tensile strength. (author)

  9. Effect of Cerium Doping on Superconducting Properties of YBCO Film Prepared by TFA-MOD Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of Ba and Ce addition has been investigated in YBCO prepared by trifluoroacetate(TFA) metalorganic deposition(MOD) method. Precursor solutions with cation ratios of Y:Ba:Cu:Ce=1:2+x:3:x(x=0, 0.05, 0.1 and 1.5) have been prepared by adding an excess amount of cerium and barium. Coated film was calcined at lower temperature under a moisture-containing oxygen atmosphere. Superconducting YBCO films have been obtained by performing conversion heat treatment at temperature of 780-810 degrees C under a moisture-containing Ar(1,000 ppm oxygen) atmosphere. It has been shown that the critical current(Ic) of YBCO film was degraded by doping of Ba and Ce atoms. But Ic was increased as the amount of doped Ba and Ce content increased from 5% to 15 %. It was observed that there was little increase of a flux pinning force with Ba and Ce addition in YBCO film prepared by TFA-MOD process.

  10. Fabrication and growth mechanism of YBCO coated conductors by TFA-MOD process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the development for the coated conductors, the trifluoroacetates-metal organic deposition (TFA-MOD) process using the multi-coating method was applied to form thicker YBa2Cu3Oy (YBCO) films on the CeO2 buffered IBAD(Zr2Gd2O7)/Hastelloy tape. As a result, in the 5 times coated film with 1.38 μm in thickness, the Jc and Ic values achieved to be 1.5 MA/cm2 and 210 A, respectively. Then, we fabricated a 1 m long YBCO tape by the continuous reel-to-reel system. As a result, we confirmed the tape to be homogeneous by XRD analysis. Additionally, we report the theoretical analysis of YBCO growth during post-annealing in the TFA-MOD process considering both the diffusion in the gas boundary layer and the growth kinetics at the precursor/YBCO interface. This model reveals a basic idea of the growth mechanism to define the steady state growth rate, and could explain the experimental results. In addition, it predicts that the growth rate could be estimated from the partial pressure of the water vapor of the inlet gas

  11. Growth process and microstructure of Y123 film fabricated by advanced TFA-MOD process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The advanced metal organic deposition (MOD) process using F-free salt of Cu and trifluroacetates (TFA) salts (Superconductivity Research Laboratory (SRL)-Method) was applied to form well oriented Y123 film on LaAlO3 substrate. In order to clarify the growth mechanism of the Y123 film by the advanced TFA-MOD process, two methods were introduced. One was the quenching method to get samples under several different conditions during the process, and the microstructures were observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The other was in situ observation method to know surface changes of the film by the generation of liquid and/or gas. From the θ-2θ X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of YBa2Cu3O7-δ (YBCO) films fabricated by suitable conditions (0 0 n) diffraction peaks were obtained indicating they had strongly c-axis oriented structure. The thin YBCO films had critical current density (J C) of 3.8-4.9 MA/cm2 (77 K,0 T) measured by the four-probe-method. A growth model with some process-controlling parameters was proposed based on the above observed results

  12. Fabrication of long Y123 coated conductor tape by advanced TFA-MOD process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metal organic deposition (MOD) process of YBa2Cu3O7-y (YBCO) using metal trifluoro acetate (TFA) precursors is thought to be promising since YBCO films with high Jc can be fabricated by this process inexpensively. However it is difficult to maintain high Jc throughout long tapes. We have improved Ic values and longitudinal Ic distribution for a long coated conductor tape by the advanced TFA-MOD method. It was clarified that a humid atmosphere degraded as-coated films. The Ba-poor composition precursor from the 1:2:3 cationic ratio improved Jc/Ic significantly. As a result, a 86 m long coated conductor was obtained with Ic values higher than 200 A/cm-w throughout the tape except for one small region. Almost of the tape has as high Ic as 300 A/cm-w and the end-to-end Ic x L value was 14 000 Am (Ic 250 A, L = 56 m)

  13. Growth process of Ba-poor YBCO film fabricated by TFA-MOD process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metal organic deposition process using trifluoroacetates (TFA-MOD) is one of the most promising processes to fabricate YBCO film. It has been reported that YBCO films grown by the starting solution with Ba-poor (cation ratio as Y:Ba:Cu = 1:1.5:3) have higher JC value and has smaller and less pores than those of the YBCO film with stoichiometric composition. It is important to investigate the growth mechanism of YBCO crystals to obtain a high JC film by controlling the crystal structures. In this study, YBCO films were fabricated under various Ba concentrations in the TFA starting solution, and the influences of Ba composition on the growth process and microstructures were investigated. As a result, the Ba-poor YBCO film with Ba/Y = 1.5 and high JC had less a-axis oriented Y123 in comparison with the film with Ba/Y = 2. Furthermore, pores in the Ba-poor film were less than that in the stoichiometric composition film. This decrease of pores in the Ba-poor film was considered to be caused by the smaller size of non-reacted phases especially such as Ba-F rich particles entrapped by growing Y123 in the growing Y123 layer. It is considered that both the reductions of a-axis oriented Y123 and pores were the reasons of improving JC values in Ba-poor film

  14. Effects of Excess Yttrium Addition on YBCO Thin Films Prepared by TFA-MOD Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    [YBa2Cu3O7-x]thin films were fabricated on LaAlO3(100) substrate by TFA-MOD process. Yttrium-excess (0, 2.5, 5, 10, 15, 20 at%) coating solution was prepared by adding extra amount of yttrium into a stoichiometric(Y:Ba:Cu=1:2:3) TFA precursor solution. Results are presented concerning the influence of excess yttrium additions on the microstructure development and superconducting properties of YBa2Cu3O7-x film. Large sized CuO particles was observed by SEM EDS investigation. The addition of excess yttrium affected little on Tc of YBa2Cu3O7-xfilm. Jc of YBCO film was enhanced with excess yttrium addition. Jc maximum of 2.21 MA/cm2 (77 K, self field) appeared with the 15 at% addition of excess yttrium. With further yttrium addition up to 20 at %, Jc decreased down to 0.9 MA/cm2.

  15. Processing for long YBCO coated conductors by advanced TFA-MOD process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The long tape process was developed using the advanced TFA precursor solution. In a long tape production, the advanced TFA precursor solution was coated by a die-coater using the reel-to-reel system, and the multi-coating method was applied for thicker film fabrication. We successfully fabricated long uniform precursor films. In the high temperature treatment, a large scale equipment for the continuous long tape process was developed. This equipment had a perpendicular gas flow system to the tape length which is effective to fabricate the uniform films. Ic values and its distribution in the YBCO tape fabricated by this method on CeO2/IBAD-Gd2Zr2O7/Hastelloy were measured. And the uniform and high performance was confirmed. A 0.25 m long YBCO film with 1.38 μm in thickness on the metal substrate shows the high Ic performance of 210 A with end to end at 77.3 K in self-fields

  16. Transmission electron microscopy studies of YBCO films fabricated by advanced TFA-MOD process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The advanced metal organic deposition using trifluoroacetates (TFA-MOD) is one of the most promising methods for producing superconducting coated conductors. In order to form highly grain aligned YBa2Cu3O7-δ (Y123) films with high JC, it is important to control the microstructures of the films. In the present work, Y123 films were grown by the advanced TFA-MOD method on CeO2 layered LaAlO3 (LAO) substrates. Quenched films were prepared by cooling rapidly during the crystallization stage, and their cross-sectional microstructures were investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The bright-field images (BFIs) showed existence of some grains, precipitates and their interfaces in the film. Selected area electron diffraction patterns (SAEDPs) were taken from various regions, and a-axis and/or c-axis-oriented structures, amorphous structures, etc. were observed. In addition, Y123 grains, BaF2, CuO and Y2Cu2O5 grains were clarified by the scanning transmission electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (STEM-EDS) analyses

  17. Acides gras trans : récents développements

    OpenAIRE

    Morin Odile

    2005-01-01

    Some recent developments on trans fatty acids (TFA) include aspects like regulation (limited levels in food for Denmark, labelling in USA and Canada), scientific data analysed by different expert committees (Codex Alimentarius, Efsa in Europe, Afssa in France), technology with process solutions already developed (some of them, for more than 10 years) or in progress to decrease their occurrence. While most of the “natural” unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) are in the cis configuration, TFA main di...

  18. First Year Middle and High School Teachers' Mathematical Content Proficiency and Attitudes: Alternative Certification in the Teach for America (TFA) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Brian R.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to understand the mathematical content proficiency middle and high school teachers have before and after their first year teaching and taking graduate coursework in the Teach for America (TFA) program, as well as what attitudes toward mathematics TFA teachers have over the first year. There was a significant increase…

  19. Intake of fatty acids in Western Europe with emphasis on trans fatty acids: The TRANSFAIR study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulshof, K.F.A.M; Erp van - Baart, M.A.; Anttolainen, M.; Becker, W.; Church, S.M.; Couet, C.; Hermann-Kunz, E.; Kesteloot, H.; Leth, T.; Martins, I.; Moreiras, O.; Moschandreas, J.; Pizzoferrato, L.; Rimestad, A.H.; Thorgeirsdottir, H.; Amelsvoort, J.M.M. van; Aro, A.; Kafatos, A.G.; Lanzmann-Petithory, D.; Poppel, G. van

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To assess the intake of trans fatty acids (TFA) and other fatty acids in 14 Western European countries. Design and subjects: A maximum of 100 foods per country were sampled and centrally analysed. Each country calculated the intake of individual trans and other fatty acids, clusters of fa

  20. Adipose tissue trans fatty acids and changes in body weight and waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Camilla P.; Berentzen, Tina L.; Østergaard, Jane N.;

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that the intake of trans-fatty acids (TFA) plays a role in the development of obesity. The proportions of adipose tissue fatty acids not synthesised endogenously in humans, such as TFA, usually correlate well with the dietary intake. Hence, the use...... of these biomarkers may provide a more accurate measure of habitual TFA intake than that obtained with dietary questionnaires. The objective of the present study was to investigate the associations between the proportions of specific TFA in adipose tissue and subsequent changes in weight and waist circumference (WC......). The relative content of fatty acids in adipose tissue biopsies from a random sample of 996 men and women aged 50–64 years drawn from a Danish cohort study was determined by GC. Baseline data on weight, WC and potential confounders were available together with information on weight and WC 5 years after...

  1. Trifluoroacetic acid as excipient destabilizes melittin causing the selective aggregation of melittin within the centrin-melittin-trifluoroacetic acid complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belinda Pastrana-Rios

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Trifluoroacetic acid (TFA may be the cause of the bottleneck in high resolution structure determination for protein-peptide complexes. Fragment based drug design often involves the use of synthetic peptides which contain TFA (excipient. Our goal was to explore the effects of this excipient on a model complex: centrin-melittin-TFA. We performed Fourier transform infrared, two-dimensional infrared correlation spectroscopies and spectral simulations to analyze the amide I'/I'* band for the components and the ternary complex. Melittin (MLT was observed to have increased helicity upon its interaction with centrin, followed by the thermally induced aggregation of MLT within the ternary complex in the TFA presence.

  2. Importance of secondary sources in the atmospheric budgets of formic and acetic acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Paulot

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available We present a detailed budget of formic and acetic acids, two of the most abundant trace gases in the atmosphere. Our bottom-up estimate of the global source of formic and acetic acids are ~1200 and ~1400 Gmol/yr, dominated by photochemical oxidation of biogenic volatile organic compounds, in particular isoprene. Their sinks are dominated by wet and dry deposition. We use the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model to evaluate this budget against an extensive suite of measurements from ground, ship and satellite-based Fourier transform spectrometers, as well as from several aircraft campaigns over North America. The model captures the seasonality of formic and acetic acids well but generally underestimates their concentration, particularly in the Northern midlatitudes. We infer that the source of both carboxylic acids may be up to 50% greater than our estimate and report evidence for a long-lived missing secondary source of carboxylic acids that may be associated with the aging of organic aerosols. Vertical profiles of formic acid in the upper troposphere support a negative temperature dependence of the reaction between formic acid and the hydroxyl radical as suggested by several theoretical studies.

  3. Intake of ruminant trans fatty acids and changes in body weight and waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, C P; Berentzen, T L; Halkjær, Jytte;

    2012-01-01

    Follow-up studies have suggested that total intake of trans fatty acids (TFA) is a risk factor for gain in body weight and waist circumference (WC). However, in a cross-sectional study individual TFA isomers in adipose tissue had divergent associations with anthropometry. Our objective...... was to investigate the association between intake of TFA from ruminant dairy and meat products and subsequent changes in weight and WC. Furthermore, potential effect modification by sex, age, body mass index and WC at baseline was investigated....

  4. Current oscillations during the anodic dissolution of copper in trifluoroacetic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A phenomenon of current oscillators was characterized crosswise active-passive potential region during the electrodissolution of copper electrode in trifluoroacetic acid (TFA). The current density-potential curves show two transition points. A potential region of current oscillations was found as a part of limiting current region. The Cu|TFA electrochemical oscillator was found to displaying rich dynamical response on varying the temperature and the applied potential. The Cu|TFA system display current oscillation behaviour from the mono-periodic to the mixed-mode (relaxation type). Changes of the electrode surface structure and morphology were investigated by X-ray diffraction spectroscopy, atomic forced microscopy and optical microscopy.

  5. Measurement of local critical currents in TFA-MOD processed coated conductors by use of scanning Hall-probe microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have investigated 2-dimensional distribution of critical current density. We have measured TFA-MOD processed YBCO coated conductor. We used scanning Hall-probe microscopy. These provided information is useful for fabrication process of coated conductor. We have carried out 2-dimensional (2D) measurement of local critical current in a Trifluoroacetates-Metal Organic Deposition (TFA-MOD) processed YBCO coated conductor using scanning Hall-probe microscopy. Recently, remarkable R and D accomplishments on the fabrication processes of coated conductors have been conducted extensively and reported. The TFA-MOD process has been expected as an attractive process to produce coated conductors with high performance at a low production cost due to a simple process using non-vacuum equipments. On the other hand, enhancement of critical currents and homogenization of the critical current distribution in the coated conductors are definitely very important for practical applications. According to our measurements, we can detect positions and spatial distribution of defects in the conductor. This kind of information will be very helpful for the improvement of the TFA-MOD process and for the design of the conductor intended for practical electric power device applications.

  6. [Conjugated linolenic acids (CLnA, super CLA)--natural sources and biological activity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Białek, Agnieszka; Teryks, Marta; Tokarz, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) have a wide range of biological activity. Among them conjugated fatty acids are of great interest. Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA), which exert a multidirectional health-benefiting influence, and conjugated linolenic acids (CLnA, super CLA) are examples of this group of fatty acids. CLnA are a group of positional and geometric isomers of octadecatrienoic acid (C18:3), which possess double bonds at positions 9, 11, 13 or 8, 10, 12 of their chain. Some vegetable oils are rich sources of CLnA, e.g. bitter melon oil (from Momordica charantia seeds) and pomegranate oil (from Punica granatum seeds). The aim of this paper was to present information concerning natural sources and health-promoting activities of conjugated linolenic acids. The presented data reveal that conjugated linolenic acids may be very useful in prevention and treatment of many diseases, especially diabetes, arteriosclerosis , obesity and cancers (mammary, prostate and colon cancer). Among many potential mechanisms of their action, the fact that some CLnA are converted by oxidoreductases into CLA is very important. It seems to be very reasonable to conduct research concerning the possibility of CLnA use in prevention of many diseases. PMID:25380206

  7. Use of sodium or calcium salts of fatty acids as sources of energy in buffalo rations during late pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirty pregnant buffaloes expected to calve within 60-75 days were divided into three groups balanced by bodyweight and expected date of parturition. The first group received a control ration consisting of concentrate diet (75% concentrate feed mixture with 25% yellow corn) plus berseem (Trifolim alexandrinum) hay and rice straw. In the second and third groups, yellow corn was replaced with either sodium salts of fatty acids (Na-SFA) or calcium salts of fatty acids (Ca-SFA). The content of acid ether extract (AEE) in Ca-SFA was lower than that of Na-SFA, while TFA's in Ca-SFA were higher. Degradability rates of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), effective degradability (ED) and potential degradability (PD) decreased with the ration containing Na-SFA. Undegradable values of DM, OM and CP increased with adding Na-SFA compared with adding Ca-SFA or the control diet. Digestion coefficients of DM, OM, CP and cell wall constituents (CWC) were lower with feeding the ration containing Na-SFA compared with that containing Ca-SFA, while no significant differences were found between the control and Ca-SFA-containing rations. Values for total digestible nutrients (TDN) and digestible crude protein (DCP) were reduced (P < 0.05) with the ration contained Na-SFA compared with Ca-SFA. Feed intake was not affected by feeding rations containing Na-SFA or Ca-SFA, but bodyweight (BWt) was higher after feeding rations containing Ca-SFA or Na-SFA compared with the control. pH values, propionic acid and free fatty acids (FFA's) in the rumen were higher (P < 0.05) when feeding the ration containing Na-SFA compared with that containing Ca-SFA or the control, while total volatile fatty acids (TVFAs), acetic, Ac:Pr ratio and NH3-N were significantly decreased. Adding Na-SFA in the ration decreased glucose and total protein concentrations in blood compared with Ca-SFA or in the control. Concentrations of albumin, globulin and their ratio were not affected with feeding

  8. Upgrading of citric acid production from cheap carbohydrate sources as affected by aspergillus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Five strains of aspergillus niger (EMCC 102, EMCC 104, EMCC 111, EMCC 132 and EMCC 147) were for citric acid production at different incubation period using different cheap carbohydrate substrates, such as beet, cane and citrus molasses and milk whey. A. niger EMCC 111 was found to be the most potent strain for citric acid production from beet molasses after 11 days of incubation at 30 degree. The studies concerning molasses concentration and nitrogen sources (inorganic and organic sources with different concentration, revealed that 30 g% beet molasses and ammonium sulfate with 0.05 g% as N2 content, gave the highest production of citric acid. Gamma irradiated inocula of A. niger EMCC 111 at doses (0.05-0.8 KGy), showed that the dose 0.4 KGy was the optimum for maximum citric acid production. 8 tabs

  9. Sources and sinks of formic, acetic, and pyruvic acids over central Amazonia. II - Wet season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, R. W.; Andreae, M. O.; Berresheim, H.; Jacob, D. J.; Beecher, K. M.

    1990-01-01

    Potential sources and sinks of formic, acetic, and pyruvic acids over the Amazon forest were investigated using a photochemical model and data collected on gas phase concentrations of these acids in the forest canopy, boundary layer, and free troposphere over the central Amazon Basin during the 1987 wet season. It was found that the atmospheric reactions previously suggested in the literature as sources of carboxylic acids (i.e., the gas phase decomposition of isoprene, the reaction between CH3CO3 and a peroxide, and aqueous phase oxidation of CH2O) appear to be too slow to explain the observed concentrations, suggesting that other atmospheric reactions, so far unidentified, could make a major contribution to the carboxylic acid budgets.

  10. The Content of Fat and Polyenoic Acids in the Major Food Sources of the Arctic Diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shukla, V. K. S.; Clausen, Jytte Lene; Egsgaard, Helge;

    1980-01-01

    In relation to the apparently low incidence of coronary heart diseases in Arctic populations the fatty acid pattern of muscle and fat tissue of the Arctic seal, birds and mammals were compared with the fatty acid pattern of the corresponding tissues of domestic animals normally used as meat sources...... in western countries. The triglyceride content of muscle samples was also estimated. A gas chromatography-mass spectrometry system was used for localizing the position of double bonds in the unsaturated acids, by means of their pyrrolidides. The fat tissue from the seal was the main source of polyenoic acids....... The fat content of muscle tissue in Arctic animals was not less than that of domestic meat....

  11. Present status and strategy of reel-to-reel TFA-MOD process for coated conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the research and development of a reel-to-reel TFA-MOD (Metal Organic Deposition using Trifluoro-acetates) process, a present status is reviewed and its future strategy is addressed. As a base of the study, the 90 m long tape with uniform Ic distribution of the 300 A/cm-width level was obtained on the CeO2 buffered IBAD-Gd2Zr2O7/Hastelloy C276 substrate. The tape has the 56 m region with the end-to-end Ic value of 250 A, which corresponds to maximum product of Ic x L of 14,000 Am. Based on the results, several directions on R and D have been studied such as 'higher Ic', 'higher Ic-B', 'higher production rate both in coating/calcinations and crystallization steps' and lower cost buffer/substrate'. Then, an extremely high Ic value of 735 A/cm-width was achieved in a short tape by the compositional control (e.g. Ba-deficient), in the starting solutions. On the efforts for achieving higher Ic-B properties, high Ic values of 115 and 35 A/cm-width under the magnetic fields of 1 and 3 T were obtained by the RE mixture of Y and Gd in REBCO, addition of Zr and a growth rate control process. On the other hand, the production rate for the coating/calcinations process was improved by development of new starting solutions, which uses F-free Y salt instead of TFA salt of Y. The high Jc value of 1.9 MA/cm2 was confirmed using the precursor films fabricated at a high traveling rate of 10 m/h. Concerning a higher rate in the crystallization step, the multi-turning system with a vertical gas flow system was developed. The validity of the concept was confirmed using 2-turn parts of the furnace. The high Ic value of 250 A/cm-width was realized in the 5 m tape crystallized with a traveling rate of 3 m/h, which is equivalent to 15 m/h for usage of entire area of the furnace of 10-turns. Furthermore, in order to achieve the lower cost, the architecture of the coated conductor with a low cost buffer/substrate system has been developed. An IBAD buffered substrate using IBAD-MgO layer

  12. Development of BZO Doped YGdBCO Thick Films Using TFA-MOD Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, T.; Nakahata, K.; Yoshizumi, M.; Izumi, T.; Shiohara, Y.; Kimura, K.; Hasegawa, T.; Kato, T.; Hirayama, T.

    TFA-MOD (Metal Organic Deposition using Trifluoro-acetates) process is of considerable practical concern for future applications since it can fabricate high performance coated conductors (CCs) with low cost. In this study, we developed the process for fabricating thick films in BZO nanoparticle doped Y0.77Gd0.23Ba1.5Cu3Oy (YGdBCO) CCs in order to realize high Ic values under magnetic field. The effect of RTR (Reel To Reel)-dip-coating conditions on microstructure, Jc(-B-θ) properties, etc. was investigated in order to fabricate crack-free thick and high performance films. A BZO doped YGdBCO film with uniform 3.0 μm thickness showed the high in-field Ic and Jc values of 55.6 A/cm-w and 0.18 MA/cm2@77.8K, 3T, respectively.

  13. Optimization of oxygenation process in YBCO tapes fabricated by TFA-MOD method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of oxygen doping on the superconducting properties, such as T c, J c and the irreversibility line, of YBCO coated conductor prepared by the TFA-MOD method was investigated. We observed a systematic change of T c value as oxygen annealing temperature, T a indicating the oxygen doping level was successfully modified by the heat treatment. The oxygen doping caused an upward shift of the irreversibility line as well as an increase of J c at wide temperature and field range. We also performed a high-temperature X-ray diffraction measurement to observe the oxygen absorption behavior. The result suggests the mobility of oxygen becomes very slow at the temperature below 350 deg. C

  14. Fabrication of REBa2Cu3O7-y film by advanced TFA-MOD process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We fabricated GdBa2Cu3O7-y (GdBCO) films on SrTiO3 single crystalline substrate by metal-organic deposition using trifluoroacetate (TFA). The volume percent of a-axis grains is strongly dependent on the P(H2O). Then, maximum P(H2O) has been changed while heating GdBCO. The higher driving force (high P(H2O)) is required for faster crystallization with growing the GdBCO phase crystals from the substrate, since the volume percent of a-axis grain decreases with increasing the maximum P(H2O). The Tc and the transport Jc values could be obtained as 92 K and 2.3 MA/cm2 at 77 K in self-field

  15. Fabrication of YBCO films on Ag substrate by TFA-MOD method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘敏; 董杰; 刘丹敏; 沈金龙; 赵跃; 周美玲

    2004-01-01

    Biaxial aligned YBCO films have been successfully deposited on Ag {110} textured polycrystalline substrates by metal-organic decomposition (MOD) method using Trifluoroacetate Salt (TFA). The influence of firing temperature and Ag surface defects on phase purity and texture, surface morphology of YBCO films was studied. Holding temperature at 900 ℃ for 30 min benefits to improve orientation and connectivity of YBCO films. The surface of YBCO films deposited on unpolished Ag substrate has many holes and stripes, which are parallel to the rolling stripe on Ag substrates. To eliminate the rolling stripe on the Ag surface, Ag substrates were polished prior to films deposition. The film grown on polished Ag substrates has a smooth surface and good connectivity of grains without parallel stripes. The YBCO films have an onset of transition around 90K and critical current densities of 15 000 A/cm2.

  16. Fibrous Agricultural Biomass as a Potential Source for Bioconversion to Vanillic Acid

    OpenAIRE

    Pei-Ling Tang; Osman Hassan; Jamaliah Md-Jahim; Wan Aida Wan Mustapha; Mohamad Yusof Maskat

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to assess the potential of six fibrous agricultural residues, namely, oil palm empty fruit bunch fiber (OPEFBF), coconut coir fiber (CCF), pineapple peel (PP), pineapple crown leaves (PCL), kenaf bast fiber (KBF), and kenaf core fiber (KCF), as a source of ferulic acid and phenolic compounds for bioconversion into vanillic acid. The raw samples were pretreated with organosolv (NaOH-glycerol) and alkaline treatment (NaOH), to produce phenol-rich black liquor. The findi...

  17. AC loss reduction of TFA-MOD coated conductors in long length by laser scribing technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, K.; Hirano, H.; Machi, T.; Takagi, Y.; Takahashi, Y.; Izumi, T.

    TFA-MOD process is expected to be promising for future applications since it can produce high performance YBCO coated conductors with low cost. Applying YBCO coated conductors to the power electric devices such as transformer, cable, motors, reduction of AC loss for long wire is necessary. Multifilamentation, which is one of the effective approaches for AC loss reduction, has been developed by the scribing process. YBCO coated conductors produced by our standard TFA-MOD process delaminated into two parts by the laser scribing. The delamination was clarified to occur within the superconducting layer caused by the defects such as pores in the superconducting layer. In order to reduce the defects in the superconducting layer, we modify the heat treatment profile performed on the decomposed precursor films by applying the interim annealing(550-600°C) before crystallization heat treatment(740-770°C). The interim annealed samples had much less and smaller pores than the standard processed ones. The peel strength measured by transverse tensile test was as high as the PLD derived coated conductors which was successfully scribed into five filaments resulting in 1/5 AC loss. A 50m long YBCO coated conductor with the characteristics of 398A/cmwidth was obtained and cut into 5 mm width, followed by the laser scribing process into five filaments. The multifilamentation process was successfully performed without delamination throughout the wire. The hysteresis loss was down to 1/N (N: number of filaments), as we aimed. The IC properties of the filaments were 29±4A, indicating the wire was uniformly fabricated.

  18. Processing for long YBCO coated conductors by TFA-MOD process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The metal organic deposition (MOD) process of YBa2Cu3O7-X (YBCO) using metal trifluoroacetate (TFA) precursors is considered to be a strong candidate as a low cost fabrication process in coated conductors since the TFA-MOD process is a non vacuum process and can provide high Jc films. In order to develop long tape conductors using this process, the influence of the gas flow direction in the heat treatment was investigated. The Jc value decreases toward to leeward side in the case of the parallel gas flow condition. On the other hand, in the case of the perpendicular gas flow condition. The Jc value reveals uniformity in all over the tape and the high Jc level is maintained. In the case of long tape production, it was found that the perpendicular gas flow to the tape length is effective to fabricate the uniform films. It could minimize the influence of consumption of H2O and generation of HF gas in the up-stream area to the leeward region. The Jc and Ic properties and these distribution of the YBCO tape fabricated by this method on CeO2/IBAD-Gd2Zr2O7/Hastelloy is presented. Furthermore, a large scale equipment for the continues long tape process was developed based on the above findings. Consequently we have fabricated a 1 m long Y123 tape conductor by a reel to reel system. Even in the first trial, the uniform reaction for the entire length was recognized

  19. Ac loss characteristics of YBCO superconducting tapes fabricated by TFA-MOD technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated the ac loss properties of a YBCO superconducting tape fabricated by TFA-MOD technique. The thickness of the YBCO layer is 1.2 μm. A 6-tape stack of 50 mm in length and 10 mm in width was inserted into a saddle-shaped pickup coil. The ac loss was measured at 35-77 K by applying an external ac magnetic field. The magnetic field angle was changed by rotating the sample stack around its longitudinal axis. The effective penetration field, which corresponds to the breaking point of an ac loss curve, decreased with increasing field angle though it was much smaller than that which was estimated for a superconducting slab with the same thickness as the width of a tape. As a result, the ac loss increased monotonically with an increasing field angle against the wide surface for any amplitude. The observed field angular dependence of the ac loss agreed with the theoretically predicted one by using the observed ac losses in perpendicular magnetic field. Anyway the ac loss for a larger amplitude than the effective penetration field was proportional to the critical current density and the projective width of a tape in the direction of the applied magnetic field for any field angle and any temperature as well known. In addition we estimated the magnetic field, B, dependence of the critical current, I c, from the observed magnetization curves. It was shown that zero-field I c appeared to be a linear function of temperature and I c-B characteristics was scaled with zero-field I c. We also discussed a difference in I c-B characteristics and its temperature dependence between TFA-MOD tapes and IBAD-PLD ones

  20. Transport performance of a HTS current lead prepared by the TFA-MOD processed YBCO tapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A superconducting current lead has been prepared using 12 tapes of the trifluoroacetates - metal organic deposition (TFA-MOD) processed Y1Ba2Cu3O7-δ (YBCO) coated conductors with critical current (Ic) of about 100 A at 77 K in self-field. The tapes are 4.5 mm in width, 220 mm in length and about 120 μm in overall thickness. The 1 μm thick superconducting YBCO layer was formed through the TFA-MOD process on HastelloyTM substrate tapes with two buffer oxide layers of Gd2Zr2O7 (GZO) and CeO2. The 12 YBCO tapes were arrayed on the both sides (six tapes on each side) of a stainless steel board with 3 mm in thickness for a board type shape. They were similarly soldered to copper caps at the both ends. The transport current of 1000 A was stably applied for 10 min in the liquid nitrogen temperature without any voltage generation in all tapes. Although some voltage in some YBCO tapes generated at the applied currents of about 1100 A, the transport current of 1200 A was successfully applied without quenching. The voltage between both copper caps linearly increased with increasing the transport current, and it was about 300 μV at an applied current of 1000 A. A low joint resistance between the YBCO tapes and the copper caps resulted in small amounts of the Joule heating at the joints when 1000 A was applied. The overall (effective) thermal conductivity of the current leads composed of YBCO tapes and the stainless steel board was much lower than that of Non-superconducting current leads. Therefore, the present current leads with small heat leakage seemed to be practically promising for superconducting magnets.

  1. Ac loss characteristics of YBCO superconducting tapes fabricated by TFA-MOD technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwakuma, Masataka; Nigo, Masahiro; Inoue, Daisuke; Miyamoto, Naoya; Kiss, Takanobu; Funaki, Kazuo; Iijima, Yasuhiro; Saitoh, Takashi; Izumi, Teruo; Yamada, Yutaka; Shiohara, Yuu

    2005-10-01

    We investigated the ac loss properties of a YBCO superconducting tape fabricated by TFA-MOD technique. The thickness of the YBCO layer is 1.2 μm. A 6-tape stack of 50 mm in length and 10 mm in width was inserted into a saddle-shaped pickup coil. The ac loss was measured at 35-77 K by applying an external ac magnetic field. The magnetic field angle was changed by rotating the sample stack around its longitudinal axis. The effective penetration field, which corresponds to the breaking point of an ac loss curve, decreased with increasing field angle though it was much smaller than that which was estimated for a superconducting slab with the same thickness as the width of a tape. As a result, the ac loss increased monotonically with an increasing field angle against the wide surface for any amplitude. The observed field angular dependence of the ac loss agreed with the theoretically predicted one by using the observed ac losses in perpendicular magnetic field. Anyway the ac loss for a larger amplitude than the effective penetration field was proportional to the critical current density and the projective width of a tape in the direction of the applied magnetic field for any field angle and any temperature as well known. In addition we estimated the magnetic field, B, dependence of the critical current, Ic, from the observed magnetization curves. It was shown that zero-field Ic appeared to be a linear function of temperature and Ic-B characteristics was scaled with zero-field Ic. We also discussed a difference in Ic-B characteristics and its temperature dependence between TFA-MOD tapes and IBAD-PLD ones.

  2. Fibrous Agricultural Biomass as a Potential Source for Bioconversion to Vanillic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Ling Tang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to assess the potential of six fibrous agricultural residues, namely, oil palm empty fruit bunch fiber (OPEFBF, coconut coir fiber (CCF, pineapple peel (PP, pineapple crown leaves (PCL, kenaf bast fiber (KBF, and kenaf core fiber (KCF, as a source of ferulic acid and phenolic compounds for bioconversion into vanillic acid. The raw samples were pretreated with organosolv (NaOH-glycerol and alkaline treatment (NaOH, to produce phenol-rich black liquor. The finding showed that the highest amount of phenolic compounds and ferulic acid was produced from CCF and PP, respectively. This study also found that organosolv treatment was the superior method for phenolic compound extraction, whereas alkaline treatment was the selective method for lignin extraction. Vanillic acid production by Aspergillus niger I-1472 was only observed when the fermentation broth was fed with liquors from PP and PCL, possibly due to the higher levels of ferulic acid in those samples.

  3. Pork as a Source of Omega-3 (n-3 Fatty Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E.R. Dugan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Pork is the most widely eaten meat in the world, but typical feeding practices give it a high omega-6 (n-6 to omega-3 (n-3 fatty acid ratio and make it a poor source of n-3 fatty acids. Feeding pigs n-3 fatty acids can increase their contents in pork, and in countries where label claims are permitted, claims can be met with limited feeding of n-3 fatty acid enrich feedstuffs, provided contributions of both fat and muscle are included in pork servings. Pork enriched with n-3 fatty acids is, however, not widely available. Producing and marketing n-3 fatty acid enriched pork requires regulatory approval, development costs, quality control costs, may increase production costs, and enriched pork has to be tracked to retail and sold for a premium. Mandatory labelling of the n-6/n-3 ratio and the n-3 fatty acid content of pork may help drive production of n-3 fatty acid enriched pork, and open the door to population-based disease prevention polices (i.e., food tax to provide incentives to improve production practices. A shift from the status-quo, however, will require stronger signals along the value chain indicating production of n-3 fatty acid enriched pork is an industry priority.

  4. Pork as a Source of Omega-3 (n-3) Fatty Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugan, Michael E R; Vahmani, Payam; Turner, Tyler D; Mapiye, Cletos; Juárez, Manuel; Prieto, Nuria; Beaulieu, Angela D; Zijlstra, Ruurd T; Patience, John F; Aalhus, Jennifer L

    2015-01-01

    Pork is the most widely eaten meat in the world, but typical feeding practices give it a high omega-6 (n-6) to omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid ratio and make it a poor source of n-3 fatty acids. Feeding pigs n-3 fatty acids can increase their contents in pork, and in countries where label claims are permitted, claims can be met with limited feeding of n-3 fatty acid enrich feedstuffs, provided contributions of both fat and muscle are included in pork servings. Pork enriched with n-3 fatty acids is, however, not widely available. Producing and marketing n-3 fatty acid enriched pork requires regulatory approval, development costs, quality control costs, may increase production costs, and enriched pork has to be tracked to retail and sold for a premium. Mandatory labelling of the n-6/n-3 ratio and the n-3 fatty acid content of pork may help drive production of n-3 fatty acid enriched pork, and open the door to population-based disease prevention polices (i.e., food tax to provide incentives to improve production practices). A shift from the status-quo, however, will require stronger signals along the value chain indicating production of n-3 fatty acid enriched pork is an industry priority. PMID:26694475

  5. Connecting Source with Sink: The Role of Arabidopsis AAP8 in Phloem Loading of Amino Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, James P; Tegeder, Mechthild

    2016-05-01

    Allocation of large amounts of nitrogen to developing organs occurs in the phloem and is essential for plant growth and seed development. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and many other plant species, amino acids represent the dominant nitrogen transport forms in the phloem, and they are mainly synthesized in photosynthetically active source leaves. Following their synthesis, a broad spectrum of the amino nitrogen is actively loaded into the phloem of leaf minor veins and transported within the phloem sap to sinks such as developing leaves, fruits, or seeds. Controlled regulation of the source-to-sink transport of amino acids has long been postulated; however, the molecular mechanism of amino acid phloem loading was still unknown. In this study, Arabidopsis AMINO ACID PERMEASE8 (AAP8) was shown to be expressed in the source leaf phloem and localized to the plasma membrane, suggesting its function in phloem loading. This was further supported by transport studies with aap8 mutants fed with radiolabeled amino acids and by leaf exudate analyses. In addition, biochemical and molecular analyses revealed alterations in leaf nitrogen pools and metabolism dependent on the developmental stage of the mutants. Decreased amino acid phloem loading and partitioning to sinks led to decreased silique and seed numbers, but seed protein levels were unchanged, demonstrating the importance of AAP8 function for sink development rather than seed quality. Overall, these results show that AAP8 plays an important role in source-to-sink partitioning of nitrogen and that its function affects source leaf physiology and seed yield. PMID:27016446

  6. Characterization of DMSO Coordination to Palladium(II) in Solution and Insights into the Aerobic Oxidation Catalyst, Pd(DMSO)2(TFA)2

    OpenAIRE

    Diao, Tianning; White, Paul; Guzei, Ilia; Stahl, Shannon S.

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that Pd(DMSO)2(TFA)2 (TFA = trifluoroacetate) is an effective catalyst for a number of different aerobic oxidation reactions. Here, we provide insights into the coordination properties of DMSO to palladium(II) in both the solid state and in solution. A crystal structure of Pd(DMSO)2(TFA)2 confirms that the solid-state structure of this species has one O-bound and one S-bound DMSO ligand, and a crystallographically characterized mono-DMSO complex, trans-Pd(DMSO)(OH2)(...

  7. Presence and sources of anthropogenic perfluorinated alkyl acids in tap-water based beverages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Eschauzier; M. Hoppe; M. Schlummer; P. de Voogt

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the presence and sources of perfluorinated alkyl acids (PFAAs) in tap water and corresponding tap-water based beverages such as coffee and cola collected in the city of Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Exposure pathways studies have shown that low concentrations of PFAA in tap wat

  8. Adipose tissue fatty acid patterns and changes in anthropometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahm, Christina Catherine; Gorst-Rasmussen, Anders; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre;

    2011-01-01

    Diets rich in n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA), but low in n-6 LC-PUFA and 18:1 trans-fatty acids (TFA), may lower the risk of overweight and obesity. These fatty acids have often been investigated individually. We explored associations between global patterns in adipose tissue...

  9. Egg yolk as a source of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in infant feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simopoulos, A P; Salem, N

    1992-02-01

    In this paper we compare the fatty acid content of egg yolks from hens fed four different feeds as a source of docosahexaenoic acid to supplement infant formula. Greek eggs contain more docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6 omega 3) and less linoleic acid (LA, 18:2 omega 6) and alpha-linolenic acid (LNA, 18:3 omega 3) than do fish-meal or flax eggs. Two to three grams of Greek egg yolk may provide an adequate amount of DHA and arachidonic acid for a preterm neonate. Mean intake of breast milk at age 1 mo provides 250 mg long-chain omega 3 fatty acids. This amount can be obtained from less than 1 yolk of a Greek egg (0.94), greater than 1 yolk of flax eggs (1.6) and fish-meal eggs (1.4), or 8.3 yolks of supermarket eggs. With proper manipulation of the hens' diets, eggs could be produced with fatty acid composition similar to that of Greek eggs.

  10. A biogenic source of oxalic acid and glyoxal in marine boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facchini, C.; Rinaldi, M.; Ceburnis, D.; O'Dowd, C.; Sciare, J.; Burrows, J. P.

    2011-12-01

    We present the results of oxalic acid aerosol measurements samples performed at Mace Head (Ireland, 53°20'N, 9°54'W) and Amsterdam Island (Indian Ocean, 37°48'S, 77°34'E), supporting the existence of a biogenic source of oxalic acid over the oceans. Aerosol oxalic acid was detected in clean marine air masses in concentrations ranging from 2.7 to 39 ng m-3, at Mace Head, and from 0.31 to 17 ng m-3, at Amsterdam Island. In both hemispheres, oxalic acid concentration showed a clear seasonal trend, with maxima in spring-summer and minima in the fall-winter period, in analogy with other marine biogenic aerosol components (e.g., MSA and amines). Oxalic acid was distributed along the whole aerosol size spectrum, with the major contribution given by the 1.0-2.0 μm size range, and by the lower accumulation mode (0.25-0.5 μm). Given the observed size distributions, marine aerosol oxalic acid can be assumed as the result of the combination of different formation processes, among which in-cloud oxidation of gaseous precursors [1] and photochemical degradation of biogenic unsaturated fatty acids [2] are likely the most important. Among aerosol oxalic acid precursors, glyoxal is the most likely candidate in the marine boundary layer, as a source of glyoxal over the oceans has recently been discovered by satellite observations [3] and confirmed by in situ measurements [4]. In support of this hypothesis, SCIAMACHY satellite retrieved glyoxal column concentrations, over the two sampling sites, resulted characterized by a clear seasonal trend, resembling the aerosol oxalic acid one. [1] Warneck, Atmospheric Environment, 37, 2423-2427, 2003. [2] Kawamura & Sakaguchi, J. Geophys. Res., 104, D3, 3501-3509, 1999. [3] Fu et al., J. Geophys. Res., 113, D15303, doi:10.1029/2007JD009505, 2008 [4] Sinreich et al., Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., 10, 15075-15107, 2010.

  11. Reproducibility and validity of semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire measuring dietary trans-fatty acids intake among Korean adults

    OpenAIRE

    Joh, Hee-Kyung; Oh, Seung-Won; Lee, Eun

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Compelling evidence indicates that consumption of trans-fatty acids (TFA) is associated with a wide range of diseases. However, few validated tools for TFA intake assessment are available in Korea. We aimed to validate a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) estimating usual intake of TFA in Korean adults. MATERIALS/METHODS Eighty-two healthy adults completed an FFQ with a 3-day diet record (3DDR), and 58 completed a second FFQ at a 1-month interval. To assess the reproduci...

  12. Fluorescence spectroscopy as a means of distinguishing fulvic and humic acids from dissolved and sedimentary aquatic sources and terrestrial sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senesi, Nicola; Miano, Teodoro M.; Provenzano, Maria Rosaria

    Thirteen fulvic acids (FA) and humic acids (HA) isolated from river waters and sediment, marine sediments, leonardite, soils, and paleosol, have been investigated by fluorescence spectroscopy in the emission, excitation and, partly, synchronous scan excitation modes. Emission spectra are generally characterized by a unique broad band, whereas excitation spectra exhibit a variable number of peaks or shoulders of various intensity; these peaks are particularly well-resolved for sedimentary HA samples. A decrease in the relative intensity of fluorescence, which is associated with a red-shift (longer wavelengths) of both the emission maximum and the main excitation peaks, is observed when passing from dissolved aquatic and soil FA to river and marine sedimentary HA, to leonardite and soil HA, and, finally, to paleosol HA. Evident differences are shown in the relative intensity and wavelength maxima, measured in any mode, between soil FA and HA from the same source. For FA and HA of various nature and origin, the fluorescence is suggested to be caused by chemically different structural units. These units fluoresce from the blue-violet to the green and consist of variously extended, condensed, aromatic and/or heterocyclic ring systems, with a high degree of electronic conjugation and bearing suitable hydroxyl, alkoxyl and carbonyl groups (e.g. salicyl, cinnamic and hydroxybenzoic derivatives, naphtols, naphtoquinones, coumarin), and quinoline-derivatives, flavonoids and Schiffbase derivatives. Fluorescence properties of humic substances may represent an additional diagnostic criterium useful in distinguishing between FA and HA from the same or various natural sources.

  13. Investigating sources and pathways of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in aquifers in Tokyo using multiple tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We employed a multi-tracer approach to investigate sources and pathways of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in urban groundwater, based on 53 groundwater samples taken from confined aquifers and unconfined aquifers in Tokyo. While the median concentrations of groundwater PFAAs were several ng/L, the maximum concentrations of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS, 990 ng/L), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA, 1800 ng/L) and perfluorononanoate (PFNA, 620 ng/L) in groundwater were several times higher than those of wastewater and street runoff reported in the literature. PFAAs were more frequently detected than sewage tracers (carbamazepine and crotamiton), presumably owing to the higher persistence of PFAAs, the multiple sources of PFAAs beyond sewage (e.g., surface runoff, point sources) and the formation of PFAAs from their precursors. Use of multiple methods of source apportionment including principal component analysis–multiple linear regression (PCA–MLR) and perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acid ratio analysis highlighted sewage and point sources as the primary sources of PFAAs in the most severely polluted groundwater samples, with street runoff being a minor source (44.6% sewage, 45.7% point sources and 9.7% street runoff, by PCA–MLR). Tritium analysis indicated that, while young groundwater (recharged during or after the 1970s, when PFAAs were already in commercial use) in shallow aquifers (< 50 m depth) was naturally highly vulnerable to PFAA pollution, PFAAs were also found in old groundwater (recharged before the 1950s, when PFAAs were not in use) in deep aquifers (50–500 m depth). This study demonstrated the utility of multiple uses of tracers (pharmaceuticals and personal care products; PPCPs, tritium) and source apportionment methods in investigating sources and pathways of PFAAs in multiple aquifer systems. - Highlights: • Aquifers in Tokyo had high levels of perfluoroalkyl acids (up to 1800 ng/L). • PFAAs were more frequently detected than sewage

  14. Investigating sources and pathways of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in aquifers in Tokyo using multiple tracers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuroda, Keisuke, E-mail: keisukekr@gmail.com [Department of Urban Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Murakami, Michio [Institute of Industrial Science, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan); Oguma, Kumiko [Department of Urban Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Takada, Hideshige [Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry (LOG), Institute of Symbiotic Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Fuchu, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan); Takizawa, Satoshi [Department of Urban Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)

    2014-08-01

    We employed a multi-tracer approach to investigate sources and pathways of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in urban groundwater, based on 53 groundwater samples taken from confined aquifers and unconfined aquifers in Tokyo. While the median concentrations of groundwater PFAAs were several ng/L, the maximum concentrations of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS, 990 ng/L), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA, 1800 ng/L) and perfluorononanoate (PFNA, 620 ng/L) in groundwater were several times higher than those of wastewater and street runoff reported in the literature. PFAAs were more frequently detected than sewage tracers (carbamazepine and crotamiton), presumably owing to the higher persistence of PFAAs, the multiple sources of PFAAs beyond sewage (e.g., surface runoff, point sources) and the formation of PFAAs from their precursors. Use of multiple methods of source apportionment including principal component analysis–multiple linear regression (PCA–MLR) and perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acid ratio analysis highlighted sewage and point sources as the primary sources of PFAAs in the most severely polluted groundwater samples, with street runoff being a minor source (44.6% sewage, 45.7% point sources and 9.7% street runoff, by PCA–MLR). Tritium analysis indicated that, while young groundwater (recharged during or after the 1970s, when PFAAs were already in commercial use) in shallow aquifers (< 50 m depth) was naturally highly vulnerable to PFAA pollution, PFAAs were also found in old groundwater (recharged before the 1950s, when PFAAs were not in use) in deep aquifers (50–500 m depth). This study demonstrated the utility of multiple uses of tracers (pharmaceuticals and personal care products; PPCPs, tritium) and source apportionment methods in investigating sources and pathways of PFAAs in multiple aquifer systems. - Highlights: • Aquifers in Tokyo had high levels of perfluoroalkyl acids (up to 1800 ng/L). • PFAAs were more frequently detected than sewage

  15. [Effects of carbon and nitrogen sources on 5-keto-gluconic acid production].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Zhilei; Wang, Hongcui; Wei, Yuqiao; Li, Yanyan; Zhong, Cheng; Jia, Shiru

    2014-01-01

    Gluconobacter oxydans is known to oxidize glucose to gluconic acid (GA), and subsequently, to 2-keto-gluconic acid (2KGA) and 5-keto-gluconic acid (5KGA), while 5KGA can be converted to L-(+)-tartaric acid. In order to increase the production of 5KGA, Gluconobacter oxydans HGI-1 that converts GA to 5KGA exclusively was chosen in this study, and effects of carbon sources (lactose, maltose, sucrose, amylum and glucose) and nitrogen sources (yeast extract, fish meal, corn steep liquor, soybean meal and cotton-seed meal) on 5KGA production were investigated. Results of experiment in 500 mL shake-flask show that the highest yield of 5KGA (98.20 g/L) was obtained using 100 g/L glucose as carbon source. 5KGA reached 100.20 g/L, 109.10 g/L, 99.83 g/L with yeast extract, fish meal and corn steep liquor as nitrogen source respectively, among which the optimal nitrogen source was fish meal. The yield of 5KGA by corn steep liquor is slightly lower than that by yeast extract. For the economic reason, corn steep liquor was selected as nitrogen source and scaled up to 5 L stirred-tank fermentor, and the final concentration of 5KGA reached 93.80 g/L, with its maximum volumetric productivity of 3.48 g/(L x h) and average volumetric productivity of 1.56 g/(L x h). The result obtained in this study showed that carbon and nitrogen sourses for large-scale production of 5KGA by Gluconobacter oxydans HGI-1 were glucose and corn steep liquor, respectively, and the available glucose almost completely (85.93%) into 5KGA.

  16. Fatty acids: a versatile and sustainable source of raw materials for the surfactants industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pel Axel

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acids have been used as a major source for the hydrophobic part of surfactants since the discovery of soap, more than 4,500 years ago. Despite the wide variety of different hydrophobes that have become available during recent decades, fatty acids are still playing a significant role in the surfactants industry thanks to their versatility, natural origin and reliable supply. The aim of this presentation is to give an overview of the developments and trends in the use of fatty acids in the surfactants industry, the properties of fatty acids related to their application in surfactants and detergents and the underlying influencing trends in the oils and fats industry.

  17. Novel ferulic acid esterases from Bifidobacterium sp. produced on selected synthetic and natural carbon sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik Szwajgier

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. Ferulic acid esterases (or feruloyl esterases, a common group of hydrolases are very well distributed in the plant kongdom. The fungal feruloyl esterases were very extensively studied whereas probiotic lactic acid bacteria as the source of this enzyme were generally omitted. Free phenolic acids – strong antioxidants can be released from the dietary fiber by the action of intestinal lactic acid bacteria. The aim of this study was to examine the three probiotic Bifidobacterium strains to produce extracellular FAE on different synthetic and natural carbon sources. Material and methods. Studies were carried out using Bifidibacteriumstrains (B. animalis Bi30, B. catenulatum KD 14 and B. longum KN 29. The strains were cultivated using minimal growth media containing selected natural and synthetic carbon sources: German wheat bran, rye bran, barley spent grain, isolated larchwood arabinogalactan, apple pectin, corn pectin, methyl esters of phenolic acids. The production of extracellular feruloyl esterase was estimated using the post cultivation supernatants and methyl ferulate. The concentration of ferulic acid released from the ester was determined using HPLC with DAD detection. Results. The most efficient bacterial strain for FAE production was B. animalis cultivated in the presence of methyl p-coumarate and methyl ferulate as the main carbon sources (14.95 nmol·ml-1·min-1 and 4.38 nmol·ml-1·min-1, respectively. In the case of each FAE, the highest activity was obtained at 37oC (pH 6.3 in Theorell/Steinhagen buffer (B. animalis Bi30 or in Tris/HCl buffer (B. catenulatum KD14 and B. longum KN29. Taking under consideration all results, it should be noticed that the highest feruloyl esterase activities were obtained using synthetic methyl esters of phenolic acids. Conclusions. The presented resultsbroaden the knowledgeabout the production of the feruloyl esterase by probiotic bacteria. Although the enzyme is only accessory during

  18. Dispersion of carbon nanotubes and polymer nanocomposite fabrication using trifluoroacetic acid as a co-solvent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We herein report the dispersion of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) using trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) as a co-solvent. TFA is a strong but volatile acid which is miscible with many commonly used organic solvents. Our study demonstrates that MWCNTs can be effectively purified and readily dispersed in a range of organic solvents including dimethyl formamide (DMF), tetrahydrofuran (THF), and dichloromethane when mixed with 10 vol.% trifluoroacetic acid (TFA). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic analysis revealed that the chemical structure of the TFA-treated MWCNTs remained intact without oxidation. The dispersed carbon nanotubes in TFA/THF solution were mixed with poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) to fabricate polymer nanocomposites. A good dispersion of nanotubes in solution and in polymer matrices was observed and confirmed by SEM, optical microscopy, and light transmittance study. Low percolation thresholds of electrical conductivity were observed from the fabricated MWCNT/PMMA composite films. Further enhancement in the dispersion of MWCNTs was achieved by adding a conjugated conducting polymer, poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT), to the dispersion, wherein TFA also serves as a doping agent to the conducting polymer. The ternary nanocomposite MWCNT/P3HT/PMMA exhibited an extremely low percolation threshold of less than 0.006 wt% of MWCNT content. This low percolation threshold is attributed to a good dispersion of MWCNTs and enhanced conductivity of the nanocomposites by conjugated conducting polymer

  19. Lipids and Fatty Acids of Nudibranch Mollusks: Potential Sources of Bioactive Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia V. Zhukova

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The molecular diversity of chemical compounds found in marine animals offers a good chance for the discovery of novel bioactive compounds of unique structures and diverse biological activities. Nudibranch mollusks, which are not protected by a shell and produce chemicals for various ecological uses, including defense against predators, have attracted great interest for their lipid composition. Lipid analysis of eight nudibranch species revealed dominant phospholipids, sterols and monoalkyldiacylglycerols. Among polar lipids, 1-alkenyl-2-acyl glycerophospholipids (plasmalogens and ceramide-aminoethyl phosphonates were found in the mollusks. The fatty acid compositions of the nudibranchs differed greatly from those of other marine gastropods and exhibited a wide diversity: very long chain fatty acids known as demospongic acids, a series of non-methylene-interrupted fatty acids, including unusual 21:2∆7,13, and an abundance of various odd and branched fatty acids typical of bacteria. Symbiotic bacteria revealed in some species of nudibranchs participate presumably in the production of some compounds serving as a chemical defense for the mollusks. The unique fatty acid composition of the nudibranchs is determined by food supply, inherent biosynthetic activities and intracellular symbiotic microorganisms. The potential of nudibranchs as a source of biologically active lipids and fatty acids is also discussed.

  20. Lipids and fatty acids of nudibranch mollusks: potential sources of bioactive compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukova, Natalia V

    2014-08-01

    The molecular diversity of chemical compounds found in marine animals offers a good chance for the discovery of novel bioactive compounds of unique structures and diverse biological activities. Nudibranch mollusks, which are not protected by a shell and produce chemicals for various ecological uses, including defense against predators, have attracted great interest for their lipid composition. Lipid analysis of eight nudibranch species revealed dominant phospholipids, sterols and monoalkyldiacylglycerols. Among polar lipids, 1-alkenyl-2-acyl glycerophospholipids (plasmalogens) and ceramide-aminoethyl phosphonates were found in the mollusks. The fatty acid compositions of the nudibranchs differed greatly from those of other marine gastropods and exhibited a wide diversity: very long chain fatty acids known as demospongic acids, a series of non-methylene-interrupted fatty acids, including unusual 21:2∆7,13, and an abundance of various odd and branched fatty acids typical of bacteria. Symbiotic bacteria revealed in some species of nudibranchs participate presumably in the production of some compounds serving as a chemical defense for the mollusks. The unique fatty acid composition of the nudibranchs is determined by food supply, inherent biosynthetic activities and intracellular symbiotic microorganisms. The potential of nudibranchs as a source of biologically active lipids and fatty acids is also discussed. PMID:25196731

  1. Growth Response and Fatty Acid Composition of Juvenile Procambarus clarkii Fed Different Sources of Dietary Lipid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEN Xiao-bo; KU Yao-mei; ZHOU Kai-ya

    2003-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of feeding various sources of dietary lipidon weight gain, feed conversion, survival and fatty acid composition of juvenile red swamp crawfish, Procam-barus clarkii. Six semi-purified diets containing vitamin-free casein, defatted soybean meal, 0.5% cholinechloride, 0.5 % glycine and 0.5 % cholesterol were supplemented with 6.0 % of either anchovy oil, linseed oil,soybean oil, rapeseed oil, safflower oil or pork lard. Each diet was fed to crawfish (3.07±0.21 g averageweight) in three replicate aquaria for 60 days. Survival rate, weight gain and feed conversion were best forcrawfish fed the diet containing anchovy oil. Crawfish fed the linseed oil diet had the second highest weightgain, followed by crawfish on soybean oil, repaseed oil, safflower oil and pork lard diets, respectively. Feedconversion values were a reflection of weight gain. Results showed that both n-6 and n-3 fatty acids are dietaryessential for juvenile Procambarus clarkii, although n-3 fatty acids promoted faster growth than n-6. Howev-er, highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA) (20 : 5n-3 and 22 : 6n-3) had better growth-promoting effect than18 : 3n-3, due probably to the limited ability of crawfish to bioconvert fatty acids to polyenoic forms of longerchain length. The fatty acid composition of the crawfish generally reflected that of the dietary lipids, especial-ly for the diets containing unsaturated fatty acids.

  2. Batch fermentation model of propionic acid production by Propionibacterium acidipropionici in different carbon sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coral, Jefferson; Karp, Susan Grace; Porto de Souza Vandenberghe, Luciana; Parada, José Luis; Pandey, Ashok; Soccol, Carlos Ricardo

    2008-12-01

    Propionic acid (PA) is widely used as additive in animal feed and also in the manufacturing of cellulose-based plastics, herbicides, and perfumes. Salts of propionic acid are used as preservative in food. PA is mainly produced by chemical synthesis. Nowadays, PA production by fermentation of low-cost industrial wastes or renewable sources has been an interesting alternative. In the present investigation, PA production by Propionibacterium acidipropionici ATCC 4965 was studied using a basal medium with sugarcane molasses (BMSM), glycerol or lactate (BML) in small batch fermentation at 30 and 36 degrees C. Bacterial growth was carried out under low dissolved oxygen concentration and without pH control. Results indicated that P. acidipropionici produced more biomass in BMSM than in other media at 30 degrees C (7.55 g l(-1)) as well as at 36 degrees C (3.71 g l(-1)). PA and biomass production were higher at 30 degrees C than at 36 degrees C in all cases studied. The best productivity was obtained by using BML (0.113 g l(-1) h(-1)), although the yielding of this metabolite was higher when using glycerol as carbon source (0.724 g g(-1)) because there was no detection of acetic acid. By the way, when using the other two carbon sources, acetic acid emerged as an undesirable by-product for further PA purification. PMID:18386184

  3. Crystal growth of YBCO coated conductors by TFA-MOD method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The crystal growth mechanism of TFA (trifluoroacetates)-MOD (metal organic deposition) derived YBa2Cu3Oy has been investigated to understand the process for higher production rates of the conversion process. YBCO films were prepared by TFA-MOD on CeO2/Gd2Zr2O7/Hastelloy C276 substrates. The growth rates of YBCO derived from Y:Ba:Cu = 1:2:3 and 1:1.5:3 starting solutions were investigated by XRD and TEM analyses. YBCO growth proceeds in two steps of the epitaxial one from the substrate and solid state reaction. The overall growth rate estimated from the residual amounts of BaF2 with time measured by XRD is proportional to a square root of P(H2O). The trend was independent of the composition of starting solutions, however, the growth rate obtained from the 1:1.5:3 starting solutions was high as twice as that of 1:2:3, which could not be explained by the composition of BaF2 included in the precursor films. On the other hand, the growth rate measured from the thickness of the YBCO quenched film at the same process time showed no difference between the samples of 1:2:3 and 1:1.5:3. The epitaxial growth rate of 1:1.5:3 was also the same as the overall growth rate of that, which means there was no solid state reaction to form YBCO after the epitaxial growth. The YBCO growth mechanism was found to be as follows; YBCO crystals nucleate at the surface of the substrate and epitaxially grow into the precursor by layer-by-layer by a manner with trapping unreacted particles. The amounts of YBCO and the unreacted particles trapped in the YBCO film are independent of the composition of the starting solution in this step. Unreacted particles react with each other to form YBCO and pores by solid state reaction as long as there is BaF2 left in the film. The Ba-poor starting solution gives little BaF2 left in the film and so the solid state reaction is completed within a short time, resulting in the fast overall growth rate

  4. HTS current lead units prepared by the TFA-MOD processed YBCO coated conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two superconducting current lead units have been prepared using ten coated conductors of the Tri-Fluoro-Acetate - Metal Organic Deposition (TFA-MOD) processed Y1Ba2Cu3O7-δ (YBCO) coated conductors with critical current (Ic) of about 170 A at 77 K in self-field. The coated conductors are 5 mm in width, 190 mm in length and about 120 μm in overall thickness. The 1.5 μm thick superconducting YBCO layer was synthesized through the TFA-MOD process on HastelloyTM C-276 substrate tape with two buffer oxide layers of Gd2Zr2O7 and CeO2. The five YBCO coated conductors are attached on a 1 mm thick Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastics (GFRP) board and soldered to Cu caps at the both ends. We prepared two 500 A-class current lead units. The DC transport current of 800 A was stably applied at 77 K without any voltage generation in all coated conductors. The voltage between both Cu caps linearly increased with increasing the applied current, and was about 350 μV at 500 A in both current lead units. According to the estimated values of the heat leakage from 77 K to 4.2 K, the heat leakage for the current lead unit was 46.5 mW. We successfully attained reduction of the heat leakage because of improvement of the transport current performance (Ic), a thinner Ag layer of YBCO coated conductor and usage of the GFRP board for reinforcement instead of a stainless steel board used in the previous study. The DC transport current of 1400 A was stably applied when the two current lead units were joined in parallel. The sum of the heat leakages from 77 K to 4.2 K for the combined the current lead units was 93 mW. In comparison with the conventional Cu current leads by gas-cooling, it could be noted that the heat leakage of the current lead is about one order of magnitude smaller than that of the Cu current lead.

  5. R and D for long tapes with high Ic by advanced TFA-MOD process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent progress in the research and development of the TFA-MOD processing for the coated conductors was reviewed. For the higher Ic performance, crack generation in the thick films was a problem, which limits increasing Ic values. It was found that both lower heating rate and low PH2O in the crystallization step are effective to improve the critical thickness for obtaining crack-free films. However, the high PH2O is preferable for a high production rate and high Jc performance. Then, the new heat treatment profile, which could suppress crack formation even in thick films under the high PH2O, was developed. Consequently, the high Ic value of 470A at 77K was realized in the film with 3μm in thick. Concerning the long-tape processing, the key factors for high Ic performance by TFA-MOD process were investigated. The highly textured substrate for high crystallinity of the YBCO layer, the thick film with maintaining reasonable high Jc and full conversion reaction to form the YBCO layer are important to obtain high superconducting performance in long tapes. At present, a 25m long tape with a reasonable high Ic value of 100A, and a high Ic value of 250A in a 4m long tape were achieved. In order to realize a high production rate, the processes for both calcination and crystallization steps have to be developed. In the calcination step, the multi-turning continuous system was developed to maintain an effective travelling rate even in the multi-coating method. On the other hand, in the crystallization step, it was confirmed that optimization of the processing parameters such as a high water vapour partial pressure, a low total pressure, and a high gas flow rate could make the YBCO growth rate increase. The combination effect of these parameters is experimentally confirmed and the 5 times higher production rate was achieved in the crystallization step. Additionally, the equipment design of the multi-turning system with a new gas flow concept, which is a vertical gas flow

  6. Bi(TFA3 and Bi(OTf3 Catalyzed Conversions of Epoxides to Thiiranes with Ammonium Thiocyanate and Thiourea under Non-Aqueous Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad R. Khosropour

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Various epoxides are converted to their corresponding thiiranes in excellent yields with ammonium thiocyanate and thiourea under non-aqueous conditions in the presence of catalytic amounts of Bi(TFA3 and Bi(OTf3.

  7. Bi(TFA)3 and Bi(OTf)3 Catalyzed Conversions of Epoxides to Thiiranes with Ammonium Thiocyanate and Thiourea under Non-Aqueous Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Khosropour, Ahmad R.; Iraj Mohammadpoor-Baltork

    2001-01-01

    Various epoxides are converted to their corresponding thiiranes in excellent yields with ammonium thiocyanate and thiourea under non-aqueous conditions in the presence of catalytic amounts of Bi(TFA)3 and Bi(OTf)3.

  8. Culture strategies for lipid production using acetic acid as sole carbon source by Rhodosporidium toruloides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiang-Feng; Liu, Jia-Nan; Lu, Li-Jun; Peng, Kai-Ming; Yang, Gao-Xiang; Liu, Jia

    2016-04-01

    Rhodosporidium toruloides AS 2.1389 was tested using different concentrations of acetic acid as a low-cost carbon source for the production of microbial lipids, which are good raw materials for biodiesel production. It grew and had higher lipid contents in media containing 4-20 g/L acetic acid as the sole carbon source, compared with that in glucose-containing media under the same culture conditions. At acetic acid concentrations as high as 20 g/L and the optimal carbon-to-nitrogen ratio (C/N) of 200 in a batch culture, the highest biomass production was 4.35 g/L, with a lipid content of 48.2%. At acetic acid concentrations as low as 4 g/L, a sequencing batch culture (SBC) with a C/N of 100 increased biomass production to 4.21 g/L, with a lipid content of 38.6%. These results provide usable culture strategies for lipid production by R. toruloides AS 2.1389 when using diverse waste-derived volatile fatty acids.

  9. Tracing carbon sources through aquatic and terrestrial food webs using amino acid stable isotope fingerprinting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Larsen

    Full Text Available Tracing the origin of nutrients is a fundamental goal of food web research but methodological issues associated with current research techniques such as using stable isotope ratios of bulk tissue can lead to confounding results. We investigated whether naturally occurring δ(13C patterns among amino acids (δ(13CAA could distinguish between multiple aquatic and terrestrial primary production sources. We found that δ(13CAA patterns in contrast to bulk δ(13C values distinguished between carbon derived from algae, seagrass, terrestrial plants, bacteria and fungi. Furthermore, we showed for two aquatic producers that their δ(13CAA patterns were largely unaffected by different environmental conditions despite substantial shifts in bulk δ(13C values. The potential of assessing the major carbon sources at the base of the food web was demonstrated for freshwater, pelagic, and estuarine consumers; consumer δ(13C patterns of essential amino acids largely matched those of the dominant primary producers in each system. Since amino acids make up about half of organismal carbon, source diagnostic isotope fingerprints can be used as a new complementary approach to overcome some of the limitations of variable source bulk isotope values commonly encountered in estuarine areas and other complex environments with mixed aquatic and terrestrial inputs.

  10. Tracing carbon sources through aquatic and terrestrial food webs using amino acid stable isotope fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Thomas; Ventura, Marc; Andersen, Nils; O'Brien, Diane M; Piatkowski, Uwe; McCarthy, Matthew D

    2013-01-01

    Tracing the origin of nutrients is a fundamental goal of food web research but methodological issues associated with current research techniques such as using stable isotope ratios of bulk tissue can lead to confounding results. We investigated whether naturally occurring δ(13)C patterns among amino acids (δ(13)CAA) could distinguish between multiple aquatic and terrestrial primary production sources. We found that δ(13)CAA patterns in contrast to bulk δ(13)C values distinguished between carbon derived from algae, seagrass, terrestrial plants, bacteria and fungi. Furthermore, we showed for two aquatic producers that their δ(13)CAA patterns were largely unaffected by different environmental conditions despite substantial shifts in bulk δ(13)C values. The potential of assessing the major carbon sources at the base of the food web was demonstrated for freshwater, pelagic, and estuarine consumers; consumer δ(13)C patterns of essential amino acids largely matched those of the dominant primary producers in each system. Since amino acids make up about half of organismal carbon, source diagnostic isotope fingerprints can be used as a new complementary approach to overcome some of the limitations of variable source bulk isotope values commonly encountered in estuarine areas and other complex environments with mixed aquatic and terrestrial inputs. PMID:24069196

  11. MO observation on YBa2Cu3O7-δ coated conductors obtained by TFA-MOD technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have observed the flux penetration into a high-T c superconducting YBa2Cu3O7-δ (YBCO) tape by a magneto-optical (MO) imaging technique in order to feed back to the R and D of processing. The MO images of YBCO coated conductor prepared by metal organic deposition using trifluoroacetates (TFA-MOD) showed many weak links such as periodic defect and other serious defects, which were corresponding to the dispersion of critical current along to length direction. Since the combination study of MO imaging with TEM observation revealed the reason of such defects, we could feed back to several processes. The new TFA-MOD tapes prepared by using an advanced process after using many innovations showed a homogeneous flux penetration observed by MO imaging, and then it is confirmed that the process went to higher stage rather than previous one

  12. Microstructural observation of YBa2Cu3O7-X thin films prepared by TFA-MOD method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have investigated an epitaxial growth of YBa2Cu3O7-X (YBCO) films on (0 0 1) SrTiO3 substrates prepared by metal organic deposition (MOD) method using trifluoroacetate (TFA) solution. The effects of heating rate on the growth mechanism of TFA-MOD YBCO films were investigated by X-ray diffraction and high-resolution scanning electron microscopy. Partially transformed films were prepared by two different heating rates, 18 and 625 deg. C/min. The film thickness of both specimens decreased with annealing time and the films prepared by rapid heating had unidentified phase except YBCO phase. On the contrary, the films prepared by slow heating had the better texture than those prepared by rapid heating

  13. Aerobic dehydrogenation of cyclohexanone to cyclohexenone catalyzed by Pd(DMSO)2(TFA)2: evidence for ligand-controlled chemoselectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, Tianning; Pun, Doris; Stahl, Shannon S

    2013-06-01

    The dehydrogenation of cyclohexanones affords cyclohexenones or phenols via removal of 1 or 2 equiv of H2, respectively. We recently reported several Pd(II) catalyst systems that effect aerobic dehydrogenation of cyclohexanones with different product selectivities. Pd(DMSO)2(TFA)2 is unique in its high chemoselectivity for the conversion of cyclohexanones to cyclohexenones, without promoting subsequent dehydrogenation of cyclohexenones to phenols. Kinetic and mechanistic studies of these reactions reveal the key role of the dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) ligand in controlling this chemoselectivity. DMSO has minimal kinetic influence on the rate of Pd(TFA)2-catalyzed dehydrogenation of cyclohexanone to cyclohexenone, while it strongly inhibits the second dehydrogenation step, conversion of cyclohexenone to phenol. These contrasting kinetic effects of DMSO provide the basis for chemoselective formation of cyclohexenones.

  14. Study of acid solution bonding in epoxy matrix for sealed radioactive sources production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work aims to analyze different resin formulations. These formulations are used in the production of radioactive sealed sources that are used in many fields such as nuclear medicine; environmental analyzes, radiation detectors accuracy check, and so on. These sources can be produced with different radioisotopes and different activities, it all depending on the use they will have. Certain types of resins have the same density water. This property is appreciated when we consider that radiotracers used in nuclear medicine are applied in aqueous solutions. So the sources used for checking and calibrating equipment must have their radioisotopes sealed in a material having similar properties, thus the measures are reproducible and repetitive. The most important aspect that is brought to attention in this work is the miscibility those resins have with water. The radioisotopes for the production of the sources are supplied in an aqueous form. In case the resin and the radioisotope solution do not mix, the source will not be sturdy enough to seal the radioisotopes in its structure and the source will not be safe. There were prepared different formulations with different amounts of acid solution, and the cured formulations were analyzed by Wipe Test, DSC (Differential Splanatory Calorimetry) and also, the possible volatile aspect of the radionuclide used. All to evaluate the integrity of the sources. The obtained results were satisfactory and show that when the resin is well cured, the radioisotope remains sealed in the matrix, making it possible to produce radioactive sealed sources. (author)

  15. Study of acid solution bonding in epoxy matrix for sealed radioactive sources production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benega, Marcos A.G.; Nagatomi, Helio R.; Rostelato, Maria Elisa C.M.; Tiezzi, Rodrigo; Rodrigues, Bruna T.; Peleias Junior, Fernando; Souza, Carla D.; Souza, Daiane C.C. de; Souza, Anderson S. de; Silva, Thais H. da, E-mail: carladdsouza@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: marcosagbenega@gmail.com, E-mail: hrnagato@ipen.br, E-mail: elisaros@ipen.br, E-mail: rktiezzi@gmail.com, E-mail: bteigarodrigues@gmail.com, E-mail: fernandopeleias@gmail.com, E-mail: dcsouza@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    The present work aims to analyze different resin formulations. These formulations are used in the production of radioactive sealed sources that are used in many fields such as nuclear medicine; environmental analyzes, radiation detectors accuracy check, and so on. These sources can be produced with different radioisotopes and different activities, it all depending on the use they will have. Certain types of resins have the same density water. This property is appreciated when we consider that radiotracers used in nuclear medicine are applied in aqueous solutions. So the sources used for checking and calibrating equipment must have their radioisotopes sealed in a material having similar properties, thus the measures are reproducible and repetitive. The most important aspect that is brought to attention in this work is the miscibility those resins have with water. The radioisotopes for the production of the sources are supplied in an aqueous form. In case the resin and the radioisotope solution do not mix, the source will not be sturdy enough to seal the radioisotopes in its structure and the source will not be safe. There were prepared different formulations with different amounts of acid solution, and the cured formulations were analyzed by Wipe Test, DSC (Differential Splanatory Calorimetry) and also, the possible volatile aspect of the radionuclide used. All to evaluate the integrity of the sources. The obtained results were satisfactory and show that when the resin is well cured, the radioisotope remains sealed in the matrix, making it possible to produce radioactive sealed sources. (author)

  16. Direct and remarkably efficient conversion of methane into acetic acid catalyzed by amavadine and related vanadium complexes. A synthetic and a theoretical DFT mechanistic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirillova, Marina V; Kuznetsov, Maxim L; Reis, Patrícia M; da Silva, José A L; da Silva, João J R Fraústo; Pombeiro, Armando J L

    2007-08-29

    Vanadium(IV or V) complexes with N,O- or O,O-ligands, i.e., [VO{N(CH2CH2O)3}], Ca[V(HIDPA)2] (synthetic amavadine), Ca[V(HIDA)2], or [Bu4N]2[V(HIDA)2] [HIDPA, HIDA = basic form of 2,2'-(hydroxyimino)dipropionic or -diacetic acid, respectively], [VO(CF3SO3)2], Ba[VO(nta)(H2O)]2 (nta = nitrilotriacetate), [VO(ada)(H2O)] (ada = N-2-acetamidoiminodiacetate), [VO(Hheida)(H2O)] (Hheida = 2-hydroxyethyliminodiacetate), [VO(bicine)] [bicine = basic form of N,N-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)glycine], and [VO(dipic)(OCH2CH3)] (dipic = pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylate), are catalyst precursors for the efficient single-pot conversion of methane into acetic acid, in trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) under moderate conditions, using peroxodisulfate as oxidant. Effects on the yields and TONs of various factors are reported. TFA acts as a carbonylating agent and CO is an inhibitor for some systems, although for others there is an optimum CO pressure. The most effective catalysts (as amavadine) bear triethanolaminate or (hydroxyimino)dicarboxylates and lead, in a single batch, to CH3COOH yields > 50% (based on CH4) or remarkably high TONs up to 5.6 x 103. The catalyst can remain active upon multiple recycling of its solution. Carboxylation proceeds via free radical mechanisms (CH3* can be trapped by CBrCl3), and theoretical calculations disclose a particularly favorable process involving the sequential formation of CH3*, CH3CO*, and CH3COO* which, upon H-abstraction (from TFA or CH4), yields acetic acid. The CH3COO* radical is formed by oxygenation of CH3CO* by a peroxo-V complex via a V{eta1-OOC(O)CH3} intermediate. Less favorable processes involve the oxidation of CH3CO* by the protonated (hydroperoxo) form of that peroxo-V complex or by peroxodisulfate. The calculations also indicate that (i) peroxodisulfate behaves as a source of sulfate radicals which are methane H-abstractors, as a peroxidative and oxidizing agent for vanadium, and as an oxidizing and coupling agent for CH3CO* and that (ii) TFA is

  17. Aerobic Dehydrogenation of Cyclohexanone to Cyclohexenone Catalyzed by Pd(DMSO)2(TFA)2: Evidence for Ligand-Controlled Chemoselectivity

    OpenAIRE

    Diao, Tianning; Pun, Doris; Stahl, Shannon S.

    2013-01-01

    The dehydrogenation of cyclohexanones affords cyclohexenones or phenols via removal of one or two equivalents of H2, respectively. We recently reported several PdII catalyst systems that effect aerobic dehydrogenation of cyclohexanones with different product selectivities. Pd(DMSO)2(TFA)2 is unique in its high chemoselectivity for the conversion of cyclohexanones to cyclohexenones, without promoting subsequent dehydrogenation of cyclohexenones to phenols. Kinetic and mechanistic studies of th...

  18. Quantum localization, dephasing and vibrational energy flow in a trans-formanilide (TFA)-H2O complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: Recent stimulated emission pumping-population transfer spectroscopic studies are providing measurements of energy barriers to hydrogen bond rearrangements involving biological molecules and water. To determine the kinetics of hydrogen bond rearrangements we need in addition information about energy flow in the biomolecule-water complex. We address the problem of quantum energy flow in one such complex system using a random matrix approach. We report here calculations of energy flow in the peptide trans-formanilide (TFA) that account for the hydrogen bonding of a water molecule to one of two sites on the peptide. Coupling to the water is found to enhance energy flow in the peptide. At energies near the hydrogen bond rearrangement barrier the rate of energy flow in TFA is nevertheless sufficiently sluggish to have a significant impact on the kinetics of water shuttling between hydrogen-bonding sites. - Abstract: Recent stimulated emission pumping-population transfer spectroscopic studies are providing measurements of energy barriers to hydrogen bond rearrangements involving biological molecules and water. To determine the kinetics of hydrogen bond rearrangements we need in addition information about energy flow in the biomolecule-water complex. We address the problem of quantum energy flow in one such complex system using a random matrix approach. We report here calculations of energy flow in the peptide trans-formanilide (TFA) that account for the hydrogen bonding of a water molecule to one of two sites on the peptide. Coupling to the water is found to enhance energy flow in the peptide. At energies near the hydrogen bond rearrangement barrier the rate of energy flow in TFA is nevertheless sufficiently sluggish to have a significant impact on the kinetics of water shuttling between hydrogen-bonding sites.

  19. New Role of Sulfuric Acid In Production of Multicomponent Fertilizers From Renewable Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Gorecka

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the possibility of using renewable sources: slaughter wastes and wood ashes in the production of NPK fertilizers. The content of macronutrients, micronutrients and toxic elements in these materials was reported. In the present work, poultry feathers were used as fertilizer source of nitrogen, animal bones as the source of phosphorus and wood ash as the source of potassium and micronutrients. Bioavailability of fertilization components was increased by mineralization with sulfuric acid, which transformed keratinous nitrogen of poultry feathers into ammonia nitrogen, hydroxyapatite phosphorus to bioavailable orthophosphate. Also, mineralization of organic content of the materials was achieved. The method of production and the composition of NPKS fertilizer, the content of which was adjusted to the requirements of oil seed rape was provided. The fertilization properties were checked in germination tests.

  20. Xylan Removal from Dissolving Pulp using TFA at Low Concentration%采用低浓度三氟乙酸去除溶解浆中木聚糖

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘金亭; 翟东改; 孙勤梅; 李荣秀

    2013-01-01

    采用低浓度三氟乙酸( TFA)与木浆反应,并通过响应优化器和正交试验分析得出最优工艺.结果表明:在TFA质量分数为0.15%,温度为116.8℃,反应时间为9 h条件下,可以去除所有残存木糖,而葡萄糖损失仅为3.2%.该工艺为除去溶解浆中少量的半纤维素提供了新方法.%The xylan was hydrolysed with low concentration trifluoroacetic acid ( TFA ) in dissolving pulp ,then the optimum conditions were obtained by orthogonal test and response optimization .The results showed that at the condi-tions of TFA concentration 0.15%, temperature 116.3℃,and reaction time 9 h, all xylose can be removed with only 3.2%glucose losses.The study provides a new method to remove residual hemicellulose in dissolving pulp .

  1. Nutritional implications of trans fatty acids during perinatal period, in French pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boue Carole

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Some studies have demonstrated the transfer of trans fatty acids (TFA across the human placenta. It was suggested that TFA might disturb the metabolism of essential fatty acids (EFA in fetus and consequently might affect intrauterine human growth more or less according to the TFA intake level of the mother. In this context, the objective of this study was to assess, for French pregnant women, possible impact of their TFA intake on parameters of their term infants: 1/ TFA composition of the umbilical cord (plasma lipids and parietal phospholipids, 2/ birth weight and head circumference. The TFA composition of maternal and umbilical plasma lipids, and parietal phospholipids of umbilical cord were determined by gas chromatography, associated with a thin-layer chromatography for the phospholipids. Because TFA content of adipose tissue is a reliable biochemical indicator of the usual TFA intake level, maternal adipose tissue was also analyzed. Trans fatty acid (TFA percentage was significantly higher (p = 0.001 in maternal (0.9% of total fatty acids than in umbilical plasma total lipids (0.6% thus confirming their placental passage. Moreover, trans isomer pattern of cord plasma lipids was different from the maternal’s one, especially regarding trans isomers of linoleic acid (9c,12c-18:2. Percentage values of 9c,13t + 9t,12t and 9t,12c isomers were respectively, 2 and 3 times higher (p < 0.001 in umbilical than in maternal plasma (Except trans 16:1 acids. All trans isomers observed in umbilical plasma lipids were detected in both parietal and vessel (vein and arteries phospholipids of umbilical cord. Nevertheless, 9c13t + 9t12t isomer mix level was significantly higher (p < 0.001 in artery than in vein TPL. Moreover, in artery TPL, percentage value of 9c13t+9t12t isomer mix was inversely correlated (r = - 0.703, p = 0.003 with arachidonic acid content. Nevertheless, for this French population, there was no relation between either weight or head

  2. Nucleation Mechanism OF YBa2Cu3O7 by CSD using TFA Precursors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The heteroepitaxial growth of YBa2Cu3O7-x (YBCO) films prepared by the trifluoracetate TFA route was characterized by TEM/EELS, μ-Raman spectroscopy and X-Ray diffraction of specimens quenched from various temperatures. We find that after the pyrolysis, the film consists of a homogeneous, partly amorphous, nanocrystalline matrix of Ba1-xYxF2+x and CuO. Upon heating, such a precursor undergoes a strong phase segregation on a length scale of 100 nm. Simultaneously, the Ba1-xYxF2+x solid solution is decomposed into BaF2 and Y2O3, and part of this Y2O3 eventually reacts with the CuO to give Y2Cu2O5. Our results make evident that the nucleation of YBCO takes place exclusively at the interface with the substrate, within the fluoride phase. The fluoride phase appears highly textured from the early stages of phase evolution, above 600 deg. C, and determines the orientation of the YBCO. The microstructural heterogeneity of the precursor film prior to the nucleation of YBCO strongly suggests that more than one reaction path may operate simultaneously

  3. Progress in development of coated conductors by TFA-MOD processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recent progress in R and D of coated conductors by TFA-MOD process was reviewed. For the several targets, such as high superconducting performance, high production rate, long tape etc., the steady progresses could be recognized. The high Jc and Ic values of 3.6 MA/cm2 and 291 A were achieved by using a highly aligned CeO2 cap on an IBAD-GZO layer and optimizing the conditions in the multi-coating process, respectively. For improving the production rate, the calcination time was extremely reduced by the development of the new combination of the starting materials. As the improvement of the production rate, the process for achieving high growth rate was investigated by controlling the atmosphere conditions in the high temperature heat treatment. It was found that both high humid partial pressure and low total pressure conditions were both effective to improve the growth rate and the three times higher growth rate with maintaining high Jc than that in the conventional conditions was confirmed. Additionally, a 0.25 m long tape with uniform Ic values over 200 A and the end-to-end Ic value of 210 A was successfully fabricated with traveling in the furnace of the Reel-to-Reel system

  4. Crystal growth process of Y123 film fabricated by modified TFA-MOD process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modified metal-organic deposition (MOD) process using precursor solution of trifluoroacetates (TFA) for Y and Ba and F-free salt for Cu is one of the most promising low cost non-vacuum methods to fabricate the coated conductor of YBa2Cu3O7-X (Y123) film with high critical current density. Since Y123 phase grows in the precursor film by the release of HF with supplying H2O, liquid/gas evolution affects the growth process, microstructure and properties of Y123 film. However, details of the growth mechanism of Y123 crystals are still unknown. To clarify the growth mechanism of Y123 film, the growth process of Y123 crystal was studied by the experimental method and the numerical method (FDM analysis). The quenching experiments during the growth of Y123 crystals on LaAlO3 (LAO) and/or CeO2/LAO substrates revealed the microstructures of growing Y123 crystals through TEM observations. The growth model for Y123 crystals in YBCO film with some process-controlling parameters was obtained on the basis of the experimental results. The growth processes of faceted Y123 crystals with various crystal orientations were simulated by the two-dimensional numerical method using c-axis and a-axis growth rate functions, and the effects of initial distributions of nucleated crystals and particles were discussed

  5. Fabrication of YBCO films on metal tapes by the TFA-MOD process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    YBCO thin films on metal substrates were prepared by the metal-organic deposition using trifluoroacetates (TFA-MOD). To compensate the loss of Ba element from the precursor films due to the reaction with CeO2cap layer, we have employed Ba-excessive precursor solutions of YBa2+xCu3O7-δ (0≤x≤0.1). The precursor solutions were dip-coated on the metal substrates with CeO2cap layer, initially heated up to 400 degree C, and finally fired at the various high temperatures for 2 h in a reduced oxygen atmosphere. With this approach, YBCO films possessing critical temperature over 85 K could be successfully prepared on the metal substrates. The highest Tc,zero value of 86 K was obtained from the Ba-excessive YBCO film of x=0.005 in YBa2+xCu3O7-δ fired at 750 degree C for 2 h. However, unexpected Tc suppression even in Ba-excessive YBCO samples requires further identification.

  6. The humidity effect of YBCO film by TFA-MOD process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We fabricated YBa2Cu33O7-x (YBCO) films on(00l) LaAlO3 substrates prepared by metal organic deposition(MOD) method using trifluoroacetate(TFA) solution and evaluated the effects of the humidity on the microstructure, phase purity, and critical properties. The films calcined at 430 degrees C were fired at 775 degrees C at 0%, 4.2%, 12.1%, and 20.0% humidified As gas mixed with 0.1% O2. We observed that the amount of BaF2 phase was effectively reduced and that a sharp and strong biaxial texture formed under a humidified atmosphere, leading to increased critical properties. For the films fired at 0% humidity, the Tc and Ic were undetectably small. When the humidity was increased to 4.2%, the corresponding Tc(onset) and Ic were increased to 90.5 K and 8 A/cm-width, respectively. For the films at the humidity range of 12.1-20.0%, the Ic was found to be 35 A/cm-width. According to the results of the XRD, pole-figure, and SEM, these improved critical properties are probably attributed to the formation of a purer YBCO phase, larger grain size, and stronger c-axis orientation.

  7. Improvement of magnetic properties for long YGdBCO coated conductors using TFA-MOD process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Kazunari; Hironaga, Ryusuke; Koizumi, Tsutomu; Nakamura, Tatsunori; Nakanishi, Tatsuhisa; Aoki, Nobuo; Hasegawa, Takayo; Takahashi, Yasuo; Yoshizumi, Masateru; Izumi, Teruo; Shiohara, Yuh

    YxGd(1-x)Ba2Cu3Oy(YGdBCO) coated conductors (CCs) containing artificial pinning centers (APCs) were fabricated by the trifluoroacetate-metalorganic deposition (TFA-MOD) method using a batch heat-treatment process, which have been industrially applied to fabricate long superconducting tapes which have high critical current (Ic) have been successfully manufactured. From the viewpoint of applications, the characteristics in magnetic fields become further important and one solution has been showed by Miura et al. [1,2] as introduction of APCs such as BaZrO3 (BZO). We applied their technique to our CCs fabrication process. The heat-treatment conditions, specifically total gas pressure, oxygen concentration and crystallization temperature, were optimized for the batch heat-treatment process. A 40 m-long YGdBCO CC in which APCs are introduced was fabricated, and it has Ic value of 320 A/cm-width (critical current density (Jc) value of 2.2 MA/cm2) in self-field and 20 A/cm-width at 3 T in Liq. N2.

  8. High critical current YBCO thick films by TFA-MOD process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a method of the fabrication processes of YBa2Cu3O7-x (YBCO), the metalorganic deposition (MOD) process using metal trifluoroacetete (TFA) is considered to be a strong candidate due to its low cost fabrication process for coated conductors with high Jc. In our previous work, a triple coated film with 1 μm in thickness was fabricated on a CeO2/IBAD-YSZ layer buffered Hastelloy substrate by optimizing the condition of heat treatments such as PH2O in the multi-coating method [Physica C 378-381 (2002) 1013]. The Jc value of 1.6 MA/cm2 (77 K in self-field) in this film patterned 100 μm width and the Ic* value of 153 A/cm-width at 77 K in self-field were achieved. In order to obtain a thicker film with high overall Ic* for 1 cm width, the influence of the heat treatment conditions of PH2O, PO2, and the temperature in the MOD process was investigated. Subsequently, a 5 times coated film was obtained on a CeO2/IBAD-Zr2Gd2O7 layer buffered Hastelloy substrate by optimizing the conditions of heating and dip coating. As a result, the overall transport Ic value was improved to 210 A and Jc value of 1.53 MA/cm2 was obtained (77 K in self-field)

  9. Dependence of microstructures on growth rate in YBCO films by TFA-MOD method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    YBa2Cu3Oy (YBCO) films grown by starting solutions with Ba-poor (Y:Ba:Cu = 1:1.5:3, Ba/Y = 1.5) have been reported to perform higher Jc than that for YBCO films with stoichiometric one due to smaller and less pores in YBCO films by metal organic deposition (MOD) using tri-fluoroacetates (TFA). However, we have reported that a lot of non-reacted particles such as Y and Cu oxides were remained for the YBCO film surface grown by the precursors using Ba-poor solution. In this study, influences of YBCO growth rate on microstructures of the YBCO film were discussed to control microstructures of these second phase particles. As a result, microstructures of the YBCO film depended strongly on the YBCO growth rate, residues of Y and Cu oxides were dispersed randomly throughout the YBCO film grown at higher growth rate. Consequently, it was succeeded to control the segregated phases as seen in the previous YBCO film with Ba/Y = 1.5 at the film surface into the YBCO film. Jc of the YBCO film grown at higher rate was a value almost equal to that grown at previous growth rate.

  10. Improvement of Film Thickness Uniformity in TFA-MOD Coated Conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, K.; Nakahata, K.; Yoshizumi, M.; Izumi, T.; Shiohara, Y.

    TFA-MOD process is expected to be promising for future applications since it can produce high performance YBCO coated conductors with low cost. The dip-coating is adopted as the coating process because of its simplicity and controllability of the overall film thickness. Dip-coated films have uniform thickness along longitudinal direction, but not necessary in transverse direction. In the case of thicker films, the more cracks form during processing at the thicker region near the edges generate and propagate mainly due to tensile and bending strain. So we have to suppress the thickness distribution in transverse direction for thicker films for high IC values. In this study, we found that the thickness distribution was firstly given by meniscus shape and then the solution flew down till it's dried. The solution in the center region drops more since it is slowly dried compared with the edge region. Then, we developed a drying process, which accelerates the drying by blowing hot gas to prevent the coated solutions from dropping. As a result, the thickness uniformity was improved; the thickness ratio of the thick region (edge) to the flat one (center) was improved from 1.35 to 1.07. Furthermore, we successfully produced ~1.5 μm thick films with high critical current density values (> 2MA/cm2) by the new coating process including the force drying step.

  11. Critical current property in YBCO coated conductor fabricated by improved TFA-MOD process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have investigated critical current property in YBa2Cu3O7-δ (YBCO) coated conductor fabricated by improved metal organic deposition using trifluoroacetates (TFA-MOD) process optimizing conditions such as solution compositions. The electric field vs. current density (E-J) characteristic measurement was carried out at wide range of temperature, T, and magnetic field, B. Critical current density, Jc, reached 3.8 x 1010 A/m2 at 77 K in self-field for 1.2 μm thick YBCO layer. In-field Jc is also improved by this new process. From the analysis of E-J characteristics, we have found out that the shape of statistical distribution of Jc in the new process becomes sharper than that of the previous one. These results indicate that the uniformity of YBCO layer is improved by the new process. Furthermore, analytical expression of E-J characteristics, which is based on a percolation model and a scaling law of the pinning force density, shows good agreement with the experimental results. This allows us to predict the critical current property at arbitrary conditions of T and B even if we could not have measured data. For example, it is predicted that Jc could be about 1 x 1010 A/m2 at 4.2 K and 30 T parallel to the c-axis.

  12. High production rate of crystallization process in TFA-MOD method for YBCO coated conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To realize a higher production rate is one of the important issues in the development of the long-tape processing for the YBCO coated conductors by the TFA-MOD process using the reel-to-reel system. Not only scale-up of the furnace and decrease of YBCO thickness with the higher J c value, but higher YBCO growth rates could be effective to achieve a higher traveling rate in this system. It was confirmed that optimization of the process parameters such as high water vapor partial pressure, high diffusion constants due to a low applied total pressure, and a high gas flow rate affect the YBCO growth rate. Consequently, these higher growth rate conditions were simultaneously applied to the reel-to-reel system. As a result, the traveling rate of 1.2 m/h was achieved for fabricating YBCO films in the reel-to-reel system, which is about five times as fast as the previous traveling rate with maintaining high I c value of higher than 200 A/cm-width by controlling above conditions

  13. Microstructure evolution of YBCO films deposited by advanced TFA-MOD process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have investigated microstructure evolution of YBa2Cu3O7-y (YBCO) films through the two steps of heat-treatments in the advanced TFA-MOD process, by means of transmission electron microscopy. In the calcination process, precursor films including nanopores are formed with shrinkage of the film after a remarkable increase of the thickness caused by gas generation due to thermal decomposition of metalorganic salts in the starting solution. During the crystallization process, the densification and shrinkage of the film occurs after agglomeration of nanopores and unreacted phase particles such as Y2Cu2O5, CuO and Ba-O-F in the precursor films. Before starting of YBCO epitaxial growth, the densification and shrinkage of the film occurs. The YBCO films are epitaxially grown with remaining the unreacted phase particles in the film, subsequently pores are generated again by a reaction of these unreacted particles to form YBCO accompanying with the volume reduction. In conclusion, it is important to control the densification of precursor films and the coarsening of the unreacted phase particles in the crystallization process, in order to fabricate YBCO final films with fine crystallinity and high IC values

  14. YBCO growth on textured NiW substrates by TFA-MOD method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For production of low cost coated conductor tapes, the TFA-MOD (metal organic deposition using trifluoroacetates) process is one of the promising methods and textured NiW alloy substrates are expected to be a candidate for their substrates. However, the superconducting properties obtained on the NiW substrates are not high enough due to lack of understandings on YBCO grain growth on the NiW. In this work, MOD growth conditions such as molar ratio (Ba/Y) of the starting solution, the crystallization temperature and P (O2) (O2 partial pressure) especially on the NiW substrates were studied. Compositional effects of the starting solution on Ic values have a trend having the highest value at Ba/Y = 1.5, which is similar to those on IBAD substrates, though the Ic values of YBCO on NiW are lower. One of the differences between YBCO layers on NiW and IBAD could be explained by the significant difference in a-axis oriented grain growth. The higher temperature and/or the lower PO2 were required to suppress the nucleation for a-axis oriented grain growth on the NiW. 1 m-long RTR production exhibited the end-to-end Ic value of 221 A/cm w, which could be improved further by the optimization of the process conditions

  15. Effect of heat-treatment parameter of YBCO film by TFA-MOD process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We fabricated YBCO coated conductors (CCs) by TFA-MOD process and evaluated microstructure, texture formation, and critical temperature (Tc) and current (Ic). YBCO precursor solution was synthesized using metal-trifluoroacetates and dip coated on LaAlO3(LAO) substrate. The phase formation and microstructure was characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the degree of texture was evaluated by pole-figure analysis. The CC was heat-treated in various calcining temperatures (370 degrees C - 460 degrees C) and firing temperatures (750 degrees C - 800 degrees C) . As fired at 775 degrees C for 4h, the CC had the highest Tc of 89.5 K and Ic of 40 A/cm-width (Jc=2.0 MA/cm2). Microstructural observation indicated that the YBCO film was dense and homogeneous and had a strong cube texture without formation of second phase and its in-plane full-width at half-maxima; 5.2under optimum condition.

  16. Preparation and properties of YSZ-doped YBCO films grown by the TFA-MOD method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    YBa2Cu3O7-δ (YBCO) films with Zr doping have been prepared successfully by the trifluoroacetate metal-organic deposition (TFA-MOD) method through dissolving Zr acetylacetonate in the precursor solution. Yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) nanoparticles were detected in the doped YBCO films by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). From the analysis of XRD ω and ψ scans, the doped films have better out-of-plane and in-plane textures than those of the un-doped YBCO film. Although the doped YBCO films have a lower critical transition temperature (Tc) than that of un-doped YBCO film, a very significant enhancement of critical current density (Jc) is displayed as compared to the un-doped film at high applied fields. A high Jc near 106 A cm-2 at 1 T and a Jc of 105 A cm-2 at 5 T were observed in 6% doped Zr film, which are 5 times and 25 times the Jc values of the un-doped film in the same applied fields, respectively, indicating an optimal defect density created by 6% Zr doping.

  17. Development of BZO Doped YGdBCO High Performance Long CCs Using TFA-MOD Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, T.; Yoshizumi, M.; Izumi, T.; Shiohara, Y.; Kimura, K.; Hasegawa, T.

    TFA-MOD (Metal Organic Deposition using Trifluoro-acetates) process is of considerable practical concern for future applications since it can fabricate high performance coated conductors (CCs) with low cost. We have previously reported the success in fabricating a short sample of BaZrO3 (BZO) nanoparticles dispersed Y0.77Gd0.23Ba1.5Cu3Oy (YGdBCO) thick films with high Ic values under magnetic field (67.8A/cm-w, @77K, 3T). To make thick CCs for long length, it is important to study the effect of process parameters varying with time. In this study, we investigated the effect of coating solution characteristics such as viscosity etc., which could vary with time due to evaporation of solvent, on the transverse film thickness distribution by using Reel-To-Reel (RTR)-dip coating method. We successfully fabricated BZO doped YGdBCO calcined films with 2.5 μm thickness without crack and delamination over 200 m in length. The precursor films were crystallized by the batch type furnace at SWCC Showa Cable Systems Co., Ltd. resulting in the 124 m long CC with high Ic minimum value of 50 A/cm-w at 77 K and 3 T.

  18. Microstructural Observation of Multi-coated YBCO Films Prepared by TFA-MOD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We fabricated YBa2Cu3O7-x (YBCO) films on (00l) LaAlO3 substrates prepared by metal organic deposition(MOD) method using trifluoroacetate(TFA) solution. The films with various thicknesses were prepared by repeating the dip-coating and calcining processes. The effects of film thickness on phase formation, microstructures, and critical properties were evaluated by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The microstructure and resultant critical current(IC) and critical current density(JC) varied remarkably with film thickness: The (IC) value increased from 39 to 160 A/cm-width as the number of coatings increased from one to four, while the corresponding JC was measured to be in the range of 0.84-1.2 MA/cm2. Both the IC and JC decreased when an additional coating was applied due to microstructural degradation, indicating that the optimum thickness is in the range of 1.1-1.8 μm. The possible cause for the decrease in the IC and JC value for film thicker than 11.8 μm include non-uniform thickness, increased surface roughness, and the poor formability of the YBCO phase and texture arising from the insufficient heat treatment time with respect to the increased thickness.

  19. Effect of Interim Annealing on Mechanical Strength of TFA-MOD Derived YBCO Coated Conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Y.; Nakaoka, K.; Nakamura, T.; Yoshizumi, M.; Kiss, T.; Izumi, T.; Shiohara, Y.

    TFA-MOD derived YBCO tapes are expected for many applications due to cost-efficiency. In some applications, uniformity and mechanical strength are required for tapes. A 205 m-long YBCO tape was fabricated with high and uniform Ic performance throughout the tape by adopting the interim annealing before the conversion process. The effect of the interim annealing on the crystal growth mechanism of YBCO has been studied focusing on the relationship between the interim annealing conditions and delamination, in this work. Delamination strength was evaluated in the samples prepared with and without interim annealing by the stud pull method. Measurements were carried out on 50 different points for each sample and the results were analyzed statistically. The difference between the two samples was remarkably seen in the delamination strength below 60 MPa. The conventionally annealed sample had more points with low delamination strength below 60 MPa than the interim annealed one. The cross sectional images of both samples observed by SEM showed that there were few pores within the interim annealed superconducting layer, although conventional superconducting layer had many pores. These results suggest that the pores within YBCO layer might be origins to be propagated for delamination at low strength.

  20. Development of a gas phase source for perfluoroalkyl acids to examine atmospheric sampling methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacInnis, John J; VandenBoer, Trevor C; Young, Cora J

    2016-06-21

    An inability to produce environmentally relevant gaseous mixing ratios of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), ubiquitous global contaminants, limits the analytical reliability of atmospheric chemists to make accurate gas and particulate measurements that are demonstrably free of interferences due to sampling artefacts. A gas phase source for PFAAs based on the acid displacement mechanism using perfluoropropionate (PFPrA), perfluorobutanoate (PFBA), perfluorohexanoate (PFHxA), and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) has been constructed. The displacement efficiency of gas phase perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) is inversely related to chain length. Decreasing displacement efficiencies for PFPrA, PFBA, PFHxA, and PFOA were 90% ± 20%, 40% ± 10%, 40% ± 10%, 9% ± 4%, respectively. Generating detectable amounts of gas phase perfluorosulfonic acids (PFSAs) was not possible. It is likely that lower vapour pressure and much higher acidity play a role in this lack of emission. PFCA emission rates were not elevated by increasing relative humidity (25%-75%), nor flow rate of carrier gas from 33-111 sccm. Overall, reproducible gaseous production of PFCAs was within the error of the production of hydrochloric acid (HCl) as a displacing acid (±20%) and was accomplished using a dry nitrogen flow of 33 ± 2 sccm. A reproducible mass emission rate of 0.97 ± 0.10 ng min(-1) (n = 8) was observed for PFBA. This is equivalent to an atmospheric mixing ratio of 12 ppmv, which is easily diluted to environmentally relevant mixing ratios of PFBA. Conversely, generating gas phase perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) by sublimating the solid acid under the same conditions produced a mass emission rate of 2800 ng min(-1), which is equivalent to a mixing ratio of 18 ppthv and over a million times higher than suspected atmospheric levels. Thus, for analytical certification of atmospheric sampling methods, generating gas phase standards for PFCAs is best accomplished using acid displacement under dry conditions

  1. Production of extracellular ferulic acid esterases by Lactobacillus strains using natural and synthetic carbon sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik Szwajgier

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. Ferulic acid esterases (FAE, EC 3.1.1.73, also known as feruloyl esterases, cinnamic acid esterases or cinnamoyl esterases, belong to a common group of hydrolases distributed in the plant kingdom. Especially the fungal enzymes were very well characterised in the past whereas the enzyme was rarely found in the lactic acid bacteria (LAB strains. It is well known that strong antioxidants free phenolic acids can be released from the dietary fiber by the action of intestinal microflora composed among others also of Lactobacillus strains. The aim of this study was to examine four Lactobacillus strains (L. acidophilus K1, L. rhamnosus E/N, PEN, OXYfor the ability to produce extracellular FAE on different synthetic and natural carbon sources. Material and methods. The LAB strains were grown in the minimal growth media using German wheat bran, rye bran, brewers’ spent grain, isolated larchwood arabinogalactan, apple pectin, corn pectin, methyl ferulate, methyl p-coumarate, methyl syringate or methyl vanillate as the sole carbon source. FAE activity was determined using the post-cultivation supernatants, methyl ferulate and HPLC with UV detection. Results. The highest FAE activity was obtained with L. acidophilus K1 and methyl ferulate (max. 23.34 ±0.05 activity units and methyl p-coumarate (max. 14.96 ±0.47 activity units as carbon sources. L. rhamnosus E/N, OXY and PEN exhibited the limited ability to produce FAE with cinnamic acids methyl esters. Methyl syringate and methyl vanillate (MS and MV were insufficient carbon sources for FAE production. Brewers’ spent grain was the most suitable substrate for FAE production by L. acidophilus K1 (max. 2.64 ±0.06 activity units and L. rhamnosus E/N, OXY and PEN. FAE was also successfully induced by natural substrates rye bran, corn pectin (L. acidophilus K1, German wheat bran and larchwood arabinogalactan (E/N, PEN or German wheat bran and corn pectin (OXY. Conclusions. This study proved the

  2. Dietary intakes and food sources of fatty acids in Guatemalan schoolchildren: A cross-sectional study

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bermudez, Odilia I.

    2010-04-23

    Abstract Background Consumption of healthy diets that contribute with adequate amounts of fat and fatty acids is needed for children. Among Guatemalan children, there is little information about fat intakes. Therefore, the present study sought to assess intakes of dietary fats and examine food sources of those fats in Guatemalan children. Methods The study subjects consisted of a convenience sample of 449 third- and fourth-grade schoolchildren (8-10 y), attending public or private schools in Quetzaltenango City, Guatemala. Dietary data was obtained by means of a single pictorial 24-h record. Results The percentages of total energy (%E) from total fat, saturated fat (SFA) and monounsaturated fat (MUFA) reached 29%E for total fat and 10%E for each SFA and MUFA, without gender differences. %E from fats in high vs. low-socio economic status (SES) children were significantly higher for boys, but not for girls, for total fat (p = 0.002) and SFA (p < 0.001). Large proportions of the children had low levels of intakes of some fatty acids (FA), particularly for n-3 FA, with >97% of all groups consuming less than 1%E from this fats. Fried eggs, sweet rolls, whole milk and cheese were main sources of total fat and, SFA. Whole milk and sweet bread were important sources of n-3 FA for high- and low-SES boys and girls, respectively. Fried plantain was the main source of n-3 FA for girls in the high-SES group. Fried fish, seafood soup, and shrimp, consumed only by boys in low amounts, were sources of eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids, which may explain the low intakes of these nutrients. Conclusions α-linolenic acid, EPA and DHA were the most limiting fatty acids in diets of Guatemalan schoolchildren, which could be partially explained by the low consumption of sources of these nutrients, particularly fish and seafood (for EPA and DHA). This population will benefit from a higher consumption of culturally acceptable foods that are rich in these limiting

  3. Les plantes, sources d’acides gras essentiels oméga 3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gontier Eric

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available L’acide α-linolénique (ALA fait partie de la famille des acides gras dits oméga 3. Il est dit essentiel parce qu’il ne peut pas être synthétisé dans notre organisme et doit donc être fourni par l’alimentation. Les plantes, sous forme de fruits, de légumes verts, de graines ou d’huiles issues de ces graines constituent une source majeure d’ALA. Cette synthèse a pour but de rappeler l’importance relative des végétaux quant à leur capacité à nous fournir des acides gras essentiels. Elle vise à faire le point sur les différentes voies développées par l’industrie agroalimentaire et à envisager les développements futurs.

  4. Fatty Acid Prof iles of Ram's Sperm after Removing Some Fatty Acid Sources from the Diets and Persistency of Fatty Acids in Sperm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Zarrabi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mammalian spermatozoa are characterized by a high proportion of polyunsaturatedfatty acids (PUFAs, but reliable data concerning dietary effects on fatty acid (FA profile in ram'ssperm and the persistency of FA in the ration to the FA in sperm has not been reported. Therefore,the aim of this study was to determine the stability of saturated and unsaturated FAs in ram's spermdespite removing FA sources from their diet.Materials and Methods: Nine Kalkoohi rams were used in a completely randomized design and theywere assigned to 3 groups. The treatments were diet supplemented (35 g/d/ram by C16:0 (RP-10®,C18: 2 (Sunflower oil; SO and n-3 (Fish oil; FO with Vitamin E. Fifteen weeks after the start of thesupplemented diet, rams were offered a basal diet without any supplementary FA source for 35 dayswhen the sperm’s FA ratio was determined. The data were analyzed by ANOVA (Analysis of varianceusing the General Linear Model (GLM procedure of SAS Institute.Results: Thirty five days after removing the fat supplement from the diet, major FA in sperm consisted of:C14:0, C16:0, C18:0, C18:1 cis, C18:2 cis and C22:6 n-3 docosahexaenoic acid (DHA. The percentageof C14:0 (p=0.8 and C18:1 cis (P =0.4 were similar among all the treatments. Interestingly, 35 daysafter the removal of fatty acid source, the percentage of C22:6 was highest in the FO treated group.Conclusion: The different sperm FA profile among various groups suggests that dietary FA hadsignificant direct or indirect impacts on sperm FA profile after 35 days which might lead to physicaland chemical changes in sperm characteristics.

  5. Prospective evaluation of trans-fatty acid intake and colorectal cancer risk in the Iowa Women’s Health Study

    OpenAIRE

    Limburg, Paul J.; Liu-Mares, Wen; Vierkant, Robert A.; Wang, Alice H.; Harnack, Lisa; Flood, Andrew P; Sellers, Thomas A.; Cerhan, James R.

    2008-01-01

    Concerns regarding the safety of dietary trans-fatty acids (tFAs) have generated recent public interest, scientific discussion and legislative action. Although most widely recognized as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, associations between tFA intake and incident cancer have also been proposed. With respect to colorectal cancer (CRC), existing observational data remain limited and inconclusive. Therefore, we conducted a prospective evaluation of tFA intake and CRC risk, overall and b...

  6. Replacement of Trifluoroacetic Acid with HCl in the Hydrophobic Purification Steps of Pediocin PA-1: a Structural Effect

    OpenAIRE

    Gaussier, Hélène; Morency, Hélène; Lavoie, Marc C; Subirade, Muriel

    2002-01-01

    Trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) is a purification contaminant associated with pediocin PA-1 that interferes with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy structural analysis. As revealed by circular dichroism, its presence affects the structural folding of pediocin. Consequently, we propose a new pediocin PA-1 purification procedure using HCl instead of TFA in all of the hydrophobic steps. This procedural change does not affect the purification yield or the amount of pediocin PA-1 purified. Further...

  7. Alternative Sources of n-3 Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Marine Microalgae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Varela

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The main source of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA in human nutrition is currently seafood, especially oily fish. Nonetheless, due to cultural or individual preferences, convenience, geographic location, or awareness of risks associated to fatty fish consumption, the intake of fatty fish is far from supplying the recommended dietary levels. The end result observed in most western countries is not only a low supply of n-3 LC-PUFA, but also an unbalance towards the intake of n-6 fatty acids, resulting mostly from the consumption of vegetable oils. Awareness of the benefits of LC-PUFA in human health has led to the use of fish oils as food supplements. However, there is a need to explore alternatives sources of LC-PUFA, especially those of microbial origin. Microalgae species with potential to accumulate lipids in high amounts and to present elevated levels of n-3 LC-PUFA are known in marine phytoplankton. This review focuses on sources of n-3 LC-PUFA, namely eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids, in marine microalgae, as alternatives to fish oils. Based on current literature, examples of marketed products and potentially new species for commercial exploitation are presented.

  8. Carboxylic Acid Photochemistry is a Marine Source of Glyoxal and Other Aldehydes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, R.; Gonzalez, L.; Tinel, L.; George, C.; Volkamer, R. M.

    2015-12-01

    Glyoxal is a highly water-soluble precursor in secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. Over land, glyoxal is known to be produced by the oxidation of volatile organic carbon (VOC) from both anthropogenic and natural sources. However, marine sources are still not well understood. Previous studies above the remote Pacific Ocean have detected typical glyoxal mixing ratios of 30-40 pptv, concentrations too high to be explained with current chemical understanding or atmospheric models. Because the lifetime of glyoxal is very short, the glyoxal found must have originated from, rather than been transported to, the open ocean. Furthermore, eddy covariance measurements indicate that an organic surface microlayer may be producing the glyoxal by as yet unknown processes. Here we present laboratory studies of the formation of glyoxal from carboxylic acids. Nonanoic, octanoic, and heptanoic acids floated on water and subjected to ultraviolet light are converted into their equivalent alkenals. Subsequent ozonolysis of the alkenals leads to the formation of glyoxal. We employ a PTR-MS to detect the alkenals, and a cavity-enhanced DOAS to detect the glyoxal. Considering the ubiquitous occurrence of carboxylic acids and their derivatives in the environment, this mechanism has the potential to be a significant source of glyoxal in the atmosphere.

  9. Amino Acids as a Source of Organic Nitrogen in Antarctic Endolithic Microbial Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, G. D.; Sun, H. J.

    2002-12-01

    In the Antarctic Dry Valleys, cryptoendolithic microbial communities occur within porous sandstone rocks. Current understanding of the mechanisms of physiological adaptation of these communities to the harsh Antarctic environment is limited, because traditional methods of studying microbial physiology are very difficult to apply to organisms with extremely low levels of metabolic activity. In order to fully understand carbon and nitrogen cycling and nutrient uptake in cryptoendolithic communities, and the metabolic costs that the organisms incur in order to survive, it is necessary to employ molecular geochemical techniques such as amino acid analysis in addition to physiological methods. Low-molecular-weight biomolecules such as amino acids can be used as tracers of carbon and nitrogen uptake and loss by microbial communities living in solid-state matrices such as rock or sediment. We have measured the concentrations and D/L ratios for several amino acids as a function of depth in a large sandstone boulder. Concentrations of both free and bound amino acids decrease by more than two orders of magnitude from the surface to the visible base of the community (approximately 1.2 cm depth), while the D/L ratios of the amino acids increase from near zero to 0.2 or greater over the same depth interval. We interpret these data as an indication that one or more community members are selectively scavenging L-amino acids as the amino acids are transported through the rock by intermittently percolating meltwater. This is consistent with the known preference of lichens for amino acids as nitrogen sources rather than inorganic nitrogen under conditions of nutrient limitation. It is not yet clear whether there is also a contribution to amino acid uptake from heterotropic bacteria associated with the cryptoendolithic community. The increase in D/L ratios with depth observed in the rock is too great to be attributable solely to the natural occurrence of D-amino acids in bacteria

  10. Application of chromatographic techniques in the preparation of phosphoric acid from superphosphate fertilizer as phosphate ions source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ion exchange and high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) methods of analysis have been applied for the preparation of phosphoric acid from phosphate fertilizer as a source of phosphate ions. Amberlite IRA-400 (C1) has been used in ion-exchange separation. In HPLC an indirect spectrophotometric method of detection using phthalic acid in the mobile phase has been applied to detect the separated phosphoric acid. The phosphoric acid produced has been well characterized and compared with a standard. (author)

  11. Biotechnological Production of Docosahexaenoic Acid Using Aurantiochytrium limacinum: Carbon Sources Comparison And Growth Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergi Abad

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aurantiochytrium limacinum, a marine heterotrophic protist/microalga has shown interesting yields of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA when cultured with different carbon sources: glucose, pure and crude glycerol. A complete study in a lab-scale fermenter allowed for the characterization and comparison of the growth kinetic parameters corresponding to each carbon source. Artificial Marine Medium (AMM with glucose, pure and crude glycerol offered similar biomass yields. The net growth rates (0.10–0.12 h−1, biomass (0.7–0.8 g cells/g Substrate and product (0.14–0.15 g DHA/g cells yields, as well as DHA productivity were similar using the three carbon sources. Viable potential applications to valorize crude glycerol are envisioned to avoid an environmental problem due to the excess of byproduct.

  12. Effect of Nitrogen Sources on the Growth and Docosahexaenoic Acid Accumulation in Crypthecodinium cohnii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Jufang; Wu Haizhen; Liang Shizhong; Chen Feng

    2002-01-01

    The effect of various nitrogen sources on the growth and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) yield is determined in Crypthecodinium cohnii ATCC30556. Single nitrogen tryptone and peptone are suitable to growth, the dry weight biomass is up to 2.78 g/L and 2.70g/L respectively on medium containing 0.34 g/L nitrogen. Peptone is a favorable nitrogen source for DHA accumulation, DHA yield increases up to 338.56 mg/L. Using peptone and KNO3 as a multiple nitrogen source, the highest biomass and DHA yield are obtained from media containing 0.34 g/L nitrogen in which the ratio of peptone-N:NO3--N is 1:2,and the biomass and DHA yield are 2.98 g/L(DW) and 527.97mg/L respectively.

  13. Plant and Soil Emissions of Amines and Amino Acids: A Source of Secondary Aerosol Precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, M. L.; Doskey, P. V.; Pypker, T. G.

    2011-12-01

    Ammonia (NH3) is the most abundant alkaline gas in the atmosphere and forms secondary aerosol by neutralizing sulfuric and nitric acids that are released during combustion of fossil fuels. Ammonia is primarily emitted by cropping and livestock operations. However, C2 and C3 amines (pKb 3.3-3.4), which are stronger bases than NH3 (pKb 4.7) have been observed in nuclei mode aerosol that is the precursor to secondary aerosol. Mixtures of amines and amino acids have been identified in diverse environments in aerosol, fog water, cloud water, the soluble fraction of precipitation, and in dew. Glycine (pKb 4.2), serine (pKb 4.8) and alanine (pKb 3.7 and 4.1 for the D and L forms, respectively) are typically the most abundant species. The only reported values of gas-phase glycine, serine and alanine were in marine air and ranged from 6-14 pptv. The origin of atmospheric amines and amino acids has not been fully identified, although sources are likely similar to NH3. Nitrate assimilation in plants forms glycine, serine, and L-alanine, while D-alanine is present in bacterial cell walls. Glycine is converted to serine during C3 plant photorespiration, producing CO2 and NH3. Bacteria metabolize glycine and alanine to methylamine and ethylamine via decarboxylation. Likely sources of amino acids are plants and bacteria, thus concentrations near continental sources are likely greater than those measured in marine air. The overall goal of the research is to examine seasonal variations and relationships between the exchange of CO2, NH3, amines, and amino acids with a corn/soybean rotation in the Midwest Corn Belt. The study presents gaseous profiles of organic amine compounds from various species of vegetation using a mist chamber trapping technique and analysis of the derivatized species by high pressure liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. Amino acid and amine profiles were obtained for red oak (Quercus rubra), sugar maple (Acer saccharinum), white pine (Pinus

  14. ASAM LEMAK TRANS DALAM MAKANAN DAN PENGARUHNYA TERHADAP KESEHATAN [Trans Fatty Acids in Foods and Their Effects on Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jansen Silalahi 1

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Unsaturated fatty acids are present in natural dietary fat as cis-isomer and, only small amount is in the form of trans-isomer fatty acids (TFA especially in food of ruminant- animal origin. Trans fatty acids are generated in fat during hydrogenation process and by heating treatment at 180 oC or above. Negative effects of TFA are of increasing concern as they are found to have more risk than saturated fatty acids with regard to coronary heard disease incidences. When consumed in large amounts (more than 2 % of total energy TFA increases total cholesterol levels by increasing low density lipoprotein (LDL and decreasing high density lipoprotein (HDL. Therefore the resulting effects may be twice as much as that caused by saturated fatty acids because saturated fatty acids increase LDL without affecting HDL. This article reviews trans fatty acids in foods and their effects on human health.

  15. Effect of trans fatty acid intake on LC-MS and NMR plasma profiles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gözde Gürdeniz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The consumption of high levels of industrial trans fatty acids (TFA has been related to cardiovascular disease, diabetes and sudden cardiac death but the causal mechanisms are not well known. In this study, NMR and LC-MS untargeted metabolomics has been used as an approach to explore the impact of TFA intake on plasma metabolites. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a double-blinded randomized controlled parallel-group study, 52 overweight postmenopausal women received either partially hydrogenated soybean oil, providing 15.7 g/day of TFA (trans18:1 or control oil with mainly oleic acid for 16 weeks. Subsequent to the intervention period, the subjects participated in a 12-week dietary weight loss program. Before and after the TFA intervention and after the weight loss programme, volunteers participated in an oral glucose tolerance test. PLSDA revealed elevated lipid profiles with TFA intake. NMR indicated up-regulated LDL cholesterol levels and unsaturation. LC-MS profiles demonstrated elevated levels of specific polyunsaturated (PUFA long-chain phosphatidylcholines (PCs and a sphingomyelin (SM which were confirmed with a lipidomics based method. Plasma levels of these markers of TFA intake declined to their low baseline levels after the weight loss program for the TFA group and did not fluctuate for the control group. The marker levels were unaffected by OGTT. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study demonstrates that intake of TFA affects phospholipid metabolism. The preferential integration of trans18:1 into the sn-1 position of PCs, all containing PUFA in the sn-2 position, could be explained by a general up-regulation in the formation of long-chain PUFAs after TFA intake and/or by specific mobilisation of these fats into PCs. NMR supported these findings by revealing increased unsaturation of plasma lipids in the TFA group. These specific changes in membrane lipid species may be related to the mechanisms of TFA-induced disease but

  16. Assessment of trans-fatty acids intake via bakery food among above three-year-old population in Beijing and Guangzhou city%北京及广州3岁以上居民焙烤食品中反式脂肪酸摄入量评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建文; 刘爱东; 张磊; 刘兆平; 李宁

    2014-01-01

    目的:了解我国焙烤食品消费量及其中反式脂肪酸(TFA)含量,评估北京及广州两大城市3岁及以上人群焙烤食品中 TFA 的摄入量及其供能。方法2011年在中国5个城市采集焙烤食品样品,采用国家标准气相色谱法测定 TFA 含量;以 t-检验方法分析2007年前后各类焙烤食品中 TFA 含量差异,用简单分布模型(确定性评估)进行 TFA 摄入评估,计算每个个体每日 TFA 的摄入水平,包括不同人群(全人群及各年龄组)TFA 摄入量(每天摄入 TFA 的克数),以及 TFA 供能占膳食摄入总能量的百分比。结果各类焙烤食品中 TFA 平均含量在每100 g 食物0.01~0.83 g 范围内。饼干、面包和糕点中 TFA 含量≤0.3 g /100 g的样品比例分别为77.1%,71.8%和67.0%。每100 g 食物平均 TFA 含量较高的食品为威化饼干、夹心饼干,泡芙、蛋糕、牛角/羊角面包,为0.65~0.83 g。夹心饼干和派中 TFA 含量,2007年后比2007年前有显著下降(P<0.01)。北京与广州人群通过焙烤食品摄入的 TFA 为0.049 g·d -1,供能比为0.027%,远低于“小于1%”的 WHO 建议值。在所有年龄组中,3~6岁年龄组的 TFA 摄入量最高,供能比为0.041%。结论我国焙烤食品大部分 TFA 含量较低,北京及广州全人群焙烤食品 TFA 引发的健康风险极低。但部分焙烤食品中 TFA 含量较高,建议进一步降低焙烤食品中 TFA 含量。%OBJECTIVE To investigate trans-fatty acids (TFA)contents in bakery food and assess TFA intake via bakery food and its energy contribution in Beijing and Guangzhou city.METHODS Bak-ery food sa mples were collected in 201 1 ,standard GC-method were used to determine TFA content,da-ta of TFA content were analyzed by t-test to evaluate for statistically significant differences.Si mple distri-bution model(determinative risk assess ment)of TFA intake was used to

  17. Growth process of BaZrO3 doped YBCO films by TFA-MOD method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konya, K.; Masuda, Y.; Teranishi, R.; Kiss, T.; Munetoh, S.; Yamada, K.; Yoshizumi, M.; Izumi, T.

    Crystal growth process of YBa2Cu3O7-X (YBCO) films with BaZrO3 (BZO) pinning centers were investigated to enhance JC property by controlling microstructure of the films. The YBCO films were fabricated by a metal organic deposition (MOD) method using solutions with trifluoroacetates (TFA) and Zr-salts. Quenched films were prepared by cooling them rapidly during crystallization process and crystallized phases were identified by an X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurement. It is indicating that BZO forms at lower temperature than that of YBCO formation and that BZO and BaF2 are crystallized at the similar temperature range around 700°C. Then, we kept the heating temperature which is under 600°C before crystallization temperature of YBCO and investigated the effect of temperature keeping on film growth. In the film kept for more than 3 hours, BZO peak was detected by XRD measurement. However, BZO particles were not observed in the film even kept for 9 hours by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDS) analyses. It is indicated that growth rate of BZO is slow at 600°C. On the other hand, smaller YBCO particles and decreasing of surface roughness (Ra) were observed for the film which were kept at 600°C for 3 hours and then crystallized. This result suggests the density of YBCO film is higher than that for YBCO without that process. In summary, it can be considered that YBCO film density become high by temperature keeping process below 600°C before YBCO crystallization and that size of BZO particles are determined by heat treatment at the temperature of above 600°C

  18. Characterization of the fatty acid composition of lamb commercially available in northern Spain: Emphasis on the trans-18:1 and CLA content and profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo-Lamas, Leire; Barron, Luis J R; Kramer, John K G; Etaio, Iñaki; Aldai, Noelia

    2016-07-01

    A survey of commercially available lamb meat was performed in northern Spain in order to evaluate their fatty acid (FA) composition with emphasis on trans fatty acid (TFA) and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers. Samples were collected in spring (n=24) and winter (n=24) of 2013, and were obtained in about equal numbers from grocery stores and butcher-shops. Subcutaneous fat, known to be a sensitive indicator of TFA content in ruminants, was analyzed by GC-FID. In general, very few differences were observed between collection periods and type of stores because of the high variability within the groups that was believed to be associated with differences in genetics and feeding strategies. However, the 10t/11t ratio of all samples showed two clearly identifiable groups irrespective of the source: 1) when 10t/11t was >1, 10t-shifted samples; 2) when 10t/11t was ≤1, non-shifted samples where 11t-18:1 was the predominant isomer. These two groups were clearly identified and associated with distinct FAs using principal component analysis. PMID:26970291

  19. A cross-sectional study on trans-fatty acids and risk markers of CHD among middle-aged men representing a broad range of BMI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Birgit M.; Nielsen, Marie M.; Jakobsen, Marianne U.;

    2011-01-01

    Intake of trans-fatty acids (TFA), especially industrially produced TFA (I-TFA), has been associated with the risk of CHD through influence on serum lipid levels. Other causal pathways remain less investigated. In the present cross-sectional study of middle-aged men representing a broad range...... of interest (waist circumference, sagittal abdominal diameter, percentage of truncal fat, C-reactive protein, IL-6, blood lipids, blood pressure, HbA1c and insulin sensitivity index) were obtained through clinical examination. The associations were assessed by linear regression analysis. The median intake...... of total TFA among the 393 men was 1·3 g/d, covering a daily I-TFA intake of 0·4 g (10–90th percentile 0·0–1·0) and R-TFA intake of 0·9 g (10–90th percentile 0·4–1·8). Intake of these amounts of TFA showed no significant associations with abdominal fatness, inflammatory markers, blood lipids, blood...

  20. Plums (Prunus domestica L.) are a good source of yeasts producing organic acids of industrial interest from glycerol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Fraile, Paula; Silva, Luís R; Sánchez-Márquez, Salud; Velázquez, Encarna; Rivas, Raúl

    2013-08-15

    The production of organic acids from several yeasts isolated from mature plums on media containing glycerol as carbon source was analysed by HPLC-UV. The yeasts isolated were identified by sequencing the 5.8S internal transcribed spacer as Pichia fermentans, Wickerhamomyces anomalus and Candida oleophila. The organic acid profiles of these strains comprise acetic, citric, succinic and malic acids that qualitatively and quantitatively vary between different species as well as among strains from the same species. The production from glycerol of succinic, acetic, citric, malic and oxalic acids from C. oleophila and W. anomalus, and that of succinic, oxalic and acetic acids by P. fermentans is reported for the first time in this work, as is the production of oxalic acid from glycerol in yeasts. Our results also showed that mature fruits can be a good source of new yeasts able to metabolise glycerol, producing different organic acids with industrial and biotechnological interest.

  1. Sustainable source of omega-3 eicosapentaenoic acid from metabolically engineered Yarrowia lipolytica: from fundamental research to commercial production

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Dongming; Jackson, Ethel N.; Zhu, Quinn

    2015-01-01

    The omega-3 fatty acids, cis-5, 8, 11, 14, and 17-eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5; EPA) and cis-4, 7, 10, 13, 16, and 19-docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6; DHA), have wide-ranging benefits in improving heart health, immune function, mental health, and infant cognitive development. Currently, the major source for EPA and DHA is from fish oil, and a minor source of DHA is from microalgae. With the increased demand for EPA and DHA, DuPont has developed a clean and sustainable source of the omega-3 fatty ...

  2. An isotopic analysis of ionising radiation as a source of sulphuric acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. B. Enghoff

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Sulphuric acid is an important factor in aerosol nucleation and growth. It has been shown that ions enhance the formation of sulphuric acid aerosols, but the exact mechanism has remained undetermined. Furthermore some studies have found a deficiency in the sulphuric acid budget, suggesting a missing source. In this study the production of sulphuric acid from SO2 through a number of different pathways is investigated. The production methods are standard gas phase oxidation by OH radicals produced by ozone photolysis with UV light, liquid phase oxidation by ozone, and gas phase oxidation initiated by gamma rays. The distributions of stable sulphur isotopes in the products and substrate were measured using isotope ratio mass spectrometry. All methods produced sulphate enriched in 34S and we find an enrichment factor (δ34S of 8.7 ± 0.4‰ (1 standard deviation for the UV-initiated OH reaction. Only UV light (Hg emission at 253.65 nm produced a clear non-mass-dependent excess of 33S. The pattern of isotopic enrichment produced by gamma rays is similar, but not equal, to that produced by aqueous oxidation of SO2 by ozone. This, combined with the relative yields of the experiments, suggests a mechanism in which ionising radiation may lead to hydrated ion clusters that serve as nanoreactors for S(IV to S(VI conversion.

  3. An isotope view on ionising radiation as a source of sulphuric acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. B. Enghoff

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Sulphuric acid is an important factor in aerosol nucleation and growth. It has been shown that ions enhance the formation of sulphuric acid aerosols, but the exact mechanism has remained undetermined. Furthermore some studies have found a deficiency in the sulphuric acid budget, suggesting a missing source. In this study the production of sulphuric acid from SO2 through a number of different pathways is investigated. The production methods are standard gas phase oxidation by OH radicals produced by ozone photolysis with UV light, liquid phase oxidation by ozone, and gas phase oxidation initiated by gamma rays. The distributions of stable sulphur isotopes in the products and substrate were measured using isotope ratio mass spectrometry. All methods produced sulphate enriched in 34S and we find a δ34S value of 8.7 ± 0.4‰ (1 standard deviation for the UV-initiated OH reaction. Only UV light (Hg emission at 253.65 nm produced a clear non-mass-dependent excess of 33S. The pattern of isotopic enrichment produced by gamma rays is similar, but not equal, to that produced by aqueous oxidation of SO2 by ozone. This, combined with the relative yields of the experiments, suggests a mechanism in which ionising radiation may lead to hydrated ion clusters that serve as nanoreactors for S(IV to S(VI conversion.

  4. Acyl-acyl carrier protein as a source of fatty acids for bacterial bioluminescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulse-chase experiments with [3H]tetradecanoic acid and ATP showed that the bioluminescence-related 32-kDa acyltransferase from Vibrio harveyi can specifically catalyze the deacylation of a 3H-labeled 18-kDa protein observed in extracts of this bacterium. The 18-kDa protein has been partially purified and its physical and chemical properties strongly indicate that it is fatty acyl-acyl carrier protein (acyl-ACP). Both this V. harveyi [3H]acylprotein and [3H]palmitoyl-ACP from Escherichia coli were substrates in vitro for either the V. harveyi 32-kDa acyltransferase or the analogous enzyme (34K) from Photobacterium phosphoreum. TLC analysis indicated that the hexane-soluble product of the reaction is fatty acid. No significant cleavage of either E. coli or V. harveyi tetradecanoyl-ACP was observed in extracts of these bacteria unless the 32-kDa or 34K acyltransferase was present. Since these enzymes are believed to be responsible for the supply of fatty acids for reduction to form the aldehyde substrate of luciferase, the above results suggest that long-chain acyl-ACP is the source of fatty acids for bioluminescence

  5. An isotopic analysis of ionising radiation as a source of sulphuric acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enghoff, Martin Andreas Bødker; Bork, Nicolai Christian; Hattori, S.;

    2012-01-01

    ) for the UV-initiated OH reaction. Only UV light (Hg emission at 253.65 nm) produced a clear non-mass-dependent excess of S-33. The pattern of isotopic enrichment produced by gamma rays is similar, but not equal, to that produced by aqueous oxidation of SO2 by ozone. This, combined with the relative yields...... a missing source. In this study the production of sulphuric acid from SO2 through a number of different pathways is investigated. The production methods are standard gas phase oxidation by OH radicals produced by ozone photolysis with UV light, liquid phase oxidation by ozone, and gas phase oxidation...

  6. An isotope view on ionising radiation as a source of sulphuric acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enghoff, Martin Andreas Bødker; Bork, Nicolai Christian; Hattori, S.;

    2012-01-01

    -initiated OH reaction. Only UV light (Hg emission at 253.65 nm) produced a clear non-mass-dependent excess of 33S. The pattern of isotopic enrichment produced by gamma rays is similar, but not equal, to that produced by aqueous oxidation of SO2 by ozone. This, combined with the relative...... a missing source. In this study the production of sulphuric acid from SO2 through a number of different pathways is investigated. The production methods are standard gas phase oxidation by OH radicals produced by ozone photolysis with UV light, liquid phase oxidation by ozone, and gas phase...

  7. Growth of Bacteria on 3-Nitropropionic Acid as a Sole Source of Carbon, Nitrogen, and Energy▿

    OpenAIRE

    Nishino, Shirley F.; Shin, Kwanghee A.; Payne, Rayford B.; Spain, Jim C.

    2010-01-01

    3-Nitropropionic acid (3NPA) is a widespread nitroaliphatic toxin found in a variety of legumes and fungi. Several enzymes have been reported that can transform the compound, but none led to the mineralization of 3NPA. We report here the isolation of bacteria that grow on 3NPA and its anion, propionate-3-nitronate (P3N), as the sole source of carbon, nitrogen, and energy. Experiments with resting cells, cell extracts, and purified enzymes indicate that the pathway involves conversion of 3NPA ...

  8. Acid precipitation and other possible sources for acidification of rivers and lakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seip, H.M.; Tollan, A.

    1978-01-01

    The trends in the recent acidification of rivers and lakes in South Norway are reviewed, and the evidence for a causal relationship between acid precipitation and acidification of surface water is critically examined. Results from regional surveys, studies in small catchment areas and from percolation experiments are presented. Several sources may contribute to the acidification. However, changes in the composition of the precipitation during the recent decades, mainly because of increased combustion of fossil fuels, seem to be a dominant cause at least in some of the most affected areas.

  9. INTERACTION OF AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS OF CHLORINE WITH MALIC ACID, TARTARIC ACID, AND VARIOUS FRUIT JUICES, A SOURCE OF MUTAGENS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The interactions of aqueous solutions of chlorine with some fruit acids (citric acid, DL-malic acid, and L-tartaric acid) at different pH values were studied. iethyl ether extraction followed by GC/MS analysis indicated that a number of mutagens (certain chlorinated propanones an...

  10. Surface and free tropospheric sources of methanesulfonic acid over the tropical Pacific Ocean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yuzhong; Wang, Yuhang; Gray, Burton A.; Gu, Dasa; Mauldin, L.; Cantrell, Chris; Bandy, Alan R.

    2014-07-28

    The production of sulfate aerosols through marine sulfur chemistry is critical to the climate system. However, not all sulfur compounds have been studied in detail. One such compound is methanesulfonic acid (MSA). In this study, we use a one-dimensional chemical transport model to analyze observed vertical profiles of gas-phase MSA during the Pacific Atmospheric Sulfur Experiment (PASE). The observed sharp decrease in MSA from the surface to 600m implies a surface source of 4.0×107 molecules/cm2/s. Evidence suggests that this source is photolytically enhanced. We also find that the observed large increase of MSA from the boundary layer into the lower free troposphere (1000-2000m) results mainly from the degassing of MSA from dehydrated aerosols. We estimate a source of 1.2×107 molecules/cm2/s through this pathway. This source of soluble MSA potentially provides an important precursor for new particle formation in the free troposphere over tropics, affecting the climate system through aerosol-cloud interactions.

  11. TFA-MOD (Metal Organic Deposition Using Trifluoroacetates) Films with Thickness Greater Than 1 Micron by a Single Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, Takeshi; Hayashi, Mariko; Fuke, Hiroyuki

    The key to obtaining films with thickness greater than 1 micron by a single TFA-MOD deposition is a crack-preventing material. The ratio of fluorine atoms to total fluorine and hydrogen atoms (RF) of the chemical is important for forming excellent superconducting films. Although hydrogen atoms lead to carbon residue, which fatally deteriorates superconducting properties of the resulting film, hydrogen atoms form strong hydrogen bonds with trifluoroacetates and have an excellent crack-prevention effect. The RF range from 0.75 to 0.96 is effective for obtaining single-coated, thick, high-critical-current-density superconducting films.

  12. l-dehydroascorbic acid can substitute l-ascorbic acid as dietary vitamin C source in guinea pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henriette Frikke-Schmidt

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin C deficiency globally affects several hundred million people and has been associated with increased morbidity and mortality in numerous studies. In this study, bioavailability of the oxidized form of vitamin C (l-dehydroascorbic acid or DHA—commonly found in vitamin C containing food products prone to oxidation—was studied. Our aim was to compare tissue accumulation of vitamin C in guinea pigs receiving different oral doses of either ascorbate or DHA. In all tissues tested (plasma, liver, spleen, lung, adrenal glands, kidney, muscle, heart, and brain, only sporadic differences in vitamin C accumulation from ascorbate or DHA were observed except for the lowest dose of DHA (0.25 mg/ml in the drinking water, where approximately half of the tissues had slightly yet significantly less vitamin C accumulation than from the ascorbate source. As these results contradicted data from rats, we continued to explore the ability to recycle DHA in blood, liver and intestine in guinea pigs, rats and mice. These investigations revealed that guinea pigs have similar recycling capacity in red blood cells as observed in humans, while rats and mice do not have near the same ability to reduce DHA in erythrocytes. In liver and intestinal homogenates, guinea pigs also showed a significantly higher ability to recycle DHA compared to rats and mice. These data demonstrate that DHA in guinea pigs—as in humans—is almost as effective as ascorbate as vitamin C source when it comes to taking up and storing vitamin C and further suggest that the guinea pig is superior to other rodents in modeling human vitamin C homeostasis.

  13. L-dehydroascorbic acid can substitute l-ascorbic acid as dietary vitamin C source in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frikke-Schmidt, Henriette; Tveden-Nyborg, Pernille; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2016-04-01

    Vitamin C deficiency globally affects several hundred million people and has been associated with increased morbidity and mortality in numerous studies. In this study, bioavailability of the oxidized form of vitamin C (l-dehydroascorbic acid or DHA)-commonly found in vitamin C containing food products prone to oxidation-was studied. Our aim was to compare tissue accumulation of vitamin C in guinea pigs receiving different oral doses of either ascorbate or DHA. In all tissues tested (plasma, liver, spleen, lung, adrenal glands, kidney, muscle, heart, and brain), only sporadic differences in vitamin C accumulation from ascorbate or DHA were observed except for the lowest dose of DHA (0.25mg/ml in the drinking water), where approximately half of the tissues had slightly yet significantly less vitamin C accumulation than from the ascorbate source. As these results contradicted data from rats, we continued to explore the ability to recycle DHA in blood, liver and intestine in guinea pigs, rats and mice. These investigations revealed that guinea pigs have similar recycling capacity in red blood cells as observed in humans, while rats and mice do not have near the same ability to reduce DHA in erythrocytes. In liver and intestinal homogenates, guinea pigs also showed a significantly higher ability to recycle DHA compared to rats and mice. These data demonstrate that DHA in guinea pigs-as in humans-is almost as effective as ascorbate as vitamin C source when it comes to taking up and storing vitamin C and further suggest that the guinea pig is superior to other rodents in modeling human vitamin C homeostasis.

  14. EFFECT OF NITROGEN SOURCE AND INITIAL SUGAR CONCENTRATION ON LACTIC ACID FERMENTATION OF PINEAPPLE WASTE USING L.DELBRUECKII

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullah Moch Busairi

    2012-01-01

    The liquid pineapple waste contains mainly sucrose, glucose, fructose and other nutrients. It therefore can potentially be used as carbon source for lactic acid fermentation. The lactic acid is utilised in food technology as pH regulator, microbial preservative, buffering agent and in the chemical industry. Recently, lactic acid has been considered to be an important raw material for production of biodegradable lactate polymer. The experiments were carried out in batch fermentation at anaerob...

  15. The Effect of Multiple Sequential Light Sources to Activate Aminolevulinic Acid in the Treatment of Actinic Keratoses: A Retrospective Study

    OpenAIRE

    Friedmann, Daniel P.; Goldman, Mitchel P.; Fabi, Sabrina G.; Guiha, Isabella

    2014-01-01

    There is a lack of research regarding the sequential use of multiple light sources for topical 5-aminolevulinic acid activation in photodynamic therapy for actinic keratosis. This study evaluated 5-aminolevulinic acid-photodynamic therapy for actinic keratosis using blue light combined with red light, pulsed dye laser, and/or intense pulsed light in a retrospective fashion. Field-directed 5-aminolevulinic acid-photodynamic therapy was performed with blue light only, blue light + pulsed dye la...

  16. Peripartum responses of dairy cows to prepartal feeding level and dietary fatty acid source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayirli, A; Keisler, D H; Doepel, L; Petit, Hélène

    2011-02-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of feeding level and oilseed supplementation during the close-up dry period on energy balance (EB), hepatic lipidosis, metabolic status, and productivity in early lactation. Seventy-seven Holstein cows were blocked according to parity and expected calving date and then assigned randomly to 1 of 6 treatments in a 2 × 3 factorial allocation with 2 feeding levels: ad libitum (AL) or 30% feed restriction (FR), and 3 dietary fatty acid sources: canola seed, linola seed, or flaxseed at 8% of dietary dry matter (DM), to enrich the rations with oleic, linoleic, or linolenic acids, respectively during the last 4 wk of gestation. After parturition, all cows were fed a common lactation diet. Cows fed AL lost less body weight (-2.9 vs. -6.0%) and body condition score (+0.67 vs. -2.30%), and consequently were in more positive EB (+4.6 vs. -0.3 Mcal) during the prepartum period than cows subjected to FR. Postpartum, FR cows lost less body weight (-9.7 vs. -12.4%) and experienced less severe negative EB (-4.5 vs. -7.0 Mcal) than AL cows. Cows fed AL had higher plasma insulin (6.8 vs. 4.4 μIU/mL) and lower nonesterified fatty acid concentrations (436 vs. 570 mEq/mL) during the close-up period than cows subjected to FR. Cows fed AL tended to have lower liver glycogen content in early lactation than cows subjected to FR (4.4 vs. 2.9 % of DM) [corrected], but had similar triglyceride content (13.1 ± 1.2 μg/g of DM). Fatty acid source did not influence response variables. In conclusion, eliminating intake depression by FR during the close-up period had positive carryover effects on EB and metabolic status during early lactation, but feeding linoleic and linolenic acids via unprotected oilseeds only had negligible effects on peripartum responses.

  17. Anthropogenic and natural sources of acidity and metals and their influence on the structure of stream food webs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We compared food web structure in 20 streams with either anthropogenic or natural sources of acidity and metals or circumneutral water chemistry in New Zealand. Community and diet analysis indicated that mining streams receiving anthropogenic inputs of acidic and metal-rich drainage had much simpler food webs (fewer species, shorter food chains, less links) than those in naturally acidic, naturally high metal, and circumneutral streams. Food webs of naturally high metal streams were structurally similar to those in mining streams, lacking fish predators and having few species. Whereas, webs in naturally acidic streams differed very little from those in circumneutral streams due to strong similarities in community composition and diets of secondary and top consumers. The combined negative effects of acidity and metals on stream food webs are clear. However, elevated metal concentrations, regardless of source, appear to play a more important role than acidity in driving food web structure. - Highlights: ► Food webs in acid mine drainage impacted streams are small and extremely simplified. ► Conductivity explained differences in food web properties between streams. ► Number of links and web size accounted for much dissimilarity between food webs. ► Food web structure was comparable in naturally acidic and circumneutral streams. - Food web structure differs in streams with anthropogenic and natural sources of acidity and metals.

  18. Europium complexes with trifluoroacetic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synthesis conditions and spectra-luminescent properties of different-ligand europium complexes of the composition Eu (TFA)2x2D, where TFA = anion of trifluoroacetic acid, D = 1,10-phenanthroline, 2,2-dipyridyl, triphenylphosphinoxide, hexamethyl-phosphotriamide, were studied. The compounds prepared have been characterized by the methods of elementary chemical analysis, IR and luminescence spectroscopy. It is shown that in the complex compounds two methods of coordination of the acid residue functional groups are realized, i.e. monodentate and bridge functions. The compounds were tested for resistance to UV light effect and to heating in the air. Complex with 2,2-dipyridyl proved the most thermally stable complex in the series studied, its decomposition temperature being 240 deg C

  19. Flux pinning properties of TFA-MOD (Y,Gd)Ba2Cu3Ox tapes with BaZrO3 nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A high critical current density Jc with a nearly isotropic angular dependence at 77.3 K was recently obtained by the introduction of nanoparticles to (Y,RE)Ba2Cu3Oy (RE123, RE = Sm, Gd)-coated conductors prepared by trifluoroacetate metal-organic deposition (TFA-MOD). The flux pinning properties were evaluated on the basis of detailed measurements of the upper critical field, the irreversibility field and the critical current density of the TFA-MOD RE123-coated conductor. We found that strong random pinning by the BaZrO3 nanoparticles and weak c-axis correlated pinning by twin boundaries functioned cooperatively in nanoparticles introduced to (Y, Gd)123-coated conductors prepared by TFA-MOD. The coexistence of two different pinning centers played an important role in the nearly isotropic angular dependence of Jc.

  20. 黄蜀葵总黄酮对MCAO大鼠脑细胞凋亡的影响%Effect of TFA on cell apoptosis in MCAO rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高杉; 范丽; 董六一; 赵维中; 陈志武

    2003-01-01

    目的观察黄蜀葵总黄酮(TFA)对MCAO大鼠脑细胞凋亡的影响.方法透射电镜观察TFA对脑细胞超微结构的影响,TUNEL法对TFA脑细胞凋亡的影响进行半定量观察.结果透射电镜观察发现TFA 50、100 mg*kg-1能改善脑细胞超微结构的变化,TUNEL法观察发现TFA 25、50、100 mg*kg-1能剂量依赖性地减少凋亡细胞的数目.结论 TFA能通过抗脑细胞凋亡发挥脑缺血损伤保护作用.

  1. Presence and sources of anthropogenic perfluoroalkyl acids in high-consumption tap-water based beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eschauzier, Christian; Hoppe, Maria; Schlummer, Martin; de Voogt, Pim

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the presence and sources of perfluorinated alkyl acids (PFAAs) in tap water and corresponding tap-water based beverages such as coffee and cola collected in the city of Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Exposure pathways studies have shown that low concentrations of PFAA in tap water already may pose a high contribution to daily human exposure. Tap water samples (n=4) had higher concentrations of PFAAs than the corresponding post-mixed cola (n=4). The lower PFAA levels in the cola were attributed to the pre-treatment of tap water in the mixing machines and dilution with cola syrup. In coffee samples from a coffee machine perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) at 4 ng L(-1) was the dominating analyte (n=12). The concentrations of PFHpA, PFOA and non branched PFOS were found to be significantly higher in manually (self) brewed coffee than in the corresponding tap water (n=4). The contribution from short-chain PFAA analogs could not be quantified due to low recoveries. Leaching experiments at different temperatures were performed with fluoropolymers-containing tubes to investigate the potential of leaching from tubes used in beverage preparation (n=16). Fluoropolymer tubes showed leaching of PFAAs at high (80°C) temperature but its relevance for contamination of beverages in practice is small. The specific contribution from perfluoropolymer tubing inside the beverage preparation machines could not be assessed since no information was available from the manufacturers. The present study shows that although different beverage preparation processes possibly affect the concentrations of PFAAs encountered in the final consumed product, the water used for preparation remains the most important source of PFAAs. This in turn has implications for areas where drinking water is contaminated. Tap-water based beverages will possibly be an additional source of human exposure to PFAAs and need to be considered in exposure modeling. PMID:22939265

  2. The effects of trans-fatty acids on TAG regulation in mice depend on dietary unsaturated fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saín, Juliana; González, Marcela Aída; Lavandera, Jimena Verónica; Scalerandi, María Victoria; Bernal, Claudio Adrián

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of trans-fatty acids (TFA) on liver and serum TAG regulation in mice fed diets containing different proportions of n-3, n-6 and n-9 unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) from olive (O), maize (C) or rapeseed (R) oils partially substituted or not with TFA (Ot, Ct and Rt, respectively). Male CF1 mice were fed (30 d) one of these diets. The effects of the partial substitution (1 %, w/w) of different UFA with TFA on the activity and expression of hepatic enzymes involved in lipogenesis and fatty acids oxidation were evaluated, as well as their transcription factor expressions. Some of the mechanisms involved in the serum TAG regulation, hepatic VLDL rich in TAG (VLDL-TAG) secretion rate and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity were assessed. In liver, TFA induced an increase in TAG content in the Ot and Rt groups, and this effect was associated with an imbalance between lipogenesis and β-oxidation. In the Ot group, exacerbated lipogenesis may be one of the mechanisms responsible for the liver steatosis induced by TFA, whereas in Rt it has been related to a decreased β-oxidation, compared with their respective controls. The enhanced hepatic VLDL-TAG secretion in the Ot and Rt groups was compensated with a differential removal of TAG by LPL enzyme in extrahepatic tissues, leading to unchanged serum TAG levels. In brief, the effects of low levels of TFA on liver and serum TAG regulation in mice depend on the dietary proportions of n-3, n-6 and n-9 UFA. PMID:27464460

  3. Liquid structure of acetic acid-water and trifluoroacetic acid-water mixtures studied by large-angle X-ray scattering and NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takamuku, Toshiyuki; Kyoshoin, Yasuhiro; Noguchi, Hiroshi; Kusano, Shoji; Yamaguchi, Toshio

    2007-08-01

    The structures of acetic acid (AA), trifluoroacetic acid (TFA), and their aqueous mixtures over the entire range of acid mole fraction xA have been investigated by using large-angle X-ray scattering (LAXS) and NMR techniques. The results from the LAXS experiments have shown that acetic acid molecules mainly form a chain structure via hydrogen bonding in the pure liquid. In acetic acid-water mixtures hydrogen bonds of acetic acid-water and water-water gradually increase with decreasing xA, while the chain structure of acetic acid molecules is moderately ruptured. Hydrogen bonds among water molecules are remarkably formed in acetic acid-water mixtures at xATFA molecules form not a chain structure but cyclic dimers through hydrogen bonding in the pure liquid. In TFA-water mixtures O...O hydrogen bonds among water molecules gradually increase when xA decreases, and hydrogen bonds among water molecules are significantly formed in the mixtures at xATFA molecules are considerably dissociated to hydrogen ions and trifluoroacetate in the mixtures. 1H, 13C, and 19F NMR chemical shifts of acetic acid and TFA molecules for acetic acid-water and TFA-water mixtures have indicated strong relationships between a structural change of the mixtures and the acid mole fraction. On the basis of both LAXS and NMR results, the structural changes of acetic acid-water and TFA-water mixtures with decreasing acid mole fraction and the effects of fluorination of the methyl group on the structure are discussed at the molecular level. PMID:17628099

  4. Effect of calcination conditions on microstructures and Jc of YBCO films fabricated by TFA-MOD method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    YBCO films were grown on LaAlO3 substrates by a metal organic deposition using trifluoroacetates (TFA-MOD). In the TFA-MOD method, a starting solution is coated on a substrate firstly, and then the coated film is calcined to form precursor and finally the precursor film is crystallized to form superconducting YBCO film. In this study, the effects of calcination conditions such as temperature on the microstructures and Jc properties of the YBCO films were studied. In the calcination step, spin coating and calcination were repeated three times for obtaining thick film under the maximum temperatures of 400-500 deg. C. The prepared precursor films were crystallized at a constant condition. The Jc values of the films calcined at 500 deg. C after at 400 deg. C x 2 times, 400 deg. C x 3 times and 500 deg. C x 3 times were about 1.49 MA/cm2, 2.52 MA/cm2 and 1.47 MA/cm2, respectively. Jc depended strongly on the calcination temperature. The cross-sectional TEM images showed that the YBCO film calcined at 400 deg. C x 3 times had less pores than the others. Optimization of the calcination temperature was important to suppress the formation of large precipitates in precursor film, resulting in the suppression of the large pores in the YBCO film

  5. Fabrication of GdBa2Cu3O7-x films by TFA-MOD process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → GdBCO films are deposited on LAO substrates using TFA-MOD method. → The low oxygen partial pressure suppresses the formation of the impurities phase. → The percentage of c-axis orientation is also influenced with increasing the firing temperature. → The two parameters should be controlled to obtain high performance GdBCO films. - Abstract: GdBa2Cu3O7-x (GdBCO) films have been deposited on LaAlO3 (LAO) (0 0 l) single crystal substrates by trifluoroacetate metal organic deposition (TFA-MOD) method. The effects of oxygen partial pressure and firing temperature on microstructure and critical properties of GdBCO films were discussed. The phase formation, texture and microstructure of films were characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The oxygen partial pressure was considered to play a great role for formation of impurity phase and a-axis oriented grains. The degree of c-axis orientation was also influenced by the firing temperature. The highly c-axis oriented GdBCO film obtained at 815 deg. C under an oxygen partial pressure of 100 ppm has a high performance critical current density Jc (77 K, self field) = 1.8 MA/cm2.

  6. Influence of protein source on amino acid uptake patterns and protein utilization in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rolland, Marine; Holm, Jørgen; Dalsgaard, Anne Johanne Tang;

    Matrixes of different protein sources (fish and plant products) combined with the use of crystalline amino acids allow for formulation of diets that meet fish requirements with little or no effect on protein digestibility and/or feed intake. Despite this, a total or partial replacement of fish meal...... acids to the fishmeal diet level (see Table 1). Amino acid uptake patterns were assessed by the appearance of amino acids in the blood stream following the ingestion of a meal, while dietary protein utilization was evaluated by examining the metabolic response to digestion and ammonium and urea...... induces reduced growth performances that remain partly unexplained. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of exchanging the protein source on protein utilization. Marine (fish meal) and vegetable (pea protein) sources were used with or without supplementation of crystalline amino...

  7. Development and Validation of an Acid Mine Drainage Treatment Process for Source Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, Ann [Battelle Memorial Institute, Columbus, OH (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Throughout Northern Appalachia and surrounding regions, hundreds of abandoned mine sites exist which frequently are the source of Acid Mine Drainage (AMD). AMD typically contains metal ions in solution with sulfate ions which have been leached from the mine. These large volumes of water, if treated to a minimum standard, may be of use in Hydraulic Fracturing (HF) or other industrial processes. This project’s focus is to evaluate an AMD water treatment technology for the purpose of providing treated AMD as an alternative source of water for HF operations. The HydroFlex™ technology allows the conversion of a previous environmental liability into an asset while reducing stress on potable water sources. The technology achieves greater than 95% water recovery, while removing sulfate to concentrations below 100 mg/L and common metals (e.g., iron and aluminum) below 1 mg/L. The project is intended to demonstrate the capability of the process to provide AMD as alternative source water for HF operations. The second budget period of the project has been completed during which Battelle conducted two individual test campaigns in the field. The first test campaign demonstrated the ability of the HydroFlex system to remove sulfate to levels below 100 mg/L, meeting the requirements indicated by industry stakeholders for use of the treated AMD as source water. The second test campaign consisted of a series of focused confirmatory tests aimed at gathering additional data to refine the economic projections for the process. Throughout the project, regular communications were held with a group of project stakeholders to ensure alignment of the project objectives with industry requirements. Finally, the process byproduct generated by the HydroFlex process was evaluated for the treatment of produced water against commercial treatment chemicals. It was found that the process byproduct achieved similar results for produced water treatment as the chemicals currently in use. Further

  8. Use of corn steep liquor as an economical nitrogen source for biosuccinic acid production by Actinobacillus succinogenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, J. P.; Jahim, J. M.; Wu, T. Y.; Harun, S.; Mumtaz, T.

    2016-06-01

    Expensive raw materials are the driving force that leads to the shifting of the petroleum-based succinic acid production into bio-based succinic acid production by microorganisms. Cost of fermentation medium is among the main factors contributing to the total production cost of bio-succinic acid. After carbon source, nitrogen source is the second largest component of the fermentation medium, the cost of which has been overlooked for the past years. The current study aimed at replacing yeast extract- a costly nitrogen source with corn steep liquor for economical production of bio-succinic acid by Actinobacillus succinogenes 130Z. In this study, a final succinic acid concentration of 20.6 g/L was obtained from the use of corn steep liquor as the nitrogen source, which was comparable with the use of yeast extract as the nitrogen source that had a final succinate concentration of 21.4 g/l. In terms of economical wise, corn steep liquor was priced at 200 /ton, which was one fifth of the cost of yeast extract at 1000 /ton. Therefore, corn steep liquor can be considered as a potential nitrogen source in biochemical industries instead of the costly yeast extract.

  9. Mitochondrial Transcription Factors TFA, TFB1 and TFB2: A Search for DNA Variants/Haplotypes and the Risk of Cardiac Hypertrophy

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina Alonso-Montes; Castro, Mónica G.; Julián R. Reguero; Andreas Perrot; Cemil Özcelik; Christian Geier; Posch, Maximilian G.; César Morís; Victoria Alvarez; Marta Ruiz-Ortega; Eliecer Coto

    2008-01-01

    Mitochondrial transcription factors mtTFA, mtTFB1 and mtTFB2 are required for the replication of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), regulating the number of mtDNA copies. Mice with a mtTFA deletion showed a reduced number of mtDNA copies, a reduction in respiratory chain activity, and a characteristic dilated cardiomyopathy. DNA variants in these genes could be involved in the risk for cardiac hypertrophy (HCM). We determined the variation in the TFAM, TFB1M, and TFB2M genes (using SSCA, DHPLC, and d...

  10. 在1-乙基咪唑三氟乙酸盐离子液体中合成的聚吡咯对草酸的电催化氧化%Electro-oxidation of oxalic acid with polypyrrole prepared in 1-ethylimidazolium trifluoroacetate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李美超; 沈振陆; 马淳安; 高云芳

    2006-01-01

    The electrochemical oxidation of oxalic acid is important in environmental engineering.In this paper,polypyrrole(PPy)was prepared galvanostatically in an ionic liquid 1-ethylimidazolium trifluoroacetate(HEImTfa)and its electro-catalysis function for the electrochemical oxidation of oxalic acid was investigated by using cyclic voltammetry.The results showed that the electro-catalytic activity of PPy prepared in HEImTfa(PPy-HEImTfa)was greatly improved as compared with that prepared in conventional H2SO4 aqueous solution.Therefore,the use of HEImTfa as growth electrolyte and solvent for electro-polymerization of pyrrole resulted in an electrochemically catalytic film of PPy for the electro-oxidation of oxalic acid.

  11. The harm of tras-fatty acid in animal products and its detection method%反式脂肪酸在畜产品中的危害及检测方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁榕旺; 顾小卫; 王潍波; 张骞; 徐淑莉

    2009-01-01

    反式脂肪酸(trans-fatty acids,TFA)是一类含有反式双键的不饱和脂肪酸.膳食中含有大量的TFA,摄入过多将增加患糖尿病、心脏病、癌症等疾病的几率.本文对TFA的结构、来源、危害及其检测方法作一综述.

  12. 2,6-Diaminopimelic acid (DAPA in microbial protein quantification of heifers fed different forage sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristovão Colombo de Carvalho Couto Filho

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the flow of nitrogenous compounds, protein degradability, rumen degradation of total carbohydrate and organic matter and microbial efficiency in heifers subjected to diets containing corn silage, sugarcane or Tifton. For this purpose, the 2,6-diaminopimelic acid (DAPA technique was adopted and analytical procedures for amino acids by HPLC were adapted. Six rumen-fistulated Holstein-Zebu heifers with 480 kg of initial BW and at 24 months of age kept in individual tie stalls were assigned to two 3 × 3 Latin squares. Omasal digesta dry matter and microbial dry matter flows were determined using the isolated, purified and enriched lignin (LIPE® and DAPA markers, respectively. Isolated bacteria from rumen showed on average 5.84 g/100 g microbial N, 0.25 g/100 g DAPA in dry matter and 44.61 DAPA:N ratio. The forage sources did not influence the flows of nitrogen compounds, except for total omasal flow and non-ammonia N in relation to N intake for the corn silage diet, for which there was an upward trend compared with the other diets. The degradation of the organic matter and total carbohydrates did not differ, averaging 6.1 kg/day and 5.2 kg/day, respectively. The studied forage sources do not influence the flows of nitrogen compounds, except for total omasal flow and non-ammonia N in relation N intake for the corn silage diet, for which there is an upward trend compared with the other diets. Protein degradability and microbial efficiency are similar between evaluated diets.

  13. Preliminary study on preparation of BCNO phosphor particles using citric acid as carbon source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuryadin, Bebeh W.; Pratiwi, Tripuspita; Faryuni, Irfana D.; Iskandar, Ferry, E-mail: ferry@fi.itb.ac.id; Abdullah, Mikrajuddin; Khairurrijal [Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Ganesha 10 Bandung, Indonesia 40132 (Indonesia); Ogi, Takashi; Okuyama, Kikuo [Department of Chemical Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Hiroshima University, 1-4-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi Hiroshima, Japan 739-8527 (Japan)

    2015-04-16

    A citric acid was used as a carbon source in the preparation of boron carbon oxy-nitride (BCNO) phosphor particles by a facile process. The preparation process was conducted at relatively low temperature 750 °C and at ambient pressure. The prepared BCNO phosphors showed a high photoluminescence (PL) performance at peak emission wavelength of 470 nm under excitation by a UV light 365 nm. The effects of carbon/boron and nitrogen/boron molar ratios on the PL properties were also investigated. The result showed that the emission spectra with a wavelength peak ranging from 444 nm to 496 nm can be obtained by varying carbon/boron ratios from 0.1 to 0.9. In addition, the observations showed that the BCNO phosphor material has two excitation peaks located at the 365 nm (UV) and 420 nm (blue). Based on these observations, we believe that the citric acid derived BCNO phosphor particles can be a promising inexpensive material for phosphor conversion-based white LED.

  14. Isolation and Selection of Anti-Candida albicans Metabolites Producing Lactic Acid Bacteria from Various Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanes SUNGSRI

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Five hundred and fifty-two of lactic acid bacteria (LAB have been isolated and screened from fermented foods, natural sources and dairy effluents on De Mann Rogosa Sharpe (MRS agar. Fifty-one isolates, in the percentile of 9.24, produced the secondary metabolites that could inhibit the growth of Candida albicans BCC6120 by using dual culture overlay assay. The culture broth of LAB, moreover, showed anti-C. albicans activity in acidic condition at pH range of 3.0-5.0 by using agar well diffusion method. Interestingly, the isolate L-47-2 showed much more colonization surrounding the surface of sterile toothpick and test tube when growing in MRS broth. The identification of isolate L-47-2 by morphological and biochemical characteristics using API 50 CHL Test Kit and further confirmed by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that isolate L47-2 was similar to Lactobacillus paracasei with 99% nucleotide identity.    

  15. Honeybees and beehives are rich sources for fructophilic lactic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Akihito; Salminen, Seppo

    2013-09-01

    Fructophilic lactic acid bacteria (FLAB) are a specific group of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) characterized and described only recently. They prefer fructose as growth substrate and inhabit only fructose-rich niches. Honeybees are high-fructose-consuming insects and important pollinators in nature, but reported to be decreasing in the wild. In the present study, we analyzed FLAB microbiota in honeybees, larvae, fresh honey and bee pollen. A total of 66 strains of LAB were isolated from samples using a selective isolation technique for FLAB. Surprisingly, all strains showed fructophilic characteristics. The 66 strains and ten FLAB strains isolated from flowers in a separate study were genotypically separated into six groups, four of which being identified as Lactobacillus kunkeei and two as Fructobacillus fructosus. One of the L. kunkeei isolates showed antibacterial activity against Melissococcus plutonius, a causative pathogen of European foulbrood, this protection being attributable to production of an antibacterial peptide or protein. Culture-independent analysis suggested that bee products and larvae contained simple Lactobacillus-group microbiota, dominated by L. kunkeei, although adult bees carried a more complex microbiota. The findings clearly demonstrate that honeybees and their products are rich sources of FLAB, and FLAB are potential candidates for future bee probiotics. PMID:23845309

  16. Photocatalytic degradation of commercially sourced naphthenic acids by TiO2-graphene composite nanomaterial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Juncheng; Wang, Lin; Tang, Jingchun; Ma, Jianli

    2016-04-01

    Naphthenic acids (NAs) are a major contributor to the toxicity in oil sands process-affected water (OSPW), which is produced by hot water extraction of bitumen. NAs are extremely difficult to be degraded due to its complex ring and side chain structure. Photocatalysis is recognized as a promising technology in the removal of refractory organic pollutants. In this work, TiO2-graphene (P25-GR) composites were synthesized by means of solvothermal method. The results showed that P25-GR composite exhibited better photocatalytic activity than pure P25. The removal efficiency of naphthenic acids in acid solution was higher than that in neutral and alkaline solutions. It was the first report ever known on the photodegradation of NAs based on graphene, and this process achieved a higher removal rate than other photocatalysis degradation of NAs in a shorter reaction time. LC/MS analysis showed that macromolecular NAs (carbon number 17-22, z value -2) were easy to be degraded than the micromolecular ones (carbon number 11-16, z value -2). Furthermore, the reactive oxygen species that play the main role in the photocatalysis system were studied. It was found that holes and ·OH were the main reactive species in the UV/P25-GR photocatalysis system. Given the high removal efficiency of refractory organic pollutants and the short degradation time, photodegradation based on composite catalysts has a broad and practical prospect. The study on the photodegradation of commercially sourced NAs may provide a guidance for the degradation of OSPW NAs by this method. PMID:26874061

  17. Photocatalytic degradation of commercially sourced naphthenic acids by TiO2-graphene composite nanomaterial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Juncheng; Wang, Lin; Tang, Jingchun; Ma, Jianli

    2016-04-01

    Naphthenic acids (NAs) are a major contributor to the toxicity in oil sands process-affected water (OSPW), which is produced by hot water extraction of bitumen. NAs are extremely difficult to be degraded due to its complex ring and side chain structure. Photocatalysis is recognized as a promising technology in the removal of refractory organic pollutants. In this work, TiO2-graphene (P25-GR) composites were synthesized by means of solvothermal method. The results showed that P25-GR composite exhibited better photocatalytic activity than pure P25. The removal efficiency of naphthenic acids in acid solution was higher than that in neutral and alkaline solutions. It was the first report ever known on the photodegradation of NAs based on graphene, and this process achieved a higher removal rate than other photocatalysis degradation of NAs in a shorter reaction time. LC/MS analysis showed that macromolecular NAs (carbon number 17-22, z value -2) were easy to be degraded than the micromolecular ones (carbon number 11-16, z value -2). Furthermore, the reactive oxygen species that play the main role in the photocatalysis system were studied. It was found that holes and ·OH were the main reactive species in the UV/P25-GR photocatalysis system. Given the high removal efficiency of refractory organic pollutants and the short degradation time, photodegradation based on composite catalysts has a broad and practical prospect. The study on the photodegradation of commercially sourced NAs may provide a guidance for the degradation of OSPW NAs by this method.

  18. Fatty acid composition including trans isomers of Serbian biscuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kravić Snežana Ž.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An experimental study was carried out with the aim of evaluating the quality of the lipid fraction of Serbian biscuits. Total fat contents of the biscuit samples ranged between 10.2% and 24.5%. The saturated, cis-monounsaturated and cis-polyunsaturated fatty acid contents were within the ranges of 18.585.6%, 10.649.9% and 2.713.3% of total fatty acids, respectively. The content of trans fatty acids (TFA ranged from 0.0% to 42.5% and the mean was 10.2%. In a total of 34 investigated samples, 10 of them were found to be trans - free, 8 contained low level of TFA (under 2%, 4 samples contained between 2 and 10% of TFA, while 12 samples contained very high amounts of TFA (12.042.5%. The results obtained showed a considerable variability in fatty acid composition of biscuits which indicated that different types of fats and oils were used for production of biscuits in Serbia.

  19. Predominance and sources of alkane and fatty acid biomarkers in the surface sediments of Chitrapuzha River (South India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanil Kumar, K S; Nair, S M

    2015-04-01

    Surface sediment samples were collected from Chitrapuzha (Cochin) estuarine system to identify the natural and anthropogenic origin of organic matter. The distribution and sources of organic matter were assessed with the help of fatty acid and alkane biomarkers. Fatty acids ranging from C12 to C28 were identified and C16:0 was the most abundant fatty acid, which contributed between 23.5 % and 52.4 % to total fatty acids. The low levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids indicate the effective bacterial recycling of algal fatty acids during the whole settling and depositing process. Aliphatic hydrocarbons ranging from C12 to C33 were identified and the total concentration ranged from 7876 to 43,357 ng g(-1). The presence of unresolved complex mixtures and lower pristane to phytane ratios indicates the petroleum contamination in the study area. PMID:25694163

  20. Detection of sudden structural damage using blind source separation and time-frequency approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morovati, V.; Kazemi, M. T.

    2016-05-01

    Seismic signal processing is one of the most reliable methods of detecting the structural damage during earthquakes. In this paper, the use of the hybrid method of blind source separation (BSS) and time-frequency analysis (TFA) is explored to detect the changes in the structural response data. The combination of the BSS and TFA is applied to the seismic signals due to the non-stationary nature of them. Firstly, the second-order blind identification technique is used to decompose the response signal of structural vibration into modal coordinate signals which will be mono-components for TFA. Then each mono-component signal is analyzed to extract instantaneous frequency of structure. Numerical simulations and a real-world seismic-excited structure with time-varying frequencies show the accuracy and robustness of the developed algorithm. TFA of extracted sources shows that used method can be successfully applied to structural damage detection. The results also demonstrate that the combined method can be used to identify the time instant of structural damage occurrence more sharply and effectively than by the use of TFA alone.

  1. Occurrence, structures and estimation of daily intake of trans fatty acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milovanović Mirjana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The present review provides an outline of the current knowledge of trans fatty acids (TFA including their structure and formation, occurrence in foods, especially in meat and meat products, and some estimation and evaluation of daily intake. Special emphasis is put on conjugated linoleic acids (CLA, related to unique beneficial physiological properties, such as on cancer inhibition via the immune system.

  2. Occurrence, structures and estimation of daily intake of trans fatty acids

    OpenAIRE

    Milovanović Mirjana

    2009-01-01

    The present review provides an outline of the current knowledge of trans fatty acids (TFA) including their structure and formation, occurrence in foods, especially in meat and meat products, and some estimation and evaluation of daily intake. Special emphasis is put on conjugated linoleic acids (CLA), related to unique beneficial physiological properties, such as on cancer inhibition via the immune system.

  3. Research on the Characteristics of Multilayer YBCO Superconducting Film Prepared with TFA-MOD Method%TFA-MOD法制备多层YBCO超导薄膜的特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晋

    2014-01-01

    采用TFA-MOD法在LaAlO2单晶基片上制备出了五层YBa2Cu3O7-δ薄膜,膜层总厚度为1μm,临界电流密度Jc达到1.6 MA/cm2,临界电流Ic为160 A/cm.单层膜与三层膜的Jc值分别为3.5、1.75 MA/cm2;三层膜和五层膜截面TEM形貌中均无裂纹和明显空洞产生,各层之间的界面平滑.随着膜层厚度的增加,临界电流密度降低,主要原因可能是膜性能的劣化.

  4. Biological treatment of acidic coal refuse using sulphate-reducing bacteria with chicken manure as carbon source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mingliang; Wang, Haixia

    2014-01-01

    The performance of using chicken manure as carbon source to promote sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) activity within acidic coal refuse to prevent the generation of acidic leachate was investigated in batch and column bioreactors. The bioreactors showed satisfactory performance in biological sulphate reduction, evidenced by the increase in effluent pH, high removal efficiencies of sulphate and metals, and the presence of large numbers of SRB. Scanning electron microscope-energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS) analysis of the formed precipitate indicated the formation of metal sulphides. Chicken manure was observed to play an important role in this treatment, which could not only provide carbon source but also reduce the adverse effect of strong acidity and metal toxicity on SRB activity. Metal removal could be mainly attributed to sulphides precipitation and sorption to chicken manure. This study indicated that SRB with chicken manure could be a novel alternative used for the prevention of acidic leachate from coal refuse. PMID:25189842

  5. Effect of metal composition ratios of solutions on Jc-B properties of REBCO coated conductors fabricated by advanced TFA-MOD process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metal organic deposition using trifluoroacetates (TFA-MOD) is expected as a low cost process of high Tc superconducting coated conductors, since this method does not need any high vacuum system. The advanced TFA-MOD process enabled us to produce YBa2Cu3O7-y (YBCO) films on IBAD buffered metallic substrates (PLD-CeO2/IBAD-GZO/Hastelloy) with high critical current density (Jc) values over 2 MA/cm2 under the conditions of T = 77 K and the self fields. REBCO (RE:Y and Sm) films with different compositions were fabricated on the substrates by the advanced TFA-MOD process using TFA salts of Y, Sm, Ba and Cu-Naphthenate. The films which had excess amounts of (Sm), (Sm and Cu) or (Y and Cu) in addition to the stoichiometric 123 composition (Y:Ba:Cu = 1:2:3) showed higher Jc values (>3 MA/cm2) at 77 K under the self fields compared with that of the stoichiometric composition film. In addition, the Jc values of the (Sm) or (Sm and Cu) added films were also improved under the high magnetic fields compared with that of the stoichiometric composition film. The origins of pinning centers were discussed from the perspectives of microstructures, crystal growth mechanisms, and so on

  6. TFaNS Tone Fan Noise Design/Prediction System. Volume 1; System Description, CUP3D Technical Documentation and Manual for Code Developers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topol, David A.

    1999-01-01

    TFaNS is the Tone Fan Noise Design/Prediction System developed by Pratt & Whitney under contract to NASA Lewis (presently NASA Glenn). The purpose of this system is to predict tone noise emanating from a fan stage including the effects of reflection and transmission by the rotor and stator and by the duct inlet and nozzle. These effects have been added to an existing annular duct/isolated stator noise prediction capability. TFaNS consists of: The codes that compute the acoustic properties (reflection and transmission coefficients) of the various elements and write them to files. Cup3D: Fan Noise Coupling Code that reads these files, solves the coupling problem, and outputs the desired noise predictions. AWAKEN: CFD/Measured Wake Postprocessor which reformats CFD wake predictions and/or measured wake data so it can be used by the system. This volume of the report provides technical background for TFaNS including the organization of the system and CUP3D technical documentation. This document also provides information for code developers who must write Acoustic Property Files in the CUP3D format. This report is divided into three volumes: Volume I: System Description, CUP3D Technical Documentation, and Manual for Code Developers; Volume II: User's Manual, TFaNS Vers. 1.4; Volume III: Evaluation of System Codes.

  7. EFFECT OF NITROGEN SOURCE AND INITIAL SUGAR CONCENTRATION ON LACTIC ACID FERMENTATION OF PINEAPPLE WASTE USING L.DELBRUECKII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Moch Busairi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The liquid pineapple waste contains mainly sucrose, glucose, fructose and other nutrients. It therefore can potentially be used as carbon source for lactic acid fermentation. The lactic acid is utilised in food technology as pH regulator, microbial preservative, buffering agent and in the chemical industry. Recently, lactic acid has been considered to be an important raw material for production of biodegradable lactate polymer. The experiments were carried out in batch fermentation at anaerobic condition with stirring speed: 50 rpm, temperature: 40 oC, pH: 6.0, and inoculum size: 5%. Effect of nitrogen source and initial sugar concentration were studied. The effect of nitrogen source on lactic acid production shows that the yeast extract is highest yield , followed by urea , corn steep liquor, malt sprout and ammonium sulphates with the yield of 78.52; 26.68; 19.14; 14.10 and 5.6 %, respectively. The highest yield of initial sugar concentration on lactic acid production obtained was 78.52 % (54.97 g/l at 70 g/l, if the concentration of sugar was increased to 110 g/l , the lactic acid production or yield decrease to51.53 g/l or 54.24%.

  8. Resistivity-temperature characteristics of Y-deficient YBCO thin films derived by TFA-MOD method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Y-deficient Y1-xBa2Cu3O7-δ films (x=0, 0.05, 0.1) are fabricated on LaAlO3 (0 0 1) single crystal substrates using trifluoroacetate-based metalorganic deposition (TFA-MOD). X-ray diffraction patterns show that all films are highly c-axis oriented. The measurement of the resistance transition broadening under the applied magnetic field perpendicular to the surfaces of YBCO films indicates that a slight Y-deficiency (Y0.95Ba2Cu3O7-δ) in YBCO films is favorable to improve flux pinning. However, a further increasing of Y-deficiency (Y0.9Ba2Cu3O7-δ) leads to the degeneration of flux pinning abilities. The improvement of flux pinning may be related to the BaCuO2 phase particles with submicrometer scale or the defects induced by slight Y-deficiency

  9. Ionic liquid-assisted solublization for improved enzymatic esterification of phenolic acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Zhiyong; Guo, Zheng; Xu, Xuebing

    2012-01-01

    Phenolic acids are very difficult to dissolve in most of solvent, which lead to low yield and long reaction time for production of lipophilic phenolic derivatives according to previous studies.This work is focused on increasing production of lipophilic phenolic derivatives catalyzed by Novozym 435...... in a binary system, which is composed of ionic liquid tOMA•TFA (trioctylmethylammonium Trifluoroacetate) and octanol. Ionic liquid tOMA•TFA has great solubility towards most of phenolic acid. The strategy of increasing the solubility of phenolic in ionic liquid tOMA•TFA was proved to be an efficient way......C was slightly higher than at 60 oC and 80 oC. Removing water by molecular sieves and vacuum has significant improvement on the conversion. Even though the conversion was much higher when the concentration of DHCA was 0.4 M, the highest reaction rate was observed when the concertration of DHCA was 1.6 M, which...

  10. JC properties and microstructures of YBCO films fabricated by low temperature calcination in TFA-MOD method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    YBa2Cu3O7-δ (YBCO) films were grown on LaAlO3 substrates by a metal organic deposition using trifluoroacetates (TFA-MOD). In this study, effects of calcination condition such as temperature on microstructures and Jc properties for the YBCO films were studied. The TFA starting solution was coated on a substrate by a spin-coating method. Then, a two-step heat treatment was applied to the coated films. In the calcination step, the coated film was calcined to form a homogeneous amorphous precursor by increasing the temperature which was varied from 300 deg. C to 500 deg. C at a constant heating rate of 2 deg. C/min. The prepared precursor films were crystallized at a constant condition. As a result, Jc value depended on the calcination temperature, YBCO film calcined at 400 deg. C showed the highest Jc of 2.5 MA/cm2. Jc's for the YBCO films calcined at 300 deg. C and 350 deg. C were 1.9 MA/cm2 and 2.0 MA/cm2, respectively. On the other hand, YBCO film calcined at 500 deg. C showed the lowest Jc of 1.4 MA/cm2. Cross-sectional TEM images showed that the YBCO film calcined at 400 deg. C had less pores and small size of pores in the crystallized film randomly throughout the film. Large pores were observed in the YBCO film calcined at 500 deg. C. Also, these large pores were existed near substrate in the YBCO film. It is considered that the differences of these pore formation mechanisms are the main cause of the difference of Jc characteristic.

  11. Effective thickness of CeO2 buffer layer for YBCO coated conductor by advanced TFA-MOD process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    YBCO films were fabricated on PLD-CeO2/IBAD-Gd2Zr2O7/Hastelloy substrates using the advanced TFA-MOD process. The effective thickness of the CeO2 buffer layer for obtaining high Ic was investigated in short samples of YBCO films. The CeO2 buffer layer was epitaxially grown on an IBAD-Gd2Zr2O7 template tape with 18 deg. of Δφ by a reel-to-reel PLD system. The in-plane grain alignment of PLD-CeO2 buffer layers rapidly improved with the thickness and saturated at a critical thickness of 0.8 μm. The size of CeO2 grains was about 1 μm at the saturated thickness of Δφ. YBCO films with the thickness of 1 μm were deposited by the TFA-MOD on the CeO2 buffer layer with different thickness films. Improvement of the CeO2 in-plane grain alignment resulted in increase of Ic. The Ic values of 250-290 A were obtained with the CeO2 layer thicker than 0.8 μm. The CeO2 thickness, at which the intensity ratio of the BaCeO3 was saturated, corresponded to the critical thickness. From the view points of achieving higher production rates and to obtain the CeO2 Δφ value of 5 deg. as well as considering the reaction between YBCO and CeO2, the optimum thickness of the CeO2 buffer layer on the IBAD-Gd2Zr2O7 with 18 deg. of Δφ was found to be at least 0.8 μm

  12. Application of environmental forensics to identify the sources of ground water contamination using amino acid "finger print"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, J.; Kim, J.; Park, J.; Nam, Y.; Lee, J.; Yoo, E.; Kim, H.; Lee, W.; Choe, S.; Han, J.

    2011-12-01

    The analysis of patterns of amino acids of the leachate from livestock burial site and the wastewater from the manure treatment plant was performed to trace the source of NO3-N contamination in groundwater near mass burial sites. Amino acid was analyzed with LC-MSMS using ODS-II column after the derivatiztion with PITC (phenylisothiocyanate) by following Edman Method. The average concentration of amino acid in the burial leachate was 531.90 mg/L and livestock wastewater was 1.75 mg/L. The concentration of burial leachate is about 300 times higher than that of livestock wastewater. The order of the concentration of each amino acid which were commonly detected in leachate was Valin > Leucine > Isoleucin. On the other hands, livestock wastewater showed different trend (Alanine > Lysine > Valine). Six amino acids among 20 amino acids which were stably detected in leachate and livestock wastewater were selected and compared with peak pattern. By determining the relative ratio of concentrations of amino acids (Ile/Val, Leu/Trp, Val/Trp, Lys/Leu, Lys/Ile, Met/Lys) in the same sample, the sources of the contamination was concluded. Based on this analysis using those indicators, samples affected by livestock wastewater were 43.0% (324 samples) and samples influenced by fertilizer or compost were 57.0% (470 samples) among 754 samples. Any sample among 754 samples didn't seem to be effected by leachate of nearby burial site.

  13. Haloacetic acids in the aquatic environment. Part I: macrophyte toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, Mark L.; Solomon, Keith R

    2004-08-01

    Haloacetic acids (HAAs) are contaminants of aquatic ecosystems with numerous sources, both anthropogenic and natural. The toxicity of HAAs to aquatic plants is generally uncharacterized. Laboratory tests were conducted with three macrophytes (Lemna gibba, Myriophyllum sibiricum and Myriophyllum spicatum) to assess the toxicity of five HAAs. Myriophyllum spp. has been proposed as required test species for pesticide registration in North America, but few studies have been conducted under standard test conditions. The HAAs in the present experiments were monochloroacetic acid (MCA), dichloroacetic acid (DCA), trichloroacetic acid (TCA), trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) and chlorodifluoroacetic acid (CDFA). MCA was the most toxic to Myriophyllum spp. with EC{sub 50} values ranging from 8 to 12.4 mg/l depending on the endpoint, followed by DCA (EC{sub 50} range 62-722.5 mg/l), TCA (EC{sub 50} range 49.5-1702.6 mg/l), CDFA (EC{sub 50} range 105.3 to >10,000 mg/l) and with TFA (EC{sub 50} range 222.1 to 10,000 mg/l) the least toxic. Generally, L. gibba was less sensitive to HAA toxicity than Myriophyllum spp., with the difference in toxicity between them approximately threefold. The range of toxicity within Myriophyllum spp. was normally less than twofold. Statistically, plant length and node number were the most sensitive endpoints as they had the lowest observed coefficients of variation, but they were not the most sensitive to HAA toxicity. Toxicological sensitivity of endpoints varied depending on the measure of effect chosen and the HAA, with morphological endpoints usually an order of magnitude more sensitive than pigments for all plant species. Overall, mass and root measures tended to be the most sensitive indicators of HAA toxicity. The data from this paper were subsequently used in an ecological risk assessment for HAAs and aquatic plants. The assessment found HAAs to be of low risk to aquatic macrophytes and the results are described in the second manuscript of this

  14. Water Kefir grain as a source of potent dextran producing lactic acid bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davidović Slađana Z.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Water kefir is abeverage fermented by a microbial consortium captured in kefir grains. The kefir grains matrix is composed of polysaccharide, primarily dextran, whichis produced by members of the microbial consortium. In this study, we have isolated lactic acid bacteria (LAB from non-commercial water kefir grains (from Belgrade, Serbia and screened for dextran production. Among twelve Lisolates threeproduced slime colonies on modified MRS (mMRS agar containing sucrose instead of glucoseand were presumed to produce dextran. Three LABwere identified based on morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics and 16S rRNA sequencing as Leuconostoc mesenteroides(strains T1 and T3 and Lactobacillus hilgardii (strain T5. The isolated strains were able to synthesize a substantial amount of dextran in mMRS broth containing 5% sucrose. Maximal yields (11.56, 18.00 and 18.46 g/l were obtained after 16h, 20h and 32h for T1, T3 and T5, respectively. Optimal temperature for dextran production was 23oC for two Leuconostoc mesenteroides strains and 30oC for Lactobacillus hilgardii strain. The produced dextrans were identified based on paper chromatography while the main structure characteristics of purified dextranwere observed by FT-IR spectroscopy. Our study shows that water kefir grains are a natural source of potent dextranproducing LAB. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31035

  15. Growth of bacteria on 3-nitropropionic acid as a sole source of carbon, nitrogen, and energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishino, Shirley F; Shin, Kwanghee A; Payne, Rayford B; Spain, Jim C

    2010-06-01

    3-Nitropropionic acid (3NPA) is a widespread nitroaliphatic toxin found in a variety of legumes and fungi. Several enzymes have been reported that can transform the compound, but none led to the mineralization of 3NPA. We report here the isolation of bacteria that grow on 3NPA and its anion, propionate-3-nitronate (P3N), as the sole source of carbon, nitrogen, and energy. Experiments with resting cells, cell extracts, and purified enzymes indicate that the pathway involves conversion of 3NPA to P3N, which upon denitration yields malonic semialdehyde, nitrate, nitrite, and traces of H(2)O(2). Malonic semialdehyde is decarboxylated to acetyl coenzyme A. The gene that encodes the enzyme responsible for the denitration of P3N was cloned and expressed, and the enzyme was purified. Stoichiometry of the reaction indicates that the enzyme is a monooxygenase. The gene sequence is related to a large group of genes annotated as 2-nitropropane dioxygenases, but the P3N monooxygenase and closely related enzymes form a cluster within COG2070 that differs from previously characterized 2-nitropropane dioxygenases by their substrate specificities and reaction products. The results suggest that the P3N monooxygenases enable bacteria to exploit 3NPA in natural habitats as a growth substrate. PMID:20382807

  16. Production of gluconic acid using Micrococcus sp.: optimisation of carbon and nitrogen sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, V D; Sreekantiah, K R; Manjrekar, S P

    1996-01-01

    A process for production of gluconic acid from glucose by a Micrococcus sp. is described. More than 400 bacterial cultures isolated from local soil were tested for gluconic acid production. Three isolates, were selected on basis of their ability to produce gluconic acid and high titrable acidity. These were identified as Micrococcus sp. and were named M 27, M 54 and M 81. Nutritional and other parameters for maximum production of gluconic acid by the selected isolates were optimised. It was found that Micrococcus sp. isolate M 27 gave highest yield of 8.19 g gluconic acid from 9 g glucose utilised giving 91% conversion effeciency.

  17. Efficient production of l-lactic acid using co-feeding strategy based on cane molasses/glucose carbon sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ke; Xu, Ping

    2014-02-01

    L-Lactic acid is an important platform chemical, which ought to be produced under cost control to meet its huge demand. Cane molasses, a waste from sugar manufacturing processes, is hopeful to be utilized as a cheap carbon source for L-lactic acid fermentation. Considering that cane molasses contains nutrients and hazardous substances, efficient production of L-lactic acid was developed by using a co-feeding strategy based on the utilization of cane molasses/glucose carbon sources. Based on the medium optimization with response surface method, 168.3g/L L-lactic acid was obtained by a Bacillus coagulans strain H-1 after 78h fed-batch fermentation, with a productivity of 2.1g/Lh and a yield of 0.88g/g. Since cane molasses is a feasible carbon source, the co-feeding fermentation might be a promising alternative for the economical production of L-lactic acid. PMID:24333698

  18. USE OF STABLE CARBON ISOTOPE RATIOS OF FATTY ACIDS TO EVALUATE MICROBIAL CARBON SOURCES IN TERRESTRIAL ENVIRONMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    We use measurements of the concentration and stable carbon isotopic ratio (D 13C) of individual microbial phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) in soils as indicators of live microbial biomass levels and microbial carbon source. We found that intensive sugar cane cultivation leads to ...

  19. sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Yin Chiang

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study the simplified models of the ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode multiplexer network with Bernoulli random traffic sources. Based on the model, the performance measures are analyzed by the different output service schemes.

  20. Omega-3 fatty acid production from enzyme saccharified hemp hydrolysate using a novel marine thraustochytrid strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Adarsha; Abraham, Reinu E; Barrow, Colin J; Puri, Munish

    2015-05-01

    In this work, a newly isolated marine thraustochytrid strain, Schizochytrium sp. DT3, was used for omega-3 fatty acid production by growing on lignocellulose biomass obtained from local hemp hurd (Cannabis sativa) biomass. Prior to enzymatic hydrolysis, hemp was pretreated with sodium hydroxide to open the biomass structure for the production of sugar hydrolysate. The thraustochytrid strain was able to grow on the sugar hydrolysate and accumulated polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). At the lowest carbon concentration of 2%, the PUFAs productivity was 71% in glucose and 59% in the sugars hydrolysate, as a percentage of total fatty acids. Saturated fatty acids (SFAs) levels were highest at about 49% of TFA using 6% glucose as the carbon source. SFAs of 41% were produced using 2% of SH. This study demonstrates that SH produced from lignocellulose biomass is a potentially useful carbon source for the production of omega-3 fatty acids in thraustochytrids, as demonstrated using the new strain, Schizochytrium sp. DT3. PMID:25497057

  1. Production of extracellular ferulic acid esterases by Lactobacillus strains using natural and synthetic carbon sources

    OpenAIRE

    Dominik Szwajgier; Anna Jakubczyk

    2011-01-01

    Background. Ferulic acid esterases (FAE, EC 3.1.1.73), also known as feruloyl esterases, cinnamic acid esterases or cinnamoyl esterases, belong to a common group of hydrolases distributed in the plant kingdom. Especially the fungal enzymes were very well characterised in the past whereas the enzyme was rarely found in the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains. It is well known that strong antioxidants free phenolic acids can be released from the dietary fiber by the action of intestinal microflo...

  2. Effect of dietary fat sources on fatty acid deposition and lipid metabolism in broiler chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smink, W.; Gerrits, W.J.J.; Hovenier, R.; Geelen, M.J.H.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Beynen, A.C.

    2010-01-01

    The hypothesis tested was that dietary vegetable fats rich in saturated fatty acids, when compared with a vegetable oil rich in linoleic acid, increase fat deposition in broiler chickens and affect synthesis or oxidation, or both, of individual fatty acids. Diets with native sunflower oil (SO), a 50

  3. L-dehydroascorbic acid can substitute L-ascorbic acid as dietary vitamin C source in guinea pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frikke-Schmidt, Henriette Rønne; Tveden-Nyborg, Pernille; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin C deficiency globally affects several hundred million people and has been associated with increased morbidity and mortality in numerous studies. In this study, bioavailability of the oxidized form of vitamin C (l-dehydroascorbic acid or DHA)-commonly found in vitamin C containing food...

  4. Echium oil: A valuable source of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIR Miquel

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Echium oil is a vegetable oil of non-GMO plant origin extracted from the seeds of Echium plantagineum containing significant amounts of omega-3 fatty acid Stearidonic Acid (SDA and omega-6 acid γ-linolenic acid (GLA. Typical fatty acid composition of Echium oil is: Oleic acid (18:1 n-9 16%, Linoleic acid (LA, 18:2 n-6 19%, γ-linolenic acid (GLA, 18:3 n-610%, α-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3 n-3 30% and Stearidonic acid (SDA, 18:4 n-3 13%. This natural ratio of fatty acids, trough their metabolism, deliver enhanced plasma concentrations of eicosapentaenoic (EPA, 20:5 n-3, docosapentaenoic (DPA, 22:5 n-3 and dihomo-γ-linolenic (DGLA, 20:3 n-6 acids without increasing the concentrations of arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4 n-6. GLA is commonly associated with the anti-inflammatory effects of oils such as evening primrose oil and borage oil. Supplementation with GLA can markedly increase serum AA with subsequent pro-inflammatory effects. The presence of stearidonic acid in echium oil prevents the accumulation of serum AA and AA-derived eicosanoids without preventing the accumulation of DGLA which is the real n-6 precursor of anti-inflammatory eicosanoids. SDA is an intermediate in the biosynthetic conversion of ALA to EPA. As SDA is the product of the rate-limiting ∆6-desaturase step and due the efficiency of the elongase and ∆5-desaturase steps, SDA is readily converted to EPA. SDA has the physiologic benefits of EPA, for instance, lowering the serum triglycerides in hypertriglyceridemic subjects. Therefore echium oil is a true alternative for vegetarians or those who do not eat fish, to benefit from the anti-inflammatory effects of omega-3 and omega-6 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids.

  5. Use of palm-oil by-products in chicken and rabbit feeds: effect on the fatty acid and tocol composition of meat, liver and plasma

    OpenAIRE

    Tres Oliver, Alba; Nuchi, C. D.; Magrinyà Navarro, Núria; Guardiola Ibarz, Francesc; Bou Novensà, Ricard; Codony Salcedo, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    This study was undertaken in the framework of a larger European project dealing with the characterization of fat co- and by-products from the food chain, available for feed uses. In this study, we compare the effects, on the fatty acid (FA) and tocol composition of chicken and rabbit tissues, of the addition to feeds of a palm fatty acid distillate, very low in trans fatty acids (TFA), and two levels of the corresponding hydrogenated by-product, containing intermediate and high levels of TFA....

  6. Comparison of gas chromatographic and gravimetric methods for quantization of total fat and fatty acids in foodstuffs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabria Aued-Pimentel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Different methods to determine total fat (TF and fatty acids (FA, including trans fatty acids (TFA, in diverse foodstuffs were evaluated, incorporating gravimetric methods and gas chromatography with flame ionization detector (GC/FID, in accordance with a modified AOAC 996.06 method. Concentrations of TF and FA obtained through these different procedures diverged (p< 0.05 and TFA concentrations varied beyond 20 % of the reference values. The modified AOAC 996.06 method satisfied both accuracy and precision, was fast and employed small amounts of low toxicity solvents. Therefore, the results showed that this methodology is viable to be adopted in Brazil for nutritional labeling purposes.

  7. Dicarboxylic acids, ω-oxocarboxylic acids, α-dicarbonyls, WSOC, OC, EC, and inorganic ions in wintertime size-segregated aerosols from central India: Sources and formation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh, Dhananjay K; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Deb, Manas K

    2016-10-01

    The size distributions of aerosols can provide evidences for their sources and formation processes in the atmosphere. Size-segregated aerosols (9-sizes) were collected in urban site (Raipur: 21.2°N and 82.3°E) in central India during winter of 2012-2013. The samples were analyzed for dicarboxylic acids (C2-C12), ω-oxocarboxylic acids (ωC2-ωC9), pyruvic acid and α-dicarbonyls (C2-C3) as well as elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC), water-soluble OC (WSOC) and inorganic ions. Diacids showed a predominance of oxalic acid (C2) followed by succinic and azelaic acid whereas ω-oxoacids exhibited a predominance of glyoxylic acid and glyoxal was more abundant than methylglyoxal in all the sizes. Diacids, ω-oxoacids and α-dicarbonyls showed bimodal size distribution with peaks in fine and coarse modes. High correlations of fine mode diacids and related compounds with potassium and levoglucosan suggest that they were presumably due to a substantial contribution of primary emission from biomass burning and secondary production from biomass burning derived precursors. High correlations of C2 with higher carbon number diacids (C3-C9) suggest that they have similar sources and C2 may be produced via the decay of its higher homologous diacids in fine mode. Considerable portions of diacids and related compounds in coarse mode suggest that they were associated with mineral dust particles by their adsorption and photooxidation of anthropogenic and biogenic precursors via heterogeneous reaction on dust surface. This study demonstrates that biomass burning and dust particles are two major factors to control the size distribution of diacids and related compounds in the urban aerosols from central India. PMID:27414241

  8. Isotopic insights into sources of acid driving weathering across a mountain-floodplain transition in the Amazon headwaters of Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, M. A.; Clark, K.; Paris, G.; Adkins, J. F.; West, A.

    2012-12-01

    The carbon budget associated with mineral weathering depends on the extent to which weathering is driven by strong acids (e.g., H2SO4, HNO3) as opposed to weak acids derived from atmospheric CO2 (e.g., H2CO3, organic acids). It has remained difficult to accurately partition acid sources associated with carbonate and silicate weathering, presenting an obstacle to quantifying weathering drawdown of CO2. Moreover, little is known about how acid sources change along material pathways from mountains, where rocks are eroded, producing reactive carbonate and silicate minerals, but also sulfides that generate H2SO4, and floodplains, where the resulting sediment is transported, deposited, and chemically reworked. Such mountain-floodplain transitions are increasingly recognized as important weathering reactors, making it important to quantify any associated variation in acid sources. In this study, these questions are addressed using the dissolved major element geochemistry, the carbon isotopic composition of dissolved inorganic carbon (δ13C DIC), and the sulfur isotopic composition of dissolved sulfate (δ34S) of rivers draining the Peruvian Andes and Madre de Dios floodplain. The dissolved major element geochemistry of the Andean headwater catchments suggests inputs of sulfuric acid (from the oxidation of sulfide minerals) but is also consistent with the weathering of sulfate minerals. The δ13C DIC values of river water samples from the Andean catchments provide key constraints and range from -18 to -5 ‰, which is consistent with the mixing of DIC derived from the weathering of silicates by respired CO2 and from the weathering of carbonates by either atmospheric CO2 or sulfuric acid. In order to distinguish between the two possible carbonate weathering agents, we calculated the fraction of carbonate-derived DIC both using an isotope mass balance model and a mineral mass balance model. These results were compared assuming either pure sulfuric acid or atmospheric CO2

  9. Sources

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Sources Fondation Pablo Iglesias. Alcala de Henares. Sections : Archives privées de Manuel ArijaArchives extérieuresArchives FNJS de EspañaPrensa Archives Générales de l’Administration. Alcala de Henares. Sections : Opposition au franquismeSig. 653 Sig TOP 82/68.103-68.602.Índice de las cartas colectivas, Relaciones, Cartas al Ministro de Información de Marzo de 1965. c.662. Sources cinématographiques Filmothèque Nationale d’Espagne.NO.DO. N° 1157C. 08/03/1965.aguirre Javier, Blanco vertical....

  10. Tracing the biosynthetic source of essential amino acids in marine turtles using delta13C fingerprints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, Karen E; Kelez, Shaleyla; Larsen, Thomas; Choy, C Anela; Popp, Brian N

    2014-05-01

    Plants, bacteria, and fungi produce essential amino acids (EAAs) with distinctive patterns of delta13C values that can be used as naturally occurring fingerprints of biosynthetic origin of EAAs in a food web. Because animals cannot synthesize EAAs and must obtain them from food, their tissues reflect delta13C(EAA) patterns found in diet, but it is not known how microbes responsible for hindgut fermentation in some herbivores influence the delta13C values of EAAs in their hosts' tissues. We examined whether distinctive delta13C fingerprints of hindgut flora are evident in the tissues of green turtles (Chelonia mydas), which are known to be facultative hindgut fermenters. We determined delta13C(EAA) values in tissues of green turtles foraging herbivorously in neritic habitats of Hawaii and compared them with those from green, olive ridley, and loggerhead turtles foraging carnivorously in oceanic environments of the central and southeast Pacific Ocean. Results of multivariate statistical analysis revealed two distinct groups that could be distinguished based on unique delta13C(EAA) patterns. A three-end-member predictive linear discriminant model indicated that delta13C(EAA) fingerprints existed in the tissues of carnivorous turtles that resembled patterns found in microalgae, which form the base of an oceanic food web, whereas herbivorous turtles derive EAAs from a bacterial or seagrass source. This study demonstrates the capacity for delta13C fingerprinting to establish the biosynthetic origin of EAAs in higher consumers, and that marine turtles foraging on macroalgal diets appear to receive nutritional supplementation from bacterial symbionts in their digestive system. PMID:25000760

  11. Tracing the biosynthetic source of essential amino acids in marine turtles using delta13C fingerprints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, Karen E; Kelez, Shaleyla; Larsen, Thomas; Choy, C Anela; Popp, Brian N

    2014-05-01

    Plants, bacteria, and fungi produce essential amino acids (EAAs) with distinctive patterns of delta13C values that can be used as naturally occurring fingerprints of biosynthetic origin of EAAs in a food web. Because animals cannot synthesize EAAs and must obtain them from food, their tissues reflect delta13C(EAA) patterns found in diet, but it is not known how microbes responsible for hindgut fermentation in some herbivores influence the delta13C values of EAAs in their hosts' tissues. We examined whether distinctive delta13C fingerprints of hindgut flora are evident in the tissues of green turtles (Chelonia mydas), which are known to be facultative hindgut fermenters. We determined delta13C(EAA) values in tissues of green turtles foraging herbivorously in neritic habitats of Hawaii and compared them with those from green, olive ridley, and loggerhead turtles foraging carnivorously in oceanic environments of the central and southeast Pacific Ocean. Results of multivariate statistical analysis revealed two distinct groups that could be distinguished based on unique delta13C(EAA) patterns. A three-end-member predictive linear discriminant model indicated that delta13C(EAA) fingerprints existed in the tissues of carnivorous turtles that resembled patterns found in microalgae, which form the base of an oceanic food web, whereas herbivorous turtles derive EAAs from a bacterial or seagrass source. This study demonstrates the capacity for delta13C fingerprinting to establish the biosynthetic origin of EAAs in higher consumers, and that marine turtles foraging on macroalgal diets appear to receive nutritional supplementation from bacterial symbionts in their digestive system.

  12. Wetlands serve as natural sources for improvement of stream ecosystem health in regions affected by acid deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pound, Katrina L; Lawrence, Gregory B.; Passy, Sophia I.

    2013-01-01

    For over 40 years, acid deposition has been recognized as a serious international environmental problem, but efforts to restore acidified streams and biota have had limited success. The need to better understand the effects of different sources of acidity on streams has become more pressing with the recent increases in surface water organic acids, or 'brownification' associated with climate change and decreased inorganic acid deposition. Here, we carried out a large scale multi-seasonal investigation in the Adirondacks, one of the most acid-impacted regions in the United States, to assess how acid stream producers respond to local and watershed influences and whether these influences can be used in acidification remediation. We explored the pathways of wetland control on aluminum chemistry and diatom taxonomic and functional composition. We demonstrate that streams with larger watershed wetlands have higher organic content, lower concentrations of acidic anions, and lower ratios of inorganic to organic monomeric aluminum, all beneficial for diatom biodiversity and guilds producing high biomass. Although brownification has been viewed as a form of pollution, our results indicate that it may be a stimulating force for biofilm producers with potentially positive consequences for higher trophic levels. Our research also reveals that the mechanism of watershed control of local stream diatom biodiversity through wetland export of organic matter is universal in running waters, operating not only in hard streams, as previously reported, but also in acid streams. Our findings that the negative impacts of acid deposition on Adirondack stream chemistry and biota can be mitigated by wetlands have important implications for biodiversity conservation and stream ecosystem management. Future acidification research should focus on the potential for wetlands to improve stream ecosystem health in acid-impacted regions and their direct use in stream restoration, for example, through

  13. Phosphate limitation promotes unsaturated fatty acids and arachidonic acid biosynthesis by microalgae Porphyridium purpureum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Gaomin; Jiao, Kailin; Li, Zheng; Guo, Xiaoyi; Chang, Jingyu; Ndikubwimana, Theoneste; Sun, Yong; Zeng, Xianhai; Lu, Yinghua; Lin, Lu

    2016-07-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are highly appreciated on their nutritive value for human health and aquaculture. P. purpureum, one of the red microalgae acknowledged as a promising accumulator of ARA, was chosen as the target algae in the present research. Effects of sodium bicarbonate (0.04-1.2 g/L), temperature (25, 30 and 33 °C) and phosphate (0.00-0.14 g/L) on biomass yield, total fatty acids (TFA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) accumulation were investigated systemically. NaHCO3 dose of 0.8 g/L and moderate temperature of 30 °C were preferred. In addition, TFA and ARA production were significantly enhanced by an appropriate concentration of phosphate, and the highest TFA yield of 666.38 mg/L and ARA yield of 159.74 mg/L were obtained at a phosphate concentration of 0.035 g/L. Interestingly, with phosphate concentration continuing to fall, UFA/TFA and ARA/EPA ratios were increased accordingly, suggesting that phosphate limitation promoted unsaturated fatty acids and arachidonic acid biosynthesis. Low concentration of phosphate may be favored to increase the enzymatic activities of ∆6-desaturase, which played a key role in catalyzing the conversion of C16:0 to C18:2, and thus the selectivity of UFA increased. Meanwhile, the increase of ARA selectivity could be attributed to ω6 pathway promotion and ∆17-desaturase activity inhibition with phosphate limitation. Phosphate limitation strategy enhanced unsaturated fatty acids and ARA biosynthesis in P. purpureum, and can be applied in commercial scale manufacturing and commercialization of ARA. PMID:27004948

  14. Ruminant and industrially produced trans fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stender, Steen; Astrup, Arne; Dyerberg, Jørn

    2008-01-01

    -TFA in popular foods, the evidence of a more harmful effect on health by IP-TFA than by RP-TFA, and the feasibility of eliminating IP-TFA from foods without side effects for the population, suggest that a selective elimination of IP-TFA from our food is a 'low hanging fruit' in the quest for a more healthy diet...

  15. Structural conversion and intramolecular electron transfer in ferrocenylanthraquinones triggered by Keggin type of heteropoly acid serving as proton source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Shuxia; LI Dehui; SU Zhongmin; WANG Enbo

    2004-01-01

    Intramolecular electron transfer triggered by proton and the mechanism of structural conversion in a ethynylene-bridged ferrocene-anthraquinone organic electron donor(D)-acceptor(A) g-conjugated system (1-FcAq) in the presence of a Keggin type heteropoly acid as proton source are discussed. Heteropoly acids can stabilize the protonated ethynylene-bridged ferrocene-anthraquinone conjugated complex, and the stable protonated complex has been isolated in air and characterized by elemental analyses, IR,1H NMR, and CV. Upon the inducement of proton, electron transfer from ferrocene moiety (Fc) to anthraquinone moiety (Aq) causes the rearrangement of the conjugated system to create a fulvene-cumulene structuere.

  16. New Role of Sulfuric Acid In Production of Multicomponent Fertilizers From Renewable Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Helena Gorecka; Henryk Gorecki; Katarzyna Chojnacka; Marzanna Barańska; Izabela Michalak; Agnieszka Zielińska

    2007-01-01

    The paper discusses the possibility of using renewable sources: slaughter wastes and wood ashes in the production of NPK fertilizers. The content of macronutrients, micronutrients and toxic elements in these materials was reported. In the present work, poultry feathers were used as fertilizer source of nitrogen, animal bones as the source of phosphorus and wood ash as the source of potassium and micronutrients. Bioavailability of fertilization components was increased by mineralization with s...

  17. Facile synthesis of direct sunlight-driven anatase TiO2 nanoparticles by in situ modification with trifluoroacetic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anatase TiO2 nanoparticles with direct sunlight-driven photocatalytic activity have been synthesized via hydrolysis of titanium precursor, tetrabutyl titanate in trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) followed by sol–gel conversion to xerogel and further hydrothermal treatment at low temperature. The structure and morphology of the as-prepared anatase TiO2 were characterized using X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, fourier transform infrared spectra, transmission electron microscopy, UV–visible diffuse reflectance spectrophotometer, and photoluminescence spectra. The results showed that TFA was chemically bonded on anatase TiO2 during the sol–gel process and the size of TFA-modified anatase TiO2 nanoparticle was about 7 nm. In situ modification of anatase TiO2 with TFA endowed the photocatalyst with direct sunlight-driven photocatalytic activity. The photodegradation of rhodamine B under direct sunlight irradiation showed that the photodegradation rate constant of TFA-modified anatase TiO2 was about threefold higher than that of Degussa P25. The higher photocatalytic activity might be attributed to the in situ surface modification with TFA. On one hand, surface modification with TFA extended the light absorption of anatase TiO2 to the visible light regime. On the other hand, the strong electron-withdrawing effect of CF3 group can reduce the recombination of photo-generated electron and holes and enhanced the transfer and transport of charge carriers, and thus a higher visible light responding photocatalytic activity was achieved.

  18. FATTY ACIDS PROFILE IN A HIGH CELL DENSITY CULTURE OF ARACHIDONIC ACID-RICH PARIETOCHLORIS INCISA (TREBOUXIOPHYCEAE,CHLOROPHYTA) EXPOSED TO HIGH PFD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The changes in arachidonic acid (AA) and fatty acids profiles along the growth curve of Parietochloris incisa, a coccoid snow green alga, were studied in a 2.8 cm light-path flat photobioreactor, exposed to strong photon flux density [PFD, 2400 μEmol/(m2*s)]. Sixteen fatty acids were identified by gas chromatography showing that AA was the dominant fatty acid (33%-41%) followedby linoleic acid (17%-21%). AA content was closely investigated with respect tototal fatty acids (TFA), ash free dry weight (AFDW) of cell mass as well as total culture content. These parameters were influenced significantly in a similar manner by culture growth phase, i.e., slightly decreasing in the lag period, gradually increasing in the logarithmic phase, becoming maximal at the early stationary phase, starting to decrease at the late stationary phase, sharply dropping at the decline phase. The increase in AA per culture volume during the logarithmic phase was not only associated with the increase in AFDW but also connected with a corresponding increase in AA/TFA, TFA/AFDW as well as AA/AFDW. The sharp decrease in AA content of the culture during the decline phase was mainly due to the decrease in AA/TFA, TFA/AFDW and AA/AFDW, although AFDW declined only a smallextent. Maximal AA concentration, obtained at the early stationary phase, was 900 mg/L culture volume, and the average daily net increase of AA during 9 days logarithmic growth was 1.7 g/(m2*day). Therefore, harvesting prior to the declinephase in a batch culture, or at steady state in continuous culture mode seems best for high AA production. The latter possibility was also further confirmed bycontinuous culture with 5 gradients of harvesting rate. ``

  19. Acid Rain: Federal Policy Action 1983-1985. A Guide to Government Documents and Commercial Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovenburg, Susan, Comp.

    The problems associated with acid rain as well as strategies on what to do and how to do it are addressed in this resource guide. The first section identifies and describes the U.S. agencies and congressional committees which play a role in acid rain research, legislation, and regulation. Actions already taken by the executive and legislative…

  20. 77 FR 48433 - New Source Performance Standards Review for Nitric Acid Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-14

    ... production units (NAPUs). These revisions include a change to the nitrogen oxides (NO X ) emission limit... requirements for new nitric acid production units? IV. Summary of Significant Changes Since Proposal A. How is..., Energy, and Economic Impacts of These Standards A. What are the impacts for Nitric Acid Production...

  1. Current Evidence Supporting the Link Between Dietary Fatty Acids and Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammad, Shatha; Pu, Shuaihua; Jones, Peter J

    2016-05-01

    Lack of consensus exists pertaining to the scientific evidence regarding effects of various dietary fatty acids on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. The objective of this article is to review current evidence concerning cardiovascular health effects of the main dietary fatty acid types; namely, trans (TFA), saturated (SFA), polyunsaturated (PUFA; n-3 PUFA and n-6 PUFA), and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA). Accumulating evidence shows negative health impacts of TFA and SFA; both may increase CVD risk. Policies have been proposed to reduce TFA and SFA consumption to less than 1 and 7 % of energy intake, respectively. Cardiovascular health might be promoted by replacing SFA and TFA with n-6 PUFA, n-3 PUFA, or MUFA; however, the optimal amount of PUFA or MUFA that can be used to replace SFA and TFA has not been defined yet. Evidence suggests of the potential importance of restricting n-6 PUFA up to 10 % of energy and obtaining an n-6/n-3 ratio as close as possible to unity, along with a particular emphasis on consuming adequate amounts of essential fatty acids. The latest evidence shows cardioprotective effects of MUFA-rich diets, especially when MUFA are supplemented with essential fatty acids; namely, docosahexaenoic acid. MUFA has been newly suggested to be involved in regulating fat oxidation, energy metabolism, appetite sensations, weight maintenance, and cholesterol metabolism. These favorable effects might implicate MUFA as the preferable choice to substitute for other fatty acids, especially given the declaration of its safety for up to 20 % of total energy. PMID:26719191

  2. Faceting of (001) CeO2 Films: The Road to High Quality TFA-YBa2Cu3O7 Multilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CeO2 films are technologically important as a buffer layer for the integration of superconducting YBa2Cu3O7 films on biaxially textured Ni substrates. The growth of YBa2Cu3O7 layers on the CeO2 cap layers by the trifluoroacetate (TFA) route remains a critical issue. To improve the accommodation of YBa2Cu3O7 on CeO2, surface conditioning or CeO2 is required. In this work we have applied ex-situ post-processes at different atmospheres to the CeO2 layers deposited on YSZ single crystals using rf sputtering. XPS analysis showed that post-annealing CeO2 layer in Ar/H2/H2O catalyses in an unexpected way the growth of (001)- terraces. We also report on the growth conditions of YBa2Cu3O7-TFA on CeO2 buffered YSZ single crystal grown by chemical solution deposition and we compare them with those leading to optimized YBa2Cu3O7-TFA films on LaAlO3 single crystals. Critical currents up to 1.6 MA/cm2 at 77 K have been demonstrated in 300 nm thick YBa2Cu3O7 layers on CeO2/YSZ system. The optimized processing conditions have then been applied to grow YBa2Cu3O7-TFA films on Ni substrates having vacuum deposited cap layers of CeO2

  3. Content of Trans Fatty Acids in Human Cheek Epithelium: Comparison with Serum and Adipose Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ransi A. Abraham

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies pertaining to trans fatty acids (TFA, which have been implicated in development of chronic diseases, are more relevant in developing countries where nutrition transition is changing traditional habits and practices. Measuring TFA is an arduous task because of the need for fat biopsies. This study identifies a tissue, which can be easily accessed for analytical measurement of trans fatty acid. In this cross-sectional study, fatty acid in adipose tissue, cheek epithelium, and blood samples were assessed by gas chromatography. Spearman correlation coefficient was computed to study the correlation of fatty acid distribution among the three tissues. The correlation coefficient of total trans fatty acid between cheek epithelium and serum was 0.30 ( and between cheek epithelium and adipose tissue was 0.33 (. This study is the first to report trans fatty acid profile in cheek epithelium giving scope for utilizing the cheek epithelium as a tissue for objective assessment of trans fatty acid intake.

  4. 黄蜀葵花总黄酮抗炎解热作用%Anti-inflammatory and antipyretic effects of TFA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范丽; 董六一; 江勤; 岑德意; 陈志武; 马传庚

    2003-01-01

    目的研究黄蜀葵花总黄酮( TFA)的抗炎、解热作用.方法采用二甲苯致小鼠耳片肿胀的急性炎症模型和皮下埋植棉球致肉芽组织形成的慢性非特异性炎症模型观察TFA的抗炎作用;采用sc松节油或iv大肠杆菌液两种诱发家兔发热的模型观察TFA的解热作用.结果 TFA(200、100、50 mg/kg)均能有效减轻小鼠右耳肿胀程度,TFA 50 mg/kg可明显抑制大鼠新生肉芽组织形成;由sc松节油或iv大肠杆菌液诱发的家兔体温升高,TFA可产生不同程度地降低作用.结论 TFA具有良好的抗炎、解热作用.

  5. Effects of Sn-doping on JC-B properties and crystalline structure for YBCO films by advanced TFA-MOD method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To improve JC properties in a magnetic field (JC-B) of YBa2Cu3O7-δ(YBCO) films by a TFA-MOD (trifluoroacetates metal organic deposition) method, we fabricated YBCO films with SnO2-doping as artificial pinning centers and investigated the superconducting properties and the crystalline structures. TFA-MOD is expected as a cost-effective method with a non-vacuum system to fabricate YBCO films with high superconducting properties. However, YBCO films have problems that JC decreases in a magnetic field (B). In this study, the TFA solutions with SnO2 for pinning centers were used as starting materials. In the transmission electron microscope image, existence of second phase particles with size of 20-30 nm has been observed in the YBCO film. These nano-particles contained Sn-element and distributed randomly in the film. The JC/JC (self field) values of the SnO2-doped YBCO films were enhanced in all magnetic field angles. Therefore it is considered that 3D pinning centers of Sn-compounds were introduced into YBCO film.

  6. Effects of Sn-doping on JC- B properties and crystalline structure for YBCO films by advanced TFA-MOD method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyanaga, Y.; Teranishi, R.; Yamada, K.; Mori, N.; Mukaida, M.; Kiss, T.; Inoue, M.; Nakaoka, K.; Yoshizumi, M.; Izumi, T.; Shiohara, Y.; Nanba, M.; Awaji, S.; Watanabe, K.

    2009-10-01

    To improve JC properties in a magnetic field ( JC- B) of YBa 2Cu 3O 7-δ(YBCO) films by a TFA-MOD (trifluoroacetates metal organic deposition) method, we fabricated YBCO films with SnO 2-doping as artificial pinning centers and investigated the superconducting properties and the crystalline structures. TFA-MOD is expected as a cost-effective method with a non-vacuum system to fabricate YBCO films with high superconducting properties. However, YBCO films have problems that JC decreases in a magnetic field ( B). In this study, the TFA solutions with SnO 2 for pinning centers were used as starting materials. In the transmission electron microscope image, existence of second phase particles with size of 20-30 nm has been observed in the YBCO film. These nano-particles contained Sn-element and distributed randomly in the film. The JC/ JC (self field) values of the SnO 2-doped YBCO films were enhanced in all magnetic field angles. Therefore it is considered that 3D pinning centers of Sn-compounds were introduced into YBCO film.

  7. Study on reaction mechanism of YBa2Cu3O7-x film by TFA-MOD process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ding Fa-Zhu; Lü Xu-Dong; Gu Hong-Wei; Li Tao; Cao Jiang-Li

    2009-01-01

    This paper systematically investigates the intermediate phases of YBa2Cu3O7-x(YBCO)film prepared by met alorganic deposition method using trifluoroacetates(TFA-MOD).According to x-ray diffraction and Raman analyses,the precursor film decomposed in a mixture of BaF2,Y2O3 and CuO after the pyrolysis process.Then these inter mediate phases converted into tetragonal YBa2Cu3O6.5 at about 725℃.The influence of water vapour pressure on the YBa2Cu3O7-x film growth on LaAlO3 single-crystal substrates was also studied.The films prepared at low water vapour pressures(40-140 hPa)showed poor electrical performance due to the a-axis grain structure and impurity phases.However,the films prepared at 190 hPa exhibited the highest critical temperature of 90K and the highest Jc of 3.8 MA/cm2,which was attributed to the formation of a purer YBCO phase and stronger biaxial texture.

  8. High performance YBCO films by the hybrid of non-fluorine yttrium and copper salts with Ba-TFA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High performance YBCO films have been fabricated using a metallorganic deposition (MOD) approach consisting of a hybrid of Ba-trifluoroacetate (Ba-TFA) with non-fluorine containing Cu and Y solution precursors on rolling-assisted-biaxially-textured substrates (RABiTS). A high J c of 2.4 MA/cm2 at 77 K for 0.6 μm YBCO films on RABiTS corresponding to an I c over 140 A/cm-w was obtained. T c measurements showed sharp transitions with zero resistance above 90 K. Extrapolation of the normal state resistivity results in an intercept below zero at 0 K, indicating the absence of second phases at grain boundaries. This first report on obtaining high J c with significantly reduced fluorine in the precursor is important for scale-up to manufacturing since the volume of corrosive hydrofluoric gas (HF), which is a by-product of the conversion, is greatly reduced

  9. Influence of starting solution composition on superconducting properties of YBCO coated conductors by advanced TFA-MOD process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have investigated the influence of the starting solution composition on both the microstructure and superconducting properties of YBa2Cu3O7-x (YBCO) films deposited on CeO2 buffered IBAD-Gd2Zr2O7/Hastelloy substrates and (1 0 0)-oriented LaAlO3 single crystals by the advanced TFA-MOD process. The starting solutions with different compositions of molar ratios of Y:Ba:Cu = 1.0:1.0-3.0:3.0 were studied. The critical current density (Jc) values of the YBCO films fabricated from Ba-rich (molar ratio of Ba/Y > 2) starting solutions were low. On the other hand, high Jc values were recognized, when the YBCO films were prepared from the Ba-poor (molar ratio of Ba/Y c value of 3.5 MA/cm2 (77 K, self-field) was obtained at a Ba/Y molar ratio of 1.4-1.6. Finally, the extremely high critical current (Ic) value of 735 A/cm-width (77 K, self-field) was obtained, when the YBCO film was fabricated on CeO2 buffered IBAD-Gd2Zr2O7/Hastelloy substrates by using the Ba-poor (Ba/Y = 1.5) starting solution

  10. Study on reaction mechanism of YBa2Cu3O7–x; film by TFA-MOD process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper systematically investigates the intermediate phases of YBa2Cu3O7−x (YBCO) film prepared by metalorganic deposition method using trifluoroacetates (TFA-MOD). According to x-ray diffraction and Raman analyses, the precursor film decomposed in a mixture of BaF2, Y2O3 and CuO after the pyrolysis process. Then these intermediate phases converted into tetragonal YBa2Cu3O6.5 at about 725°C. The influence of water vapour pressure on the YBa2Cu3O7−x film growth on LaAlO3 single-crystal substrates was also studied. The films prepared at low water vapour pressures (40–140 hPa) showed poor electrical performance due to the a-axis grain structure and impurity phases. However, the films prepared at 190 hPa exhibited the highest critical temperature of 90 K and the highest Jc of 3.8 MA/cm2, which was attributed to the formation of a purer YBCO phase and stronger biaxial texture. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  11. Influence of nanoparticles on flux pinning properties in TFA-MOD processed YGdBCO coated conductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The flux pinning properties in a magnetic field of various directions are investigated for trifluoroacetates-metal organic deposition (TFA-MOD) processed Y1-xGdxBa2Cu3Oy (YGdBCO)-coated conductors with the superconducting layer of 0.5 μm thick with artificial BaZrO3 (BZO)-nanoparticles. It is found that the critical current density is enhanced in a wide range of field angle except around the direction parallel to the a - b plane, resulting in low field-angle anistropy. The enhancement of Jc in the wide range of field angle is attributed to the isotropic pinning of nanoparticles. The decrease in the critical current density in the field direction parallel to the a - b plane is considered to be caused by limitation of growth of stacking faults by distributed BZO nanoparticles. The observed results were theoretically explained by the flux creep-flow model and the above speculation of the pinning mechanism was confirmed.

  12. High-Jc YBCO films using precursors with barium concentration gradient in film thickness by TFA-MOD process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    YBa2Cu3O7-δ (YBCO) films were grown by using precursor films with barium concentration gradient in film thickness by an advanced metal organic deposition process using trifluoroacetates (TFA-MOD). We have reported previously that a lot of non-reacted particles such as Y- and Cu-oxides were remained for the YBCO film surface grown by the precursors using a starting solution with barium-poor (cation ratio as Y:Ba:Cu 1:1.5:3). Then, the barium concentration was increased in the film surface to complete the reaction among these Y and Cu residues and Ba and to increase the Y123 growth thickness for realizing higher Jc performance. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observation showed the increase of film thickness of YBCO grown by the precursors with barium concentration gradient in film thickness, indicating that the reaction between these Y and Cu-oxides and Ba proceeded to form Y123 phase. Consequently, higher Jc was obtained for the YBCO film by the precursors mentioned above than that of the YBCO film by the precursors with a constant concentration. Effects of barium concentration gradient in the precursors on the superconducting properties and microstructures in the YBCO film were discussed.

  13. Influence of nanoparticles on critical current properties in TFA-MOD processed YGdBCO coated conductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For investigation of the flux pinning properties of nanoparticles in TFA-MOD processed Y1-xGdxBa2Cu3Oy (YGdBCO) coated conductors, the critical current density was compared in various directions of the magnetic field for YGdBCO+BaZrO3 (BZO) and YGdBCO coated conductors with the superconducting layer of 0.5 μm thickness. It was found that Jc for θ = 00 (B//e) is larger but Jc for θ = 900 (B//ab) is smaller in YGdBCO+BZO than in YGdBCO. The increase in the normal field is attributed to the pinning of nanoparticles, while the decrease in the parallel field is considered to be caused by limitation of extension of stacking faults by distributed BZO nanoparticles. In addition, the n-value (E ∝ jn) decreases by introduction of BZO nanoparticles for θ = 900, while it is unchanged for θ = 00. These results are well described by a theoretical model of flux creep and flow.

  14. The effect of film thickness on critical properties of YBCO film fabricated by TFA-MOD using 211-process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    YBCO films were fabricated by the TFA-MOD method using the '211-process', and the effects of the film thickness on phase formation, microstructure, texture evolution, and critical properties were evaluated. Various film thicknesses ranging from 0.41 μm to 2.14 μm were obtained by repeating the dip coating and calcining processes one to five times. The critical properties varied significantly with the film thickness. The Ic increased from 35 to 105 A/cm-width with increasing the film thickness from 0.41 μm to 1.17 μm. On the other hand, the corresponding Jc remained almost constant in the range of 0.76-0.90 MA/cm2. With further increases in thickness, these values decreased drastically, which was attributed to the degraded microstructure, i.e., the formation of BaF2 and a-axis grains and degraded texture and surface morphology arising from the insufficient heat treatment time. It is believed that the optimum thickness for improving both the Ic and Jc values is approximately 1.17 μm

  15. Kinetics characterization of YBCO thin films growth on LAO (100) single crystals by the TFA-MOD reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have studied in detail the kinetics parameters of the YBa2Cu3O7-x (YBCO) thin films growth on LaAlO3 (100) single crystals by the TFA-MOD method, using an i.n-situ fluoride selective electrode. We have considered: temperature, flow carrier gas rates and water partial pressure dependences in the reaction. Kinetics curves show that it exist an intermediate step before the YBCO formation. This step, which starts during the heating ramp (∼400deg. C) consists in a partial elimination of F from the BaF2 precursor to forms an oxyfluoride intermediate compound. The total YBCO formation appears at temperatures as higher as 700deg. C. We have found that at low flow carrier gas rates, the reaction is controlled by diffusion mechanisms and the apparent order of YBCO formation is n = 1 respect to the stirring rate, but at higher flow rates the YBCO formation is controlled chemically, then the apparent order is zero. The apparent reaction order of YBCO formation respect to the water pressure also has been studied

  16. Investigation on starting solution of TFA-MOD process for high-speed production of YBCO coated conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have developed a new starting solution consisting of non-fluorine (F-free) yttrium salt, barium trifluoroacetate and copper octylate with focusing on a high-speed production of YBa2Cu3O7-y (YBCO) coated conductors by the trifluoroacetate-metal-organic deposition (TFA-MOD) method. High critical current density (Jc) was recognized in the YBCO films fabricated on CeO2 buffered ion-beam assisted deposition (IBAD)-Gd2Zr2O7/Hastelloy substrates from the new starting solution at a wide range of the heating rates in the calcination process (2 → 25 deg. C/min, 2.3 → 2.4 MA/cm2). Additionally, any degradation of Jc performance (higher than 2 MA/cm2 at 77 K, self-fields) up to about 0.4 μm per single coating was not observed in the YBCO films fabricated from the new starting solution at the heating rate of 5 deg. C/min in the calcination process. The relationship between fluorine contents in the single coating film and Jc performance of the YBCO films suggested that the fluorine content in the single coating film determines the quality (bulk density, uniformity, etc.) of the precursor film.

  17. Influence of nanoparticles on flux pinning properties in TFA-MOD processed YGdBCO coated conductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsutani, F.; Takahashi, Y.; Kiuchi, M.; Otabe, E. S.; Matsushita, T.; Miura, M.; Izumi, T.; Shiohara, Y.

    2010-11-01

    The flux pinning properties in a magnetic field of various directions are investigated for trifluoroacetates-metal organic deposition (TFA-MOD) processed Y 1- xGd xBa 2Cu 3O y (YGdBCO)-coated conductors with the superconducting layer of 0.5 μm thick with artificial BaZrO 3 (BZO)-nanoparticles. It is found that the critical current density is enhanced in a wide range of field angle except around the direction parallel to the a - b plane, resulting in low field-angle anistropy. The enhancement of Jc in the wide range of field angle is attributed to the isotropic pinning of nanoparticles. The decrease in the critical current density in the field direction parallel to the a - b plane is considered to be caused by limitation of growth of stacking faults by distributed BZO nanoparticles. The observed results were theoretically explained by the flux creep-flow model and the above speculation of the pinning mechanism was confirmed.

  18. Influence of nanoparticles on flux pinning properties in TFA-MOD processed YGdBCO coated conductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsutani, F.; Takahashi, Y.; Kiuchi, M.; Otabe, E.S. [Department of Computer Science and Electronics, Kyushu Institute of Technology, 680-4 Kawazu, Iizuka, Fukuoka 820-8502 (Japan); Matsushita, T., E-mail: matusita@cse.kyutech.ac.j [Department of Computer Science and Electronics, Kyushu Institute of Technology, 680-4 Kawazu, Iizuka, Fukuoka 820-8502 (Japan); Miura, M.; Izumi, T.; Shiohara, Y. [Superconductivity Research Laboratory, International Superconductivity Technology Center, 1-10-13 Shinonome, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-0062 (Japan)

    2010-11-01

    The flux pinning properties in a magnetic field of various directions are investigated for trifluoroacetates-metal organic deposition (TFA-MOD) processed Y{sub 1-x}Gd{sub x}Ba{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub y} (YGdBCO)-coated conductors with the superconducting layer of 0.5 {mu}m thick with artificial BaZrO{sub 3} (BZO)-nanoparticles. It is found that the critical current density is enhanced in a wide range of field angle except around the direction parallel to the a - b plane, resulting in low field-angle anistropy. The enhancement of J{sub c} in the wide range of field angle is attributed to the isotropic pinning of nanoparticles. The decrease in the critical current density in the field direction parallel to the a - b plane is considered to be caused by limitation of growth of stacking faults by distributed BZO nanoparticles. The observed results were theoretically explained by the flux creep-flow model and the above speculation of the pinning mechanism was confirmed.

  19. Intake of ruminant trans fatty acids in the Danish population aged 1-80 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, M. U.; Bysted, Anette; Andersen, N. L.;

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To estimate the intake of ruminant trans fatty acids (TFA) in the Danish population aged 1 - 80 years. Design: Descriptive study. Subjects: A sex- and age-stratified random sample drawn from the Danish Civil Registration System. A total of 3098 participants (51% female) aged 1 - 80 years...

  20. Prominent bacterial heterotrophy and sources of 13C-depleted fatty acids to the interior Canada Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Shah

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, the Canada Basin of the Arctic Ocean has experienced rapidly decreasing summer sea ice coverage and freshening of surface waters. It is unclear how these changes translate to depth, particularly as our baseline understanding of organic carbon cycling in the deep basin is limited. In this study, we describe full-depth profiles of the abundance, distribution and carbon isotopic composition of fatty acids from suspended particulate matter at a seasonally ice-free station and a semi-permanently ice-covered station. Fatty acids, along with suspended particulate organic carbon (POC, are more concentrated under ice cover than in ice-free waters. But this influence, apparent at 50 m depth, does not propagate downward below 150 m depth, likely due to the weak biological pump in the central Canada Basin. Branched fatty acids have δ13C values that are similar to suspended POC at all depths and are 13C-enriched compared to even-numbered saturated fatty acids at depths above 3000 m. These are likely to be produced in situ by heterotrophic bacteria incorporating organic carbon that is isotopically similar to total suspended POC. A source of saturated even-numbered fatty acids is also suggested below surface waters which could represent contributions from laterally advected organic carbon or from chemoautotrophic bacteria. At 3000 m depth and below, a greater relative abundance of long-chain (C20–24, branched and unsaturated fatty acids is consistent with a stronger influence of re-suspended sedimentary organic carbon on benthic particulate matter. At these deep depths, two individual fatty acids (C12 and iso-C17 are significantly depleted in 13C, allowing for the possibility that methane oxidizing bacteria contribute fatty acids, either directly to suspended particulate matter or to shallow sediments that are subsequently mobilized and incorporated into suspended particulate matter within the deep basin.

  1. The Mismatch between Students' Mental Models of Acids/Bases and their Sources and their Teacher's Anticipations thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jing-Wen; Chiu, Mei-Hung

    2010-08-01

    The aim of this study is to compare the characteristics and sources of students' mental models of acids and bases with a teacher's anticipations and, based on this comparison, to explore some possible explanations why motivated students might fail to learn from a subject-knowledgeable chemistry teacher. The study involves a chemistry teacher and her 38 ninth graders and focuses on the mental models of three high achievers and three low achievers who were interviewed in depth. Four students' mental models of acid and base are identified. The mental models and sources of students' conceptions of acids and bases that influenced the high achievers are compared to those of the low achievers. We find that the teacher in the study made accurate anticipations of her students' mental models in the case of the high achievers but inaccurate anticipations of the low-achievers' mental models and the diverse sources influencing their mental models. In addition, the teacher incorrectly attributed the poor achievement of the low-achieving students to their intuition and underestimated the effects of her teaching on the achievement of these students. As a result, the teacher's instruction reinforced the low-achievers' incorrect mental models. Finally, the different approaches for teaching students with different achievements are emphasized according to the empirical data in this study.

  2. Growth performance, carcass characteristics, fatty acid composition and CLA concentrations of lambs fed diets supplemented with different oil sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badee, Ghlailat; Hidaka, Satoshi

    2014-02-01

    Quality food for human consumption will always be the aim for animal producers. Quantity and composition of fat deposits (fatty acid profile) strongly influences meat quality in ruminants, especially via increasing conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) concentration, which is known to have beneficial anticarcinogenic, antiatherogenic, antidiabetic and cholesterol reduction properties for human health. Awassi lambs are one of the main and most consumed meat sources in the Middle East area; however, studies addressing the fat content of CLA and methods to enhance its concentrations in this breed are still rare. For this reason, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of adding two different oil sources (soybean oil (SBO) and sunflower oil (SFO) at two levels (1.8 and 3%)) on growth performance, carcass characteristics and fatty acid profile of fat in Awassi lambs. Oil supplementation had no effect on growth performance or carcass characteristics, while fatty acid composition changed according to the site of extraction. CLA concentrations were increased in the tail fat deposit, with 1.8% SBO and in intermuscular fat deposit with 3% SFO. Intermuscular fat is the one most naturally consumed by humans, serving to improve food quality.

  3. Characterization and authentication of a novel vegetable source of omega-3 fatty acids, sacha inchi (Plukenetia volubilis L.) oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Natalie E; Hatta-Sakoda, Beatriz; Pascual-Chagman, Gloria; Rodriguez-Saona, Luis E

    2012-09-15

    Consumption of omega-3 fatty acids (ω-3's), whether from fish oils, flax or supplements, can protect against cardiovascular disease. Finding plant-based sources of the essential ω-3's could provide a sustainable, renewable and inexpensive source of ω-3's, compared to fish oils. Our objective was to develop a rapid test to characterize and detect adulteration in sacha inchi oils, a Peruvian seed containing higher levels of ω-3's in comparison to other oleaginous seeds. A temperature-controlled ZnSe ATR mid-infrared benchtop and diamond ATR mid-infrared portable handheld spectrometers were used to characterize sacha inchi oil and evaluate its oxidative stability compared to commercial oils. A soft independent model of class analogy (SIMCA) and partial least squares regression (PLSR) analyzed the spectral data. Fatty acid profiles showed that sacha inchi oil (44% linolenic acid) had levels of PUFA similar to those of flax oils. PLSR showed good correlation coefficients (R(2)>0.9) between reference tests and spectra from infrared devices, allowing for rapid determination of fatty acid composition and prediction of oxidative stability. Oils formed distinct clusters, allowing the evaluation of commercial sacha inchi oils from Peruvian markets and showed some prevalence of adulteration. Determining oil adulteration and quality parameters, by using the ATR-MIR portable handheld spectrometer, allowed for portability and ease-of-use, making it a great alternative to traditional testing methods.

  4. Characterization and authentication of a novel vegetable source of omega-3 fatty acids, sacha inchi (Plukenetia volubilis L.) oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Natalie E; Hatta-Sakoda, Beatriz; Pascual-Chagman, Gloria; Rodriguez-Saona, Luis E

    2012-09-15

    Consumption of omega-3 fatty acids (ω-3's), whether from fish oils, flax or supplements, can protect against cardiovascular disease. Finding plant-based sources of the essential ω-3's could provide a sustainable, renewable and inexpensive source of ω-3's, compared to fish oils. Our objective was to develop a rapid test to characterize and detect adulteration in sacha inchi oils, a Peruvian seed containing higher levels of ω-3's in comparison to other oleaginous seeds. A temperature-controlled ZnSe ATR mid-infrared benchtop and diamond ATR mid-infrared portable handheld spectrometers were used to characterize sacha inchi oil and evaluate its oxidative stability compared to commercial oils. A soft independent model of class analogy (SIMCA) and partial least squares regression (PLSR) analyzed the spectral data. Fatty acid profiles showed that sacha inchi oil (44% linolenic acid) had levels of PUFA similar to those of flax oils. PLSR showed good correlation coefficients (R(2)>0.9) between reference tests and spectra from infrared devices, allowing for rapid determination of fatty acid composition and prediction of oxidative stability. Oils formed distinct clusters, allowing the evaluation of commercial sacha inchi oils from Peruvian markets and showed some prevalence of adulteration. Determining oil adulteration and quality parameters, by using the ATR-MIR portable handheld spectrometer, allowed for portability and ease-of-use, making it a great alternative to traditional testing methods. PMID:23107745

  5. Les microalgues marines : source alternative d’acide eicosapentaènoïque (EPA et d’acide docosahexaènoïque (DHA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pencreac’h Gaëlle

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Les lipides de microalgues marines sont riches en acide eicosapentaènoïque (EPA, C20 :5 et en acide docosahexaènoïque (DHA, C22 :6, deux acides gras hautement insaturés de la série ω3 (AGHI-ω3, et représentent aujourd’hui une source alternative potentielle face aux huiles de poissons. Les microalgues synthétisent de l’EPA et\\\\ou du DHA dans des proportions relatives variables selon leur classe taxonomique. D’autre part, pour une même espèce, les teneurs en ces acides gras dépendent fortement des conditions de culture. De part leur métabolisme photoautotrophe, la production de biomasse microalgale à grande échelle nécessite la conception de bioréacteurs spécifiques, les photobioréacteurs, qui représentent encore aujourd’hui un défi technologique. La poursuite de travaux de recherche, dans des domaines très divers, reste nécessaire pour confirmer la viabilité économique des procédés industriels de production d’EPA et de DHA par les microalgues.

  6. Characteristics and sources of formic, acetic and oxalic acids in PM 2.5 and PM 10 aerosols in Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Zhuang, Guoshun; Chen, Shuang; An, Zhisheng; Zheng, Aihua

    2007-04-01

    Chemistry of formic, acetic and oxalic acids was studied at four sites representing the urban and rural conditions in Beijing from March 2002 to October 2003. The investigation was based on the PM 2.5 and PM 10 aerosols collected with virtual samplers. The total concentrations of these carboxylic acids averaged at 541 ng m - 3 in PM 2.5 and 615 ng m - 3 in PM 10, contributing 0.4% and 0.3% to the total mass of the aerosol, respectively. Oxalic acid was the most abundant carboxylic acids in aerosols. Formic and acetic acids displayed different seasonal variations (formic: spring summer > autumn > winter), and the variations of these acids were consistent among different sites in urban area. Formic and oxalic acids had a diurnal variation of nighttime waste/biomass burnings, cooking and secondary formation from anthropogenic or natural gas-phase precursors could be the major sources of these acids. Acetic-to-formic acid ratio (A/F) was used to distinguish the primary sources and the secondary sources, and it indicated that the contribution of the primary sources was higher at rural site than at urban sites. A new method was developed to study the contribution of the biomass burning to these acids, which was estimated to be 30-60% for formic and oxalic acids in aerosols.

  7. In vitro zygotic embryo germination and propagation of an endangered Boswellia serrata Roxb., a source of boswellic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorpade, Ravi P; Chopra, Arvind; Nikam, Tukaram D

    2010-04-01

    This study aims to establish an efficient protocol for development of seedlings of an endangered medicinally important forest tree Boswellia serrata Roxb., for mass plantation and consistent supply of salai guggul. The green mature fruits served as source of seeds. The excised green zygotic embryos were cultured on Gamborg (B5), McCown and Loyd (WPM) and Schenk and Hildebrandt (SH) media fortified with different concentration of sucrose and on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium containing 3 % sucrose, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) (0-300 mg l(-l)), Gibberellic acid (GA3), Indoleacetic acid (IAA), Naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), Indole-3-Butyric acid (IBA) or 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4 D) and 6-benzylaminopurine (BA) or kinetin (Kin) individually. The highest frequency of embryo germination (96 %) and conversion into seedling was obtained on MS medium containing 3 % sucrose together with 200 mg l(-l) PVP; other media were either inferior or induced abnormalities in the seedlings including callus formation from the zygotic embryos. Fully developed seedlings could be successfully established in soil with about 94 % survival. The embryos from mature dry seeds did not respond for germination in any of the experiments. In conclusion, selection of zygotic embryo from green mature seeds and their in vitro germination is important for propagation of B. serrata. PMID:23572965

  8. Negative Ion In-Source Decay Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry for Sequencing Acidic Peptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillen, Chelsea L.; Wright, Patience M.; Cassady, Carolyn J.

    2016-05-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) in-source decay was studied in the negative ion mode on deprotonated peptides to determine its usefulness for obtaining extensive sequence information for acidic peptides. Eight biological acidic peptides, ranging in size from 11 to 33 residues, were studied by negative ion mode ISD (nISD). The matrices 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid, 2-aminobenzoic acid, 2-aminobenzamide, 1,5-diaminonaphthalene, 5-amino-1-naphthol, 3-aminoquinoline, and 9-aminoacridine were used with each peptide. Optimal fragmentation was produced with 1,5-diaminonphthalene (DAN), and extensive sequence informative fragmentation was observed for every peptide except hirudin(54-65). Cleavage at the N-Cα bond of the peptide backbone, producing c' and z' ions, was dominant for all peptides. Cleavage of the N-Cα bond N-terminal to proline residues was not observed. The formation of c and z ions is also found in electron transfer dissociation (ETD), electron capture dissociation (ECD), and positive ion mode ISD, which are considered to be radical-driven techniques. Oxidized insulin chain A, which has four highly acidic oxidized cysteine residues, had less extensive fragmentation. This peptide also exhibited the only charged localized fragmentation, with more pronounced product ion formation adjacent to the highly acidic residues. In addition, spectra were obtained by positive ion mode ISD for each protonated peptide; more sequence informative fragmentation was observed via nISD for all peptides. Three of the peptides studied had no product ion formation in ISD, but extensive sequence informative fragmentation was found in their nISD spectra. The results of this study indicate that nISD can be used to readily obtain sequence information for acidic peptides.

  9. Water-soluble dicarboxylic acids and ω-oxocarboxylic acids in size-segregated aerosols over northern Japan during spring: sources and formation processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh, Dhananjay Kumar; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Kobayashi, Minoru; Gowda, Divyavani

    2016-04-01

    Seven sets (AF01-AF07) of size-segregated aerosol (12-sizes) samples were collected using a Micro-Orifice Uniform Deposit Impactor (MOUDI) in Sapporo, Japan during the spring of 2001 to understand the sources and atmospheric processes of water-soluble organic aerosols in the outflow region of Asian dusts. The samples were analyzed for dicarboxylic acids (C2-C12) and ω-oxocarboxylic acids as well as inorganic ions. The molecular distribution of diacids showed the predominance of oxalic acid (C2) followed by malonic and succinic acids whereas ω-oxoacids showed the predominance of glyoxylic acid (ωC2) in size-segregated aerosols. SO42- and NH4+ are enriched in submicron mode whereas NO3- and Ca2+ are in supermicron mode. Most of diacids and ω-oxoacids are enriched in supermicron mode in the samples (AF01-AF03) influenced by the long-range transport of mineral dusts whereas enhanced presence in submicron mode was observed in other sample sets. The strong correlations of C2 with Ca2+ (r = 0.95-0.99) and NO3- (r = 0.96-0.98) in supermicron mode in the samples AF01-AF03 suggest the adsorption or production of C2 diacid via heterogeneous reaction on the surface of mineral dust during long-range atmospheric transport. The preferential enrichment of diacids and ω-oxoacids in mineral dust has important implications for the solubility and cloud nucleation properties of the dominant fraction of water-soluble organic aerosols. This study demonstrates that biofuel and biomass burning and mineral dust originated in East Asia are two major factors to control the size distribution of diacids and related compounds over northern Japan.

  10. Consumption of different sources of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids by growing female rats affects long bone mass and microarchitecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukas, Robin; Gigliotti, Joseph C; Smith, Brenda J; Altman, Stephanie; Tou, Janet C

    2011-09-01

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs) consumption has been reported to improve bone health. However, sources of ω-3 PUFAs differ in the type of fatty acids and structural form. The study objective was to determine the effect of various ω-3 PUFAs sources on bone during growth. Young (age 28d) female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned (n=10/group) to a high fat 12% (wt) diet consisting of either corn oil (CO) or ω-3 PUFA rich, flaxseed (FO), krill (KO), menhaden (MO), salmon (SO) or tuna (TO) for 8 weeks. Bone mass was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and bone microarchitecture by micro-computed tomography (μCT). Bone turnover markers were measured by enzyme immunoassay. Lipid peroxidation was measured by calorimetric assays. Results showed that rats fed TO, rich in docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6ω-3) had higher (P<0.009) tibial bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) and lower (P=0.05) lipid peroxidation compared to the CO-fed rats. Reduced lipid peroxidation was associated with increased tibial BMD (r2=0.08, P=0.02) and BMC (r2=0.71, P=0.01). On the other hand, rats fed FO or MO, rich in alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3ω-3), improved bone microarchitecture compared to rats fed CO or SO. Serum osteocalcin was higher (P=0.03) in rats fed FO compared to rats fed SO. Serum osteocalcin was associated with improved trabecular bone microarchitecture. The animal study results suggest consuming a variety of ω-3 PUFA sources to promote bone health during the growth stage.

  11. Healthy yogurt fortified with n-3 fatty acids from vegetable sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Bello, B; Torri, L; Piochi, M; Zeppa, G

    2015-12-01

    The concentration of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in yogurt was increased using 5 different vegetable oils obtained from flaxseed, Camelina sativa, raspberry, blackcurrant, and Echium plantagineum. The vegetable oils were added to partially skim milk before lactic fermentation at a concentration adequate enough to cover at least 10% of the recommended daily intake of 2 g/d of α-linolenic acid according to EC regulation no. 432/2012. Microbiological (lactobacilli and streptococci, yeast, and molds), chemical (pH, syneresis, proximate composition, fatty acids, oxidation stability), and sensory evaluations were assessed for all of the fortified yogurts after 0, 7, 14, and 21 d of storage at 4°C. Sensory evaluations were conducted at 21 d of storage at 4°C. Among the yogurts produced, those that were supplemented with flaxseed and blackcurrant oils exhibited the highest α-linolenic acid content (more than 200mg/100 g of yogurt) at the end of storage. The addition of oil did not influence the growth of lactic acid bacteria that were higher than 10(7) cfu/g at 21 d of storage. All of the yogurts were accepted by consumers, except for those supplemented with raspberry and E. plantagineum oils due to the presence of off flavors.

  12. Diamine-sulfuric acid reactions are a potent source of new particle formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jen, Coty N.; Bachman, Ryan; Zhao, Jun; McMurry, Peter H.; Hanson, David R.

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric nucleation from sulfuric acid depends on the concentrations and the stabilizing effect of other trace gases, such as ammonia and amines. Diamines are an understudied class of atmospherically relevant compounds, and we examine how they affect sulfuric acid nucleation in both flow reactor experiments and the atmosphere. The number of particles produced from sulfuric acid and diamines in the flow reactor was equal to or greater than the number formed from monoamines, implying that diamines are more effective nucleating agents. Upper limits of diamine abundance were also monitored during three field campaigns: Lamont, OK (2013); Lewes, DE (2012); and Atlanta, GA (2009). Mixing ratios were measured as high as tens of parts per trillion by volume (GA and OK). Laboratory results suggest that diamines at these levels are important for atmospheric nucleation. Diamines likely participate in atmospheric nucleation and should be considered in nucleation measurements and models.

  13. Acidic deposition in the northeastern United States: Sources and inputs, ecosystem effects, and management strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, C.T.; Lawrence, G.B.; Bulger, A.J.; Butler, T.J.; Cronan, C.S.; Eagar, C.; Lambert, K.F.; Likens, G.E.; Stoddard, J.L.; Weathers, K.C.

    2001-01-01

    North America and Europe are in the midst of a large-scale experiment. Sulfuric and nitric acids have acidified soils, lakes, and streams, thereby stressing or killing terrestrial and aquatic biota. It is therefore critical to measure and to understand the recovery of complex ecosystems in response to decreases in acidic deposition. Fortunately, the NADP, CASTNet, and AIRMoN-dry networks are in place to measure anticipated improvements in air quality and in atmospheric deposition. Unfortunately, networks to measure changes in water quality are sparse, and networks to monitor soil, vegetation, and fish responses are even more limited. There is an acute need to assess the response of these resources to decreases in acid loading. It would be particularly valuable to assess the recovery of aquatic biota - which respond directly to acid stress - to changes in surface water chemistry (Gunn and Mills 1998). We used long-term research from the HBEF and other sites across the northeastern United States to synthesize data on the effects of acidic deposition and to assess ecosystem responses to reductions in emissions. On the basis of existing data, it is clear that in the northeastern United States ??? reductions of SO2 emissions since 1970 have resulted in statistically significant decreases in SO42- in wet and bulk deposition and in surface waters ??? emissions of NOX and concentrations of NO3- in wet and bulk deposition and in surface waters have shown no increase or decrease since the 1980s ??? estimates of NH3 emissions are uncertain, although atmospheric deposition of NH4+ remains important for forest management and stream NO3- loss ??? acidic deposition has accelerated the leaching of base cations from soils, thus delaying the recovery of ANC in lakes and streams from decreased emissions of SO2 (at the HBEF the available soil Ca pool appears to have declined 50% over the past 50 years) ???sulfur and N from atmospheric deposition have accumulated in forest soils across

  14. Investigation on trans fatty acids in the primary edible vegetable oil in China%我国主要食用植物油中反式脂肪酸的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高海军; 郭静; 李勇; 冯泽华; 裴彬彬

    2012-01-01

    以GB/T 22110-2008为检测方法,对我国市场上销售的主要食用植物油(调和油、大豆油、花生油、芝麻油)中反式脂肪酸含量进行测定.结果显示:十八碳类反式脂肪酸有6种检出,同一油种具有相同种类的反式脂肪酸,各种类反式脂肪酸含量变化具有同步性,并呈显著性相关,各类反式脂肪酸在产生时具有相同的异构几率;当一种食用植物油的某类反式脂肪酸总含量接近或超过相应脂肪酸组成含量时,这份油样肯定不是单一品种的油样;反式脂肪酸主要来源于食用植物油的精炼过程,尤其是脱臭过程;我国存在因为反式脂肪酸摄入量过高而影响健康的情况,消费者、企业及政府部门应对食用植物油中反式脂肪酸的含量引起足够的重视.%The trans fatty acids(TFA)contents in some primary edible vegetable oil in the market,including blending oil, soybean oil, peanut oil and sesame oil, were determined according to the standard of GB/T 22110-2008. The results showed that six kinds of stearic TFA had been detected; the same sort of oil had the same varieties of TFA; variations of all kinds of TFA contents had synchronism, and were obviously related; the probability of TFA isomerism was the same when TFA were produced. A sample of oil must be mixed if a sort of the total TFA contents were next to or over the corresponding fatty acids contents. TFA were mainly produced in the refining procedure of edible vegetable oil, especially in the deo-dorization process. People' s health had been affected by the excessive ingestion of TFA in our country. It was suggested that consumers, enterprises and the government should pay close attention to TFA contents in edible vegetable oil.

  15. Lead Isotope Compositions of Acid Residues from Olivine-Phyric Shergottite Tissint: Implications for Heterogeneous Shergottite Source Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriwaki, R.; Usui, T.; Yokoyama, T.; Simon, J. I.; Jones, J. H.

    2015-01-01

    Geochemical studies of shergottites suggest that their parental magmas reflect mixtures between at least two distinct geochemical source reservoirs, producing correlations between radiogenic isotope compositions and trace element abundances. These correlations have been interpreted as indicating the presence of a reduced, incompatible element- depleted reservoir and an oxidized, incompatible- element-enriched reservoir. The former is clearly a depleted mantle source, but there is ongoing debate regarding the origin of the enriched reservoir. Two contrasting models have been proposed regarding the location and mixing process of the two geochemical source reservoirs: (1) assimilation of oxidized crust by mantle derived, reduced magmas, or (2) mixing of two distinct mantle reservoirs during melting. The former requires the ancient Martian crust to be the enriched source (crustal assimilation), whereas the latter requires isolation of a long-lived enriched mantle domain that probably originated from residual melts formed during solidification of a magma ocean (heterogeneous mantle model). This study conducts Pb isotope and trace element concentration analyses of sequential acid-leaching fractions (leachates and the final residues) from the geochemically depleted olivine-phyric shergottite Tissint. The results suggest that the Tissint magma is not isotopically uniform and sampled at least two geochemical source reservoirs, implying that either crustal assimilation or magma mixing would have played a role in the Tissint petrogenesis.

  16. Effect of fabrication conditions on crystalline of SmBCO films fabricated by TFA-MOD method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metal organic deposition using trifluoroacetates is expected as a method for YBCO coated conductors since this method can provide high superconducting properties and is a cost-effective process with non-vacuum system. Recently, REBCO coated conductors, which has high critical properties, have attracted considerable attention. However, there are some problems to optimize fabrication conditions of REBCO films with this method. In this study, we fabricated SmBCO films by TFA-MOD method and investigated the effect of fabrication conditions on crystalline. We focused especially on a starting temperature (T1) of inlet moisture in calcination step and O2 gas concentration in crystallization step. Flat surfaces were obtained for the calcined films at both T1 = 300 deg. C and 350 deg. C compared with that at 200 deg. C. One possible reason for this worse morphology at T1 = 200 deg. C might be a length of a reaction time between moisture and coated film. When moisture is supplied from low temperature for long time, water could react easily to the fluoride which is contained a lot in the coated film; as a result, more HF gas is generated from the film. The crystalline was also improved for the SmBCO films calcined at over T1 = 300 deg. C. Furthermore, the film calcined at T1 = 350 deg. C was crystallized under the condition that O2 gas concentration was varied between 0.2 ppm and 1000 ppm. The degree of c-axis orientation depends on oxygen partial pressure and the highest c-axis oriented SmBCO film was obtained in the case of 10 ppm

  17. Sacha inchi (Plukenetia volubilis): a seed source of polyunsaturated fatty acids, tocopherols, phytosterols, phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirinos, Rosana; Zuloeta, Gledy; Pedreschi, Romina; Mignolet, Eric; Larondelle, Yvan; Campos, David

    2013-12-01

    Fatty acids (FA), phytosterols, tocopherols, phenolic compounds, total carotenoids and hydrophilic and lipophilic ORAC antioxidant capacities were evaluated in 16 cultivars of Sacha inchi (SI) seeds with the aim to valorise them and offer more information on the functional properties of SI seeds. A high α linolenic (α-Ln) fatty acid content was found in all cultivars (ω3, 12.8-16.0 g/100 g seed), followed by linoleic (L) fatty acid (ω6, 12.4-14.1g/100g seed). The ratio ω6/ω3 was within the 0.83-1.09 range. γ- and δ-tocopherols were the most important tocopherols, whereas the most representative phytosterols were β-sitosterol and stigmasterol. Contents of total phenolics, total carotenoids and hydrophilic and lipophilic antioxidant capacities ranged from 64.6 to 80 mg of gallic acid equivalent/100g seed; from 0.07 to 0.09 mg of β-carotene equivalent/100g of seed; from 4.3 to 7.3 and, from 1.0 to 2.8 μmol of Trolox equivalent/g of seed, respectively, among the evaluated SI cultivars. Results showed significant differences (p<0.05) among the evaluated SI cultivars in the contents of ω3, ω6, antioxidant capacities and other evaluated phytochemicals. SI seeds should be considered as an important dietary source of health promoting phytochemicals. PMID:23870885

  18. Sacha inchi (Plukenetia volubilis): a seed source of polyunsaturated fatty acids, tocopherols, phytosterols, phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirinos, Rosana; Zuloeta, Gledy; Pedreschi, Romina; Mignolet, Eric; Larondelle, Yvan; Campos, David

    2013-12-01

    Fatty acids (FA), phytosterols, tocopherols, phenolic compounds, total carotenoids and hydrophilic and lipophilic ORAC antioxidant capacities were evaluated in 16 cultivars of Sacha inchi (SI) seeds with the aim to valorise them and offer more information on the functional properties of SI seeds. A high α linolenic (α-Ln) fatty acid content was found in all cultivars (ω3, 12.8-16.0 g/100 g seed), followed by linoleic (L) fatty acid (ω6, 12.4-14.1g/100g seed). The ratio ω6/ω3 was within the 0.83-1.09 range. γ- and δ-tocopherols were the most important tocopherols, whereas the most representative phytosterols were β-sitosterol and stigmasterol. Contents of total phenolics, total carotenoids and hydrophilic and lipophilic antioxidant capacities ranged from 64.6 to 80 mg of gallic acid equivalent/100g seed; from 0.07 to 0.09 mg of β-carotene equivalent/100g of seed; from 4.3 to 7.3 and, from 1.0 to 2.8 μmol of Trolox equivalent/g of seed, respectively, among the evaluated SI cultivars. Results showed significant differences (p<0.05) among the evaluated SI cultivars in the contents of ω3, ω6, antioxidant capacities and other evaluated phytochemicals. SI seeds should be considered as an important dietary source of health promoting phytochemicals.

  19. In vitro bile acid-binding capacity of dietary fibre sources and their effects with bile acid on broiler chicken performance and lipid digestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemati Matin, H R; Shariatmadari, F; Karimi Torshizi, M A; Chiba, L I

    2016-06-01

    A 4 × 2 factorial experiment was conducted to study the effect of feeding diets-containing dietary fibre (DF) sources and a source of bile acid (BA) on growth performance and lipid metabolism. In addition, in vitro BA-binding capacity of fibre sources was investigated. A total of 256 one-d-old male broiler chickens (Ross 308) were assigned to DF sources [maize-soybean meal (control, C), or 30 g/kg of wheat bran (WB), barley bran (BB) or soybean hulls (SH)] and BA (with or without 1.5 g Na-deoxycholate/kg). Each treatment was replicated 4 times with 8 broiler chickens per cage. The highest in vitro BA-binding capacity was observed with BB (8.76 mg/g BB). From 0 to 21 d, with the addition of BA, the average daily feed intake (ADFI) decreased in broiler chickens fed on the C, WB or BB diets, while there was no difference with the SH diet. With added BA, the average daily gain decreased in broiler chickens fed on the C or SH diets, but it did not change in those fed on the other diets. The addition of BA decreased feed conversion ratio (FCR) in broiler chickens fed on the BB or WB diets, but it increased in those fed on the C or SH diets. Interaction results indicated that the apparent ileal digestibility of lipid increased in broiler chickens fed the C and other DF diets with BA compared to those fed the diets without BA. The addition of BA decreased the pancreas lipase activity (PLA) in broiler chickens fed on the C diet compared to those fed the C diet without BA, while no changes observed in those fed the DF diets with or without BA. No interaction was observed in total liver bile acid (TLBA). The WB, BB and SH with little Na-deoxycholate-binding capacity (<10 mg/g of DF) under in vitro conditions had particular effects with BA on the measured criteria in broiler chickens. The magnitude of improvement in digestibility of lipid with the addition of BA depends on the source of fibre used and the addition of BA in DF diets had little effect on growth

  20. Source characterization of sedimentary organic matter using molecular and stable carbon isotopic composition of n-alkanes and fatty acids in sediment core from Lake Dianchi, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Jidun [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Shandong Key Laboratory of Eco-Environmental Science for Yellow River Delta, Binzhou University, Binzhou, Shandong Province 256600 (China); Wu, Fengchang, E-mail: wufengchang@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Xiong, Yongqiang [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Li, Fasheng; Du, Xiaoming; An, Da [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Wang, Lifang [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Geochemistry, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guiyang 550002 (China)

    2014-03-01

    The distribution and compound-specific carbon isotope ratios of n-alkanes and fatty acids in a sediment core (63 cm) collected from Lake Dianchi were examined to investigate organic matter sources in the eutrophic lake. Fatty acids included free and bound fatty acids. The carbon isotope compositions of individual n-alkanes and fatty acids from Lake Dianchi sediments were determined using gas chromatography/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC–IRMS). The δ{sup 13}C values of individual n-alkanes (C{sub 16}–C{sub 31}) varied between − 24.1‰ and − 35.6‰, suggesting a dominance of {sup 13}C-depleted n-alkanes that originated from C{sub 3} plants and lacustrine algae. Fatty acids from the sediment extracts were analyzed for their abundances and carbon isotopic compositions. Molecular and isotopic evidence indicates that most of the short-chain fatty acids from Lake Dianchi sediment extracts are sourced from intense microbial recycling and resynthesis of organic matter. Long-chain free fatty acids are mainly derived from terrestrial sources. However, long-chain bound fatty acids are sourced from a combination of terrestrial organic matter, bacteria and algae, with the contribution from algal sources higher in the hypereutrophic stage. - Highlights: • Long-chain n-alkanes and FFAs are mainly derived from terrestrial sources. • Short-chain n-alkanes and fatty acids are mainly derived from bacterial and/or algal sources. • Long-chain BFAs are mainly derived from algal sources in hypereutrophic lakes.

  1. Source characterization of sedimentary organic matter using molecular and stable carbon isotopic composition of n-alkanes and fatty acids in sediment core from Lake Dianchi, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The distribution and compound-specific carbon isotope ratios of n-alkanes and fatty acids in a sediment core (63 cm) collected from Lake Dianchi were examined to investigate organic matter sources in the eutrophic lake. Fatty acids included free and bound fatty acids. The carbon isotope compositions of individual n-alkanes and fatty acids from Lake Dianchi sediments were determined using gas chromatography/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC–IRMS). The δ13C values of individual n-alkanes (C16–C31) varied between − 24.1‰ and − 35.6‰, suggesting a dominance of 13C-depleted n-alkanes that originated from C3 plants and lacustrine algae. Fatty acids from the sediment extracts were analyzed for their abundances and carbon isotopic compositions. Molecular and isotopic evidence indicates that most of the short-chain fatty acids from Lake Dianchi sediment extracts are sourced from intense microbial recycling and resynthesis of organic matter. Long-chain free fatty acids are mainly derived from terrestrial sources. However, long-chain bound fatty acids are sourced from a combination of terrestrial organic matter, bacteria and algae, with the contribution from algal sources higher in the hypereutrophic stage. - Highlights: • Long-chain n-alkanes and FFAs are mainly derived from terrestrial sources. • Short-chain n-alkanes and fatty acids are mainly derived from bacterial and/or algal sources. • Long-chain BFAs are mainly derived from algal sources in hypereutrophic lakes

  2. Comparison among model estimates of critical loads of acidic deposition using different sources and scales of input data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonnell, T C; Cosby, B J; Sullivan, T J; McNulty, S G; Cohen, E C

    2010-09-01

    The critical load (CL) of acidic atmospheric deposition represents the load of acidity deposited from the atmosphere to the earth's surface at which harmful acidification effects on sensitive biological receptors are thought to occur. In this study, the CL for forest soils was estimated for 27 watersheds throughout the United States using a steady-state mass balance approach based on both national and site-specific data and using different approaches for estimating base cation weathering. Results suggested that the scale and source of input data can have large effects on the calculated CL and that the most important parameter in the steady-state model used to estimate CL is base cation weathering. These results suggest that the data and approach used to estimate weathering must be robust if the calculated CL is to be useful for its intended purpose.

  3. Direct determination of trace amounts of acetic acid using a novel ambient glow discharge ion source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Hao Wang; Kun Liu; Fei Tang; Jiu Ming He; Xue Ye Wei; Zeper Abliz

    2010-01-01

    A novel ambient glow discharge ion source with improved line-cylinder electrodes is put forward and designed in this paper.The diameters of inner and outer electrodes are 0.16 and 4 mm respectively.With a special assembly method,a perfect coaxiality of the two electrodes is obtained.From the gas discharge experiment,it can be seen that the discharge can stably work in normal glow discharge mode.The operating currents of the ion source are in an order of milliamperes and can generate a much larger number and wider variety of reagent ions.The MS experiment shows that the ion source has higher detection sensitivity.

  4. Differential responses of sugar, organic acids and anthocyanins to source-sink modulation in Cabernet Sauvignon and Sangiovese grapevines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia eBobeica

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Grape berry composition mainly consists of primary and secondary metabolites. Both are sensitive to environment and viticultural management. As a consequence, climate change can affect berry composition and modify wine quality and typicity. Leaf removal techniques can impact berry composition by modulating the source-to-sink balance and, in turn, may mitigate some undesired effects due to climate change. The present study investigated the balance between technological maturity parameters such as sugars and organic acids, and phenolic maturity parameters such as anthocyanins in response to source-sink modulation. Sugar, organic acid, and anthocyanin profiles were compared under two contrasting carbon supply levels in berries of cv. Cabernet Sauvignon and Sangiovese collected at 9 and 14 developmental stages respectively. In addition, whole-canopy net carbon exchange rate was monitored for Sangiovese vines and a mathematic model was used to calculate the balance between carbon fixation and berry sugar accumulation. Carbon limitation affected neither berry size nor the concentration of organic acids at harvest. However, it significantly reduced the accumulation of sugars and total anthocyanins in both cultivars. Most interestingly, carbon limitation decreased total anthocyanin concentration by 84.3 % as compared to the non source-limited control, whereas it decreased sugar concentration only by 27.1 %. This suggests that carbon limitation led to a strong imbalance between sugars and anthocyanins. Moreover, carbon limitation affected anthocyanin profiles in a cultivar dependent manner. Mathematical analysis of carbon-balance indicated that berries used a higher proportion of fixed carbon for sugar accumulation under carbon limitation (76.9% than under carbon sufficiency (48%. Thus, under carbon limitation, the grape berry can manage the metabolic fate of carbon in such a way that sugar accumulation is maintained at the expense of secondary

  5. Effect of trans fatty acid intake on abdominal and liver fat deposition and blood lipids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendsen, Nathalie Tommerup; Chabanova, E.; Thomsen, Henrik S.;

    2011-01-01

    Background:Intake of industrially produced trans fatty acids (TFAs) is, according to observational studies, associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, but the causal mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. Besides inducing dyslipidemia, TFA intake is suspected to promote...

  6. Synthesis of 2,2'-Dipyrryl Ketones from Pyrrole-2-carboxylic Acids with Trifluoroacetic Anhydride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Se Hee; Lim, Jin Woo; Yu, Jin; Kim, Jae Nyoung [Chonnam National Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-09-15

    An efficient synthesis of 2,2'-dipyrryl ketones has been carried out from pyrrole-2-carboxylic acids using trifluoroacetic anhydride (TFAA). Simultaneous generation of both mixed anhydride and 2-unsubstituted pyrrole, via facile decarboxylation with in-situ generated TFA, made their cross reaction (intermolecular Friedel-Crafts acylation) possible and efficient.

  7. Effect of trans-fatty acid intake on insulin sensitivity and intramuscular lipids - a randomized trial in overweight postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendsen, Nathalie Tommerup; Haugaard, Steen; Larsen, Thomas Meinert;

    2011-01-01

    lipid deposition in abdominally obese women. In a double-blind, parallel dietary intervention study, 52 healthy but overweight postmenopausal women were randomized to receive either partially hydrogenated soybean oil (15 g/d TFA) or a control oil (mainly oleic and palmitic acid) for 16 weeks. Three...

  8. Enhanced fatty acid production in engineered chemolithoautotrophic bacteria using reduced sulfur compounds as energy sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beller, Harry R.; Zhou, Peng; Jewell, Talia N.M.;

    2016-01-01

    Chemolithoautotrophic bacteria that oxidize reduced sulfur compounds, such as H2S, while fixing CO2 are an untapped source of renewable bioproducts from sulfide-laden waste, such as municipal wastewater. In this study, we report engineering of the chemolithoautotrophic bacterium Thiobacillus...

  9. Sources, distribution, and acidity of sulfate–ammonium aerosol in the Arctic in winter–spring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fisher, J.A.; Jacob, D.J.; Wang, Q.; Bahreini, R.; Carouge, C.C.; Cubison, M.J.; Dibb, J.E.; Diehl, T.; Jiminez, J.L.; Leibensperger, E.M.; Lu, Z.; Meinders, M.B.J.; Pye, H.O.T.; Quinn, P.K.; Sharma, S.; Streets, D.G.; Donkelaar, van A.; Yantosca, R.M.

    2011-01-01

    We use GEOS-Chem chemical transport model simulations of sulfate–ammonium aerosol data from the NASA ARCTAS and NOAA ARCPAC aircraft campaigns in the North American Arctic in April 2008, together with longer-term data from surface sites, to better understand aerosol sources in the Arctic in winter–s

  10. Distribution and sources of aliphatic hydrocarbons and fatty acids in surface sediments of a tropical estuary south west coast of India (Cochin estuary)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gireeshkumar, T.R.; Deepulal, P.M.; Chandramohanakumar, N.

    Surface sediments samples from the Cochin estuary were measured for elemental, stable isotopic and molecular biomarkers (aliphatic hydrocarbons and fatty acids) to study the sources and distribution of sedimentary organic matter. Concentrations...

  11. Sources of atmospheric acidity in an agricultural-industrial region of São Paulo State, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Rocha, G. O.; Franco, A.; Allen, A. G.; Cardoso, A. A.

    2003-04-01

    Surface-based measurements of atmospheric formic acid (HCOOH), acetic acid (CH3COOH), sulfur dioxide (SO2), hydrogen chloride (HCl), and nitric acid (HNO3) were made in central São Paulo State, Brazil, between April 1999 and March 2000. Mean concentrations were 9.0 ppb (HCOOH), 1.3 ppb (CH3COOH), 4.9 ppb (SO2), 0.3 ppb (HCl), and 0.5 ppb (HNO3). Concentrations in sugar cane burning plumes were 1160-4230 ppb (HCOOH), 360-1750 ppb (CH3COOH), 10-630 ppb (SO2), 4-210 ppb (HCl), and 14-90 ppb (HNO3). Higher ambient concentrations of SO2, HCl and HNO3 were measured during the burning season (May-November). Concentrations of SO2 and HCl increased during the evening, and of HCOOH and CH3COOH were lowest in the morning, with peak levels in the afternoon. Ratios obtained between different species showed either nighttime maxima (SO2/HCOOH, SO2/CH3COOH, SO2/HNO3, CH3COOH/HNO3, SO2/HCl and HCOOH/HNO3), daytime maxima (HCOOH/HCl, CH3COOH/HCl and HNO3/HCl), or no clear trends (HCOOH/CH3COOH). Correlation analysis showed that SO2 and HCl were primary emissions from biomass burning and road transport; HCOOH, HNO3 and CH3COOH were products of photochemistry; HCOOH and CH3COOH were emitted directly during combustion as well as from biogenic sources. Biomass burning affected atmospheric acidity on a regional scale, while vehicular emissions had greater impact in urban and adjacent areas. Atmospheric ammonia levels were insufficient to neutralize atmospheric acidity, which was mainly removed by deposition to the surface.

  12. Process characterization and influence of alternative carbon sources and carbon-to-nitrogen ratio on organic acid production by Aspergillus oryzae DSM1863.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochsenreither, Katrin; Fischer, Christian; Neumann, Anke; Syldatk, Christoph

    2014-06-01

    L-Malic acid and fumaric acid are C4 dicarboxylic organic acids and considered as promising chemical building blocks. They can be applied as food preservatives and acidulants in rust removal and as polymerization starter units. Molds of the genus Aspergillus are able to produce malic acid in large quantities from glucose and other carbon sources. In order to enhance the production potential of Aspergillus oryzae DSM 1863, production and consumption rates in an established bioreactor batch-process based on glucose were determined. At 35 °C, up to 42 g/L malic acid was produced in a 168-h batch process with fumaric acid as a by-product. In prolonged shaking flask experiments (353 h), the suitability of the alternative carbon sources xylose and glycerol at a carbon-to-nitrogen (C/N) ratio of 200:1 and the influence of different C/N ratios in glucose cultivations were tested. When using glucose, 58.2 g/L malic acid and 4.2 g/L fumaric acid were produced. When applying xylose or glycerol, both organic acids are produced but the formation of malic acid decreased to 45.4 and 39.4 g/L, respectively. Whereas the fumaric acid concentration was not significantly altered when cultivating with xylose (4.5 g/L), it is clearly enhanced by using glycerol (9.3 g/L). When using glucose as a carbon source, an increase or decrease of the C/N ratio did not influence malic acid production but had an enormous influence on fumaric acid production. The highest fumaric acid concentrations were determined at the highest C/N ratio (300:1, 8.44 g/L) and lowest at the lowest C/N ratio (100:1, 0.7 g/L).

  13. Chicken manure biochar as liming and nutrient source for acid Appalachian soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hass, Amir; Gonzalez, Javier M; Lima, Isabel M; Godwin, Harry W; Halvorson, Jonathan J; Boyer, Douglas G

    2012-01-01

    Acid weathered soils often require lime and fertilizer application to overcome nutrient deficiencies and metal toxicity to increase soil productivity. Slow-pyrolysis chicken manure biochars, produced at 350 and 700°C with and without subsequent steam activation, were evaluated in an incubation study as soil amendments for a representative acid and highly weathered soil from Appalachia. Biochars were mixed at 5, 10, 20, and 40 g kg into a Gilpin soil (fine-loamy, mixed, active, mesic Typic Hapludult) and incubated in a climate-controlled chamber for 8 wk, along with a nonamended control and soil amended with agronomic dolomitic lime (AgLime). At the end of the incubation, soil pH, nutrient availability (by Mehlich-3 and ammonium bicarbonate diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid [AB-DTPA] extractions), and soil leachate composition were evaluated. Biochar effect on soil pH was process- and rate-dependent. Biochar increased soil pH from 4.8 to 6.6 at the high application rate (40 g kg), but was less effective than AgLime. Biochar produced at 350°C without activation had the least effect on soil pH. Biochar increased soil Mehlich-3 extractable micro- and macronutrients. On the basis of unit element applied, increase in pyrolysis temperature and biochar activation decreased availability of K, P, and S compared to nonactivated biochar produced at 350°C. Activated biochars reduced AB-DTPA extractable Al and Cd more than AgLime. Biochar did not increase NO in leachate, but increased dissolved organic carbon, total N and P, PO, SO, and K at high application rate (40 g kg). Risks of elevated levels of dissolved P may limit chicken manure biochar application rate. Applied at low rates, these biochars provide added nutritional value with low adverse impact on leachate composition. PMID:22751051

  14. Proliferation and metabolic significance of peroxisomes in Candida boidinii during growth on D-alanine or oleic acid as the sole carbon source

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sulter, G.J.; Waterham, H.R.; Goodman, J.M.; Veenhuis, M.

    1990-01-01

    We have studied the induction of peroxisomes in the methylotrophic yeast Candida boidinii by D-alanine and oleic acid. The organism was able to utilize each of these compounds as the sole carbon source and grew with growth rates of µ = 0.20 h-1 (on D-alanine) or µ = 0.43 h-1 (on oleic acid). Growth

  15. Nucleic acid fragmentation on the millisecond timescale using a conventional X-ray rotating anode source: application to protein–DNA footprinting

    OpenAIRE

    Henn, Arnon; Halfon, Jacob; Kela, Itai; Orion, Itzhak; Sagi, Irit

    2001-01-01

    Nucleic acid fragmentation (footprinting) by ·OH radicals is used often as a tool to probe nucleic acid structure and nucleic acid–protein interactions. This method has proven valuable because it provides structural information with single base pair resolution. Recent developments in the field introduced the ‘synchrotron X-ray footprinting’ method, which uses a high-flux X-ray source to produce single base pair fragmentation of nucleic acid in tens of milliseconds. We developed a complementar...

  16. Human Mitochondrial Transcription Factor B1 Interacts with the C-Terminal Activation Region of h-mtTFA and Stimulates Transcription Independently of Its RNA Methyltransferase Activity

    OpenAIRE

    McCulloch, Vicki; Shadel, Gerald S.

    2003-01-01

    A significant advancement in understanding mitochondrial gene expression is the recent identification of two new human mitochondrial transcription factors, h-mtTFB1 and h-mtTFB2. Both proteins stimulate transcription in collaboration with the high-mobility group box transcription factor, h-mtTFA, and are homologous to rRNA methyltransferases. In fact, the dual-function nature of h-mtTFB1 was recently demonstrated by its ability to methylate a conserved rRNA substrate. Here, we demonstrate tha...

  17. 反式脂肪酸的危害及检测方法%On Hazards and Testing Methods of TFA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖春亭; 彭景

    2014-01-01

    反式脂肪酸(TFA)不是维持人体生理功能所需的脂肪酸,食品中TFA主要有天然和加工两种来源.众多研究表明,TFA的大量摄入会增加罹患各种疾病的风险,如:影响大脑功能、导致动脉硬化、导致血栓生成等.其检测方法主要有红外光谱法、气相色谱法、毛细管电泳法等.

  18. 法国ESI集团推出新的PAM-STAMP模拟方案——用于CATIA V5环境的PAM-TFA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    法国ESI集团近日宣布,在与达索系统公司(Dassault Systemes)所签订的“金软件”(Gold Software)合作协议框架之内开发的PAM—TFA(简易可成形性分析.Transparent Formability Analysis)模拟软件已研制完成.并将于今年6月投放市场。这是第一个在CAAV5环境中开发的应用软件。

  19. Aerobic dehydrogenation of cyclohexanone to phenol catalyzed by Pd(TFA)2/2-dimethylaminopyridine: evidence for the role of Pd nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pun, Doris; Diao, Tianning; Stahl, Shannon S

    2013-06-01

    We have carried out a mechanistic investigation of aerobic dehydrogenation of cyclohexanones and cyclohexenones to phenols with a Pd(TFA)2/2-dimethylaminopyridine catalyst system. Numerous experimental methods, including kinetic studies, filtration tests, Hg poisoning experiments, transmission electron microscopy, and dynamic light scattering, provide compelling evidence that the initial Pd(II) catalyst mediates the first dehydrogenation of cyclohexanone to cyclohexenone, after which it evolves into soluble Pd nanoparticles that retain catalytic activity. This nanoparticle formation and stabilization is facilitated by each of the components in the catalytic reaction, including the ligand, TsOH, DMSO, substrate, and cyclohexenone intermediate.

  20. Synthesis and characterization of nanocrystalline nickel oxide using NaOH and oxalic acid as oxide sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Precursors of nickel oxide (NiO) nanoparticles were synthesized through a simple chemical precipitation method by changing the oxide source used for the synthesis. The synthesized precursors were subjected to thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) to determine the temperature at which the precursors decompose into nickel oxide. The obtained results of TGA suggest that precursor NiO prepared using sodium hydroxide (NaOH) showed NiO formation at 600 °C, whereas, when oxalic acid was used as oxide source the formation of NiO took place at 400 °C. After calcinations of the precursors at respective temperatures, NiO nanocrystals have been harvested. The synthesized NiO powders were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy dispersive x-ray analysis (EDX), and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) analysis. An FE-TEM image of NiO prepared using oxalic acid showed spherical and elliptical particles with sizes in the range of 15 nm. The Williamson–Hall (W–H) plots were drawn for the annealed products to study their lattice strain and crystallite size. The sizes of NiO nanocrystals obtained from W–H analysis are well correlated with sizes estimated using Scherrer’s formula. The relatively low saturation magnetization of NiO confirms its super paramagnetic behavior. (papers)

  1. Intake of ruminant trans-fatty acids, assessed by diet history interview, and changes in measured body size, shape and composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Camilla P; Heitmann, Berit L; Sørensen, Thorkild Ia;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Studies have suggested that total intake of trans-fatty acids (TFA) is positively associated with changes in body weight and waist circumference, whereas intake of TFA from ruminant dairy and meat products (R-TFA) has not been associated with weight gain. However, these previous studies...... composition (body fat percentage). DESIGN: A 6-year follow-up study. Information on dietary intake was collected through diet history interviews, and anthropometric and bioelectrical impedance measurements were obtained by trained technicians at baseline (1987-1988) and at follow-up (1993-1994). Multiple...... was 1.3 g/d (5th, 95th percentile: 0.4, 2.7 g/d) or 0.6% of the total energy intake (5th, 95th percentile: 0.2, 1.1%). No significant associations were observed between R-TFA intake and changes in body weight, waist and hip circumference or body fat percentage. CONCLUSIONS: R-TFA intake within the range...

  2. Formation of amino acid precursors in the Solar System small bodies using Aluminium-26 as an energy source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebukawa, Yoko; Kobayashi, Kensei; Kawai, Jun; Mita, Hajime; Tachibana, Shogo; Yoda, Isao; Misawa, Shusuke

    2016-07-01

    Carbonaceous chondrites contain various organic matter including amino acids that may have played an important role for origin of life on the early Earth. The parent bodies of the chondritic meteorites likely formed from silicate dust grains containing some water ice and organic compounds. These planetesimals are known to contain short-lived radio isotopes such as ^{26}Al, and the heat generated from the decay of ^{26}Al was considered to be used for melting ice. The liquid water, for example, changed anhydrous silicates into hydrous silicates, i.e., aqueous alteration. The liquid water would act also as an ideal reaction medium for various organic chemistry. Cody et al. [1] proposed IOM formation via formose reaction starting with formaldehyde and glycolaldehyde during aqueous activity in the small bodies. Additional hydrothermal experiments showed that ammonia enhanced the yields of IOM like organic solids [2]. Formaldehyde and ammonia are ubiquitous in the Solar System and beyond, e.g., comets contain H _{2}CO : NH _{3} : H _{2}O = 0.4-4 : 0.5-1.5 : 100 [3]. Thus these molecules can be expected to have existed in some Solar System small bodies. We study the liquid phase chemistry of the formaldehyde and ammonia, including formations of amino acid precursor molecules, via hydrothermal experiments at isothermal temperatures of 90 °C to 200 °C. We also evaluate the effects of gamma-ray which is released from the decay of ^{26}Al with gamma-ray irradiation experiments using a ^{60}Co gamma-ray source at Tokyo Institute of Technology. Amino acids were detected mostly after acid hydrolysis of heated or irradiated solutions, indicating that most of the amino acids in the products exist as precursors. Some samples contained 'free' amino acids that were detected without acid hydrolysis, but much lower abundance than after acid hydrolysis. Kendrick mass defect (KMD) analyses of High resolution mass spectra obtained using ESI-MS revealed that various CHO and CHNO

  3. Quantifying amine permeation sources with acid neutralization: calibrations and amines measured in coastal and continental atmospheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Freshour

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available An acid titration method for quantifying amine permeation rates was used to calibrate an Ambient pressure Proton transfer Mass Spectrometer (AmPMS that monitors ambient amine compounds. The method involves capturing amines entrained in a N2 flow by bubbling it through an acidified solution (~ 10−5 M HCl, and the amines are quantified via changes in solution pH with time. Home-made permeation tubes had permeation rates (typically tens of pmol s−1 that depended on the type of amine and tubing and on temperature. Calibrations of AmPMS yielded sensitivities for ammonia, methyl amine, dimethyl amine, and trimethyl amine that are close to the sensitivity assuming a gas-kinetic, ion-molecule rate coefficient. The permeation tubes were also designed to deliver a reproducible amount of amine to a flow reactor where nucleation with sulfuric acid was studied. The high proton affinity compound dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO, linked to oceanic environments, was also studied and AmPMS is highly sensitive to it. AmPMS was deployed recently in two field campaigns and mixing ratios are reported for ammonia, alkyl amines, and DMSO and correlations between these species and with particle formation events are discussed.

  4. Effect of different forage species supplemented with two carbohydrate sources on short and medium chain fatty acids in sheep milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Piredda

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Sixty four Sarda dairy sheep fed with diets based on fresh forage were allocated to eight groups to evaluate the effect of corn or beet pulp based supplementation on milk fatty acid composition. Four forage species were compared: annual ryegrass (RY, Lolium rigidum Gaudin, sulla (SU, Hedysarum coronarium L., burr medic (BM, Medicago polymorpha L., and garland, a daisy forb, (CH, Chrysanthemum coronarium L.. The supplements were iso-nitrogenous but differed in carbohydrate composition consisting either of 60% (DM of corn (concentrate C or 40% sugar beet pulp (concentrate BP. The supplementation was iso-energetic (500 and 530 g/d, respectively. Overall during winter period (growing stage of the forages SU and RY groups showed higher levels of atherogenicity index and C16:0. In winter period BP outperformed C for palmitic acid. In spring AI showed a trend similar to that of winter. Moreover C concentrate gave a better level of AI and myristic acid than BP. This study confirms that forage species and, to a lesser extent, carbohydrate source in the supplement markedly affect mediumchain FA profile and hence atherogenicity index in sheep milk.

  5. Phosphatidylcholine is a major source of phosphatidic acid and diacylglycerol in angiotensin II-stimulated vascular smooth-muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassègue, B; Alexander, R W; Clark, M; Akers, M; Griendling, K K

    1993-06-01

    In cultured vascular smooth-muscle cells, angiotensin II produces a sustained formation of diacylglycerol (DG) and phosphatidic acid (PtdOH). Since the fatty acid composition of these molecules is likely to determine their efficacy as second messengers, it is important to ascertain the phospholipid precursors and the biochemical pathways from which they are produced. Our experiments suggest that phospholipase D (PLD)-mediated phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho) hydrolysis is the major source of both DG and PtdOH during the late signalling phase. First, in cells labelled with [3H]myristate, which preferentially labels PtdCho, formation of [3H]PtdOH precedes formation of [3H]DG. Second, in contrast with phospholipase C (PLC) activation, DG mass accumulation is dependent on extracellular Ca2+. Similarly, DG mass accumulation is not attenuated by protein kinase C activation, which we have previously shown to inhibit the phosphoinositide-specific PLC. Third, the fatty acid composition of late-phase DG and PtdOH more closely resembles that of PtdCho than that of phosphatidylinositol. Finally, in cells labelled for a short time with [3H]glycerol, the radioactivity incorporated into [3H]DG and PtdOH was greater than that incorporated into PtdIns, but not into PtdCho. We found no evidence that synthesis de novo or phosphatidylethanolamine breakdown contributes to sustained DG and PtdOH formation. Thus, in angiotensin II-stimulated cultured vascular smooth-muscle cells, PLD-mediated PtdCho hydrolysis is the major source of sustained DG and PtdOH, whereas phosphoinositide breakdown is a minor contributor. Furthermore, PtdOH phosphohydrolase, which determines the relative levels of DG and PtdOH, appears to be regulated by protein kinase C. These results have important implications for the role of these second messengers in growth and contraction.

  6. Degradation of trichloroethylene by hydrodechlorination using formic acid as hydrogen source over supported Pd catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xin; Wu, Ting; Yang, Xue-Jing; Xu, Jing; Auzam, Jordan; Semiat, Raphael; Han, Yi-Fan

    2016-03-15

    An advanced method for the degradation of trichloroethylene (TCE) over Pd/MCM-41 catalysts through a hydrogen-transfer was investigated. Formic acid (FA) was used instead of gaseous H2 as the hydrogen resource. As a model H-carrier compound, FA has proven to yield less by-products and second-hand pollution during the reaction. Several factors have been studied, including: the property of catalyst supports, Pd loading and size, temperature, initial concentrations of FA and TCE (potential impact on the reaction rates of TCE degradation), and FA decomposition. The intrinsic kinetics for TCE degradation were measured, while the apparent activation energies and the reaction orders with respect to TCE and FA were calculated through power law models. On the basis of kinetics, we assumed a plausible reaction pathway for TCE degradation in which the catalytic degradation of TCE is most likely the rate-determining step for this reaction. PMID:26685065

  7. Host-Derived Sialic Acids Are an Important Nutrient Source Required for Optimal Bacterial Fitness In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan D. McDonald

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A major challenge facing bacterial intestinal pathogens is competition for nutrient sources with the host microbiota. Vibrio cholerae is an intestinal pathogen that causes cholera, which affects millions each year; however, our knowledge of its nutritional requirements in the intestinal milieu is limited. In this study, we demonstrated that V. cholerae can grow efficiently on intestinal mucus and its component sialic acids and that a tripartite ATP-independent periplasmic SiaPQM strain, transporter-deficient mutant NC1777, was attenuated for colonization using a streptomycin-pretreated adult mouse model. In in vivo competition assays, NC1777 was significantly outcompeted for up to 3 days postinfection. NC1777 was also significantly outcompeted in in vitro competition assays in M9 minimal medium supplemented with intestinal mucus, indicating that sialic acid uptake is essential for fitness. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that the ability to utilize sialic acid was distributed among 452 bacterial species from eight phyla. The majority of species belonged to four phyla, Actinobacteria (members of Actinobacillus, Corynebacterium, Mycoplasma, and Streptomyces, Bacteroidetes (mainly Bacteroides, Capnocytophaga, and Prevotella, Firmicutes (members of Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, Clostridium, and Lactobacillus, and Proteobacteria (including Escherichia, Shigella, Salmonella, Citrobacter, Haemophilus, Klebsiella, Pasteurella, Photobacterium, Vibrio, and Yersinia species, mostly commensals and/or pathogens. Overall, our data demonstrate that the ability to take up host-derived sugars and sialic acid specifically allows V. cholerae a competitive advantage in intestinal colonization and that this is a trait that is sporadic in its occurrence and phylogenetic distribution and ancestral in some genera but horizontally acquired in others.

  8. Effects of dietary lipid source on growth, digestibility and tissue fatty acid composition of Heterobranchus longifilis fingerlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Friday Apata

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the major problems facing aquaculture is the inadequate supply of fish oil mostly used for fish feed manufacturing. The continued growth in aquaculture production cannot depend on this finite feed resources, therefore, it is imperative that cheap and readily available substitutes that do not compromise fish growth and fillet quality be found. To achieve this, a 12-week feeding trial with Heterobranchus longifilis fed diets differing in lipid source was conducted. Diets were supplemented with 6% lipid as fish oil, soybean oil, palm oil, coconut oil, groundnut oil and melon seed oil. Triplicate groups of 20 H. longifilis were fed the experimental diets two times a day to apparent satiation, over 84 days. Growth, digestibility, and muscle fatty acid profile were measured to assess diet effects. At the end of the study, survival, feed intake and hepatosomatic index were similar for fish fed experimental diets. However, weight gain, SGR and FCR of fish fed soybean oil-based diet was significantly reduced. Apparent nutrient digestibility coefficients were significantly lower in fish fed soybean, coconut and groundnut oil-based diets. Fillet and hepatic fatty acid compositions differed and reflected the fatty acid compositions of the diets. Docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3, 20:5n-3 and 20:4n-6 were conserved in vegetable oils-based diets fed fish possibly due to synthesis of HUFA from 18:3n-3 and 18:4n-6. Palm oil diet was the least expensive, and had the best economic conversion ratio. The use of vegetable oils in the diets had positive effect on growth and fillet composition of H. longifilis.

  9. Risques et bénéfices pour la santé des acides gras trans apportés par les aliments. Recommandations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Léger Claude-Louis

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The French Food Safety Agency (Agence Française de Sécurité Sanitaire des Aliments, AFSSA has recently adopted a definite position on risks and benefits of food trans fatty acids (TFA for human health. After considering available data on origins and biological activities of all types of TFA, including conjugated fatty acids (CLA, it has been proposed a regulatory definition of these fatty acids which is the chemical one : « the trans fatty acids are all unsaturated fatty acids that contain at least one double bond in a trans configuration ». This definition includes the CLA and TFA of animal origin. Daily intakes of TFA (except CLA in France was found to be 3 g/d in adults, i.e. 1.3 % total energy intake (E %. The male children are the most exposed to high TFA intakes which culminate at 2.5 E % for the 95 th percentile of the 12-14 year-old male children. Consumption of usual foods (not including the consumption of synthetic CLA supplements leads to a rumenic acid daily intake inferior to 200 mg/d (0.08 E %. The contribution of TFA of animal origin is 60 % in adult (55 % for milk and dairy products and 55 % (44 % for male children, showing a higher consumption of TFA of technological origin in the form of bakery products in children than in adults. According to epidemiological data, TFA intakes (except CLA of 2 E % are associated to a 25 % increased risk of the coronary heard disease. Clinical studies show that the CLA 10t,12c at the dose of 2.6 g/d should be considered potentially proatherogenic. The loss of body fat mass (the anti-obesity effect with the administration of CLA mixture 9c,11t + 10t,12c (or 10t,12c alone is obtained at a daily doses ranging from 1.6 to 6.8 g/d (2.6 g/d, but the loss is generally low even in the case of long term administration and adverse effects are observed in particular with 2.6 g/d CLA 10t,12c regarding insuline resistance, insulinemia, C-peptide, glycemia, HDL-C, enzymatic and non enzymatic

  10. Etude chez une population d’Aquitaine de l’effet des acides gras trans alimentaires sur les lipides plasmatiques et le profil des lipoprotéines

    OpenAIRE

    Boue Carole; Combe Nicole; Entressangles Bernard

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of dietary trans fatty acids (TFA) on the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) development, in 90 pregnant and 97 non-pregnant women, who were recruited between 1996 and 1999, in the South-West of France. The contents of TFA in total lipids, cholesteryl esters (CE) and total phospholipids (TPL) of the women’s plasma, were determined using a combination of thin layer chromatography and capillary gas-liquid chromatography. Results indicate...

  11. Overall hydrochemical characterization of the Iberian Pyrite Belt. Main acid mine drainage-generating sources (Huelva, SW Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grande, J. A.; de la Torre, M. L.; Cerón, J. C.; Beltrán, R.; Gómez, T.

    2010-09-01

    SummaryAMD is an anthropogenic process caused by sulfide mineralization and the increase in the contact surface due to mining activity and grain-size reduction. In Spain, the contamination comes from the metal sulfide mines in the Iberian Pyrite Belt (IPB). Spreading over an area 230 km long and approximately 50 km wide, it is one of the largest metallogenic regions in the world, with massive sulfide reserves of about 1700 Mt. In the present study we will characterize AMD contamination processes in the IPB, especially by As, by identifying the sources responsible for these processes (active mines and effluents from mines and slag heaps) in the basins of the Tinto and Odiel rivers. It is also the aim of this study to discover the mineral associations of the deposits. The study of the AMD process generating source is complemented with hydrochemical characterization of the effluents produced, which will be carried out by means of sample-taking and subsequent chemical analysis and statistical treatment (cluster analysis). Characteristics in common with samples taken in other AMD-affected watercourses are observed in the seven zones defined in the study area. With respect to the samples studied, obvious differences can also be found. These differences are inherent to the mineral associations, watershed and distance to the generating source and, ultimately, to the affected area, and the type, intensity and duration of the mine treatment process developed in the acid-producing area.

  12. Ruminal protein metabolism and intestinal amino acid utilization as affected by dietary protein and carbohydrate sources in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, H S; Jordan, R M; Stern, M D

    1991-05-01

    Eight wether lambs fitted with ruminal, duodenal, and ileal cannulas were used in a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square design to study the effects of carbohydrate and protein sources on ruminal protein metabolism and carbohydrate fermentation and intestinal amino acid (AA) absorption. Treatments were arranged as a 2 x 2 factorial. Carbohydrate sources were corn and barley; protein sources were soybean meal (SBM) and fish meal (FM). Diets contained 15.5% CP, of which 40% was supplied by SBM or FM. Corn or barley provided 39% of dietary DM that contained equal amounts of grass hay and wheat straw. Fish meal diets produced a lower (P less than .05) ruminal NH3 concentration and resulted in less CP degradation and bacterial protein flow to the duodenum than did SBM diets. Replacing SBM with FM increased (P less than .05) ruminal digestion of all fiber fractions. In addition, cellulose and hemicellulose digestibilities in the rumen tended to increase (P greater than .05) when barley replaced corn in the FM diets. Carbohydrate x protein interactions (P less than .05) were observed for OM digestion in the rumen and AA absorption in the small intestine (percentage of AA entering); these interactions were highest for the barley-FM diet. These results suggest that feeding FM with barley, which is high in both degradable carbohydrate and protein, might benefit ruminants more than feeding FM with corn, which is high in degradable carbohydrate but relatively low in degradable protein. PMID:1648551

  13. Quantification, morphology and source of humic acid, kerogen and black carbon in offshore marine sediments from Xiamen Gulf, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanting Chen; Jinping Zhao; Li qianYin; Jinsheng Chen; Dongxing Yuan

    2013-01-01

    Three types of macromolecular organic matters (MOMs),i.e.humic acid (HA),kerogen+black carbon (KB),and black carbon (BC)were extracted from marine sediments of Xiamen Gulf,southeast of China.The chemical composition,morphological property and source of the three extractions were characterized by elemental analyzer/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (EA/IRMS) and scanning electron microscope (SEM).The results showed that KB was the predominant fraction in MOMs,which accounted for 61.79%-89.15% of the total organic content (TOC),while HA consisted less than 5%.The relative high contents of kerogen and BC,and low contents of HA in the samples indicated that anthropogenic input might be the major source of organic matter in marine sediments near the industrial regions.The characterization of SEM,not only revealed morphological properties of the three fractions,but also allowed a better understanding of the source of MOMs.The δ13C values of the three fractions suggested that materials from terrestrial C3 plants were predominant.Furthermore,the anthropogenic activities,such as the discharge of sewage,coal and biomass combustion from industry nearby and agricultural practices within drainage basin of the Jiulong River,were remarkably contributed to the variations in δ13C values of MOMs in the offshore marine sediments.

  14. Acid Mediated Ring Closing Metathesis: A Powerful Synthetic Tool Enabling the Synthesis of Clinical Stage Kinase Inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    William, Anthony D; Lee, Angeline C-H

    2015-01-01

    The powerful olefin metathesis reaction was employed for the construction of late-phase clinical agents SB1317 and SB1518. In both cases RCM seems to proceed only in the presence of an acid and to predominantly furnish trans isomers. In case of SB1518 it proceeded in the presence of acid HCl, while for SB1317, it mainly proceeds in the presence of TFA (trifluroacetic acid). PMID:26507218

  15. Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seed as an n-3 fatty acid source for finishing pigs: effects on fatty acid composition and fat stability of the meat and internal fat, growth performance, and meat sensory characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, W; Ayerza, R

    2009-11-01

    Coronary heart disease is caused by arteriosclerosis, which is triggered by an unbalanced fatty acid profile in the body. Today, Western diets are typically low in n-3 fatty acids and high in SFA and n-6 fatty acids; consequently, healthier foods are needed. Chia seed (Salvia hispanica L.), which contains the greatest known plant source of n-3 alpha-linolenic acid, was fed at the rate of 10 and 20% to finishing pigs, with the goal to determine if this new crop would increase the n-3 content of the meat as has been reported for other n-3 fatty acid-rich crops. The effects of chia on fatty acid composition of the meat, internal fats, growth performance, and meat sensory characteristics were determined. Productive performance was unaffected by dietary treatment. Chia seed modified the fatty acid composition of the meat fat, but not of the internal fat. Significantly (P < 0.05) less palmitic, stearic, and arachidic acids were found with both chia treatments. This is different than trials in which flaxseed, another plant based source of omega-3 fatty acid, has been fed. Alpha-linolenic acid content increased with increasing chia content of the diet; however, only the effect of the 20% ration was significantly (P < 0.05) different from that of the control. Chia seed increased panel member preferences for aroma and flavor of the meat. This study tends to show that chia seems to be a viable feed that can produce healthier pork for human consumption.

  16. Polyunsaturated fatty acid-producing marine thraustochytrids:A potential source for antimicrobials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kaliyamoorthy Kalidasan; Sunil Kumar Sahu; Kasinathan Kayalvizhi; Kandasamy Kathiresan

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the antimicrobial activity of marine thraustochytrids extracted from different solvents. Methods: Crude extracts were derived from marine thraustochytrids, isolated from decaying mangrove leaf litter. The extracts were tested for antibacterial activity by using agar disc diffusion method against 10 clinical bacterial strains. The extracts were also analysed for presence of functional chemical groups by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Results: Thraustochytrid extracts exhibited potent antibacterial activity against both Gram-negative and -positive bacteria. The antibacterial activity was observed prominently in butanol extract, followed by petroleum ether, methanol and chloroform extracts. The antibacterial activity was maximum [(21.33 ± 1.52) mm] againstStaphylococcus aureus and minimum [(7.00 ± 2.00)] mm againstKlebsiella pneumonia andSalmonella typhi. Conclusions:Thraustochytrids isolated from decaying mangrove leaf litter are potential sources of antibacterial compounds against clinical pathogens, which are called for further investigation of thraustochytrids as natural antibiotics.

  17. Fatty acid profile and CLA content in milk from cows fed different soybean sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Simonetto

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The soybean meal is the main protein source in the ruminant diets and the EU consumption is about 27 million t/year (Brookes, 2000. However, problems have been recently risen by the use of GM soybean and derivates in animal feeding. The GM soybeans can be incorporated in the animal feeds and/or diets, especially if the seed or derivates are imported from extra-UE countries. In addition, the use of soybean meal is forbidden by the regulation of the organic livestock farming and/or the production of some typical foods. To this purpose the use of non-GM soybean, produced and treated directly in the farm, could be encouraged in the animal feeding.......

  18. Towards the Industrial Production of Omega-3 Long Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids from a Genetically Modified Diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary L Hamilton

    Full Text Available The marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum can accumulate up to 30% of the omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and, as such, is considered a good source for the industrial production of EPA. However, P. tricornutum does not naturally accumulate significant levels of the more valuable omega-3 LC-PUFA docosahexaenoic acid (DHA. Previously, we have engineered P. tricornutum to accumulate elevated levels of DHA and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA by overexpressing heterologous genes encoding enzyme activities of the LC-PUFA biosynthetic pathway. Here, the transgenic strain Pt_Elo5 has been investigated for the scalable production of EPA and DHA. Studies have been performed at the laboratory scale on the cultures growing in up to 1 L flasks a 3.5 L bubble column, a 550 L closed photobioreactor and a 1250 L raceway pond with artificial illumination. Detailed studies were carried out on the effect of different media, carbon sources and illumination on omega-3 LC-PUFAs production by transgenic strain Pt_Elo5 and wild type P. tricornutum grown in 3.5 L bubble columns. The highest content of DHA (7.5% of total fatty acids, TFA in transgenic strain was achieved in cultures grown in seawater salts, Instant Ocean (IO, supplemented with F/2 nutrients (F2N under continuous light. After identifying the optimal conditions for omega-3 LC-PUFA accumulation in the small-scale experiments we compared EPA and DHA levels of the transgenic strain grown in a larger fence-style tubular photobioreactor and a raceway pond. We observed a significant production of DHA over EPA, generating an EPA/DPA/DHA profile of 8.7%/4.5%/12.3% of TFA in cells grown in a photobioreactor, equivalent to 6.4 μg/mg dry weight DHA in a mid-exponentially growing algal culture. Omega-3 LC-PUFAs production in a raceway pond at ambient temperature but supplemented with artificial illumination (110 μmol photons m-2s-1 on a 16:8h light:dark cycle, in

  19. Investigation of lauric acid dopant as a novel carbon source in MgB 2 wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C. M.; Lee, S. M.; Park, G. C.; Joo, J.; Lim, J. H.; Kang, W. N.; Yi, J. H.; Jun, B.-H.; Kim, C.-J.

    2010-11-01

    We fabricated lauric acid (LA) doped MgB 2 wires and investigated the effects of the LA doping. For the fabrication of the LA-doped MgB 2 wires, B powder was mixed with LA at 0-5 wt.% of the total amount of MgB 2 using an organic solvent, dried, and then the LA-treated B and Mg powders were mixed stoichiometrically. The powder mixture was loaded into an Fe tube and the assemblage was drawn and sintered at 900 °C for 3 h under an argon atmosphere. We observed that the LA doping induced the substitution of C for the B sites in MgB 2 and that the actual content of C increased monotonically with increasing LA doping level. The LA-doped MgB 2 wires exhibited a lower critical temperature ( Tc), but better critical current density ( Jc) behavior in a high magnetic field: the 5 wt.% LA-doped sample had a Jc value of 5.32 × 10 3 A/cm 2, which was 2.17 times higher than that of the pristine sample (2.45 × 10 3 A/cm 2) at 5 K and 6 T, suggesting that LA is an effective C dopant in MgB 2 for enhancing the high-field Jc performance.

  20. House microbiotas as sources of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts in traditional Italian sourdoughs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minervini, Fabio; Lattanzi, Anna; De Angelis, Maria; Celano, Giuseppe; Gobbetti, Marco

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed at understanding the extent of contamination by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeasts from the house microbiotas during sourdough back-slopping. Besides sourdoughs, wall, air, storage box, dough mixer and flour of four bakeries were analyzed. Based on plate counts, LAB and yeasts dominated the house microbiota. Based on high throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA genes, flour harbored the highest number of Firmicutes, but only few of them adapted to storage box, dough mixer and sourdough. Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis showed the highest abundance in dough mixer and sourdoughs. Lactobacillus plantarum persisted only in storage box, dough mixer and sourdough of two bakeries. Weissella cibaria also showed higher adaptability in sourdough than in bakery equipment, suggesting that flour is the main origin of this species. Based on 18S rRNA data, Saccharomyces cerevisiae was the dominant yeast in house and sourdough microbiotas, excepted one bakery dominated by Kazachstania exigua. The results of this study suggest that the dominant species of sourdough LAB and yeasts dominated also the house microbiota. PMID:26338118

  1. Preparation and properties of Y 1-xHo xBa 2Cu 3O 7-δ thin films by TFA-MOD method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Hongbin; Li, Qi; Shi, Dongqi; Zhang, Li; Yang, Zhaorong; Dou, Shixue; Zhu, Xuebin; Sun, Yuping

    2011-12-01

    Y 1-xHo xBa 2Cu 3O 7-δ ( x = 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5) thin films were prepared on LaAlO 3 (0 0 1) substrates by trifluoroacetate metal organic deposition (TFA-MOD) without change of the processing parameters. The highest J c was attributed to the sample of Y 0.6Ho 0.4Ba 2Cu 3O 7-δ thin film, whose critical current density is about 1.6 times as compared to that of YBa 2Cu 3O 7-δ thin film at 77 K and self field. The flux pinning type was not varied with Ho substitution and can be attributed to δl pinning model, which is attributed to the close ionic radius between the Y 3+ and Ho 3+ ions. The improvement of J c by Ho substitution without change of the processing parameters will provide an effective route to enhance the J c of YBCO-based thin films using TFA-MOD method.

  2. Fabrication of High-Quality SmBa2Cu3O7-δ Thin Films by a Modified TFA-MOD Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report a successful fabrication of high-quality SmBa2Cu3O7-δ (SmBCO) thin films on LaAlO3(LAO)(100) single crystalline substrates by a modified TFA-MOD method. After the pyrolysis heat treatment of spin-coated films up to 400 degree C, SmBCO films were fired at various temperatures ranging from 810 to 850 degree C in a reduced oxygen atmosphere (10 ppm O2 in Ar). Optimally processed SmBCO films exhibited the zero-resistance temperature (Tc,zero) of 90.2 K and the critical current density (Jc) of 0.8 MA/cm2 at 77K in self-field. Compared with the Jc values (normally, > 2 MA/cm2 at 77 K) of MOD-TFA processed YBCO films, rather depressed Jc values in SmBCO films are most probably attributed to the existence of alpha-axis oriented grains.

  3. Influence of Gas Flow and Improvement of Homogeneity on the Distribution of Critical Current Density in YBCO Coated Conductor Processed by TFA-MOD Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiohara, Kei; Higashikawa, Kohei; Kawaguchi, Teppei; Inoue, Masayoshi; Kiss, Takanobu; Yoshizumi, Masateru; Izumi, Teruo

    Using a scanning Hall-probe microscopy, we have investigated in-plane distribution of critical current density in TFA-MOD processed YBCO coated conductors. We compared the distributions of critical current density for two kinds of coated conductors processed with different directions of gas flow at the calcinations. As a result, it was found that the direction of the gas flow largely influenced the distribution of critical current density. For example, the maximum value of critical current density was 1.5 times higher than the average for a sample processed with a gas flow in width direction. On the other hand, the distribution of critical current density was relatively uniform for the one with a gas flow in axial direction perpendicular to the surface of the conductor. These findings will be very important information for the optimization of the manufacturer processes for the conductors. Actually, a very uniform distribution of critical current density has been observed for a coated conductor produced by an optimized process. This demonstrates a high potential of TFA-MOD processed YBCO coated conductors for practical applications.

  4. Phase evolution of BaHfO3 pinning centers in YBCO thin films fabricated with the TFA-MOD process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exploiting the exceptional electrical and magnetic properties of superconducting YBa2Cu3O7-δ (YBCO) coated conductors for the commercial market requires both an economical deposition process as well as a means of enhancing the pinning of magnetic flux lines to increase performance of these materials in applied magnetic fields. Introducing nanosized BaHfO3 (BHO) particles into a YBCO layer deposited using the well-documented chemical solution deposition route known as TFA-MOD is one way to achieve both of these goals. However, the conversion from a precursor solution to crystalline YBCO is complicated and not fully understood, particularly when nanoparticles are added. This contribution takes a closer look at the phase evolution of these nanoparticles in the TFA-MOD-based process. Films with varying concentrations of BHO particles were quenched at different temperatures during the conversion process. Transport and inductive measurements on the fully reacted samples with BHO particles indicate an increased pinning effect with higher dopant concentrations. X-ray results reveal the formation of BHO particles before YBCO is observed, suggesting they precipitate at the substrate. Finally, FIB cuts and TEM cross-section images provide a robust characterization of these films at various stages of the conversion process.

  5. Transmission electron microscopic studies on crystallization of YBa2Cu3O7-y films deposited by advanced TFA-MOD method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have prepared Y123 quenched and fully crystallized films by the conventional and the advanced TFA-MOD processes. Then, we have investigated microstructures of the films by means of transmission electron microscopy, in order to understand the initial stage of the Y123 growth. As a result, it is found that Y-Ba-O-F grains firstly nucleate on LaAlO3 single crystals as well as on CeO2 buffered metal substrates both in the TFA-MOD processes. The Y-Ba-O-F is grown with epitaxially orientated relationship to the substrate. A BaCeO3 reaction product layer is formed due to Ba diffusion from Y123 to CeO2 mainly through the grain boundaries. At the crystallization temperature of 760 deg. C, the diffusion rate of Ba is slow. Therefore, it was found that the thickness of the BaCeO3 layer does not increase much further with increasing the holding time until about 1000 min

  6. Supplemental protein sources for steers fed corn-based diets: II. Growth and estimated metabolizable amino acid supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludden, P A; Jones, J M; Cecava, M J; Hendrix, K S

    1995-05-01

    Seventy Simmental-cross steers (average initial weight 301 +/- 24 kg) were individually fed in a 175-d completely randomized design experiment to evaluate the effects of source and level of protein in the diet on gain and feed efficiency. Steers were allotted to 1 of 10 treatments (seven steers per treatment) in a 3 x 3 factorial arrangement of treatments plus a urea-supplemented control diet. Main factors were source of supplemental protein (soybean meal [SBM], a high ruminal escape soybean meal [SP; SoyPLUS], or a combination of corn gluten meal and blood meal [CB; 50:50 on a nitrogen basis]) and level of each protein source (20, 30, or 40% of total dietary CP). Based on 18-h in situ ruminal incubation, escape N content of the protein sources was 66.0, 82.5, and 90.8% of total N and metabolizable amino acid (MAA) content was 29.1, 33.4, and 67.8 g/100 g of DM for SBM, SP, and CB respectively. The steers were fed 12.5% CP diets based on cracked corn (70%) on d 0 through 70 and were switched to a common 11.5% CP urea-supplemented cracked corn diet (80%) on d 71. The steers were housed in individual confinement stalls and had ad libitum access to feed. Replacing urea with SBM or SP increased (P .05) 28- or 70-d ADG or DMI but did increase (P .05) on 175-d DMI or efficiency; however, feeding SBM increased (P .05) by treatment. Replacing urea with SBM or CB in the first 70 d decreased (P carcass quality grade, dressing percentage, and longissimus muscle area.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:7665379

  7. Nutrient balancing of the adult worker bumblebee (Bombus terrestris) depends on the dietary source of essential amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stabler, Daniel; Paoli, Pier P; Nicolson, Susan W; Wright, Geraldine A

    2015-03-01

    Animals carefully regulate the amount of protein that they consume. The quantity of individual essential amino acids (EAAs) obtained from dietary protein depends on the protein source, but how the proportion of EAAs in the diet affects nutrient balancing has rarely been studied. Recent research using the Geometric Framework for Nutrition has revealed that forager honeybees who receive much of their dietary EAAs from floral nectar and not from solid protein have relatively low requirements for dietary EAAs. Here, we examined the nutritional requirements for protein and carbohydrates of foragers of the buff-tailed bumblebee Bombus terrestris. By using protein (sodium caseinate) or an equimolar mixture of the 10 EAAs, we found that the intake target (nutritional optimum) of adult workers depended on the source and proportion of dietary EAAs. When bees consumed caseinate-containing diets in a range of ratios between 1:250 and 1:25 (protein to carbohydrate), they achieved an intake target (IT) of 1:149 (w/w). In contrast to those fed protein, bees fed the EAA diets had an IT more biased towards carbohydrates (1:560 w/w) but also had a greater risk of death than those fed caseinate. We also tested how the dietary source of EAAs affected free AAs in bee haemolymph. Bees fed diets near their IT had similar haemolymph AA profiles, whereas bees fed diets high in caseinate had elevated levels of leucine, threonine, valine and alanine in the haemolymph. We found that like honeybees, bumblebee workers prioritize carbohydrate intake and have a relatively low requirement for protein. The dietary source of EAAs influenced both the ratio of protein/EAA to carbohydrate and the overall amount of carbohydrate eaten. Our data support the idea that EAAs and carbohydrates in haemolymph are important determinants of nutritional state in insects. PMID:25617453

  8. Nutrient balancing of the adult worker bumblebee (Bombus terrestris) depends on the dietary source of essential amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stabler, Daniel; Paoli, Pier P; Nicolson, Susan W; Wright, Geraldine A

    2015-03-01

    Animals carefully regulate the amount of protein that they consume. The quantity of individual essential amino acids (EAAs) obtained from dietary protein depends on the protein source, but how the proportion of EAAs in the diet affects nutrient balancing has rarely been studied. Recent research using the Geometric Framework for Nutrition has revealed that forager honeybees who receive much of their dietary EAAs from floral nectar and not from solid protein have relatively low requirements for dietary EAAs. Here, we examined the nutritional requirements for protein and carbohydrates of foragers of the buff-tailed bumblebee Bombus terrestris. By using protein (sodium caseinate) or an equimolar mixture of the 10 EAAs, we found that the intake target (nutritional optimum) of adult workers depended on the source and proportion of dietary EAAs. When bees consumed caseinate-containing diets in a range of ratios between 1:250 and 1:25 (protein to carbohydrate), they achieved an intake target (IT) of 1:149 (w/w). In contrast to those fed protein, bees fed the EAA diets had an IT more biased towards carbohydrates (1:560 w/w) but also had a greater risk of death than those fed caseinate. We also tested how the dietary source of EAAs affected free AAs in bee haemolymph. Bees fed diets near their IT had similar haemolymph AA profiles, whereas bees fed diets high in caseinate had elevated levels of leucine, threonine, valine and alanine in the haemolymph. We found that like honeybees, bumblebee workers prioritize carbohydrate intake and have a relatively low requirement for protein. The dietary source of EAAs influenced both the ratio of protein/EAA to carbohydrate and the overall amount of carbohydrate eaten. Our data support the idea that EAAs and carbohydrates in haemolymph are important determinants of nutritional state in insects.

  9. Spectroscopic study on the intermolecular double proton transfer in 4-(naphthalen-1-yl)-6-octyl-1,3,5-triazin-2-amine with acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Zongyao [Key Lab for Special Functional Materials of Ministry of Education, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004 (China); Research Institute of Henan Coal and Chemical Industry Group, Zhengzhou 450046 (China); Li Chunli [Key Lab for Special Functional Materials of Ministry of Education, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004 (China); Zhao Chunmei [Key Lab for Special Functional Materials of Ministry of Education, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004 (China); Institute for Functional Nanomaterials, Huanghe Science and Technology College, Zhengzhou 450000 (China); Wu Wei [Key Lab for Special Functional Materials of Ministry of Education, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004 (China); Wang Hua, E-mail: hwang@henu.edu.cn [Key Lab for Special Functional Materials of Ministry of Education, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004 (China)

    2012-10-15

    With 2,4,6-trichloro-1,3,5-triazine as starting material, a functionalized triazine derivative, 4-(naphthalen-1-yl)-6-octyl-1,3,5-triazin-2-amine (NOTA) was synthesized in 14% yield through three steps: Kumada cross-coupling, Suzuki coupling and amination. Intermolecular double proton transfer of NOTA with acetic acid (HOAc) and trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) in chloroform was investigated by UV-vis absorption and fluorescence emission. It is found that both NOTA/HOAc and NOTA/TFA undergo excited state double proton transfer, resulting in amino-imino tautomerization emission in excited state. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A functionalized triazine derivative, 4-(naphthalen-1-yl)-6-octyl-1,3,5-triazin-2-amine (NOTA) was synthesized in 14% yield through three steps: Kumada cross-coupling, Suzuki coupling and amination. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Intermolecular double proton transfer of NOTA with acetic acid (HOAc) and trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) in chloroform was investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Both NOTA/HOAc and NOTA/TFA undergo excited state double proton transfer. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Amino-imino tautomerization emission in excited state are proposed.

  10. Effect of hypoiodous acid volatility on the iodine source term in reactor accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Routamo, T. [Imatran Voima Oy, Vantaa (Finland)

    1996-12-01

    A FORTRAN code ACT WATCH has been developed to establish an improved understanding of essential radionuclide behaviour mechanisms, especially related to iodine chemistry, in reactor accidents. The accident scenarios calculated in this paper are based on the Loss of Coolant accident at the Loviisa Nuclear Power Plant. The effect of different airborne species, especially HIO, on the iodine source term has been studied. The main cause of the high HIO release in the system modelled is the increase of I{sub 2} hydrolysis rate along with the temperature increase, which accelerates HIO production. Due to the high radiation level near the reactor core, I{sub 2} is produced from I{sup -}very rapidly. High temperature in the reactor coolant causes I{sub 2} to be transformed into HIO and through the boiling of the coolant volatile I{sub 2} and HIO are transferred efficiently into the gas phase. High filtration efficiency for particulate iodine causes I{sup -} release to be much lower than those of I{sub 2} and HIO. (author) 15 figs., 1 tab., refs.

  11. BIOREMEDIATION FOR ACID MINE DRAINAGE: ORGANIC SOLID WASTE AS CARBON SOURCES FOR SULFATE-REDUCING BACTERIA: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. N. Jamil

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Biological sulfate reduction has been slowly replacing chemical unit processes to treat acid mine drainage (AMD. Bioremediations for AMD treatment are favored due to their low capital and maintenance cost. This paper describes the available AMD treatment, current SRB commercialization such as THIOPAQ® and BioSulphide® technologies, and also the factors and limitations faced. THIOPAQ® and BioSulphide® technologies use expensive carbon sources such as hydrogen as the electron donor. This paper discusses the possibility of organic solid waste as an alternative substrate as it is cheaper and abundant. A possible AMD treatment system setup was also proposed to test the efficiency of sulfate-reducing bacteria utilizing organic solid substrate.

  12. Effect of Different Oil Sources on Muscle Fatty Acid Composition and Serum Lipoproteins Levels in Sarabi Beef Steer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Golshan-Zoroofi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effects of different vegetable oil sources on the Fatty Acid (FA composition of muscle and performance of beef steer (Sarabi strain. Twenty one steers (384±17 kg BW were assigned in seven treatment that fed diets containing 0% oil (control, 2 and 4% of Canola Oil (CO, Sunflower Oil (SO and Restaurant Waste Oils (RWO. Ribeye steaks from steers fed CO, SO and RWO for 90 days of experiment were used after slaughtering to evaluate the effects of oil source on fatty acid composition. Amounts of muscle saturated FAs decreased and polyunsaturated FAs increased in both 2% CO and 2% SO groups. The highest contents of total n-3, n-6 and n-7 FAs were significantly (p<0.05 obtained with 2% CO, 2% SO and control groups, respectively. Animals fed 2% CO had the lowest content of total n-9 FAs in compared to other groups. Control and 2% SO dietary groups presented lowest total cholesterol and 4% CO group resulted in a lowest triglycerides (p<0.01. The high and low-density lipoprotein (HDL and LDL was highest in 2 and 4% RWO group, respectively and animals fed 4% SO and 4% CO had the lowest LDL and very low-DL (VLDL, respectively. Control animals and those fed 2% oils tended to have higher dry matter intake (DMI, <0.05. The best Daily Weight Gain (DWG was related to 2% RWO dietary group and followed by 2% SO dietary groups; however, differences were not significant.

  13. Application of natural citric acid sources and their role on arsenic removal from drinking water: a green chemistry approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumder, Santanu; Nath, Bibhash; Sarkar, Simita; Islam, Sk Mijanul; Bundschuh, Jochen; Chatterjee, Debashis; Hidalgo, Manuela

    2013-11-15

    Solar Oxidation and Removal of Arsenic (SORAS) is a low-cost non-hazardous technique for the removal of arsenic (As) from groundwater. In this study, we tested the efficiency of natural citric acid sources extracted from tomato, lemon and lime to promote SORAS for As removal at the household level. The experiment was conducted in the laboratory using both synthetic solutions and natural groundwater samples collected from As-polluted areas in West Bengal. The role of As/Fe molar ratios and citrate doses on As removal efficiency were checked in synthetic samples. The results demonstrate that tomato juice (as citric acid) was more efficient to remove As from both synthetic (percentage of removal: 78-98%) and natural groundwater (90-97%) samples compared to lemon (61-83% and 79-85%, respectively) and lime (39-69% and 63-70%, respectively) juices. The As/Fe molar ratio and the citrate dose showed an 'optimized central tendency' on As removal. Anti-oxidants, e.g. 'hydroxycinnamates', found in tomato, were shown to have a higher capacity to catalyze SORAS photochemical reactions compared to 'flavanones' found in lemon or lime. The application of this method has several advantages, such as eco- and user- friendliness and affordability at the household level compared to other low-cost techniques. PMID:23122734

  14. Variability in the carbon isotope composition of individual amino acids in plant proteins from different sources: 1 Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Anthony H; Kruger, Nicholas J; Hedges, Robert E M; McCullagh, James S O

    2016-05-01

    The natural carbon isotope composition of individual amino acids from plant leaf proteins has been measured to establish potential sources of variability. The plant leaves studied, taken from a range of plant groups (forbs, trees, grasses, and freshwater aquatic plants), showed no significant influence of either season or environment (water and light availability) on their Δδ(13)C values. Plant groups did, however, differ in carbon isotope composition, although no consistent differences were identified at the species level. A discriminant analysis model was constructed which allowed leaves from (1) nettles, (2) Pooideae, (3) other Poales, (4) trees and (5) freshwater higher plants to be distinguished from each other on the basis of their natural abundance (13)C/(12)C ratios of individual amino acids. Differences in carbon isotope composition are known to be retained, to some extent, in the tissues of their consumers, and hence an understanding of compound-specific variation in (13)C/(12)C fractional abundance in plants has the potential to provide dietary insights of value in archaeological and ecological studies. PMID:26948983

  15. Fatty acid patterns of Southern Ocean shelf and deep sea peracarid crustaceans and a possible food source, foraminiferans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Würzberg, Laura; Peters, Janna; Brandt, Angelika

    2011-10-01

    In order to investigate the diversity of diet composition in macrobenthic peracarid crustaceans from the Antarctic shelf and deep sea, the fatty acid (FA) composition of different species belonging to the orders Isopoda, Amphipoda, Cumacea and Tanaidacea was analysed. Multivariate analyses of the FA composition confirmed general differences between the orders, but also distinct differences within these orders. To gain information on the origin of the FAs found, the potential food sources sediment, POM and foraminiferans were included in the study. Most of the analysed amphipod species displayed high 18:1( n-9)-18:1( n-7) ratios, widely used as an indicator for a carnivorous component in the diet. Cumaceans were characterised by increased phytoplankton FA markers such as 20:5( n-3) (up to 29% of total FAs), suggesting a diet based on phytodetritus. High values of the FA 20:4( n-6) were found in some munnopsid isopods (up to 21% of total FAs) and some tanaidacean species (up to 19% of total FAs). 20:4( n-6) also occurred in high proportions in some foraminiferan samples (up to 21% of total fatty acids), but not in sediment and POM, possibly indicating the ingestion of foraminiferans by some peracarid crustaceans.

  16. Application of natural citric acid sources and their role on arsenic removal from drinking water: a green chemistry approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumder, Santanu; Nath, Bibhash; Sarkar, Simita; Islam, Sk Mijanul; Bundschuh, Jochen; Chatterjee, Debashis; Hidalgo, Manuela

    2013-11-15

    Solar Oxidation and Removal of Arsenic (SORAS) is a low-cost non-hazardous technique for the removal of arsenic (As) from groundwater. In this study, we tested the efficiency of natural citric acid sources extracted from tomato, lemon and lime to promote SORAS for As removal at the household level. The experiment was conducted in the laboratory using both synthetic solutions and natural groundwater samples collected from As-polluted areas in West Bengal. The role of As/Fe molar ratios and citrate doses on As removal efficiency were checked in synthetic samples. The results demonstrate that tomato juice (as citric acid) was more efficient to remove As from both synthetic (percentage of removal: 78-98%) and natural groundwater (90-97%) samples compared to lemon (61-83% and 79-85%, respectively) and lime (39-69% and 63-70%, respectively) juices. The As/Fe molar ratio and the citrate dose showed an 'optimized central tendency' on As removal. Anti-oxidants, e.g. 'hydroxycinnamates', found in tomato, were shown to have a higher capacity to catalyze SORAS photochemical reactions compared to 'flavanones' found in lemon or lime. The application of this method has several advantages, such as eco- and user- friendliness and affordability at the household level compared to other low-cost techniques.

  17. Omega-3 fatty acids for nutrition and medicine: considering microalgae oil as a vegetarian source of EPA and DHA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doughman, Scott D; Krupanidhi, Srirama; Sanjeevi, Carani B

    2007-08-01

    Long-chain EPA/DHA omega-3 fatty acid supplementation can be co-preventative and co-therapeutic. Current research suggests increasing accumulated long chain omega-3s for health benefits and as natural medicine in several major diseases. But many believe plant omega-3 sources are nutritionally and therapeutically equivalent to the EPA/DHA omega-3 in fish oil. Although healthy, precursor ALA bio-conversion to EPA is inefficient and production of DHA is nearly absent, limiting the protective value of ALA supplementation from flax-oil, for example. Along with pollutants certain fish acquire high levels of EPA/DHA as predatory species. However, the origin of EPA/DHA in aquatic ecosystems is algae. Certain microalgae produce high levels of EPA or DHA. Now, organically produced DHA-rich microalgae oil is available. Clinical trials with DHA-rich oil indicate comparable efficacies to fish oil for protection from cardiovascular risk factors by lowering plasma triglycerides and oxidative stress. This review discusses 1) omega-3 fatty acids in nutrition and medicine; 2) omega-3s in physiology and gene regulation; 3) possible protective mechanisms of EPA/DHA in major diseases such as coronary heart disease, atherosclerosis, cancer and type 2 diabetes; 4) EPA and DHA requirements considering fish oil safety; and 5) microalgae EPA and DHA-rich oils and recent clinical results. PMID:18220672

  18. Acid rain mitigation experiment shifts a forested watershed from a net sink to a net source of nitrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosi-Marshall, Emma J; Bernhardt, Emily S; Buso, Donald C; Driscoll, Charles T; Likens, Gene E

    2016-07-01

    Decades of acid rain have acidified forest soils and freshwaters throughout montane forests of the northeastern United States; the resulting loss of soil base cations is hypothesized to be responsible for limiting rates of forest growth throughout the region. In 1999, an experiment was conducted that reversed the long-term trend of soil base cation depletion and tested the hypothesis that calcium limits forest growth in acidified soils. Researchers added 1,189 kg Ca(2+) ha(-1) as the pelletized mineral wollastonite (CaSiO3) to a 12-ha forested watershed within the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest in the White Mountains of New Hampshire. Significant increases in the pH and acid-neutralizing capacity of soils and streamwater resulted, and the predicted increase in forest growth occurred. An unanticipated consequence of this acidification mitigation experiment began to emerge a decade later, with marked increases in dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) exports in streamwater from the treated watershed. By 2013, 30-times greater DIN was exported from this base-treated watershed than from adjacent reference watersheds, and DIN exports resulting from this experiment match or exceed earlier reports of inorganic N losses after severe ice-storm damage within the study watershed. The discovery that CaSiO3 enrichment can convert a watershed from a sink to a source of N suggests that numerous potential mechanisms drive watershed N dynamics and provides new insights into the influence of acid deposition mitigation strategies for both carbon cycling and watershed N export. PMID:27335456

  19. Acid rain mitigation experiment shifts a forested watershed from a net sink to a net source of nitrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosi-Marshall, Emma J; Bernhardt, Emily S; Buso, Donald C; Driscoll, Charles T; Likens, Gene E

    2016-07-01

    Decades of acid rain have acidified forest soils and freshwaters throughout montane forests of the northeastern United States; the resulting loss of soil base cations is hypothesized to be responsible for limiting rates of forest growth throughout the region. In 1999, an experiment was conducted that reversed the long-term trend of soil base cation depletion and tested the hypothesis that calcium limits forest growth in acidified soils. Researchers added 1,189 kg Ca(2+) ha(-1) as the pelletized mineral wollastonite (CaSiO3) to a 12-ha forested watershed within the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest in the White Mountains of New Hampshire. Significant increases in the pH and acid-neutralizing capacity of soils and streamwater resulted, and the predicted increase in forest growth occurred. An unanticipated consequence of this acidification mitigation experiment began to emerge a decade later, with marked increases in dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) exports in streamwater from the treated watershed. By 2013, 30-times greater DIN was exported from this base-treated watershed than from adjacent reference watersheds, and DIN exports resulting from this experiment match or exceed earlier reports of inorganic N losses after severe ice-storm damage within the study watershed. The discovery that CaSiO3 enrichment can convert a watershed from a sink to a source of N suggests that numerous potential mechanisms drive watershed N dynamics and provides new insights into the influence of acid deposition mitigation strategies for both carbon cycling and watershed N export.

  20. Establishment and characterization of a Satureja khuzistanica Jamzad (Lamiaceae) cell suspension culture: a new in vitro source of rosmarinic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahraroo, Amir; Mirjalili, Mohammad Hossein; Corchete, Purificación; Babalar, Mesbah; Fattahi Moghadam, Mohammad Reza

    2016-08-01

    An in vitro approach to the production of rosmarinic acid (RA), a medicinally important caffeic acid ester, in a cell suspension culture (CSC) of Satureja khuzistanica Jamzad (Lamiaceae) has been investigated for the first time. The CSC was established from friable calli derived from shoot tip explants in Gamborg's B5 liquid medium supplemented with 30 g/L sucrose, 20 mg/L L-glutamine, 200 mg/L casein hydrolysate, 5 mg/L benzyladenine (BA) and 1 mg/L indole-3-butyric acid (IBA). The effect of nitrogen source (KNO3 and (NH4)2SO4) and their different concentrations on the fresh and dry weight (g/L), as well as RA content (mg/g dry weight) were measured. CSC growth measurements indicated a maximum specific cell growth rate of 1.5/day, a doubling time of 7.6 days and a high percentage of cell viability (96.4 %) throughout the growth cycle. Maximum cell fresh weight (353.5 g/L), dry weight (19.7 g/L) and RA production (180.0 mg/g) were attained at day 21 of culture. Cell growth and RA content were affected by nitrogen deficiency. Media containing 8.3 mM of total nitrogen (¼ of B5 standard medium) led to a minimum cell fresh weight (243.0 g/L), dry weight (17.4 g/L) and RA content (38.0 mg/g) after 21 days. The established CSC provided useful material for further optimization experiments aimed at a large-scale production of RA. PMID:26264595

  1. Analysis of potential combustion source impacts on acid deposition using an independently derived inventory. Volume II, appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-12-01

    This document contains 2 appendices. The first documents the methodologies used to calculate production, unit energy consumption, fuel type and emission estimates for 16 industries and 35 types of facilities utilizing direct-fired industrial combustion processes, located in 26 states (and the District of Columbia) east of the Mississippi River. As discussed in the text of this report, a U.S. total of 16 industries and 45 types of facilities utilizing direct-fired combustion processes were identified by an elimination type method that was developed based on evaluation of fuel use in industrial SIC codes 20-39 to identify pollutant sources contributing to acid rain. The final population included only plants that have direct-fired fuel consumption greater than or equal to 100 x 10/sup 9/ Btu/yr of equivalent energy consumption. The goal for this analysis was to provide at least a 1980 base year for the data. This was achieved for all of the industries and in fact, 1981 data were used for a number of the industries evaluated. The second contains an analysis of all consumption of major fossil fuels to: (1) identify all fuel usage categories, and (2) identify the kinds of combustion equipment used within each category. This analysis provides a frame of reference for the balance of the study and permits using an energy accounting methodology to quantify the degree to which the inventoried sources in individual consuming sectors are complete and representative of the total population for the sector.

  2. Isolation and Taxonomic Identity of Bacteriocin-Producing Lactic Acid Bacteria from Retail Foods and Animal Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, Chris; Vijayakumar, Paul; Adhikari, Raj; Jagannathan, Badrinath; Gautam, Dhiraj; Muriana, Peter M

    2015-03-19

    Bacteriocin-producing (Bac⁺) lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated from a variety of food products and animal sources. Samples were enriched in de Man, Rogosa, and Sharpe (MRS) Lactocilli broth and plated onto MRS agar plates using a "sandwich overlay" technique. Inhibitory activity was detected by the "deferred antagonism" indicator overlay method using Listeria monocytogenes as the primary indicator organism. Antimicrobial activity against L. monocytogenes was detected by 41 isolates obtained from 23 of 170 food samples (14%) and 11 of 110 samples from animal sources (10%) tested. Isolated Bac⁺ LAB included Lactococcus lactis, Lactobacillus curvatus, Carnobacterium maltaromaticum, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, and Pediococcus acidilactici, as well as Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus hirae, and Enterococcus thailandicus. In addition to these, two Gram-negative bacteria were isolated (Serratia plymuthica, and Serratia ficaria) that demonstrated inhibitory activity against L. monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, and Enterococcus faecalis (S. ficaria additionally showed activity against Salmonella Typhimurium). These data continue to demonstrate that despite more than a decade of antimicrobial interventions on meats and produce, a wide variety of food products still contain Bac⁺ microbiota that are likely eaten by consumers and may have application as natural food preservatives.

  3. Proposition de classement des sources végétales d’acides gras en fonction de leur profil nutritionnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubois Virginie

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of isolated fatty acids on human health has long been studied by the nutritionists. The consequence of this research for the food industry was a need for a better control of the lipidic profile of manufactured food products. The purpose of the present paper was to give the nutritional profile of 53 vegetable oils in relation with their fatty acid composition and their related nutritional potential. In a first section, the role of isolated fatty acids on blood lipids (LDL-Cholesterol, HDL-Cholesterol and triacylglycerols has been reviewed. In a second section, the vegetable oils are gathered in relation with their similar fatty acids composition, with the aim of classifying their properties in accordance with their role on blood lipids. From a nutritional point of view, besides the major α-linolenic acid source that is rapeseed oil, the classification makes some interesting sources to stand out. They contain either mainly α-linolenic acid (camelin, linseed and perilla or both essential fatty acids as α-linolenic and linoleic acids (purslane, chia, salicorna and sea buckthorn seeds. Moreover, this collection is an interesting tool for new designed food products with a better lipid composition.

  4. Determination of Gaseous and Particulate Trifluoroacetic Acid in Atmosphere Environmental Samples by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry%大气中气相和颗粒相三氟乙酸浓度测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡瑕; 吴婧; 翟紫含; 张博雅; 张剑波

    2013-01-01

    建立了我国大气中气相和颗粒相三氟乙酸(Trifluoroacetic acid,TFA)的采集和分析方法.采用环形扩散管-滤膜联用装置分离气相和颗粒相,利用环形扩散管的碱性涂层吸附气相TFA,石英滤膜吸附颗粒相物质.对气相和颗粒相样品分别处理,以2,4-二氟苯胺作为衍生剂,与TFA反应生成TFA的苯胺产物,采用GC/MS进行分析.本方法在0.31 ~4.91μg/L浓度范围内呈线性关系(R2=0.9991),检出限为66 ng/L.采样装置回收率为(101±3)%,当采样量为48 m3,TFA大气浓度检出限为31 pg/m3.于2012年4 ~10月在北京大学采样点采集大气,测得其中TFA总浓度在501 ~ 7447 pg/m3范围,TFA在气相中的浓度大于在颗粒相中的浓度,气固分配系数Kp随温度变化.%Trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) concentration was measured in air samples by a sampling device composed of annular denuders coupled with a quartz filter,which was efficient for collection and separation of gaseous and particulate TFA.Gaseous TFA was performed by means of annular denuders coated with alkaline solution,while particulate TFA was absorbed by quartz filters.TFA can be determined by gas chromatographymass spectrometry after derivation with 2,4-difluoroaniline.Calibration curves were linear with a correlation coefficient of 0.9991.Detection limit of TFA was 66 ng/L,which was 31 pg/m3 when sampling volume was 48 m3.Recoveries of the TFA sampling device ranged between 98% and 105% with relative standard deviation (RSD) ≤ 3%.The developed method was applied for the determination of TFA in atmosphere samples collected in Peking University in Beijing in 2012.Total TFA concentrations ranged between 501 and 7447 pg/m3.Concentrations of gaseous TFA were significantly higher than those of particulate,and the gasparticle partition coefficient of TFA decreased as air temperature rose.

  5. Production of lipids containing high levels of docosahexaenoic acid by a newly isolated microalga, Aurantiochytrium sp. KRS101.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Won-Kyung; Rairakhwada, Dina; Seo, Pil-Soo; Park, Sung-Yong; Hur, Byung-Ki; Kim, Chul Ho; Seo, Jeong-Woo

    2011-08-01

    In the present study, a novel oleaginous Thraustochytrid containing a high content of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) was isolated from a mangrove ecosystem in Malaysia. The strain identified as an Aurantiochytrium sp. by 18S rRNA sequencing and named KRS101 used various carbon and nitrogen sources, indicating metabolic versatility. Optimal culture conditions, thus maximizing cell growth, and high levels of lipid and DHA production, were attained using glucose (60 g l⁻¹) as carbon source, corn steep solid (10 g l⁻¹) as nitrogen source, and sea salt (15 g l⁻¹). The highest biomass, lipid, and DHA production of KRS101 upon fed-batch fermentation were 50.2 g l⁻¹ (16.7 g l⁻¹ day⁻¹), 21.8 g l⁻¹ (44% DCW), and 8.8 g l⁻¹ (40% TFA), respectively. Similar values were obtained when a cheap substrate like molasses, rather than glucose, was used as the carbon source (DCW of 52.44 g l⁻¹, lipid and DHA levels of 20.2 and 8.83 g l⁻¹, respectively), indicating that production of microbial oils containing high levels of DHA can be produced economically when the novel strain is used.

  6. Oxidation of Fatty Acids Is the Source of Increased Mitochondrial Reactive Oxygen Species Production in Kidney Cortical Tubules in Early Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Rosca, Mariana G.; Vazquez, Edwin J.; Chen, Qun; Kerner, Janos; Kern, Timothy S.; Hoppel, Charles L.

    2012-01-01

    Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) cause kidney damage in diabetes. We investigated the source and site of ROS production by kidney cortical tubule mitochondria in streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetes in rats. In diabetic mitochondria, the increased amounts and activities of selective fatty acid oxidation enzymes is associated with increased oxidative phosphorylation and net ROS production with fatty acid substrates (by 40% and 30%, respectively), whereas pyruvate oxidation is decr...

  7. Amino acid content of selected plant, algae and insect species: a search for alternative protein sources for use in pet foods*

    OpenAIRE

    McCusker, Sarah; Buff, Preston R.; Yu, Zengshou; Fascetti, Andrea J.

    2014-01-01

    In response to global economic duress and heightened consumer awareness of nutrition and health, sustainable and natural ingredients are in demand. Identification of alternative sources of nitrogen and amino acids, including taurine, may help meet dietary requirements while fostering sustainability and natural feeding approaches. Twenty plants, eighteen marine algae and five insect species were analysed. All samples were freeze-dried, hydrolysed and filtered prior to amino acid analysis. Samp...

  8. Is vaccenic acid (18:1t n-7) associated with an increased incidence of hip fracture? An explanation for the calcium paradox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamazaki, Kei; Suzuki, Nobuo; Kitamura, Kei-Ichiro; Hattori, Atsuhiko; Nagasawa, Tetsuro; Itomura, Miho; Hamazaki, Tomohito

    2016-06-01

    High calcium intake may increase hip fracture (HF) incidence. This phenomenon, known as the calcium paradox, might be explained by vaccenic acid (18:1t n-7, VA), the highly specific trans fatty acid (TFA) present in dairy products. First, we ecologically investigated the relationship between 18:1 TFA intake and HF incidence using data from 12 to 13 European countries collected before 2000; then we measured the effects of VA and elaidic acid (18:1t n-9, EA) on osteoblasts from goldfish scales (tissues very similar to mammalian bone), with alkaline phosphatase as a marker; and finally we measured the effect of VA on mRNA expression in the scales for the major bone proteins type I collagen and osteocalcin. HF incidence was significantly correlated with 18:1 TFA intake in men (r=0.57) and women (r=0.65). Incubation with 1μmol/L VA and EA for 48h significantly decreased alkaline phosphatase activity by 25% and 21%, respectively. Incubation of scales with 10μmol/L VA for 48h significantly decreased mRNA expression for type I collagen and osteocalcin (by about 50%). In conclusion, VA may be causatively related to HF and could explain the calcium paradox. It may be prudent to reduce 18:1 TFA intake, irrespective of trans positions, to prevent HF.

  9. Is vaccenic acid (18:1t n-7) associated with an increased incidence of hip fracture? An explanation for the calcium paradox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamazaki, Kei; Suzuki, Nobuo; Kitamura, Kei-Ichiro; Hattori, Atsuhiko; Nagasawa, Tetsuro; Itomura, Miho; Hamazaki, Tomohito

    2016-06-01

    High calcium intake may increase hip fracture (HF) incidence. This phenomenon, known as the calcium paradox, might be explained by vaccenic acid (18:1t n-7, VA), the highly specific trans fatty acid (TFA) present in dairy products. First, we ecologically investigated the relationship between 18:1 TFA intake and HF incidence using data from 12 to 13 European countries collected before 2000; then we measured the effects of VA and elaidic acid (18:1t n-9, EA) on osteoblasts from goldfish scales (tissues very similar to mammalian bone), with alkaline phosphatase as a marker; and finally we measured the effect of VA on mRNA expression in the scales for the major bone proteins type I collagen and osteocalcin. HF incidence was significantly correlated with 18:1 TFA intake in men (r=0.57) and women (r=0.65). Incubation with 1μmol/L VA and EA for 48h significantly decreased alkaline phosphatase activity by 25% and 21%, respectively. Incubation of scales with 10μmol/L VA for 48h significantly decreased mRNA expression for type I collagen and osteocalcin (by about 50%). In conclusion, VA may be causatively related to HF and could explain the calcium paradox. It may be prudent to reduce 18:1 TFA intake, irrespective of trans positions, to prevent HF. PMID:27269708

  10. Variation in Fatty Acids Composition Including Trans Fat in Different Brands of Potato Chips by GC-MS

    OpenAIRE

    Kandhro, Aftab A.; S.T.H. Sherazi; S.A. Mahesar; M. Younis Talpur; Yawar Latif

    2010-01-01

    Twelve different brands of potato chips were analyzed for their fatty acid compositions with eminence on trans fatty acid (TFA) using GC-MS. Results of the present study showed that the dominant fatty acids were saturated fatty acids. Among the saturated fatty acids, palmitic acid (23.91–42.64 %) was found in greater amount in all analyzed chips samples. The amount of TFA’s determined was ranged between (4.91–14.13 %). Although there was significant variation in the fatty acid profile of all ...

  11. Solubility of CO2 in amide-based Brønsted acidic ionic liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► The CO2 solubility in Brønsted acidic ionic liquids (BAIL) has been reported. ► The experimental data were reduced to Henry’s law constants as a function of temperature. ► The Gibbs free energy, enthalpy and entropy changes were calculated. ► Relationship between solubility and molar volumes of BAILs was developed. - Abstract: Several hydrophilic amide-based Brønsted acidic ionic liquids (BAILs) were prepared by simple acid-base neutralization reaction of N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF), N,N-dimethylacetamide (DMAc), and N-methylpyrrolidone (NMP) with trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) or tetrafluoroboric acid (FBA). The solubility data of CO2 in these BAILs were determined at T = (303.15, 313.15, and 323.15) K and subatmospheric pressure using isochoric saturation method. With the same cation, CO2 solubility in TFA-based BAILs was higher than that in FBA-based ones. From the variation of solubility, expressed as Henry’s law constants, with temperature, the standard Gibbs free energy, enthalpy, and entropy changes of CO2 solvation were calculated. The solubilities of CO2 in these BAILs were apparently increased with increasing the molar volume of BAIL except for [DMFH][TFA].

  12. Foodstuff analyses show that seafood and water are major perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) sources to humans in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heo, Jin-Ju; Lee, Ji-Woo [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan, 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seung-Kyu [Department of Marine Science, College of Natural Sciences, Incheon National University, Incheon, 406-772 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Jeong-Eun, E-mail: jeoh@pusan.ac.kr [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan, 609-735 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • 16 PFAAs in 397 samples of 66 food types and 34 tap water samples were analyzed. • Dietary exposure to PFAAs was estimated by using the PFAAs measured concentrations. • The major contributors of PFAAs dietary exposure were confirmed. - Abstract: We measured concentrations of PFAAs in 397 foods, of 66 types, in Korea, and determined the daily human dietary PFAAs intake and the contribution of each foodstuff to that intake. The PFAAs concentration in the 66 different food types ranged from below the detection limit to 48.3 ng/g. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and long-chain perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) were the dominant PFAAs in fish, shellfish, and processed foods, while perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and short-chain PFCAs dominated dairy foodstuffs and beverages. The Korean adult dietary intake ranges, estimated for a range of scenarios, were 0.60–3.03 and 0.17–1.68 ng kg{sup −1} bw d{sup −1} for PFOS and PFOA, respectively, which were lower than the total daily intake limits suggested by European Food Safety Authority (PFOS: 150 ng kg{sup −1} bw d{sup −1}; PFOA: 1500 ng kg{sup −1} bw d{sup −1}). The major contributors to PFAAs dietary exposure varied with subject age and PFAAs. For example, fish was a major contributor of PFOS but dairy foods were major contributors of PFOA. However, tap water was a major contributor to PFOA intake when it was the main source of drinking water (rather than bottled water)

  13. Screening of Inexpensive Nitrogen Sources for Production of L(+) Lactic Acid from Starch by Amylolytic Lactobacillus amylophilus GV6 in Single Step Fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Altaf, Mohammad; Naveena, Basa Janakiram; Reddy, Gopal

    2005-01-01

    L. amylophilus GV6 was studied for production of L(+) lactic acid in single step fermentation using starchy substrates. Seven types of inexpensive organic nitrogen supplements (flour of pigeon pea, red lentil gram, black gram, bengal gram, green gram, soya bean and baker’s yeast) were evaluated for their potential to replace more expensive commercial nitrogen sources, peptone and yeast extract. Red lentil and baker’s yeast cells were found to be the best alternative nutrient sources of pepton...

  14. Intake of fatty acids in Western Europe with emphasis on trans fatty acids: The TRANSFAIR study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulshof, K. F. A. M.; Erp-Baart, M. A. van; Anttolainen, M.;

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To assess the intake of trans fatty acids (TFA) and other fatty acids in 14 Western European countries. Design and subjects: A maximum of 100 foods per country were sampled and centrally analysed. Each country calculated the intake of individual trans and other fatty acids, clusters...... of fatty acids and total fat in adults and/or the total population using the best available national food consumption data set. Results: A wide variation was observed in the intake of total fat and (clusters) of fatty acids in absolute amounts. The variation in proportion of energy derived from total fat...... and from clusters of fatty acids was less. Only in Finland, Italy, Norway and Portugal total fat did provide on average less than 35% of energy intake. Saturated fatty acids (SFA) provided on average between 10% and 19% of total energy intake, with the lowest contribution in most Mediterranean countries...

  15. Decomposition and Oriented Growth of YBa2Cu3O7-x Films Prepared with Low Fluorine TFA-MOD Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohui Zhao

    2013-01-01

    be the most promising method for mass production of low cost high temperature coated conductors. In order to reduce the decomposition time and improve the properties of YBCO films, copper propionate was used as the precursor and certain Lewis-bases were introduced into the precursor solution. The fluorine content of the solution was significantly reduced. High quality oriented YBCO films were prepared on LAO substrates with this low fluorine TFA-MOD approach. The effects of the sintering temperature on the oriented growth and properties of YBCO films were investigated. The preliminary results yielded the critical current density (Jc of 2 MA/cm2 and critical current (Ic of 120 A/cm width at 77 K and self-field.

  16. Study on the oxygenation process during the heat treatment of TFA-MOD YBCO thin films by in situ resistance measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Timing; Xue, Yunran; Feng, Feng; Huang, Rongxia; Wu, Wei; Shi, Kai; Han, Zhenghe

    2013-11-01

    The oxygen content is one key factor to determine the properties of YBa2Cu3O6+y (YBCO) high temperature superconductors. In this study, YBCO thin films were produced by TFA-MOD method. The oxygenation process was carried out at 450 °C for 40 min, in various oxygen partial pressures from 0.01 to 1 atm. An in situ resistance measurement system was built up to record the resistance evolution during the whole heat treatment process. It was found that the resistance decreased exponentially and reached a saturate value in a few minutes during oxygen annealing. It was also found both the balanced resistance and the c-axis length of YBCO decreased with increasing oxygen partial pressure. A defect reaction was found to control the mechanism of the oxygenation process. A porosity assisted oxygen diffusion mechanism was proposed to explain the fast diffusion kinetics of oxygen in MOD YBCO thin films.

  17. Physico-chemical properties, fatty acid and tocopherol composition of oils from some Sudanese oil bearing sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthäus, Bertrand

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Seven oils, obtained from seven Sudanese oil bearing sources that are Albizia lebbek Oil (ALO, Cassia obtusifolia Oil (COO, Cassia occidentalis Oil (CCO, Abutilon pannosum Oil (APO, Mitracarpus villous Oil (MVO, Ipomea indica Oil (IIO and Sesamum alatum Oil (SAO, were investigated. The seeds were collected in Sudan from Ghibaish, North Kordofan state. In addition to the oil content, the fatty acid was determined by capillary gas chromatography and the tocopherols were evaluated by highperformance liquid chromatography. The oil content of the seven seeds amounted to 12.8, 7.0, 3.2, 7.1, 11.5, 8.8, and 21.3%, respectively.The oils contained 16.4, 20.0, 14.3, 16.8, 19.4, 19.9 and 10.9 % palmitic acid and 21.0, 24.4, 22.1, 10.9, 27.7, 34.0, 45.1 % oleic acid, and 43.8, 38.2, 45.0, 63.9, 34.6, 33.5, 36.3 % linoleic acid and traces of linolenic acid, respectively.The tocopherol content of these oils amounted to 85.6, 48.2, 32.7, 163.5, 52.5, 30.9, and 26.4 mg/100 g oil, respectively. Alpha-tocopherol was the predominant tocopherol in the oil of Albizia lebbek, Cassia obtusifolia, Cassia occidentalis, and Abutilon pannosum, while gamma-tocopherol was the predominant tocopherol in the oil of Mitracarpus villous, Ipomea indica and Sesamum alatum.Se analizan siete aceites procedentes de plantas y semillas de Sudán: Albizia lebbek Oil (ALO, Cassia obtusifolia Oil (COO, Cassia occidentalis Oil (CCO, Abutilon pannosum Oil (APO, Mitracarpus villous Oil (MVO, Ipomea indica Oil (IIO y Sesamum alatum Oil (SAO. Las semillas se recolectaron en el estado de Ghibaish, North Kordofan. Además del contenido en aceite (12.8, 7.0, 3.2, 7.1, 11.5, 8.8, y 21.3 %, respectivamente, se determinaron los ácidos grasos mediante cromatografía de gases y los tocoferoles mediante HPLC. Los aceites contenían, respectivamente, 16.4, 20.0, 14.3, 16.8, 19.4, 19.9 y 10.9 % de ácido palmitito, 21.0, 24.4, 22.1, 10.9, 27.7, 34.0, 45.1 % de ácido oleico, 43.8, 38.2, 45.0, 63.9, 34

  18. Temperature Affects the Use of Storage Fatty Acids as Energy Source in a Benthic Copepod (Platychelipus littoralis, Harpacticoida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werbrouck, Eva; Van Gansbeke, Dirk; Vanreusel, Ann; De Troch, Marleen

    2016-01-01

    The utilization of storage lipids and their associated fatty acids (FA) is an important means for organisms to cope with periods of food shortage, however, little is known about the dynamics and FA mobilization in benthic copepods (order Harpacticoida). Furthermore, lipid depletion and FA mobilization may depend on the ambient temperature. Therefore, we subjected the temperate copepod Platychelipus littoralis to several intervals (3, 6 and 14 days) of food deprivation, under two temperatures in the range of the normal habitat temperature (4, 15 °C) and under an elevated temperature (24 °C), and studied the changes in FA composition of storage and membrane lipids. Although bulk depletion of storage FA occurred after a few days of food deprivation under 4 °C and 15 °C, copepod survival remained high during the experiment, suggesting the catabolization of other energy sources. Ambient temperature affected both the degree of FA depletion and the FA mobilization. In particular, storage FA were more exhausted and FA mobilization was more selective under 15 °C compared with 4 °C. In contrast, depletion of storage FA was limited under an elevated temperature, potentially due to a switch to partial anaerobiosis. Food deprivation induced selective DHA retention in the copepod's membrane, under all temperatures. However, prolonged exposure to heat and nutritional stress eventually depleted DHA in the membranes, and potentially induced high copepod mortality. Storage lipids clearly played an important role in the short-term response of the copepod P. littoralis to food deprivation. However, under elevated temperature, the use of storage FA as an energy source is compromised.

  19. Development of high-Ic processing for low cost YBCO coated conductors by multi-turn reel-to-reel crystallization large furnace for TFA-MOD process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Y.; Takahashi, Y.; Nakaoka, K.; Yoshizumi, M.; Akagi, N.; Takahashi, S.; Izumi, T.; Shiohara, Y.

    Trifluoroacetates (TFA) -metal organic deposition (MOD) derived YBCO coated conductors are expected for many applications mainly due to cost-efficiency. High Ic and production rate are required for cost reduction in terms of /Am. Improvement of Ic performance and production rate has been studied in this work, focusing on the conversion process of TFA-MOD. YBCO precursor films with desired thickness were prepared by using the multi-turn reel-to-reel (RTR) -system of dip-coating and calcination. The precursor films were heat treated under different conditions including the interim annealing. Crystallization process was performed on the interim annealed samples by using a multi-turn RTR system. The conversion furnace was modified so that improved conditions such as higher gas flow rate, lower total pressure can be used, which improved the production rate in crystallization process to 15 m/h by accelerating YBCO growth rate. Adopting the interim annealing, Ic property increased about 30% compared with that prepared without the interim annealing. X-ray θ-2θ diffraction analysis showed that; the peak intensities of YBCO (005) in interim annealed samples were 1.5 times stronger compared with those prepared without the interim annealing. The interim annealing affected the crystallinity and microstructure, resulting in high Ic. Then, the improved process for crystallization was applied to long tapes fabrication. A 205 m-long YBCO coated conductors fabricated at 15 m/h with interim annealing showed high and uniform Ic performance throughout the tape; Ic(min.)=372 A/cm-w@77 K, s.f., standard deviation = 15.2 A (3.7%). Uniformity along transverse direction was also analyzed by striating a 54 m long tape (199.5 A/5 mm-widths) into 5 filaments and, the Ic value of each filament (1 mm-width) was confirmed to be uniform; 24.3-32.9 A.

  20. 论《贸易便利化协定》对上海自贸区建设的借鉴意义%A Study on referential Meaning of TFA for Shanghai Pilot FTZ

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴正清

    2015-01-01

    贸易全球化的迅猛发展,对各国贸易措施的便利化程度有了更高的要求. 基于此,WTO各成员国通过努力最终达成《贸易便利化协定》(TFA) . 作为WTO的成员国,中国也借助中国(上海)自由贸易试验区(简称上海自贸区)积极探索对外开放的新模式,上海自贸区的建设应对接即将生效的TFA. 本文着重从上海自贸区的贸易便利化措施应如何借鉴TFA展开,以期对上海自贸区建设有所助益.%The booming of the globalization of trade seeks greater facilitation of trade measures among countries. In that context, Trade-Facilitation Agreement (TFA) was eventually reached by WTO members , with their persistent efforts. For China 's perspective, China (Shanghai) pilot free trade zone (Shanghai pilot FTZ) is also an actively attempt for new model of opening up. As a member of WTO , Shanghai pilot FTZ's development should compatible with the TFA which will go into effect soon. This paper focus on how should the Trade facilitation measures of Shanghai pilot FTZ refer to TFA, and aims at benefiting the development of Shanghai pilot FTZ.

  1. Neonatal and fetal exposure to trans-fatty acid retards early growth and adiposity while adversely affecting glucose in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Kavanagh, Kylie; Sajadian, Soraya; Jenkins, Kurt A.; Wilson, Martha D.; Carr, J. Jeffery; Wagner, Janice D.; Rudel, Lawrence L.

    2010-01-01

    Industrially produced trans fatty acids (TFAs) consumed in western diets are incorporated into maternal and fetal tissues, and are passed linearly to offspring via breast milk. We hypothesized that TFA exposure in utero and during lactation in infants would promote obesity and poor glycemic control as compared to unmodified fatty acids. We further hypothesized that in utero exposure alone may program for these outcomes in adulthood. To test this hypothesis we fed female C57/BL6 mice identical...

  2. A retinoic acid-enhanced, multicellular human blood-brain barrier model derived from stem cell sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippmann, Ethan S.; Al-Ahmad, Abraham; Azarin, Samira M.; Palecek, Sean P.; Shusta, Eric V.

    2014-02-01

    Blood-brain barrier (BBB) models are often used to investigate BBB function and screen brain-penetrating therapeutics, but it has been difficult to construct a human model that possesses an optimal BBB phenotype and is readily scalable. To address this challenge, we developed a human in vitro BBB model comprising brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs), pericytes, astrocytes and neurons derived from renewable cell sources. First, retinoic acid (RA) was used to substantially enhance BBB phenotypes in human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC)-derived BMECs, particularly through adherens junction, tight junction, and multidrug resistance protein regulation. RA-treated hPSC-derived BMECs were subsequently co-cultured with primary human brain pericytes and human astrocytes and neurons derived from human neural progenitor cells (NPCs) to yield a fully human BBB model that possessed significant tightness as measured by transendothelial electrical resistance (~5,000 Ωxcm2). Overall, this scalable human BBB model may enable a wide range of neuroscience studies.

  3. Effects of different fat sources, technological forms and characteristics of the basal diet on milk fatty acid profile in lactating dairy cows - a meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterk, A.R.; Vuuren, van A.M.; Hendriks, W.H.; Dijkstra, J.

    2012-01-01

    A meta-analysis was conducted to study milk fatty acid (FA) profile in dairy cows in response to changes in dietary nutrient composition in relation to supplementation of fat sources, their technological form, addition of fish oil and main forage type in the basal diet. Data comprised 151 treatment

  4. Growth of Candida famata and Trichosporon cutaneum on uric acid as the sole source of carbon and energy, a hitherto unknown property of yeasts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middelhoven, W.J.; Brink, Jolanda A. van den; Veenhuis, M.

    1983-01-01

    Yeast strains capable of utilizing uric acid as the sole source of carbon and energy were isolated from soil by the enrichment culture method. The strains were identified as Candida famata (Harrison) Meyer et Yarrow and Trichosporon cutaneum (De Beurm., Gougerot et Vaucher) Ota. On the subcellular l

  5. Anhydrous trifluoroacetic acid pretreatment converts insoluble polyglutamine peptides to soluble monomers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunasekhar Burra

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The data provided in this article are related to the research article entitled “Unaided trifluoroacetic acid pretreatment solubilizes polyglutamine (polyGln peptides and retains their biophysical properties of aggregation” by Burra and Thakur (in press [1]. This research article reports data from size exclusion chromatography (SEC, reversed phase-high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC and mass spectrometry (MS assays. This data show that trifluoroacetic acid (TFA has the ability to convert insoluble polyGln peptides to soluble monomers. The data also clarify the possibility of trifluoroacetylation modification caused due to TFA. We hope the data presented here will enhance the understanding of polyGln disaggregation and solubilization. For more insightful and useful discussions, see the research article published in Analytical Biochemistry: Methods in the Biological Sciences (Burra and Thakur, in press [1].

  6. 采用TFA-MOD技术在LaAlO3单晶基片上制备YBa2Cu3O7-x涂层导体%Fabrication of YBa2Cu3O7-x Coated Conductor on LaAlO3 Substrate by TFA-MOD Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄万才; 古宏伟; 杨坚; 王连红

    2006-01-01

    三氟乙酸盐-金属有机沉积技术(TFA-MOD)是制备钇钡铜氧涂层导体的有发展前景的方法之一.采用TFA-MOD技术在铝酸镧单晶基片上制备出YBa2Cu3O7-x涂层导体,并对不同烧结温度下制备的薄膜作了分析比较,找到了较为合适的烧结温度.用X射线衍射进行了物相的定性分析,由YBCO薄膜的(103)φ扫描图谱分析了薄膜的外延生长,用原子力显微镜观察了薄膜表面形貌.结果表明制备出的YBCO薄膜表面均匀致密、无明显裂纹、有较强的(00l)衍射峰.

  7. Root-zone acidity and nitrogen source affects Typha latifolia L. growth and uptake kinetics of ammonium and nitrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brix, Hans; Dyhr-Jensen, Kirsten; Lorenzen, Bent

    2002-12-01

    The NH(4)(+) and NO(3)(-) uptake kinetics by Typha latifolia L. were studied after prolonged hydroponics growth at constant pH 3.5, 5.0, 6.5 or 7.0 and with NH(4)(+) or NO(3)(-) as the sole N-source. In addition, the effects of pH and N source on H(+) extrusion and adenine nucleotide content were examined. Typha latifolia was able to grow with both N sources at near neutral pH levels, but the plants had higher relative growth rates, higher tissue concentrations of the major nutrients, higher contents of adenine nucleotides, and higher affinity for uptake of inorganic nitrogen when grown on NH(4)(+). Growth almost completely stopped at pH 3.5, irrespective of N source, probably as a consequence of pH effects on plasma membrane integrity and H(+) influx into the root cells. Tissue concentrations of the major nutrients and adenine nucleotides were severely reduced at low pH, and the uptake capacity for inorganic nitrogen was low, and more so for NO(3)(-)-fed than for NH(4)(+)-fed plants. The maximum uptake rate, V(max), was highest for NH(4)(+) at pH 6.5 (30.9 micro mol h(-1) g(-1) root dry weight) and for NO(3)(-) at pH 5.0 (31.7 micro mol h(-1) g(-1) root dry weight), and less than 10% of these values at pH 3.5. The affinity for uptake as estimated by the half saturation constant, K((1/2)), was lowest at low pH for NH(4)(+) and at high pH for NO(3)(-). The changes in V(max) and K((1/2)) were thus consistent with the theory of increasing competition between cations and H(+) at low pH and between anions and OH(-) at high pH. C(min) was independent of pH, but slightly higher for NO(3)(-) than for NH(4)(+) (C(min)(NH(4)(+)) approximately 0.8 mmol m(-3); C(min)(NO(3)(-)) approximately 2.8 mmol m(-3)). The growth inhibition at low pH was probably due to a reduced nutrient uptake and a consequential limitation of growth by nutrient stress. Typha latifolia seems to be well adapted to growth in wetland soils where NH(4)(+) is the prevailing nitrogen compound, but very low p

  8. Composition of α-tocopherol and fatty acids in porcine tissues after dietary supplementation with vitamin E and different fat sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Charlotte; Theil, Peter Kappel; Jensen, Søren Krogh

    2013-01-01

    in transfer of α-tocopherol, and oxidation and metabolism of fatty acids. From day 28 to 56 of age, pigs were provided 5% of tallow, fish oil or sunflower oil and 85, 150, or 300 mg/kg of all-rac-α-tocopheryl acetate. Samples of liver, heart, and adipose tissue were obtained from littermates at day 56. Tissue...... lower in pigs fed fish oil compared to other treatments, whereas the fatty acid oxidation, as indicated by the expression of PPAR-α, was higher when sunflower and fish oil was provided (P=0.03). Expression of α-TTP in liver was higher in pigs fed fish oil (P=0.01). Vitamin E supplementation did...... fatty acid composition was highly influenced by dietary fat sources. Dietary fatty acid composition (Poil...

  9. Trans fatty acid-forming processes in foods: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clayton A. Martin

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available There is a mounting concern about the intake of foods containing trans fatty acids (TFA due to their deleterious effects on human health, mainly on the cardiovascular system. In this way, it is important to consider the processes that form TFA in foods, and the alternatives to minimize them. Among the processes that result in the formation of TFA, the hydrogenation of vegetable oils stands out for its impact on the diet of people living in industrialized countries. Other processes such as edible oil refining, meat irradiation, food frying, and biohydrogenation also contribute to increase the daily intake of TFA.Existe uma crescente preocupação em relação a ingestão elevada de ácidos graxos trans (AGT, devido aos seus efeitos desfavoráveis à saúde, principalmente sobre o sistema cardiovascular. Assim, é importante considerar os processos queoriginam os AGT nos alimentos, e as alternativas para minimizar a sua formação. Entre os processos que resultam na produção de AGT, a hidrogenação de óleos vegetais tem recebido o maior destaque por seu impacto na dieta de pessoas que vivem em países industrializados. Outros processos, como o refino de óleos vegetais, a irradiação de carnes, o preparo de alimentos fritos e a bio-hidrogenação, também contribuem para aumentar a ingestão diária de AGT.

  10. Effect of source of dietary fat on pig performance, carcass characteristics and carcass fat content, distribution and fatty acid composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Realini, C E; Duran-Montgé, P; Lizardo, R; Gispert, M; Oliver, M A; Esteve-Garcia, E

    2010-08-01

    Seventy gilts were used to compare the effect of including 10% tallow (T), high-oleic sunflower oil (HOSF), sunflower oil (SFO), linseed oil (LO), a fat blend (FB), or an oil blend (OB) in finishing diets vs. feeding a semi-synthetic diet with no added fat (NF) on pig performance, carcass traits and carcass fatty acid (FA) composition. Carcasses from SFO-fed gilts had greater fat and lower lean compositions than carcasses from T-fed gilts. Gilts fed NF had greater loin fat than FB-fed gilts, and greater flare fat, loin intermuscular fat and fat:lean than T-fed gilts. Bellies from NF-fed gilts had lower lean and higher intermuscular fat and fat:lean than other diets except HOSF. Fat source had minor effects on animal performance, carcass characteristics and carcass fat content and distribution, whereas feeding NF resulted in carcasses and major cuts with higher fat content. Diets rich in polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) did not reduce fat deposition in separable fat depots with respect to monounsaturated FA (MUFA) and saturated FA (SFA). Carcasses from gilts fed NF had a high degree of saturation (40.6% SFA) followed by carcasses of T- and FB-fed gilts. Feeding HOSF, SFO and LO enriched diets elevated the percentages of MUFA (56.7%), n-6 (30.0%) and n-3 (16.6%) PUFA, respectively, whereas carcasses from gilts fed OB had greater percentages of n-3 FA (14.8% n-3, 0.9% EPA, 1.0% DPA, 3.1% DHA) than gilts fed FB (6.72% n-3, 0.1% EPA, 0.4% DPA, 0.1% DHA).

  11. Importância dos ácidos graxos essenciais e os efeitos dos ácidos graxos trans do leite materno para o desenvolvimento fetal e neonatal The importance of essential fatty acids and the effect of trans fatty acids in human milk on fetal and neonatal development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Manzato Barboza Tinoco

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available A prática da amamentação tem grande impacto do ponto de vista da saúde pública, pois o leite materno é o melhor alimento a ser oferecido até o sexto mês de vida da criança. A fração lipídica do leite representa a maior fonte de energia para crianças e fornece nutrientes essenciais, tais como vitaminas lipossolúveis e ácidos graxos poliinsaturados (AGPI. Os ácidos graxos essenciais (AGE linoléico (LA, 18:2n-6 e alfa-linolênico (ALA, 18:3n-3 são precursores dos ácidos graxos poliinsaturados de cadeia longa (AGPI-CL, incluindo os ácidos docosahexaenóico (DHA e araquidônico (ARA. A qualidade dos lipídios no leite secretado está diretamente relacionada com a ingestão materna. Os AGPI-CL são importantes na proteção contra alergia e infecções, no processo visual e no desenvolvimento cognitivo na infância. O processamento industrial de alimentos introduziu os ácidos graxos trans (AGT entre os nutrientes disponíveis à população. Os AGT podem interferir no metabolismo dos AGE, diminuindo a síntese de DHA e ARA. Portanto, nos parece relevante esclarecer a população sobre a importância de um aporte adequado de AGPI e reduzido de AGT durante o período de desenvolvimento pré e pós-natal.Breastfeeding has a major impact on public health, since human breast milk is the best food for infants up to six months of age. The lipid fraction in human milk is the main source of energy for the infant and supplies essential nutrients such as fat-soluble vitamins and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA. Essential fatty acids (EFA, specifically linoleic acid (LA, 18:2n-6 and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3n-3, are precursors of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA, including docosahexaenoic (DHA and arachidonic (ARA acids. Quality of lipids in secreted milk is precisely related to maternal ingestion. LC-PUFAs protect against allergy and infection and are important for visual and cognitive development in infancy

  12. Inhibitory effect of chitosan- trifluoroacetic acid complexes on streptococcus mutans in vitro%脱乙酰壳聚糖-三氟乙酸对变异链球菌的体外抑菌效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张元鑫; 陈小冬

    2011-01-01

    [目的]探讨脱乙酰壳聚糖-三氟乙酸(CS -TFA)复合物对变异链球茵的抑茵效果.[方法]将CS - TFA与壳聚糖(CS)分别加入变异链球茵培养基,测定各自的最小抑茵浓度,以人工唾液作对照组.取96孔板,采用对倍稀释方法用TPY液体培养基配制实验溶液,观察三组溶液对变异链球茵的抑茵效果.[结果]CS - TFA与CS的最小抑茵浓度分别为1.0 g/L与1.5 g/L,CS - TFA抑茵效果要优于CS.[结论]CS - TFA对变异链球茵有一定的抑制作用.%[Objective] To explore the effect of chitosan -trifluoroacetic acid (CS -TFA) complex on streptococcus mutans. [ Methods] CS - TFA and CS were added to mediu of streptococcus mutans to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration, the artificial saliva was used as the control group,and the experiments were diluted with TPY liquid medium for preparation of the solution. [ Results ] The minimum inhibitory concentration of CS - TFA and CS are 1. 0 g/L and 1. 5 g/L,and the antibacterial effect of CS - TFA is better than that of CS. [ Conclusion] CS - TFA has inhibitory effect in streptococcus mutans.

  13. Effects of Light and Temperature on Fatty Acid Production in Nannochloropsis Salina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Wagenen, Jonathan M.; Miller, Tyler W.; Hobbs, Samuel J.; Hook, Paul W.; Crowe, Braden J.; Huesemann, Michael H.

    2012-03-12

    Accurate prediction of algal biofuel yield will require empirical determination of physiological responses to the climate, particularly light and temperature. One strain of interest, Nannochloropsis salina, was subjected to ranges of light intensity (5-850 {mu}mol m{sup -2} s{sup -1}) and temperature (13-40 C); exponential growth rate, total fatty acids (TFA) and fatty acid composition were measured. The maximum acclimated growth rate was 1.3 day{sup -1} at 23 C and 250 {mu}mol m{sup -2} s{sup -1}. Fatty acids were detected by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID) after transesterification to corresponding fatty acid methyl esters (FAME). A sharp increase in TFA containing elevated palmitic acid (C16:0) and palmitoleic acid (C16:1) during exponential growth at high light was observed, indicating likely triacylglycerol accumulation due to photo-oxidative stress. Lower light resulted in increases in the relative abundance of unsaturated fatty acids; in thin cultures, increases were observed in palmitoleic and eicosapentaenoeic acids (C20:5{omega}3). As cultures aged and the effective light intensity per cell converged to very low levels, fatty acid profiles became more similar and there was a notable increase of oleic acid (C18:1{omega}9). The amount of unsaturated fatty acids was inversely proportional to temperature, demonstrating physiological adaptations to increase membrane fluidity. This data will improve prediction of fatty acid characteristics and yields relevant to biofuel production.

  14. Effects of Light and Temperature on Fatty Acid Production in Nannochloropsis Salina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braden Crowe

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Accurate prediction of algal biofuel yield will require empirical determination of physiological responses to the environment, particularly light and temperature. One strain of interest, Nannochloropsis salina, was subjected to ranges of light intensity (5–850 μmol m−2 s−1 and temperature (13–40 °C and its exponential growth rate, total fatty acids (TFA and fatty acid composition were measured. The maximum acclimated growth rate was 1.3 day−1 at 23 °C and 250 μmol m−2 s−1. Fatty acids were detected by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID after transesterification to corresponding fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs. A sharp increase in TFA containing elevated palmitic acid (C16:0 and palmitoleic acid (C16:1 during exponential growth at high light was observed, indicating likely triacylglycerol accumulation due to photo-oxidative stress. Lower light resulted in increases in the relative abundance of unsaturated fatty acids; in thin cultures, increases were observed in palmitoleic and eicosapentaenoic acids (C20:5ω3. As cultures aged and the effective light intensity per cell converged to very low levels, fatty acid profiles became more similar and there was a notable increase of oleic acid (C18:1ω9. The amount of unsaturated fatty acids was inversely proportional to temperature, demonstrating physiological adaptations to increase membrane fluidity. These data will improve prediction of fatty acid characteristics and yields relevant to biofuel production.

  15. Chitin and L(+)-lactic acid production from crab (Callinectes bellicosus) wastes by fermentation of Lactobacillus sp. B2 using sugar cane molasses as carbon source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Albino, Belem; Arias, Ladislao; Gómez, Jorge; Castillo, Alberto; Gimeno, Miquel; Shirai, Keiko

    2012-09-01

    Crab wastes are employed for simultaneous production of chitin and L(+)-lactic acid by submerged fermentation of Lactobacillus sp. B2 using sugar cane molasses as carbon source. Response surface methodology was applied to design the culture media considering demineralization. Fermentations in stirred tank reactor (2L) using selected conditions produced 88% demineralization and 56% deproteinization with 34% yield of chitin and 19.5 gL(-1) of lactic acid (77% yield). The chitin purified from fermentation displayed 95% degree of acetylation and 0.81 and 1 ± 0.125% of residual ash and protein contents, respectively. PMID:22367529

  16. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios analysis of food sources for Chironomus acerbiphilus larvae (Diptera Chironomidae) in strongly acidic lake Katanuma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The food sources for Chironomus acerbiphilus larvae (Diptera Chironomidae) were analyzed using carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios in Lake Katanuma. Lake Katanuma is a volcanic and strongly acidic lake (average pH 2.2). In Lake Katanuma, potential sources of diets for the chironomid larvae are limited including a benthic diatom (Pinnularia braunii), a phytoplankton (Chlamydomonas acidophila), sulfate oxidizing bacteria, and vascular plants supplied from vegetation surrounding the lake. Based on the average carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios among these potential sources and sediment, benthic diatoms were considered to be most probable food source of the chironomid larvae. δ13C values of the chironomid were significantly different among seasons and habitat depths, suggesting that diet of C. acerbiphilus changed seasonally and with habitat depth. (author)

  17. Jc enhancement and flux pinning in Y1-xGdxBCO and (Gd, Eu) codoped Y0.9-yEuyGd0.1BCO thin films by TFA-MOD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Hongbin; Shao, Dingfu; Yang, Zhaorong; Zhu, Xuebin; Sun, Yuping

    2013-05-01

    Y1-xGdxBa2Cu3O7-δ (0 ⩽ x ⩽ 0.5) thin films were prepared on LaAlO3 (0 0 1) substrates by trifluoroacetate metal organic deposition (TFA-MOD). It was observed that the critical current density under self-field of Y0.9Gd0.1Ba2Cu3O7-δ thin film was about two times higher than that of YBCO thin film within the range of 5-85 K. Then, codoped Y0.9-yEuyGd0.1BCO thin films (0 ⩽ y ⩽ 0.2) were fabricated by TFA-MOD. It was observed that the critical current density under magnetic fields was enhanced largely due to codoping. The flux pinning type was not changed with Gd doping and codoping, which could be attributed to the normal surface pins.

  18. Adipose tissue fatty acid patterns and changes in anthropometry: a cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Catherine Dahm

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Diets rich in n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA, but low in n-6 LC-PUFA and 18:1 trans-fatty acids (TFA, may lower the risk of overweight and obesity. These fatty acids have often been investigated individually. We explored associations between global patterns in adipose tissue fatty acids and changes in anthropometry. METHODS: 34 fatty acid species from adipose tissue biopsies were determined in a random sample of 1100 men and women from a Danish cohort study. We used sex-specific principal component analysis and multiple linear regression to investigate the associations of adipose tissue fatty acid patterns with changes in weight, waist circumference (WC, and WC controlled for changes in body mass index (WC(BMI, adjusting for confounders. RESULTS: 7 principal components were extracted for each sex, explaining 77.6% and 78.3% of fatty acid variation in men and women, respectively. Fatty acid patterns with high levels of TFA tended to be positively associated with changes in weight and WC for both sexes. Patterns with high levels of n-6 LC-PUFA tended to be negatively associated with changes in weight and WC in men, and positively associated in women. Associations with patterns with high levels of n-3 LC-PUFA were dependent on the context of the rest of the fatty acid pattern. CONCLUSIONS: Adipose tissue fatty acid patterns with high levels of TFA may be linked to weight gain, but patterns with high n-3 LC-PUFA did not appear to be linked to weight loss. Associations depended on characteristics of the rest of the pattern.

  19. 大连市酸雨的变化趋势及来源简析%Analysis in the Variational Trend and Sources of Acid Rain in Dalian

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王日东; 苏静

    2011-01-01

    “十一五”期间大连市的酸雨污染呈波动趋势,2009年的酸雨污染最为严重,酸雨频率达到40.3%,pH均值4.84,属于中酸雨污染。大连市酸雨的来源受外来地区输送的影响较大,大连市本地源排放对硫和氮的湿沉降的贡献仅在10—20%之间;外来源中,山东排放的贡献占30~40%,辽宁其他区域的贡献10%左右,同时日本、朝鲜和韩国的贡献也不容忽视。%The acid rain pollution of Dalian presents to fluctuant trend during the eleventh five - year plan. The acid rain pollution Was the most serious in 2009. The frequency of the acid rain achieved 40. 3% and the pH value was 4.84 (medium acid rain pollution) . Acid rain in Dalian was significantly affected by external sources via transportation. The emissions from local sources only contributed to 10 -20% of wet deposition of sulfur and nitrogen. Among all external sources, emissions from Shandong contributed to 30 -40%, other regions in Liaoning only accounted for about 10%, and effect of emission in neighbor countries ( such as Japan,Noah Korea and South Korea) should not be neglected.

  20. Acetohydroxy acid synthase I, a required enzyme for isoleucine and valine biosynthesis in Escherichia coli K-12 during growth on acetate as the sole carbon source.

    OpenAIRE

    Dailey, F E; Cronan, J E

    1986-01-01

    Escherichia coli K-12 has two acetohydroxy acid synthase (AHAS) isozymes (AHAS I and AHAS III). Both of these isozymes catalyze the synthesis of alpha-aceto-alpha-hydroxybutyrate and alpha-acetolactate, which are key intermediates of the isoleucine-valine biosynthetic pathway. Strains lacking either isozyme but not both activities have been previously shown to grow well in minimal media in the absence of isoleucine and valine on any of several commonly used carbon sources (e.g., glucose or su...

  1. Soil amendments modify phosphate sorption in an acid soil: the importance of P source (KH{sub 2}PO{sub 4}, TSP, DAP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schefe, C.R.; Patti, A.F.; Clune, T.S.; Jackson, W.R. [Rutherglen Center, Rutherford, Vic. (Australia)

    2007-07-01

    Soil acidity is a widespread problem in Victoria, Australia, affecting at least 4 million ha of agricultural land. Soil amendments such as lime and organic materials may ameliorate acid soils, resulting in raised soil pH and increased availability of plant nutrients such as phosphorus (P). The addition of lime, lignite, and compost significantly modified P sorption in an acid soil, with the degree of change highly dependent upon the source of P applied. The application of 2.5 t/ha of lime increased P sorption for all P sources, while P sorption was decreased in the lignite and compost treatments when di-ammonium phosphate (DAP) was applied. Lime and compost addition increased the solution pH, with no change in pH in the lignite treatment. Addition of TSP decreased the pH in all treatments, while DAP addition only increased solution pH in the untreated soil and the lignite treatment. The addition of soil amendments had a significant effect on solution cation concentrations, due to both the influx of cations, and the resultant changes in solution pH. The source of P applied (KH{sub 2}PO{sub 4}, TSP (triple superphosphate), DAP) also had a significant effect due to both the counter-ions present and the pH of each P source (e. g. TSP pH 2.7; DAP pH 7.4). The lignite treatment decreased total P sorption relative to the other amendments. The combination of lignite and DAP resulted in both the greatest decrease in P sorption, and the formation of soluble Al-organic complexes. Therefore, a combination of lignite and DAP may be of use in decreasing P sorption in acid soils.

  2. Fatty acid profile, meat quality, and carcass traits of Nellore young bulls fed different sources of forage in high-concentrate diets with crude glycerin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andressa Ferreira Ribeiro

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effect of forages with different nutritional values - specifically, corn silage (CS, sugar cane (SC, and sugar cane bagasse (SB - in diets with crude glycerin, on carcass traits, meat quality, and fatty acid profile, using young Nellore bulls finished in the feedlot. Thirty young Nellore bulls with an initial average body weight of 416.70±24.74 kg were randomly assigned to three treatments containing different sources of forage. The carcass traits and variables related to meat quality of the Nellore young bulls were not significantly influenced by different sources of forage in diets with crude glycerin. The yellow color index was significantly greater in the fat of animals fed corn silage. Heptadecenoic fatty acid was significantly lower in the meat of animals fed sugar cane bagasse. The sources of forage in diets with crude glycerin did not influence the profile of saturated, monounsaturated, or polyunsaturated fatty acids in the longissimus muscle. Overall, our results indicate that none of the treatments changed the carcass and meat quality traits of Nellore young bulls finished in the feedlot. Thus, sugar cane and sugar cane bagasse could be used in feedlot as a viable forage alternative to corn silage.

  3. Evaluation and optimization of growth and citric acid production by Yarrowia lipolytica NRRL Y-1095 using glycerol as carbon source as an alternative to use biodiesel byproduct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avila-Neto P M

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to optimize growth and citric acid production by Yarrowia lipolytica NRRL Y-1095 using glycerol as the sole carbon source, like an alternative to use biodiesel glycerol, a promising and cheap carbon source. Fermentations were performed in Erlenmeyer flasks to optimize growth and citrate production from glycerol. The fermented broth was analyzed by HPLC equipped with a UV and RI detector to evaluate isocitrate, citrate and glycerol consumption. The growth medium was optimized in flasks and in batch fermentation. The present study have optimized media conditions for the growth phase of Yarrowia lipolityca NRRL Y-1095 using experimental design and surface response methodology, obtaining 6.18 g.l-1 of dry cell weight (DCW and up to 22 g.l-1 DCW in bioreactor after 96 h. Six fermentations were performed in a feed batch reactor with varying aeration and agitation. Dissolved oxygen was an important factor and a 0.5 yield of citric acid was obtained from feed batch fermentation, where up to 59 g.l-1 of citric acid was obtained. Glycerol is a cheap alternative to citric acid production since biodiesel glycerol production is growing rapidly and becoming an environmental problem.

  4. Sacha inchi (Plukenetia volubilis): A seed source of polyunsaturated fatty acids, tocopherols, phytosterols, phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity

    OpenAIRE

    Chirinos, R.; Zuoleta, G; Pedreschi, R.; Mignolet, Eric; Larondelle, Yvan; Campos, David

    2013-01-01

    Fatty acids (FA), phytosterols, tocopherols, phenolic compounds, total carotenoids and hydrophilic and lipophilic ORAC antioxidant capacities were evaluated in 16 cultivars of Sacha inchi (SI) seeds with the aim to valorise them and offer more information on the functional properties of SI seeds. A high a linolenic (a-Ln) fatty acid content was found in all cultivars (x3, 12.8–16.0 g/100 g seed), followed by linoleic (L) fatty acid (x6, 12.4–14.1 g/100 g seed). The ratio x6/x3 was within the ...

  5. Multiphase Mass Transfer Model on the Accumulation of TFA in Regional Environments%区域环境中三氟乙酸富积多相传质模型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    项徐伟; 郑钢; 沈志群; 吴鹏

    2009-01-01

    建立了描述挥发性有机物在大气、水、土壤和底泥等环境中动态分布的多相传质模型,并用于分析长江流域江苏段及太湖水系区域内三氟乙酸(TFA)在各环境相中的分布. 采集实测数据约300个,比较实测值与模拟值,对模型的可靠行进行验证. 建立了检测环境中微量TFA前处理及方法. 结果表明:多相传质模型能够正确描述研究区域内环境中的TFA分布. 在给定排放量变化规律的前提下,预测未来10年内研究区域环境水体中ρ(TFA)将接近100 ng/L,接近现阶段欧美发达国家主要水体中的ρ(TFA).

  6. Isotropic and anisotropic pinning in TFA-grown YBa2Cu3O7 - x films with BaZrO3 nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palau, A.; Bartolomé, E.; Llordés, A.; Puig, T.; Obradors, X.

    2011-12-01

    YBCO films grown by the trifluoroacetate (TFA) method with increasing number of BaZrO3 (BZO) nanoparticles have been measured by in-field angular transport measurements to investigate changes in the pinning landscape. The isotropic and anisotropic contributions to the critical current density, Jc(H), with the magnetic field applied in H\\parallel c and H\\parallel ab orientation have been determined, allowing us to characterize the population of isotropic and correlated defects along the c axis and ab planes. First, the influence of the YBCO oxygenation process on the formation of different sorts of anisotropic defects in standard films is demonstrated. Next, we show that the addition of non-coherent BZO nanoparticles to the YBCO matrix produces an expansion of the single-vortex pinning regime toward higher fields, due to the presence of isotropic pinning centers. Moreover, by increasing the amount of isotropic defects in the BZO nanocomposites it is possible to extend the region dominated by strong isotropic pinning centers to large magnetic fields and thus enhance the irreversibility line.

  7. Isotropic and anisotropic pinning in TFA-grown YBa2Cu3O7−x films with BaZrO3 nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    YBCO films grown by the trifluoroacetate (TFA) method with increasing number of BaZrO3 (BZO) nanoparticles have been measured by in-field angular transport measurements to investigate changes in the pinning landscape. The isotropic and anisotropic contributions to the critical current density, Jc(H), with the magnetic field applied in H||c and H||ab orientation have been determined, allowing us to characterize the population of isotropic and correlated defects along the c axis and ab planes. First, the influence of the YBCO oxygenation process on the formation of different sorts of anisotropic defects in standard films is demonstrated. Next, we show that the addition of non-coherent BZO nanoparticles to the YBCO matrix produces an expansion of the single-vortex pinning regime toward higher fields, due to the presence of isotropic pinning centers. Moreover, by increasing the amount of isotropic defects in the BZO nanocomposites it is possible to extend the region dominated by strong isotropic pinning centers to large magnetic fields and thus enhance the irreversibility line.

  8. In-plane textured oxide buffer layer for the TFA-MOD method on {0 0 1} Ni tapes using MOD process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We developed a low cost process, the so-called all-MOD process, whereby we used MOD to deposit both YBCO and oxide buffer layers on {1 0 0} Ni tapes. Highly in-plane textured and crack-free Ce-Gd-O (CGO) buffer layers on the cube-textured Ni tapes were achieved by the MOD process. Highly in-plane textured YBCO films on the CGO-buffered Ni tapes were also observed. Long tapes were made by applying a 1 m long CGO buffer layer on the Ni tapes and firing in a batch-type furnace. The CGO films were made by a continuous bead coating process and firing under an Ar-H2 atmosphere. The 1 m CGO-on-Ni tape was highly in-plane textured. RI(200) and FWHM of phi-scan values were 88-96% and 7.0-8.5 deg., respectively. We determined the degree of (n 0 0)-orientation: RI(n00) [≡I(n00)/{I(n00)+I(mmm)}x100(%)], where I(n00) and I(mmm) peaks represent the X-ray θ-2θintensities. These results indicate that buffered Ni tapes made by the MOD process are useful for TFA-MOD fabrication of long-length YBCO coated conductors

  9. Effect of Ba/Y ratio in starting solution on microstructure evolution of YBCO films deposited by advanced TFA-MOD process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have found that high critical current (IC) values of YBa2Cu3O7-y (YBCO) films are achieved by using the starting solution with the Ba/Y ratio less than 2.0 in the advanced TFA-MOD process. TEM observation revealed that there are few large pores in the YBCO final films with the Ba/Y ratio less than 2.0. Furthermore, from results of investigation of quenched films prepared by cooling rapidly during the calcination process, low Ba content in the starting solution was found to have an effect on attaining the precursor film with low porosity and uniform elemental distribution of cations. As for the crystallization process, there was no significant difference in phases and sizes of non-superconducting precipitates generated before YBCO epitaxial growth, irrespective of the Ba/Y ratio. However, homogeneity of lateral growth rate of the YBCO film is improved, when the starting solution with Ba/Y ratio less than 2.0 is used

  10. Study on the oxygenation process during the heat treatment of TFA-MOD YBCO thin films by in situ resistance measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qu, Timing, E-mail: tmqu@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Key Laboratory for Advanced Materials Processing Technology, Ministry of Education, Beijing 100084 (China); Division of Advanced Manufacturing, Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Xue, Yunran [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Key Laboratory for Advanced Materials Processing Technology, Ministry of Education, Beijing 100084 (China); Feng, Feng [Division of Advanced Manufacturing, Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Applied Superconductivity Research Center, Department of Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Huang, Rongxia; Wu, Wei; Shi, Kai; Han, Zhenghe [Applied Superconductivity Research Center, Department of Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: •In situ resistance measurement (ISM) was carried out on MOD-YBCO thin films. •Thermodynamic behaviors of the oxygenation process were studied by using ISM. •A defect reaction was found to control the mechanism of the oxygenation process. •Porosity accelerated diffusion mechanism was proposed for the MOD thin film system. -- Abstract: The oxygen content is one key factor to determine the properties of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 6+y} (YBCO) high temperature superconductors. In this study, YBCO thin films were produced by TFA-MOD method. The oxygenation process was carried out at 450 °C for 40 min, in various oxygen partial pressures from 0.01 to 1 atm. An in situ resistance measurement system was built up to record the resistance evolution during the whole heat treatment process. It was found that the resistance decreased exponentially and reached a saturate value in a few minutes during oxygen annealing. It was also found both the balanced resistance and the c-axis length of YBCO decreased with increasing oxygen partial pressure. A defect reaction was found to control the mechanism of the oxygenation process. A porosity assisted oxygen diffusion mechanism was proposed to explain the fast diffusion kinetics of oxygen in MOD YBCO thin films.

  11. Study on the oxygenation process during the heat treatment of TFA-MOD YBCO thin films by in situ resistance measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •In situ resistance measurement (ISM) was carried out on MOD-YBCO thin films. •Thermodynamic behaviors of the oxygenation process were studied by using ISM. •A defect reaction was found to control the mechanism of the oxygenation process. •Porosity accelerated diffusion mechanism was proposed for the MOD thin film system. -- Abstract: The oxygen content is one key factor to determine the properties of YBa2Cu3O6+y (YBCO) high temperature superconductors. In this study, YBCO thin films were produced by TFA-MOD method. The oxygenation process was carried out at 450 °C for 40 min, in various oxygen partial pressures from 0.01 to 1 atm. An in situ resistance measurement system was built up to record the resistance evolution during the whole heat treatment process. It was found that the resistance decreased exponentially and reached a saturate value in a few minutes during oxygen annealing. It was also found both the balanced resistance and the c-axis length of YBCO decreased with increasing oxygen partial pressure. A defect reaction was found to control the mechanism of the oxygenation process. A porosity assisted oxygen diffusion mechanism was proposed to explain the fast diffusion kinetics of oxygen in MOD YBCO thin films

  12. Different sources of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids affects apparent digestibility, tissue deposition, and tissue oxidative stability in growing female rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedito Vagner A

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Numerous health benefits associated with increased omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA consumption has lead to an increasing variety of available n-3 PUFA sources. However, sources differ in the type, amount, and structural form of the n-3 PUFAs. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the effect of different sources of ω-3 PUFAs on digestibility, tissue deposition, eicosanoid metabolism, and oxidative stability. Methods Female Sprague-Dawley rats (age 28 d were randomly assigned (n = 10/group to be fed a high fat 12% (wt diet consisting of either corn oil (CO or n-3 PUFA rich flaxseed (FO, krill (KO, menhaden (MO, salmon (SO or tuna (TO oil for 8 weeks. Rats were individually housed in metabolic cages to determine fatty acid digestibility. Diet and tissue fatty acid composition was analyzed by gas chromatography and lipid classes using thin layer chromatography. Eicosanoid metabolism was determined by measuring urinary metabolites of 2-series prostaglandins (PGs and thromoboxanes (TXBs using enzyme immunoassays. Oxidative stability was assessed by measuring thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS and total antioxidant capacity (TAC using colorimetric assays. Gene expression of antioxidant defense enzymes was determined by real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR. Results Rats fed KO had significantly lower DHA digestibility and brain DHA incorporation than SO and TO-fed rats. Of the n-3 PUFA sources, rats fed SO and TO had the highest n-3 PUFAs digestibility and in turn, tissue accretion. Higher tissue n-3 LC-PUFAs had no significant effect on 2-series PG and TXB metabolites. Despite higher tissue n-3 LC-PUFA deposition, there was no increase in oxidation susceptibility indicated by no significant increase in TBARS or decrease in TAC and gene expression of antioxidant defense enzymes, in SO or TO-fed rats. Conclusions On the basis that the optimal n-3 PUFA sources should

  13. Enantiomeric excesses induced in amino acids by ultraviolet circularly polarized light irradiation of extraterrestrial ice analogs: A possible source of asymmetry for prebiotic chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Modica, Paola; De Marcellus, Pierre; D' Hendecourt, Louis Le Sergeant [Univ. Paris-Sud, Institut d' Astrophysique Spatiale, UMR 8617, F-91405 Orsay (France); Meinert, Cornelia; Meierhenrich, Uwe J. [Univ. Nice Sophia Antipolis, Institut de Chimie de Nice, UMR 7272 CNRS, F-06108 Nice (France); Nahon, Laurent, E-mail: laurent.nahon@synchrotron-soleil.fr, E-mail: ldh@ias.u-psud.fr [Synchrotron SOLEIL, F-91192 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2014-06-10

    The discovery of meteoritic amino acids with enantiomeric excesses of the L-form (ee {sub L}) has suggested that extraterrestrial organic materials may have contributed to prebiotic chemistry and directed the initial occurrence of the ee {sub L} that further led to homochirality of amino acids on Earth. A proposed mechanism for the origin of ee {sub L} in meteorites involves an asymmetric photochemistry of extraterrestrial ices by UV circularly polarized light (CPL). We have performed the asymmetric synthesis of amino acids on achiral extraterrestrial ice analogs by VUV CPL, investigating the chiral asymmetry transfer at two different evolutionary stages at which the analogs were irradiated (regular ices and/or organic residues) and at two different photon energies (6.6 and 10.2 eV). We identify 16 distinct amino acids and precisely measure the L-enantiomeric excesses using the enantioselective GC × GC-TOFMS technique in five of them: α-alanine, 2,3-diaminopropionic acid, 2-aminobutyric acid, valine, and norvaline, with values ranging from ee {sub L} = –0.20% ± 0.14% to ee {sub L} = –2.54% ± 0.28%. The sign of the induced ee {sub L} depends on the helicity and the energy of CPL, but not on the evolutionary stage of the samples, and is the same for all five considered amino acids. Our results support an astrophysical scenario in which the solar system was formed in a high-mass star-forming region where icy grains were irradiated during the protoplanetary phase by an external source of CPL of a given helicity and a dominant energy, inducing a stereo-specific photochemistry.

  14. Enantiomeric excesses induced in amino acids by ultraviolet circularly polarized light irradiation of extraterrestrial ice analogs: A possible source of asymmetry for prebiotic chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The discovery of meteoritic amino acids with enantiomeric excesses of the L-form (ee L) has suggested that extraterrestrial organic materials may have contributed to prebiotic chemistry and directed the initial occurrence of the ee L that further led to homochirality of amino acids on Earth. A proposed mechanism for the origin of ee L in meteorites involves an asymmetric photochemistry of extraterrestrial ices by UV circularly polarized light (CPL). We have performed the asymmetric synthesis of amino acids on achiral extraterrestrial ice analogs by VUV CPL, investigating the chiral asymmetry transfer at two different evolutionary stages at which the analogs were irradiated (regular ices and/or organic residues) and at two different photon energies (6.6 and 10.2 eV). We identify 16 distinct amino acids and precisely measure the L-enantiomeric excesses using the enantioselective GC × GC-TOFMS technique in five of them: α-alanine, 2,3-diaminopropionic acid, 2-aminobutyric acid, valine, and norvaline, with values ranging from ee L = –0.20% ± 0.14% to ee L = –2.54% ± 0.28%. The sign of the induced ee L depends on the helicity and the energy of CPL, but not on the evolutionary stage of the samples, and is the same for all five considered amino acids. Our results support an astrophysical scenario in which the solar system was formed in a high-mass star-forming region where icy grains were irradiated during the protoplanetary phase by an external source of CPL of a given helicity and a dominant energy, inducing a stereo-specific photochemistry.

  15. Amino acid content of selected plant, algae and insect species: a search for alternative protein sources for use in pet foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCusker, Sarah; Buff, Preston R; Yu, Zengshou; Fascetti, Andrea J

    2014-01-01

    In response to global economic duress and heightened consumer awareness of nutrition and health, sustainable and natural ingredients are in demand. Identification of alternative sources of nitrogen and amino acids, including taurine, may help meet dietary requirements while fostering sustainability and natural feeding approaches. Twenty plants, eighteen marine algae and five insect species were analysed. All samples were freeze-dried, hydrolysed and filtered prior to amino acid analysis. Samples for amino acids were analysed in duplicate and averaged. Nitrogen was analysed and crude protein (CP) determined by calculation. With the exception of taurine concentration in soldier fly larvae, all insects exceeded both the National Research Council's canine and feline minimal requirements (MR) for growth of all essential amino acids (EAA) and CP. Although some plants and marine algal species exceeded the canine and feline MR for growth for EAA and CP, only very low concentrations of taurine were found in plants. Taurine concentration in insects was variable but high, with the greatest concentration found in ants (6·42 mg/g DM) and adult flesh flies (3·33 mg/g DM). Taurine was also high in some macroalgae, especially the red algal species: Mazaella spp. (4·11 mg/g DM), Porphyra spp. (1·22 mg/g DM) and Chondracanthus spp. (6·28 mg/g DM). Preliminary results suggest that insects and some marine algal species may be practical alternatives to traditional protein and supplemental taurine sources in pet foods. Safety, bioavailability, palatability and source variability of alternative items as food ingredients should be investigated prior to incorporation into canine and feline diets.

  16. Methanol Expression Regulator 1 (Mxr1p) Is Essential for the Utilization of Amino Acids as the Sole Source of Carbon by the Methylotrophic Yeast, Pichia pastoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Umakant; Rangarajan, Pundi N

    2016-09-23

    Unlike Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris can assimilate amino acids as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen. It can grow in media containing yeast extract and peptone (YP), yeast nitrogen base (YNB) + glutamate (YNB + Glu), or YNB + aspartate (YNB + Asp). Methanol expression regulator 1 (Mxr1p), a zinc finger transcription factor, is essential for growth in these media. Mxr1p regulates the expression of several genes involved in the utilization of amino acids as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen. These include the following: (i) GDH2 encoding NAD-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase; (ii) AAT1 and AAT2 encoding mitochondrial and cytosolic aspartate aminotransferases, respectively; (iii) MDH1 and MDH2 encoding mitochondrial and cytosolic malate dehydrogenases, respectively; and (iv) GLN1 encoding glutamine synthetase. Synthesis of all these enzymes is regulated by Mxr1p at the level of transcription except GDH2, whose synthesis is regulated at the level of translation. Mxr1p activates the transcription of AAT1, AAT2, and GLN1 in cells cultured in YP as well as in YNB + Glu media, whereas transcription of MDH1 and MDH2 is activated in cells cultured in YNB + Glu but not in YP. A truncated Mxr1p composed of 400 N-terminal amino acids activates transcription of target genes in cells cultured in YP but not in YNB + Glu. Mxr1p binds to Mxr1p response elements present in the promoters of AAT2, MDH2, and GLN1 We conclude that Mxr1p is essential for utilization of amino acids as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen, and it is a global regulator of multiple metabolic pathways in P. pastoris.

  17. Amino acid content of selected plant, algae and insect species: a search for alternative protein sources for use in pet foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCusker, Sarah; Buff, Preston R; Yu, Zengshou; Fascetti, Andrea J

    2014-01-01

    In response to global economic duress and heightened consumer awareness of nutrition and health, sustainable and natural ingredients are in demand. Identification of alternative sources of nitrogen and amino acids, including taurine, may help meet dietary requirements while fostering sustainability and natural feeding approaches. Twenty plants, eighteen marine algae and five insect species were analysed. All samples were freeze-dried, hydrolysed and filtered prior to amino acid analysis. Samples for amino acids were analysed in duplicate and averaged. Nitrogen was analysed and crude protein (CP) determined by calculation. With the exception of taurine concentration in soldier fly larvae, all insects exceeded both the National Research Council's canine and feline minimal requirements (MR) for growth of all essential amino acids (EAA) and CP. Although some plants and marine algal species exceeded the canine and feline MR for growth for EAA and CP, only very low concentrations of taurine were found in plants. Taurine concentration in insects was variable but high, with the greatest concentration found in ants (6·42 mg/g DM) and adult flesh flies (3·33 mg/g DM). Taurine was also high in some macroalgae, especially the red algal species: Mazaella spp. (4·11 mg/g DM), Porphyra spp. (1·22 mg/g DM) and Chondracanthus spp. (6·28 mg/g DM). Preliminary results suggest that insects and some marine algal species may be practical alternatives to traditional protein and supplemental taurine sources in pet foods. Safety, bioavailability, palatability and source variability of alternative items as food ingredients should be investigated prior to incorporation into canine and feline diets. PMID:26101608

  18. Methanol Expression Regulator 1 (Mxr1p) Is Essential for the Utilization of Amino Acids as the Sole Source of Carbon by the Methylotrophic Yeast, Pichia pastoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Umakant; Rangarajan, Pundi N

    2016-09-23

    Unlike Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris can assimilate amino acids as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen. It can grow in media containing yeast extract and peptone (YP), yeast nitrogen base (YNB) + glutamate (YNB + Glu), or YNB + aspartate (YNB + Asp). Methanol expression regulator 1 (Mxr1p), a zinc finger transcription factor, is essential for growth in these media. Mxr1p regulates the expression of several genes involved in the utilization of amino acids as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen. These include the following: (i) GDH2 encoding NAD-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase; (ii) AAT1 and AAT2 encoding mitochondrial and cytosolic aspartate aminotransferases, respectively; (iii) MDH1 and MDH2 encoding mitochondrial and cytosolic malate dehydrogenases, respectively; and (iv) GLN1 encoding glutamine synthetase. Synthesis of all these enzymes is regulated by Mxr1p at the level of transcription except GDH2, whose synthesis is regulated at the level of translation. Mxr1p activates the transcription of AAT1, AAT2, and GLN1 in cells cultured in YP as well as in YNB + Glu media, whereas transcription of MDH1 and MDH2 is activated in cells cultured in YNB + Glu but not in YP. A truncated Mxr1p composed of 400 N-terminal amino acids activates transcription of target genes in cells cultured in YP but not in YNB + Glu. Mxr1p binds to Mxr1p response elements present in the promoters of AAT2, MDH2, and GLN1 We conclude that Mxr1p is essential for utilization of amino acids as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen, and it is a global regulator of multiple metabolic pathways in P. pastoris. PMID:27519409

  19. TFA Inducing Apoptosis of Human Hepatoma Carcinoma Cell Line HepG-2 and Its Possible Molecular Mechanism%黄芪总黄酮对肝癌HepG-2细胞凋亡的诱导作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张秀云; 陈建业; 杨映雪; 胥正敏; 唐华英

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the possible molecular mechanism in TFA inducing apoptosis of human hepatoma carcinoma cell line HepG-2.Methods:HepG-2 cells were treated by different concentrations of TFA,the inhibitory rate of cell proliferation was measured by MTT.The apoptosis rate was detected by FCM.The expressions of Survivin,Bcl-2 and Bax protein were detected by Western blot.Results:TFA can inhibit the proliferation and induce apoptosis of human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG-2 cells,which had a significant effect of time and concentration dependent manner.The expressions of Survivin and Bcl-2 were decreased,but the expression of Bax was increased.Conclusions:TFA can inhibit the proliferation and induce apoptosis of HepG-2 cells.The effects may be related to the down-regulation of survivin and Bc]-2 expressions and up-regulation of Bax expression.%目的:探讨黄芪总黄酮(TFA)对人肝癌HepG-2细胞生长抑制及凋亡诱导作用及其机制.方法:以不同浓度TFA处理HepG-2细胞,MTT法测定细胞增殖抑制率;流式细胞仪(FCM)检测细胞凋亡率;Westernblot检测凋亡相关蛋白Survivin、Bcl-2、Bax的表达.结果:TFA能够抑制体外培养的人肝癌细胞HepG-2生长、诱导细胞凋亡,其作用具有量效关系和时效关系.Western blot检测显示,随着TFA浓度的增加,细胞凋亡抑制蛋白Survivin和Bcl-2的表达量明显降低,而细胞凋亡促进蛋白Bax的表达量显著增加.结论:TFA对HepG-2细胞具有抑制增殖和诱导凋亡的作用,其机制与下调细胞凋亡抑制蛋白Survivin与Bcl-2的表达和上调细胞凋亡促进蛋白Bax的表达有关.

  20. Adipose tissue Fatty Acid patterns and changes in antrhropometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahm, Christina Catherine; Gorst-Rasmussen, Anders; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre;

    2011-01-01

    in adipose tissue fatty acids and changes in anthropometry. Methods 34 fatty acid species from adipose tissue biopsies were determined in a random sample of 1100 men and women from a Danish cohort study. We used sex-specific principal component analysis and multiple linear regression to investigate...... the associations of adipose tissue fatty acid patterns with changes in weight, waist circumference (WC), and WC controlled for changes in body mass index (WCBMI), adjusting for confounders. Results 7 principal components were extracted for each sex, explaining 77.6% and 78.3% of fatty acid variation in men....... Associations with patterns with high levels of n-3 LC-PUFA were dependent on the context of the rest of the fatty acid pattern. Conclusions Adipose tissue fatty acid patterns with high levels of TFA may be linked to weight gain, but patterns with high n-3 LC-PUFA did not appear to be linked to weight loss...