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Sample records for acids reduce body

  1. Conjugated Linoleic Acids Reduce Body Fat in Healthy Postmenopausal Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raff, M.; Tholstrup, T.; Toubro, S.

    2009-01-01

    Isomers of conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) reduce fat mass FM) and increase insulin sensitivity in some, but not all, murine studies. In humans, this effect is still debatable. In this study, we compared the effect of 2 CLA supplements on total and regional FM assessed by dual energy X-ray absorp......Isomers of conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) reduce fat mass FM) and increase insulin sensitivity in some, but not all, murine studies. In humans, this effect is still debatable. In this study, we compared the effect of 2 CLA supplements on total and regional FM assessed by dual energy X......-ray absorptiometry, changes in serum insulin and glucose concentrations, and adipose tissue (AT) gene expression in humans. In a double-blind, parallel, 16-wk intervention, we randomized 81 healthy postmenopausal women to 1) 5.5 g/d of 40/40% of cis9, trans11-CLA (c9, t11-CLA) and trans10, cis12-CLA (t10, c12-CLA...

  2. Capric Acid Reduces Body Weight in C57BL/6J Mice Fed a High Fat Diet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying-hua LIU; Yong ZHANG; Qing XU; Xin-sheng ZHANG; Jin WANG; Xiao-ming YU; Xue-yan YANG; Chang-yong XUE

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare the body weight reducing effect of two medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA), capric acid and caprylic acid, and the potential underlying mechanisms in C57BL/6J mice fed a high fat diet.Methods Obese C57BL/6J mice were developed on a high-fat diet containing 2% caprylic acid (C8:0), 2% capric acid (C10:0), or 2% oleic acid (C18:1). Body weight and diet intake were monitored twice a week. After 8 weeks of feeding, body fat composition and the protein or mRNA expression of lipolysis-related genes in the white adipose tissue (WAT) were analyzed.Results In the capric acid group, significant reductions were observed in body weight gain, Lee's index, BMI, and epididymal adipose tissue weight, while increased levels of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL), cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and beta 3 adrenergic receptor (β3-AR) were found in the adipose tissue, compared to the oleic acid group. No significant differences in these parameters were found between caprylic acid and oleic acid groups.Conclusion Capric acid, but not caprylic acid, is effective in reducing body weight in obese C57BL/6J mice,possibly due to up-regulation of β3-AR, ATGL, and HSL in WAT.

  3. Microencapsulated conjugated linoleic acid associated with hypocaloric diet reduces body fat in sedentary women with metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carvalho RF

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Roberta F Carvalho,1 Sofia K Uehara,2 Glorimar Rosa1,21Medicine Department, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; 2Nutrition and Dietetic Department, Josué de Castro Institute of Nutrition, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, BrazilBackground: Animal studies have suggested beneficial effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA in reducing body fat mass and improvement in the serum lipid profile and glycemia. However, these effects are controversial in humans. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of microencapsulated CLA supplementation on body composition, body mass index, waist circumference, and blood pressure in sedentary women with metabolic syndrome.Methods: This study was a placebo-controlled and randomized clinical trial. Fourteen women diagnosed with metabolic syndrome received light strawberry jam enriched or not with microencapsulated CLA (3 g/day as a mixture of 38.57% cis-9, trans-11, and 39.76% trans-10, cis-12 CLA isomers associated with a hypocaloric diet for 90 days. The subjects were monitored to assess variables associated with the metabolic syndrome, in addition to assessing adherence with the intervention.Results: There were no significant effects of microencapsulated CLA on the lipid profile or blood pressure. Mean plasma insulin concentrations were significantly lower in women supplemented with microencapsulated CLA (Δ T90 – T0 = −12.87 ± 4.26 µU/mL, P = 0.02. Microencapsulated CLA supplementation did not alter the waist circumference, but there was a reduction in body fat mass detected after 30 days (Δ = −2.68% ± 0.82%, P = 0.02, which was maintained until the 90-day intervention period (Δ = −3.32% ± 1.41%, P = 0.02 in the microencapsulated CLA group. The placebo group showed this effect only after 90 days (Δ = −1.97% ± 0.60%, P = 0.02, but had a reduced waist circumference (Δ T90 – T0 = −4.25 ± 1.31 cm, P = 0.03.Conclusion: Supplementation with mixed

  4. Dietary supplementation of β-guanidinopropionic acid (βGPA) reduces whole-body and skeletal muscle growth in young CD-1 mice.

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    Baumgarner, Bradley L; Nagle, Alison M; Quinn, Meagan R; Farmer, A Elaine; Kinsey, Stephen T

    2015-05-01

    Increased AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity leads to enhanced fatty acid utilization, while also promoting increased ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis (UDP) in mammalian skeletal muscle. β-guanidinopropionic acid (βGPA) is a commercially available dietary supplement that has been shown to promote an AMPK-dependent increase in fatty acid utilization and aerobic capacity in mammals by compromising creatine kinase function. However, it remains unknown if continuous βGPA supplementation can negatively impact skeletal muscle growth in a rapidly growing juvenile. The current study was conducted to examine the effect of βGPA supplementation on whole-body and skeletal muscle growth in juvenile and young adult mice. Three-week old, post weanling CD-1 mice were fed a standard rodent chow that was supplemented with either 2% (w/w) α-cellulose (control) or βGPA. Control and βGPA-fed mice (n = 6) were sampled after 2, 4, and 8 weeks. Whole-body and hindlimb muscle masses were significantly (P muscle-specific ubiquitin ligase MAFbx/Atrogin-1 protein and total protein ubiquitination in the gastrocnemius of βGPA versus control mice at the 8-week time point. Our data indicate that feeding juvenile mice a βGPA-supplemented diet significantly reduced whole-body and skeletal muscle growth that was due, at least in part, to an AMPK-independent increase in UDP.

  5. Long-term sustained release of salicylic acid from cross-linked biodegradable polyester induces a reduced foreign body response in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandorkar, Yashoda; Bhaskar, Nitu; Madras, Giridhar; Basu, Bikramjit

    2015-02-09

    There has been a continuous surge toward developing new biopolymers that exhibit better in vivo biocompatibility properties in terms of demonstrating a reduced foreign body response (FBR). One approach to mitigate the undesired FBR is to develop an implant capable of releasing anti-inflammatory molecules in a sustained manner over a long time period. Implants causing inflammation are also more susceptible to infection. In this article, the in vivo biocompatibility of a novel, biodegradable salicylic acid releasing polyester (SAP) has been investigated by subcutaneous implantation in a mouse model. The tissue response to SAP was compared with that of a widely used biodegradable polymer, poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA), as a control over three time points: 2, 4, and 16 weeks postimplantation. A long-term in vitro study illustrates a continuous, linear (zero order) release of salicylic acid with a cumulative mass percent release rate of 7.34 × 10(-4) h(-1) over ∼1.5-17 months. On the basis of physicochemical analysis, surface erosion for SAP and bulk erosion for PLGA have been confirmed as their dominant degradation modes in vivo. On the basis of the histomorphometrical analysis of inflammatory cell densities and collagen distribution as well as quantification of proinflammatory cytokine levels (TNF-α and IL-1β), a reduced foreign body response toward SAP with respect to that generated by PLGA has been unambiguously established. The favorable in vivo tissue response to SAP, as manifest from the uniform and well-vascularized encapsulation around the implant, is consistent with the decrease in inflammatory cell density and increase in angiogenesis with time. The above observations, together with the demonstration of long-term and sustained release of salicylic acid, establish the potential use of SAP for applications in improved matrices for tissue engineering and chronic wound healing.

  6. A high oleic sunflower oil fatty acid esters of plant sterols mixed with dietary diacylglycerol reduces plasma insulin and body fat accumulation in Psammomys obesus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pelled Dori

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metabolic syndrome is associated with subsequent development of cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. It is characterized by reduced response to insulin, central obesity, and dyslipidemia. Intake of plant sterols (PS has been shown to confer a healthier lipid profile and ameliorate cardiovascular disease risk factors in experimental animals and humans. In this study we used an animal model of type 2 diabetes to assess the effects of a preparation of PS esterified to high oleic sunflower oil fatty acids mixed with dietary diacylglycerol (PS-HOSO on diabetic related metabolic parameters. Psammomys obesus (P. obesus were fed high energy (HE diet supplemented by either PS-HOSO or control oil. Following 4.5 weeks of intervention, animals were divided into fasting and non-fasting modes prior to outcome measurements. Glucose and insulin levels as well as blood lipid profile, body weight, and fat accumulation were evaluated in fasting and non-fasting modes. Results P. obesus fed with a HE diet displayed a characteristic heterogeneity in their blood glucose and insulin levels with a subset group displaying type 2 diabetes symptoms. PS-HOSO treatment significantly reduced total cholesterol (24%, P P P P Conclusion PS-HOSO supplementation to diabetes-prone gerbils counteracts the increase in body weight and epididymal fat accumulation, and also results in a drop in circulating insulin levels. These effects are pointing out that PS-HOSO may serve as a functional ingredient for metabolic syndrome or diabetic sufferers, which not only influences body weight, but also prevents or reverses insulin resistance and hyperlipidemia.

  7. Does higher education reduce body weight?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Jane; Weatherall, Cecilie Dohlmann

    The prevalence of obesity and overweight has increased in almost all Western countries in the past twenty to thirty years, with social disparities in many of these countries. This paper contributes to the literature on the relation between education and body weight by studying the effect of higher...... education on body weight according to subgroups of parental income background. To uncover the causal relationship between higher education and body weight, we use a reform of the Danish student grant scheme, which involved a grant increase of approximately 60% in 1988. When using this reform as instrumental...... variable, we find no effect among men of higher education on the probability of being either overweight or healthy-weighted. However, we find suggestive evidence that the effect differs by income background. Amongst men who grew up in low-income households, enrolling in higher education increases...

  8. Whole body acid-base modeling revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ring, Troels; Nielsen, Søren

    2017-04-01

    The textbook account of whole body acid-base balance in terms of endogenous acid production, renal net acid excretion, and gastrointestinal alkali absorption, which is the only comprehensive model around, has never been applied in clinical practice or been formally validated. To improve understanding of acid-base modeling, we managed to write up this conventional model as an expression solely on urine chemistry. Renal net acid excretion and endogenous acid production were already formulated in terms of urine chemistry, and we could from the literature also see gastrointestinal alkali absorption in terms of urine excretions. With a few assumptions it was possible to see that this expression of net acid balance was arithmetically identical to minus urine charge, whereby under the development of acidosis, urine was predicted to acquire a net negative charge. The literature already mentions unexplained negative urine charges so we scrutinized a series of seminal papers and confirmed empirically the theoretical prediction that observed urine charge did acquire negative charge as acidosis developed. Hence, we can conclude that the conventional model is problematic since it predicts what is physiologically impossible. Therefore, we need a new model for whole body acid-base balance, which does not have impossible implications. Furthermore, new experimental studies are needed to account for charge imbalance in urine under development of acidosis.

  9. Brief guided imagery and body scanning interventions reduce food cravings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Jonathan; Fawson, Sophie; May, Jon; Andrade, Jackie; Kavanagh, David J

    2013-12-01

    Elaborated Intrusion (EI) Theory proposes that cravings occur when involuntary thoughts about food are elaborated; a key part of elaboration is affectively-charged imagery. Craving can be weakened by working memory tasks that block imagery. EI Theory predicts that cravings should also be reduced by preventing involuntary thoughts being elaborated in the first place. Research has found that imagery techniques such as body scanning and guided imagery can reduce the occurrence of food thoughts. This study tested the prediction that these techniques also reduce craving. We asked participants to abstain from food overnight, and then to carry out 10 min of body scanning, guided imagery, or a control mind wandering task. They rated their craving at 10 points during the task on a single item measure, and before and after the task using the Craving Experience Questionnaire. While craving rose during the task for the mind wandering group, neither the guided imagery nor body scanning group showed an increase. These effects were not detected by the CEQ, suggesting that they are only present during the competing task. As they require no devices or materials and are unobtrusive, brief guided imagery strategies might form useful components of weight loss programmes that attempt to address cravings.

  10. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA: effect modulation of body composition and lipid profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Baddini Feitoza

    Full Text Available Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA refers to a family of polyunsaturated fatty acids, being represented by a group of isomers of linoleic acid called conjugated for having a double bound after a simple bound. Among its isomers, trans-10,cis-12 and cis-9, cis-12 CLA stand out. These isomers can lead to different effects on the body: anticarcinogenic, antidiabetogenic, antiatherogenesis and positive body composition alteration. The objective of this review is to describe their mechanisms of action, effects on body composition, on plasmatic lipoproteins and supplementation. Studies about CLA supplementation show its capacity of reducing fat percentage, body mass and of promoting an improvement in lipid metabolism. One of the adverse effects attributed to one of the isomers is insulin resistance by body fat redistribution. Limitations in the scientific models used in CLA researches make impossible to draw conclusions about the action of this fatty acid on human metabolism.

  11. Non-invasive therapy to reduce the body burden of aluminium in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exley, Christopher; Korchazhkina, Olga; Job, Deborah; Strekopytov, Stanislav; Polwart, Anthony; Crome, Peter

    2006-09-01

    There are unexplained links between human exposure to aluminium and the incidence, progression and aetiology of Alzheimer's disease. The null hypothesis which underlies any link is that there would be no Alzheimer's disease in the effective absence of a body burden of aluminium. To test this the latter would have to be reduced to and retained at a level that was commensurate with an Alzheimer's disease-free population. In the absence of recent human interference in the biogeochemical cycle of aluminium the reaction of silicic acid with aluminium has acted as a geochemical control of the biological availability of aluminium. This same mechanism might now be applied to both the removal of aluminium from the body and the reduced entry of aluminium into the body while ensuring that essential metals, such as iron, are unaffected. Based upon the premise that urinary aluminium is the best non-invasive estimate of body burden of aluminium patients with Alzheimer's disease were asked to drink 1.5 L of a silicic acid-rich mineral water each day for five days and, by comparison of their urinary excretion of aluminium pre-and post this simple procedure, the influence upon their body burden of aluminium was determined. Drinking the mineral water increased significantly (Paluminium (86.0 +/- 24.3 to 62.2 +/- 23.2 nmol/mmol creatinine). The latter was achieved without any significant (P>0.05) influence upon the urinary excretion of iron (20.7 +/- 9.5 to 21.7 +/- 13.8 nmol/mmol creatinine). The reduction in urinary aluminium supported the future longer-term use of silicic acid as non-invasive therapy for reducing the body burden of aluminium in Alzheimer's disease.

  12. Reduced CSF CART in dementia with Lewy bodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Kristofer; Wiehager, Sara; Nilsson, Karin

    2009-01-01

    Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is the second most common form of neurodegenerative dementia after Alzheimer's disease (AD). The underlying neurobiological mechanism of DLB is not fully understood and no generally accepted biomarkers are yet available for the diagnosis of DLB. In a recent MRI study......, DLB patients displayed hypothalamic atrophy whereas this region was not affected in AD patients. Cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART) is a neuropeptide expressed selectively in neurons in the hypothalamus. Here, we found that CSF CART levels were significantly reduced by 30% in DLB...

  13. Body mass index is reduced early in Parkinson's disease.

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    Cheshire, William P; Wszolek, Zbigniew K

    2005-01-01

    Mean body mass index (BMI) in 100 cases of idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) was found to be 9% reduced in comparison to that in patients with either essential tremor or no neurologic disease. A similar reduction in BMI was also discovered among the 24 cases of PD in whom retrospective BMI data were available from their presymptomatic years. These results suggest that alterations in nutrient intake or metabolism could reflect early changes in the central autonomic network preceding the emergence of classical extrapyramidal manifestations of PD.

  14. Whole-body acid-base modeling revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ring, Troels; Nielsen, Søren

    2017-01-01

    The textbook account of whole-body acid-base balance in terms of endogenous acid production, renal net acid excretion and gastrointestinal alkali absorption which is the only comprehensive model around, has never been applied in clinical practice or been formally validated. In order to improve...... understanding of acid-base modeling, we managed to write up this conventional model as an expression solely on urine chemistry. Renal net acid excretion and endogenous acid production was already formulated in terms of urine chemistry, and we could from the literature also see gastrointestinal alkali absorption...

  15. N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, body fat and inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Anne-Sofie Quist; Hasselbalch, Ann Louise; Gamborg, Michael

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Based on animal studies, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been suggested to lower the risk of obesity and inflammation. We aimed to investigate if, among humans, intake of n-3 PUFAs was associated with i) total body fat, ii) body fat distribution and iii) obesity......-related inflammatory markers. METHODS: The study population consisted of 1,212 healthy individuals with information on habitual food intake from food frequency questionnaires, six different measures of body fat, and levels of six circulating inflammatory markers. Multiple linear regression analysis of intakes of PUFAs...... in relation to outcomes were performed and adjusted for potential confounders. RESULTS: Absolute n-3 PUFA intake, but not n-3/n-6, was inversely associated with the different measures of body fat. Among n-3 PUFA derivatives, only α-linolenic acid (ALA) was inversely associated with body fat measures...

  16. A review on effects of conjugated linoleic fatty acid (CLA) upon body composition and energetic metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Lehnen, Tatiana Ederich; da Silva, Marcondes Ramos; Camacho, Augusto; Marcadenti, Aline; Lehnen, Alexandre Machado

    2015-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is highly found in fats from ruminants and it appears to favorably modify the body composition and cardiometabolic risk factors. The capacity of CLA to reduce the body fat levels as well as its benefic actions on glycemic profile, atherosclerosis and cancer has already been proved in experimental models. Furthermore, CLA supplementation may modulate the immune function, help re-synthetize of glycogen and potentiate the bone mineralization. CLA supplementation al...

  17. Reducing pathogens in combined sewer overflows using performic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tondera, Katharina; Klaer, Kassandra; Koch, Christoph; Hamza, Ibrahim Ahmed; Pinnekamp, Johannes

    2016-10-01

    Combined sewer overflows contribute significantly to pathogen loads in surface water. Some chemical disinfectants such as chlorine have proved to reduce the levels of microorganisms even in complex matrices such as wastewater in combined sewer systems; however, some of them release toxic by-products into water bodies and increase costs of plant maintenance and repair. In this study, we determined if performic acid (PFA) disinfection units can be operated at decentralized treatment facilities and reduce bacteria, viruses, and protozoan parasites in combined sewer overflows (CSOs). The PFA dosing unit at the inflow of a CSO storage tank dosed a fixed flow volume into the inflowing stormwater and, thus, concentrations varied between approximately 12-24mgl(-1). The results showed a reduction of most hygienically relevant bacteria with mean removal efficiencies of 1.8log10 for Aeromonas spp. and 3.1log10 for E. coli. For viruses, however, reduction was only observed for somatic coliphages with 2.7log10. In this setting, PFA does not seem to be suitable to remove e.g. protozoan parasites such as Giardia lamblia. In terms of operation, dosing the substance is uncritical in decentralized facilities, but the PFA needs too much time to react with pathogens after being dosed into the overflow of CSO storage tanks and before dilution with surface water in most facilities.

  18. Soni-removal of nucleic acids from inclusion bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neerathilingam, Muniasamy; Mysore, Sumukh; Gandham, Sai Hari A

    2014-05-23

    Inclusion bodies (IBs) are commonly formed in Escherichia coli due to over expression of recombinant proteins in non-native state. Isolation, denaturation and refolding of these IBs is generally performed to obtain functional protein. However, during this process IBs tend to form non-specific interactions with sheared nucleic acids from the genome, thus getting carried over into downstream processes. This may hinder the refolding of IBs into their native state. To circumvent this, we demonstrate a methodology termed soni-removal which involves disruption of nucleic acid-inclusion body interaction using sonication; followed by solvent based separation. As opposed to conventional techniques that use enzymes and column-based separations, soni-removal is a cost effective alternative for complete elimination of buried and/or strongly bound short nucleic acid contaminants from IBs.

  19. Larval competition reduces body condition in the female seed beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schade, Daynika J; Vamosi, Steven M

    2012-01-01

    Early body condition may be important for adult behavior and fitness, and is impacted by a number of environmental conditions and biotic interactions. Reduced fecundity of adult females exposed to larval competition may be caused by reduced body condition or shifts in relative body composition, yet these mechanisms have not been well researched. Here, body mass, body size, scaled body mass index, and two body components (water content and lean dry mass) of adult Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae) females exposed to larval competition or reared alone were examined. Experimental females emerged at significantly smaller body mass and body size than control females. Additionally, scaled body mass index and water content, but not lean dry mass, were significantly reduced in experimental females. To our knowledge, these are the first results that demonstrate a potential mechanism for previously documented direct effects of competition on fecundity in female bruchine beetles.

  20. Remediation of Acid Mine Drainage with Sulfate Reducing Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauri, James F.; Schaider, Laurel A.

    2009-01-01

    Sulfate reducing bacteria have been shown to be effective at treating acid mine drainage through sulfide production and subsequent precipitation of metal sulfides. In this laboratory experiment for undergraduate environmental chemistry courses, students design and implement a set of bioreactors to remediate acid mine drainage and explain observed…

  1. High folic acid intake reduces natural killer cell cytotoxicity in aged mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawaengsri, Hathairat; Wang, Junpeng; Reginaldo, Christina; Steluti, Josiane; Wu, Dayong; Meydani, Simin Nikbin; Selhub, Jacob; Paul, Ligi

    2016-04-01

    Presence of unmetabolized folic acid in plasma, which is indicative of folic acid intake beyond the metabolic capacity of the body, is associated with reduced natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxicity in postmenopausal women ≥50years. NK cells are cytotoxic lymphocytes that are part of the innate immune system critical for surveillance and defense against virus-infected and cancer cells. We determined if a high folic acid diet can result in reduced NK cell cytotoxicity in an aged mouse model. Female C57BL/6 mice (16-month-old) were fed an AIN-93M diet with the recommended daily allowance (1× RDA, control) or 20× RDA (high) folic acid for 3months. NK cytotoxicity was lower in splenocytes from mice fed a high folic acid diet when compared to mice on control diet (Pfolic acid fed mice could be due to their lower mature cytotoxic/naïve NK cell ratio (P=.03) when compared to the control mice. Splenocytes from mice on high folic acid diet produced less interleukin (IL)-10 when stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (Pfolic acid group was at least partially due to reduced IL-10 production. This study demonstrates a causal relationship between high folic acid intake and reduced NK cell cytotoxicity and provides some insights into the potential mechanisms behind this relationship.

  2. Reduced groundplane shorted patch antenna for on-body communications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chandran, A.R.; Scanlon, W.G.

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces a compact, low profile shorted patch antenna designed for on-body communication at 2.45 GHz. The proposed antenna operates with a small (~�¿/5 dimension) groundplane yet maintains a reasonable radiation efficiency of 50.9 % when in close proximity to a muscle tissue phantom.

  3. On the Benefits of Creeping Wave Antennas in Reducing Interference Between Neighboring Wireless Body Area Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsouri, Gill R; Zambito, Stephanie R; Venkataraman, Jayanti

    2017-02-01

    We consider the on-body, off-body, and body-to-body channels in wireless body area networks utilizing creeping wave antennas. Experimental setups are used to gather measurements in the 2.4 GHz band with body area networks operating in an office environment. Data packets providing received signal strength indicators are used to assess the performance of the creeping wave antenna in reducing interference at a neighboring on-body access point while supporting reliable on-body communications. Results demonstrate that creeping wave antennas provide reliable on-body communications while significantly reducing inter-network interference; the inter-network interference is shown to be 10 dB weaker than the on-body signal. In addition, the inter-network interference when both networks utilize creeping wave antennas is shown to be 3 dB weaker than the interference when monopole antennas are used.

  4. Treatment of irradiated mice with high-dose ascorbic acid reduced lethality.

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    Sato, Tomohito; Kinoshita, Manabu; Yamamoto, Tetsuo; Ito, Masataka; Nishida, Takafumi; Takeuchi, Masaru; Saitoh, Daizoh; Seki, Shuhji; Mukai, Yasuo

    2015-01-01

    Ascorbic acid is an effective antioxidant and free radical scavenger. Therefore, it is expected that ascorbic acid should act as a radioprotectant. We investigated the effects of post-radiation treatment with ascorbic acid on mouse survival. Mice received whole body irradiation (WBI) followed by intraperitoneal administration of ascorbic acid. Administration of 3 g/kg of ascorbic acid immediately after exposure significantly increased mouse survival after WBI at 7 to 8 Gy. However, administration of less than 3 g/kg of ascorbic acid was ineffective, and 4 or more g/kg was harmful to the mice. Post-exposure treatment with 3 g/kg of ascorbic acid reduced radiation-induced apoptosis in bone marrow cells and restored hematopoietic function. Treatment with ascorbic acid (3 g/kg) up to 24 h (1, 6, 12, or 24 h) after WBI at 7.5 Gy effectively improved mouse survival; however, treatments beyond 36 h were ineffective. Two treatments with ascorbic acid (1.5 g/kg × 2, immediately and 24 h after radiation, 3 g/kg in total) also improved mouse survival after WBI at 7.5 Gy, accompanied with suppression of radiation-induced free radical metabolites. In conclusion, administration of high-dose ascorbic acid might reduce radiation lethality in mice even after exposure.

  5. Treatment of irradiated mice with high-dose ascorbic acid reduced lethality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohito Sato

    Full Text Available Ascorbic acid is an effective antioxidant and free radical scavenger. Therefore, it is expected that ascorbic acid should act as a radioprotectant. We investigated the effects of post-radiation treatment with ascorbic acid on mouse survival. Mice received whole body irradiation (WBI followed by intraperitoneal administration of ascorbic acid. Administration of 3 g/kg of ascorbic acid immediately after exposure significantly increased mouse survival after WBI at 7 to 8 Gy. However, administration of less than 3 g/kg of ascorbic acid was ineffective, and 4 or more g/kg was harmful to the mice. Post-exposure treatment with 3 g/kg of ascorbic acid reduced radiation-induced apoptosis in bone marrow cells and restored hematopoietic function. Treatment with ascorbic acid (3 g/kg up to 24 h (1, 6, 12, or 24 h after WBI at 7.5 Gy effectively improved mouse survival; however, treatments beyond 36 h were ineffective. Two treatments with ascorbic acid (1.5 g/kg × 2, immediately and 24 h after radiation, 3 g/kg in total also improved mouse survival after WBI at 7.5 Gy, accompanied with suppression of radiation-induced free radical metabolites. In conclusion, administration of high-dose ascorbic acid might reduce radiation lethality in mice even after exposure.

  6. Processes for converting lignocellulosics to reduced acid pyrolysis oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocal, Joseph Anthony; Brandvold, Timothy A

    2015-01-06

    Processes for producing reduced acid lignocellulosic-derived pyrolysis oil are provided. In a process, lignocellulosic material is fed to a heating zone. A basic solid catalyst is delivered to the heating zone. The lignocellulosic material is pyrolyzed in the presence of the basic solid catalyst in the heating zone to create pyrolysis gases. The oxygen in the pyrolysis gases is catalytically converted to separable species in the heating zone. The pyrolysis gases are removed from the heating zone and are liquefied to form the reduced acid lignocellulosic-derived pyrolysis oil.

  7. Reducible chiral four-body interactions in nuclear matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaiser, N.; Milkus, R. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik-Department T39, Garching (Germany)

    2016-01-15

    The method of unitary transformations generates five classes of leading-order reducible chiral four-nucleon interactions which involve pion exchanges and a spin-spin contact term. Their first-order contributions to the energy per particle of isospin-symmetric nuclear matter and pure neutron matter are evaluated in detail. For most of the closed four-loop diagrams the occurring integrals over four Fermi spheres can be reduced to easily manageable one- or two-parameter integrals. One finds substantial compensations among the different contributions arising from 2-ring and 1-ring diagrams. Altogether, the net attraction generated by the chiral four-nucleon interaction does not exceed values of -1.3 MeV for densities ρ < 2ρ{sub 0}. (orig.)

  8. Reducible chiral four-body interactions in nuclear matter

    CERN Document Server

    Kaiser, N

    2015-01-01

    The method of unitary transformations generates five classes of leading-order reducible chiral four-nucleon interactions which involve pion-exchanges and a spin-spin contact-term. Their first-order contributions to the energy per particle of isospin-symmetric nuclear matter and pure neutron matter are evaluated in detail. For most of the closed four-loop diagrams the occurring integrals over four Fermi-spheres can be reduced to easily manageable one- or two-parameter integrals. One observes substantial cancelations among the different contributions arising from 2-ring and 1-ring diagrams. Altogether, the net attraction generated by the chiral four-nucleon interaction does not exceed values of $-1.3$\\,MeV for densities $\\rho<2\\rho_0$.

  9. Reducing the leakage of body-worn incontinence pads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancy, B; Malone-Lee, J

    1991-02-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of various absorbent materials (fluff pulp and superabsorbent) on the leakage performance of incontinence pads. A shaped pad-and-pant system was used as the basic design and four pad types made to different specifications were compared using a double-blind technique. Forty-five elderly hospital residents who were incontinent of urine used all four pad types in a randomly allocated order. Data were recorded on more than 5000 pads over a 2-month period. Leakage was reduced by adding a second layer of fluff pulp and, whilst the addition of a superabsorbent material tended to reduce leakage further, we found no clear relationship between the amount of superabsorbent and the reduction of leakage. Other data indicated the importance of securing the pad in place with the appropriate net pants and the leakage rates of pads in relation to the amount of urine they contained. This research suggests that superabsorbent materials have great potential for reducing the leakage rate of incontinence pads but that the way in which they are incorporated into the pad, the amount of fluff pulp and the design of the pad also play an important part.

  10. [The correlations between aging of the human body, oxidative stress and reduced efficiency of repair systems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalak, Aleksandra; Krzeszowiak, Jakub; Markiewicz-Górka, Iwona

    2014-12-15

    The article presents an current knowledge overview about the importance of oxidative stress and reduced efficiency of repair processes during the aging process of the human body. Oxidative damage to cellular macromolecules (proteins, lipids, nucleic acids), are formed under the influence of reactive oxygen species (ROS). They are the part of important mechanism which is responsible for the process of aging and the development of many diseases. The most important effects result from DNA damage, due to the mutations formation, which can lead to the development of tumors. However, a well-functioning repair systems (i.a. homologous recombination) remove the damage and prevent harmful changes in the cells. Lipid peroxidation products also cause oxidative modification of nucleic acids (and proteins). Proteins and fats also have repair systems, but much simpler than those responsible for the repair of nucleic acids. Unfortunately, with increasing age, they are more weakened, which contributes to increase numbers of cell damage, and consequently development of diseases specific to old age: cancer, neurodegenerative diseases or atherosclerosis.

  11. Inhibition of fatty acid metabolism reduces human myeloma cells proliferation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Tirado-Vélez

    Full Text Available Multiple myeloma is a haematological malignancy characterized by the clonal proliferation of plasma cells. It has been proposed that targeting cancer cell metabolism would provide a new selective anticancer therapeutic strategy. In this work, we tested the hypothesis that inhibition of β-oxidation and de novo fatty acid synthesis would reduce cell proliferation in human myeloma cells. We evaluated the effect of etomoxir and orlistat on fatty acid metabolism, glucose metabolism, cell cycle distribution, proliferation, cell death and expression of G1/S phase regulatory proteins in myeloma cells. Etomoxir and orlistat inhibited β-oxidation and de novo fatty acid synthesis respectively in myeloma cells, without altering significantly glucose metabolism. These effects were associated with reduced cell viability and cell cycle arrest in G0/G1. Specifically, etomoxir and orlistat reduced by 40-70% myeloma cells proliferation. The combination of etomoxir and orlistat resulted in an additive inhibitory effect on cell proliferation. Orlistat induced apoptosis and sensitized RPMI-8226 cells to apoptosis induction by bortezomib, whereas apoptosis was not altered by etomoxir. Finally, the inhibitory effect of both drugs on cell proliferation was associated with reduced p21 protein levels and phosphorylation levels of retinoblastoma protein. In conclusion, inhibition of fatty acid metabolism represents a potential therapeutic approach to treat human multiple myeloma.

  12. Omega-3 fatty acids reduce the development of preneoplasic lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Henriques,Viviana Teixeira; Dias,Cristina Maria Ganns Chaves; Sylvia do Carmo Castro FRANCESCHINI; Sabarense,Céphora Maria; Neuza Maria Brunoro COSTA; Leite,Jacqueline Isaura Alvarez; Peluzio,Maria do Carmo Gouveia

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the anticancer potential of dietary omega-3 supplementation to reduce induced intestinal preneoplastic lesions in Wistar rats. METHODS: A total of 58 11-week-old male Wistar rats (Rattus norvergicus, albinus variety, Rodentia) were distributed into two groups: a control group (n=25) and an omega-3-treated group (n=28). Aberrant crypt foci were induced by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine. Tissue incorporation of the supplemented omega-3 fatty acids was...

  13. A review on effects of conjugated linoleic fatty acid (CLA) upon body composition and energetic metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehnen, Tatiana Ederich; da Silva, Marcondes Ramos; Camacho, Augusto; Marcadenti, Aline; Lehnen, Alexandre Machado

    2015-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is highly found in fats from ruminants and it appears to favorably modify the body composition and cardiometabolic risk factors. The capacity of CLA to reduce the body fat levels as well as its benefic actions on glycemic profile, atherosclerosis and cancer has already been proved in experimental models. Furthermore, CLA supplementation may modulate the immune function, help re-synthetize of glycogen and potentiate the bone mineralization. CLA supplementation also could increase the lipolysis and reduce the accumulation of fatty acids on the adipose tissue; the putative mechanisms involved may be its action in reducing the lipase lipoprotein activity and to increase the carnitine-palmitoil-transferase-1 (CAT-1) activity, its interaction with PPARγ, and to raise the expression of UCP-1. Although studies made in human have shown some benefits of CLA supplementation as the weight loss, the results are still discordant. Moreover, some have shown adverse effects, such as negative effects on glucose metabolism and lipid profile. The purpose of this article is to review the available data regarding the benefits of CLA on the energetic metabolism and body composition, emphasizing action mechanisms.

  14. Mycocerosic acid synthase exemplifies the architecture of reducing polyketide synthases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, Dominik A; Jakob, Roman P; Zähringer, Franziska; Maier, Timm

    2016-03-24

    Polyketide synthases (PKSs) are biosynthetic factories that produce natural products with important biological and pharmacological activities. Their exceptional product diversity is encoded in a modular architecture. Modular PKSs (modPKSs) catalyse reactions colinear to the order of modules in an assembly line, whereas iterative PKSs (iPKSs) use a single module iteratively as exemplified by fungal iPKSs (fiPKSs). However, in some cases non-colinear iterative action is also observed for modPKSs modules and is controlled by the assembly line environment. PKSs feature a structural and functional separation into a condensing and a modifying region as observed for fatty acid synthases. Despite the outstanding relevance of PKSs, the detailed organization of PKSs with complete fully reducing modifying regions remains elusive. Here we report a hybrid crystal structure of Mycobacterium smegmatis mycocerosic acid synthase based on structures of its condensing and modifying regions. Mycocerosic acid synthase is a fully reducing iPKS, closely related to modPKSs, and the prototype of mycobacterial mycocerosic acid synthase-like PKSs. It is involved in the biosynthesis of C20-C28 branched-chain fatty acids, which are important virulence factors of mycobacteria. Our structural data reveal a dimeric linker-based organization of the modifying region and visualize dynamics and conformational coupling in PKSs. On the basis of comparative small-angle X-ray scattering, the observed modifying region architecture may be common also in modPKSs. The linker-based organization provides a rationale for the characteristic variability of PKS modules as a main contributor to product diversity. The comprehensive architectural model enables functional dissection and re-engineering of PKSs.

  15. A Potent, Versatile Disulfide-Reducing Agent from Aspartic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Dithiothreitol (DTT) is the standard reagent for reducing disulfide bonds between and within biological molecules. At neutral pH, however, >99% of DTT thiol groups are protonated and thus unreactive. Herein, we report on (2S)-2-amino-1,4-dimercaptobutane (dithiobutylamine or DTBA), a dithiol that can be synthesized from l-aspartic acid in a few high-yielding steps that are amenable to a large-scale process. DTBA has thiol pKa values that are ∼1 unit lower than those of DTT and forms a disulfide with a similar E°′ value. DTBA reduces disulfide bonds in both small molecules and proteins faster than does DTT. The amino group of DTBA enables its isolation by cation-exchange and facilitates its conjugation. These attributes indicate that DTBA is a superior reagent for reducing disulfide bonds in aqueous solution. PMID:22353145

  16. Combined Effects of Ocean Warming and Acidification on Copepod Abundance, Body Size and Fatty Acid Content.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Garzke

    Full Text Available Concerns about increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations and global warming have initiated studies on the consequences of multiple-stressor interactions on marine organisms and ecosystems. We present a fully-crossed factorial mesocosm study and assess how warming and acidification affect the abundance, body size, and fatty acid composition of copepods as a measure of nutritional quality. The experimental set-up allowed us to determine whether the effects of warming and acidification act additively, synergistically, or antagonistically on the abundance, body size, and fatty acid content of copepods, a major group of lower level consumers in marine food webs. Copepodite (developmental stages 1-5 and nauplii abundance were antagonistically affected by warming and acidification. Higher temperature decreased copepodite and nauplii abundance, while acidification partially compensated for the temperature effect. The abundance of adult copepods was negatively affected by warming. The prosome length of copepods was significantly reduced by warming, and the interaction of warming and CO2 antagonistically affected prosome length. Fatty acid composition was also significantly affected by warming. The content of saturated fatty acids increased, and the ratios of the polyunsaturated essential fatty acids docosahexaenoic- (DHA and arachidonic acid (ARA to total fatty acid content increased with higher temperatures. Additionally, here was a significant additive interaction effect of both parameters on arachidonic acid. Our results indicate that in a future ocean scenario, acidification might partially counteract some observed effects of increased temperature on zooplankton, while adding to others. These may be results of a fertilizing effect on phytoplankton as a copepod food source. In summary, copepod populations will be more strongly affected by warming rather than by acidifying oceans, but ocean acidification effects can modify some temperature impacts.

  17. Combined Effects of Ocean Warming and Acidification on Copepod Abundance, Body Size and Fatty Acid Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Thomas; Ismar, Stefanie M. H.; Sommer, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Concerns about increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations and global warming have initiated studies on the consequences of multiple-stressor interactions on marine organisms and ecosystems. We present a fully-crossed factorial mesocosm study and assess how warming and acidification affect the abundance, body size, and fatty acid composition of copepods as a measure of nutritional quality. The experimental set-up allowed us to determine whether the effects of warming and acidification act additively, synergistically, or antagonistically on the abundance, body size, and fatty acid content of copepods, a major group of lower level consumers in marine food webs. Copepodite (developmental stages 1–5) and nauplii abundance were antagonistically affected by warming and acidification. Higher temperature decreased copepodite and nauplii abundance, while acidification partially compensated for the temperature effect. The abundance of adult copepods was negatively affected by warming. The prosome length of copepods was significantly reduced by warming, and the interaction of warming and CO2 antagonistically affected prosome length. Fatty acid composition was also significantly affected by warming. The content of saturated fatty acids increased, and the ratios of the polyunsaturated essential fatty acids docosahexaenoic- (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) to total fatty acid content increased with higher temperatures. Additionally, here was a significant additive interaction effect of both parameters on arachidonic acid. Our results indicate that in a future ocean scenario, acidification might partially counteract some observed effects of increased temperature on zooplankton, while adding to others. These may be results of a fertilizing effect on phytoplankton as a copepod food source. In summary, copepod populations will be more strongly affected by warming rather than by acidifying oceans, but ocean acidification effects can modify some temperature impacts. PMID:27224476

  18. Reducing acid in dilute acid pretreatment and the impact on enzymatic saccharification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ye; Stevens, Mark A; Zhu, Yongming; Holmes, Jason; Moxley, Geoffrey; Xu, Hui

    2012-05-01

    Dilute acid pretreatment is a leading pretreatment technology for biomass to ethanol conversion due to the comparatively low chemical cost and effective hemicellulose solubilization. The conventional dilute acid pretreatment processes use relatively large quantities of sulfuric acid and require alkali for pH adjustment afterwards. Significant amounts of sulfate salts are generated as by-products, which have to be properly treated before disposal. Wastewater treatment is an expensive, yet indispensable part of commercial level biomass-to-ethanol plants. Therefore, reducing acid use to the lowest level possible would be of great interest to the emerging biomass-to-ethanol industry. In this study, a dilute acid pretreatment process was developed for the pretreatment of corn stover. The pretreatment was conducted at lower acid levels than the conventional process reported in the literature while using longer residence times. The study indicates that a 50% reduction in acid consumption can be achieved without compromising pretreatment efficiency when the pretreatment time was extended from 1-5 min to 15-20 min. To avoid undesirable sugar degradation and inhibitor generation, temperatures should be controlled below 170°C. When the sulfuric acid-to-lignocellulosic biomass ratio was kept at 0.025 g acid/g dry biomass, a cellulose-to-glucose conversion of 72.7% can be achieved at an enzyme loading of 0.016 g/g corn stover. It was also found that acid loading based on total solids (g acid/g dry biomass) governs the pretreatment efficiency rather than the acid concentration (g acid/g pretreatment liquid). While the acid loading on lignocellulosic biomass may be achieved through various combinations of solids loading and acid concentration in the pretreatment step, this work shows that it is unlikely to reduce acid use without undermining pretreatment efficiency simply by increasing the solid content in pretreatment reactors, therefore acid loading on biomass is indicated

  19. Reduced carbon sequestration potential of biochar in acidic soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Yaqi; Zhan, Yu; Zhu, Lizhong

    2016-12-01

    Biochar application in soil has been proposed as a promising method for carbon sequestration. While factors affecting its carbon sequestration potential have been widely investigated, the number of studies on the effect of soil pH is limited. To investigate the carbon sequestration potential of biochar across a series of soil pH levels, the total carbon emission, CO2 release from inorganic carbon, and phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) of six soils with various pH levels were compared after the addition of straw biochar produced at different pyrolysis temperatures. The results show that the acidic soils released more CO2 (1.5-3.5 times higher than the control) after the application of biochar compared with neutral and alkaline soils. The degradation of both native soil organic carbon (SOC) and biochar were accelerated. More inorganic CO2 release in acidic soil contributed to the increased degradation of biochar. Higher proportion of gram-positive bacteria in acidic soil (25%-36%) was responsible for the enhanced biochar degradation and simultaneously co-metabolism of SOC. In addition, lower substrate limitation for bacteria, indicated by higher C-O stretching after the biochar application in the acidic soil, also caused more CO2 release. In addition to the soil pH, other factors such as clay contents and experimental duration also affected the phsico-chemical and biotic processes of SOC dynamics. Gram-negative/gram-positive bacteria ratio was found to be negatively related to priming effects, and suggested to serve as an indicator for priming effect. In general, the carbon sequestration potential of rice-straw biochar in soil reduced along with the decrease of soil pH especially in a short-term. Given wide spread of acidic soils in China, carbon sequestration potential of biochar may be overestimated without taking into account the impact of soil pH.

  20. Camphor Tree Seed Kernel Oil Reduces Body Fat Deposition and Improves Blood Lipids in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jing; Wang, Baogui; Gong, Deming; Zeng, Cheng; Jiang, Yihao; Zeng, Zheling

    2015-08-01

    The total and positional fatty acid composition in camphor tree (Cinnamomum camphora) seed kernel oil (CKO) were analyzed, and for the first time, the effect of CKO on body fat deposition and blood lipids in rats was studied. The major fatty acids in CKO were determined to be decanoic acid (C10:0, 51.49%) and dodecanoic acid (C12:0, 40.08%), and uniformly distributed at Sn-1, 3, and Sn-2 positions in triglyceride (TG). Rats were randomly divided into control, CKO, lard, and soybean oil groups. At the end of the experiment, levels of blood lipids and the fats of abdomen in the rats were measured. The main organ were weighted and used for the histological examination. The results showed that body weight and fat deposition in CKO group were significantly lower than the lard and soybean groups. Moderate consumption of CKO was found to improve the levels of blood TG and low density lipoprotein cholesterol.

  1. Conjugated linoleic acid mitigates testosterone-related changes in body composition in male guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Susan Q; DeGuire, Jason R; Lavery, Paula; Mak, Ivy L; Weiler, Hope A; Santosa, Sylvia

    2016-05-01

    We hypothesize that conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) may be effective in preventing the changes in total and regional body composition and increases in interleukin (IL) 6 that occur as a result of hypogonadism. Male guinea pigs (n = 40, 70- to 72-week retired breeders) were block randomized by weight into 4 groups: (1) sham surgery (SHAM)/control (CTRL) diet, (2) SHAM/conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) diet (1%), (3) orchidectomy (ORX)/CTRL diet, and (4) ORX/CLA diet. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scans were performed at baseline and week 16 to assess body composition. Serum IL-6 was analyzed using an enzyme-linked immune sorbent assay. Fatty acids (FAs) from visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue were analyzed using gas chromatography. In ORX/CTRL guinea pigs, percent total body fat increased by 6.1%, and percent lean mass decreased by 6.7% over the 16-week treatment period, whereas no changes were observed for either parameter in ORX/CLA guinea pigs. Guinea pigs fed the CLA diet gained less percent total, upper, and lower body fat than those fed the CTRL diet regardless of surgical treatment. Regional adipose tissue FA composition was reflective of dietary FAs. Serum IL-6 concentrations were not different among groups. In this study, we observed that, in male guinea pigs, hypogonadism resulted in increased fat mass and decreased lean mass. In addition, CLA was effective in reducing gains in body fat and maintaining lean mass in both hypogonadal and intact guinea pigs.

  2. Palmitoleic acid reduces intramuscular lipid and restores insulin sensitivity in obese sheep

    OpenAIRE

    Duckett SK; Volpi-Lagreca G; Alende M; Long NM

    2014-01-01

    Susan K Duckett, Gabriela Volpi-Lagreca, Mariano Alende, Nathan M LongAnimal and Veterinary Sciences Department, Clemson University, Clemson, SC, USAAbstract: Obese sheep were used to assess the effects of palmitoleic (C16:1 cis-9) acid infusion on lipogenesis and circulating insulin levels. Infusion of 10 mg/kg body weight (BW)/day C16:1 intravenously in obese sheep reduced (P<0.01) weight gain by 77%. Serum palmitoleic levels increased (P<0.05) in a linear manner with increasi...

  3. Reduced body size and cub recruitment in polar bears associated with sea ice decline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rode, K.D.; Amstrup, Steven C.; Regehr, E.V.

    2010-01-01

    Rates of reproduction and survival are dependent upon adequate body size and condition of individuals. Declines in size and condition have provided early indicators of population decline in polar bears (Ursus maritimus) near the southern extreme of their range. We tested whether patterns in body size, condition, and cub recruitment of polar bears in the southern Beaufort Sea of Alaska were related to the availability of preferred sea ice habitats and whether these measures and habitat availability exhibited trends over time, between 1982 and 2006. The mean skull size and body length of all polar bears over three years of age declined over time, corresponding with long-term declines in the spatial and temporal availability of sea ice habitat. Body size of young, growing bears declined over time and was smaller after years when sea ice availability was reduced. Reduced litter mass and numbers of yearlings per female following years with lower availability of optimal sea ice habitat, suggest reduced reproductive output and juvenile survival. These results, based on analysis of a longterm data set, suggest that declining sea ice is associated with nutritional limitations that reduced body size and reproduction in this population. ?? 2010 by the Ecological Society of America.

  4. Does Media Literacy Mitigate Risk for Reduced Body Satisfaction Following Exposure to Thin-Ideal Media?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Siân A; Paxton, Susan J; Wertheim, Eleanor H

    2016-08-01

    Exposure to thin-ideal media can contribute to increased body dissatisfaction in adolescent girls. Understanding the factors that may prevent or exacerbate the negative effects of media exposure on body dissatisfaction is important to facilitate prevention of these problems. This study evaluated the effects of exposure to thin-ideal media images on body image in three instructional set experimental conditions: appearance comparison, peer norms, and control. An important aim was to examine baseline levels of media literacy as a protective factor and trait thin-ideal internalization and trait upward appearance comparison as risk factors. Early adolescent girls (N = 246) completed baseline measures and 1 week later viewed thin-ideal media images, before and after which they rated their state body satisfaction. Participants in the appearance comparison instruction but not peer norms instruction condition had significantly reduced body satisfaction. Media literacy, particularly high levels of critical thinking, mitigated the negative effects of trait thin-ideal internalization and trait upward appearance comparison on body satisfaction outcomes. These findings provide evidence for the role of media literacy as a protective factor against the negative effects on body satisfaction of exposure to thin-ideal media images, and also provide evidence to support the development and implementation of media literacy-based body image interventions.

  5. Electroacupuncture Reduces Hyperalgesia after Injections of Acidic Saline in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Yung dos Santos Maciel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Injections of acidic saline into the gastrocnemius muscle in rats produce a bilateral long-lasting hyperalgesia similar to fibromyalgia in humans. No previous study investigated the effect of electroacupuncture (EA on this acidic saline model. This study aimed to identify the effects of EA in the hyperalgesia produced by repeated intramuscular injections of acidic saline. Methods. Rats were divided into four groups (n=6, each group: control, acupuncture, EA 15 Hz, and 100 Hz. Left gastrocnemius muscle was injected with 100 μL of pH 4.0 sterile saline twice five days apart. EA, acupuncture, or control therapy was daily administered (20 min for 5 consecutive days under anesthesia. Needles were placed in the St36 and Sp6 acupoints. The assessment of secondary mechanical hyperalgesia, thermal hyperalgesia, and motor performance was performed before injections and before and after the treatment performed on each day. The paw withdrawal threshold was tested using the nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis test and differences within the group Wilcoxon Matched Pairs. The latency and motor performance were tested for ANOVA parametric test for independent measures, and for differences in the group, we used t-test for paired samples. Post hoc Tukey test was used for multiple corrections. P values ​​less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results. Indicate that there was a significant reduction of mechanical withdrawal threshold and paw withdrawal latency 24 hours following the second injection. Moreover, mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia were significantly reversed by EA 15, 100 Hz, and acupuncture. Conclusions. The results suggest that EA high and low frequency as well as acupuncture are effective in reducing hyperalgesia in chronic muscle pain model.

  6. A Balanced-Fed Dual Inverted-F Antenna with Reduced Human Body Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang-Sang Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A balanced-fed dual inverted-F antenna with reduced human body effects for WLAN applications at 2.45 GHz is presented. In order to reduce the influence by a close proximity or a touch of a human body, the proposed antenna employs an impedance matching using a lumped LC-balun which has the simple and compact structure applying for mobile handsets. The resonant frequency of the proposed antenna is fixed at 2.45 GHz regardless of the close proximity of a human body. By applying for the L-shape ground plane, the proposed antenna has the wide impedance bandwidth of about 150 MHz and the peak realized gain of about 4 dBi.

  7. Clinical, histological and genetic characterization of reducing body myopathy caused by mutations in FHL1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schessl, Joachim; Taratuto, Ana L.; Sewry, Caroline; Battini, Roberta; Chin, Steven S.; Maiti, Baijayanta; Dubrovsky, Alberto L.; Erro, Marcela G.; Espada, Graciela; Robertella, Monica; Saccoliti, Maria; Olmos, Patricia; Bridges, Leslie R.; Standring, Peter; Hu, Ying; Zou, Yaqun; Swoboda, Kathryn J.; Scavina, Mena; Goebel, Hans-Hilmar; Mitchell, Christina A.; Flanigan, Kevin M.; Muntoni, Francesco

    2009-01-01

    We recently identified the X-chromosomal four and a half LIM domain gene FHL1 as the causative gene for reducing body myopathy, a disorder characterized by progressive weakness and intracytoplasmic aggregates in muscle that exert reducing activity on menadione nitro-blue-tetrazolium (NBT). The mutations detected in FHL1 affected highly conserved zinc coordinating residues within the second LIM domain and lead to the formation of aggregates when transfected into cells. Our aim was to define the clinical and morphological phenotype of this myopathy and to assess the mutational spectrum of FHL1 mutations in reducing body myopathy in a larger cohort of patients. Patients were ascertained via the detection of reducing bodies in muscle biopsy sections stained with menadione-NBT followed by clinical, histological, ultrastructural and molecular genetic analysis. A total of 11 patients from nine families were included in this study, including seven sporadic patients with early childhood onset disease and four familial cases with later onset. Weakness in all patients was progressive, sometimes rapidly so. Respiratory failure was common and scoliosis and spinal rigidity were significant in some of the patients. Analysis of muscle biopsies confirmed the presence of aggregates of FHL1 positive material in all biopsies. In two patients in whom sequential biopsies were available the aggregate load in muscle sections appeared to increase over time. Ultrastructural analysis revealed that cytoplasmic bodies were regularly seen in conjunction with the reducing bodies. The mutations detected were exclusive to the second LIM domain of FHL1 and were found in both sporadic as well as familial cases of reducing body myopathy. Six of the nine mutations affected the crucial zinc coordinating residue histidine 123. All mutations in this residue were de novo and were associated with a severe clinical course, in particular in one male patient (H123Q). Mutations in the zinc coordinating residue

  8. Reduced neonatal mortality in Meishan piglets: a role for hepatic fatty acids?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernan P Fainberg

    Full Text Available The Meishan pig breed exhibits increased prolificacy and reduced neonatal mortality compared to commercial breeds, such as the Large White, prompting breeders to introduce the Meishan genotype into commercial herds. Commercial piglets are highly susceptible to hypoglycemia, hypothermia, and death, potentially due to limited lipid stores and/or delayed hepatic metabolic ability. We therefore hypothesized that variation in hepatic development and lipid metabolism could contribute to the differences in neonatal mortality between breeds. Liver samples were obtained from piglets of each breed on days 0, 7, and 21 of postnatal age and subjected to molecular and biochemical analysis. At birth, both breeds exhibited similar hepatic glycogen contents, despite Meishan piglets having significantly lower body weight. The livers from newborn Meishan piglets exhibited increased C18∶1n9C and C20∶1n9 but lower C18∶0, C20∶4n6, and C22∶6n3 fatty acid content. Furthermore, by using an unsupervised machine learning approach, we detected an interaction between C18∶1n9C and glycogen content in newborn Meishan piglets. Bioinformatic analysis could identify unique age-based clusters from the lipid profiles in Meishan piglets that were not apparent in the commercial offspring. Examination of the fatty acid signature during the neonatal period provides novel insights into the body composition of Meishan piglets that may facilitate liver responses that prevent hypoglycaemia and reduce offspring mortality.

  9. 21 CFR 146.148 - Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.148 Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. (a) Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice is the food that complies with the requirements for...

  10. Utilization of milk amino acids for body gain in suckling mink (Mustela vison) kits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tauson, Anne-Helene; Fink, Rikke; Hansen, Niels E;

    2005-01-01

    The efficiency of utilization of milk amino acids for body gain in suckling mink kits from small (n = 3), medium (n = 6) and large litters (n = 9) was investigated by using 36 mink dams and their litters for measurements during lactation weeks 1 through 4. Measurements on each dam and litter were...... performed once, hence three dams per litter size each week (n = 9). Individual milk intake of kits was determined, milk samples were collected and kits were killed for determination of amino acid composition. The most abundant amino acids in milk were glutamate, leucine and aspartate making up about 40......% of total amino acids. Branched chained amino acids made up slightly more than 20% and sulphur containing amino acids less than 5% of total milk amino acids. In kit bodies the sum of glutamate, aspartate and leucine made up about 32% of amino acids, branched chain amino acids about 16% and sulphur...

  11. Reduced Expression of Lipoic Acid Synthase Accelerates Diabetic Nephropathy

    OpenAIRE

    Yi, Xianwen; Xu, Longquan; Hiller, Sylvia; Kim, Hyung-Suk; Nickeleit, Volker; James, Leighton R; Maeda, Nobuyo

    2011-01-01

    Oxidative stress contributes to the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. In mitochondria, lipoic acid synthase produces α-lipoic acid, an antioxidant and an essential cofactor in α-ketoacid dehydrogenase complexes, which participate in glucose oxidation and ATP generation. Administration of lipoic acid abrogates diabetic nephropathy in animal models, but whether lower production of endogenous lipoic acid promotes diabetic nephropathy is unknown. Here, we crossed mice heterozygous for lipoic ...

  12. Nurses' experiences, expectations, and preferences for mind-body practices to reduce stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCool Jane A

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most research on the impact of mind-body training does not ask about participants' baseline experience, expectations, or preferences for training. To better plan participant-centered mind-body intervention trials for nurses to reduce occupational stress, such descriptive information would be valuable. Methods We conducted an anonymous email survey between April and June, 2010 of North American nurses interested in mind-body training to reduce stress. The e-survey included: demographic characteristics, health conditions and stress levels; experiences with mind-body practices; expected health benefits; training preferences; and willingness to participate in future randomized controlled trials. Results Of the 342 respondents, 96% were women and 92% were Caucasian. Most (73% reported one or more health conditions, notably anxiety (49%; back pain (41%; GI problems such as irritable bowel syndrome (34%; or depression (33%. Their median occupational stress level was 4 (0 = none; 5 = extreme stress. Nearly all (99% reported already using one or more mind-body practices to reduce stress: intercessory prayer (86%, breath-focused meditation (49%, healing or therapeutic touch (39%, yoga/tai chi/qi gong (34%, or mindfulness-based meditation (18%. The greatest expected benefits were for greater spiritual well-being (56%; serenity, calm, or inner peace (54%; better mood (51%; more compassion (50%; or better sleep (42%. Most (65% wanted additional training; convenience (74% essential or very important, was more important than the program's reputation (49% or scientific evidence about effectiveness (32% in program selection. Most (65% were willing to participate in a randomized trial of mind-body training; among these, most were willing to collect salivary cortisol (60%, or serum biomarkers (53% to assess the impact of training. Conclusions Most nurses interested in mind-body training already engage in such practices. They have greater

  13. Palmitoleic acid reduces intramuscular lipid and restores insulin sensitivity in obese sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duckett, Susan K; Volpi-Lagreca, Gabriela; Alende, Mariano; Long, Nathan M

    2014-01-01

    Obese sheep were used to assess the effects of palmitoleic (C16:1 cis-9) acid infusion on lipogenesis and circulating insulin levels. Infusion of 10 mg/kg body weight (BW)/day C16:1 intravenously in obese sheep reduced (Psubcutaneous adipose tissue was not altered. Total lipid content of the liver was also unchanged with C16:1 infusion. Palmitoleic acid infusion upregulated (Psubcutaneous adipose, and ST muscle compared to the controls. However, mRNA expression of glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4) and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1b (CPT1B) differed between tissues. In the subcutaneous adipose and liver, C16:1 infusion upregulated (P<0.05) GLUT4 and CPT1B, whereas these genes were downregulated (P<0.05) in ST muscle with C16:1 infusion. These results show that C16:1 infusion for 28 days reduced weight gain, intramuscular adipocyte size and total lipid content, and circulating insulin levels. These changes appear to be mediated through alterations in expression of genes regulating glucose uptake and fatty acid oxidation specifically in the muscles.

  14. Reducing Renal Uptake of {sup 177}Lu Labeled CCK Derivative using Basic Amino Acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Soyoung; Lim, Jaecheong; Joh, Eunha [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Radiolabeled peptides have been designed to target the relative receptors overespressed in tumor cells, such as integrin αvβ3, gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR), melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1-R), glucagon-like peptide-a receptor (GLP-1R), and cholecystokinin (CCK) receptor. Most of these peptides are eliminated from the body via the kidney and are partly reabsorbed in the proximal tubular cells. However, the high renal uptake of the radiolabeled peptides may lead to renal toxicity. In this study we investigated various amino acid solutions to reduce the renal uptake of {sup 177}Lu-DOTA-CCK derivative. Renal uptake of {sup 177}Lu-DOTA-CCK derivative is effectively reduced by the administration of positively charged amino acids. The administration of 12 mg of L-lysine was as effective in reducing the renal uptake as 6 mg of lysine and 6 mg of arginine combinations. Further studies will be performed to identify the most potent inhibitor of renal reuptake of radiolabeled peptides and minimize the chance of unwanted side effects.

  15. Body shrinkage due to Arctic warming reduces red knot fitness in tropical wintering range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gils, Jan A; Lisovski, Simeon; Lok, Tamar; Meissner, Włodzimierz; Ożarowska, Agnieszka; de Fouw, Jimmy; Rakhimberdiev, Eldar; Soloviev, Mikhail Y; Piersma, Theunis; Klaassen, Marcel

    2016-05-13

    Reductions in body size are increasingly being identified as a response to climate warming. Here we present evidence for a case of such body shrinkage, potentially due to malnutrition in early life. We show that an avian long-distance migrant (red knot, Calidris canutus canutus), which is experiencing globally unrivaled warming rates at its high-Arctic breeding grounds, produces smaller offspring with shorter bills during summers with early snowmelt. This has consequences half a world away at their tropical wintering grounds, where shorter-billed individuals have reduced survival rates. This is associated with these molluscivores eating fewer deeply buried bivalve prey and more shallowly buried seagrass rhizomes. We suggest that seasonal migrants can experience reduced fitness at one end of their range as a result of a changing climate at the other end.

  16. Polyunsaturated fatty acid content of mother's milk is associated with childhood body composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Louise; Lauritzen, Lotte; Brasholt, Martin;

    2012-01-01

    The consumption of polyunsaturated fatty acids has changed, and the prevalence of adiposity has increased over the past 30 y. A decrease of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid content in breast milk has been suggested to be a contributing factor. The objective of this study was to investigate...... the relationship between docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) content and n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid ratio in breast milk, body composition, and timing of adiposity rebound in children....

  17. Acid-reducing vagotomy is associated with reduced risk of subsequent ischemic heart disease in complicated peptic ulcer

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Shih-Chi; Fang, Chu-Wen; Chen, William Tzu-Liang; Muo, Chih-Hsin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Persistent exacerbation of a peptic ulcer may lead to a complicated peptic ulcer (perforation or/and bleeding). The management of complicated peptic ulcers has shifted from acid-reducing vagotomy, drainage, and gastrectomy to simple local suture or non-operative (endoscopic/angiographic) hemostasis. We were interested in the long-term effects of this trend change. In this study, complicated peptic ulcer patients who received acid-reducing vagotomy were compared with those who receive...

  18. Efficiency of mitochondrially targeted gallic acid in reducing brain mitochondrial oxidative damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parihar, P; Jat, D; Ghafourifar, P; Parihar, M S

    2014-07-03

    Oxidative stress is associated with mitochondrial impairments. Supplying mitochondria with potent antioxidants can reduce oxidative stress—induced mitochondrial impairment. Gallic acid can be used to reduce oxidative burden in mitochondria. In order to increase the bioavailability of gallic acid inside the mitochondria we synthesized mitochondrially targeted gallic acid and explored its preventive effects against sodium nitroprusside induced oxidative stress in isolated mitochondria. Our observations revealed an increase in oxidative stress,decrease in reduced glutathione in mitochondria and increase in the mitochondrial permeability pore transition due to sodium nitroprusside treatment. Pre—treatment of gallic acid and mitochondrially targeted gallic acid to sodium nitroprusside treated mitochondria not only significantly reduced the oxidative stress but also prevented mitochondrial permeability pore transition to a significant difference. Mitochondrially targeted gallic acid was found more effective in reducing oxidative stress and mitochondrial permeability pore transition than gallic acid. We conclude that mitochondrially targeted gallic acid can be used for preventing mitochondrial impairment caused by oxidative stress.

  19. A specific acid [alpha]-glucosidase in lamellar bodies of the human lung

    OpenAIRE

    Vries, A.C.J. de; Schram, A.W.; Tager, J.M.; Batenburg, J.J.

    2006-01-01

    In the present investigation, we have demonstrated that three lysosomal-type hydrolases, alpha-glucosidase, alpha-mannosidase and a phosphatase, are present in lamellar bodies isolated from adult human lung. The hydrolase activities that were studied, all showed an acidic pH optimum, which is characteristic for lysosomal enzymes. The properties of acid alpha-glucosidase in the lamellar body fraction and that in the lysosome-enriched fraction were compared. Using specific antibodies against ly...

  20. Reducing whole-body vibration and musculoskeletal injury with a new car seat design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhsous, M; Hendrix, R; Crowther, Z; Nam, E; Lin, F

    2005-07-15

    A new car seat design, which allows the back part of the seat (BPS) to lower down while a protruded cushion supports the lumbar spine, was quantitatively tested to determine its effectiveness and potentials in reducing whole-body vibration (WBV) and musculoskeletal disorders in automobile drivers. Nine subjects were tested to drive with the seat in: 1) the conventional seating arrangement (Normal posture); and 2) the new seating design (without BPS (WO-BPS) posture). By reducing contact between the seat and the ischial tuberosities (ITs), the new seating design reduced both contact pressure and amplitude of vibrations transmitted through the body. Root-mean-squared values for acceleration along the z-axis at the lumbar spine and ITs significantly decreased 31.6% (p spine and ITs by 43.0% (p < 0.05) and 34.5% (p < 0.01). This reduction in WBV allows more sustained driving than permitted by conventional seating devices, by several hours, before sustaining unacceptable WBV levels. Such seating devices, implemented in large trucks and other high-vibration vehicles, may reduce the risk of WBV-related musculoskeletal disorders among drivers.

  1. Lauric Acid Stimulates Ketone Body Production in the KT-5 Astrocyte Cell Line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonaka, Yudai; Takagi, Tetsuo; Inai, Makoto; Nishimura, Shuhei; Urashima, Shogo; Honda, Kazumitsu; Aoyama, Toshiaki; Terada, Shin

    2016-08-01

    Coconut oil has recently attracted considerable attention as a potential Alzheimer's disease therapy because it contains large amounts of medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs) and its consumption is thought to stimulate hepatic ketogenesis, supplying an alternative energy source for brains with impaired glucose metabolism. In this study, we first reevaluated the responses of plasma ketone bodies to oral administration of coconut oil to rats. We found that the coconut oil-induced increase in plasma ketone body concentration was negligible and did not significantly differ from that observed after high-oleic sunflower oil administration. In contrast, the administration of coconut oil substantially increased the plasma free fatty acid concentration and lauric acid content, which is the major MCFA in coconut oil. Next, to elucidate whether lauric acid can activate ketogenesis in astrocytes with the capacity to generate ketone bodies from fatty acids, we treated the KT-5 astrocyte cell line with 50 and 100 μM lauric acid for 4 h. The lauric acid treatments increased the total ketone body concentration in the cell culture supernatant to a greater extent than oleic acid, suggesting that lauric acid can directly and potently activate ketogenesis in KT-5 astrocytes. These results suggest that coconut oil intake may improve brain health by directly activating ketogenesis in astrocytes and thereby by providing fuel to neighboring neurons.

  2. Associations between plasma branched-chain amino acids, β-aminoisobutyric acid and body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rietman, Annemarie; Stanley, Takara L; Clish, Clary; Mootha, Vamsi; Mensink, Marco; Grinspoon, Steven K; Makimura, Hideo

    2016-01-01

    Plasma branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) are elevated in obesity and associated with increased cardiometabolic risk. β-Aminoisobutyric acid (B-AIBA), a recently identified small molecule metabolite, is associated with decreased cardiometabolic risk. Therefore, we investigated the association of BCAA and B-AIBA with each other and with detailed body composition parameters, including abdominal visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT). A cross-sectional study was carried out with lean (n 15) and obese (n 33) men and women. Detailed metabolic evaluations, including measures of body composition, insulin sensitivity and plasma metabolomics were completed. Plasma BCAA were higher (1·6 (se 0·08) (×10(7)) v. 1·3 (se 0·06) (×10(7)) arbitrary units; P = 0·005) in obese v. lean subjects. BCAA were positively associated with VAT (R 0·49; P = 0·0006) and trended to an association with SAT (R 0·29; P = 0·052). The association between BCAA and VAT, but not SAT, remained significant after controlling for age, sex and race on multivariate modelling (P BCAA were also associated with parameters of insulin sensitivity (Matsuda index: R -0·50, P = 0·0004; glucose AUC: R 0·53, P BCAA were not associated with B-AIBA (R -0·04; P = 0·79). B-AIBA was negatively associated with SAT (R -0·37; P = 0·01) but only trended to an association with VAT (R 0·27; P = 0·07). However, neither relationship remained significant after multivariate modelling (P > 0·05). Plasma B-AIBA was associated with parameters of insulin sensitivity (Matsuda index R 0·36, P = 0·01; glucose AUC: R -0·30, P = 0·04). Plasma BCAA levels were positively correlated with VAT and markers of insulin resistance. The results suggest a possible complex role of adipose tissue in BCAA homeostasis and insulin resistance.

  3. Deletion Genotypes Reduce Occlusion Body Potency but Increase Occlusion Body Production in a Colombian Spodoptera frugiperda Nucleopolyhedrovirus Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera, Gloria; Williams, Trevor; Villamizar, Laura; Caballero, Primitivo; Simón, Oihane

    2013-01-01

    A Colombian field isolate (SfCOL-wt) of Spodoptera frugiperda multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (SfMNPV) is a mixture of different genotypes. To evaluate the insecticidal properties of the different genotypic variants, 83 plaque purified virus were characterized. Ten distinct genotypes were identified (named A through J). SfCOL-A was the most prevalent (71±2%; mean ± SE) showing a PstI restriction profile indistinguishable to that of SfCOL-wt. The remaining nine genotypes presented genomic deletions of 3.8 - 21.8 Kb located mainly between nucleotides 11,436 and 33,883 in the reference genome SfMNPV-B, affecting the region between open reading frames (ORFs) sf20 and sf33. The insecticidal activity of each genotype from SfCOL-wt and several mixtures of genotypes was compared to that of SfCOL-wt. The potency of SfCOL-A occlusion bodies (OBs) was 4.4-fold higher than SfCOL-wt OBs, whereas the speed of kill of SfCOL-A was similar to that of SfCOL-wt. Deletion genotype OBs were similarly or less potent than SfCOL-wt but six deletion genotypes were faster killing than SfCOL-wt. The potency of genotype mixtures co-occluded within OBs were consistently reduced in two-genotype mixtures involving equal proportions of SfCOL-A and one of three deletion genotypes (SfCOL-C, -D or -F). Speed of kill and OB production were improved only when the certain genotype mixtures were co-occluded, although OB production was higher in the SfCOL-wt isolate than in any of the component genotypes, or mixtures thereof. Deleted genotypes reduced OB potency but increased OB production of the SfCOL-wt population, which is structured to maximize the production of OBs in each infected host. PMID:24116220

  4. Hydrophilic Dogwood Extracts as Materials for Reducing the Skin Irritation Potential of Body Wash Cosmetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zofia Nizioł-Łukaszewska

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A significant problem related to the use of surfactants in body wash cosmetics is their propensity to trigger skin irritations. Only scarce literature exists on the effect of plant extracts on the skin irritation potential. The present study is an attempt to determine the effect of hydrophilic dogwood extracts on the irritant potential of body wash gels. Extractants used in the study were water and mixtures of water with glycerine, water with trimethylglycine (betaine, and water with plant-derived glycol (propanediol. The basic biochemical properties, i.e., the ability to neutralize free radicals, and the content of polyphenols, anthocyanins and flavonoids, were determined. An attempt was undertaken to analyze the impact of the extract added to natural body wash gel formulations on product properties. The skin irritation potential was assessed by determining the zein number and the increase in the pH level of the bovine serum albumin (BSA solution. The viscosity and foaming ability of the resulting products were evaluated. The studies revealed that an addition of dogwood extract contributes to an improvement in the properties of body wash gels and significantly increases the safety of product use through reducing the skin irritation effect.

  5. Hydrophilic Dogwood Extracts as Materials for Reducing the Skin Irritation Potential of Body Wash Cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizioł-Łukaszewska, Zofia; Osika, Paweł; Wasilewski, Tomasz; Bujak, Tomasz

    2017-02-19

    A significant problem related to the use of surfactants in body wash cosmetics is their propensity to trigger skin irritations. Only scarce literature exists on the effect of plant extracts on the skin irritation potential. The present study is an attempt to determine the effect of hydrophilic dogwood extracts on the irritant potential of body wash gels. Extractants used in the study were water and mixtures of water with glycerine, water with trimethylglycine (betaine), and water with plant-derived glycol (propanediol). The basic biochemical properties, i.e., the ability to neutralize free radicals, and the content of polyphenols, anthocyanins and flavonoids, were determined. An attempt was undertaken to analyze the impact of the extract added to natural body wash gel formulations on product properties. The skin irritation potential was assessed by determining the zein number and the increase in the pH level of the bovine serum albumin (BSA) solution. The viscosity and foaming ability of the resulting products were evaluated. The studies revealed that an addition of dogwood extract contributes to an improvement in the properties of body wash gels and significantly increases the safety of product use through reducing the skin irritation effect.

  6. The phytochemical glaucarubinone promotes mitochondrial metabolism, reduces body fat, and extends lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarse, K; Bossecker, A; Müller-Kuhrt, L; Siems, K; Hernandez, M A; Berendsohn, W G; Birringer, M; Ristow, M

    2011-04-01

    Naturally occurring compounds that promote energy expenditure and delay aging in model organisms may be of significant interest, since these substances potentially provide pharmaceutical approaches to tackle obesity and promote healthy lifespan in humans. We aimed to test whether pharmaceutical concentrations of glaucarubinone, a cytotoxic and antimalarial quassinoid known from different species of the plant family Simaroubaceae, are capable of affecting metabolism and/or extending lifespan in a nematodal model organism for aging processes, the roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans. Adult C. elegans roundworms, maintained on agar plates, were fed with E. coli strain OP50 bacteria, and glaucarubinone was applied to the agar to test (i) whether it alters respiration rates and mitochondrial activity, (ii) whether it affects body fat content, and (iii) whether it may promote longevity by quantifying survival in the presence and absence of the compound. We have found that glaucarubinone induces oxygen consumption and reduces body fat content of C. elegans. Moreover and consistent with the concept of mitohormesis, glaucarubinone extends C. elegans lifespan when applied at a concentration of 1 or 10 nanomolar. Taken together, glaucarubinone is capable of reducing body fat and promoting longevity in C. elegans, tentatively suggesting that this compound may promote metabolic health and lifespan in mammals and possibly humans.

  7. Carboxylic Acids as Indicators of Parent Body Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner N. R.; Chang, Sherwood (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Alpha-hydroxy and alpha-amino carboxylic acids found on the Murchison meteorite are deuterium enriched. It is postulated that they arose from a common interstellar scurce: the reaction of carbonyl compounds in an aqueous mixture containing HCN and NH3. Carbonyl compounds react with HCN to form alpha-hydroxy nitriles, RR'CO + HCN right and left arrow RR'C(OH)CN. If ammonia is also present, the alpha-hydroxy nitriles will exist in equilibrium with the alpha-amino nitriles, RR'C(OH)CN + NH3 right and left arrow - RRCNH2CN + H2O. Both nitrites are hydrolyzed by water to form carboxylic acids: RR'C(OH)CN + H2O yields RR'C(OH)CO2H and RR'C(NH2)CN + H2O yields RR'C(NH2)CO2H.

  8. Effects of trans-10,cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid on body fat and serum lipids in young and adult hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, V; Miranda, J; Churruca, I; Fernández-Quintela, A; Rodríguez, V M; Portillo, M P

    2006-06-01

    The aim of the present work was to determine whether t-10, c-12 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) feeding was able to reduce body fat accumulation and improve the serum lipid profile in adult hamsters fed an atherogenic diet, in order to compare these effects with those observed in young growing hamsters. Young and adult hamsters were fed semi-purified atherogenic diets supplemented with 0.5 % linoleic acid or 0.5% t-10, c-12 CLA for 6 weeks. Body weight and food intake were measured every two days. Adipose tissue from different anatomical locations, liver and gastrocnemious muscle were dissected and weighed. Cholesterol, triacylglycerols, non-esterified fatty acids and proteins were determined spectrophotometrically and water content by gravimetry. In young hamsters, no significant differences were found in food intake, final body weight and gastrocnemious muscle weight. White adipose tissue weights were reduced, liver weight was increased and cholesterol and triacyl-glycerols in both serum and liver were reduced. In adult hamsters, CLA feeding decreased food intake and adipose tissue weights. No changes were observed in other parameters. The present study demonstrates that age has an influence in hamster responsiveness to t-10, c-12 CLA because, although when this isomer is added to an atherogenic diet it reduces body fat accumulation in both young and adults hamsters, the lessening of the effects on serum lipids brought about by atherogenic feeding is only observed in young animals. Moreover, it is clear that liver is a target for CLA in young but not in adult hamsters.

  9. Chenodeoxycholic acid reduces intestinal permeability in newly weaned piglets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer, van der Y.; Gerrits, W.J.J.; Bosch, van den M.; Holst, J.J.; Moreto, M.; Buurman, W.A.; Kulik, W.; Kempen, van T.A.T.G.

    2012-01-01

    Piglets are highly susceptible to gut health-related problems. Intravenously administered chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) affects gut health mediated through glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2). To test whether CDCA is a suitable feed additive for improving gut health, a trial was performed with newly wean

  10. CHARACTERISTICS OF WIND DEFLECTOR FOR REDUCING AERODYNAMIC DRAG OF VAN-BODY TRUCK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Du Guang-sheng; Lei Li; Zhou Lian-di

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, the differences in the characteristics of airflow around the van-body truck and of the aerodynamic drag, which were caused by the installation of a wind deflector, were studied by experimentally and numerically. The results show that after the installation of the deflector, the airflow around the top and bottom of the truck becoms smooth, the intensity of tail-vortex is weakened and its contribution area lessened. It also indicates that the aerodynamic characteristics of the airflow are changed distinctly and the aerodynamic drag is reduced considerably. The effect of the thin-wall deflector is better than the solid one in decreasing the drag. It is also concluded that proper design of the gap between the deflector bottom and the top of the driver cab can enhance the effect of the deflector in reducing drag.

  11. Palmitoleic acid reduces intramuscular lipid and restores insulin sensitivity in obese sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duckett SK

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Susan K Duckett, Gabriela Volpi-Lagreca, Mariano Alende, Nathan M LongAnimal and Veterinary Sciences Department, Clemson University, Clemson, SC, USAAbstract: Obese sheep were used to assess the effects of palmitoleic (C16:1 cis-9 acid infusion on lipogenesis and circulating insulin levels. Infusion of 10 mg/kg body weight (BW/day C16:1 intravenously in obese sheep reduced (P<0.01 weight gain by 77%. Serum palmitoleic levels increased (P<0.05 in a linear manner with increasing levels of C16:1 infusion. Cis-11 vaccenic (C18:1 cis-11 acid, a known elongation product of palmitoleic acid, was also elevated (P<0.05 in serum after 14 days and 21 days of infusion. Plasma insulin levels were lower (P<0.05 (10 mg/kg BW/day C16:1 than controls (0 mg/kg BW/day C16:1 at 14 days and 28 days of infusion. Infusion of C16:1 resulted in linear increases in tissue concentrations of palmitoleic, cis-11 vaccenic, eicosapentaenoic, and docosapentaenoic acids in a dose-dependent manner. Total lipid content of the semitendinosus (ST muscle and mesenteric adipose tissue was reduced (P<0.01 in both 5 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg BW C16:1 dose levels. Total lipid content and mean adipocyte size in the longissimus muscle was reduced (P<0.05 in the 10 mg/kg BW C16:1 dose level only, whereas total lipid content and adipocyte size of the subcutaneous adipose tissue was not altered. Total lipid content of the liver was also unchanged with C16:1 infusion. Palmitoleic acid infusion upregulated (P<0.05 acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC, fatty acid elongase-6 (ELOVL6, and Protein kinase, AMP-activated, alpha 1 catalytic subunit, transcript variant 1 (AMPK mRNA expressions in liver, subcutaneous adipose, and ST muscle compared to the controls. However, mRNA expression of glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4 and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1b (CPT1B differed between tissues. In the subcutaneous adipose and liver, C16:1 infusion upregulated (P<0.05 GLUT4 and CPT1B, whereas these genes were

  12. A visible light imaging device for cardiac rate detection with reduced effect of body movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiaotian; Liu, Ming; Zhao, Yuejin

    2014-09-01

    A visible light imaging system to detect human cardiac rate is proposed in this paper. A color camera and several LEDs, acting as lighting source, were used to avoid the interference of ambient light. From people's forehead, the cardiac rate could be acquired based on photoplethysmography (PPG) theory. The template matching method was used after the capture of video. The video signal was discomposed into three signal channels (RGB) and the region of interest was chosen to take the average gray value. The green channel signal could provide an excellent waveform of pulse wave on the account of green lights' absorptive characteristics of blood. Through the fast Fourier transform, the cardiac rate was exactly achieved. But the research goal was not just to achieve the cardiac rate accurately. With the template matching method, the effects of body movement are reduced to a large extent, therefore the pulse wave can be detected even while people are in the moving state and the waveform is largely optimized. Several experiments are conducted on volunteers, and the results are compared with the ones gained by a finger clamped pulse oximeter. The contrast results between these two ways are exactly agreeable. This method to detect the cardiac rate and the pulse wave largely reduces the effects of body movement and can probably be widely used in the future.

  13. Beta-carotene reduces body adiposity of mice via BCMO1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaume Amengual

    Full Text Available Evidence from cell culture studies indicates that β-carotene-(BC-derived apocarotenoid signaling molecules can modulate the activities of nuclear receptors that regulate many aspects of adipocyte physiology. Two BC metabolizing enzymes, the BC-15,15'-oxygenase (Bcmo1 and the BC-9',10'-oxygenase (Bcdo2 are expressed in adipocytes. Bcmo1 catalyzes the conversion of BC into retinaldehyde and Bcdo2 into β-10'-apocarotenal and β-ionone. Here we analyzed the impact of BC on body adiposity of mice. To genetically dissect the roles of Bcmo1 and Bcdo2 in this process, we used wild-type and Bcmo1(-/- mice for this study. In wild-type mice, BC was converted into retinoids. In contrast, Bcmo1(-/- mice showed increased expression of Bcdo2 in adipocytes and β-10'-apocarotenol accumulated as the major BC derivative. In wild-type mice, BC significantly reduced body adiposity (by 28%, leptinemia and adipocyte size. Genome wide microarray analysis of inguinal white adipose tissue revealed a generalized decrease of mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ target genes. Consistently, the expression of this key transcription factor for lipogenesis was significantly reduced both on the mRNA and protein levels. Despite β-10'-apocarotenoid production, this effect of BC was absent in Bcmo1(-/- mice, demonstrating that it was dependent on the Bcmo1-mediated production of retinoids. Our study evidences an important role of BC for the control of body adiposity in mice and identifies Bcmo1 as critical molecular player for the regulation of PPARγ activity in adipocytes.

  14. Supporting the upper body with the hand on the thigh reduces back loading during lifting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingma, Idsart; Faber, Gert S; van Dieën, Jaap H

    2016-04-11

    When picking objects from the floor, low back pain patients often tend to support the upper body by leaning with one hand on a thigh. While this strategy may reduce back load, this has not yet been assessed, probably due to the difficulty of measuring the forces between hand and thigh. Ten healthy male subjects lifted a pencil and a crate from the floor, with four lifting techniques (free, squat, stoop and a Weight Lifters Technique (WLT)), each of which was performed with and without supporting with one hand on the thigh. A six Degrees of Freedom force transducer, with a comfortable surface to support the hand on, was mounted just above the subject׳s left knee. Hand forces, ground reaction forces, full body kinematics, and trunk EMG were measured. Using inverse dynamics and taking the forces between hand and thigh into account, we calculated 3D L5S1 joint moments, and subsequently estimated spine forces using an EMG-assisted trunk model. For lifting a pencil, hand support reduced average peak total moments by 17-25%, dependent on lifting technique. For crate lifting, hand support reduced total moments by 13-19% compared with one-handed lifting and by 14-26% compared to two-handed lifting. Hand support slightly increased asymmetric motions and caused a substantial increase in asymmetric moments in crate lifting. For compression forces, reductions (up to 28%) were seen in all techniques except in stoop lifts. It is concluded that leaning with a hand on the thigh can lead to substantial reductions of low back loading during lifting.

  15. Feeding reduced crude protein diets with crystalline amino acids supplementation reduce air gas emissions from housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Q-F; Trottier, N; Powers, W

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that reducing dietary CP by 1.5% and supplementing crystalline AA (CAA) to meet the standardized ileal digestible (SID) AA requirements for growing and finishing pigs decreases air emissions of ammonia (NH), nitrous oxide (NO), and carbon dioxide (CO) compared with an industry standard diet, without reducing growth performance. Seventy-two pigs were allocated to 12 rooms (6 pigs per room) and 2 diets (6 rooms per diet) formulated according to a 5-phase feeding program across the grow-finish period (107 d total). The diets consisted of a standard diet containing 18.5 to 12.2% CP or a reduced CP diet containing 17.5 to 11.0% CP + CAA over the course of the 5-phase feeding program. Gases (NH, NO, hydrogen sulfide, methane, nonmethane total hydrocarbon, and CO) and ventilation rates were measured continuously from the rooms. Compared with standard diet, ADG and feed conversion of pigs fed reduced CP + CAA diets did not differ (2.7 kg gain/d and 0.37 kg gain/kg feed, respectively). Compared with standard diet, feeding reduced CP + CAA diets decreased ( Feeding reduced CP diets formulated based on SID AA requirements for grow-finisher swine is effective in reducing NH emissions from housing compared with recent industry formulations and does not impact growth performances.

  16. Can essential fatty acids reduce the burden of disease(s?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das Undurti N

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Coronary heart disease, stroke, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, cancer, depression schizophrenia, Alzheimer's disease, and collagen vascular diseases are low-grade systemic inflammatory conditions that are a severe burden on health care resources. Essential fatty acids (EFAs and their metabolites: eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, gamma-linolenic acid (GLA, dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (DGLA, and arachidonic acid (AA and their products: prostaglandin E1, prostacyclin, lipoxins, resolvins, and protectins suppress inflammation, augment healing, and are of benefit in the prevention and management of these conditions. Hence, supplementation of EFAs could reduce burden of these disease(s.

  17. Reduced body mass index in Parkinson's disease: contribution of comorbid depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilhatsch, Maximilian; Kroemer, Nils B; Schneider, Christine; Ebersbach, Georg; Jost, Wolfgang H; Fuchs, Gerd; Odin, Per; Reifschneider, Gerd; Bauer, Michael; Reichmann, Heinz; Storch, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Courses of Parkinson's disease (PD) that are complicated by weight loss result in poorer overall treatment outcome and lower quality of life. To determine the contribution of depression, which has not yet been specified in the etiology of weight loss in PD, symptomatology and anamnesis from 215 outpatients diagnosed with PD were assessed using a comprehensive battery of neuropsychiatric scales. A percentage of 31 comorbid depressed patients and a comparison with a control population allowed an accurate characterization of effect sizes, sex differences, and patterns of the contribution of comorbid depression to weight loss. Our study showed that comorbid depression had a clinically relevant effect concerning reduced body mass index in male (0.3; Hedges' g) but not in female PD patients. Although some possible confounders are not controlled here, our results support the need of monitoring depressive symptoms in the courses of PD, particularly in male patients.

  18. Improved glucose control and reduced body weight in rodents with dual mechanism of action peptide hybrids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James L Trevaskis

    Full Text Available Combination therapy is being increasingly used as a treatment paradigm for metabolic diseases such as diabetes and obesity. In the peptide therapeutics realm, recent work has highlighted the therapeutic potential of chimeric peptides that act on two distinct receptors, thereby harnessing parallel complementary mechanisms to induce additive or synergistic benefit compared to monotherapy. Here, we extend this hypothesis by linking a known anti-diabetic peptide with an anti-obesity peptide into a novel peptide hybrid, which we termed a phybrid. We report on the synthesis and biological activity of two such phybrids (AC164204 and AC164209, comprised of a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP1-R agonist, and exenatide analog, AC3082, covalently linked to a second generation amylin analog, davalintide. Both molecules acted as full agonists at their cognate receptors in vitro, albeit with reduced potency at the calcitonin receptor indicating slightly perturbed amylin agonism. In obese diabetic Lep(ob/Lep (ob mice sustained infusion of AC164204 and AC164209 reduced glucose and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c equivalently but induced greater weight loss relative to exenatide administration alone. Weight loss was similar to that induced by combined administration of exenatide and davalintide. In diet-induced obese rats, both phybrids dose-dependently reduced food intake and body weight to a greater extent than exenatide or davalintide alone, and equal to co-infusion of exenatide and davalintide. Phybrid-mediated and exenatide + davalintide-mediated weight loss was associated with reduced adiposity and preservation of lean mass. These data are the first to provide in vivo proof-of-concept for multi-pathway targeting in metabolic disease via a peptide hybrid, demonstrating that this approach is as effective as co-administration of individual peptides.

  19. Adipose tissue trans fatty acids and changes in body weight and waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, C.P.; Berentzen, T.L.; Østergaard, J.N.

    Previous studies have suggested that intake of trans fatty acids (TFA) may play a role in the development of obesity. For fatty acids not synthesized endogenously in humans, such as TFA, the proportions in adipose tissue tend to correlate well with the habitual dietary intake. Biomarkers may prov...... provide a more accurate measure of habitual TFA intake than dietary questionnaires. Our objective was to investigate the associations between specific TFA in adipose tissue and subsequent changes in body weight and waist circumference (WC)....

  20. Fatty Acid Synthase Polymorphisms, Tumor Expression, Body Mass Index, Prostate Cancer Risk, and Survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Paul L.; Ma, Jing; Chavarro, Jorge E.; Freedman, Matthew L.; Lis, Rosina; Fedele, Giuseppe; Fiore, Christopher; Qiu, Weiliang; Fiorentino, Michelangelo; Finn, Stephen; Penney, Kathryn L.; Eisenstein, Anna; Schumacher, Fredrick R.; Mucci, Lorelei A.; Stampfer, Meir J.; Giovannucci, Edward; Loda, Massimo

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Fatty acid synthase (FASN) regulates de novo lipogenesis, body weight, and tumor growth. We examined whether common germline single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the FASN gene affect prostate cancer (PCa) risk or PCa-specific mortality and whether these effects vary by body mass index (BMI). Methods In a prospective nested case-control study of 1,331 white patients with PCa and 1,267 age-matched controls, we examined associations of five common SNPs within FASN (and 5 kb upstream/downstream, R2 > 0.8) with PCa incidence and, among patients, PCa-specific death and tested for an interaction with BMI. Survival analyses were repeated for tumor FASN expression (n = 909). Results Four of the five SNPs were associated with lethal PCa. SNP rs1127678 was significantly related to higher BMI and interacted with BMI for both PCa risk (Pinteraction = .004) and PCa mortality (Pinteraction = .056). Among overweight men (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2), but not leaner men, the homozygous variant allele carried a relative risk of advanced PCa of 2.49 (95% CI, 1.00 to 6.23) compared with lean men with the wild type. Overweight patients carrying the variant allele had a 2.04 (95% CI, 1.31 to 3.17) times higher risk of PCa mortality. Similarly, overweight patients with elevated tumor FASN expression had a 2.73 (95% CI, 1.05 to 7.08) times higher risk of lethal PCa (Pinteraction = .02). Conclusion FASN germline polymorphisms were significantly associated with risk of lethal PCa. Significant interactions of BMI with FASN polymorphisms and FASN tumor expression suggest FASN as a potential link between obesity and poor PCa outcome and raise the possibility that FASN inhibition could reduce PCa-specific mortality, particularly in overweight men. PMID:20679621

  1. A combined supplementation of omega-3 fatty acids and micronutrients (folic acid, vitamin B12 reduces oxidative stress markers in a rat model of pregnancy induced hypertension.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisha G Kemse

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Our earlier studies have highlighted that an altered one carbon metabolism (vitamin B12, folic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid is associated with preeclampsia. Preeclampsia is also known to be associated with oxidative stress and inflammation. The current study examines whether maternal folic acid, vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acid supplementation given either individually or in combination can ameliorate the oxidative stress markers in a rat model of pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Pregnant Wistar rats were assigned to control and five treatment groups: PIH; PIH + vitamin B12; PIH + folic acid; PIH + Omega-3 fatty acids and PIH + combined micronutrient supplementation (vitamin B12 + folic acid + omega-3 fatty acids. L-Nitroarginine methylester (L-NAME; 50 mg/kg body weight/day was used to induce hypertension during pregnancy. Blood Pressure (BP was recorded during pregnancy and dams were dissected at d20 of gestation. RESULTS: Animals from the PIH group demonstrated higher (p<0.01 for both systolic and diastolic BP; lower (p<0.01 pup weight; higher dam plasma homocysteine (p<0.05 and dam and offspring malondialdehyde (MDA (p<0.01, lower (p<0.05 placental and offspring liver DHA and higher (p<0.01 tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-ά levels as compared to control. Individual micronutrient supplementation did not offer much benefit. In contrast, combined supplementation lowered systolic BP, homocysteine, MDA and placental TNF-ά levels in dams and liver MDA and protein carbonyl in the offspring as compared to PIH group. CONCLUSION: Key constituents of one carbon cycle (folic acid, vitamin B12 and DHA may play a role in reducing oxidative stress and inflammation in preeclampsia.

  2. Intake of ruminant trans fatty acids and changes in body weight and waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, C P; Berentzen, T L; Halkjær, Jytte

    2012-01-01

    Follow-up studies have suggested that total intake of trans fatty acids (TFA) is a risk factor for gain in body weight and waist circumference (WC). However, in a cross-sectional study individual TFA isomers in adipose tissue had divergent associations with anthropometry. Our objective...

  3. Perinatal changes in myocardial supply and flux of fatty acids, carbohydrates, and ketone bodies in lambs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartelds, B; Gratama, JWC; Knoester, H; Takens, J; Smid, GB; Aarnoudse, JG; Heymans, HSA; Kuipers, JRG

    1998-01-01

    No information is available on perinatal changes in myocardial metabolism in vivo. We measured myocardial supply and flux of fatty acids, carbohydrates, and ketone bodies in chronically instrumented fetal, newborn (1-4 days), and juvenile (7 wk) lambs, by measuring aorta-coronary sinus concentration

  4. Plasma Phospholipid Long-Chain n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Body Weight Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Marianne U; Dethlefsen, Claus; Due, Karen M

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the association between the proportion of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in plasma phospholipids from blood samples drawn at enrollment and subsequent change in body weight. Sex, age, and BMI were considered as potential effect modifiers....

  5. A specific acid [alpha]-glucosidase in lamellar bodies of the human lung

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, A.C.J. de; Schram, A.W.; Tager, J.M.; Batenburg, J.J.

    2006-01-01

    In the present investigation, we have demonstrated that three lysosomal-type hydrolases, alpha-glucosidase, alpha-mannosidase and a phosphatase, are present in lamellar bodies isolated from adult human lung. The hydrolase activities that were studied, all showed an acidic pH optimum, which is charac

  6. Absorption spectral analysis of proteins and free amino acids in Pleurotus ostreatus fruiting body extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostyshyn, S.; Gorshynska, I.; Guminetsky, S. G.

    2002-02-01

    The paper deals with the results of spectrophotometric studies of the extracts of Pleurotus ostreatus fruiting bodies, grown in natural conditions in different habitats of Chernivtsy region, in the spectral interval of 215 - 340 nm. It is shown that the samples reveal considerable difference both in free amino acid content and reserved protein content of albumins, globulins, prolamins, glutelins.

  7. Consumption of pork-liver protein hydrolysate reduces body fat in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rats by suppressing hepatic lipogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Muneshige; Tanabe, Soichi; Morimatsu, Fumiki; Nagao, Koji; Yanagita, Teruyoshi; Kato, Norihisa; Nishimura, Toshihide

    2006-01-01

    This study was performed to examine the effect of consumption of pork-liver protein hydrolysate (PLH) on body fat accumulation in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats as a non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus model and in Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO) rats as a control. Male 20-week-old OLETF and LETO rats were pair-fed either PLH or casein containing diet for 14 weeks. In the OLETF rats, dietary PLH significantly reduced the growth and weight of fat pad including perirenal and epididymal adipose tissues. Consumption of PLH markedly suppressed hepatic activities of lipogenesis enzymes such as glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and fatty acid synthase and slightly elevated fecal excretion of total fat. In the LETO rats, growth and adipose tissue weight were unaffected by dietary treatment. The results suggest that PLH is a novel ingredient suppressing body fat in genetically obese rats by reducing lipogenesis.

  8. Green tea polyphenols reduce body weight in rats by modulating obesity-related genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanwen Lu

    Full Text Available Beneficial effects of green tea polyphenols (GTP against obesity have been reported, however, the mechanism of this protection is not clear. Therefore, the objective of this study was to identify GTP-targeted genes in obesity using the high-fat-diet-induced obese rat model. A total of three groups (n = 12/group of Sprague Dawley (SD female rats were tested, including the control group (rats fed with low-fat diet, the HF group (rats fed with high-fat diet, and the HF+GTP group (rats fed with high-fat diet and GTP in drinking water. The HF group increased body weight as compared to the control group. Supplementation of GTP in the drinking water in the HF+GTP group reduced body weight as compared to the HF group. RNA from liver samples was extracted for gene expression analysis. A total of eighty-four genes related to obesity were analyzed using PCR array. Compared to the rats in the control group, the rats in the HF group had the expression levels of 12 genes with significant changes, including 3 orexigenic genes (Agrp, Ghrl, and Nr3c1; 7 anorectic genes (Apoa4, Cntf, Ghr, IL-1β, Ins1, Lepr, and Sort; and 2 genes that relate to energy expenditure (Adcyap1r1 and Adrb1. Intriguingly, the HF+GTP group restored the expression levels of these genes in the high-fat-induced obese rats. The protein expression levels of IL-1β and IL-6 in the serum samples from the control, HF, and HF+GTP groups confirmed the results of gene expression. Furthermore, the protein expression levels of superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1 and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT also showed GTP-regulated protective changes in this obese rat model. Collectively, this study revealed the beneficial effects of GTP on body weight via regulating obesity-related genes, anti-inflammation, anti-oxidant capacity, and estrogen-related actions in high-fat-induced obese rats.

  9. Green Tea Polyphenols Reduce Body Weight in Rats by Modulating Obesity-Related Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chuanwen; Zhu, Wenbin; Shen, Chwan-Li; Gao, Weimin

    2012-01-01

    Beneficial effects of green tea polyphenols (GTP) against obesity have been reported, however, the mechanism of this protection is not clear. Therefore, the objective of this study was to identify GTP-targeted genes in obesity using the high-fat-diet-induced obese rat model. A total of three groups (n = 12/group) of Sprague Dawley (SD) female rats were tested, including the control group (rats fed with low-fat diet), the HF group (rats fed with high-fat diet), and the HF+GTP group (rats fed with high-fat diet and GTP in drinking water). The HF group increased body weight as compared to the control group. Supplementation of GTP in the drinking water in the HF+GTP group reduced body weight as compared to the HF group. RNA from liver samples was extracted for gene expression analysis. A total of eighty-four genes related to obesity were analyzed using PCR array. Compared to the rats in the control group, the rats in the HF group had the expression levels of 12 genes with significant changes, including 3 orexigenic genes (Agrp, Ghrl, and Nr3c1); 7 anorectic genes (Apoa4, Cntf, Ghr, IL-1β, Ins1, Lepr, and Sort); and 2 genes that relate to energy expenditure (Adcyap1r1 and Adrb1). Intriguingly, the HF+GTP group restored the expression levels of these genes in the high-fat-induced obese rats. The protein expression levels of IL-1β and IL-6 in the serum samples from the control, HF, and HF+GTP groups confirmed the results of gene expression. Furthermore, the protein expression levels of superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1) and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) also showed GTP-regulated protective changes in this obese rat model. Collectively, this study revealed the beneficial effects of GTP on body weight via regulating obesity-related genes, anti-inflammation, anti-oxidant capacity, and estrogen-related actions in high-fat-induced obese rats. PMID:22715380

  10. Time-dependent quantum many-body systems. Linear response, electronic transport, and reduced density matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appel, H.

    2007-05-15

    In part I of this work we present a double-pole approximation (DPA) to the response equations of time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT). The double-pole approximation provides an exact description of systems with two strongly coupled excitations which are isolated from the rest of the spectrum. In contrast to the traditional single-pole approximation of TDDFT the DPA also yields corrections to the Kohn-Sham oscillator strengths. We also demonstrate how to invert the double-pole solution which allows us to predict matrix elements of the exchange-correlation kernel f{sub xc} from experimental input. We attempt some first steps towards a time-dependent generalization of reduced density matrix functional theory (RDMFT). In part II we derive equations of motion for natural orbitals and occupation numbers. Using the equation of motion for the occupation numbers we show that an adiabatic extension of presently known ground-state functionals of static RDMFT always leads to occupation numbers which are constant in time. From the stationary conditions of the equations of motion for the N-body correlations (correlated parts of the N-body matrices) we derive a new class of ground-state functionals which can be used in static RDMFT. Applications are presented for a one-dimensional model system where the time-dependent many-body Schroedinger equation can be propagated numerically. We use optimal control theory to find optimized laser pulses for transitions in a model for atomic Helium. From the numerically exact correlated wavefunction we extract the exact time evolution of natural orbitals and occupation numbers for (i) laser-driven Helium and (ii) electron-ion scattering. Part III of this work considers time-dependent quantum transport within TDDFT. We present an algorithm for the calculation of extended eigenstates of single-particle Hamiltonians which is especially tailored to a finite-difference discretization of the Schroedinger equation. We consider the

  11. Stoichiometry of Reducing Equivalents and Splitting of Water in the Citric Acid Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madeira, Vitor M. C.

    1988-01-01

    Presents a solution to the problem of finding the source of extra reducing equivalents, and accomplishing the stoichiometry of glucose oxidation reactions. Discusses the citric acid cycle and glycolysis. (CW)

  12. High glucose levels reduce fatty acid oxidation and increase triglyceride accumulation in human placenta

    OpenAIRE

    Visiedo, Francisco; Bugatto, Fernando; Sánchez, Viviana; Cózar-Castellano, Irene; Bartha, Jose L.; Perdomo, Germán

    2013-01-01

    Placentas of women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) exhibit an altered lipid metabolism. The mechanism by which GDM is linked to alterations in placental lipid metabolism remains obscure. We hypothesized that high glucose levels reduce mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation (FAO) and increase triglyceride accumulation in human placenta. To test this hypothesis, we measured FAO, fatty acid esterification, de novo fatty acid synthesis, triglyceride levels, and carnitine palmitoyltransferase...

  13. Coilin phosphomutants disrupt Cajal body formation, reduce cell proliferation and produce a distinct coilin degradation product.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zunamys I Carrero

    Full Text Available Coilin is a nuclear phosphoprotein that accumulates in Cajal bodies (CBs. CBs participate in ribonucleoprotein and telomerase biogenesis, and are often found in cells with high transcriptional demands such as neuronal and cancer cells, but can also be observed less frequently in other cell types such as fibroblasts. Many proteins enriched within the CB are phosphorylated, but it is not clear what role this modification has on the activity of these proteins in the CB. Coilin is considered to be the CB marker protein and is essential for proper CB formation and composition in mammalian cells. In order to characterize the role of coilin phosphorylation on CB formation, we evaluated various coilin phosphomutants using transient expression. Additionally, we generated inducible coilin phosphomutant cell lines that, when used in combination with endogenous coilin knockdown, allow for the expression of the phosphomutants at physiological levels. Transient expression of all coilin phosphomutants except the phosphonull mutant (OFF significantly reduces proliferation. Interestingly, a stable cell line induced to express the coilin S489D phosphomutant displays nucleolar accumulation of the mutant and generates a N-terminal degradation product; neither of which is observed upon transient expression. A N-terminal degradation product and nucleolar localization are also observed in a stable cell line induced to express a coilin phosphonull mutant (OFF. The nucleolar localization of the S489D and OFF coilin mutants observed in the stable cell lines is decreased when endogenous coilin is reduced. Furthermore, all the phosphomutant cells lines show a significant reduction in CB formation when compared to wild-type after endogenous coilin knockdown. Cell proliferation studies on these lines reveal that only wild-type coilin and the OFF mutant are sufficient to rescue the reduction in proliferation associated with endogenous coilin depletion. These results emphasize

  14. New alleles of FATB-1A to reduce palmitic acid levels in soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    In wild-type soybeans, palmitic acid typically constitutes 10% of the total seed oil. Palmitic acid is a saturated fat linked to increased cholesterol levels, and reducing levels of saturated fats in soybean oil has been a breeding target. To identify novel and useful variation that could help in re...

  15. Reduced-density-matrix spectrum and block entropy of permutationally invariant many-body systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, Mario; Popkov, Vladislav

    2010-07-01

    Spectral properties of the reduced density matrix (RDM) of permutational invariant quantum many-body systems are investigated. The RDM block diagonalization which accounts for all symmetries of the Hamiltonian is achieved. The analytical expression of the RDM spectrum is provided for arbitrary parameters and rigorously proved in the thermodynamical limit. The existence of several sum rules and recurrence relations among RDM eigenvalues is also demonstrated and the distribution function of RDM eigenvalues (including degeneracies) characterized. In particular, we prove that the distribution function approaches a two-dimensional Gaussian in the limit of large subsystem sizes n>1. As a physical application we discuss the von Neumann entropy (VNE) of a block of size n for a system of hard-core bosons on a complete graph, as a function of n and of the temperature T. The occurrence of a crossover of VNE from purely logarithmic behavior at T=0 to a purely linear behavior in n for T≥Tc, is demonstrated.

  16. Oral branched-chain amino acids decrease whole-body proteolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrando, A. A.; Williams, B. D.; Stuart, C. A.; Lane, H. W.; Wolfe, R. R.

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study reports the effects of ingesting branched-chain amino acids (leucine, valine, and isoleucine) on protein metabolism in four men. METHODS: To calculate leg protein synthesis and breakdown, we used a new model that utilized the infusion of L-[ring-13C6]phenylalanine and the sampling of the leg arterial-venous difference and muscle biopsies. In addition, protein-bound enrichments provided for the direct calculation of muscle fractional synthetic rate. Four control subjects ingested an equivalent amount of essential amino acids (threonine, methionine, and histidine) to discern the effects of branched-chain amino acid nitrogen vs the effects of essential amino acid nitrogen. Each drink also included 50 g of carbohydrate. RESULTS: Consumption of the branched-chain and the essential amino acid solutions produced significant threefold and fourfold elevations in their respective arterial concentrations. Protein synthesis and breakdown were unaffected by branched-chain amino acids, but they increased by 43% (p < .05) and 36% (p < .03), respectively, in the group consuming the essential amino acids. However, net leg balance of phenylalanine was unchanged by either drink. Direct measurement of protein synthesis by tracer incorporation into muscle protein (fractional synthetic rate) revealed no changes within or between drinks. Whole-body phenylalanine flux was significantly suppressed by each solution but to a greater extent by the branched-chain amino acids (15% and 20%, respectively) (p < .001). CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that branched-chain amino acid ingestion suppresses whole-body proteolysis in tissues other than skeletal muscle in normal men.

  17. Longitudinal study of the protective effect of hope on reducing body image distress in cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianlin; Griva, Konstadina; Lim, Haikel A; Tan, Joyce Y S; Mahendran, Rathi

    2017-01-01

    Body image distress is well-documented in patients with cancer, but little is known about the course of body image distress over time and the role of psychosocial resources such as hope. This prospective study sought to explore the dynamics between trajectories of body image distress and hope across time. Cancer patients receiving outpatient treatment at a cancer center completed self-reported measures of body image distress (Body Image Scale) and hope (Adult Hope Scale) at baseline (within three months of their cancer diagnosis) and follow-up (six months post-baseline; N = 111). Trajectories of intra-individual change (improved, stable, and declined) for body image distress were calculated based on the minimal clinically important difference (±0.5 baseline SD). There was a significant increase in body image distress at follow-up (p image distress trajectory groups and time on hope, suggesting that patients experiencing improvements in body image distress reported higher levels of hope than those who had stable or deteriorating levels of body image distress F(2,108) = 3.25, p image distress across time in a sample of cancer patients, although the mechanisms of interaction require further examination. Supportive care could lend greater focus to improving patients' hope to alleviating body image distress.

  18. GLUTAMIC ACID IMPROVES BODY WEIGHT GAIN AND INTESTINAL MORPHOLOGY OF BROILER CHICKENS SUBMITTED TO HEAT STRESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ML Porto

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of 1% dietary glutamic acid on the body weight, intestinal morphometry, and anti-Newcastle antibody titers of broiler chickens submitted to heat stress. One-d-old male broiler chicks (n=120 were distributed according to a 2 x 2 factorial design with two environmental temperatures (thermoneutral or heat stress and two diets (with 0 or 1% glutamic acid. Heat stress temperature was constantly maintained (24h/day 5 ºC higher than the thermoneutral temperature. Diets supplied the nutritional requirements of broilers in the pre-starter (1 to 7d and starter (8 to 21d phases. Birds were vaccinated against Newcastle disease on d 7 via eye drop. On days 5, 10, 15, and 20, individual body weight was determined, serum samples were collected from five birds, and duodenum samples were collected from four birds per treatment. Serum anti-Newcastle antibody titers were determined by enzyme immunoassay and transformed into log10. Villus height, crypt depth, and villus: crypt ratio were measured in the duodenum. Data were analyzed by ANOVA. Chronic heat stress negatively affected body weight and intestinal morphometry during the pre-starter and starter phases, but had no effect on antibody titers. Dietary glutamic acid supplementation (1% improved body weight and intestinal integrity of birds submitted to heat stress when compared with non-supplemented and heat-stressed birds.

  19. Nature's Starships II: Simulating the Synthesis of Amino Acids in Meteorite Parent Bodies

    CERN Document Server

    Cobb, Alyssa K; Pearce, Ben K D

    2015-01-01

    Carbonaceous chondrite meteorites are known for having high water and organic material contents, including amino acids. Here we address the origin of amino acids in the warm interiors of their parent bodies (planetesimals) within a few million years of their formation, and connect this with the astrochemistry of their natal protostellar disks. We compute both the total amino acid abundance pattern as well as the relative frequencies of amino acids within the CM2 (e.g. Murchison) and CR2 chondrite subclasses based on Strecker reactions within these bodies. We match the relative frequencies to well within an order of magnitude among both CM2 and CR2 meteorites for parent body temperatures $<$ 200$^{\\circ}$C. These temperatures agree with 3D models of young planetesimal interiors. We find theoretical abundances of approximately 7x10$^5$ parts-per-billion (ppb), which is in agreement with the average observed abundance in CR2 meteorites of 4$\\pm$7x10$^5$, but an order of magnitude higher than the average obser...

  20. Leaching of Carbothermic Reduced Titanium-bearing Blast Furnace Slag by Acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHEN; Yulan; ZHANG; Guohua; CHOU; Kuochih

    2016-01-01

    The kinetics of the leaching of carbothermic reduced titanium-bearing blast furnace slag in Panzhihua Iron and Steel Company with acid system under atmosphere pressure was studied. The results show that the temperature and concentration have significant influence on leaching of carbothermic reduced titanium-bearing blast furnace slag by acid. The experimental data of leaching indicate that the shrinking core model with chemical reaction controlled process is most applicable for the acid leaching. The apparent activation energy can be estimated to be from 23 to 32 k J/mol. Furthermore, the main products are TiC and SiO2 after leaching.

  1. Leaching of Carbothermic Reduced Titanium-bearing Blast Furnace Slag by Acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHEN Yulan; ZHANG Guohua; CHOU Kuochih

    2016-01-01

    The kinetics of the leaching of carbothermic reduced titanium-bearing blast furnace slag in Panzhihua Iron and Steel Company with acid system under atmosphere pressure was studied. The results show that the temperature and concentration have significant influence on leaching of carbothermic reduced titanium-bearing blast furnace slag by ac-id. The experimental data of leaching indicate that the shrinking core model with chemical reaction controlled process is most applicable for the acid leaching. The apparent activation energy can be estimated to be from 23 to 32 kJ/mol. Fur-thermore, the main products are TiC and SiO2 after leaching.

  2. Medium-chain fatty acids inhibit mitochondrial metabolism in astrocytes promoting astrocyte-neuron lactate and ketone body shuttle systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thevenet, Jonathan; De Marchi, Umberto; Domingo, Jaime Santo; Christinat, Nicolas; Bultot, Laurent; Lefebvre, Gregory; Sakamoto, Kei; Descombes, Patrick; Masoodi, Mojgan; Wiederkehr, Andreas

    2016-05-01

    Medium-chain triglycerides have been used as part of a ketogenic diet effective in reducing epileptic episodes. The health benefits of the derived medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs) are thought to result from the stimulation of liver ketogenesis providing fuel for the brain. We tested whether MCFAs have direct effects on energy metabolism in induced pluripotent stem cell-derived human astrocytes and neurons. Using single-cell imaging, we observed an acute pronounced reduction of the mitochondrial electrical potential and a concomitant drop of the NAD(P)H signal in astrocytes, but not in neurons. Despite the observed effects on mitochondrial function, MCFAs did not lower intracellular ATP levels or activate the energy sensor AMP-activated protein kinase. ATP concentrations in astrocytes were unaltered, even when blocking the respiratory chain, suggesting compensation through accelerated glycolysis. The MCFA decanoic acid (300 μM) promoted glycolysis and augmented lactate formation by 49.6%. The shorter fatty acid octanoic acid (300 μM) did not affect glycolysis but increased the rates of astrocyte ketogenesis 2.17-fold compared with that of control cells. MCFAs may have brain health benefits through the modulation of astrocyte metabolism leading to activation of shuttle systems that provide fuel to neighboring neurons in the form of lactate and ketone bodies.-Thevenet, J., De Marchi, U., Santo Domingo, J., Christinat, N., Bultot, L., Lefebvre, G., Sakamoto, K., Descombes, P., Masoodi, M., Wiederkehr, A. Medium-chain fatty acids inhibit mitochondrial metabolism in astrocytes promoting astrocyte-neuron lactate and ketone body shuttle systems.

  3. Integrated assessment of acid deposition impacts using reduced-form modeling. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinha, R.; Small, M.J.

    1996-05-01

    Emissions of sulfates and other acidic pollutants from anthropogenic sources result in the deposition of these acidic pollutants on the earth`s surface, downwind of the source. These pollutants reach surface waters, including streams and lakes, and acidify them, resulting in a change in the chemical composition of the surface water. Sometimes the water chemistry is sufficiently altered so that the lake can no longer support aquatic life. This document traces the efforts by many researchers to understand and quantify the effect of acid deposition on the water chemistry of populations of lakes, in particular the improvements to the MAGIC (Model of Acidification of Groundwater in Catchments) modeling effort, and describes its reduced-form representation in a decision and uncertainty analysis tool. Previous reduced-form approximations to the MAGIC model are discussed in detail, and their drawbacks are highlighted. An improved reduced-form model for acid neutralizing capacity is presented, which incorporates long-term depletion of the watershed acid neutralization fraction. In addition, improved fish biota models are incorporated in the integrated assessment model, which includes reduced-form models for other physical and chemical processes of acid deposition, as well as the resulting socio-economic and health related effects. The new reduced-form lake chemistry and fish biota models are applied to the Adirondacks region of New York.

  4. Reducing ulcerogenic potential of biphenyl acetic acid: Design and development of chimeric derivatives with amino acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suneela Dhaneshwar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In an attempt to minimize the ulcerogenic potential and associated gastro-intestinal toxicity of bioprecursor fenbufen and its active metabolite biphenyl acetic acid, carrier-linked chimeric derivatives of the latter were designed and synthesized using amino acids as the promoities. DCC coupling method was used for the synthesis of these amides. The chimeras were characterized by IR and 1H NMR. Pharmacological investigations were carried out in animal models for analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-arthritic and ulcerogenic activities. The chimeras exhibited high gastro-sparing effect; quick onset and longer duration of analgesia; enhanced/prolonged anti-inflammatory activity and better anti-arthritic effect than fenbufen or biphenyl acetic acid. These derivatives could be useful as a chronotherapy for rheumatoid arthritis due to their prolonged analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects.

  5. Postharvest salicylic acid treatment reduces storage rots in water-stressed but no unstressed sugarbeet roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exogenous application of salicylic acid (SA) reduces storage rots in a number of postharvest crops. SA’s ability to protect sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L.) taproots from common storage rot pathogens, however, is unknown. To determine the potential of SA to reduce storage losses caused by three common...

  6. On being the right size: increased body size is associated with reduced telomere length under natural conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringsby, Thor Harald; Jensen, Henrik; Pärn, Henrik; Kvalnes, Thomas; Boner, Winnie; Gillespie, Robert; Holand, Håkon; Hagen, Ingerid Julie; Rønning, Bernt; Sæther, Bernt-Erik; Monaghan, Pat

    2015-12-07

    Evolution of body size is likely to involve trade-offs between body size, growth rate and longevity. Within species, larger body size is associated with faster growth and ageing, and reduced longevity, but the cellular processes driving these relationships are poorly understood. One mechanism that might play a key role in determining optimal body size is the relationship between body size and telomere dynamics. However, we know little about how telomere length is affected when selection for larger size is imposed in natural populations. We report here on the relationship between structural body size and telomere length in wild house sparrows at the beginning and end of a selection regime for larger parent size that was imposed for 4 years in an isolated population of house sparrows. A negative relationship between fledgling size and telomere length was present at the start of the selection; this was extended when fledgling size increased under the selection regime, demonstrating a persistent covariance between structural size and telomere length. Changes in telomere dynamics, either as a correlated trait or a consequence of larger size, could reduce potential longevity and the consequent trade-offs could thereby play an important role in the evolution of optimal body size.

  7. Hypothalamic leptin gene therapy reduces body weight without accelerating age-related bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Russell T; Dube, Michael; Branscum, Adam J; Wong, Carmen P; Olson, Dawn A; Zhong, Xiaoying; Kweh, Mercedes F; Larkin, Iske V; Wronski, Thomas J; Rosen, Clifford J; Kalra, Satya P; Iwaniec, Urszula T

    2015-12-01

    Excessive weight gain in adults is associated with a variety of negative health outcomes. Unfortunately, dieting, exercise, and pharmacological interventions have had limited long-term success in weight control and can result in detrimental side effects, including accelerating age-related cancellous bone loss. We investigated the efficacy of using hypothalamic leptin gene therapy as an alternative method for reducing weight in skeletally-mature (9 months old) female rats and determined the impact of leptin-induced weight loss on bone mass, density, and microarchitecture, and serum biomarkers of bone turnover (CTx and osteocalcin). Rats were implanted with cannulae in the 3rd ventricle of the hypothalamus and injected with either recombinant adeno-associated virus encoding the gene for rat leptin (rAAV-Leptin, n=7) or a control vector encoding green fluorescent protein (rAAV-GFP, n=10) and sacrificed 18 weeks later. A baseline control group (n=7) was sacrificed at vector administration. rAAV-Leptin-treated rats lost weight (-4±2%) while rAAV-GFP-treated rats gained weight (14±2%) during the study. At study termination, rAAV-Leptin-treated rats weighed 17% less than rAAV-GFP-treated rats and had lower abdominal white adipose tissue weight (-80%), serum leptin (-77%), and serum IGF1 (-34%). Cancellous bone volume fraction in distal femur metaphysis and epiphysis, and in lumbar vertebra tended to be lower (PLeptin and rAAV-GFP rats. In summary, rAAV-Leptin-treated rats maintained a lower body weight compared to baseline and rAAV-GFP-treated rats with minimal effects on bone mass, density, microarchitecture, or biochemical markers of bone turnover.

  8. Comparison between liquid and solid acids catalysts on reducing sugars conversion from furfural residues via pretreatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Keying; Ma, Baojun; Sun, Yuan; Liu, Wanyi

    2014-09-01

    Liquid sulphuric acid is adopted and compared with carbon-based sulfonated solid acids (coal tar-based and active carbon-based) for furfural residues conversion into reducing sugars. The optimum hydrolysis conditions of liquid acid are at 4% of sulphuric acid, 25:1 of liquid and solid ratio, 175°C of reaction temperature and 120 min of reaction time. The reducing sugar yields are reached over 60% on liquid acid via NaOH/H2O2, NaOH/microwave and NaOH/ultrasonic pretreatments, whereas only over 30% on solid acids. The TOFs (turnover number frequency) via NaOH/H2O2 pretreatments are 0.093, 0.020 and 0.023 h(-1) for liquid sulphuric acid, coal tar-based and active carbon-based solid acids catalysts, respectively. Considering the efficiency, cost and environment factors, the liquid and solid acids have their own advantages of potential commercial application values.

  9. Evaluating proton stereotactic body radiotherapy to reduce chest wall dose in the treatment of lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welsh, James, E-mail: jwelsh@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Amini, Arya [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); UC Irvine School of Medicine, Irvine, CA (United States); Ciura, Katherine; Nguyen, Ngoc; Palmer, Matt [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Soh, Hendrick [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Allen, Pamela K.; Paolini, Michael; Liao, Zhongxing [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Bluett, Jaques; Mohan, Radhe [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Gomez, Daniel; Cox, James D.; Komaki, Ritsuko; Chang, Joe Y. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) can produce excellent local control of several types of solid tumor; however, toxicity to nearby critical structures is a concern. We found previously that in SBRT for lung cancer, the chest wall (CW) volume receiving 20, 30, or 40 Gy (V{sub 20}, V{sub 30}, or V{sub 40}) was linked with the development of neuropathy. Here we sought to determine whether the dosimetric advantages of protons could produce lower CW doses than traditional photon-based SBRT. We searched an institutional database to identify patients treated with photon SBRT for lung cancer with tumors within < 2.5 cm of the CW. We found 260 cases; of these, chronic grade ≥ 2 CW pain was identified in 23 patients. We then selected 10 representative patients from this group and generated proton SBRT treatment plans, using the identical dose of 50 Gy in 4 fractions, and assessed potential differences in CW dose between the 2 plans. The proton SBRT plans reduced the CW doses at all dose levels measured. The median CW V{sub 20} was 364.0 cm{sup 3} and 160.0 cm{sup 3} (p < 0.0001), V{sub 30} was 144.6 cm{sup 3}vs 77.0 cm{sup 3} (p = 0.0012), V{sub 35} was 93.9 cm{sup 3}vs 57.9 cm{sup 3} (p = 0.005), V{sub 40} was 66.5 cm{sup 3}vs 45.4 cm{sup 3} (p = 0.0112), and mean lung dose was 5.9 Gy vs 3.8 Gy (p = 0.0001) for photons and protons, respectively. Coverage of the planning target volume (PTV) was comparable between the 2 sets of plans (96.4% for photons and 97% for protons). From a dosimetric standpoint, proton SBRT can achieve the same coverage of the PTV while significantly reducing the dose to the CW and lung relative to photon SBRT and therefore may be beneficial for the treatment of lesions closer to critical structures.

  10. Synthesis of a tetrasaccharide fragment of hyaluronic acid having a glucuronic acid at the reducing end

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, J.F.G.; Slaghek, T.M.; Hyppönen, T.K.; Ogawa, T.; Kamerling, J.P.

    1993-01-01

    A stereocontrolled synthesis of a tetrasaccharide fragment of hyaluronic acid, beta-p-methoxyphenyl glycoside of beta-D-GlcNAc-(1¨4)-beta-D-GlcNAc-(1¨3)-beta-D-GlcNAc-(1¨4)-D-GlcA, is presented.

  11. Ammonia Gas Detection by Tannic Acid Functionalized and Reduced Graphene Oxide at Room Temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Sweejiang Yoo; Xin Li; Yuan Wu; Weihua Liu; Xiaoli Wang; Wenhui Yi

    2014-01-01

    Reduced graphene oxide (rGO) based chemiresistor gas sensor has received much attention in gas sensing for high sensitivity, room temperature operation, and reversible. Here, for the first time, we present a promising chemiresistor for ammonia gas detection based on tannic acid (TA) functionalized and reduced graphene oxide (rGOTA functionalized). Green reductant of TA plays a major role in both reducing process and enhancing the gas sensing properties of rGOTA functionalized. Our results sho...

  12. The stability of iso-α-acids and reduced iso-α-acids in stored blood specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodda, Luke N; Gerostamoulos, Dimitri; Drummer, Olaf H

    2014-06-01

    The long-term stability of the iso-α-acids, and three structurally similar but chemically altered iso-α-acids (known as 'reduced iso-α-acids' and consisting of the rho-, tetrahydro- and hexahydro-iso-α-acid groups) were investigated in whole blood. Pools of blank blood spiked with the four beer-specific ingredient congener groups at two different concentration levels were stored at 20°C, 4°C and -20°C; and extracted in duplicate in weeks 1, 3, 5 and 8, using a previously published method. A loss of 15% of the initial concentration was considered to indicate possible instability and losses greater than 30% demonstrated significant losses. The individual analytes within the four iso-α-acid groups were also measured to determine which iso-α-acids were subject to greater degradation and were responsible for the overall group instability. All four iso-α-acid groups showed significant losses after 8 weeks of storage under room temperature conditions in particularly the natural iso-α-acid group where major losses were observed (96% and 85% losses for low and high concentrations, respectively). Some degradation in all iso-α-acid groups were seen at 4°C samples predominantly due to the 'n' analogs of the groups showing an increased instability in blood. The -20°C storage conditions resulted in minimal changes in concentrations of all analytes. Higher than frozen storage temperatures can result in substantial changes on the stability of the iso-α-acid type groups in blood. The aim of this study was to highlight the stabilities of the IAA analytes in order to assist in the interpretation of IAA in stored blood specimens.

  13. Acid and enzymatic hydrolysis to recover reducing sugars from cassava bagasse: an economic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woiciechowski Adenise Lorenci

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the acid and enzymatic hydrolysis of cassava bagasse for the recovery of reducing sugars and to establish the operational costs. A statistical program "Statistica", based on the surface response was used to optimize the recovery of reducing sugars in both the processes. The process economics was determined considering the values of reducing sugars obtained at laboratory scale, and the operations costs of a cylindrical reactor of 1500 L, with flat walls at the top and bottom. The reactor was operated with 150 kg of cassava bagasse and 1350 kg of water. The yield of the acid hydrolysis was 62.4 g of reducing sugars from 100 g of cassava bagasse containing 66% starch. It represented 94.5% of reducing sugar recovery. The yield of the enzymatic hydrolysis was 77.1 g of reducing sugars from 120 g of cassava bagasse, which represented 97.3% of reducing sugars recovery. Concerning to the time, a batch of acid hydrolysis required 10 minutes, plus the time to heat and cool the reactor, and a batch of the enzymatic hydrolysis needed 25 hours and 20 minutes, plus the time to heat and to cool the reactor. Thus, the acid hydrolysis of 150 kg of cassava bagasse required US$ 34.27, and the enzymatic hydrolysis of the same amount of cassava bagasse required US$ 2470.99.

  14. Human ketone body production and utilization studied using tracer techniques: Regulation by free fatty acids, insulin, catecholamines, and thyroid hormones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, U.; Lustenberger, M.; Mueller-Brand, J.G.; Gerber, P.P.; Stauffacher, W.

    1989-05-01

    Ketone body concentrations fluctuate markedly during physiological and pathological conditions. Tracer techniques have been developed in recent years to study production, utilization, and the metabolic clearance rate of ketone bodies. This review describes data on the roles of insulin, catecholamines, and thyroid hormones in the regulation of ketone body kinetics. The data indicate that insulin lowers ketone body concentrations by three independent mechanisms: first, it inhibits lipolysis, and thus lowers free fatty acid availability for ketogenesis; second, it restrains ketone body production within the liver; third, it enhances peripheral ketone body utilization. To assess these effects in humans in vivo, experimental models were developed to study insulin effects with controlled concentrations of free fatty acids, insulin, glucagon, and ketone bodies. Presently available data also support an important role of catecholamines in increasing ketone body concentrations. Evidence was presented that norepinephrine increases ketogenesis not only by stimulating lipolysis, and thus releasing free fatty acids, but also by increasing intrahepatic ketogenesis. Thyroid hormone availability was associated with lipolysis and ketogenesis. Ketone body concentrations after an overnight fast were only modestly elevated in hyperthyroidism resulting from increased peripheral ketone body clearance. There was a significant correlation between serum triiodothyronine levels and the ketone body metabolic clearance rate. Thus, ketone body homeostasis in human subjects resulted from the interaction of hormones such as insulin, catecholamines, and thyroid hormones regulating lipolysis, intrahepatic ketogenesis, and peripheral ketone body utilization. 58 references.

  15. Effect of conjugated linoleic acid mixtures and different edible oils on body composition and lipid regulation in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Victoria Scalerandi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Evidences suggest that commercial and natural conjugated linoleic acids (CLA differentially affect nutritional status and lipid metabolism. Objective: To investigate the differential effect of two types of CLA preparations supplemented to dietary fats containing different proportions of n-9, n-6 and n-3 fatty acids (FA on body composition, triacylglycerol (TG levels and lipid metabolism in mice. Methods: Growing mice were fed diets containing olive, maize and rapeseed oils supplemented with an equimolecular mixture of CLA (mix-CLA or a rumenic acid (RA-rich oil for 30 days. Body weight gain, carcass composition, tissue weights, plasma and tissue TG levels, and lipid regulation parameters were evaluated. Results: Independently of the dietary fats, mix-CLA decreased body weight gain and fat depots related to lower energy efficiency, hepatomegaly, increase of serum TG and decrease of muscle TG. Rapeseed oil prevented the hepatic steatosis observed with mix-CLA supplementation to olive and maize oils by increasing TG secretion. RA-rich oil supplementation decreased fat depots without hepatomegaly, hepatic steatosis and hypertriglyceridemia. Olive oil, by an equilibrium between FA uptake/oxidation, prevented the increase of muscle TG induced by the RA-rich oil supplementation to maize and rapeseed oils. Discussion and conclusion: The proportions of dietary unsaturated FA modulated the different mix-CLA and RA-rich oil response to lipid metabolism in mice. Finally, rapeseed oil prevented the hepatic steatosis induced by mix-CLA, and the most beneficial effects of RA-rich oil were observed when supplemented to olive oil, due to the reduced lipid accretion without changes in TG levels.

  16. The body fat-lowering effect of conjugated linoleic acid: a comparison between animal and human studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, V; Fernández-Quintela, A; Churruca, I; Portillo, M P

    2006-06-01

    Different reasons which justify differences between rodents and humans in body fat reduction produced by conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) could be proposed. The doses used in humans are lower than those used in rodents. Human experiments have been performed with CLA isomer mixtures instead of isolated isomers. The variable dilution of t-10, c-12, the active isomer, among different preparations might explain the reduced responsiveness in humans. Diet composition may modulate CLA effects on body fat accumulation. As far as human studies are concerned, a specific dietary pattern has not been established. As a result differences among studies and also among subjects in the same study are likely. In rodents, the effects of CLA vary with genotype, suggesting that genetic predisposition to fat accumulation can play an important role in the effectiveness of CLA. Human volunteers with different body mass index have participated in the published studies and even in the same experiment. So, differences in lipid metabolism among subjects could help to explain the discrepancies observed in the literature. Age and maturity may also be crucial. Experiments using rodents have been conducted with growing animals and there is little evidence of CLA effectiveness in adult animals. By contrast, human studies have been performed with adults. Inhibition of lipogenesis in white adipose tissue is one of the mechanisms which have been proposed to explain the body-fat lowering effect of CLA, but lipogenesis in this tissue is very low in humans. Another mechanism suggested is increased fatty acid oxidation in the liver associated with peroxisome proliferation, but humans are relatively insensitive to this effect.

  17. Relationship between body fat mass and free fatty acid kinetics in men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittendorfer, Bettina; Magkos, Faidon; Fabbrini, Elisa; Mohammed, B Selma; Klein, Samuel

    2009-10-01

    An increased release of free fatty acids (FFAs) into plasma likely contributes to the metabolic complications associated with obesity. However, the relationship between body fat and FFA metabolism is unclear because of conflicting results from different studies. The goal of our study was to determine the inter-relationships between body fat, sex, and plasma FFA kinetics. We determined FFA rate of appearance (Ra) in plasma, by using stable isotopically labeled tracer techniques, during basal conditions in 106 lean, overweight, and obese, nondiabetic subjects (43 men and 63 women who had 7.0-56.0% body fat). Correlation analyses demonstrated: (i) no differences between men and women in the relationship between fat mass (FM) and total FFA Ra (micromol/min); (ii) total FFA Ra increased linearly with increasing FM (r=0.652, Pfashion with increasing FM (r=-0.806; Pmen; and (v) abdominal fat itself was not an important determinant of total FFA Ra. We conclude that total body fat, not regional fat distribution or sex, is an important modulator of the rate of FFA release into plasma. Although increased adiposity is associated with a decrease in fatty acid release in relationship to FM, this downregulation is unable to completely compensate for the increase in FM, so total FFA Ra and FFA Ra with respect to FFM are greater in women than in men and in obese than in lean subjects.

  18. Bile acids reduce endocytosis of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) in HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röhrl, Clemens; Eigner, Karin; Fruhwürth, Stefanie; Stangl, Herbert

    2014-01-01

    High-density lipoprotein (HDL) transports lipids to hepatic cells and the majority of HDL-associated cholesterol is destined for biliary excretion. Cholesterol is excreted into the bile directly or after conversion to bile acids, which are also present in the plasma as they are effectively reabsorbed through the enterohepatic cycle. Here, we provide evidence that bile acids affect HDL endocytosis. Using fluorescent and radiolabeled HDL, we show that HDL endocytosis was reduced in the presence of high concentrations of taurocholate, a natural non-cell-permeable bile acid, in human hepatic HepG2 and HuH7 cells. In contrast, selective cholesteryl-ester (CE) uptake was increased. Taurocholate exerted these effects extracellularly and independently of HDL modification, cell membrane perturbation or blocking of endocytic trafficking. Instead, this reduction of endocytosis and increase in selective uptake was dependent on SR-BI. In addition, cell-permeable bile acids reduced HDL endocytosis by farnesoid X receptor (FXR) activation: chenodeoxycholate and the non-steroidal FXR agonist GW4064 reduced HDL endocytosis, whereas selective CE uptake was unaltered. Reduced HDL endocytosis by FXR activation was independent of SR-BI and was likely mediated by impaired expression of the scavenger receptor cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36). Taken together we have shown that bile acids reduce HDL endocytosis by transcriptional and non-transcriptional mechanisms. Further, we suggest that HDL endocytosis and selective lipid uptake are not necessarily tightly linked to each other.

  19. Acarbose improves glycemic control and reduces body weight: Subanalysis data of South Asia region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Kalra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors (AGIs are widely used especially in Asian countries as a treatment option for type 2 diabetes patients with high postprandial glycaemia. However, data from South Asia region is very limited. In order to examine the effect of AGI in real-life setting, 10 PMS/NIS from all over the world from the launch of acarbose to date were pooled in one database and exploratory analysis was performed for glycemic parameters and weight. In total 62,905 patients were pooled from 21 countries and regions. Mean follow up (± SD was 12.2 ± 4.8 weeks (range 0.1-108.9. From South Asia region (India and Pakistan, 8,738 Asian patients were enrolled. Mean PPG decreased from 240.0 and 261.1 mg/dl at baseline by 70.26 ± 65.10 and 82.96 ± 56.59 mg/dl at the last visit in total and South Asian populations, respectively (n = 53,883; n = 7,991, P < 0.0001 for both. Mean FPG decreased from 171.6 and 176.5 mg/dl at baseline by 38.48 ± 47.83 and 49.59 ± 41.41 mg/dl at the last visit in total and South Asian populations, respectively (n = 56,672; n = 7,837, P < 0.0001 for both. Mean HbA1c decreased from 8.4 and 8.4% at baseline by 1.11 ± 1.31% and 0.91 ± 0.93% at the last visit in total and South Asian populations, respectively (n = 38,843; n = 2,343, P < 0.0001 for both. Mean relative reduction of body weight (BW was 1.40 ± 3.28% and 1.10 ± 3.39% at the last visit for mean baseline BW 73.6 and 74.2 kg in total and South Asian populations, respectively (n = 54,760; n = 7,718, P < 0.0001 for both. Consistent with RCT meta-analyses, post-hoc analysis of real-life data showed acarbose treatment improved glycaemic control and reduced the BW. Acarbose treatment in real life setting showed significant reductions in all glycemic parameters and BW in Asian patients from South Asia region.

  20. Dietary ascorbic acid and subsequent change in body weight and waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Sofus C; Angquist, Lars; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer Singh

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cross-sectional data suggests that a low level of plasma ascorbic acid positively associates with both Body Mass Index (BMI) and Waist Circumference (WC). This leads to questions about a possible relationship between dietary intake of ascorbic acid and subsequent changes...... (∆BW) and waist circumference (∆WC). METHODS: A total of 7,569 participants' from MONICA, the Diet Cancer and Health study and the INTER99 study were included in the study. We combined 50 obesity associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in four genetic scores: a score of all SNPs and a score...... in anthropometry, and whether such associations may depend on genetic predisposition to obesity. Hence, we examined whether dietary ascorbic acid, possibly in interaction with the genetic predisposition to a high BMI, WC or waist-hip ratio adjusted for BMI (WHR), associates with subsequent annual changes in weight...

  1. l-Leucine acts as a potential agent in reducing body temperature at hatching and affords thermotolerance in broiler chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Guofeng; Yang, Hui; Bahry, Mohammad A; Tran, Phuong V; Do, Phong H; Ikeda, Hiromi; Furuse, Mitsuhiro; Chowdhury, Vishwajit S

    2017-02-01

    Thermal manipulation (TM) of incubation temperature causes metabolic alterations and contributes to improving thermotolerance in chicks post hatching. However, there has been no report on amino acid metabolism during TM and the part it plays in thermotolerance. In this study, we therefore first analyzed free amino acid concentrations in the embryonic brain and liver during TM (38.6°C, 6h/d during embryonic day (ED) 10 to ED 18). It was found that leucine (Leu), phenylalanine and lysine were significantly decreased in the embryonic brain and liver. We then chose l-Leu and other branched-chain amino acids (l-isoleucine (L-Ile) and l-valine (l-Val)) for in ovo injection on ED 7 to reveal their roles in thermoregulation, growth, food intake and thermotolerance in chicks. It was found that in ovo injection of l-Leu, but not of l-Ileu or l-Val, caused a significant decline in body temperature at hatching and increased food intake and body weight gain in broiler chicks. Interestingly, in ovo injection of l-Leu resulted in the acquisition of thermotolerance under high ambient temperature (35±1°C for 180min) in comparison with the control thermoneutral temperature (28±1°C for 180min). These results indicate that the free amino acid concentrations during embryogenesis were altered by TM. l-Leu administration in eggs caused a reduction in body temperature at hatching, and afforded thermotolerance in heat-exposed young chicks, further suggesting that l-Leu may be one of the key metabolic factors involved in controlling body temperature in embryos, as well as in producing thermotolerance after hatching.

  2. Contribution of chlorogenic acids to the iron-reducing activity of coffee beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Daniel P; Monteiro, Mariana C; Ribeiro-Alves, Mirna; Donangelo, Carmen M; Trugo, Luiz C

    2005-03-09

    The iron-reducing activity of coffee beverages was determined by the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. The influence on FRAP due to the degree of roasting (light, medium, and dark), species (Coffea arabica and Coffea robusta), and caffeine content (regular and decaffeinated) was investigated using ground and soluble coffee samples. The concentration of specific chlorogenic acids and caffeine in the beverages was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography and related to FRAP using Pearson correlation coefficients. All measurements were expressed per unit of soluble solids. Beverages prepared with ground coffee had, on average, 27% higher FRAP values than those prepared with soluble coffee (p 0.91) was found between FRAP and the total content of chlorogenic acids, particularly that of the caffeoylquinic acid isomers. The iron-reducing activity of coffee beverages was not influenced by caffeine.

  3. Body mass index, gestational weight gain and fatty acid concentrations during pregnancy: the Generation R Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidakovic, Aleksandra Jelena; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Gishti, Olta; Felix, Janine F; Williams, Michelle A; Hofman, Albert; Demmelmair, Hans; Koletzko, Berthold; Tiemeier, Henning; Gaillard, Romy

    2015-11-01

    Obesity during pregnancy may be correlated with an adverse nutritional status affecting pregnancy and offspring outcomes. We examined the associations of prepregnancy body mass index and gestational weight gain with plasma fatty acid concentrations in mid-pregnancy. This study was embedded in a population-based prospective cohort study among 5636 women. We obtained prepregnancy body mass index and maximum weight gain during pregnancy by questionnaires. We measured concentrations of saturated fatty acid (SFA), monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA), n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-6 PUFA) at a median gestational age of 20.5 (95% range 17.1-24.9) weeks. We used multivariate linear regression models. As compared to normal weight women, obese women had higher total SFA concentrations [difference: 0.10 standard deviation (SD) (95% Confidence Interval (CI) 0, 0.19)] and lower total n-3 PUFA concentrations [difference: - 0.11 SD (95% CI - 0.20, - 0.02)]. As compared to women with sufficient gestational weight gain, those with excessive gestational weight gain had higher SFA concentrations [difference: 0.16 SD (95% CI 0.08, 0.25)], MUFA concentrations [difference: 0.16 SD (95% CI 0.08, 0.24)] and n-6 PUFA concentrations [difference: 0.12 SD (95% CI 0.04, 0.21)]. These results were not materially affected by adjustment for maternal characteristics. Our results suggest that obesity and excessive weight gain during pregnancy are associated with an adverse fatty acids profile. Further studies are needed to assess causality and direction of the observed associations.

  4. Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation for twelve weeks increases lean body mass in obese humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steck, Susan E; Chalecki, Allison M; Miller, Paul; Conway, Jason; Austin, Gregory L; Hardin, James W; Albright, Craig D; Thuillier, Philippe

    2007-05-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) alters body composition in animal models, but few studies have examined the effects of CLA supplementation on body composition and clinical safety measures in obese humans. In the present study, we performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to examine the changes in body composition and clinical laboratory values following CLA (50:50 ratio of cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 isomers) supplementation for 12 wk in otherwise healthy obese humans. Forty-eight participants (13 males and 35 females) were randomized to receive placebo (8 g safflower oil/d), 3.2 g/d CLA, or 6.4 g/d CLA for 12 wk. Changes in body fat mass and lean body mass were determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Resting energy expenditure was assessed by indirect calorimetry. Clinical laboratory values and adverse-event reporting were used to monitor safety. Lean body mass increased by 0.64 kg in the 6.4 g/d CLA group (P < 0.05) after 12 wk of intervention. Significant decreases in serum HDL-cholesterol and sodium, hemoglobin, and hematocrit, and significant increases in serum alkaline phosphatase, C-reactive protein, and IL-6, and white blood cells occurred in the 6.4 g/d CLA group, although all values remained within normal limits. The intervention was well tolerated and no severe adverse events were reported, although mild gastrointestinal adverse events were reported in all treatment groups. In conclusion, whereas CLA may increase lean body mass in obese humans, it may also increase markers of inflammation in the short term.

  5. A tRNA body with high affinity for EF-Tu hastens ribosomal incorporation of unnatural amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ieong, Ka-Weng; Pavlov, Michael Y; Kwiatkowski, Marek; Ehrenberg, Måns; Forster, Anthony C

    2014-05-01

    There is evidence that tRNA bodies have evolved to reduce differences between aminoacyl-tRNAs in their affinity to EF-Tu. Here, we study the kinetics of incorporation of L-amino acids (AAs) Phe, Ala allyl-glycine (aG), methyl-serine (mS), and biotinyl-lysine (bK) using a tRNA(Ala)-based body (tRNA(AlaB)) with a high affinity for EF-Tu. Results are compared with previous data on the kinetics of incorporation of the same AAs using a tRNA(PheB) body with a comparatively low affinity for EF-Tu. All incorporations exhibited fast and slow phases, reflecting the equilibrium fraction of AA-tRNA in active ternary complex with EF-Tu:GTP before the incorporation reaction. Increasing the concentration of EF-Tu increased the amplitude of the fast phase and left its rate unaltered. This allowed estimation of the affinity of each AA-tRNA to EF-Tu:GTP during translation, showing about a 10-fold higher EF-Tu affinity for AA-tRNAs formed from the tRNA(AlaB) body than from the tRNA(PheB) body. At ∼1 µM EF-Tu, tRNA(AlaB) conferred considerably faster incorporation kinetics than tRNA(PheB), especially in the case of the bulky bK. In contrast, the swap to the tRNA(AlaB) body did not increase the fast phase fraction of N-methyl-Phe incorporation, suggesting that the slow incorporation of N-methyl-Phe had a different cause than low EF-Tu:GTP affinity. The total time for AA-tRNA release from EF-Tu:GDP, accommodation, and peptidyl transfer on the ribosome was similar for the tRNA(AlaB) and tRNA(PheB) bodies. We conclude that a tRNA body with high EF-Tu affinity can greatly improve incorporation of unnatural AAs in a potentially generalizable manner.

  6. A Virtual Out-of-Body Experience Reduces Fear of Death

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Immersive virtual reality can be used to visually substitute a person’s real body by a life-sized virtual body (VB) that is seen from first person perspective. Using real-time motion capture the VB can be programmed to move synchronously with the real body (visuomotor synchrony), and also virtual objects seen to strike the VB can be felt through corresponding vibrotactile stimulation on the actual body (visuotactile synchrony). This setup typically gives rise to a strong perceptual illusion of ownership over the VB. When the viewpoint is lifted up and out of the VB so that it is seen below this may result in an out-of-body experience (OBE). In a two-factor between-groups experiment with 16 female participants per group we tested how fear of death might be influenced by two different methods for producing an OBE. In an initial embodiment phase where both groups experienced the same multisensory stimuli there was a strong feeling of body ownership. Then the viewpoint was lifted up and behind the VB. In the experimental group once the viewpoint was out of the VB there was no further connection with it (no visuomotor or visuotactile synchrony). In a control condition, although the viewpoint was in the identical place as in the experimental group, visuomotor and visuotactile synchrony continued. While both groups reported high scores on a question about their OBE illusion, the experimental group had a greater feeling of disownership towards the VB below compared to the control group, in line with previous findings. Fear of death in the experimental group was found to be lower than in the control group. This is in line with previous reports that naturally occurring OBEs are often associated with enhanced belief in life after death. PMID:28068368

  7. Administration of dried Aloe vera gel powder reduced body fat mass in diet-induced obesity (DIO) rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misawa, Eriko; Tanaka, Miyuki; Nabeshima, Kazumi; Nomaguchi, Kouji; Yamada, Muneo; Toida, Tomohiro; Iwatsuki, Keiji

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the anti-obesity effects of Aloe vera gel administration in male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats with diet-induced obesity (DIO). SD rats at 7 wk of age were fed either a standard diet (10 kcal% fat) (StdD) or high-fat (60 kcal% fat) diet (HFD) during the experimental period. Four weeks after of HFD-feeding, DIO rats (11 wk of age) were orally administered with two doses of Aloe vera gel powder (20 and 200 mg/kg/d) for 90 d. Body weights (g) and body fat (%) of HFD fed rats were significantly higher than those of StdD-fed rats. Although a modest decrease of body weight (g) was observed with the administration of dried Aloe vera gel powder, both subcutaneous and visceral fat weight (g) and body fat (%) were reduced significantly in Aloe vera gel-treated rats. Serum lipid parameters elevated by HFD were also improved by the Aloe vera gel treatment. The oxygen consumption (VO(2)), an index of energy expenditure, was decreased in HFD-fed rats compared with that in StdD-fed rats. Administration of Aloe vera gel reversed the change in VO(2) in the HFD-fed rats. These results suggest that intake of Aloe vera gel reduced body fat accumulation, in part, by stimulation of energy expenditure. Aloe vera gel might be beneficial for the prevention and improvement of diet-induced obesity.

  8. Stop Staring! Proposed Strategies to Reduce Students' Body-Related Concerns in Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crombie, Patricia-Ann; Brunet, Jennifer; Sabiston, Catherine M.

    2011-01-01

    Although physical activity may provide a means for adolescents to improve their physical appearance and subsequently lessen body-related concerns, the fear of being negatively evaluated by others can act as a barrier to physical activity. Moreover, environments where people are constantly looked at and evaluated--such as physical education…

  9. The Evaluation of Four Mind/Body Intervention Strategies to Reduce Perceived Stress among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winterdyk, John; Ray, Heather; Lafave, Lynne; Flessati, Sonya; Huston, Michael; Danelesko, Elaine; Murray, Christina

    2008-01-01

    We examined the effectiveness of four distinct mind/body interventions on reported perceived stress, anxiety, and health promoting behaviours in college students. Ninety students were randomly assigned to one of four experimental groups (i.e., nutritional, exercise, relaxation, or cognitive behavioural therapy). There were approximately 18…

  10. Static and Dynamic Mechanical Behavior of Hydroxyapatite-Polyacrylic Acid Composites Under Simulated Body Fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalpana S. Katti

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we have investigated mechanical response of hydroxyapatite/polyacrylic composites under dry, wet and simulated body fluid conditions. Hydroxyapatite (HAP is mineralized under two conditions; one, in presence of polyacrylic acid (in situ HAP, second, in absence of polyacrylic acid (ex situ HAP. Further, in situ and ex situ HAP are mixed with polyacrylic acid to make HAP/PAAc composites. Interfacial interactions between PAAc and HAP have been studied using photoacoustic Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (PAS-FTIR. The mechanical response of the composites under wet condition is studied by soaking composite samples in simulated body fluid (SBF. Under wet conditions, SBF and water weaken the HAP-HAP interface significantly. PAS-FTIR data suggests that PAAc attaches to HAP through the dissociated carboxylate groups. The water and SBF soaked samples showed creep-like behavior and exhibit large residual strain after unloading. Loading under different strain rates has significant effect on mechanical properties of these composites. Both in situ and ex situ 70:30 composites exhibit highest elastic modulus at strain rate of 0.01 sec-1. XRD study indicates formation of Ca2P2O7 phase in ex situ composite after soaking in SBF and water for 3 hours, whereas in situ composites showed presence of only hydroxyapatite phase after soaking in SBF and water for same duration of time.

  11. Lactobacilli reduce cell cytotoxicity caused by Streptococcus pyogenes by producing lactic acid that degrades the toxic component lipoteichoic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maudsdotter, Lisa; Jonsson, Hans; Roos, Stefan; Jonsson, Ann-Beth

    2011-04-01

    Lactobacilli are known to prevent colonization by many pathogens; nevertheless, the mechanisms of their protective effect are largely unknown. In this work, we investigated the role of lactobacilli during infection of epithelial cells with group A streptococci (GAS). GAS cause a variety of illnesses ranging from noninvasive disease to more severe invasive infections, such as necrotizing fasciitis and toxic shock-like syndrome. Invasion of deeper tissues is facilitated by GAS-induced apoptosis and cell death. We found that lactobacilli inhibit GAS-induced host cell cytotoxicity and shedding of the complement regulator CD46. Further, survival assays demonstrated that lactic acid secreted by lactobacilli is highly bactericidal toward GAS. In addition, lactic acid treatment of GAS, but not heat killing, prior to infection abolishes the cytotoxic effects against human cells. Since lipoteichoic acid (LTA) of GAS is heat resistant and cytotoxic, we explored the effects of lactic acid on LTA. By applying such an approach, we demonstrate that lactic acid reduces epithelial cell damage caused by GAS by degrading both secreted and cell-bound LTA. Taken together, our experiments reveal a mechanism by which lactobacilli prevent pathogen-induced host cell damage.

  12. Embryo-specific silencing of a transporter reduces phytic acid content of maize and soybean seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jinrui; Wang, Hongyu; Schellin, Kathleen; Li, Bailin; Faller, Marianna; Stoop, Johan M; Meeley, Robert B; Ertl, David S; Ranch, Jerry P; Glassman, Kimberly

    2007-08-01

    Phytic acid in cereal grains and oilseeds is poorly digested by monogastric animals and negatively affects animal nutrition and the environment. However, breeding programs involving mutants with less phytic acid and more inorganic phosphate (P(i)) have been frustrated by undesirable agronomic characteristics associated with the phytic acid-reducing mutations. We show that maize lpa1 mutants are defective in a multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP) ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter that is expressed most highly in embryos, but also in immature endosperm, germinating seed and vegetative tissues. Silencing expression of this transporter in an embryo-specific manner produced low-phytic-acid, high-Pi transgenic maize seeds that germinate normally and do not show any significant reduction in seed dry weight. This dominant transgenic approach obviates the need for incorporating recessive lpa1 mutations to create maize hybrids with reduced phytic acid. Suppressing the homologous soybean MRP gene also generated low-phytic-acid seed, suggesting that the strategy might be feasible for many crops.

  13. Tranexamic acid reduces blood loss in patients with extracapsular fractures of the hip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tengberg, P T; Foss, N B; Palm, H;

    2016-01-01

    AIMS: We chose unstable extra-capsular hip fractures as our study group because these types of fractures suffer the largest blood loss. We hypothesised that tranexamic acid (TXA) would reduce total blood loss (TBL) in extra-capsular fractures of the hip. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A single-centre plac...

  14. Reducing and verifying haloacetic acids in treated drinking water using a biological filter system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Jie C; Chan, Hung Y; Yang, Chih Y; Tseng, Wei B; Han, Jia Y

    2014-01-01

    This study focused on reducing the haloacetic acid (HAA) concentrations in treated drinking water. HAA has been thought to be one possible nutrient supporting heterotrophic bacteria regrowth in drinking water. In this study, experiments were conducted using a pilot-scale system to evaluate the efficiency of biological filters (BF) for reducing excess HAA concentrations in water. The BF system reduced the total HAA concentration and the concentrations of five HAA species in the water. Dichloroacetic acid (DCAA), monobromoacetic acid (MBAA) and dibromoacetic acid (DBAA) were the three main HAA5 species that were present in the treated drinking water in this investigation. Combined, these three species represent approximately 77% of the HAA5 in the finished water after BF. The verification of the empirical HAA equation for the outlet in the BF system indicated linear relationships with high correlation coefficients. The empirical equation for the HAA5 concentrations in the finished water was established by examining other nutrients (e.g., dissolved organic carbon (DOC), ultraviolet absorbance at 254 nm wavelength (UV254), and ammonia nitrogen) that can reduce pathogenic contamination. These findings may be useful for designing advanced processes for conventional water treatment plants or for managing water treatment and distribution systems for providing high-quality drinking water.

  15. Comparison of the Amino-Acid Content in Pharmacopuncture Extracts Taken from a Scorpion's Body and from Its Tail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Jin-Ho

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was conducted to investigate the amino-acid compositions of pharmacopuncture extracts taken from the body and from the tail of Buthus martensii Karsch, which are frequently prescribed in Oriental medicine. Methods: Amino acids in hot water and 70% ethanol extracts taken from the scorpion’s whole body and from its tail were screened by using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. The experiments were performed with linearity, precision and accuracy. Results: The results of the amino-acid-composition analysis showed that the Buthus martensii Karsch extracts contained various amino acids such as aspartic acid, histidine, alanine, tyrosine, and cystine. The amino-acid analysis showed that the hot water extract was more beneficial than the ethanol extract, except for histidine. The amino acids from the tail and the body of the scorpion were compared, and the concentration of aspartic acid in the extract from the scorpion’s tail was two times that found in the extract from its body. The results of validation experiments were all satisfactory. Conclusion: Studies on the ingredients in extracts from a scorpion other than buthotoxin may demonstrate that the antiepileptic efficacy, anticancer activity, antithrombotic action and analgesic effect are enhanced. Using only the tail of the scorpion when pharmacopuncture is dispensed may be beneficial because the extracts from the tail of the scorpion have higher potency than those from the whole body.

  16. Lactobacillus casei reduces susceptibility to type 2 diabetes via microbiota-mediated body chloride ion influx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Guo, Xiao; Guo, Jianlin; He, Qiuwen; Li, He; Song, Yuqin; Zhang, Heping

    2014-07-18

    Gut microbiota mediated low-grade inflammation is involved in the onset of type 2 diabetes (T2DM). In this study, we used a high fat sucrose (HFS) diet-induced pre-insulin resistance and a low dose-STZ HFS rat models to study the effect and mechanism of Lactobacillus casei Zhang in protecting against T2DM onset. Hyperglycemia was favorably suppressed by L. casei Zhang treatment. Moreover, the hyperglycemia was connected with type 1 immune response, high plasma bile acids and urine chloride ion loss. This chloride ion loss was significantly prevented by L. casei via upregulating of chloride ion-dependent genes (ClC1-7, GlyRα1, SLC26A3, SLC26A6, GABAAα1, Bestrophin-3 and CFTR). A shift in the caecal microflora, particularly the reduction of bile acid 7α-dehydroxylating bacteria, and fecal bile acid profiles also occurred. These change coincided with organ chloride influx. Thus, we postulate that the prevention of T2DM onset by L. casei Zhang may be via a microbiota-based bile acid-chloride exchange mechanism.

  17. A reduced-dimensionality approach to uncovering dyadic modes of body motion in conversations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noy, Lior; Liron, Yuvalal; Alon, Uri

    2017-01-01

    Face-to-face conversations are central to human communication and a fascinating example of joint action. Beyond verbal content, one of the primary ways in which information is conveyed in conversations is body language. Body motion in natural conversations has been difficult to study precisely due to the large number of coordinates at play. There is need for fresh approaches to analyze and understand the data, in order to ask whether dyads show basic building blocks of coupled motion. Here we present a method for analyzing body motion during joint action using depth-sensing cameras, and use it to analyze a sample of scientific conversations. Our method consists of three steps: defining modes of body motion of individual participants, defining dyadic modes made of combinations of these individual modes, and lastly defining motion motifs as dyadic modes that occur significantly more often than expected given the single-person motion statistics. As a proof-of-concept, we analyze the motion of 12 dyads of scientists measured using two Microsoft Kinect cameras. In our sample, we find that out of many possible modes, only two were motion motifs: synchronized parallel torso motion in which the participants swayed from side to side in sync, and still segments where neither person moved. We find evidence of dyad individuality in the use of motion modes. For a randomly selected subset of 5 dyads, this individuality was maintained for at least 6 months. The present approach to simplify complex motion data and to define motion motifs may be used to understand other joint tasks and interactions. The analysis tools developed here and the motion dataset are publicly available. PMID:28141861

  18. Reduced adiabatic hyperspherical basis in the Coulomb three-body bound state problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abramov, D.I. [Sankt Peterburgskij Univ., St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Gusev, V.V. [Institut Fiziki Vysokikh Ehnergij, Protvino (Russian Federation); Ponomarev, L.I. [Rossijskij Nauchnyj Tsentr ``Kurchatovskij Inst.``, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1996-10-01

    A new version of the adiabatic hyperspherical approach (AHSA) is suggested which has significant advantages for the calculation of three-body states with total angular momentum J > 0. The binding energies of all bound states of mesic molecules with normal parity are calculated by the suggested method. Comparison with results of variational calculations and the fast convergence of the method confirm its high efficiency. (orig.). 13 refs.

  19. Dietary thylakoids reduce visceral fat mass and increase expression of genes involved in intestinal fatty acid oxidation in high-fat fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenblom, Eva-Lena; Egecioglu, Emil; Montelius, Caroline; Ramachandran, Deepti; Bonn, Britta; Weström, Björn; Mansouri, Abdelhak; Langhans, Wolfgang; Erlanson-Albertsson, Charlotte

    2016-09-01

    Thylakoids reduce body weight gain and body fat accumulation in rodents. This study investigated whether an enhanced oxidation of dietary fat-derived fatty acids in the intestine contributes to the thylakoid effects. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a high-fat diet with (n = 8) or without thylakoids (n = 8) for 2 wk. Body weight, food intake, and body fat were measured, and intestinal mucosa was collected and analyzed. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to measure gene expression levels of key enzymes involved in fatty acid transport, fatty acid oxidation, and ketogenesis. Another set of thylakoid-treated (n = 10) and control rats (n = 10) went through indirect calorimetry. In the first experiment, thylakoid-treated rats (n = 8) accumulated 25% less visceral fat than controls. Furthermore, fatty acid translocase (Fat/Cd36), carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1a (Cpt1a), and mitochondrial 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase 2 (Hmgcs2) genes were upregulated in the jejunum of the thylakoid-treated group. In the second experiment, thylakoid-treated rats (n = 10) gained 17.5% less weight compared with controls and their respiratory quotient was lower, 0.86 compared with 0.91. Thylakoid-intake resulted in decreased food intake and did not cause steatorrhea. These results suggest that thylakoids stimulated intestinal fatty acid oxidation and ketogenesis, resulting in an increased ability of the intestine to handle dietary fat. The increased fatty acid oxidation and the resulting reduction in food intake may contribute to the reduced fat accumulation in thylakoid-treated animals.

  20. Amino acid supplementation does not alter whole-body phenylalanine kinetics in Arabian geldings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urschel, Kristine L; Geor, Raymond J; Hanigan, Mark D; Harris, Pat A

    2012-03-01

    Stable isotope infusion methods have not been extensively used in horses to study protein metabolism. The objectives were to develop infusion and sampling methodologies for [1-(13)C] phenylalanine and apply these methods to determine whether the addition of supplemental amino acids to a control diet affected whole-body phenylalanine kinetics in mature horses. Arabian geldings were studied using a 6-h primed (9 μmol/kg), constant (6 μmol · kg(-1) · h(-1)) i.v. infusion of L-[1-(13)C] phenylalanine, with blood and breath sampled every 30 min, to measure whole-body phenylalanine kinetics in response to receiving the control diet (n = 12) or the control diet supplemented with equimolar amounts of glutamate (+Glu; 55 mg · kg(-1) · d(-1); n = 5), leucine (+Leu; 49 mg · kg(-1) · d(-1); n = 5), lysine (+Lys; 55 mg · kg(-1) · d(-1); n = 5), or phenylalanine (+Phe; 62 mg · kg(-1) · d(-1); n = 6). The plasma concentrations of the supplemented amino acid in horses receiving the +Leu, +Lys, and +Phe diets were 58, 53, and 36% greater, respectively, than for the control treatment (P phenylalanine and breath (13)CO(2) enrichments by 60 and 270 min, respectively. Phenylalanine flux (+20%) and oxidation (+110%) were greater (P phenylalanine disposal or phenylalanine release from protein breakdown. The developed methods are a valuable way to study protein metabolism and assess dietary amino acid adequacy in horses and will provide a useful tool for studying amino acid requirements in the future.

  1. The Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Arachidonic Acid and Docosahexaenoic Acid Induce Mouse Dendritic Cells Maturation but Reduce T-Cell Responses In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, Johan A; Wold, Agnes E; Sandberg, Ann-Sofie; Östman, Sofia M

    2015-01-01

    Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) might regulate T-cell activation and lineage commitment. Here, we measured the effects of omega-3 (n-3), n-6 and n-9 fatty acids on the interaction between dendritic cells (DCs) and naïve T cells. Spleen DCs from BALB/c mice were cultured in vitro with ovalbumin (OVA) with 50 μM fatty acids; α-linolenic acid, arachidonic acid (AA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), linoleic acid or oleic acid and thereafter OVA-specific DO11.10 T cells were added to the cultures. Fatty acids were taken up by the DCs, as shown by gas chromatography analysis. After culture with arachidonic acid or DHA CD11c+ CD11b+ and CD11c+ CD11bneg DCs expressed more CD40, CD80, CD83, CD86 and PDL-1, while IAd remained unchanged. However, fewer T cells co-cultured with these DCs proliferated (CellTrace Violet low) and expressed CD69 or CD25, while more were necrotic (7AAD+). We noted an increased proportion of T cells with a regulatory T cell (Treg) phenotype, i.e., when gating on CD4+ FoxP3+ CTLA-4+, CD4+ FoxP3+ Helios+ or CD4+ FoxP3+ PD-1+, in co-cultures with arachidonic acid- or DHA-primed DCs relative to control cultures. The proportion of putative Tregs was inversely correlated to T-cell proliferation, indicating a suppressive function of these cells. With arachidonic acid DCs produced higher levels of prostaglandin E2 while T cells produced lower amounts of IL-10 and IFNγ. In conclusion arachidonic acid and DHA induced up-regulation of activation markers on DCs. However arachidonic acid- and DHA-primed DCs reduced T-cell proliferation and increased the proportion of T cells expressing FoxP3, indicating that these fatty acids can promote induction of regulatory T cells.

  2. Metabolism of fatty acids and lipid hydroperoxides in human body monitoring with Fourier transform Infrared Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Qin-Zeng

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The metabolism of dietary fatty acids in human has been measured so far using human blood cells and stable-isotope labeled fatty acids, however, no direct data was available for human peripheral tissues and other major organs. To realize the role of dietary fatty acids in human health and diseases, it would be eager to develop convenient and suitable method to monitor fatty acid metabolism in human. Results We have developed the measurement system in situ for human lip surface lipids using the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR – attenuated total reflection (ATR detection system with special adaptor to monitor metabolic changes of lipids in human body. As human lip surface lipids may not be much affected by skin sebum constituents and may be affected directly by the lipid constituents of diet, we could detect changes of FTIR-ATR spectra, especially at 3005~3015 cm-1, of lip surface polyunsaturated fatty acids in a duration time-dependent manner after intake of the docosahexaenoic acid (DHA-containing triglyceride diet. The ingested DHA appeared on the lip surface and was detected by FTIR-ATR directly and non-invasively. It was found that the metabolic rates of DHA for male volunteer subjects with age 60s were much lower than those with age 20s. Lipid hydroperoxides were found in lip lipids which were extracted from the lip surface using a mixture of ethanol/ethylpropionate/iso-octane solvents, and were the highest in the content just before noon. The changes of lipid hydroperoxides were detected also in situ with FTIR-ATR at 968 cm-1. Conclusion The measurements of lip surface lipids with FTIR-ATR technique may advance the investigation of human lipid metabolism in situ non-invasively.

  3. Citric acid reduces the decline in P300 amplitude induced by acute alcohol consumption in healthy adults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-xing CHEN; Chuan-qin XU; Shao-hua CHEN; Gen-yun XU; Huai-zhuang YE

    2012-01-01

    Event-related potential (ERP) is a reliable neuroelectric measure of brain activity that helps to confirm the assessment of mental status and cognitive impairment.Many studies have reported that alcoholics show a significantly lower ERP P300 amplitude than the norm.In the present study,ERP P300 waves were measured to evaluate the effect of citric acid on cognitive function during excessive alcohol consumption in healthy adults.Five volunteers were selected through clinical interview,physical examination,and psychiatric assessment for participation in this study.In a double-blind placebo-controlled before-after design,each subject was treated with 5 ml/kg body weight alcohol,5 ml/kg body weight alcohol and 1 mg citric acid,or a placebo on three separate occasions,one week apart.ERP P300,blood biochemical indicators,blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) and acetaldehyde concentrations were assessed.Repeated measure analysis of variance (ANOVA) with a within-subjects factor was used to evaluate differences in blood biochemical indicators,BACs,blood acetaldehyde concentrations,and ERP P300 in the three sessions of assessments.Several blood biochemical indicators showed significant differences between treatments,including the levels of cholinesterase (CHE),total bile acid (TBA),triglyceride (TG),total cholesterol (TC),high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C),low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C),very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C),and glycylproline dipeptidyl aminopeptidase (GPDA).BACs after consumption of alcohol alone or citric acid with alcohol were significantly higher compared to those after placebo treatment (P<0.05).There were no significant differences in blood acetaldehyde concentrations between the treatments.The P300 amplitudes on the frontal (Fz),central (Cz),and parietal (Pz) regions of the scalp after consumption of alcohol were significantly lower than those after consumption of the placebo or citric acid with alcohol (P<0

  4. COMPARISON OF DIFFERENT SORTING OF FATTY ACID IN BOVINE MILK IN RELATION TO BODY CONDITION OF CZECH FLECKVIEH DAIRY COWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaromir DUCHACEK

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acids in milk are one of the most important components of milk. The aim of this study was to determinate relationships between groups of fatty acids and body condition score change in Czech Fleckvieh cows. Fatty acids were classification along its length of chain and its source of creation. To analysis was included total of 50 Czech Fleckvieh cows with different order of lactation. During the first 4 weeks of lactation, milk samples were collected at a weekly interval and body condition score was assessed. Statistical analyses were performed using Microsoft Office Excel and the procedures MEANS and GLM of SAS 9.1. During the first four week of lactation, the proportions of short- and medium-chain fatty acids as well as de novo synthesised fatty acids increased. Moreover the cows with a greater body condition score change mobilized storage depot fat more intensively, which resulted in higher proportions of dietary and depot fatty acids since week 1 of lactation, and long-chain fatty acids since week 2 of lactation. On the contrary, the animals with only a small body condition score change exhibited high proportions of short- and medium-fatty acids as well as de novo synthesised fatty acids in the most part of the period analysed. This indicates abut negative energy balance in early part of lactation and its compensation. The results also confirm the relationships between different groups of fatty acids, body condition score and negative energy balance. As more accurate for evaluation of intensity of negative energy balance was confirmed rather classification along source of creation. These results further emphasize importance the monitoring of body condition, milk composition and good herd management in first part of lactation.

  5. Candida zemplinina can reduce acetic acid produced by Saccharomyces cerevisiae in sweet wine fermentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rantsiou, Kalliopi; Dolci, Paola; Giacosa, Simone; Torchio, Fabrizio; Tofalo, Rosanna; Torriani, Sandra; Suzzi, Giovanna; Rolle, Luca; Cocolin, Luca

    2012-03-01

    In this study we investigated the possibility of using Candida zemplinina, as a partner of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, in mixed fermentations of must with a high sugar content, in order to reduce its acetic acid production. Thirty-five C. zemplinina strains, which were isolated from different geographic regions, were molecularly characterized, and their fermentation performances were determined. Five genetically different strains were selected for mixed fermentations with S. cerevisiae. Two types of inoculation were carried out: coinoculation and sequential inoculation. A balance between the two species was generally observed for the first 6 days, after which the levels of C. zemplinina started to decrease. Relevant differences were observed concerning the consumption of sugars, the ethanol and glycerol content, and acetic acid production, depending on which strain was used and which type of inoculation was performed. Sequential inoculation led to the reduction of about half of the acetic acid content compared to the pure S. cerevisiae fermentation, but the ethanol and glycerol amounts were also low. A coinoculation with selected combinations of S. cerevisiae and C. zemplinina resulted in a decrease of ~0.3 g of acetic acid/liter, while maintaining high ethanol and glycerol levels. This study demonstrates that mixed S. cerevisiae and C. zemplinina fermentation could be applied in sweet wine fermentation to reduce the production of acetic acid, connected to the S. cerevisiae osmotic stress response.

  6. Lipin-2 reduces proinflammatory signaling induced by saturated fatty acids in macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdearcos, Martín; Esquinas, Esperanza; Meana, Clara; Peña, Lucía; Gil-de-Gómez, Luis; Balsinde, Jesús; Balboa, María A

    2012-03-30

    Lipin-2 is a member of the lipin family of enzymes, which are key effectors in the biosynthesis of lipids. Mutations in the human lipin-2 gene are associated with inflammatory-based disorders; however, the role of lipin-2 in cells of the immune system remains obscure. In this study, we have investigated the role of lipin-2 in the proinflammatory action of saturated fatty acids in murine and human macrophages. Depletion of lipin-2 promotes the increased expression of the proinflammatory genes Il6, Ccl2, and Tnfα, which depends on the overstimulation of the JNK1/c-Jun pathway by saturated fatty acids. In contrast, overexpression of lipin-2 reduces the release of proinflammatory factors. Metabolically, the absence of lipin-2 reduces the cellular content of triacylglycerol in saturated fatty acid-overloaded macrophages. Collectively, these studies demonstrate a protective role for lipin-2 in proinflammatory signaling mediated by saturated fatty acids that occurs concomitant with an enhanced cellular capacity for triacylglycerol synthesis. The data provide new insights into the role of lipin-2 in human and murine macrophage biology and may open new avenues for controlling the fatty acid-related low grade inflammation that constitutes the sine qua non of obesity and associated metabolic disorders.

  7. Production of reducing sugar from oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB cellulose fibres via acid hydrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siew Xian Chin

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Cellulosic fibre of oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB were used as a raw material for acid hydrolysis using mineral acids (H2SO4 and HCl to produce reducing sugar at moderate temperature and atmospheric pressure. Experiments were carried out to investigate the effect of the hydrolysis parameters, including acid concentration, temperature, and reaction time, on the total reducing sugar (TRS yield with the aid of response surface methodology (RSM. The preliminary hydrolysis studies of the EFB fibres showed that the presence of lignin in the fibres significantly affected the TRS yield. The maximum predicted TRS yield using H2SO4 was 30.61% under optimal conditions: acid concentration of 5 N, temperature of 139.65 oC, and reaction time of 4.16 h. For the hydrolysis using HCl, the maximum predicted TRS yield is 39.81% under optimal conditions: acid concentration of 4.63 N, temperature of 133.7 oC, reaction time of 2.05 h.

  8. Mechanisms of formation and function of eosinophil lipid bodies: inducible intracellular sites involved in arachidonic acid metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bozza Patricia T

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Lipid bodies, inducible lipid-rich cytoplasmic inclusions, are characteristically abundant in cells associated with inflammation, including eosinophils. Here we reviewed the formation and function of lipid bodies in human eosinophils. We now have evidence that the formation of lipid bodies is not attributable to adverse mechanisms, but is centrally mediated by specific signal transduction pathways. Arachidonic acid and other cis fatty acids by an NSAID-inhibitable process, diglycerides, and PAF by a 5-lipoxygenase dependent pathway are potent stimulators of lipid body induction. Lipid body formation develops rapidly by processes that involve PKC, PLC, and de novo mRNA and protein synthesis. These structures clearly serve as repositoires of arachidonyl-phospholipids and are more than inert depots. Specific enzymes, including cytosolic phospholipase A2, MAP kinases, lipoxygenases and cyclooxygenases, associate with lipid bodies. Lipid bodies appear to be dynamic, organelle-like structures involved in intracellular pathways of lipid mobilization and metabolism. Indeed, increases in lipid body numbers correlated with enhanced production of both lipoxygenase- and cyclooxygenase-derived eicosanoids. We hypothesize that lipid bodies are distinct inducible sites for generating eicosanoids as paracrine mediators with varied activities in inflammation. The capacity of lipid body formation to be specifically and rapidly induced in leukocytes enhances eicosanoid mediator formation, and conversely pharmacologic inhibition of lipid body induction represents a potential novel and specific target for anti-inflammatory therapy.

  9. Role of tranexamic acid in reducing blood loss during and after caesarean section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simran Kaur Bhatia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Association between caesarean section and intra operative and post operative bleeding is known. Post-partum hemorrhage is still a leading cause for maternal morbidity and mortality. This study will evaluate the efficacy and safety of tranexamic acid in reducing the blood loss after placental delivery following lower segment caesarean section (LSCS and note any adverse effects. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 women, who underwent elective or emergency primary caesarean section at term between 37 and 41 weeks have been studied prospectively. They were divided into two groups. In the study group of 50, tranexamic acid 1 gm IV was given 20 minutes before making incision for caesarean section and the control group of 50 did not receive tranexamic acid. Statistical Analysis: For quantitative outcomes, the t-test was used to test for difference in the two groups. For categorical outcomes, chi square and odds ratio with 95% confidence interval were used as applicable. Results: The patient characteristics, namely age, height, weight, gestational age and gravidity in two groups were similar which was statistically insignificant. Hemoglobin decreased slightly after birth in both groups but no statistical difference between two groups was noticed. There was no episode of thrombosis in the study. Tranexamic acid significantly reduced the quantity of the blood loss from time of placental delivery to 2 hours postpartum (P < 0.001 and from end of LSCS to 2 hours postpartum (P < 0.001. However, there was no statistical difference in quantity of blood loss from time of placental delivery to end of LSCS in both groups (P < 0.001. Conclusion: A safe dose of tranexamic acid has an effective role in reducing blood loss during LSCS without causing adverse reaction. Thus, drug can be used effectively in reducing maternal morbidity and mortality during LSCS.

  10. A method for computing the inter-residue interaction potentials for reduced amino acid alphabet

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abhinav Luthra; Anupam Nath Jha; G K Ananthasuresh; Saraswathi Vishveswara

    2007-08-01

    Inter-residue potentials are extensively used in the design and evaluation of protein structures. However, dealing with all (20×20) interactions becomes computationally difficult in extensive investigations. Hence, it is desirable to reduce the alphabet of 20 amino acids to a smaller number. Currently, several methods of reducing the residue types exist; however a critical assessment of these methods is not available. Towards this goal, here we review and evaluate different methods by comparing with the complete (20×20) matrix of Miyazawa-Jernigan potential, including a method of grouping adopted by us, based on multi dimensional scaling (MDS). The second goal of this paper is the computation of inter-residue interaction energies for the reduced amino acid alphabet, which has not been explicitly addressed in the literature until now. By using a least squares technique, we present a systematic method of obtaining the interaction energy values for any type of grouping scheme that reduces the amino acid alphabet. This can be valuable in designing the protein structures.

  11. Topographical body fat distribution links to amino acid and lipid metabolism in healthy obese women [corrected].

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    Francois-Pierre J Martin

    Full Text Available Visceral adiposity is increasingly recognized as a key condition for the development of obesity related disorders, with the ratio between visceral adipose tissue (VAT and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT reported as the best correlate of cardiometabolic risk. In this study, using a cohort of 40 obese females (age: 25-45 y, BMI: 28-40 kg/m(2 under healthy clinical conditions and monitored over a 2 weeks period we examined the relationships between different body composition parameters, estimates of visceral adiposity and blood/urine metabolic profiles. Metabonomics and lipidomics analysis of blood plasma and urine were employed in combination with in vivo quantitation of body composition and abdominal fat distribution using iDXA and computerized tomography. Of the various visceral fat estimates, VAT/SAT and VAT/total abdominal fat ratios exhibited significant associations with regio-specific body lean and fat composition. The integration of these visceral fat estimates with metabolic profiles of blood and urine described a distinct amino acid, diacyl and ether phospholipid phenotype in women with higher visceral fat. Metabolites important in predicting visceral fat adiposity as assessed by Random forest analysis highlighted 7 most robust markers, including tyrosine, glutamine, PC-O 44∶6, PC-O 44∶4, PC-O 42∶4, PC-O 40∶4, and PC-O 40∶3 lipid species. Unexpectedly, the visceral fat associated inflammatory profiles were shown to be highly influenced by inter-days and between-subject variations. Nevertheless, the visceral fat associated amino acid and lipid signature is proposed to be further validated for future patient stratification and cardiometabolic health diagnostics.

  12. The Effect of Body Energy Reserve Mobilization on the Fatty Acid Profile of Milk in High-yielding Cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogalski, Zenon; Wroński, Marek; Sobczuk-Szul, Monika; Mochol, Magdalena; Pogorzelska, Paulina

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the effect of the amount of body condition loss in the dry period and early lactation in 42 high-yielding Holstein-Friesian cows on milk yield and the share of fatty acids in milk fat. Energy reserves were estimated based on the body condition scoring (BCS) and backfat thickness (BFT). Milk yield and milk composition were determined over 305-d lactation. From d 6 to 60 of lactation, the concentrations of 43 fatty acids in milk fat were determined by gas chromatography. Cows were categorized based on body condition loss from the beginning of the dry period to the lowest point of the BCS curve in early lactation into three groups: low condition loss group (L) ≤0.5 points (n = 14); moderate condition loss group (M) 0.75 to 1.0 points (n = 16) and high condition loss group (H) >1.0 points (n = 12). Cows whose body energy reserves were mobilized at 0.8 BCS and 11 mm BFT, produced 12,987 kg ECM over 305-d lactation, i.e. 1,429 kg ECM more than cows whose BCS and BFT decreased by 0.3 and 5 mm, respectively. In group H, milk yield reached 12,818 kg ECM at body fat reserve mobilization of 1.3 BCS and 17 mm BFT. High mobilization of body fat reserves led to a significant (approx. 5%) increase in the concentrations of monounsaturated fatty acids-MUFA (mostly C18:1 cis-9, followed by C18:1 trans-11), a significant decrease in the levels of fatty acids adversely affecting human health, and a drop in the content of linoleic acid, arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid in milk fat. In successive weeks of lactation, an improved energy balance contributed to a decrease in the concentrations of unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) and an increase in the conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) content of milk fat. PMID:25049536

  13. Increased prevalence of malnutrition and reduced lean body mass in overweight/obese kidney transplant recipients

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    Sylwia Małgorzewicz

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Overweight and obesity are common in subjects after kidney transplantation. On the other hand, features of malnutrition are also frequently recognized in this group of patients. The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of both abnormalities in a cohort of stable kidney recipients and to assess whether obesity precludes malnutrition in transplanted patients. We also investigated associations between the nutritional status, graft function and adipokines concentrations. The study was performed in 80 prevalent kidney transplant patients and in a control group which consisted of 23 healthy volunteers. Body composition (% of fat, lean body mass (LBM, water content was measured by multifrequency bioelectrical impedance (Body Composition Manager. Nutritional status was determined by a 7–point Subjective Global Assessment (SGA, anthropometric measurements and s-albumin concentration. C–reactive protein (CRP, Il–6 and plasminogen activator inhibitor–1 (PAI–1 were used as markers of inflammatory status. Concentration of leptin, adiponectin and visfatin were measured by ELISA. Results: Mean age was 52.4±13.9 years (45 men and 35 women. Diabetes mellitus was present in 29% (n=23 of them. Mean time after transplantation (transplantation vintage was 82.5±56.5 months (median=73 months. Mean eGFR was 41.7±14.9 ml/min (4 points MDRD, BMI was 25.7±4.2. Overweight was present in 41% of the patients and obesity in 14%. On the basis of SGA evaluation, signs of malnutrition were observed in 48% of the subjects. Malnutrition was present in 64% (21/33 of the overweight patients and in 91% (10/11 of the obese patients. Transplantation vintage was directly associated with fat mass and inversely associated with LBM. Malnourished patients (SGA had a longer transplantation vintage. Adiponectin levels were significantly lower in transplanted patients as compared to controls. In multivariate analysis, leptin was an independent predictor of serum

  14. Intake of trans fatty acids causes nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and reduces adipose tissue fat content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Roberta M; Stefano, José T; Oliveira, Claudia P M S; Mello, Evandro S; Ferreira, Fabiana D; Nunes, Valeria S; de Lima, Vicência M R; Quintão, Eder C R; Catanozi, Sergio; Nakandakare, Edna R; Lottenberg, Ana Maria P

    2010-06-01

    We investigated the effects of dietary trans fatty acids, PUFA, and SFA on body and liver fat content, liver histology, and mRNA of enzymes involved in fatty acid metabolism. LDL receptor knockout weaning male mice were fed for 16 wk with diets containing 40% energy as either trans fatty acids (TRANS), PUFA, or SFA. Afterwards, subcutaneous and epididymal fat were weighed and histological markers of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) were assessed according to the Histological Scoring System for NAFLD. PPARalpha, PPARgamma, microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP), carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1 (CPT-1), and sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) mRNA were measured by quantitative RT-PCR. Food intake was similar in the 3 groups, although mice fed the TRANS diet gained less weight than those receiving the PUFA diet. Compared with the PUFA- and SFA-fed mice, TRANS-fed mice had greater plasma total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) concentrations, less epididymal and subcutaneous fat, larger livers with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH)-like lesions, and greater liver TC and TG concentrations. Macrosteatosis in TRANS-fed mice was associated with a higher homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA(IR)) index and upregulated mRNA related to hepatic fatty acid synthesis (SREBP-1c and PPARgamma) and to downregulated MTP mRNA. Diet consumption did not alter hepatic mRNA related to fatty acid oxidation (PPARalpha and CPT-1). In conclusion, compared with PUFA- and SFA-fed mice, TRANS-fed mice had less adiposity, impaired glucose tolerance characterized by greater HOMA(IR) index, and NASH-like lesions due to greater hepatic lipogenesis. These results demonstrate the role of trans fatty acid intake on the development of key features of metabolic syndrome.

  15. Intra- and trans-generational costs of reduced female body size caused by food limitation early in life in mites.

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    Andreas Walzer

    Full Text Available Food limitation early in life may be compensated for by developmental plasticity resulting in accelerated development enhancing survival at the expense of small adult body size. However and especially for females in non-matching maternal and offspring environments, being smaller than the standard may incur considerable intra- and trans-generational costs.Here, we evaluated the costs of small female body size induced by food limitation early in life in the sexually size-dimorphic predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis. Females are larger than males. These predators are adapted to exploit ephemeral spider mite prey patches. The intra- and trans-generational effects of small maternal body size manifested in lower maternal survival probabilities, decreased attractiveness for males, and a reduced number and size of eggs compared to standard-sized females. The trans-generational effects of small maternal body size were sex-specific with small mothers producing small daughters but standard-sized sons.Small female body size apparently intensified the well-known costs of sexual activity because mortality of small but not standard-sized females mainly occurred shortly after mating. The disadvantages of small females in mating and egg production may be generally explained by size-associated morphological and physiological constraints. Additionally, size-assortative mate preferences of standard-sized mates may have rendered small females disproportionally unattractive mating partners. We argue that the sex-specific trans-generational effects were due to sexual size dimorphism - females are the larger sex and thus more strongly affected by maternal stress than the smaller males - and to sexually selected lower plasticity of male body size.

  16. Urinary loss of tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates as revealed by metabolomics studies: an underlying mechanism to reduce lipid accretion by whey protein ingestion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillefosse, Haldis H; Clausen, Morten R; Yde, Christian C; Ditlev, Ditte B; Zhang, Xumin; Du, Zhen-Yu; Bertram, Hanne C; Madsen, Lise; Kristiansen, Karsten; Liaset, Bjørn

    2014-05-02

    Whey protein intake is associated with the modulation of energy metabolism and altered body composition both in human subjects and in animals, but the underlying mechanisms are not yet elucidated. We fed obesity-prone C57BL/6J mice high-fat diets with either casein (HF casein) or whey (HF whey) for 6 weeks. At equal energy intake and apparent fat and nitrogen digestibility, mice fed HF whey stored less energy as lipids, evident both as lower white adipose tissue mass and as reduced liver lipids, compared with HF-casein-fed mice. Explorative analyses of 48 h urine, both by (1)H NMR and LC-MS metabolomic platforms, demonstrated higher urinary excretion of tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates citric acid and succinic acid (identified by both platforms), and cis-aconitic acid and isocitric acid (identified by LC-MS platform) in the HF whey, relative to in the HF-casein-fed mice. Targeted LC-MS analyses revealed higher citric acid and cis-aconitic acid concentrations in fed state plasma, but not in liver of HF-whey-fed mice. We propose that enhanced urinary loss of TCA cycle metabolites drain available substrates for anabolic processes, such as lipogenesis, thereby leading to reduced lipid accretion in HF-whey-fed compared to HF-casein-fed mice.

  17. Use of formic acid as reducing agent for application in catalytic reduction of nitrate in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garron, Anthony; Epron, Florence

    2005-08-01

    The reduction of nitrate in nitrogen using bimetallic palladium tin catalysts and hydrogen is an interesting process for water treatment. The aim of the present study is to use formic acid (FA) as a reducing agent and a pH buffer in order to substitute the mixture of hydrogen and carbon dioxide. The catalytic performances of a palladium tin catalyst supported on silica were evaluated in the presence of FA, as a function of the initial acid concentration and of the gas phase (N(2), CO(2), or H(2)). Results were compared to those obtained with hydrogen in the presence of carbon dioxide. Similar mechanisms seem to explain the identical catalytic performances observed with these two reducing agents.

  18. Is there any role of acid reducing gastric surgery in peptic ulcer perforation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nivatvongs, Supanit

    2005-09-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is known to be the prime factor of peptic ulcer disease as well as NSAID usage. Although medical treatment of the bacteria can eliminate the problem for more than 90% of the infected people but the cost of treatment is high then acid reducing gastric surgery still has a definite role. The prevalence of H. pylori in peptic ulcer perferation is still unknown also whether vagotomy and gastrectomy could eradicate H. pylori. Now laparoscopic surgery especially the simple repair of the perforation has became routinely used in many part of the world. So acid reducing gastric surgery is a good choice in chronic user of NSAID and also an option for people who have H. pylori infection.

  19. Performance of one-body reduced density-matrix functionals for the homogeneous electron gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathiotakis, N. N.; Helbig, N.; Gross, E. K. U.

    2007-05-01

    The subject of this study is the exchange-correlation-energy functional of reduced density-matrix functional theory. Approximations of this functional are tested by applying them to the homogeneous electron gas. We find that two approximations recently proposed by Gritsenko , [J. Chem. Phys. 122, 204102 (2005)] yield considerably better correlation energies and momentum distributions than previously known functionals. We introduce modifications to these functionals, which, by construction, reproduce the exact correlation energy of the homogeneous electron gas.

  20. Characterization of Streptococcus oligofermentans sucrose metabolism demonstrates reduced pyruvic and lactic acid production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAO Xu-dong; YUE Lin; GAO Xue-jun

    2011-01-01

    Background Streptococcus (S.) oligofermentans is a newly identified bacteria with a yet to be defined mechanism of sucrose metabolism that results in acid production.This study aimed to investigate the biochemical mechanisms of S.oligoferm-entans glucose metaolism.Methods The S.oligofermentans LMG21532,Lactobacillus (L.) fermentum 38 and the S.S.mutans UA140 were used to characterize sucrose metabolism by measuring lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity and lactic acid production.Continuous dynamics and high performance capillary electrophoresis were used to determine LDH activity and lactic acid production,respectively,from bacteria collected at 0,10 and 30 minutes after cultured in 10% sucrose.Results These analyses demonstrated that LDH activity of the three bacterial strains examined remained stable but significantly different throughout the sucrose fermentation process.The S.o/igofermentans LDH activity ((0.61±0.05) U/mg) was significantly lower than that of L.fermentum ((52.91+8.97) U/mg).In addition,the S.oligofermentans total lactate production ((0.048±0.021) mmol/L) was also significantly lower than that of L.fermentum ((0.958±0.201) mmol/L).Although the S.oligofermentans LDH production was almost double of that produced by S.mutans ((0.32±0.07) U/mg),lactic acid production was approximately one sixth that of S.mutans ((0.296±0.058) mmol/L).Additional tests examining pyruvic acid production (the LDH substrate) demonstrated that lactic acid concentrations correlated with pyruvic acid production.That is,pyruvic acid production by S.oligofermentans was undetectable following sucrose incubation,however,(0.074±t0.024) and (0.175±0.098) mmol/L pyruvic acid were produced by S.mutans and L.fermentum,respectively.Conclusion S.oligofermentans is incapable of fermenting carbohydrates to produce enough pyruvic acid,which results in reduced lactic acid production.

  1. Reduced Burst Release and Enhanced Oral Bioavailability in Shikimic Acid-Loaded Polylactic Acid Submicron Particles by Coaxial Electrospray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Miaomiao; Wang, Yuanwen; Omari-Siaw, Emmanuel; Wang, Shengli; Zhu, Yuan; Xu, Ximing

    2016-08-01

    In this study, using the coaxial electrospray method, we prepared submicron particles of the water-soluble drug shikimic acid (SA) with polylactic acid (PLA) as a polymer, to reduce the burst release and enhance the oral bioavailability. In vitro release study performed in HCl solution (pH 1.2) showed that the coaxial electrospray submicron particles could reduce burst release effect and presented a sustained release profile, compared with free SA and the particles prepared by electrospray method. The absorption of SA in the intestinal tract, studied using an in situ perfusion method in rats, also revealed jejunum as the main absorptive segment followed by duodenum and ileum. Moreover, the SA-loaded particles greatly enhanced the absorption of SA in the tested intestinal segments. The intestinal absorption rate was not enhanced with increasing drug concentration (5-15 μg/mL) which suggested that active transport or facilitated diffusion could play vital role in SA absorption. In addition, the SA-loaded PLA coaxial electrospray particle exhibited a prolonged plasma circulation with enhanced bioavailability after oral administration. In all, the coaxial electrospray technique could provide notable advantages for the oral delivery of SA, thereby enhancing its clinical application.

  2. Inhaled vasopressin increases sociability and reduces body temperature and heart rate in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Linnet; Hicks, Callum; Caminer, Alex; McGregor, Iain S

    2014-08-01

    The neuropeptides vasopressin (AVP) and oxytocin (OT) have therapeutic potential across a range of psychiatric disorders. However, there is uncertainty about the effectiveness of the intranasal route of administration that is often used to deliver these neuropeptides. Recent preclinical studies, typically involving anesthetized or restrained animals, have assessed intranasal AVP or OT effects, and have obtained somewhat inconsistent results. Here we obtained intranasal administration of AVP in rats by nebulizing the peptide (1ml of 5 or 10mg/ml solution) into a small enclosed chamber over a 2min period in which well-habituated, unanesthetized, unrestrained, rats were placed. Rats were immediately removed from the chamber and tested in the social interaction test, or assessed for changes in heart rate and body temperature using biotelemetry. Results showed that rats exposed to nebulized AVP (5 or 10mg/ml) showed increased social proximity (adjacent lying) and decreased anogenital sniffing in the social interaction test. Biotelemetry showed substantial and long lasting (>1h) hypothermic and bradycardic effects of nebulized AVP. These behavioral and physiological effects of nebulized AVP mimic those observed in recent studies with peripherally injected AVP. Plasma AVP concentrations were substantially increased 10min after nebulized AVP, producing levels above those seen with a behaviorally effective injected dose of AVP (0.005mg/kg intraperitoneal). This study thus provides a novel and effective method for neuropeptide administration to rodents.

  3. Ultrapure ajulemic acid has improved CB2 selectivity with reduced CB1 activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepper, Mark A; Zurier, Robert B; Burstein, Sumner H

    2014-07-01

    Ajulemic acid, a side-chain analog of Δ(8)-THC-11-oic acid, was designed as a potent therapeutic agent free of the psychotropic adverse effects typical of most cannabinoids. Subsequent studies of ajulemic acid have yielded widely divergent findings on the occurrence of these adverse effects. To help resolve these discrepancies, we have prepared highly purified ajulemic acid using a different synthetic method than previously reported in the literature and compared its cannabinoid receptor binding constants with those obtained using several other preparations from different sources. Whereas CB2 binding did not vary greatly among all of the samples, the CB1 binding showed a wide range of affinities. The highly purified product (JBT-101) reported here had the weakest affinity for CB1 while the original preparation (HU-239) showed the strongest affinity for CB1. The CB1/CB2 ratio of affinities was 12.3 for JBT-101 whereas that for HU-239 was 0.19, a 65-fold difference. Functional responses such as catalepsy and hypothermia using JBT-101 versus HU-239 displayed reduced CB1 activity in keeping with the receptor binding data. Thus, earlier conclusions on the limited therapeutic index for ajulemic acid need to be reconsidered in the light of the data now obtained using JBT-101.

  4. Zoledronic Acid May Reduce Intraoperative Bleeding in Spinal Tumors: A Prospective Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Between June 2010 and June 2011, 176 patients were divided into 2 groups: a group with spinal metastasis of solid tumors (n=157 and a group with multiple myeloma (n=19. Both groups were further divided into 2 subgroups: a group receiving zoledronic acid before surgery and a control group. The zoledronic acid subgroup of the solid tumors group was group A (n=81, the control subgroup of the solid tumors group was group B (n=76, the zoledronic acid subgroup of the multiple myeloma group was group C (n=10, and the control subgroup of the multiple myeloma group was group D (n=9. The average intraoperative blood loss during spinal surgery was as follows: 1311±691 mL in group A and 1752±740 mL in group B (P=0.000 and 1994±810 mL in group C and 3134±795 mL in group D (P=0.000. Patients receiving zoledronic acid before surgery had significantly less intraoperative bleeding than those who did not receive it. Preoperative use of zoledronic acid can effectively reduce intraoperative bleeding during surgery for the treatment of spinal tumors.

  5. Zoledronic Acid may reduce intraoperative bleeding in spinal tumors: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Juan; Zheng, Wei; Tan, Yan; Hu, Xiao-Yuan; Huang, Quan; Fan, Kai-Hua; Ma, Jie; Xiao, Wen-Jing; Ren, Jian-Dong; Hou, Jun; Xiao, Jian-Ru

    2015-01-01

    Between June 2010 and June 2011, 176 patients were divided into 2 groups: a group with spinal metastasis of solid tumors (n = 157) and a group with multiple myeloma (n = 19). Both groups were further divided into 2 subgroups: a group receiving zoledronic acid before surgery and a control group. The zoledronic acid subgroup of the solid tumors group was group A (n = 81), the control subgroup of the solid tumors group was group B (n = 76), the zoledronic acid subgroup of the multiple myeloma group was group C (n = 10), and the control subgroup of the multiple myeloma group was group D (n = 9). The average intraoperative blood loss during spinal surgery was as follows: 1311 ± 691 mL in group A and 1752 ± 740 mL in group B (P = 0.000) and 1994 ± 810 mL in group C and 3134 ± 795 mL in group D (P = 0.000). Patients receiving zoledronic acid before surgery had significantly less intraoperative bleeding than those who did not receive it. Preoperative use of zoledronic acid can effectively reduce intraoperative bleeding during surgery for the treatment of spinal tumors.

  6. Reduced gamma-aminobutyric acid concentration is associated with physical disability in progressive multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawley, Niamh; Solanky, Bhavana S; Muhlert, Nils; Tur, Carmen; Edden, Richard A E; Wheeler-Kingshott, Claudia A M; Miller, David H; Thompson, Alan J; Ciccarelli, Olga

    2015-09-01

    Neurodegeneration is thought to be the major cause of ongoing, irreversible disability in progressive stages of multiple sclerosis. Gamma-aminobutyric acid is the principle inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain. The aims of this study were to investigate if gamma-aminobutyric acid levels (i) are abnormal in patients with secondary progressive multiple sclerosis compared with healthy controls; and (ii) correlate with physical and cognitive performance in this patient population. Thirty patients with secondary progressive multiple sclerosis and 17 healthy control subjects underwent single-voxel MEGA-PRESS (MEscher-GArwood Point RESolved Spectroscopy) magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 3 T, to quantify gamma-aminobutyric acid levels in the prefrontal cortex, right hippocampus and left sensorimotor cortex. All subjects were assessed clinically and underwent a cognitive assessment. Multiple linear regression models were used to compare differences in gamma-aminobutyric acid concentrations between patients and controls adjusting for age, gender and tissue fractions within each spectroscopic voxel. Regression was used to examine the relationships between the cognitive function and physical disability scores specific for these regions with gamma-aminobuytric acid levels, adjusting for age, gender, and total N-acetyl-aspartate and glutamine-glutamate complex levels. When compared with controls, patients performed significantly worse on all motor and sensory tests, and were cognitively impaired in processing speed and verbal memory. Patients had significantly lower gamma-aminobutyric acid levels in the hippocampus (adjusted difference = -0.403 mM, 95% confidence intervals -0.792, -0.014, P = 0.043) and sensorimotor cortex (adjusted difference = -0.385 mM, 95% confidence intervals -0.667, -0.104, P = 0.009) compared with controls. In patients, reduced motor function in the right upper and lower limb was associated with lower gamma-aminobutyric acid concentration in the

  7. Overexpression of Jazf1 reduces body weight gain and regulates lipid metabolism in high fat diet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Woo Young; Bae, Ki Beom; Kim, Sung Hyun; Yu, Dong Hun; Kim, Hei Jung; Ji, Young Rae; Park, Seo Jin; Park, Si Jun; Kang, Min-Cheol; Jeong, Ja In [School of Life Science and Biotechnology, Kyungpook National University, 1370 Sankyuk-dong, Buk-ku, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sang-Joon [College of Veterinary Medicine, Kyungpook National University, 1370 Sankyuk-dong, Buk-ku, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang Gyu [School of Life Science and Biotechnology, Kyungpook National University, 1370 Sankyuk-dong, Buk-ku, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Inkyu [School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, 680 Gukchaebosang-ro, Jung-gu, Daegu 700-842 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Myoung Ok [School of Animal BT Sciences, Sangju Campus, Kyungpook National University, 386 Gajang-dong, Sangju, Gyeongsangbuk-do 742-211 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Duhak, E-mail: dhyoon@knu.ac.kr [School of Animal BT Sciences, Sangju Campus, Kyungpook National University, 386 Gajang-dong, Sangju, Gyeongsangbuk-do 742-211 (Korea, Republic of); Ryoo, Zae Young, E-mail: jaewoong64@hanmail.net [School of Life Science and Biotechnology, Kyungpook National University, 1370 Sankyuk-dong, Buk-ku, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-02-14

    Highlights: • The expression of Jazf1 in the liver suppressed lipid accumulation. • Jazf1 significantly increases transcription of fatty acid synthase. • Jazf1 plays a critical role in the regulation of energy and lipid homeostasis. • Jazf1 associates the development of metabolic disorder. • Jazf1 may provide a new therapeutic target in the management of metabolic disorder. - Abstract: Jazf1 is a 27 kDa nuclear protein containing three putative zinc finger motifs that is associated with diabetes mellitus and prostate cancer; however, little is known about the role that this gene plays in regulation of metabolism. Recent evidence indicates that Jazf1 transcription factors bind to the nuclear orphan receptor TR4. This receptor regulates PEPCK, the key enzyme involved in gluconeogenesis. To elucidate Jazf1’s role in metabolism, we fed a 60% fat diet for up to 15 weeks. In Jazf1 overexpression mice, weight gain was found to be significantly decreased. The expression of Jazf1 in the liver also suppressed lipid accumulation and decreased droplet size. These results suggest that Jazf1 plays a critical role in the regulation of lipid homeostasis. Finally, Jazf1 may provide a new therapeutic target in the management of obesity and diabetes.

  8. Mitochondrial TCA cycle intermediates regulate body fluid and acid-base balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peti-Peterdi, János

    2013-07-01

    Intrarenal control mechanisms play an important role in the maintenance of body fluid and electrolyte balance and pH homeostasis. Recent discoveries of new ion transport and regulatory pathways in the distal nephron and collecting duct system have helped to better our understanding of these critical kidney functions and identified new potential therapeutic targets and approaches. In this issue of the JCI, Tokonami et al. report on the function of an exciting new paracrine mediator, the mitochondrial the citric acid(TCA) cycle intermediate α-ketoglutarate (αKG), which via its OXGR1 receptor plays an unexpected, nontraditional role in the adaptive regulation of renal HCO(3⁻) secretion and salt reabsorption.

  9. Novel Dental Cement to Combat Biofilms and Reduce Acids for Orthodontic Applications to Avoid Enamel Demineralization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Zhang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Orthodontic treatments often lead to biofilm buildup and white spot lesions due to enamel demineralization. The objectives of this study were to develop a novel bioactive orthodontic cement to prevent white spot lesions, and to determine the effects of cement compositions on biofilm growth and acid production. 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC, nanoparticles of silver (NAg, and dimethylaminohexadecyl methacrylate (DMAHDM were incorporated into a resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGI. Enamel shear bond strength (SBS was determined. Protein adsorption was determined using a micro bicinchoninic acid method. A dental plaque microcosm biofilm model with human saliva as inoculum was used to investigate metabolic activity, colony-forming units (CFU and lactic acid production. Incorporating 3% of MPC, 1.5% of DMAHDM, and 0.1% of NAg into RMGI, and immersing in distilled water at 37 °C for 30 days, did not decrease the SBS, compared to control (p > 0.1. RMGI with 3% MPC + 1.5% DMAHDM + 0.1% NAg had protein amount that was 1/10 that of control. RMGI with triple agents (MPC + DMAHDM + NAg had much stronger antibacterial property than using a single agent or double agents (p < 0.05. Biofilm CFU on RMGI with triple agents was reduced by more than 3 orders of magnitude, compared to commercial control. Biofilm metabolic activity and acid production were also greatly reduced. In conclusion, adding MPC + DMAHDM + NAg in RMGI substantially inhibited biofilm viability and acid production, without compromising the orthodontic bracket bond strength to enamel. The novel bioactive cement is promising for orthodontic applications to hinder biofilms and plaque buildup and enamel demineralization.

  10. ROLE OF TRANEXAMIC ACID IN REDUCING POSTOPERATIVE BLOOD LOSS AND TRANSFUSION REQUIREMENT IN PATIENTS UNDERGOING LOWER LIMB ORTHOPEDIC SURGERIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yashwant

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Aim of our study to assess the effects of tranexamic acid (TA in patients undergoing lower limb orthopedic surgeries. OBJECTIVE: Assess the effects of tranexamic acid on prevention of bleeding and requirement of blood transfusion after major lower limb orthopedic surgeries. MATERIAL AND METHOD: 90 patients ASA grade I & II undergoing elective surgery for femoral fracture like open reduction internal fixation, hemiarthroplasty, total hip replacement (THR under anaesthesia were taken. Patients were classified randomly into 2 groups (forty five patients in each group. Group T: Patients received inj. TA 10 mg/kg body weight. Group P: Patients received normal saline 1 ml/kg body weight 15 min before surgery. Postoperative hemoglobin concentration (on day 0 and day 2 and volume of blood in the drain were measured. The number of units of packed red cells transfused during the hospital stay was recorded and any thromboembolic and other complications were documented. RESULT: Analysis revealed that there were no significant differences between the patients with respect to age, sex, duration and type of surgery and preoperative mean hemoglobin concentration. Neither heart rate nor MABP has statistically significant difference or results (P>0.05. The drains were removed in the evening of the first postoperative day. Mean volume of blood in the drain compared to placebo group showing a highly significant reduction in postoperative blood loss (P=0.01. Mean fall in hemoglobin at day 0 and day 2 was 2 less in the study group as compared to the placebo that has P value 0.01 making it significant finding. CONCLUSION: the present paired study demonstrated that the administration of TA given preoperatively reduces the blood loss in the first 24 h by a highly significant degree as well it causes a significant reduction in postoperative anemia and need for transfusion among these patients.

  11. The Effect of Reduced Physical Activity and Retraining on Blood Lipids and Body Composition in Young and Older Adult Men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørregaard, Jesper; Gram, Martin; Vigelsø, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    We studied the effect of physical inactivity and subsequent re-training on cardiovascular risk factors in seventeen young (Y; 23.4±0.5) and fifteen older adult (O; 68.1±1.1 yrs.) men who underwent 14 days of one leg immobilization followed by six weeks of training. Body weight remained unchanged....... Daily physical activity decreased by 31±9 (Y) and 37±9 (O) % (P... increased with reduced activity (Pphysical activity for two weeks increases blood lipids in both Y and O men. Six weeks of training improved...

  12. Omega-3 fatty acid deficiency during brain maturation reduces neuronal and behavioral plasticity in adulthood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harsharan Singh Bhatia

    Full Text Available Omega-3-fatty acid DHA is a structural component of brain plasma membranes, thereby crucial for neuronal signaling; however, the brain is inefficient at synthesizing DHA. We have asked how levels of dietary n-3 fatty acids during brain growth would affect brain function and plasticity during adult life. Pregnant rats and their male offspring were fed an n-3 adequate diet or n-3 deficient diets for 15 weeks. Results showed that the n-3 deficiency increased parameters of anxiety-like behavior using open field and elevated plus maze tests in the male offspring. Behavioral changes were accompanied by a level reduction in the anxiolytic-related neuropeptide Y-1 receptor, and an increase in the anxiogenic-related glucocorticoid receptor in the cognitive related frontal cortex, hypothalamus and hippocampus. The n-3 deficiency reduced brain levels of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA and increased the ratio n-6/n-3 assessed by gas chromatography. The n-3 deficiency reduced the levels of BDNF and signaling through the BDNF receptor TrkB, in proportion to brain DHA levels, and reduced the activation of the BDNF-related signaling molecule CREB in selected brain regions. The n-3 deficiency also disrupted the insulin signaling pathways as evidenced by changes in insulin receptor (IR and insulin receptor substrate (IRS. DHA deficiency during brain maturation reduces plasticity and compromises brain function in adulthood. Adequate levels of dietary DHA seem crucial for building long-term neuronal resilience for optimal brain performance and aiding in the battle against neurological disorders.

  13. Effects of alfa-hydroxy-isocaproic acid on body composition, DOMS and performance in athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karila Tuomo AM

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alfa-Hydroxy-isocaproic acid (HICA is an end product of leucine metabolism in human tissues such as muscle and connective tissue. According to the clinical and experimental studies, HICA can be considered as an anti-catabolic substance. The present study investigated the effects of HICA supplementation on body composition, delayed onset of muscle soreness (DOMS and physical performance of athletes during a training period. Methods Fifteen healthy male soccer players (age 22.1+/-3.9 yr volunteered for the 4-week double-blind study during an intensive training period. The subjects in the group HICA (n = 8 received 583 mg of sodium salt of HICA (corresponding 500 mg of HICA mixed with liquid three times a day for 4 weeks, and those in the group PLACEBO (n = 7 received 650 mg of maltodextrin mixed with liquid three times a day for the same period. According to a weekly training schedule, they practiced soccer 3 - 4 times a week, had strength training 1 - 2 times a week, and had one soccer game during the study. The subjects were required to keep diaries on training, nutrition, and symptoms of DOMS. Body composition was evaluated with a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA before and after the 4-week period. Muscle strength and running velocity were measured with field tests. Results As compared to placebo, the HICA supplementation increased significantly body weight (p th week of the treatment (p Conclusion Already a 4-week HICA supplementation of 1.5 g a day leads to small increases in muscle mass during an intensive training period in soccer athletes.

  14. Pharmacokinetics of reduced iso-α-acids in volunteers following clear bottled beer consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodda, Luke N; Gerostamoulos, Dimitri; Drummer, Olaf H

    2015-05-01

    Reduced iso-α-acids (reduced IAA) consisting of the rho-, tetrahydro- and hexahydro-IAA groups (RIAA, TIAA and HIAA, respectively) are ingredient congeners specific to beer and generally found in clear and also occasionally green bottled beer. Concentrations of reduced IAA were determined in the blood and urine of five volunteers over 6h following the consumption of small volumes of beer containing each of the reduced IAA. The reduced IAA were absorbed and bioavailable with peak concentrations at 0.5h followed by a drop of generally fivefold by 2h. Preliminary pharmacokinetics of these compounds in humans shows relatively small inter-individual differences and an estimated short half-life varying between ∼38 and 46min for the three groups. Comparison of RIAA analyte ratios within the group indicate that some analytes eliminate relatively faster than others and the formation of metabolite products was observed. Preliminary urine analysis showed only unmodified RIAA analytes were detectable throughout 6h and suggests extensive phase I metabolism of TIAA and HIAA analytes. In authentic forensic casework where clear or green bottled beers are consumed, the identification of reduced IAA groups may provide a novel method to target ingredient congeners consistent with beer ingestion and suggest the type of beer consumed.

  15. [Simultaneous whole-body PET-MRI in pediatric oncology : More than just reducing radiation?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatidis, S; Gückel, B; la Fougère, C; Schmitt, J; Schäfer, J F

    2016-07-01

    Diagnostic imaging plays an essential role in pediatric oncology with regard to diagnosis, therapy-planning, and the follow-up of solid tumors. The current imaging standard in pediatric oncology includes a variety of radiological and nuclear medicine imaging modalities depending on the specific tumor entity. The introduction of combined simultaneous positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has opened up new diagnostic options in pediatric oncology. This novel modality combines the excellent anatomical accuracy of MRI with the metabolic information of PET. In initial clinical studies, the technical feasibility and possible diagnostic advantages of combined PET-MRI have been in comparison with alternative imaging techniques. It was shown that a reduction in radiation exposure of up to 70 % is achievable compared with PET-CT. Furthermore, it has been shown that the number of imaging studies necessary can be markedly reduced using combined PET-MRI. Owing to its limited availability, combined PET-MRI is currently not used as a routine procedure. However, this new modality has the potential to become the imaging reference standard in pediatric oncology in the future. This review article summarizes the central aspects of pediatric oncological PET-MRI based on existing literature. Typical pediatric oncological PET-MRI cases are also presented.

  16. Selective Glucocorticoid Receptor (GR-II Antagonist Reduces Body Weight Gain in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoko Asagami

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has shown that mifepristone can prevent and reverse weight gain in animals and human subjects taking antipsychotic medications. This proof-of-concept study tested whether a more potent and selective glucocorticoid receptor antagonist could block dietary-induced weight gain and increase insulin sensitivity in mice. Ten-week-old, male, C57BL/6J mice were fed a diet containing 60% fat calories and water supplemented with 11% sucrose for 4 weeks. Groups (=8 received one of the following: CORT 108297 (80 mg/kg QD, CORT 108297 (40 mg/kg BID, mifepristone (30 mg/kg BID, rosiglitazone (10 mg/kg QD, or vehicle. Compared to mice receiving a high-fat, high-sugar diet plus vehicle, mice receiving a high-fat, high-sugar diet plus either mifepristone or CORT 108297 gained significantly less weight. At the end of the four week treatment period, mice receiving CORT 108297 40 mg/kg BID or CORT 108297 80 mg/kg QD also had significantly lower steady plasma glucose than mice receiving vehicle. However, steady state plasma glucose after treatment was not highly correlated with reduced weight gain, suggesting that the effect of the glucocorticoid receptor antagonist on insulin sensitivity may be independent of its mitigating effect on weight gain.

  17. Acidic mist reduces foliar membrane-associated calcium and impairs stomatal responsiveness in red spruce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borer, C. H.; DeHayes, D. H. [University of Vermont, Rubinstein School of Environment and Natural Resources, Burlington, VT (United States); Schaberg, P. G. [USDA Forest Service, Northeastern Research Station, South Burlington, VT (United States)

    2005-06-01

    The possibility of impairment of stomatal responsiveness due to acidic mist-induced depletion of foliar membrane calcium (mCa) was investigated by exposing red spruce seedlings to either pH 3.0 or pH 5.0 mist treatments for one growing season. Foliar nutrition was assessed following each treatment, and declines in stomatal conductance and net photosynthesis were measured on current year shoots following stem excision. Seedlings subjected to pH 3.0 acidic mist treatment had reduced mCa, and exhibited impaired stomatal function, including a smaller maximum aperture, slower closure, increased lag time between stomatal closure and photosynthetic decline following experimental water stress, relative to seedling treated with pH 5.0 acidic mist. The evidence supports the hypothesis that anthropogenetically caused depletion of mCa may disrupt physiological processes that depend on foliar Ca, in the process reducing the plants ability to respond adaptively to environmental stresses. 69 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig.

  18. Porcine peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta mediates the lipolytic effects of dietary fish oil to reduce body fat deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Y H; Wang, P H; Cheng, W T K; Mersmann, H J; Wu, S C; Ding, S T

    2010-06-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta promotes fatty acid catabolism and energy expenditure in skeletal muscle and adipose tissues. A ligand for PPARdelta is required to activate PPARdelta function. Polyunsaturated fatty acids are potential ligands for PPARdelta activation. The current experiment was designed to determine the potential for PUFA, particularly from dietary fish oil, to activate porcine PPARdelta in vivo. Transgenic mice were generated to overexpress porcine PPARdelta in the adipose tissue. Mice were fed a high-saturated fat (13% beef tallow), or high-unsaturated fat (13% fish oil) diet, or a diet containing 4 mg/kg of a PPARdelta ligand (L165041) for 4 mo. Compared with beef tallow feeding, fish oil feeding reduced fat mass and decreased (P lipase and adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein) was decreased in transgenic mice fed fish oil or the PPARdelta ligand. In the same mice, expression of the lipolytic gene, hormone-sensitive lipase was increased (P Fish oil feeding also stimulated expression of genes participating in fatty acid oxidation in the liver of transgenic mice compared with wild-type mice. Overall, these results indicate that PUFA may serve as natural and effective regulators of lipid catabolism in vivo and many of these effects may be generated from activation of PPARdelta.

  19. The impact of acid sulphate soils on water bodies and fish deaths in Finland; Happamien sulfaattimaiden aiheuttamat vesistoevaikutukset ja kalakuolemat Suomessa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutela, T.; Vuori, K.-M.; Louhi, P. [and others

    2012-05-15

    We have compiled in this review a comprehensive presentation of the impacts of acid sulphate soils (ASS) on water quality, biota, and fish kills in Finnish water bodies. This review is a result of extensive collaboration among research scientists in connection with the CATERMASS project co-ordinated by the Finnish Environment Institute (SYKE). Acid sulphate soils were formed in the eutrophic coastal waters of the Baltic Sea 4,000-8,000 years ago as microbes reduced the sulphate contained in saline seawater into sulphide. Sulphide clay soils emerging through land uplift have since been reclaimed and drained for cultivation use. Sulphur released in the resultant oxidation process reacted with soil water to form sulphuric acid, which draws toxic metals such as aluminium, cadmium, and copper from the soil. Heavy rains and the waters of springtime thawing transported acids and metals to the water bodies. In recent decades, the drainage depth of fields has increased because of the growing popularity of subterranean drainage methods, thus exacerbating the adverse ASS impacts on water bodies. Acidity and the attendant proliferation of toxic forms of metals induce changes in all organism groups of water biota, among them fish, macroinvertebrates, macrophytes, and bottom algae. On the specimen level, malformations have been discovered, such as structural pupae impairment in aquatic insects. The defence mechanism employed by fish against harmful substances in the surrounding water is to increase mucus exudation in the gills, which results in reduced respiration function. Exposure to acidity and metals harms the reproduction cycle of fish by delaying the development of follicles into mature eggs and by hindering eggs' fertilisation and embryo development. On the biota level, the manifestation of ASS impact is often the absence of the species or species groups most vulnerable to acidity. The species of river fish that are vulnerable to acidity include, for example

  20. Neuroprotection of lipoic acid treatment promotes angiogenesis and reduces the glial scar formation after brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocamonde, B; Paradells, S; Barcia, J M; Barcia, C; García Verdugo, J M; Miranda, M; Romero Gómez, F J; Soria, J M

    2012-11-01

    After trauma brain injury, a large number of cells die, releasing neurotoxic chemicals into the extracellular medium, decreasing cellular glutathione levels and increasing reactive oxygen species that affect cell survival and provoke an enlargement of the initial lesion. Alpha-lipoic acid is a potent antioxidant commonly used as a treatment of many degenerative diseases such as multiple sclerosis or diabetic neuropathy. Herein, the antioxidant effects of lipoic acid treatment after brain cryo-injury in rat have been studied, as well as cell survival, proliferation in the injured area, gliogenesis and angiogenesis. Thus, it is shown that newborn cells, mostly corresponded with blood vessels and glial cells, colonized the damaged area 15 days after the lesion. However, lipoic acid was able to stimulate the synthesis of glutathione, decrease cell death, promote angiogenesis and decrease the glial scar formation. All those facts allow the formation of new neural tissue. In view of the results herein, lipoic acid might be a plausible pharmacological treatment after brain injury, acting as a neuroprotective agent of the neural tissue, promoting angiogenesis and reducing the glial scar formation. These findings open new possibilities for restorative strategies after brain injury, stroke or related disorders.

  1. Evolution of the insect body plan as revealed by the Sex combs reduced expression pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, B T; Peterson, M D; Kaufman, T C

    1997-01-01

    The products of the HOM/Hox homeotic genes form a set of evolutionarily conserved transcription factors that control elaborate developmental processes and specify cell fates in many metazoans. We examined the expression of the ortholog of the homeotic gene Sex combs reduced (Scr) of Drosophila melanogaster in insects of three divergent orders: Hemiptera, Orthoptera and Thysanura. Our data reflect how the conservation and variation of Scr expression has affected the morphological evolution of insects. Whereas the anterior epidermal expression of Scr, in a small part of the posterior maxillary and all of the labial segment, is found to be in common among all four insect orders, the posterior (thoracic) expression domains vary. Unlike what is observed in flies, the Scr orthologs of other insects are not expressed broadly over the first thoracic segment, but are restricted to small patches. We show here that Scr is required for suppression of wings on the prothorax of Drosophila. Moreover, Scr expression at the dorsal base of the prothoracic limb in two other winged insects, crickets (Orthoptera) and milkweed bugs (Hemiptera), is consistent with Scr acting as a suppressor of prothoracic wings in these insects. Scr is also expressed in a small patch of cells near the basitarsal-tibial junction of milkweed bugs, precisely where a leg comb develops, suggesting that Scr promotes comb formation, as it does in Drosophila. Surprisingly, the dorsal prothoracic expression of Scr is also present in the primitively wingless firebrat (Thysanura) and the leg patch is seen in crickets, which have no comb. Mapping both gene expression patterns and morphological characters onto the insect phylogenetic tree demonstrates that in the cases of wing suppression and comb formation the appearance of expression of Scr in the prothorax apparently precedes these specific functions.

  2. Vertebral lesion distribution in multiple myeloma - assessed by reduced-dose whole-body MDCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bier, Georg; Kloth, Christopher; Schabel, Christoph; Bongers, Malte; Nikolaou, Konstantin; Horger, Marius [Eberhard-Karls-University Tuebingen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany)

    2016-01-15

    To observe the distribution and potential distribution patterns of osteolytic and sclerotic vertebral involvement in a representative collective of multiple myeloma patients. A total of 66 consecutive patients with a diagnosis of multiple myeloma at initial diagnosis or during follow-up were examined by multidetector reduced-dose computed tomography to evaluate the distribution of bone lesions along the spine with focus on size, location, and lesion character. Confirmation of diagnosis was performed by comparison to follow-up computed tomography or magnetic resonance tomography. If >50 % of all detected malignant lesions occurred in one spinal segment, the distribution pattern was called cervical, thoracic, lumbar, or sacral, otherwise a ''mixed'' pattern was classified. Of a total number of 933 osseous spine lesions, 632 (67.7 %) were classified as malignant (98.9 % of them osteolytic) and 293 (31.5 %) as benign. The distribution pattern analysis yielded two patients (3.8 %) with a cervical, 26 (50 %) with a thoracic, 4 (7.7 %) with a lumbar, one (1.9 %) with a sacral pattern, and 19 cases (36.6 %) showed a mixed distribution pattern. Segment-wise, the mean lesion size was 6.52 ± 2.76 mm (cervical), 8.97 ± 5.43 mm (thoracic), 11.97 ± 7.11 mm (lumbar), and 17.5 ± 16.465 (sacral), whilst, related to the vertebra size, the lesion/vertebra size ratio is decreasing through the whole spine beginning from the top. Multiple myeloma bone lesions occur preferably and are larger in the thoracic and lumbar spine. Moreover, a specific distribution pattern is present in about 60 %. (orig.)

  3. An Assessment of the Intestinal Lumen as a Site for Intervention in Reducing Body Burdens of Organochlorine Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald J. Jandacek

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Many individuals maintain a persistent body burden of organochlorine compounds (OCs as well as other lipophilic compounds, largely as a result of airborne and dietary exposures. Ingested OCs are typically absorbed from the small intestine along with dietary lipids. Once in the body, stored OCs can mobilize from adipose tissue storage sites and, along with circulating OCs, are delivered into the small intestine via hepatic processing and biliary transport. Retained OCs are also transported into both the large and small intestinal lumen via non-biliary mechanisms involving both secretion and desquamation from enterocytes. OCs and some other toxicants can be reabsorbed from the intestine, however, they take part in enterohepatic circulation(EHC. While dietary fat facilitates the absorption of OCs from the small intestine, it has little effect on OCs within the large intestine. Non-absorbable dietary fats and fat absorption inhibitors, however, can reduce the re-absorption of OCs and other lipophiles involved in EHC and may enhance the secretion of these compounds into the large intestine—thereby hastening their elimination. Clinical studies are currently underway to determine the efficacy of using non-absorbable fats and inhibitors of fat absorption in facilitating the elimination of persistent body burdens of OCs and other lipophilic human contaminants.

  4. Baker's Yeast Deficient in Storage Lipid Synthesis Uses cis-Vaccenic Acid to Reduce Unsaturated Fatty Acid Toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sec, Peter; Garaiova, Martina; Gajdos, Peter; Certik, Milan; Griac, Peter; Hapala, Ivan; Holic, Roman

    2015-07-01

    The role of cis-vaccenic acid (18:1n-7) in the reduction of unsaturated fatty acids toxicity was investigated in baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The quadruple mutant (QM, dga1Δ lro1Δ are1Δ are2Δ) deficient in enzymes responsible for triacylglycerol and steryl ester synthesis has been previously shown to be highly sensitive to exogenous unsaturated fatty acids. We have found that cis-vaccenic acid accumulated during cultivation in the QM cells but not in the corresponding wild type strain. This accumulation was accompanied by a reduction in palmitoleic acid (16:1n-7) content in the QM cells that is consistent with the proposed formation of cis-vaccenic acid by elongation of palmitoleic acid. Fatty acid analysis of individual lipid classes from the QM strain revealed that cis-vaccenic acid was highly enriched in the free fatty acid pool. Furthermore, production of cis-vaccenic acid was arrested if the mechanism of fatty acids release to the medium was activated. We also showed that exogenous cis-vaccenic acid did not affect viability of the QM strain at concentrations toxic for palmitoleic or oleic acids. Moreover, addition of cis-vaccenic acid to the growth medium provided partial protection against the lipotoxic effects of exogenous oleic acid. Transformation of palmitoleic acid to cis-vaccenic acid is thus a rescue mechanism enabling S. cerevisiae cells to survive in the absence of triacylglycerol synthesis as the major mechanism for unsaturated fatty acid detoxification.

  5. Reducing occupational risk for blood and body fluid exposure among home care aides: an intervention effectiveness study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amuwo, Shakirudeen; Lipscomb, Jane; McPhaul, Kathleen; Sokas, Rosemary K

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this quasi-experimental pretest/posttest research study was to examine the effectiveness of an intervention designed through a participatory process to reduce blood and body fluid exposure among home care aides. Employer A, the intervention site, was a large agency with approximately 1,200 unionized home care aides. Employer B, the comparison group, was a medium-sized agency with approximately 200 home care aides. The intervention was developed in partnership with labor and management and included a 1-day educational session utilizing peer educators and active learning methods to increase awareness about the risks for occupational exposure to blood and body fluids among home care aides and a follow-up session introducing materials to facilitate communication with clients about safe sharps disposal. Self-administered preintervention and postintervention questionnaires identifying knowledge about and self-reported practices to reduce bloodborne pathogen exposure were completed in person during mandatory training sessions 18 months apart. Home care aides in the intervention group for whom the preintervention and postintervention questionnaires could be directly matched reported an increase in their clients' use of proper sharps containers (31.9% pre to 52.2% post; p = .033). At follow-up, the intervention group as a whole also reported increased use of sharps containers among their clients when compared to controls (p = .041).

  6. Extended lifespan, reduced body size and leg skeletal muscle mass, and decreased mitochondrial function in clk-1 transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Kazuhide; Noda, Yoshihiro; Ohsawa, Ikuroh; Shirasawa, Takuji; Takahashi, Mayumi

    2014-10-01

    Mutational inactivation of clk-1, which encodes an enzyme necessary for the biosynthesis of coenzyme Q (CoQ), extends the lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans. However, whether mammalian clk-1 regulates the lifespan of mice is not known because clk-1-deficiencies are embryonic lethal. Here, we investigated the lifespan of clk-1 transgenic mice (Tg96/I), which were rescued from embryonic lethality via the transgenic expression of mouse clk-1. Tg96/I mice lived longer and had smaller bodies than wild-type mice, but Tg96/I mice had CoQ levels equivalent to wild-type mice. The small-sized Tg96/I mice exhibited reduced whole-body oxygen consumption (VO2) during the dark period, and lean leg skeletal muscles with reduced mitochondrial VO2 and ATP content compared with wild-type mice. These findings indicate a close relationship between lifespan extension and decreased mitochondrial function, which was induced by the transgenic expression of clk-1, in leg skeletal muscles that exhibit high metabolic activity.

  7. Chenodeoxycholic Acid Reduces Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1α Protein and Its Target Genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunwon Moon

    Full Text Available This study evaluated HIF-1α inhibitors under different hypoxic conditions, physiological hypoxia (5% O2 and severe hypoxia (0.1% O2. We found that chenodeoxy cholic acid (CDCA reduced the amount of HIF-1α protein only under physiological hypoxia but not under severe hypoxia without decreasing its mRNA level. By using a proteasome inhibitor MG132 and a translation inhibitor cyclohexamide, we showed that CDCA reduced HIF-1α protein by decreasing its translation but not by enhancing its degradation. The following findings indicated that farnesoid X receptor (FXR, a CDCA receptor and its target gene, Small heterodimer partner (SHP are not involved in this effect of CDCA. Distinctly from CDCA, MG132 prevented SHP and an exogenous FXR agonist, GW4064 from reducing HIF-1α protein. Furthermore a FXR antagonist, guggulsterone failed to prevent CDCA from decreasing HIF-1α protein. Furthermore, guggulsterone by itself reduced HIF-1α protein even in the presence of MG132. These findings suggested that CDCA and guggulsterone reduced the translation of HIF-1α in a mechanism which FXR and SHP are not involved. This study reveals novel therapeutic functions of traditional nontoxic drugs, CDCA and guggulsterone, as inhibitors of HIF-1α protein.

  8. α-linolenic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, alone and combined with trastuzumab, reduce HER2-overexpressing breast cancer cell growth but differentially regulate HER2 signaling pathways

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Background Diets rich in the n-3 fatty acid alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) have been shown to reduce breast tumor growth, enhance the effectiveness of the HER2-targeted drug trastuzumab (TRAS) and reduce HER2 signaling in mouse models. It is unclear whether this is due to direct effects of ALA or due to its long-chain n-3 fatty acids metabolites including docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Methods The ability of HER2-overexpressing BT-474 human breast cancer cells to convert ALA to long-chain n-3 fatty ...

  9. Effect of conjugated linoleic acid supplementation on body composition, body fat mobilization, protein accretion, and energy utilization in early lactation dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Soosten, D; Meyer, U; Piechotta, M; Flachowsky, G; Dänicke, S

    2012-03-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the effects of trans-10,cis-12 and cis-9,trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) supplementation on body composition, mobilization or accretion of body fat and protein mass, as well as the energy metabolism of dairy cows during the first 105 d in milk (DIM). For this purpose, a comparative slaughter experiment was conducted with 25 primiparous German Holstein cows. The experiment started at 1 DIM with the slaughter of 5 animals of an initial group receiving no CLA supplement. The remaining animals were fed a CLA supplement (n=10) or a stearic acid-based control fat supplement (CON; n=10) from 1 DIM up to slaughter. After 42 DIM, 5 more cows from each treatment (42-CLA and 42-CON) were slaughtered. The remaining 5 cows in each treatment were slaughtered after 105 DIM (105-CLA and 105-CON). The animals of the CLA groups consumed 6.0 g/d of trans-10,cis-12 CLA and 5.7 g/d of cis-9,trans-11 CLA. During the slaughter process, the empty body mass was recorded and partitioned into 9 fractions (meat, bone, offal, hide, mammary gland, retroperitoneal fat, omental fat, mesenteric fat, and s.c. fat). The fractions were analyzed for dry matter, ether extract, crude protein, and ash to calculate the body composition of the empty body mass at the different slaughter times. The principle of the comparative slaughter technique was applied to estimate body fat or protein mobilization and accretion in the viewed periods from 1 DIM until 42 and 105 DIM. The heat production (HP) was calculated by subtracting the energy in milk and energy changes in body mass from the metabolizable energy intake. The body composition was not affected by CLA supplementation. However, the mobilization of body fat mass from 1 until 42 DIM was 24.1 kg in the 42-CON group and 14.3 kg in the 42-CLA group. This resulted in a trend to lower body mass (fat and protein) mobilization of 10.5 kg in the 42-CLA group. Energy mobilization from body mass was 21.2 MJ/d in

  10. Acid-reducing vagotomy is associated with reduced risk of subsequent ischemic heart disease in complicated peptic ulcer: An Asian population study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shih-Chi; Fang, Chu-Wen; Chen, William Tzu-Liang; Muo, Chih-Hsin

    2016-12-01

    Persistent exacerbation of a peptic ulcer may lead to a complicated peptic ulcer (perforation or/and bleeding). The management of complicated peptic ulcers has shifted from acid-reducing vagotomy, drainage, and gastrectomy to simple local suture or non-operative (endoscopic/angiographic) hemostasis. We were interested in the long-term effects of this trend change. In this study, complicated peptic ulcer patients who received acid-reducing vagotomy were compared with those who received simple suture/hemostasis to determine the risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD).This retrospective cohort study analyzed 335,680 peptic ulcer patients recorded from 2000 to 2006 versus 335,680 age-, sex-, comorbidity-, and index-year matched comparisons. Patients with Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection were excluded. In order to identify the effect of vagus nerve severance, patients who received gastrectomy or antrectomy were also excluded. The incidence of IHD in both cohorts, and in the complicated peptic ulcer patients who received acid-reducing vagotomy versus those who received simple suture or hemostasis was evaluated.The overall incidence of IHD was higher in patients with peptic ulcer than those without peptic ulcer (17.00 vs 12.06 per 1000 person-years), with an adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) of 1.46 based on multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression analysis controlling for age, sex, Charlson's comorbidity index, and death (competing risk). While comparing peptic ulcer patients with acid-reducing vagotomy to those with simple suture/hemostasis or those without surgical treatment, the aHR (0.58) was the lowest in the acid-reducing vagotomy group.Patients with peptic ulcer have an elevated risk of IHD. However, complicated peptic ulcer patients who received acid-reducing vagotomy were associated with reduced risk of developing IHD.

  11. Evidence that Self-Affirmation Reduces Body Dissatisfaction by Basing Self-Esteem on Domains Other than Body Weight and Shape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armitage, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Body satisfaction interventions have typically been multifaceted and targeted at clinical populations. The aim of the present research was to isolate the effects of self-affirmation on body satisfaction in a community sample and to see whether self-affirmation works by basing one's self-esteem on domains other than body weight and…

  12. Boric acid reduces axonal and myelin damage in experimental sciatic nerve injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zahir Kzlay; Haydar Ali Erken; Nesibe Kahraman etin; Serdar Akta; Burin rem Abas; Ali Ylmaz

    2016-01-01

    hTe aim of this study was to investigate the effects of boric acid in experimental acute sciatic nerve injury. Twenty-eight adult male rats were randomly divided into four equal groups (n = 7): control (C), boric acid (BA), sciatic nerve injury (I) , and sciatic nerve injury + boric acid treatment (BAI). Sciatic nerve injury was generated using a Yasargil aneurysm clip in the groups I and BAI. Boric acid was given four times at 100 mg/kg to rats in the groups BA and BAI atfer injury (by gavage at 0, 24, 48 and 72 hours) but no injury was made in the group BA.In vivo electrophysiological tests were performed at the end of the day 4 and sciatic nerve tissue samples were taken for histopathological examination. The amplitude of compound action potential, the nerve conduction velocity and the number of axons were signiifcantly lower and the myelin structure was found to be broken in group I compared with those in groups C and BA. However, the amplitude of the compound action potential, the nerve conduction velocity and the number of axons were signiifcantly greater in group BAI than in group I. Moreover, myelin injury was signiifcantly milder and the intensity of nuclear factor kappa B immunostaining was signiifcantly weaker in group BAI than in group I. hTe results of this study show that administration of boric acid at 100 mg/kg atfer sciatic nerve injury in rats markedly reduces myelin and axonal injury and improves the electrophysiological function of injured sciatic nerve possibly through alleviating oxidative stress reactions.

  13. Boric acid reduces axonal and myelin damage in experimental sciatic nerve injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kızılay, Zahir; Erken, Haydar Ali; Çetin, Nesibe Kahraman; Aktaş, Serdar; Abas, Burçin İrem; Yılmaz, Ali

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of boric acid in experimental acute sciatic nerve injury. Twenty-eight adult male rats were randomly divided into four equal groups (n = 7): control (C), boric acid (BA), sciatic nerve injury (I), and sciatic nerve injury + boric acid treatment (BAI). Sciatic nerve injury was generated using a Yasargil aneurysm clip in the groups I and BAI. Boric acid was given four times at 100 mg/kg to rats in the groups BA and BAI after injury (by gavage at 0, 24, 48 and 72 hours) but no injury was made in the group BA. In vivo electrophysiological tests were performed at the end of the day 4 and sciatic nerve tissue samples were taken for histopathological examination. The amplitude of compound action potential, the nerve conduction velocity and the number of axons were significantly lower and the myelin structure was found to be broken in group I compared with those in groups C and BA. However, the amplitude of the compound action potential, the nerve conduction velocity and the number of axons were significantly greater in group BAI than in group I. Moreover, myelin injury was significantly milder and the intensity of nuclear factor kappa B immunostaining was significantly weaker in group BAI than in group I. The results of this study show that administration of boric acid at 100 mg/kg after sciatic nerve injury in rats markedly reduces myelin and axonal injury and improves the electrophysiological function of injured sciatic nerve possibly through alleviating oxidative stress reactions. PMID:27904499

  14. The effect of linoleic acid on the whole body synthesis rates of polyunsaturated fatty acids from α-linolenic acid and linoleic acid in free-living rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domenichiello, Anthony F; Kitson, Alex P; Chen, Chuck T; Trépanier, Marc-Olivier; Stavro, P Mark; Bazinet, Richard P

    2016-04-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is thought to be important for brain function. The main dietary source of DHA is fish, however, DHA can also be synthesized from precursor omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA), the most abundantly consumed being α-linolenic acid (ALA). The enzymes required to synthesize DHA from ALA are also used to synthesize longer chain omega-6 (n-6) PUFA from linoleic acid (LNA). The large increase in LNA consumption that has occurred over the last century has led to concern that LNA and other n-6 PUFA outcompete n-3 PUFA for enzymes involved in DHA synthesis, and therefore, decrease overall DHA synthesis. To assess this, rats were fed diets containing LNA at 53 (high LNA diet), 11 (medium LNA diet) or 1.5% (low LNA diet) of the fatty acids with ALA being constant across all diets (approximately 4% of the fatty acids). Rats were maintained on these diets from weaning for 8 weeks, at which point they were subjected to a steady-state infusion of labeled ALA and LNA to measure DHA and arachidonic acid (ARA) synthesis rates. DHA and ARA synthesis rates were generally highest in rats fed the medium and high LNA diets, while the plasma half-life of DHA was longer in rats fed the low LNA diet. Therefore, increasing dietary LNA, in rats, did not impair DHA synthesis; however, low dietary LNA led to a decrease in DHA synthesis with tissue concentrations of DHA possibly being maintained by a longer DHA half-life.

  15. Dosimetric Implications of an Injection of Hyaluronic Acid for Preserving the Rectal Wall in Prostate Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapet, Olivier, E-mail: olivier.chapet@chu-lyon.fr [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre Benite (France); Udrescu, Corina [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre Benite (France); Department of Medical Physics, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre Benite (France); Tanguy, Ronan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre Benite (France); Ruffion, Alain [Department of Urology, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre Benite (France); Fenoglietto, Pascal [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Val d' Aurelle, Montpellier (France); Sotton, Marie-Pierre [Department of Medical Physics, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre Benite (France); Devonec, Marian [Department of Urology, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre Benite (France); Colombel, Marc [Department of Urology, Hopital Edouard Herriot, Lyon (France); Jalade, Patrice [Department of Medical Physics, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre Benite (France); Azria, David [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Val d' Aurelle, Montpellier (France)

    2014-02-01

    Purpose: This study assessed the contribution of ahyaluronic acid (HA) injection between the rectum and the prostate to reducing the dose to the rectal wall in stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Methods and Materials: As part of a phase 2 study of hypofractionated radiation therapy (62 Gy in 20 fractions), the patients received a transperineal injection of 10 cc HA between the rectum and the prostate. A dosimetric computed tomographic (CT) scan was systematically performed before (CT1) and after (CT2) the injection. Two 9-beam intensity modulated radiation therapy-SBRT plans were optimized for the first 10 patients on both CTs according to 2 dosage levels: 5 × 6.5 Gy (PlanA) and 5 × 8.5 Gy (PlanB). Rectal wall parameters were compared with a dose–volume histogram, and the prostate–rectum separation was measured at 7 levels of the prostate on the center line of the organ. Results: For both plans, the average volume of the rectal wall receiving the 90% isodose line (V90%) was reduced up to 90% after injection. There was no significant difference (P=.32) between doses received by the rectal wall on CT1 and CT2 at the base of the prostate. This variation became significant from the median plane to the apex of the prostate (P=.002). No significant differences were found between PlanA without HA and PlanB with HA for each level of the prostate (P=.77, at the isocenter of the prostate). Conclusions: HA injection significantly reduced the dose to the rectal wall and allowed a dose escalation from 6.5 Gy to 8.5 Gy without increasing the dose to the rectum. A phase 2 study is under way in our department to assess the rate of acute and late rectal toxicities when SBRT (5 × 8.5 Gy) is combined with an injection of HA.

  16. Effects of pure eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids on oxidative stress, inflammation and body fat mass in patients with type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Azizi-Soleiman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: N-3 Fatty acids reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. Previous studies have shown that they may reduce inflammation, oxidative stress, and fat mass in patients with type 2 diabetes, but the results are inconclusive, due, in part, to type of omega-3 fatty acids used. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of pure eicosapentaenoic (EPA and docosahexaenoic acids (DHA, the two major omega-3 fatty acids, on inflammation, oxidative stress, and fat mass in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods: Sixty patients with DM-II were randomly allocated to receive daily either ~1 gr EPA or ~1 gr DHA, or a canola oil as placebo for 12 weeks in a randomized triple-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Serum MDA, CRP, body weight, BMI, and fat mass were measured at baseline and after intervention. Results: Forty-five patients with a mean (±SD age of 54.9 ± 8.2 years with BMI of 27.6 ± 4.1 kg/m 2 and fasting blood glucose 96.0 ± 16.2 mg/dl completed the intervention. Neither EPA nor DHA had significant effects on serum FBS, C-reactive protein, body weight, BMI, and fat mass after intervention (P > 0.05. In addition, while MDA increased 18% in the placebo group (P = 0.009, it did not change in the EPA or DHA group (P > 0.05. Conclusions: Twelve weeks of supplementation with 1gr/d EPA or DHA prevent increasing oxidative stress without changing marker of inflammation. This study is the first report demonstrating that neither EPA nor DHA have effects on body fat mass in type 2 diabetic patients.

  17. Combined Intra-Articular and Intravenous Tranexamic Acid Reduces Blood Loss in Total Knee Arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christian Skovgaard; Jans, Øivind; Ørsnes, Thue;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In total knee arthroplasty, both intravenous (IV) and intra-articular (IA) administration of tranexamic acid (TXA) have been shown to reduce blood loss in several randomized controlled trials, although routine use of systemic TXA is considerably more common. However, to our knowledge......-only administration of TXA. METHODS: In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 60 patients scheduled for total knee arthroplasty were randomized to one of two interventions. The TXA IV and IA group received combined administration of TXA consisting of 1 g administered intravenously preoperatively......, the additional benefit of IA administration of TXA when combined with IV administration, without the use of a tourniquet, has not been previously investigated. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate whether combined IV and IA administration of TXA reduced total blood loss compared with IV...

  18. Hypothalamic over-expression of VGF in the Siberian hamster increases energy expenditure and reduces body weight gain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brameld, John M.; Hill, Phil; Cocco, Cristina; Noli, Barbara; Ferri, Gian-Luca; Barrett, Perry; Ebling, Francis J. P.; Jethwa, Preeti H.

    2017-01-01

    VGF (non-acronymic) was first highlighted to have a role in energy homeostasis through experiments involving dietary manipulation in mice. Fasting increased VGF mRNA in the Arc and levels were subsequently reduced upon refeeding. This anabolic role for VGF was supported by observations in a VGF null (VGF-/-) mouse and in the diet-induced and gold-thioglucose obese mice. However, this anabolic role for VGF has not been supported by a number of subsequent studies investigating the physiological effects of VGF-derived peptides. Intracerebroventricular (ICV) infusion of TLQP-21 increased resting energy expenditure and rectal temperature in mice and protected against diet-induced obesity. Similarly, ICV infusion of TLQP-21 into Siberian hamsters significantly reduced body weight, but this was due to a decrease in food intake, with no effect on energy expenditure. Subsequently NERP-2 was shown to increase food intake in rats via the orexin system, suggesting opposing roles for these VGF-derived peptides. Thus to further elucidate the role of hypothalamic VGF in the regulation of energy homeostasis we utilised a recombinant adeno-associated viral vector to over-express VGF in adult male Siberian hamsters, thus avoiding any developmental effects or associated functional compensation. Initially, hypothalamic over-expression of VGF in adult Siberian hamsters produced no effect on metabolic parameters, but by 12 weeks post-infusion hamsters had increased oxygen consumption and a tendency to increased carbon dioxide production; this attenuated body weight gain, reduced interscapular white adipose tissue and resulted in a compensatory increase in food intake. These observed changes in energy expenditure and food intake were associated with an increase in the hypothalamic contents of the VGF-derived peptides AQEE, TLQP and NERP-2. The complex phenotype of the VGF-/- mice is a likely consequence of global ablation of the gene and its derived peptides during development, as well

  19. Docosahexaenoic acid reduces suppressive and migratory functions of CD4CD25 regulatory T-cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yessoufou, Akadiri; Plé, Aude; Moutairou, Kabirou; Hichami, Aziz; Khan, Naim Akhtar

    2009-01-01

    Immunological tolerance is one of the fundamental aspects of the immune system. The CD4+CD25+ regulatory T (Treg) cells have emerged as key players in the development of tolerance to self and foreign antigens. However, little is known about the endogenous factors and mechanisms controlling their suppressive capacity on immune response. In this study, we observed that docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, diminished, in a dose-dependent manner, the capacity of Treg cells to inhibit the CD4+CD25− effector T-cell proliferation. DHA not only reduced the migration of Treg cells toward chemokines but also downregulated the mRNA expression of CCR-4 and CXCR-4 in Treg cells. DHA also curtailed ERK1/2 and Akt phosphorylation and downregulated the Smad7 levels in these cells. Contradictorily, DHA upregulated the mRNA expression of Foxp3, CTLA-4, TGF-β, and IL-10; nonetheless, this fatty acid increased the expression of p27KIP1 mRNA, known to be involved in Treg cell unresponsiveness. In Foxp3-immunoprepitated nuclear proteins, DHA upregulated histone desacetylase 7 levels that would again participate in the unresposnsiveness of these cells. Finally, a DHA-enriched diet also diminished, ex vivo, the suppressive capacity of Treg cells. Altogether, these results suggest that DHA, by diminishing Treg cell functions, may play a key role in health and disease. PMID:19561360

  20. Ethanolic extract of Piper betle Linn. leaves reduces nociception via modulation of arachidonic acid pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumita De

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The objective of this study was to evaluate the peripheral analgesic effect of Piper betle leaf extract (PBE along with establishing its putative mechanism of action. Materials and Methods: Male Swiss albino mice after pre-treatment (1 h with different doses of PBE were injected 0.8% (v/v acetic acid i.p.; the onset and number of writhes were noted up to 15 min. To evaluate the mechanism of action, the murine peritoneal exudate was incubated with PBE for 1 h, followed by exposure to arachidonic acid (AA and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS was measured by flow cytometry using 2′,7′-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate. Results: PBE in a dose dependent manner significantly reduced acetic acid induced writhing response in mice (P < 0.001. In peritoneal exudates, PBE significantly inhibited AA induced generation of ROS, P < 0.01. Conclusions: The present study indicates that PBE has promising analgesic activity, worthy of future pharmacological consideration.

  1. Phenylboronic acid functionalized reduced graphene oxide based fluorescence nano sensor for glucose sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basiruddin, S K; Swain, Sarat K

    2016-01-01

    Reduced graphene has emerged as promising tools for detection based application of biomolecules as it has high surface area with strong fluorescence quenching property. We have used the concept of fluorescent quenching property of reduced graphene oxide to the fluorescent probes which are close vicinity of its surface. In present work, we have synthesized fluorescent based nano-sensor consist of phenylboronic acid functionalized reduced graphene oxide (rGO-PBA) and di-ol modified fluorescent probe for detection of biologically important glucose molecules. This fluorescent graphene based nano-probe has been characterized by high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM), Atomic force microscope (AFM), UV-visible, Photo-luminescence (PL) and Fourier transformed infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Finally, using this PBA functionalized reduced GO based nano-sensor, we were able to detect glucose molecule in the range of 2 mg/mL to 75 mg/mL in aqueous solution of pH7.4.

  2. In vivo treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection with liposomal linolenic acid reduces colonization and ameliorates inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thamphiwatana, Soracha; Gao, Weiwei; Obonyo, Marygorret; Zhang, Liangfang

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is marked by a vast prevalence and strong association with various gastric diseases, including gastritis, peptic ulcers, and gastric cancer. Because of the rapid emergence of H. pylori strains resistant to existing antibiotics, current treatment regimens show a rapid decline of their eradication rates. Clearly, novel antibacterial strategies against H. pylori are urgently needed. Here, we investigated the in vivo therapeutic potential of liposomal linolenic acid (LipoLLA) for the treatment of H. pylori infection. The LipoLLA formulation with a size of ∼100 nm was prone to fusion with bacterial membrane, thereby directly releasing a high dose of linolenic acids into the bacterial membrane. LipoLLA penetrated the mucus layer of mouse stomach, and a significant portion of the administered LipoLLA was retained in the stomach lining up to 24 h after the oral administration. In vivo tests further confirmed that LipoLLA was able to kill H. pylori and reduce bacterial load in the mouse stomach. LipoLLA treatment was also shown to reduce the levels of proinflammatory cytokines including interleukin 1β, interleukin 6, and tumor necrosis factor alpha, which were otherwise elevated because of the H. pylori infection. Finally, a toxicity test demonstrated excellent biocompatibility of LipoLLA to normal mouse stomach. Collectively, results from this study indicate that LipoLLA is a promising, effective, and safe therapeutic agent for the treatment of H. pylori infection. PMID:25422427

  3. Mechanistic modeling of biocorrosion caused by biofilms of sulfate reducing bacteria and acid producing bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dake; Li, Yingchao; Gu, Tingyue

    2016-08-01

    Biocorrosion is also known as microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC). Most anaerobic MIC cases can be classified into two major types. Type I MIC involves non-oxygen oxidants such as sulfate and nitrate that require biocatalysis for their reduction in the cytoplasm of microbes such as sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) and nitrate reducing bacteria (NRB). This means that the extracellular electrons from the oxidation of metal such as iron must be transported across cell walls into the cytoplasm. Type II MIC involves oxidants such as protons that are secreted by microbes such as acid producing bacteria (APB). The biofilms in this case supply the locally high concentrations of oxidants that are corrosive without biocatalysis. This work describes a mechanistic model that is based on the biocatalytic cathodic sulfate reduction (BCSR) theory. The model utilizes charge transfer and mass transfer concepts to describe the SRB biocorrosion process. The model also includes a mechanism to describe APB attack based on the local acidic pH at a pit bottom. A pitting prediction software package has been created based on the mechanisms. It predicts long-term pitting rates and worst-case scenarios after calibration using SRB short-term pit depth data. Various parameters can be investigated through computer simulation.

  4. Dietary Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) increases milk yield without losing body weight in lactating sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung-Hoon; Joo, Young-Kuk; Lee, Jin-Woo; Ha, Young-Joo; Yeo, Joon-Mo; Kim, Wan-Young

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on the performance of lactating sows and piglets as well as the immunity of piglets suckling from sows fed CLA. Eighteen multiparous Duroc sows with an average body weight (BW) of 232.0 ± 6.38 kg were randomly selected and assigned to two dietary treatments (n = 9 for each treatment), control (no CLA addition) and 1% CLA supplementation. For the control diet, CLA was replaced with soybean oil. Experimental diets were fed to sows during a 28-day lactation period. Litter size for each sow was standardized to nine piglets by cross-fostering within 24 hours after birth. Sow milk and blood samples were taken from sows and piglets after 21 and 27 days of lactation, respectively. Loss of BW was significantly (p CLA diet. Piglet weights at weaning and weight gain during suckling were significantly (p CLA compared to sows fed control diet. Serum non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) and urea nitrogen concentrations were significantly (p CLA than in sows fed soybean oil. IgG concentrations of the groups supplemented with CLA increased by 49% in sow serum (p CLA showed an increase of 10% in milk yield compared with sows fed soybean oil (p CLA than in sows fed soybean oil. Solid-not-fat yield was significantly (p CLA than in sows fed control diet and also protein-to-fat ratio in milk was significantly (p CLA compared with the control group. The results show that CLA supplementation to sows increased milk yield without losing BW during lactation, whereas soybean oil supplementation resulted in severe BW loss.

  5. COH-SR4 reduces body weight, improves glycemic control and prevents hepatic steatosis in high fat diet-induced obese mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Lester Figarola

    Full Text Available Obesity is a chronic metabolic disorder caused by imbalance between energy intake and expenditure, and is one of the principal causative factors in the development of metabolic syndrome, diabetes and cancer. COH-SR4 ("SR4" is a novel investigational compound that has anti-cancer and anti-adipogenic properties. In this study, the effects of SR4 on metabolic alterations in high fat diet (HFD-induced obese C57BL/J6 mice were investigated. Oral feeding of SR4 (5 mg/kg body weight. in HFD mice for 6 weeks significantly reduced body weight, prevented hyperlipidemia and improved glycemic control without affecting food intake. These changes were associated with marked decreases in epididymal fat mass, adipocyte hypertrophy, increased plasma adiponectin and reduced leptin levels. SR4 treatment also decreased liver triglycerides, prevented hepatic steatosis, and normalized liver enzymes. Western blots demonstrated increased AMPK activation in liver and adipose tissues of SR4-treated HFD obese mice, while gene analyses by real time PCR showed COH-SR4 significantly suppressed the mRNA expression of lipogenic genes such as sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (Srebf1, acetyl-Coenzyme A carboxylase (Acaca, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (Pparg, fatty acid synthase (Fasn, stearoyl-Coenzyme A desaturase 1 (Scd1, carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1a (Cpt1a and 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase (Hmgcr, as well as gluconeogenic genes phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase 1 (Pck1 and glucose-6-phosphatase (G6pc in the liver of obese mice. In vitro, SR4 activates AMPK independent of upstream kinases liver kinase B1 (LKB1 and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase β (CaMKKβ. Together, these data suggest that SR4, a novel AMPK activator, may be a promising therapeutic compound for treatment of obesity, fatty liver disease, and related metabolic disorders.

  6. Topical use of tea tree oil reduces the dermal absorption of benzoic acid and methiocarb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Jesper Bo; Nielsen, Flemming

    2006-03-01

    Tea tree oil (TTO) is a complex mixture of terpene hydrocarbons. Intensive topical use of TTO in different cosmetics and investigations into its potential as an antimicrobial or anti-inflammatory agent has accentuated the need for studies on the toxicity of TTO. We have applied an experimental in vitro model using static diffusion cells with human skin to study penetration characteristics of terpinen-4-ol and the way TTO affects the barrier integrity of the skin and the percutaneous penetration of two chemicals covering a range of solubilities from 0.03 g/l (methiocarb) to 3.0 g/l (benzoic acid). Through GC-MS analysis we identified the major constituents of TTO. In our experimental set-up with full-thickness skin, only the least lipophilic ingredients of TTO penetrated the skin. Barrier integrity was evaluated through measurement of percutaneous penetration of tritiated water. Data indicate that 1% TTO does not affect barrier conditions. The Kp value for tritiated water was increased significantly at 5% TTO, which demonstrate that the barrier integrity is affected at this relatively low concentration of TTO. The barrier integrity is, however, not seriously damaged, but our data indicate an initiated and concentration-dependent effect on the barrier integrity. TTO changed the penetration characteristics for benzoic acid as well as for methiocarb. The general effect was that TTO reduced the maximal flux. For methiocarb, the lag-time was also prolonged by increasing the TTO concentration in the donor phase to 5%. Thus, TTO reduced the overall amount of benzoic acid as well as methiocarb entering the receptor chamber.

  7. On the Search for the Amino Acids on the Lunar Surface as it Relates to Other Extraterrestrial Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Richard B.; Kolb, Vera M.

    2009-01-01

    The early search for the amino acids on the lunar surface fines indicated such a low amount of the amino acids that it was deemed insignifi cant. While the later studies seemed to depart in some ways from the earlier results, they were not pursued. In this paper we critically ev aluate the results from the Apollo missions from the new perspective with considerations of the sensitivity of the instrumentation availabl e at the time. We discuss the possible relevance of the lunar results to the findings of the amino acids on the surfaces of other extraterrestrial bodies, such as Mars.

  8. Effects of jasmonic acid signalling on the wheat microbiome differ between body sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongwei; Carvalhais, Lilia C.; Schenk, Peer M.; Dennis, Paul G.

    2017-01-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) signalling helps plants to defend themselves against necrotrophic pathogens and herbivorous insects and has been shown to influence the root microbiome of Arabidopsis thaliana. In this study, we determined whether JA signalling influences the diversity and functioning of the wheat (Triticum aestivum) microbiome and whether these effects are specific to particular parts of the plant. Activation of the JA pathway was achieved via exogenous application of methyl jasmonate and was confirmed by significant increases in the abundance of 10 JA-signalling-related gene transcripts. Phylogenetic marker gene sequencing revealed that JA signalling reduced the diversity and changed the composition of root endophytic but not shoot endophytic or rhizosphere bacterial communities. The total enzymatic activity and substrate utilisation profiles of rhizosphere bacterial communities were not affected by JA signalling. Our findings indicate that the effects of JA signalling on the wheat microbiome are specific to individual plant compartments. PMID:28134326

  9. Shape optimization of active and passive drag-reducing devices on a D-shaped bluff body

    CERN Document Server

    Semaan, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Shape optimization of an active and a passive drag-reducing device on a two-dimensional D-shaped bluff body is performed. The two devices are: Coanda actuator, and randomly-shaped trailing-edge flap. The optimization sequence is performed by coupling the genetic algorithm software DAKOTA to the mesh generator Pointwise and to the CFD solver OpenFOAM. For the the active device the cost functional is the power ratio, whereas for the passive device it is the drag coefficient. The optimization leads to total power savings of $\\approx 70\\%$ for the optimal Coanda actuator, and a 40\\% drag reduction for the optimal flap. This reduction is mainly achieved through streamlining the base flow and suppressing the vortex shedding. The addition of either an active or a passive device creates two additional smaller recirculation regions in the base cavity that shifts the larger recirculation region away from the body and increases the base pressure. The results are validated against more refined URANS simulations for selec...

  10. Reduced survival and body size in the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber from a metal-polluted environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, D T; Hopkin, S P

    1998-01-01

    Terrestrial isopods (woodlice) may show trade-offs in life history parameters when exposed to toxins. We have shown previously [Jones and Hopkin (1996) Functional Ecology 10, 741-750] that woodlice which survive to reproduce in sites heavily polluted with metals from an industrial smelting works do not alter their reproductive allocation. This study investigates whether there are differences in the survival and body size of Porcellio scaber from these same populations. Specimens were collected from eight sites at different distances from the Avonmouth smelter, UK. The sites represented a gradient of concentrations of Zn, Cd, Pb and Cu in the woodlice, from background levels to a grossly contaminated sites close to the smelter. In laboratory trials, the number of days survived by starved males showed a significant decline with increased concentrations of Zn in those animals. The maximum size of both sexes declined significantly from the least to the most polluted sites. The most polluted sites had significantly fewer large animals. The cost of detoxifying assimilated metals appears to be reduced energy reserves and smaller body size.

  11. Maternal deprivation of rat pups reduces body weight and alters behavior in adulthood in a gender-specific manner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Jelena

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The early postnatal environment is critical for its capacity to influence adult behavior, and is associated with traits of altered physiological and neurobiological function and long-term predisposition to depression. Here we describe the delayed effects of maternal deprivation (MD in male and female Wistar pups on their physical development and behavior in adulthood in tasks designed to explore depressive-like (forced swimming test, FST, and anxiety-like behaviors (elevated plus maze, EPM. We observed that MD led to reduced body weight in adulthood, anxiety-like traits in the EPM test and increased activity in the phases of the FST. Particularly, a consistent sexual dimorphism was observed in the responses to MD. A lower increase in body weight during maturation of MD rats was more pronounced in males than in females. MD anxiogenic effects were more pronounced in females, while in FST only MD males showed a marked increase in swimming activity followed by decreased immobility. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III41029

  12. Evaluation of a Hydrogen Fuel Cell Powered Blended-Wing-Body Aircraft Concept for Reduced Noise and Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guynn, Mark D.; Freh, Joshua E.; Olson, Erik D.

    2004-01-01

    This report describes the analytical modeling and evaluation of an unconventional commercial transport aircraft concept designed to address aircraft noise and emission issues. A blended-wing-body configuration with advanced technology hydrogen fuel cell electric propulsion is considered. Predicted noise and emission characteristics are compared to a current technology conventional configuration designed for the same mission. The significant technology issues which have to be addressed to make this concept a viable alternative to current aircraft designs are discussed. This concept is one of the "Quiet Green Transport" aircraft concepts studied as part of NASA's Revolutionary Aerospace Systems Concepts (RASC) Program. The RASC Program was initiated to develop revolutionary concepts that address strategic objectives of the NASA Enterprises, such as reducing aircraft noise and emissions, and to identify advanced technology requirements for the concepts.

  13. Photoinduced interactions between oxidized and reduced lipoic acid and riboflavin (vitamin B2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Changyuan; Bucher, Götz; Sander, Wolfram

    2004-01-23

    As a powerful natural antioxidant, lipoic acid (LipSS) and its reduced form dihydrolipoic acid (DHLA) exert significant antioxidant activities in vivo and in vitro by deactivation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS). In this study the riboflavin (RF, vitamin B2) sensitized UVA and visible-light irradiation of LipSS and DHLA was studied employing continuous irradiation, fluorescence spectroscopy, and laser flash photolysis (LFP). Our results indicate that LipSS and DHLA quench both the singlet state (1RF*) and the triplet state (3RF*) of RF by electron transfer to produce the riboflavin semiquinone radical (RFH.) and the radical cation of LipSS and DHLA, respectively. The radical cation of DHLA is rapidly deprotonated twice to yield a reducing species, the radical anion of LipSS (LipSS.-). When D2O was used as solvent, it was confirmed that the reaction of LipSS with 3RF* consists of a simple electron-transfer step, while loss of hydrogen occurs in the case of DHLA oxidation. Due to the strong absorption of RFH. and the riboflavin ground state, the absorption of the radical cation and the radical anion of LipSS can not be observed directly by LFP. N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine (TMPD) and N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl benzidine (TMB) were added as probes to the system. In the case of LipSS, the addition resulted in the formation of the radical cation of TMPD or TMB by quenching of the LipSS radical cation. If DHLA is the reducing substrate, no formation of probe radical cation is observed. This confirms that LipSS.- is produced by riboflavin photosensitization, and that there is no oxidizing species produced after DHLA oxidization.

  14. Reduced defense of central blood volume during acute lower body negative pressure-induced hypovolemic circulatory stress in aging women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindenberger, Marcus; Länne, Toste

    2012-06-01

    Elderly humans are more vulnerable to trauma and hemorrhage than young and elderly men and respond with decreased defense of central blood volume during acute experimental hypovolemia induced by lower body negative pressure (LBNP). However, these defense mechanisms have not been evaluated in elderly women. The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of compensatory responses to defend central blood volume during experimental hypovolemia in elderly and young women. Cardiovascular responses in 34 women, 12 elderly (66 ± 1 years) and 22 young women (23 ± 0.4 years), were studied during experimental hypovolemia induced by LBNP of 11 to 44 mmHg. Air plethysmography was used to assess the capacitance response (redistribution of peripheral venous blood to the central circulation) as well as net capillary fluid transfer from tissue to blood in the arm. Lower body negative pressure seemed to create comparable hypovolemia measured as total calf volume increase in elderly and young women. Heart rate increased less in elderly women (LBNP of 44 mmHg: 20 ± 2 vs. 37 ± 4%; P < 0.01) but with similar (%) increase in forearm vascular resistance. Mobilization of capacitance blood from the peripheral circulation was both slower and decreased by ∼60% in elderly women (P < 0.001), and net capillary fluid absorption from surrounding tissues was reduced by ∼40% (P < 0.01, LBNP of 44 mmHg). Elderly women responded with less increase in heart rate but with equal forearm vascular resistance (%) response during LBNP. Furthermore, the compensatory capacitance response was both slower and substantially decreased, and net capillary fluid absorption considerably reduced, collectively indicating less efficiency to defend central blood volume in elderly than in young women.

  15. Glial fibrillary acidic protein is a body fluid biomarker for glial pathology in human disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzold, Axel

    2015-03-10

    This review on the role of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) as a biomarker for astroglial pathology in neurological diseases provides background to protein synthesis, assembly, function and degeneration. Qualitative and quantitative analytical techniques for the investigation of human tissue and biological fluid samples are discussed including partial lack of parallelism and multiplexing capabilities. Pathological implications are reviewed in view of immunocytochemical, cell-culture and genetic findings. Particular emphasis is given to neurodegeneration related to autoimmune astrocytopathies and to genetic gain of function mutations. The current literature on body fluid levels of GFAP in human disease is summarised and illustrated by disease specific meta-analyses. In addition to the role of GFAP as a diagnostic biomarker for chronic disease, there are important data on the prognostic value for acute conditions. The published evidence permits to classify the dominant GFAP signatures in biological fluids. This classification may serve as a template for supporting diagnostic criteria of autoimmune astrocytopathies, monitoring disease progression in toxic gain of function mutations, clinical treatment trials (secondary outcome and toxicity biomarker) and provide prognostic information in neurocritical care if used within well defined time-frames.

  16. Ammonia Gas Detection by Tannic Acid Functionalized and Reduced Graphene Oxide at Room Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sweejiang Yoo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Reduced graphene oxide (rGO based chemiresistor gas sensor has received much attention in gas sensing for high sensitivity, room temperature operation, and reversible. Here, for the first time, we present a promising chemiresistor for ammonia gas detection based on tannic acid (TA functionalized and reduced graphene oxide (rGOTA functionalized. Green reductant of TA plays a major role in both reducing process and enhancing the gas sensing properties of rGOTA functionalized. Our results show rGOTA functionalized only selective to ammonia with excellent respond, recovery, respond time, and recovery times. rGOTA functionalized electrical resistance decreases upon exposure to NH3 where we postulated that it is due to n-doping by TA and charge transfer between rGOTA functionalized and NH3 through hydrogen bonding. Furthermore, rGOTA functionalized hinders the needs for stimulus for both recovery and respond. The combination of greener sensing material and simplicity in overall sensor design provides a new sight for green reductant approach of rGO based chemiresistor gas sensor.

  17. Ciprofloxacin suppresses Cyp3a in mouse liver by reducing lithocholic acid-producing intestinal flora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toda, Takahiro; Ohi, Kanna; Kudo, Toshiyuki; Yoshida, Tomoyuki; Ikarashi, Nobutomo; Ito, Kiyomi; Sugiyama, Kiyoshi

    2009-01-01

    Ciprofloxacin (CPX), a new quinolone antibiotic, is reported to reduce CYP3A expression in the liver when administered to rats. The present study investigates whether the reduction in intestinal flora is involved in this reduction of CYP3A. While hepatic Cyp3a11 expression and triazolam metabolic activity were significantly reduced by CPX treatment of SPF mice, no significant changes were seen by CPX treatment of germ-free (GF) mice. Lithocholic acid (LCA)-producing bacteria in the feces as well as hepatic level of taurine conjugate of LCA were significantly reduced in CPX-treated SPF mice. Cyp3a11 expression in GF mice was significantly elevated when treated with LCA, known as an activator of fernesoid X receptor and pregnane X receptor. These results indicate that antibiotics such as CPX, having antimicrobial spectrums against LCA-producing bacteria, possibly cause decrease in LCA in the liver, resulting in lower CYP3A expression. The intestinal flora is reported to be altered also by stress, disease and age etc. The findings of the present study suggest that these changes in intestinal flora may modify CYP expression and contribute to individual differences in pharmacokinetics.

  18. Total liquid ventilation reduces oleic acid-induced lung injury in piglets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Yao-bin; LIU Dong-hai; ZHANG Yan-bo; LIU Ai-jun; FAN Xiang-ming; QIAO Chen-hui; WANG Qiang

    2013-01-01

    Background Pediatric patients are susceptible to lung injury that does not respond to traditional therapies.Total liquid ventilation has been developed as an alternative ventilatory strategy for severe lung injury.The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of total liquid ventilation on oleic acid (OA)-induced lung injury in piglets.Methods Twelve Chinese immature piglets were induced acute lung injury by OA.Twelve piglets were randomly treated with conventional gas ventilation (control group) or total liquid ventilation (study group) for 240 minutes.Samples for blood gas analysis were collected before,and at 60-minute intervals after OA-induced lung injury.The degree of lung injury was quantified by histologic examination.The inflammatory cells and the levels of IL-1β,IL-6,IL-10 and TNF-α in plasma,tissue and bronchoalveolar lavage were analyzed.Results Neutrophil and macrophage counts in bronchoalveolar lavage were significantly decreased in the study group (P<0.05).The total lung injury score was also reduced in the study group (P<0.05).The cconcentrations of IL-1β,IL-6,IL-10and TNF-α in plasma,tissue and bronchoalveolar lavage were significantly reduced in the study group (P<0.05).Conclusions Total liquid ventilation reduces biochemical and histologic OA-induced lung injury in piglets.

  19. Treatment with alpha-lipoic acid reduces asymmetric dimethylarginine in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittermayer, Friedrich; Pleiner, Johannes; Francesconi, Mario; Wolzt, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Elevated asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) concentrations predict cardiovascular events in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). It has been shown that alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) improves endothelial function and oxidative stress in these patients. The present study investigated if ALA reduces ADMA in patients with T2DM. Plasma concentrations of ADMA, L-arginine and symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) were determined in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study in patients with T2DM. Intravenous ALA (n = 16) or placebo (n = 14) was administered daily for 3 weeks. ALA reduced ADMA while no change was observed with placebo (mean change -0.05 micromol/1[95% CI: -0.01; -0.09] vs. 0.01 micromol/1 [95% CI: -0.05; -0.03]; ANOVA p = 0.031). SDMA and L-arginine were not affected by ALA. In conclusion ALA treatment reduces ADMA in patients with T2DM. Long-term studies need to demonstrate if ALA may cause cardiovascular risk reduction.

  20. PPAR agonists reduce steatosis in oleic acid-overloaded HepaRG cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogue, Alexandra [Inserm UMR 991, 35043 Rennes Cedex (France); Université de Rennes 1, Faculté des Sciences Pharmaceutiques et Biologiques, 35043 Rennes Cedex (France); Biologie Servier, Gidy (France); Anthérieu, Sébastien; Vluggens, Aurore [Inserm UMR 991, 35043 Rennes Cedex (France); Université de Rennes 1, Faculté des Sciences Pharmaceutiques et Biologiques, 35043 Rennes Cedex (France); Umbdenstock, Thierry [Technologie Servier, Orléans (France); Claude, Nancy [Institut de Recherches Servier, Courbevoie (France); Moureyre-Spire, Catherine de la; Weaver, Richard J. [Biologie Servier, Gidy (France); Guillouzo, André, E-mail: Andre.Guillouzo@univ-rennes1.fr [Inserm UMR 991, 35043 Rennes Cedex (France); Université de Rennes 1, Faculté des Sciences Pharmaceutiques et Biologiques, 35043 Rennes Cedex (France)

    2014-04-01

    Although non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is currently the most common form of chronic liver disease there is no pharmacological agent approved for its treatment. Since peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are closely associated with hepatic lipid metabolism, they seem to play important roles in NAFLD. However, the effects of PPAR agonists on steatosis that is a common pathology associated with NAFLD, remain largely controversial. In this study, the effects of various PPAR agonists, i.e. fenofibrate, bezafibrate, troglitazone, rosiglitazone, muraglitazar and tesaglitazar on oleic acid-induced steatotic HepaRG cells were investigated after a single 24-hour or 2-week repeat treatment. Lipid vesicles stained by Oil-Red O and triglycerides accumulation caused by oleic acid overload, were decreased, by up to 50%, while fatty acid oxidation was induced after 2-week co-treatment with PPAR agonists. The greatest effects on reduction of steatosis were obtained with the dual PPARα/γ agonist muraglitazar. Such improvement of steatosis was associated with up-regulation of genes related to fatty acid oxidation activity and down-regulation of many genes involved in lipogenesis. Moreover, modulation of expression of some nuclear receptor genes, such as FXR, LXRα and CAR, which are potent actors in the control of lipogenesis, was observed and might explain repression of de novo lipogenesis. Conclusion: Altogether, our in vitro data on steatotic HepaRG cells treated with PPAR agonists correlated well with clinical investigations, bringing a proof of concept that drug-induced reversal of steatosis in human can be evaluated in in vitro before conducting long-term and costly in vivo studies in animals and patients. - Highlights: • There is no pharmacological agent approved for the treatment of NAFLD. • This study demonstrates that PPAR agonists can reduce fatty acid-induced steatosis. • Some nuclear receptors appear to be potent actors in the control

  1. Self-Administered Mind-Body Practices for Reducing Health Disparities: An Interprofessional Opinion and Call to Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia A. Kinser

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Health disparities (HD continue to persist in the United States which underscores the importance of using low-cost, accessible, evidence-based strategies that can improve health outcomes, especially for chronic conditions that are prevalent among underserved minority populations. Complementary/integrative health modalities, particularly self-administered mind-body practices (MBP, can be extremely useful in reducing HD because they are intrinsically patient-centered and they empower patients to actively engage in self-care of health and self-management of symptoms. Interprofessional healthcare providers and patients can engage in powerful partnerships that encompass self-administered MBP to improve health. This is a call to action for interprofessional researchers to engage in high-quality research regarding efficacy and cost-effectiveness of self-administered MBP, for practitioners to engage patients in self-administered MBP for health promotion, disease prevention, and symptom management, and for healthcare institutions to integrate self-administered MBP into conventional health practices to reduce HD in their communities.

  2. Frequency domain reduced order model of aligned-spin effective-one-body waveforms with generic mass ratios and spins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pürrer, Michael

    2016-03-01

    I provide a frequency domain reduced order model (ROM) for the aligned-spin effective-one-body model "SEOBNRv2" for data analysis with second- and third-generation ground-based gravitational wave (GW) detectors. SEOBNRv2 models the dominant mode of the GWs emitted by the coalescence of black hole binaries. The large physical parameter space (dimensionless spins -1 ≤χi≤0.99 and symmetric mass ratios 0.01 ≤η ≤0.25 ) requires sophisticated reduced order modeling techniques, including patching in the parameter space and in frequency. I find that the time window over which the inspiral-plunge and the merger-ringdown waveform in SEOBNRv2 are connected has a discontinuous dependence on the parameters when the spin parameter χ =0.8 or the symmetric mass ratio η ˜0.083 . This discontinuity increases resolution requirements for the ROM. The ROM can be used for compact binary systems with total masses of 2 M⊙ or higher for the Advanced LIGO design sensitivity and a 10 Hz lower cutoff frequency. The ROM has a worst mismatch against SEOBNRv2 of ˜1 %, but in general mismatches are better than ˜0.1 %. The ROM is crucial for key data analysis applications for compact binaries, such as GW searches and parameter estimation carried out within the LIGO Scientific Collaboration.

  3. Reduced absorption of long-chain fatty acids during methotrexate-induced gastrointestinal mucositis in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fijlstra, Margot; Tissing, Wim J. E.; Stellaard, Frans; Verkade, Henkjan J.; Rings, Edmond H. H. M.

    2013-01-01

    Background & aims: Patients with chemotherapy-induced gastrointestinal mucositis suffer from weight loss and possibly malabsorption. Since long-chain fatty acids serve important functions in the body, we aimed to determine the intestinal capacity of fat absorption in rats with and without methotrexa

  4. Full- and reduced-dimensionality instanton calculations of the tunnelling splitting in the formic acid dimer

    CERN Document Server

    Richardson, Jeremy O

    2016-01-01

    The ring-polymer instanton approach is applied to compute the ground-state tunnelling splitting of four isotopomers of the formic acid dimer using the accurate PES of Qu and Bowman [Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2016, 18, 24835]. As well as performing the calculations in full dimensionality, we apply a reduced-dimensionality approach to study how the results converge as successively more degrees of freedom are included. The instanton approximation compares well to exact quantum results where they are available but shows that nearly all the modes are required to quantitatively obtain the tunnelling splitting. The full-dimensional instanton calculation reproduces the experimental results, with an error of only about 20 percent.

  5. Herbivore induction of jasmonic acid and chemical defences reduce photosynthesis in Nicotiana attenuata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabity, Paul D; Zavala, Jorge A; DeLucia, Evan H

    2013-01-01

    Herbivory initiates a shift in plant metabolism from growth to defence that may reduce fitness in the absence of further herbivory. However, the defence-induced changes in carbon assimilation that precede this reallocation in resources remain largely undetermined. This study characterized the response of photosynthesis to herbivore induction of jasmonic acid (JA)-related defences in Nicotiana attenuata to increase understanding of these mechanisms. It was hypothesized that JA-induced defences would immediately reduce the component processes of photosynthesis upon attack and was predicted that wild-type plants would suffer greater reductions in photosynthesis than plants lacking JA-induced defences. Gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence, and thermal spatial patterns were measured together with the production of defence-related metabolites after attack and through recovery. Herbivore damage immediately reduced electron transport and gas exchange in wild-type plants, and gas exchange remained suppressed for several days after attack. The sustained reductions in gas exchange occurred concurrently with increased defence metabolites in wild-type plants, whereas plants lacking JA-induced defences suffered minimal suppression in photosynthesis and no increase in defence metabolite production. This suppression in photosynthesis occurred only after sustained defence signalling and defence chemical mobilization, whereas a short bout of feeding damage only transiently altered components of photosynthesis. It was identified that lipoxygenase signalling interacted with photosynthetic electron transport and that the resulting JA-related metabolites reduced photosynthesis. These data represent a metabolic cost to mounting a chemical defence against herbivory and link defence-signalling networks to the differential effects of herbivory on photosynthesis in remaining leaf tissues in a time-dependent manner.

  6. Influence of the unsaturated fatty acids on body weight, glucose, and lipids metabolism in obese women with Pro12Pro genotype in PPARγ2 gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Fófano do Lago

    Full Text Available Background: The type of dietary fatty acid may have different effects on obesity and its complications, however, these effects can be influenced by genes and polymorphisms, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ isoform 2 (PPARγ2. Moreover, it is unclear whether the degree of unsaturation of the fat has different effects on lipid and glucose metabolism, and particularly the loss of body weight. Objective: To evaluate the influence of diets rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA on anthropometric and biochemical variables in obese woman with genotype Pro12Pro on PPARγ2 gene on body weight, glycemic and lipemic profile. Methods: Eighteen obese women with Pro12Pro genotype in PPARγ2 gene were randomized into groups to receive a high PUFAs (PUFA-diet, n = 8 or MUFAs (MUFA-diet, n = 10 diets. Anthropometrics (body mass index [BMI] and waist circumference and biochemical variables (glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides were evaluated at baseline and after 45 days. Results: Anthropometric and biochemical variables were similar between groups at baseline and after intervention (p > 0.05. BMI decrease only in PUFA-diet (p = 0.01, probably due to the lower lipid content in this diet. MUFA-diet decrease fasting glucose (p = 0.03, insulin (p = 0.03, and HOMA-IR (p = 0.02. Conclusion: Compared to PUFA, MUFA was more efficient to reduce the insulin resistance in obese women with Pro12Pro genotype in PPARγ2, even in high saturated fatty acids and total fat diet.

  7. Treatment of acid rock drainage using a sulfate-reducing bioreactor with zero-valent iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala-Parra, Pedro; Sierra-Alvarez, Reyes; Field, James A

    2016-05-05

    This study assessed the bioremediation of acid rock drainage (ARD) in flow-through columns testing zero-valent iron (ZVI) for the first time as the sole exogenous electron donor to drive sulfate-reducing bacteria in permeable reactive barriers. Columns containing ZVI, limestone or a mixture of both materials were inoculated with an anaerobic mixed culture and fed a synthetic ARD containing sulfuric acid and heavy metals (initially copper, and later also cadmium and lead). ZVI significantly enhanced sulfate reduction and the heavy metals were extensively removed (>99.7%). Solid-phase analyses showed that heavy metals were precipitated with biogenic sulfide in the columns packed with ZVI. Excess sulfide was sequestered by iron, preventing the discharge of dissolved sulfide. In the absence of ZVI, heavy metals were also significantly removed (>99.8%) due to precipitation with hydroxide and carbonate ions released from the limestone. Vertical-profiles of heavy metals in the columns packing, at the end of the experiment, demonstrated that the ZVI columns still had excess capacity to remove heavy metals, while the capacity of the limestone control column was approaching saturation. The ZVI provided conditions that enhanced sulfate reduction and generated alkalinity. Collectively, the results demonstrate an innovative passive ARD remediation process using ZVI as sole electron-donor.

  8. Agroinfiltration reduces ABA levels and suppresses Pseudomonas syringae-elicited salicylic acid production in Nicotiana tabacum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arantza Rico

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain GV3101 (pMP90 is widely used in transient gene expression assays, including assays to study pathogen effectors and plant disease resistance mechanisms. However, inoculation of A. tumefaciens GV3101 into Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco leaves prior to infiltration with pathogenic and non-host strains of Pseudomonas syringae results in suppression of macroscopic symptoms when compared with leaves pre-treated with a buffer control. METHODOLOGY/FINDINGS: To gain further insight into the mechanistic basis of symptom suppression by A. tumefaciens we examined the effect of pre-treatment with A. tumefaciens on the growth of P. syringae, the production of the plant signalling molecules salicylic acid (SA and abscisic acid (ABA, and the presence of callose deposits. Pre-treatment with A. tumefaciens reduced ABA levels, P. syringae multiplication and P. syringae-elicited SA and ABA production, but promoted increased callose deposition. However, pre-treatment with A. tumefaciens did not suppress necrosis or SA production in leaves inoculated with the elicitor HrpZ. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Collectively, these results show that inoculation of N. tabacum leaves with A. tumefaciens alters plant hormone levels and plant defence responses to P. syringae, and demonstrate that researchers should consider the impact of A. tumefaciens on plant signal transduction when using A. tumefaciens-mediated transient expression assays to investigate ABA-regulated processes or pathogenicity and plant defence mechanisms.

  9. Combined alkali and acid pretreatment of spent mushroom substrate for reducing sugar and biofertilizer production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hong-Ji; Liu, Jia-Heng; Sun, Li-Fan; Hu, Zong-Fu; Qiao, Jian-Jun

    2013-05-01

    Spent mushroom substrate (SMS) was pretreated with alkaline reagents including potassium hydroxide, lime and ammonia to enhance enzymatic saccharification. Under the best pretreatment conditions (1M KOH, 80 °C, 90 min; 1M lime, 80 °C, 120 min; 10 M ammonia, 70 °C, 120 min), the total reducing sugar (TRS) yield reached 258.6, 204.2 and 251.2 mg/g raw SMS, which were respectively 6.15, 4.86, and 5.98 times of untreated SMS. The effects of pretreatment by above alkaline reagents and sulfuric acid on the composition and structure of SMS were evaluated to provide comparative performance data. A new process, combined alkali and acid (CAA) pretreatment followed by enzymatic hydrolysis, was innovatively proposed to improve the cost-effectiveness and avoid environmental problems. The SMS residue after CAA pretreatment-enzymatic hydrolysis process was converted to biofertilizer with Pichia farinose FL7 and a cell density of 3.0×10(8) cfu/g in biomass was attained.

  10. Preparation of metal-resistant immobilized sulfate reducing bacteria beads for acid mine drainage treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mingliang; Wang, Haixia; Han, Xuemei

    2016-07-01

    Novel immobilized sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) beads were prepared for the treatment of synthetic acid mine drainage (AMD) containing high concentrations of Fe, Cu, Cd and Zn using up-flow anaerobic packed-bed bioreactor. The tolerance of immobilized SRB beads to heavy metals was significantly enhanced compared with that of suspended SRB. High removal efficiencies of sulfate (61-88%) and heavy metals (>99.9%) as well as slightly alkaline effluent pH (7.3-7.8) were achieved when the bioreactor was fed with acidic influent (pH 2.7) containing high concentrations of multiple metals (Fe 469 mg/L, Cu 88 mg/L, Cd 92 mg/L and Zn 128 mg/L), which showed that the bioreactor filled with immobilized SRB beads had tolerance to AMD containing high concentrations of heavy metals. Partially decomposed maize straw was a carbon source and stabilizing agent in the initial phase of bioreactor operation but later had to be supplemented by a soluble carbon source such as sodium lactate. The microbial community in the bioreactor was characterized by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and sequencing of partial 16S rDNA genes. Synergistic interaction between SRB (Desulfovibrio desulfuricans) and co-existing fermentative bacteria could be the key factor for the utilization of complex organic substrate (maize straw) as carbon and nutrients source for sulfate reduction.

  11. Disrupting protein expression with Peptide Nucleic Acids reduces infection by obligate intracellular Rickettsia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca S Pelc

    Full Text Available Peptide Nucleic Acids (PNAs are single-stranded synthetic nucleic acids with a pseudopeptide backbone in lieu of the phosphodiester linked sugar and phosphate found in traditional oligos. PNA designed complementary to the bacterial Shine-Dalgarno or start codon regions of mRNA disrupts translation resulting in the transient reduction in protein expression. This study examines the use of PNA technology to interrupt protein expression in obligate intracellular Rickettsia sp. Their historically intractable genetic system limits characterization of protein function. We designed PNA targeting mRNA for rOmpB from Rickettsia typhi and rickA from Rickettsia montanensis, ubiquitous factors important for infection. Using an in vitro translation system and competitive binding assays, we determined that our PNAs bind target regions. Electroporation of R. typhi and R. montanensis with PNA specific to rOmpB and rickA, respectively, reduced the bacteria's ability to infect host cells. These studies open the possibility of using PNA to suppress protein synthesis in obligate intracellular bacteria.

  12. Disrupting protein expression with Peptide Nucleic Acids reduces infection by obligate intracellular Rickettsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelc, Rebecca S; McClure, Jennifer C; Kaur, Simran J; Sears, Khandra T; Rahman, M Sayeedur; Ceraul, Shane M

    2015-01-01

    Peptide Nucleic Acids (PNAs) are single-stranded synthetic nucleic acids with a pseudopeptide backbone in lieu of the phosphodiester linked sugar and phosphate found in traditional oligos. PNA designed complementary to the bacterial Shine-Dalgarno or start codon regions of mRNA disrupts translation resulting in the transient reduction in protein expression. This study examines the use of PNA technology to interrupt protein expression in obligate intracellular Rickettsia sp. Their historically intractable genetic system limits characterization of protein function. We designed PNA targeting mRNA for rOmpB from Rickettsia typhi and rickA from Rickettsia montanensis, ubiquitous factors important for infection. Using an in vitro translation system and competitive binding assays, we determined that our PNAs bind target regions. Electroporation of R. typhi and R. montanensis with PNA specific to rOmpB and rickA, respectively, reduced the bacteria's ability to infect host cells. These studies open the possibility of using PNA to suppress protein synthesis in obligate intracellular bacteria.

  13. Blood markers of fatty acids and vitamin D, cardiovascular measures, body mass index, and physical activity relate to longitudinal cortical thinning in normal aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walhovd, Kristine B; Storsve, Andreas B; Westlye, Lars T; Drevon, Christian A; Fjell, Anders M

    2014-05-01

    We hypothesized that higher levels of omega-3 fatty acids, vitamin D, and physical activity relate to cortical sparing, whereas higher levels of cholesterol, systolic blood pressure, and body mass index (BMI) relate to increased atrophy in the adult lifespan. Longitudinal measures of cortical thickness were derived from magnetic resonance imaging scans acquired (mean interval 3.6 years) from 203 healthy persons aged 23-87 years. At follow-up, measures of BMI, blood pressure, and physical activity were obtained. Blood levels of docosahexaenoic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, vitamin D, and cholesterol were measured in a subsample (n = 92). Effects were tested in cortical surface-based analyses, with sex, age, follow-up interval, and the interactions between each included as covariates. Higher levels of docosahexaenoic acid, vitamin D, and physical activity related to cortical sparing. Higher cholesterol and BMI related to increased cortical thinning. Effects were independent, did not interact with age, and the cholesterol effect was restricted to males. Eicosapentaenoic acid and blood pressure showed no effects. The observed effects show promise for potential factors to reduce cortical atrophy in normal aging.

  14. Mechanism of alcohol-induced impairment in renal development: Could it be reduced by retinoic acid?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Stephen P; Cullen-McEwen, Luise A; Bertram, John F; Moritz, Karen M

    2012-09-01

    1. Prenatal alcohol exposure impairs kidney development, resulting in a reduced nephron number. However, the mechanism through which alcohol acts to disrupt renal development is largely unknown. Retinoic acid (RA) is critically involved in kidney development and it has been proposed that a diminished concentration of RA is a contributing factor to fetal alcohol syndrome. 2. In the present study we proposed that the ethanol-induced inhibition of ureteric branching morphogenesis and glomerular development in the cultured rat kidney would be ameliorated by coculture with exogenous RA and that examining the expression profile of key genes involved in the development of the kidney would provide insights into the potential molecular pathways involved. 3. Whole rat metanephroi cultured in the presence of exogenous RA (10-20 nmol/L) without ethanol appeared larger and had significantly more ureteric branch points, tips and glomeruli than metanephroi cultured in control media. Those cultured in the presence of ethanol alone (0.2%) had 20% fewer ureteric branch points, tips and glomeruli, which was ameliorated by coculture with retinoic acid. 4. Gene expression analysis identified changes in the expression of enzymes involved in the metabolism of alcohol in conjunction with changes in key regulators of kidney development, including cRET. 5. These results demonstrate that the teratogenic effects of alcohol in vitro on kidney development resulting in reduced ureteric branching morphogenesis and glomerular development can be ameliorated through coculture with RA. These results provide the foundation for future research into the mechanism through which alcohol acts to disrupt kidney development.

  15. Reducing capacity, chlorogenic acid content and biological activity in a collection of scarlet (Solanum aethiopicum) and Gboma (S. macrocarpon) eggplants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plazas, Mariola; Prohens, Jaime; Cuñat, Amparo Noelia; Vilanova, Santiago; Gramazio, Pietro; Herraiz, Francisco Javier; Andújar, Isabel

    2014-09-26

    Scarlet (Solanum aethiopicum) and gboma (S. macrocarpon) eggplants are important vegetables in Sub-Saharan Africa. Few studies have been made on these crops regarding the diversity of phenolic content and their biological activity. We have studied the reducing activity, the chlorogenic acid and other phenolic acid contents in a collection of 56 accessions of scarlet eggplant, including the four cultivated groups (Aculeatum, Gilo, Kumba, Shum) and the weedy intermediate S. aethiopicum-S. anguivi types, as well as in eight accessions of gboma eggplant, including the cultivated S. macrocarpon and its wild ancestor, S. dasyphyllum. A sample of the accessions evaluated in this collection has been tested for inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) using macrophage cell cultures. The results show that there is a great diversity in both crops for reducing activity, chlorogenic acid content and chlorogenic acid peak area (% of total phenolic acids). Heritability (H2) for these traits was intermediate to high in both crops. In all samples, chlorogenic acid was the major phenolic acid and accounted for more than 50% of the chromatogram peak area. Considerable differences were found among and within groups for these traits, but the greatest values for total phenolics and chlorogenic acid content were found in S. dasyphyllum. In most groups, reducing activity was positively correlated (with values of up to 0.904 in the Aculeatum group) with chlorogenic acid content. Inhibition of NO was greatest in samples having a high chlorogenic acid content. The results show that both crops are a relevant source of chlorogenic acid and other phenolic acids. The high diversity found also indicates that there are good prospects for breeding new scarlet and gboma eggplant cultivars with improved content in phenolics and bioactive properties.

  16. EFFECTS OF CORDYCEPS SINENSIS PREPARATION ON BODY PROTEIN AND AMINO ACID METABOLISM IN PATIENTS AND RATS WITH CHRONIC RENAL FAILURE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱淳; 刘强; 左静南; 朱汉威; 马济民

    2002-01-01

    Objective To study the effects of Cordyceps sinensis (CS) on the metabolism of body protein and intra-extracellular amino acids in patients with chronic renal failure( CRF) , and on the rates of protein synthesis in rats with CRF. Methods In patients with CRF, free amino acid concentrations in plasma and skeletal muscle before and after CS treatment were measured by the LKB-4400 amino acid automatic analytical instrument and the changes of body protein metabolism were observed by the method of 15 N-labeled glycine.Meanwhile, the rates of protein synthesis in liver ( SL % /d ) and muscle (SM%/d) of rats with CRF were determinedd by 3f-phenylalanine radioactive tracer. Results After patients with CRF were treated by CS, the Leu, lie, Thr , Lys, Cys, Tyr concentrations in plasma approached the normal levels. In one sample of skeletal muscle the Thr and Lys concentrations approached the normal, whereas both the intracellular and extracellular Val concentrations were still remarkably decreased as compared with the normal controls. Moreover, the nitrogen flow rate (Q) , rates of protein synthesis (S) and catabolism ( C) , and amino nitrogen utilization ratio (S/Q) in patients with CRF and the SL % /d and SM%/d in rats with CRF were significantly increased as compared with those before CS treatment. Conclusion CS can notably improve the amino acid metabolism, promote the body protein synthesis in patients with CRF , and increase the rates of SL % /d and SM%/d in rats with CRF.

  17. Niflumic acid reduces the hyperpolarization-activated current (I(h)) in rod photoreceptor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, T O; Yamada, M

    2001-08-01

    We examined the effects of niflumic acid (NFA), a chloride channel blocker, on the hyperpolarization-activated current (I(h)) in newt rod photoreceptors. At 100 microM, NFA delayed the activation of I(h) induced by hyperpolarizing voltage pulses to -83 mV from a holding potential of -43 mV, and reduced the steady-state current. However, reduction by NFA was weakened when I(h) was activated by hyperpolarizing steps to -123 mV, suggesting that these effects were voltage-dependent. The suppressive effects of NFA on I(h) were accompanied by a negative shift in activation voltage. NFA also delayed the relaxation of I(h) tail currents, showing that this drug also inhibited deactivation of the current. The reversal potential and the fully activated conductance were not affected. These observations suggest that NFA reduces I(h) by modifying the gating kinetics of the underlying channels. The suppressive actions of NFA remained when intracellular Ca2+ was strongly chelated, and the failure of suppression by NFA in inside-out patches suggests that the agent may act on the I(h) channel from the extracellular side. These results, obtained in rod photoreceptors, are consistent with similar effects of NFA on I(f) in cardiac myocytes, suggesting that both currents share similar pharmacological properties.

  18. Oxalic acid: a prospective tool for reducing Varroa mite populations in package bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliano, Nicholas P; Ellis, Marion D

    2009-08-01

    Numerous studies have investigated using oxalic acid (OA) to control Varroa mites in honey bee colonies. In contrast, techniques for treating package bees with OA have not been investigated. The goal of this study was to develop a protocol for using OA to reduce mite infestation in package bees. We made 97 mini packages of Varroa-infested adult bees. Each package contained 1,613 +/- 18 bees and 92 +/- 3 mites, and represented an experimental unit. We prepared a 2.8% solution of OA by mixing 35 g OA with 1 l of sugar water (sugar:water = 1:1; w:w). Eight treatments were assigned to the packages based on previous laboratory bioassays that characterized the acute contact toxicity of OA to mites and bees. We administered the treatments by spraying the OA solution directly on the bees through the mesh screen cage using a pressurized air brush and quantified mite and bee mortality over a 10-day period. Our results support applying an optimum volume of 3.0 ml of a 2.8% OA solution per 1,000 bees to packages for effective mite control with minimal adult bee mortality. The outcome of our research provides beekeepers and package bee shippers guidance for using OA to reduce mite populations in package bees.

  19. Application of an acid proteinase from Monascus purpureus to reduce antigenicity of bovine milk whey protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshman, P L Nilantha; Tachibana, Shinjiro; Toyama, Hirohide; Taira, Toki; Suganuma, Toshihiko; Suntornsuk, Worapot; Yasuda, Masaaki

    2011-09-01

    An acid proteinase from Monascus purpureus No. 3403, MpuAP, was previously purified and some characterized in our laboratory (Agric Biol Chem 48:1637-1639, 1984). However, further information about this enzyme is lacking. In this study, we investigated MpuAP's comprehensive substrate specificity, storage stability, and prospects for reducing antigenicity of whey proteins for application in the food industry. MpuAP hydrolyzed primarily five peptide bonds, Gln(4)-His(5), His(10)-Leu(11), Ala(14)-Leu(15), Gly(23)-Phe(24) and Phe(24)-Phe(25) in the oxidized insulin B-chain. The lyophilized form of the enzyme was well preserved at 30-40°C for 7 days without stabilizers. To investigate the possibility of reducing the antigenicity of the milk whey protein, enzymatic hydrolysates of the whey protein were evaluated by inhibition ELISA. Out of the three main components of whey protein, casein and α-lactalbumin were efficiently degraded by MpuAP. The sequential reaction of MpuAP and trypsin against the whey protein successfully degraded casein, α-lactalbumin and β-lactoglobulin with the highest degree of hydrolysis. As a result, the hydrolysates obtained by using the MpuAP-trypsin combination showed the lowest antigenicity compared with the single application of pepsin, trypsin or pepsin-trypsin combination. Therefore, the overall result suggested that the storage-stable MpuAP and trypsin combination will be a productive approach for making hypoallergic bovine milk whey protein hydrolysates.

  20. Enhanced fatty acid oxidation in adipocytes and macrophages reduces lipid-induced triglyceride accumulation and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malandrino, Maria Ida; Fucho, Raquel; Weber, Minéia; Calderon-Dominguez, María; Mir, Joan Francesc; Valcarcel, Lorea; Escoté, Xavier; Gómez-Serrano, María; Peral, Belén; Salvadó, Laia; Fernández-Veledo, Sonia; Casals, Núria; Vázquez-Carrera, Manuel; Villarroya, Francesc; Vendrell, Joan J; Serra, Dolors; Herrero, Laura

    2015-05-01

    Lipid overload in obesity and type 2 diabetes is associated with adipocyte dysfunction, inflammation, macrophage infiltration, and decreased fatty acid oxidation (FAO). Here, we report that the expression of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A (CPT1A), the rate-limiting enzyme in mitochondrial FAO, is higher in human adipose tissue macrophages than in adipocytes and that it is differentially expressed in visceral vs. subcutaneous adipose tissue in both an obese and a type 2 diabetes cohort. These observations led us to further investigate the potential role of CPT1A in adipocytes and macrophages. We expressed CPT1AM, a permanently active mutant form of CPT1A, in 3T3-L1 CARΔ1 adipocytes and RAW 264.7 macrophages through adenoviral infection. Enhanced FAO in palmitate-incubated adipocytes and macrophages reduced triglyceride content and inflammation, improved insulin sensitivity in adipocytes, and reduced endoplasmic reticulum stress and ROS damage in macrophages. We conclude that increasing FAO in adipocytes and macrophages improves palmitate-induced derangements. This indicates that enhancing FAO in metabolically relevant cells such as adipocytes and macrophages may be a promising strategy for the treatment of chronic inflammatory pathologies such as obesity and type 2 diabetes.

  1. Glassy carbon electrodes modified with gelatin functionalized reduced graphene oxide nanosheet for determination of gallic acid

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fereshteh Chekin; Samira Bagheri; Sharifah Bee Abd Hamid

    2015-12-01

    A simple approach for the preparation of gelatin functionalized reduced graphene oxide nanosheet (Gel-RGONS) by chemical reduction of graphene oxide (GO) using gelatin as both reducing agent and stabilizing agent in an aqueous solution was developed. The morphology and structure of the Gel-RGONS were examined by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Gelatin acted as a functionalizing reagent to guarantee good dispersibility and stability of the r in distilled water. Moreover, a new electrochemical sensor was developed based on Gel-RGONS modified glassy carbon electrode (Gel-RGONS/GCE). Gel-r exhibits excellent electrocatalytic activity to gallic acid (GA) oxidation. The experimental conditions such as pH, adsorption time and scan rate were optimized for the determination of GA. Under optimum conditions, the sensor responded linearly to GA in the concentration of 1.0 × 10−6 to 1.1 × 10−4 M with detection limit of 4.7 × 10−7 M at 3 using linear sweep voltammetry (LSV). The method has been successfully applied to the determination of GA in sample of black tea.

  2. R-roscovitine reduces lung inflammation induced by lipoteichoic acid and Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogendijk, Arie J; Roelofs, Joris J T H; Duitman, Janwillem; van Lieshout, Miriam H P; Blok, Dana C; van der Poll, Tom; Wieland, Catharina W

    2012-09-25

    Bacterial pneumonia remains associated with high morbidity and mortality. The gram-positive pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most common cause of community-acquired pneumonia. Lipoteichoic acid (LTA) is an important proinflammatory component of the gram-positive bacterial cell wall. R-roscovitine, a purine analog, is a potent cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)-1, -2, -5 and -7 inhibitor that has the ability to inhibit the cell cycle and to induce polymorphonuclear cell (PMN) apoptosis. We sought to investigate the effect of R-roscovitine on LTA-induced activation of cell lines with relevance for lung inflammation in vitro and on lung inflammation elicited by either LTA or viable S. pneumoniae in vivo. In vitro R-roscovitine enhanced apoptosis in PMNs and reduced tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and keratinocyte chemoattractant (KC) production in MH-S (alveolar macrophage) and MLE-12/MLE-15 (respiratory epithelial) cell lines. In vivo R-roscovitine treatment reduced PMN numbers in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid during LTA-induced lung inflammation; this effect was reversed by inhibiting apoptosis. Postponed treatment with R-roscovitine (24 and 72 h) diminished PMN numbers in lung tissue during gram-positive pneumonia; this step was associated with a transient increase in pulmonary bacterial loads. R-roscovitine inhibits proinflammatory responses induced by the gram-positive stimuli LTA and S. pneumoniae. R-roscovitine reduces PMN numbers in lungs upon LTA administration by enhancing apoptosis. The reduction in PMN numbers caused by R-roscovitine during S. pneumoniae pneumonia may hamper antibacterial defense.

  3. Gallic acid reduces cell viability, proliferation, invasion and angiogenesis in human cervical cancer cells

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Bing; HU, MENGCAI

    2013-01-01

    Gallic acid is a trihydroxybenzoic acid, also known as 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid, which is present in plants worldwide, including Chinese medicinal herbs. Gallic acid has been shown to have cytotoxic effects in certain cancer cells, without damaging normal cells. The objective of the present study was to determine whether gallic acid is able to inhibit human cervical cancer cell viability, proliferation and invasion and suppress cervical cancer cell-mediated angiogenesis. Treatment of HeLa...

  4. Dark roast coffee is more effective than light roast coffee in reducing body weight, and in restoring red blood cell vitamin E and glutathione concentrations in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotyczka, Christine; Boettler, Ute; Lang, Roman; Stiebitz, Herbert; Bytof, Gerhard; Lantz, Ingo; Hofmann, Thomas; Marko, Doris; Somoza, Veronika

    2011-10-01

    Recent results from prospective cohort studies have shown that moderate coffee consumption is associated with a reduced risk for diabetes mellitus type II or Alzheimer's disease. Since reactive oxygen species (ROS) are believed to be involved in the pathogenesis of these diseases, antioxidants in coffee might contribute to this risk reduction. We aimed at elucidating whether a dark roast coffee beverage (CB) rich in N-methylpyridinium ions (NMP: 785 μmol/L) and low in chlorogenic acids (CGA: 523 μmol/L) has stronger antioxidant effects on human erythrocytes than a CB prepared from a light roast with opposite proportions (CGA: 4538 μmol/L; NMP: 56 μmol/L). Following a 2-wk wash out period, 500 mL of the respective CB was administered to 30 subjects daily for 4-wk. Blood and spot urine samples were collected at the beginning and at the end of each intervention. Intake of the dark roast CB most effectively improved the antioxidant status of erythrocytes: superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activity decreased by 5.8 and 15%, respectively, whereas tocopherol and total glutathione concentrations increased by 41 and 14%, respectively. Furthermore, administration of the NMP-rich CB led to a significant body weight reduction in pre-obese subjects, whereas the CGA-rich CB did not.

  5. Invertibility of retarded response functions for Laplace transformable potentials: Application to one-body reduced density matrix functional theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giesbertz, K J H

    2015-08-07

    A theorem for the invertibility of arbitrary response functions is presented under the following conditions: the time dependence of the potentials should be Laplace transformable and the initial state should be a ground state, though it might be degenerate. This theorem provides a rigorous foundation for all density-functional-like theories in the time-dependent linear response regime. Especially for time-dependent one-body reduced density matrix (1RDM) functional theory, this is an important step forward, since a solid foundation has currently been lacking. The theorem is equally valid for static response functions in the non-degenerate case, so can be used to characterize the uniqueness of the potential in the ground state version of the corresponding density-functional-like theory. Such a classification of the uniqueness of the non-local potential in ground state 1RDM functional theory has been lacking for decades. With the aid of presented invertibility theorem presented here, a complete classification of the non-uniqueness of the non-local potential in 1RDM functional theory can be given for the first time.

  6. Rice protein improves adiposity, body weight and reduces lipids level in rats through modification of triglyceride metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Lin

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To elucidate whether rice protein can possess a vital function in improving lipids level and adiposity, the effects of rice proteins extracted by alkaline (RP-A and α-amylase (RP-E on triglyceride metabolism were investigated in 7-week-old male Wistar rats fed cholesterol-enriched diets for 2 weeks, as compared with casein (CAS. Results Compared with CAS, plasma concentrations of glucose and lipids were significantly reduced by RP-feeding (P P P P P > 0.05. There was a significant positive correlation between protein digestibility and deposit fat (r = 0.8567, P P Conclusions The present study demonstrates that rice protein can modify triglyceride metabolism, leading to an improvement of body weight and adiposity. Results suggest that the triglyceride-lowering action as well as the potential of anti-adiposity induced by rice protein is attributed to upregulation of lipolysis and downregulation of lipogenesis, and the lower digestibility of rice protein may be the main modulator responsible for the lipid-lowering action.

  7. Fatty Acid Synthase and Hormone-sensitive Lipase Expression in Liver Are Involved in Zinc-α2-glycoprotein-induced Body Fat Loss in Obese Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng-ying Gong; Jie-ying Deng; Hui-juan Zhu; Hui Pan; Lin-jie Wang; Hong-bo Yang

    2010-01-01

    Objective To explore the effects of zinc-a2-glycoprotein (ZAG) on body weight and body fat in high-fat-diet (HFD)-induced obesity in mice and the possible mechanism.Methods Thirty-six male mice were fed with standard food (SF) (n=9) and HFD (n=27), respec-tively. Five weeks later, 9 mice fed with HFD were subjected to ZAG expression plasmid DNA transfection by liposome transfection method, and another 9 mice to negative control plasmid transfection. Two weeks later, serum ZAG level in the mice was assayed by Western blot, and the effects of ZAG over-expression on body weight, body fat, serum biochemical indexes, and adipose tissue of obese mice were evaluated. The mRNA expressions of fatty acid synthase (FAS) and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) in liver tissue were de-termined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction.Results Serum ZAG level significantly lowered in simple HFD-fed mice in comparison to SF-fed mice (0.51±0.10 AU vs. 0.75±0.07 AU, P<0.01). Further statistical analysis demonstrated that ZAG level was negatively correlated with body weight (r =-0.56, P<0.001), epididymal fat mass (r=-0. 67, P<0.001), percentage of epididymal fat (r=-0.65, P<0.001 ), and increased weight (r=-0.57, P<0.001) in simple SF-and HFD-fed mice. ZAG over-expression in obese mice reduced body weight and the percentage of epididy-mal fat. Furthermore, FAS mRNA expression decreased (P<0.01) and HSL mRNA expression increased (P<0.001) in the liver in ZAG over-expressing mice.Conclusions ZAG is closely related to obesity. Serum ZAG level is inversely correlated with body weight and percentage of body fat. The action of ZAG is associated with reduced FAS expression and in-creased HSL expression in the liver of obese mice.

  8. Caprylic acid reduces Salmonella Enteritidis populations in various segments of digestive tract and internal organs of 3- and 6-week-old broiler chickens, therapeutically.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollanoor-Johny, A; Mattson, T; Baskaran, S A; Amalaradjou, M A R; Hoagland, T A; Darre, M J; Khan, M I; Schreiber, D T; Donoghue, A M; Donoghue, D J; Venkitanarayanan, K

    2012-07-01

    We investigated the efficacy of feed supplemented with caprylic acid (CA), a natural, 8-carbon fatty acid for reducing Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis colonization in commercial broiler chickens. In separate 3- and 6-wk trials, 1-d-old straight-run broiler chicks (n = 70 birds/trial) were assigned to a control group (challenged with Salmonella Enteritidis, no CA) and 2 replicates of 0.7 and 1% CA (n = 14 birds/group). Water and feed were provided ad libitum. On d 1, birds were tested for any inherent Salmonella (n = 2 birds/group). For the 3-wk trial, on d 5, birds were challenged with 8 log(10) cfu of Salmonella Enteritidis of a 4-strain mixture by crop gavage, and after 5 d postchallenge, birds (n = 2 birds/group) were euthanized to ensure Salmonella Enteritidis colonization. Caprylic acid was supplemented the last 5 d before tissue collection (n = 10 birds/group). For the 6-wk trial, on d 25, birds were challenged and confirmed for Salmonella Enteritidis colonization. The birds (n = 10 birds/group) were euthanized for tissue samples after CA supplementation for the last 5 d. Caprylic acid at 0.7 or 1% decreased Salmonella Enteritidis populations in cecum, small intestine, cloaca, liver, and spleen in both 3- and 6-wk trials. Body weight of birds did not differ between the groups (P ≥ 0.05). Further, to elucidate a potential antibacterial mechanism of action of CA, we investigated if CA could reduce Salmonella Enteritidis invasion of an avian epithelial cell line and expression of invasion genes hilA and hilD. The cell invasion study revealed that CA reduced invasive abilities of all Salmonella Enteritidis strains by ~80% (P Salmonella Enteritidis colonization in broiler chicken and potentially reduces the pathogen's ability to invade intestinal epithelial cells by downregulating key invasion genes, hilA and hilD.

  9. RUNNING 338 KILOMETRES WITHIN FIVE DAYS HAS NO EFFECT ON BODY MASS AND BODY FAT BUT REDUCES SKELETAL MUSCLE MASS - THE ISARRUN 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beat Knechtle

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the change of body composition in ultra- endurance runners during a multi-stage ultra-endurance run, the Isarrun 2006 in Bavaria, Germany, where athletes had to run 338 km within 5 days. Body mass, skin fold thicknesses and circumferences of extremities were measured in 21 well-experienced extreme endurance male runners (mean ± SD, 41.5 ± 6.9 years, 72.6 ± 6.4 kg, 178 ± 5 cm, BMI 23.0 ± 2.0 kg/m2, who finished mainly within the first half of the ranking, in order to calculate skeletal muscle mass and body fat mass to prove changes after the race. Body mass and calculated fat mass did not change significantly (p>0.05, but, calculated skeletal muscle mass decreased significantly (p<0.05 by 0.63 ± 0.79 kg by the end of the race. The most apparent decline (p<0.01 of the calculated skeletal muscle mass was during the first stage, and no changes were observed during the last 4 stages. We conclude, that a multi- stage ultra-endurance run over 338 km within 5 days leads to no changes of body mass or body fat mass, but a statistically significant decrease of skeletal muscle mass of 0.63 ± 0.79 kg by the end of the race in well-trained and well-experienced ultra-endurance runners. The change of skeletal muscle mass has to be evaluated in further studies at ultra-endurance races with suitable methods to detect changes in hydration status and water metabolism

  10. The fatty acid transport protein Fat1p is involved in the export of fatty acids from lipid bodies in Yarrowia lipolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulermo, Rémi; Gamboa-Meléndez, Heber; Dulermo, Thierry; Thevenieau, France; Nicaud, Jean-Marc

    2014-09-01

    In order to live, cells need to import different molecules, such as sugars, amino acids or lipids, using transporters. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the ScFAT1 gene encodes the long-chain fatty acid transporter; however, the transport of fatty acids (FAs) in the oleaginous yeast Yarrowia lipolytica has not yet been studied. In contrast to what has previously been found for ΔScfat1 strains, ΔYlfat1 yeast was still able to grow on substrates containing short-, medium- or long-chain FAs. We observed a notable difference in cell lipid content between wild-type (WT) and deletion mutant strains after 24 h of culture in minimal oleate medium: in the WT strain, lipids represented 24% of cell dry weight (CDW), while they accounted for 37% of CDW in the ΔYlfat1 strain. This result indicates that YlFat1p is not involved in cell lipid uptake. Moreover, we also observed that fatty acid remobilisation was decreased in the ΔYlfat1 strain and that fluorescence-tagged YlFat1p proteins localised to the interfaces between lipid bodies, which suggests that YlFat1p may play a role in the export of FAs from lipid bodies.

  11. Chronic benzylamine administration in the drinking water improves glucose tolerance, reduces body weight gain and circulating cholesterol in high-fat diet-fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iffiú-Soltész, Zsuzsa; Wanecq, Estelle; Lomba, Almudena; Portillo, Maria P; Pellati, Federica; Szöko, Eva; Bour, Sandy; Woodley, John; Milagro, Fermin I; Alfredo Martinez, J; Valet, Philippe; Carpéné, Christian

    2010-04-01

    Benzylamine is found in Moringa oleifera, a plant used to treat diabetes in traditional medicine. In mammals, benzylamine is metabolized by semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO) to benzaldehyde and hydrogen peroxide. This latter product has insulin-mimicking action, and is involved in the effects of benzylamine on human adipocytes: stimulation of glucose transport and inhibition of lipolysis. This study examined whether chronic, oral administration of benzylamine could improve glucose tolerance and the circulating lipid profile without increasing oxidative stress in overweight and pre-diabetic mice. The benzylamine diffusion across the intestine was verified using everted gut sacs. Then, glucose handling and metabolic markers were measured in mice rendered insulin-resistant when fed a high-fat diet (HFD) and receiving or not benzylamine in their drinking water (3600micromol/(kgday)) for 17 weeks. HFD-benzylamine mice showed lower body weight gain, fasting blood glucose, total plasma cholesterol and hyperglycaemic response to glucose load when compared to HFD control. In adipocytes, insulin-induced activation of glucose transport and inhibition of lipolysis remained unchanged. In aorta, benzylamine treatment partially restored the nitrite levels that were reduced by HFD. In liver, lipid peroxidation markers were reduced. Resistin and uric acid, surrogate plasma markers of metabolic syndrome, were decreased. In spite of the putative deleterious nature of the hydrogen peroxide generated during amine oxidation, and in agreement with its in vitro insulin-like actions found on adipocytes, the SSAO-substrate benzylamine could be considered as a potential oral agent to treat metabolic syndrome.

  12. Degradation behavior of hydroxyapatite/poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid nanocomposite in simulated body fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liuyun, Jiang, E-mail: jlytxg@163.com [Chengdu Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu 610041 (China); Chengdong, Xiong [Chengdu Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu 610041 (China); Lixin, Jiang; Lijuan, Xu [Chengdu Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu 610041 (China); Graduated School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China)

    2013-10-15

    Graphical abstract: In this manuscript, we initiated a systematic study to investigate the effect of HA on thermal properties, inner structure, reduction of mechanical strength, surface morphology and the surface deposit of n-HA/PLGA composite with respect to the soaking time. The results showed that n-HA played an important role in improving the degradation behavior of n-HA/PLGA composite, which can accelerate the degradation of n-HA/PLGA composite and endow it with bioactivity, after n-HA was detached from PLGA during the degradation, so that n-HA/PLGA composite may have a more promising prospect of the clinical application than pure PLGA as bone fracture internal fixation materials, and the results would be of reference significance to predict the in vivo degradation and biological properties. - Highlights: • Effect of n-HA on degradation behavior of n-HA/PLGA composite was investigated. • Degradation behaviors of n-HA/PLGA and PLGA were carried out in SBF for 6 months. • Viscosity, thermal properties, inner structure and bending strength were tested. • n-HA can accelerate the degradation and endows it with bioactivity. - Abstract: To investigate the effect of hydroxyapatite(HA) on the degradation behavior of hydroxyapatite/poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (HA/PLGA) nanocomposite, the degradation experiment of n-HA/PLGA composite and pure PLGA were carried out by soaking in simulated body fluid(SBF) at 37 °C for 1, 2, 4 and 6 months. The change of intrinsic viscosity, thermal properties, inner structure, bending strength reduction, surface morphology and the surface deposit of n-HA/PLGA composite and pure PLGA with respect to the soaking time were investigated by means of UbbeloHde Viscometer, differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), scanning electron microscope(SEM), electromechanical universal tester, a conventional camera and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results showed that n-HA played an important role in improving the degradation behavior of n

  13. Relation of soya bean meal level to the concentration of plasma free amino acids and body growth in white rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Tapas K; Parvin, Nargish; Mondal, Santanu; Saxena, Vijaylaxmi; Saxena, Ashok K; Sarkar, Sabyasachi; Saha, Mitali

    2012-04-01

    Amino acid (AA) levels in plasma and body growth were determined in rats (n20) fed diets with different soya bean meal levels. Free AA in plasma was determined by reversed-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography. We have used four levels of protein diets like 8%, 15%, 23% and 35% in this trial. Rats which were fed the low-protein (8%) diet with low percentage of soya bean meal were found to be growth-retarded. The body weight gain of high protein group (35%) was lower than that of the 23% groups. In the rats fed with the low-soya bean meal diet, some nonessential AA (NEAA) in plasma like asparagine, aspartic acid, cysteine, glutamic acid and serine increased, whereas the essential AA (EAA), with the exception of arginine, methionine and valine decreased. Here, plasma EAA-to-NEAA ratios were not correlated to growth and experimental diet. We hypothesize that AA metabolism is associated to changes in growth in rats on different protein intake. This study has showed the sensitivity of body mass gain, feed intake, feed conversion rate of rats to four levels of protein in the diet under controlled experimental conditions.

  14. An 11-bp insertion in Zea mays fatb reduces the palmitic acid content of fatty acids in maize grain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Li

    Full Text Available The ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids in maize kernels strongly impacts human and livestock health, but is a complex trait that is difficult to select based on phenotype. Map-based cloning of quantitative trait loci (QTL is a powerful but time-consuming method for the dissection of complex traits. Here, we combine linkage and association analyses to fine map QTL-Pal9, a QTL influencing levels of palmitic acid, an important class of saturated fatty acid. QTL-Pal9 was mapped to a 90-kb region, in which we identified a candidate gene, Zea mays fatb (Zmfatb, which encodes acyl-ACP thioesterase. An 11-bp insertion in the last exon of Zmfatb decreases palmitic acid content and concentration, leading to an optimization of the ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids while having no effect on total oil content. We used three-dimensional structure analysis to explain the functional mechanism of the ZmFATB protein and confirmed the proposed model in vitro and in vivo. We measured the genetic effect of the functional site in 15 different genetic backgrounds and found a maximum change of 4.57 mg/g palmitic acid content, which accounts for ∼20-60% of the variation in the ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids. A PCR-based marker for QTL-Pal9 was developed for marker-assisted selection of nutritionally healthier maize lines. The method presented here provides a new, efficient way to clone QTL, and the cloned palmitic acid QTL sheds lights on the genetic mechanism of oil biosynthesis and targeted maize molecular breeding.

  15. An 11-bp insertion in Zea mays fatb reduces the palmitic acid content of fatty acids in maize grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lin; Li, Hui; Li, Qing; Yang, Xiaohong; Zheng, Debo; Warburton, Marilyn; Chai, Yuchao; Zhang, Pan; Guo, Yuqiu; Yan, Jianbing; Li, Jiansheng

    2011-01-01

    The ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids in maize kernels strongly impacts human and livestock health, but is a complex trait that is difficult to select based on phenotype. Map-based cloning of quantitative trait loci (QTL) is a powerful but time-consuming method for the dissection of complex traits. Here, we combine linkage and association analyses to fine map QTL-Pal9, a QTL influencing levels of palmitic acid, an important class of saturated fatty acid. QTL-Pal9 was mapped to a 90-kb region, in which we identified a candidate gene, Zea mays fatb (Zmfatb), which encodes acyl-ACP thioesterase. An 11-bp insertion in the last exon of Zmfatb decreases palmitic acid content and concentration, leading to an optimization of the ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids while having no effect on total oil content. We used three-dimensional structure analysis to explain the functional mechanism of the ZmFATB protein and confirmed the proposed model in vitro and in vivo. We measured the genetic effect of the functional site in 15 different genetic backgrounds and found a maximum change of 4.57 mg/g palmitic acid content, which accounts for ∼20-60% of the variation in the ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids. A PCR-based marker for QTL-Pal9 was developed for marker-assisted selection of nutritionally healthier maize lines. The method presented here provides a new, efficient way to clone QTL, and the cloned palmitic acid QTL sheds lights on the genetic mechanism of oil biosynthesis and targeted maize molecular breeding.

  16. Reducing the negative effects of media exposure on body image: Testing the effectiveness of subvertising and disclaimer labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick, David A; Sandhu, Gaganjyot; Scott, Terri; Akbari, Yasmin

    2016-06-01

    Body image activists have proposed adding disclaimer labels to digitally altered media as a way to promote positive body image. Another approach advocated by activists is to alter advertisements through subvertising (adding social commentary to the image to undermine the message of the advertisement). We examined if body image could be enhanced by attaching Photoshop disclaimers or subvertising to thin-ideal media images of swimsuit models. In Study 1 (N=1268), adult women exposed to disclaimers or subvertising did not report higher body state satisfaction or lower drive for thinness than women exposed to unaltered images. In Study 2 (N=820), adult women who were exposed to disclaimers or subvertising did not report higher state body satisfaction or lower state social appearance comparisons than women exposed to unaltered images or to no images. These results raise questions about the effectiveness of disclaimers and subvertising for promoting body satisfaction.

  17. Reduced Maternal Erythrocyte Long Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Exist in Early Pregnancy in Preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadhwani, Nisha S; Narang, Ankita S; Mehendale, Savita S; Wagh, Girija N; Gupte, Sanjay A; Joshi, Sadhana R

    2016-01-01

    The present prospective study examines proportions of maternal erythrocyte fatty acids across gestation and their association with cord erythrocyte fatty acids in normotensive control (NC) and preeclamptic pregnancies. We hypothesize that maternal fatty acid status in early pregnancy influences fetal fatty acid stores in preeclampsia. 137 NC women and 58 women with preeclampsia were included in this study. Maternal blood was collected at 3 time points during pregnancy (16-20th weeks, 26-30th weeks and at delivery). Cord blood was collected at delivery. Fatty acids were analyzed using gas chromatography. The proportions of maternal erythrocyte α-linolenic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, nervonic acid, and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) (p preeclampsia as compared with NC. Cord 18:3n-3, 22:6n-3, 24:1n-9, MUFA, and total n-3 fatty acids (p preeclampsia as compared with NC. A positive association was observed between maternal erythrocyte 22:6n-3 and 24:1n-9 at 16-20th weeks with the same fatty acids in cord erythrocytes (p preeclampsia. Our study for the first time indicates alteration in maternal erythrocyte fatty acids at 16th weeks of gestation which is further reflected in cord erythrocytes at delivery in preeclampsia.

  18. Arachidonic acid reduces the stress response of gilthead seabream Sparus aurata L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anholt, R.D. van; Spanings, F.A.T.; Koven, W.M.; Nixon, O.; Wendelaar Bonga, S.E.

    2004-01-01

    In this study the influence of the dietary level of the fatty acid arachidonic acid (ArA, 20:4n-6) was determined on the acute stress response and osmoregulation of adult gilthead seabream Sparus aurata L. Seabream were fed a diet containing either 0.9% or 2.4% of total fatty acids as ArA for 18 day

  19. Reduced by-product formation and modified oxygen availability improve itaconic acid production in Aspergillus niger.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, A.; Pfelzer, N.; Zuijderwijk, R.; Brickwedde, A.; Zeijl, C. van; Punt, P.

    2013-01-01

    Aspergillus niger has an extraordinary potential to produce organic acids as proven by its application in industrial citric acid production. Previously, it was shown that expression of the cis-aconitate decarboxylase gene (cadA) from Aspergillus terreus converted A. niger into an itaconic acid produ

  20. Melatonin reduces bacterial translocation and apoptosis in trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid-induced colitis of rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the effects of exogenous melatonin on bacterial translocation and apoptosis in a rat ulcerative colitis model.METHODS:Rats were randomly assigned to three groups:group Ⅰ:control,group Ⅱ: experimental colitis,group Ⅲ:colitis plus melatonin treatment.On d 11 after colitis,plasma tumor necrosis factor-α,portal blood endotoxin levels,colon tissue myeloperoxidase and caspase-3 activity were measured.Bacterial translocation was quantified by blood,lymph node,liver and spleen culture.RESULTS:We observed a significantly reduced incidence of bacterial translocation to the liver,spleen,mesenteric lymph nodes,portal and systemic blood in animals treated with melatonin.Treatment with melatonin significantly decreased the caspase-3 activity in colonic tissues compared to that in trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid-treated rats (16.11 ± 2.46 vs 32.97 ± 3.91,P < 0.01).CONCLUSION:Melatonin has a protective effect on bacterial translocation and apoptosis.

  1. Reducing cannabinoid abuse and preventing relapse by enhancing endogenous brain levels of kynurenic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justinova, Zuzana; Mascia, Paola; Wu, Hui-Qiu; Secci, Maria E.; Redhi, Godfrey H.; Panlilio, Leigh V.; Scherma, Maria; Barnes, Chanel; Parashos, Alexandra; Zara, Tamara; Fratta, Walter; Solinas, Marcello; Pistis, Marco; Bergman, Jack; Kangas, Brian D.; Ferré, Sergi; Tanda, Gianluigi; Schwarcz, Robert; Goldberg, Steven R.

    2013-01-01

    In the reward circuitry of the brain, alpha-7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α7nAChRs) modulate effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), marijuana’s main psychoactive ingredient. Kynurenic acid (KYNA) is an endogenous negative allosteric modulator of α7nAChRs. Here we report that the kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (KMO) inhibitor Ro 61-8048 increases brain KYNA levels and attenuates cannabinoid-induced increases in extracellular dopamine in reward-related brain areas. In the self-administration model of drug abuse, Ro 61-8048 reduced the rewarding effects of THC and the synthetic cannabinoid WIN 55,212-2 in squirrel monkeys and rats, respectively, and it also prevented relapse to drug-seeking induced by re-exposure to cannabinoids or cannabinoid-associated cues. The effects of enhancing endogenous KYNA levels with Ro 61-8048 were prevented by positive allosteric modulators of α7nAChRs. Despite a clear need, there are currently no medications approved for treatment of marijuana dependence. Modulation of KYNA provides a novel pharmacological strategy for achieving abstinence from marijuana and preventing relapse. PMID:24121737

  2. Diacylglycerol acyltransferase-1 inhibition enhances intestinal fatty acid oxidation and reduces energy intake in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schober, Gudrun; Arnold, Myrtha; Birtles, Susan; Buckett, Linda K; Pacheco-López, Gustavo; Turnbull, Andrew V; Langhans, Wolfgang; Mansouri, Abdelhak

    2013-05-01

    Acyl CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase-1 (DGAT-1) catalyzes the final step in triacylglycerol (TAG) synthesis and is highly expressed in the small intestine. Because DGAT-1 knockout mice are resistant to diet-induced obesity, we investigated the acute effects of intragastric (IG) infusion of a small molecule diacylglycerol acyltransferase-1 inhibitor (DGAT-1i) on eating, circulating fat metabolites, indirect calorimetry, and hepatic and intestinal expression of key fat catabolism enzymes in male rats adapted to an 8 h feeding-16 h deprivation schedule. Also, the DGAT-1i effect on fatty acid oxidation (FAO) was investigated in enterocyte cell culture models. IG DGAT-1i infusions reduced energy intake compared with vehicle in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed rats, but scarcely in chow-fed rats. IG DGAT-1i also blunted the postprandial increase in serum TAG and increased β-hydroxybutyrate levels only in HFD-fed rats, in which it lowered the respiratory quotient and increased intestinal, but not hepatic, protein levels of Complex III of the mitochondrial respiratory chain and of mitochondrial hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA synthase. Finally, the DGAT-1i enhanced FAO in CaCo2 (EC50 = 0.3494) and HuTu80 (EC50 = 0.00762) cells. Thus, pharmacological DGAT-1 inhibition leads to an increase in intestinal FAO and ketogenesis when dietary fat is available. This may contribute to the observed eating-inhibitory effect.

  3. Nacre-inspired integrated strong and tough reduced graphene oxide-poly(acrylic acid) nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Sijie; Hu, Han; Peng, Jingsong; Li, Yuchen; Fan, Yuzun; Jiang, Lei; Cheng, Qunfeng

    2016-03-01

    Inspired by the relationship between interface interactions and the high performance mechanical properties of nacre, a strong and tough nacre-inspired nanocomposite was demonstrated based on graphene oxide (GO) and polyacrylic acid (PAA) prepared via a vacuum-assisted filtration self-assembly process. The abundant hydrogen bonding between GO and PAA results in both high strength and toughness of the bioinspired nanocomposites, which are 2 and 3.3 times higher than that of pure reduced GO film, respectively. In addition, the effect of environmental relative humidity on the mechanical properties of bioinspired nanocomposites is also investigated, and is consistent with previous theoretical predictions. Moreover, this nacre-inspired nanocomposite also displays high electrical conductivity of 108.9 S cm-1. These excellent physical properties allow this type of nacre-inspired nanocomposite to be used in many applications, such as flexible electrodes, aerospace applications, and artificial muscles etc. This nacre-inspired strategy also opens an avenue for constructing integrated high performance graphene-based nanocomposites in the near future.

  4. ELECTROLESS COPPER PLATING ON FRAXINUS MANDSHURICA VENEER USING GLYOXYLIC ACID AS REDUCING AGENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijuan Wang

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Copper coating was deposited on Fraxinus mandshurica veneers for preparing EMI shielding composite by electroless plating using glyoxylic acid as reducing agent in the solution. XPS and SEM were used to analyze the activation process. It was found that a continuous chitosan membrane was loaded on the wood surface. XPS results showed that Pd(II ions were chemically adsorbed on a chitosan membrane on the wood surface through an N-Pd σ coordination bond. After reduction, part of Pd(II absorbed formed very little Pd(0 particles on the chitosan-treated wood surface. The activated wood veneers were immersed into a plating bath in which copper film was successfully initiated. The coatings were characterized by SEM-EDS, XPS, and XRD. The metal deposition, surface resistivity, and electromagnetic shielding effectiveness were measured. The morphology of the coating was uniform, compact, and continuous. The wood grains were preserved on the plated wood veneer, which had a copper-like color and sheen. EDS, XPS, and XRD results indicated that the coating consisted of Cu0 with crystalline structure. The surface resistivity and copper deposition reached 175.14 mΩ•cm-2 and 21.66 g/m2 when the veneer was pretreated with 0.8 % chitosan for 8 min and plated for 30 min at 55 oC. The plated veneers exhibited good electromagnetic shielding effectiveness of over 60 dB in frequency ranging from10 MHz to 1.5 GHz.

  5. Effect of Whole-Body X-Irradiation of the Synthesis of Individual Fatty Acids in Liver Slices from Normal and Fasted Rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Heinz Johs. Max; Hansen, Lisbeth Grænge; Faber, M.

    1965-01-01

    (1) Using (2-14C) acetate and (1-14C) butyrate as precursors, rat-liver fatty acids were synthesized in vitro and assayed by paper chromatography. (2) Whole-body x-irradiation induced a change in the synthetic pattern of hepatic fatty acids towards a relatively enhanced synthesis of palmitic acid...

  6. [Amino acid composition of the body of rats after a flight on the Kosmos-1129 biosatellite].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlasova, T F; Miroshnikova, E B; Smirnova, T A; Dmitrieva, I A

    1981-01-01

    The paper presents data concerning the amino acid pool of rats flown on board Cosmos-1129 and exposed to the ground-based synchronous experiment. Certain changes in the amino acid pool of flight and synchronous rats have been found. The changes seem to be associated with the selective rate of incorporation of free amino acids into the biosynthetic processes during acute adaptation and with alterations in the protein synthesis rate.

  7. Sulfonated reduced graphene oxide as a highly efficient catalyst for direct amidation of carboxylic acids with amines using ultrasonic irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirza-Aghayan, Maryam; Tavana, Mahdieh Molaee; Boukherroub, Rabah

    2016-03-01

    Sulfonated reduced graphene oxide nanosheets (rGO-SO3H) were prepared by grafting sulfonic acid-containing aryl radicals onto chemically reduced graphene oxide (rGO) under sonochemical conditions. rGO-SO3H catalyst was characterized by Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). rGO-SO3H catalyst was successfully applied as a reusable solid acid catalyst for the direct amidation of carboxylic acids with amines into the corresponding amides under ultrasonic irradiation. The direct sonochemical amidation of carboxylic acid takes place under mild conditions affording in good to high yields (56-95%) the corresponding amides in short reaction times.

  8. Giving tranexamic acid to reduce surgical bleeding in sub-Saharan Africa: an economic evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perel Pablo

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The identification of safe and effective alternatives to blood transfusion is a public health priority. In sub-Saharan Africa, blood shortage is a cause of mortality and morbidity. Blood transfusion can also transmit viral infections. Giving tranexamic acid (TXA to bleeding surgical patients has been shown to reduce both the number of blood transfusions and the volume of blood transfused. The objective of this study is to investigate whether routinely administering TXA to bleeding elective surgical patients is cost effective by both averting deaths occurring from the shortage of blood, and by preventing infections from blood transfusions. Methods A decision tree was constructed to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of providing TXA compared with no TXA in patients with surgical bleeding in four African countries with different human immunodeficiency virus (HIV prevalence and blood donation rates (Kenya, South Africa, Tanzania and Botswana. The principal outcome measures were cost per life saved and cost per infection averted (HIV, Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C averted in 2007 International dollars ($. The probability of receiving a blood transfusion with and without TXA and the risk of blood borne viral infection were estimated. The impact of uncertainty in model parameters was explored using one-way deterministic sensitivity analyses. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis was performed using Monte Carlo simulation. Results The incremental cost per life saved is $87 for Kenya and $93 for Tanzania. In Botswana and South Africa, TXA administration is not life saving but is highly cost saving since fewer units of blood are transfused. Further, in Botswana the administration of TXA averts one case of HIV and four cases of Hepatitis B (HBV per 1,000 surgical patients. In South Africa, one case of HBV is averted per 1,000 surgical patients. Probabilistic sensitivity analyses confirmed the robustness of the model. Conclusion An economic

  9. Gallic acid reduces cell viability, proliferation, invasion and angiogenesis in human cervical cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bing; Hu, Mengcai

    2013-12-01

    Gallic acid is a trihydroxybenzoic acid, also known as 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid, which is present in plants worldwide, including Chinese medicinal herbs. Gallic acid has been shown to have cytotoxic effects in certain cancer cells, without damaging normal cells. The objective of the present study was to determine whether gallic acid is able to inhibit human cervical cancer cell viability, proliferation and invasion and suppress cervical cancer cell-mediated angiogenesis. Treatment of HeLa and HTB-35 human cancer cells with gallic acid decreased cell viability in a dose-dependent manner. BrdU proliferation and tube formation assays indicated that gallic acid significantly decreased human cervical cancer cell proliferation and tube formation in human umbilical vein endothelial cells, respectively. Additionally, gallic acid decreased HeLa and HTB-35 cell invasion in vitro. Western blot analysis demonstrated that the expression of ADAM17, EGFR, p-Akt and p-Erk was suppressed by gallic acid in the HeLa and HTB-35 cell lines. These data indicate that the suppression of ADAM17 and the downregulation of the EGFR, Akt/p-Akt and Erk/p-Erk signaling pathways may contribute to the suppression of cancer progression by Gallic acid. Gallic acid may be a valuable candidate for the treatment of cervical cancer.

  10. Reducing saturated fatty acids in Arabidopsis seeds by expression of a Caenorhabditis elegans 16:0-specific desaturase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahy, Deirdre; Scheer, Barbara; Wallis, James G; Browse, John

    2013-05-01

    Plant oilseeds are a major source of nutritional oils. Their fatty acid composition, especially the proportion of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, has important effects on human health. Because intake of saturated fats is correlated with the incidence of cardiovascular disease and diabetes, a goal of metabolic engineering is to develop oils low in saturated fatty acids. Palmitic acid (16:0) is the most abundant saturated fatty acid in the seeds of many oilseed crops and in Arabidopsis thaliana. We expressed FAT-5, a membrane-bound desaturase cloned from Caenorhabditis elegans, in Arabidopsis using a strong seed-specific promoter. The FAT-5 enzyme is highly specific to 16:0 as substrate, converting it to 16:1∆9; expression of fat-5 reduced the 16:0 content of the seed by two-thirds. Decreased 16:0 and elevated 16:1 levels were evident both in the storage and membrane lipids of seeds. Regiochemical analysis of phosphatidylcholine showed that 16:1 was distributed at both positions on the glycerolipid backbone, unlike 16:0, which is predominately found at the sn-1 position. Seeds from a plant line homozygous for FAT-5 expression were comparable to wild type with respect to seed set and germination, while oil content and weight were somewhat reduced. These experiments demonstrate that targeted heterologous expression of a desaturase in oilseeds can reduce the level of saturated fatty acids in the oil, significantly improving its nutritional value.

  11. The effect of dietary fat and omega-3 fatty acids on whole body lipid oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipid peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids yields several electrophilic, reactive carbonyl metabolites. We hypothesized that an increased intake of omega-3 fatty acids (n-3) would lead to increased lipid peroxidation metabolites compared to a diet low in n-3. As part of a randomized crossov...

  12. Formation of amino acid precursors in the Solar System small bodies using Aluminium-26 as an energy source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebukawa, Yoko; Kobayashi, Kensei; Kawai, Jun; Mita, Hajime; Tachibana, Shogo; Yoda, Isao; Misawa, Shusuke

    2016-07-01

    Carbonaceous chondrites contain various organic matter including amino acids that may have played an important role for origin of life on the early Earth. The parent bodies of the chondritic meteorites likely formed from silicate dust grains containing some water ice and organic compounds. These planetesimals are known to contain short-lived radio isotopes such as ^{26}Al, and the heat generated from the decay of ^{26}Al was considered to be used for melting ice. The liquid water, for example, changed anhydrous silicates into hydrous silicates, i.e., aqueous alteration. The liquid water would act also as an ideal reaction medium for various organic chemistry. Cody et al. [1] proposed IOM formation via formose reaction starting with formaldehyde and glycolaldehyde during aqueous activity in the small bodies. Additional hydrothermal experiments showed that ammonia enhanced the yields of IOM like organic solids [2]. Formaldehyde and ammonia are ubiquitous in the Solar System and beyond, e.g., comets contain H _{2}CO : NH _{3} : H _{2}O = 0.4-4 : 0.5-1.5 : 100 [3]. Thus these molecules can be expected to have existed in some Solar System small bodies. We study the liquid phase chemistry of the formaldehyde and ammonia, including formations of amino acid precursor molecules, via hydrothermal experiments at isothermal temperatures of 90 °C to 200 °C. We also evaluate the effects of gamma-ray which is released from the decay of ^{26}Al with gamma-ray irradiation experiments using a ^{60}Co gamma-ray source at Tokyo Institute of Technology. Amino acids were detected mostly after acid hydrolysis of heated or irradiated solutions, indicating that most of the amino acids in the products exist as precursors. Some samples contained 'free' amino acids that were detected without acid hydrolysis, but much lower abundance than after acid hydrolysis. Kendrick mass defect (KMD) analyses of High resolution mass spectra obtained using ESI-MS revealed that various CHO and CHNO

  13. Amino acids interference on the quantification of reducing sugars by the 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid assay mislead carbohydrase activity measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Ricardo Sposina Sobral; da Silva, Ayla Sant'Ana; Ferreira-Leitão, Viridiana Santana; da Silva Bon, Elba Pinto

    2012-12-01

    This study evaluated the interference of the amino acids tryptophan, cysteine, histidine, tyrosine, hydroxyproline, leucine, proline, serine, glycine, valine, glutamic acid, phenylalanine, and methionine on the measurement of reducing sugars using a phenol-free 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid (DNS) reagent. It was found that in reaction mixtures containing 20mM of either tryptophan, cysteine, histidine, tyrosine, or hydroxyproline the measurement of 3.7 mM glucose was overestimated by 76%, 50%, 35%, 18%, and 10%, respectively. The amino acids valine, glutamic acid, and phenylalanine did not affect the DNS reaction, while methionine decreased the color development by 5%. The measurement of glucose, xylose, arabinose, and cellobiose at the 3.7-12.4 mM range in the presence of 20 mM cysteine resulted in an overestimated concentration of 34.8-50%. Enzymatic assays for measuring xylanolytic and filter paper activity (FPAse) were conducted in the presence of 20-60 mM cysteine, and compared to cysteine-free assays. In the presence of cysteine, the measured xylanase activity increased threefold and the FPAse activity increased twofold due to the overestimation of the reducing sugar concentrations in the assays. The interference from cysteine was reduced to a maximum of 8.6% when a DNS reagent containing phenol was used.

  14. Combining reduced glutathione and ascorbic acid has supplementary beneficial effects on boar sperm cryotolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giaretta, Elisa; Estrada, Efrén; Bucci, Diego; Spinaci, Marcella; Rodríguez-Gil, Joan E; Yeste, Marc

    2015-02-01

    The main aim of this work was to evaluate how supplementing freezing and thawing media with reduced glutathione (GSH) and l-ascorbic acid (AA) affected the quality parameters of frozen-thawed boar spermatozoa. With this purpose, semen samples of 12 ejaculates coming from 12 boars were used. Each ejaculate was split into seven aliquots to which 5 mM of GSH and 100 μM of AA were added separately or together at two different steps of freeze-thawing. Various sperm parameters (levels of free cysteine residues in sperm nucleoproteins, sperm viability, acrosome membrane integrity, intracellular peroxide and superoxide levels [ROS], and total and progressive motility) were evaluated before freezing and at 30 and 240 minutes after thawing. Both GSH and AA significantly improved boar sperm cryotolerance when they were separately added to freezing and thawing media. However, the highest improvement was recorded when both freezing and thawing media were supplemented with 5 mM of GSH plus 100 μM of AA. This improvement was observed in sperm viability and acrosome integrity, sperm motility, and nucleoprotein structure. Although ROS levels were not much increased by freeze-thawing procedures, the addition of GSH and AA to both freezing and thawing extenders significantly decreased intracellular peroxide levels and had no impact on superoxide levels. According to our results, we can conclude that supplementation of freezing and thawing media with both GSH and AA has a combined, beneficial effect on frozen-thawed boar sperm, which is greater than that obtained with the separate addition of either GSH or AA.

  15. Phosphatidic acid: biosynthesis, pharmacokinetics, mechanisms of action and effect on strength and body composition in resistance-trained individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) has received much attention in the field of exercise physiology as a master regulator of skeletal muscle hypertrophy. The multiprotein complex is regulated by various signals such as growth factors, energy status, amino acids and mechanical stimuli. Importantly, the glycerophospholipid phosphatidic acid (PA) appears to play an important role in mTORC1 activation by mechanical stimulation. PA has been shown to modulate mTOR activity by direct binding to its FKBP12-rapamycin binding domain. Additionally, it has been suggested that exogenous PA activates mTORC1 via extracellular conversion to lysophosphatidic acid and subsequent binding to endothelial differentiation gene receptors on the cell surface. Recent trials have therefore evaluated the effects of PA supplementation in resistance-trained individuals on strength and body composition. As research in this field is rapidly evolving, this review attempts to provide a comprehensive overview of its biosynthesis, pharmacokinetics, mechanisms of action and effect on strength and body composition in resistance-trained individuals.

  16. Combination of omega-3 Fatty acids, lithium, and aripiprazole reduces oxidative stress in brain of mice with mania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arunagiri, Pandiyan; Rajeshwaran, Krishnamoorthy; Shanthakumar, Janakiraman; Tamilselvan, Thangavel; Balamurugan, Elumalai

    2014-09-01

    Manic episode in bipolar disorder (BD) was evaluated in the present study with supplementation of omega-3 fatty acids in combination with aripiprazole and lithium on methylphenidate (MPD)-induced manic mice model. Administration of MPD 5 mg/kg bw intraperitoneally (i.p.) caused increase in oxidative stress in mice brain. To retract this effect, supplementation of omega-3 fatty acids 1.5 ml/kg (p.o.), aripiprazole 1.5 mg/kg bw (i.p.), and lithium 50 mg/kg bw (p.o) were given to mice. Omega-3 fatty acids alone and in combination with aripiprazole- and lithium-treated groups significantly reduced the levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and lipid peroxidation products (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) in the brain. MPD treatment significantly decreased the reduced glutathione (GSH) level and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, and they were restored by supplementation of omega-3 fatty acids with aripiprazole and lithium. There is no remarkable difference in the effect of creatine kinase (CK) activity between MPD-induced manic model and the treatment groups. Therefore, our results demonstrate that oxidative stress imbalance and mild insignificant CK alterations induced by administration of MPD can be restored back to normal physiological levels through omega-3 fatty acids combined with lithium and aripiprazole that attributes to effective prevention against mania in adult male Swiss albino mice.

  17. Omega 3 fatty acids reduce myeloid progenitor cell frequency in the bone marrow of mice and promote progenitor cell differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sollars Vincent E

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Omega 3 fatty acids have been found to inhibit proliferation, induce apoptosis, and promote differentiation in various cell types. The processes of cell survival, expansion, and differentiation are of key importance in the regulation of hematopoiesis. We investigated the role of omega 3 fatty acids in controlling the frequency of various myeloid progenitor cells in the bone marrow of mice. Increased progenitor cell frequency and blocked differentiation are characteristics of hematopoietic disorders of the myeloid lineage, such as myeloproliferative diseases and myeloid leukemias. Results We found that increasing the proportion of omega 3 fatty acids relative to the proportion of omega 6 fatty acids in the diet caused increased differentiation and reduced the frequency of myeloid progenitor cells in the bone marrow of mice. Furthermore, this had no adverse effect on peripheral white blood cell counts. Conclusion Our results indicate that omega 3 fatty acids impact hematopoietic differentiation by reducing myeloid progenitor cell frequency in the bone marrow and promoting progenitor cell differentiation. Further exploration of this discovery could lead to the use of omega 3 fatty acids as a therapeutic option for patients that have various disorders of hematopoiesis.

  18. Dethiosulfatibacter aminovorans gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel thiosulfate-reducing bacterium isolated from coastal marine sediment via sulfate-reducing enrichment with Casamino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takii, Susumu; Hanada, Satoshi; Tamaki, Hideyuki; Ueno, Yutaka; Sekiguchi, Yuji; Ibe, Akihiro; Matsuura, Katsumi

    2007-10-01

    A sulfate-reducing enrichment culture originating from coastal marine sediment of the eutrophic Tokyo Bay, Japan, was successfully established with Casamino acids as a substrate. A thiosulfate reducer, strain C/G2(T), was isolated from the enrichment culture after further enrichment with glutamate. Cells of strain C/G2(T) were non-motile rods (0.6-0.8 microm x 2.2-4.8 microm) and were found singly or in pairs and sometimes in short chains. Spores were not formed. Cells of strain C/G2(T) stained Gram-negatively, despite possessing Gram-positive cell walls. The optimum temperature for growth was 28-30 degrees C, the optimum pH was around 7.8 and the optimum salt concentration was 20-30 g l(-1). Lactate, pyruvate, serine, cysteine, threonine, glutamate, histidine, lysine, arginine, Casamino acids, peptone and yeast extract were fermented as single substrates and no sugar was used as a fermentative substrate. A Stickland reaction was observed with some pairs of amino acids. Fumarate, alanine, proline, phenylalanine, tryptophan, glutamine and aspartate were utilized only in the presence of thiosulfate. Strain C/G2(T) fermented glutamate to H2, CO2, acetate and propionate. Thiosulfate and elemental sulfur were reduced to sulfide. Sulfate, sulfite and nitrate were not utilized as electron acceptors. The growth of strain C/G2(T) on Casamino acids or glutamate was enhanced by co-culturing with Desulfovibrio sp. isolated from the original mixed culture enriched with Casamino acids. The DNA G+C content of strain C/G2(T) was 41.0 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain C/G2(T) formed a distinct cluster with species of the genus Sedimentibacter. The closest relative was Sedimentibacter hydroxybenzoicus (with a gene sequence similarity of 91 %). On the basis of its phylogenetic and phenotypic properties, strain C/G2(T) (=JCM 13356(T)=NBRC 101112(T)=DSM 17477(T)) is proposed as representing a new genus and novel species, Dethiosulfatibacter

  19. Omega-3 fatty acids modulate Weibel-Palade body degranulation and actin cytoskeleton rearrangement in PMA-stimulated human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bürgin-Maunder, Corinna S; Brooks, Peter R; Russell, Fraser D

    2013-11-08

    Long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFAs) produce cardiovascular benefits by improving endothelial function. Endothelial cells store von Willebrand factor (vWF) in cytoplasmic Weibel-Palade bodies (WPBs). We examined whether LC n-3 PUFAs regulate WPB degranulation using cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). HUVECs were incubated with or without 75 or 120 µM docosahexaenoic acid or eicosapentaenoic acid for 5 days at 37 °C. WPB degranulation was stimulated using phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), and this was assessed by immunocytochemical staining for vWF. Actin reorganization was determined using phalloidin-TRITC staining. We found that PMA stimulated WPB degranulation, and that this was significantly reduced by prior incubation of cells with LC n-3 PUFAs. In these cells, WPBs had rounded rather than rod-shaped morphology and localized to the perinuclear region, suggesting interference with cytoskeletal remodeling that is necessary for complete WPB degranulation. In line with this, actin rearrangement was altered in cells containing perinuclear WPBs, where cells exhibited a thickened actin rim in the absence of prominent cytoplasmic stress fibers. These findings indicate that LC n-3 PUFAs provide some protection against WBP degranulation, and may contribute to an improved understanding of the anti-thrombotic effects previously attributed to LC n-3 PUFAs.

  20. Omega-3 Fatty Acids Modulate Weibel-Palade Body Degranulation and Actin Cytoskeleton Rearrangement in PMA-Stimulated Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinna S. Bürgin-Maunder

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFAs produce cardiovascular benefits by improving endothelial function. Endothelial cells store von Willebrand factor (vWF in cytoplasmic Weibel-Palade bodies (WPBs. We examined whether LC n-3 PUFAs regulate WPB degranulation using cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs. HUVECs were incubated with or without 75 or 120 µM docosahexaenoic acid or eicosapentaenoic acid for 5 days at 37 °C. WPB degranulation was stimulated using phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA, and this was assessed by immunocytochemical staining for vWF. Actin reorganization was determined using phalloidin-TRITC staining. We found that PMA stimulated WPB degranulation, and that this was significantly reduced by prior incubation of cells with LC n-3 PUFAs. In these cells, WPBs had rounded rather than rod-shaped morphology and localized to the perinuclear region, suggesting interference with cytoskeletal remodeling that is necessary for complete WPB degranulation. In line with this, actin rearrangement was altered in cells containing perinuclear WPBs, where cells exhibited a thickened actin rim in the absence of prominent cytoplasmic stress fibers. These findings indicate that LC n-3 PUFAs provide some protection against WBP degranulation, and may contribute to an improved understanding of the anti-thrombotic effects previously attributed to LC n-3 PUFAs.

  1. Will Increasing Folic Acid in Fortified Grain Products Further Reduce Neural Tube Defects without Causing Harm?: Consideration of the Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Will Increasing Folic Acid in Fortified Grain Products Further Reduce Neural Tube Defects without Causing Harm?: Consideration of the Evidence. In the January issue of this journal, Johnston (1) includes our group’s recent analysis of data from the 1999-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination...

  2. The influence of dose, time of administration, body temperature and salicylate kinetics on the antithrombotic action of acetylsalicylic acid in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philp, R B; Paul, M L; Killackey, J J; Killackey, B A

    1983-01-01

    Acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), given i.v. to male rats 10 min before electrical injury to the carotid artery, was found to reduce rate and extent of thrombosis at 3.3 and 10.0 mg/kg but not at 1.7, 20 or 100 mg/kg, indicating a narrow, low-dose window for antithrombotic effect. ASA was more effective in rats in which body temperature was allowed to fall greater than 0.5 degrees C but protection was lost if injury was delayed 15 min or more after ASA administration. Serum salicylate studies did not support the view that loss of protection was due to competition between salicylate and ASA for cyclooxygenase-binding sites. ASA was also protective at 200 mg/kg i.v., possibly through non-specific toxic effects.

  3. Which Route of Tranexamic Acid Administration is More Effective to Reduce Blood Loss Following Total Knee Arthroplasty?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohrab Keyhani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The most appropriate route of tranexamic acid administration is controversial. In the current study, we compared the efficacy of intravenous (IV and topical intra-articular tranexamic acid in reducing blood loss and transfusion rate in patients who underwent primary total knee arthroplasty. Methods: One hundred twenty 120 patients were scheduled to undergo primary total knee arthroplasty. Patients were randomly allocated to three equal groups: IV tranexamic acid (500 mg, topical tranexamic acid (3 g in 100 mL normal saline and the control. In the topical group, half of the volume was used to irrigate the joint and the other half was injected intra-articularly. The volume of blood loss, hemoglobin (Hb level at 24 hours postoperative, and rate of transfusion was compared between groups. Results: The blood loss and Hb level were significantly greater and lower in the control group, respectively (P

  4. Acid base balance in the rabbit following whole-body gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bassant, M.H.; Touchard, F.; Court, L. (CEA Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee)

    1981-07-06

    2 hrs. after whole-body gamma irradiation (doses of 1.5 and 4.5 Gy) a metabolic acidosis developed in curarised rabbits placed under artificial respiration in order to eliminate radiation-induced respiratory effect. The metabolic acidosis was evaluated by measurement of the negative base excess. The results were compared to others obtained under different experimental procedures.

  5. Mind-body interface: the role of n-3 fatty acids in psychoneuroimmunology, somatic presentation, and medical illness comorbidity of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Kuan-Pin

    2008-01-01

    With the unsatisfaction of monoamine-based pharmacotherapy and the high comorbidity of other medical illness in depression, the serotonin hypothesis seems to fail in approaching the aetiology of depression. Based upon the evidence from epidemiological data, case-control studies of phospholipid polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) levels in human tissues, and antidepressant effect in clinical trials, PUFAs have shed a light to discover the unsolved of depression and connect the mind and body. Briefly, the deficit of n-3 PUFAs has been reported to be associated with neurological, cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, autoimmune, metabolic diseases and cancers. Recent studies revealed that the deficit of n-3 PUFAs is also associated with depression. For example, societies that consume a small amount of omega-3 PUFAs appear to have a higher prevalence of major depressive disorder. In addition, depressive patients had showed a lower level of omega-3 PUFAs; and the antidepressant effect of PUFAs had been reported in a number of clinical trials. The PUFAs are classified into n-3 (or omega-3) and n-6 (or omega-6) groups. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), the major bioactive components of n-3 PUFAs, are not synthesized in human body and can only be obtained directly from the diet, particularly by consuming fish. DHA deficit is associated with dysfunctions of neuronal membrane stability and transmission of serotonin, norepinephrine and dopamine, which might connect to the aetiology of mood and cognitive dysfunction of depression. On the other hand, EPA is important in balancing the immune function and physical healthy by reducing arachidonic acid (AA, an n-6 PUFA) level on cell membrane and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) synthesis. Interestingly, animals fed with high AA diet or treated with PGE2 were observed to present sickness behaviours of anorexia, low activity, change in sleep pattern and attention, which are similar to somatic symptoms of depression in

  6. Effects of Dietary Garlic Extracts on Whole Body Amino Acid and Fatty Acid Composition, Muscle Free Amino Acid Profiles and Blood Plasma Changes in Juvenile Sterlet Sturgeon, Acipenser ruthenus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong-Hoon; Lim, Seong-Ryul; Ra, Chang-Six; Kim, Jeong-Dae

    2012-10-01

    A series of studies were carried out to investigate the supplemental effects of dietary garlic extracts (GE) on whole body amino acids, whole body and muscle free amino acids, fatty acid composition and blood plasma changes in 6 month old juvenile sterlet sturgeon (Acipenser ruthenus). In the first experiment, fish with an average body weight of 59.6 g were randomly allotted to each of 10 tanks (two groups of five replicates, 20 fish/tank) and fed diets with (0.5%) or without (control) GE respectively, at the level of 2% of fish body weight per day for 5 wks. Whole body amino acid composition between the GE and control groups were not different (p>0.05). Among free amino acids in muscle, L-glutamic acid, L-alanine, L-valine, L-leucine and L-phenylalanine were significantly (pexperiment, the effects of dietary garlic extracts on blood plasma changes were investigated using 6 month old juvenile sterlet sturgeon averaging 56.5 g. Fish were randomly allotted to each of 2 tanks (300 fish/tank) and fed diets with (0.5%) or without (control) GE respectively, at the rate of 2% of body weight per day for 23 d. At the end of the feeding trial, blood was taken from the tail vein (n = 5, per group) at 1, 12, and 24 h after feeding, respectively. Blood plasma glucose, insulin and the other serological characteristics were also measured to assess postprandial status of the fish. Plasma glucose concentrations (mg/dl) between two groups (GE vs control) were significantly (p0.05) were noticed at 12 h (74.6 vs 73.0). Plasma insulin concentrations (μIU/ml) between the two groups were significantly (p<0.05) different at 1 (10.56 vs 5.06) and 24 h (32.56 vs 2.96) after feeding. The present results suggested that dietary garlic extracts could increase dietary glucose utilization through the insulin secretion, which result in improved fish body quality and feed utilization by juvenile sterlet sturgeon.

  7. Grouping of amino acids and recognition of protein structurally conserved regions by reduced alphabets of amino acids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Sequence alignment is a common method for finding protein structurally conserved/similar regions. However, sequence alignment is often not accurate if sequence identities between to-be-aligned se- quences are less than 30%. This is because that for these sequences, different residues may play similar structural roles and they are incorrectly aligned during the sequence alignment using substitu- tion matrix consisting of 20 types of residues. Based on the similarity of physicochemical features, residues can be clustered into a few groups. Using such simplified alphabets, the complexity of protein sequences is reduced and at the same time the key information encoded in the sequences remains. As a result, the accuracy of sequence alignment might be improved if the residues are properly clustered. Here, by using a database of aligned protein structures (DAPS), a new clustering method based on the substitution scores is proposed for the grouping of residues, and substitution matrices of residues at different levels of simplification are constructed. The validity of the reduced alphabets is confirmed by relative entropy analysis. The reduced alphabets are applied to recognition of protein structurally conserved/similar regions by sequence alignment. The results indicate that the accuracy or efficiency of sequence alignment can be improved with the optimal reduced alphabet with N around 9.

  8. Grouping of amino acids and recognition of protein structurally conserved regions by reduced alphabets of amino acids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jing; WANG Wei

    2007-01-01

    Sequence alignment is a common method for finding protein structurally conserved/similar regions.However, sequence alignment is often not accurate if sequence identities between to-be-aligned sequences are less than 30%. This is because that for these sequences, different residues may play similar structural roles and they are incorrectly aligned during the sequence alignment using substitution matrix consisting of 20 types of residues. Based on the similarity of physicochemical features,residues can be clustered into a few groups. Using such simplified alphabets, the complexity of protein sequences is reduced and at the same time the key information encoded in the sequences remains. As a result, the accuracy of sequence alignment might be improved if the residues are properly clustered.Here, by using a database of aligned protein structures (DAPS), a new clustering method based on the substitution scores is proposed for the grouping of residues, and substitution matrices of residues at different levels of simplification are constructed. The validity of the reduced alphabets is confirmed by relative entropy analysis. The reduced alphabets are applied to recognition of protein structurally conserved/similar regions by sequence alignment. The results indicate that the accuracy or efficiency of sequence alignment can be improved with the optimal reduced alphabet with N around 9.

  9. Foam-stabilizing effects and cling formation patterns of iso-alpha-acids and reduced iso-alpha-acids in lager beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunimune, Takeshi; Shellhammer, Thomas H

    2008-09-24

    Foam-stabilizing properties and cling formation patterns of iso-alpha-acids and reduced iso-alpha-acids were investigated using an unhopped lager beer. Unhopped beer was dosed with iso-alpha-acid (Iso), rho-iso-alpha-acid (Rho), tetrahydro-iso-alpha-acid (Tetra), and hexahydro-iso-alpha-acid (Hexa), separately, over a range of concentrations from 2 to 10 ppm. A uniform foam was created by Inpack 2000 Flasher Head and was measured by a NIBEM Foam Stability Tester (NIBEM-TPH) followed by a NIBEM Cling Meter (NIBEM-CLM) to determine the relationship between the concentration and NIBEM-30 and the cling formation ability of each compound. The foam-stabilizing power was determined to be Tetra, Hexa, Iso, and Rho from the strongest to weakest. Linear regression models were created using the NIBEM-TPH data set, and on the basis of 95% confidence intervals, the foam stability of Tetra or Hexa became significantly larger than that of Iso when 2.4 or 4.2 ppm of Tetra or Hexa was used as a replacement for Iso, respectively. Cling formation patterns could be categorized into three groups: "ring", "mesh", and "powdery". The control beer had the lowest foam stability and did not yield any foam cling.

  10. Suppression of circulating free fatty acids with acipimox in chronic heart failure patients changes whole body metabolism but does not affect cardiac function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halbirk, Mads; Nørrelund, Helene; Møller, Niels; Schmitz, Ole; Gøtzsche, Liv; Nielsen, Roni; Nielsen-Kudsk, Jens Erik; Nielsen, Søren Steen; Nielsen, Torsten Toftegaard; Eiskjær, Hans; Bøtker, Hans Erik; Wiggers, Henrik

    2010-10-01

    Circulating free fatty acids (FFAs) may worsen heart failure (HF) due to myocardial lipotoxicity and impaired energy generation. We studied cardiac and whole body effects of 28 days of suppression of circulating FFAs with acipimox in patients with chronic HF. In a randomized double-blind crossover design, 24 HF patients with ischemic heart disease [left ventricular ejection fraction: 26 ± 2%; New York Heart Association classes II (n = 13) and III (n = 5)] received 28 days of acipimox treatment (250 mg, 4 times/day) and placebo. Left ventricular ejection fraction, diastolic function, tissue-Doppler regional myocardial function, exercise capacity, noninvasive cardiac index, NH(2)-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-pro-BNP), and whole body metabolic parameters were measured. Eighteen patients were included for analysis. FFAs were reduced by 27% in the acipimox-treated group [acipimox vs. placebo (day 28-day 0): -0.10 ± 0.03 vs. +0.01 ± 0.03 mmol/l, P < 0.01]. Glucose and insulin levels did not change. Acipimox tended to increase glucose and decrease lipid utilization rates at the whole body level and significantly changed the effect of insulin on substrate utilization. The hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp M value did not differ. Global and regional myocardial function did not differ. Exercise capacity, cardiac index, systemic vascular resistance, and NT-pro-BNP were not affected by treatment. In conclusion, acipimox caused minor changes in whole body metabolism and decreased the FFA supply, but a long-term reduction in circulating FFAs with acipimox did not change systolic or diastolic cardiac function or exercise capacity in patients with HF.

  11. Enrichment of the Amino Acid L-Isovaline by Aqueous Alteration on CI and CM Meteorite Parent Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavin, Daniel P.; Dworkin, Jason P.

    2009-01-01

    The distribution and enantiomeric composition of the 5-carbon (C(sub 5)) amino acids found in Cl-, CM-, and CR-type carbonaceous meteorites were investigated by using liquid chromatography fluorescence detection/TOF-MS coupled with o-phthaldialdehyde/Nacetyl- l-cysteine derivatization. A large L-enantiomeric excess (ee) of the a-methyl amino acid isovaline was found in the CM meteorite Murchison (L(sub ee) = 18.5 +/- 2.6%) and the Cl meteorite Orguell (L(sub ee) = 15.2 +/- 4.0%). The measured value for Murchison is the largest enantiomeric excess in any meteorite reported to date, and the Orgueil measurement of an isovaline excess has not been reported previously for this or any Cl meteorite. The L-isovaline enrichments in these two carbonaceous meteorites cannot be the result of interference from other C(sub 5) amino acid isomers present in the samples, analytical biases, or terrestrial amino acid contamination. We observed no L-isovaline enrichment for the most primitive unaltered Antarctic CR meteorites EET 92042 and QUE 99177. These results are inconsistent with UV circularly polarized light as the primary mechanism for L-isovaline enrichment and indicate that amplification of a small initial isovaline asymmetry in Murchison and Orgueil occurred during an extended aqueous alteration phase on the meteorite parent bodies. The large asymmetry in isovaline and other alpha-dialkyl amino acids found in altered Ct and CM meteorites suggests that amino acids delivered by asteroids, comets, and their fragments would have biased the Earth's prebiotic organic inventory with left-handed molecules before the origin of life.

  12. Enrichment of the amino acid L-isovaline by aqueous alteration on CI and CM meteorite parent bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavin, Daniel P; Dworkin, Jason P

    2009-04-07

    The distribution and enantiomeric composition of the 5-carbon (C(5)) amino acids found in CI-, CM-, and CR-type carbonaceous meteorites were investigated by using liquid chromatography fluorescence detection/TOF-MS coupled with o-phthaldialdehyde/N-acetyl-L-cysteine derivatization. A large L-enantiomeric excess (ee) of the alpha-methyl amino acid isovaline was found in the CM meteorite Murchison (L(ee) = 18.5 +/- 2.6%) and the CI meteorite Orgueil (L(ee) = 15.2 +/- 4.0%). The measured value for Murchison is the largest enantiomeric excess in any meteorite reported to date, and the Orgueil measurement of an isovaline excess has not been reported previously for this or any CI meteorite. The L-isovaline enrichments in these two carbonaceous meteorites cannot be the result of interference from other C(5) amino acid isomers present in the samples, analytical biases, or terrestrial amino acid contamination. We observed no L-isovaline enrichment for the most primitive unaltered Antarctic CR meteorites EET 92042 and QUE 99177. These results are inconsistent with UV circularly polarized light as the primary mechanism for L-isovaline enrichment and indicate that amplification of a small initial isovaline asymmetry in Murchison and Orgueil occurred during an extended aqueous alteration phase on the meteorite parent bodies. The large asymmetry in isovaline and other alpha-dialkyl amino acids found in altered CI and CM meteorites suggests that amino acids delivered by asteroids, comets, and their fragments would have biased the Earth's prebiotic organic inventory with left-handed molecules before the origin of life.

  13. Whole body creatine and protein kinetics in healthy men and women: effects of creatine and amino acid supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalhan, Satish C; Gruca, Lourdes; Marczewski, Susan; Bennett, Carole; Kummitha, China

    2016-03-01

    Creatine kinetics were measured in young healthy subjects, eight males and seven females, age 20-30 years, after an overnight fast on creatine-free diet. Whole body turnover of glycine and its appearance in creatine was quantified using [1-(13)C] glycine and the rate of protein turnover was quantified using L-ring [(2)H5] phenylalanine. The creatine pool size was estimated by the dilution of a bolus [C(2)H3] creatine. Studies were repeated following a five days supplement creatine 21 g.day(-1) and following supplement amino acids 14.3 g day(-1). Creatine caused a ten-fold increase in the plasma concentration of creatine and a 50 % decrease in the concentration of guanidinoacetic acid. Plasma amino acids profile showed a significant decrease in glycine, glutamine, and taurine and a significant increase in citrulline, valine, lysine, and cysteine. There was a significant decrease in the rate of appearance of glycine, suggesting a decrease in de-novo synthesis (p = 0.006). The fractional and absolute rate of synthesis of creatine was significantly decreased by supplemental creatine. Amino acid supplement had no impact on any of the parameters. This is the first detailed analysis of creatine kinetics and the effects of creatine supplement in healthy young men and women. These methods can be applied for the analysis of creatine kinetics in different physiological states.

  14. Formic acid as an alternative reducing agent for the catalytic nitrate reduction in aqueous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eun-Kyoung; Park, Kuy-Hyun; Lee, Ho-Bin; Cho, Misun; Ahn, Samyoung

    2013-08-01

    Formic acid was used for the nitrate reduction as a reductant in the presence of Pd:Cu/gamma-alumina catalysts. The surface characteristics of the bimetallic catalyst synthesized by wet impregnation were investigated by SEM, TEM-EDS. The metals were not distributed homogeneously on the surface of catalyst, although the total contents of both metals in particles agreed well with the theoretical values. Formic acid decomposition on the catalyst surface, its influence on solution pH and nitrate removal efficacy was investigated. The best removal of nitrate (50 ppm) was obtained under the condition of 0.75 g/L catalyst with Pd:Cu ratio (4:1) and two fold excess of formic acid. Formic acid decay patterns resembled those of nitrate removal, showing a linear relationship between k(f) (formic acid decay) and k (nitrate removal). Negligible amount of ammonia was detected, and no nitrite was detected, possibly due to buffering effect of bicarbonate that is in situ produced by the decomposition of formic acid, and due to the sustained release of H2 gas.

  15. Formic acid as an alternative reducing agent for the catalytic nitrate reduction in aqueous media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eun-kyoung Choi; Kuy-hyun Park; Ho-bin Lee; Misun Cho; Samyoung Ahn

    2013-01-01

    Formic acid was used for the nitrate reduction as a reductant in the presence of Pd∶Cu/γ-alumina catalysts.The surfatce characteristics of the bimetallic catalyst synthesized by wet impregnation were investigated by SEM,TEM-EDS.The metals were not distributed homogeneously on the surface of catalyst,although the total contents of both metals in particles agreed well with the theoretical values.Formic acid decomposition on the catalyst surface,its influence on solution pH and nitrate removal efficacy was investigated.The best removal of nitrate (50 ppm) was obtained under the condition of 0.75 g/L catalyst with Pd∶Cu ratio (4∶1) and two fold excess of formic acid.Formic acid decay patterns resembled those of nitrate removal,showing a linear relationship between kf (formic acid decay) and k (nitrate removal).Negligible amount of ammonia was detected,and no nitrite was detected,possibly due to buffering effect of bicarbonate that is in situ produced by the decomposition of formic acid,and due to the sustained release of H2 gas.

  16. Removal of hexenuronic acid by xylanase to reduce adsorbable organic halides formation in chlorine dioxide bleaching of bagasse pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Shuangxi; Wang, Shuangfei; Qin, Chengrong; Yao, Shuangquan; Ebonka, Johnbull Friday; Song, Xueping; Li, Kecheng

    2015-11-01

    Xylanase-aided chlorine dioxide bleaching of bagasse pulp was investigated. The pulp was pretreated with xylanase and followed a chlorine dioxide bleaching stage. The ATR-FTIR and XPS were employed to determine the surface chemistry of the control pulp, xylanase treated and chlorine dioxide treated pulps. The hexenuronic acid (HexA) could obviously be reduced after xylanase pretreatment, and the adsorbable organic halides (AOX) were reduced after chlorine dioxide bleaching. Compared to the control pulp, AOX could be reduced by 21.4-26.6% with xylanase treatment. Chlorine dioxide demand could be reduced by 12.5-22% to achieve the same brightness. The ATR-FTIR and XPS results showed that lignin and hemicellulose (mainly HexA) were the main source for AOX formation. Xylanase pretreatment could remove HexA and expose more lignin, which decreased the chlorine dioxide demand and thus reduced formation of AOX.

  17. Effects of volatile fatty acids, ketone bodies, glucose, and insulin on lipolysis in bovine adipose tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metz, S.H.M.; Bergh, S.G. van den

    1972-01-01

    Our interest in the aetiology of ketosis in cattle recently led us to investigate possible metabolic control mechanisms of fat mobilization in bovine adipose tissue. Acetic, propionic and butyric acid are the major sources of metabolic energy made available to the adult ruminant by digestion and abs

  18. Mitochondrial TCA cycle intermediates regulate body fluid and acid-base balance

    OpenAIRE

    Peti-Peterdi, János

    2013-01-01

    Intrarenal control mechanisms play an important role in the maintenance of body fluid and electrolyte balance and pH homeostasis. Recent discoveries of new ion transport and regulatory pathways in the distal nephron and collecting duct system have helped to better our understanding of these critical kidney functions and identified new potential therapeutic targets and approaches. In this issue of the JCI, Tokonami et al. report on the function of an exciting new paracrine mediator, the mitoch...

  19. Homovanillic acid and 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid as biomarkers for dementia with Lewy bodies and coincident Alzheimer’s disease: An autopsy-confirmed study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takao, Masaki; Hatsuta, Hiroyuki; Nishina, Yasushi; Komiya, Tadashi; Sengoku, Renpei; Nakano, Yuta; Uchino, Akiko; Sumikura, Hiroyuki; Saito, Yuko; Kanemaru, Kazutomi; Murayama, Shigeo

    2017-01-01

    Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) are the two most common causes of dementia. Both pathologies often coexist, and AD patients with concomitant neocortical LB pathology (referred to as the Lewy body variant of AD) generally show faster cognitive decline and accelerated mortality relative to patients with pure AD. Thus, discriminating among patients with DLB, AD, and coincident DLB and AD is important in clinical practice. We examined levels of homovanillic acid (HVA), 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5-HIAA), tau, phosphorylated tau (p-tau), and beta-amyloid (Aβ) 1–42 in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) to evaluate their viability as biomarkers to discriminate among different forms of dementia. We obtained a total of 3498 CSF samples from patients admitted to our hospital during the period from 1996 to 2015. Of these patients, we were able to carry out a brain autopsy in 94 cases. Finally, 78 neuropathologically diagnosed cases (10 AD, six DLB, five DLB with AD, five controls without neurological diseases, and 52 cases with other neurological diseases) were studied. CSF levels of HVA and 5-HIAA were consistently decreased in pathologically advanced Lewy body disorder (LBD; Braak LB stages >3) compared with pathologically incipient LBD (Braak LB stages <2). These results suggest that if an individual has LB pathology in the central nervous system, CSF levels of HVA and 5-HIAA may decrease after the onset of clinical symptoms. In addition, CSF levels of HVA and 5-HIAA decreased with LB pathology, and were especially low in cases of DLB and DLB with AD. Furthermore, the combination of HVA, 5-HIAA, and brain specific proteins t-tau, p-tau, and Aβ 1–42 in CSF were useful for discriminating among DLB, DLB with AD, and AD with high diagnostic accuracy. PMID:28166276

  20. Lemon detox diet reduced body fat, insulin resistance, and serum hs-CRP level without hematological changes in overweight Korean women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi Joung; Hwang, Jung Hyun; Ko, Hyun Ji; Na, Hye Bock; Kim, Jung Hee

    2015-05-01

    The lemon detox program is a very low-calorie diet which consists of a mixture of organic maple and palm syrups, and lemon juice for abstinence period of 7 days. We hypothesized that the lemon detox program would reduce body weight, body fat mass, thus lowering insulin resistance and known risk factors of cardiovascular disease. We investigated anthropometric indices, insulin sensitivity, levels of serum adipokines, and inflammatory markers in overweight Korean women before and after clinical intervention trial. Eighty-four premenopausal women were randomly divided into 3 groups: a control group without diet restriction (Normal-C), a pair-fed placebo diet group (Positive-C), and a lemon detox diet group (Lemon-D). The intervention period was 11 days total: 7 days with the lemon detox juice or the placebo juice, and then 4 days with transitioning food. Changes in body weight, body mass index, percentage body fat, and waist-hip ratio were significantly greater in the Lemon-D and Positive-C groups compared to the Normal-C group. Serum insulin level, homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance scores, leptin, and adiponectin levels decreased in the Lemon-D and Positive-C groups. Serum high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels were also reduced only in the Lemon-D group. Hemoglobin and hematocrit levels remained stable in the Lemon-D group while they decreased in the Positive-C and Normal-C groups. Therefore, we suppose that the lemon detox program reduces body fat and insulin resistance through caloric restriction and might have a potential beneficial effect on risk factors for cardiovascular disease related to circulating hs-CRP reduction without hematological changes.

  1. A novel oral form of salmon calcitonin improves glucose homeostasis and reduces body weight in diet-induced obese rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feigh, M; Henriksen, K; Andreassen, K V

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the effects of acute and chronic administration of a novel oral formulation of salmon calcitonin (sCT) on glycaemic control, glucose homeostasis and body weight regulation in diet-induced obese (DIO) rats-an animal model of obesity-related insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes....

  2. Recognizing protein–protein interfaces with empirical potentials and reduced amino acid alphabets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wodak Shoshana

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In structural genomics, an important goal is the detection and classification of protein–protein interactions, given the structures of the interacting partners. We have developed empirical energy functions to identify native structures of protein–protein complexes among sets of decoy structures. To understand the role of amino acid diversity, we parameterized a series of functions, using a hierarchy of amino acid alphabets of increasing complexity, with 2, 3, 4, 6, and 20 amino acid groups. Compared to previous work, we used the simplest possible functional form, with residue–residue interactions and a stepwise distance-dependence. We used increased computational ressources, however, constructing 290,000 decoys for 219 protein–protein complexes, with a realistic docking protocol where the protein partners are flexible and interact through a molecular mechanics energy function. The energy parameters were optimized to correctly assign as many native complexes as possible. To resolve the multiple minimum problem in parameter space, over 64000 starting parameter guesses were tried for each energy function. The optimized functions were tested by cross validation on subsets of our native and decoy structures, by blind tests on series of native and decoy structures available on the Web, and on models for 13 complexes submitted to the CAPRI structure prediction experiment. Results Performance is similar to several other statistical potentials of the same complexity. For example, the CAPRI target structure is correctly ranked ahead of 90% of its decoys in 6 cases out of 13. The hierarchy of amino acid alphabets leads to a coherent hierarchy of energy functions, with qualitatively similar parameters for similar amino acid types at all levels. Most remarkably, the performance with six amino acid classes is equivalent to that of the most detailed, 20-class energy function. Conclusion This suggests that six carefully chosen amino

  3. Role of Local Infiltration of Tranexamic Acid in Reducing Blood Loss in Peritrochanteric Fracture Surgery in the Elderly Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virani SR

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Peritrochanteric fractures are common injuries occurring in elderly patients. Surgeries for these fractures are associated with significant blood loss. Intravenous tranexamic acid has a proven track record in many orthopaedic surgeries including trauma, arthroplasty and spine surgeries. Objective: To study the effect of local subfascial and intramuscular infiltration of tranexamic acid in reducing blood loss and the requirement for blood transfusion in intertrochanteric fracture surgery. Study Design: Single centre prospective analytical study. Materials and Methods: One hundred and thirty seven patients above 65 years of age were included in the study, divided into two groups: the intervention group received subfascial and intramuscular infiltration of 2g tranexamic acid before wound closure and the control group of alternate patients did not receive any tranexamic acid infiltration. The postoperative drain output was recorded, as well as the haemoglobin level and the patients needing blood transfusion. Results and Conclusions: The preoperative and postoperative haemoglobin values were recorded. The mean preoperative haemoglobin was 10.9% and 10.8% (p=0.79 in the trial and control groups respectively. The mean postoperative haemoglobin was 9.5gm% and 9.2gm% (p=0.36 in the two groups. The total postoperative blood loss in the tranexamic acid group and the control group was 190.3ml and 204.3ml respectively (p=0.25. Ten patients (14.9% in the intervention group and 12 patients (17.1% in the control group required blood transfusion. We conclude that tranexamic acid does not play a significant role in reducing postoperative blood loss and blood transfusion when used locally in peritochanteric fracture surgery. However a larger double blinded study comparing various modalities of use of tranexamic acid is needed to conclusively establish its role.

  4. Ursolic acid reduces prostate size and dihydrotestosterone level in a rat model of benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, In-Sik; Lee, Mee-Young; Jung, Da-Young; Seo, Chang-Seob; Ha, Hye-Kyung; Shin, Hyeun-Kyoo

    2012-03-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is characterized by hyperplasia of prostatic stromal and epithelial cells, which can lead to lower urinary tract symptoms. The prevalence of BPH increases in an age-dependent manner. We investigated the protective effect of ursolic acid in BPH development using a testosterone-induced BPH rat model. BPH was induced in experimental groups by daily subcutaneous injections of testosterone propionate (TP), for a period of four weeks. Ursolic acid was administrated daily by oral gavage at a dose level of 5mg/kg during the four weeks of TP injections. Animals were sacrificed on the scheduled termination, before prostates were weighed and subjected to histopathological examination. TP and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) levels in the serum and prostate were also measured. BPH-induced animals displayed an increase in prostate weight with increased testosterone and DHT levels in both the serum and prostate. However, ursolic acid treatment resulted in significant reductions in prostate weight and testosterone and DHT levels in both the serum and prostate, compared with BPH-induced animals. Histopathological examination also showed that ursolic acid treatment suppressed TP-induced prostatic hyperplasia. These findings indicate that ursolic acid may effectively inhibit the development of BPH and it may be a useful agent in BPH treatment.

  5. Vitamin D reduces musculoskeletal pain after infusion of zoledronic acid for postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalano, Antonino; Morabito, Nancy; Atteritano, Marco; Basile, Giorgio; Cucinotta, Domenico; Lasco, Antonino

    2012-04-01

    The acute-phase response (APR) is a frequent occurrence after infusion of zoledronic acid and is caused by activation of γδ T cells. Vitamin D receptor is expressed in immune cells, and vitamin D has immunomodulatory properties. The aim of this prospective study was to test the effect of vitamin D (cholecalciferol) on the incidence of APR and intensity of pain in women undergoing infusion of zoledronic acid for postmenopausal osteoporosis. 60 women were enrolled and randomized into two groups. At baseline, 30 women received an oral bolus of cholecalciferol (300,000 IU), while another 30 women received placebo. On day 5 both groups were treated with a single infusion of zoledronic acid (5 mg) and received a daily supplementation of calcium (1,000 mg) and vitamin D (800 IU). Patients were clinically evaluated and inflammatory markers were assayed before zoledronic acid administration and every 24 h for the following 2 days. The onset of APR has been defined by the occurrence of fever or at least one of the typical symptoms, such as musculoskeletal pain after zoledronic acid infusion. Intensity of pain was measured by a one-dimensional scale (0 = no pain, 10 = unbearable pain). APR developed in 66.6% of patients, with no significant difference between groups. The vitamin group experienced less musculoskeletal pain [median 1 (0-4) vs. 2 (1-8), P osteoporosis.

  6. Plasma HDL reduces nonesterified fatty acid hydroperoxides originating from oxidized LDL: a mechanism for its antioxidant ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotosai, Mari; Shimada, Sachiko; Kanda, Mai; Matsuda, Namiko; Sekido, Keiko; Shimizu, Yoshibumi; Tokumura, Akira; Nakamura, Toshiyuki; Murota, Kaeko; Kawai, Yoshichika; Terao, Junji

    2013-06-01

    The antioxidant property of plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) is thought to be involved in potential anti-atherogenic effects but the exact mechanism is not known. We aimed to reveal the contribution of HDL on the elimination of lipid hydroperoxides (LOOH) derived from oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL). Oxidized LDL prepared by copper ion-induced oxidation contained nonesterified fatty acid hydroperoxides (FFA-OOH) and lysophosphatidylcholine (lysoPtdCho), in addition to cholesteryl ester hydroperoxides (CE-OOH) and phosphatidylcholine hydroperoxides (PtdCho-OOH). A platelet-activating factor-acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH) inhibitor suppressed formation of FFA-OOH and lysoPtdCho in oxidized LDL. Among LOOH species, FFA-OOH was preferentially reduced by incubating oxidized LDL with HDL. HDL exhibited selective FFA-OOH reducing ability if it was mixed with a liposomal solution containing FFA-OOH, CE-OOH and PtdCho-OOH. Two-electron reduction of the hydroperoxy group to the hydroxy group was confirmed by the formation of 13-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid from 13-hydroperoxyoctadecadienoic acid in HPLC analyses. This reducing effect was also found in apolipoprotein A-1 (apoA-1). FFA-OOH released from PtdCho-OOH due to PAF-AH activity in oxidized LDL undergo two-electron reduction by the reducing ability of apoA1 in HDL. This preferential reduction of FFA-OOH may participate in the mechanism of the antioxidant property of HDL.

  7. Evaluation and management of patients with recurrent peptic ulcer disease after acid-reducing operations: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnage, Richard H; Sarosi, George; Cryer, Byron; Spechler, Stuart; Peterson, Walter; Feldman, Mark

    2003-01-01

    This systematic review examines the evidence for commonly employed strategies of managing patients with recurrent ulcer disease after acid-reducing operations. Particular attention is given to recent evidence relating Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori ) and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) to ulcer recurrence after operative therapy. MEDLINE word searches of the literature from 1966 to 2001 identified 895 articles that cross-reference the terms "peptic ulcer disease (PUD)," "surgery," and "recurrence." Articles were selected for systematic review of evidence relating incomplete vagotomy, NSAIDs, and H. pylori to postoperative ulcer recurrence and evidence supporting common medical and surgical strategies. The relationship between incomplete vagotomy and recurrent ulcer disease is suggested by randomized controlled trials and well-designed prospective case series. The evidence that NSAID use is an important pathogenic factor in recurrent ulcer disease includes the relationship between NSAIDs and primary PUD, the occurrence of NSAID-induced ulcers in patients taking proton pump inhibitors, and case series demonstrating virulent ulcer disease in patients taking aspirin despite prior acid-reducing operations. The relationship between H. pylori infection and postoperative ulcer recurrence remains uncertain despite multiple controlled trials and well-designed case series that have documented high rates of H. pylori infection in postoperative patients. The initial management of patients with recurrent ulcer disease after acid-reducing operations consists of a protein pump inhibitor or a histamine-2 receptor antagonist and antibiotics directed at H. pylori, if present. Evidence for this regimen includes prospective randomized trials demonstrating the efficacy of cimetidine in healing ulcers after acid-reducing operations and prospective, randomized studies documenting the efficacy of histamine-2 receptor antagonists and protein pump inhibitors in the management

  8. Intake of butter naturally enriched with cis9,trans11 conjugated linoleic acid reduces systemic inflammatory mediators in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penedo, Letícia A; Nunes, Juliana C; Gama, Marco Antônio S; Leite, Paulo Emilio C; Quirico-Santos, Thereza F; Torres, Alexandre G

    2013-12-01

    A conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) depletion-repletion study was carried out to investigate the effects of dietary c9,t11 CLA on C-reactive protein, transcription factor NFκB, metalloproteinases 2 and 9, inflammatory mediators (adiponectin, TNFα, IL-2, IL-4, IL-8, IL-10), body composition, and erythrocyte membrane composition in healthy normal-weight human adults. CLA depletion was achieved through an 8-week period of restricted dairy fat intake (depletion phase; CLA intake was 5.2±5.8 mg/day), followed by an 8-week period in which individuals consumed 20 g/day of butter naturally enriched with c9,t11 CLA (repletion phase; CLA intake of 1020±167 mg/day). The participants were 29 healthy adult volunteers (19 women and 10 men, aged 22 to 36 years), with body mass index between 18.0 and 29.9 kg m(-2). Blood samples were collected at baseline and at the end of both depletion and repletion phases. The content of CLA in erythrocytes decreased during CLA-depletion and increased during CLA-repletion. Intake of CLA-enriched butter increased the serum levels of anti-inflammatory IL-10 but reduced transcription factor NFκB in blood and serum levels of TNFα, IL-2, IL-8 and inactive metalloproteinase-9. Moreover, reduced activity of metalloproteinases 2 and 9 in serum was observed during the CLA-repletion period. In contrast, intake of CLA-enriched butter had no effects on body composition (DXA analysis) as well as on serum levels of adiponectin, C-reactive protein, and IL-4. Taken together, our results indicate that the intake of a c9,t11 CLA-enriched butter by normal-weight subjects induces beneficial changes in immune modulators associated with sub-clinical inflammation in overweight individuals.

  9. Fish protein hydrolysate elevates plasma bile acids and reduces visceral adipose tissue mass in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liaset, Bjørn; Madsen, Lise; Hao, Qin

    2009-01-01

    varying in taurine and glycine contents alter BA metabolism, and thereby modulate the recently discovered systemic effects of BAs. Here we show that rats fed a diet containing saithe fish protein hydrolysate (saithe FPH), rich in taurine and glycine, for 26 days had markedly elevated fasting plasma BA......Conjugation of bile acids (BAs) to the amino acids taurine or glycine increases their solubility and promotes liver BA secretion. Supplementing diets with taurine or glycine modulates BA metabolism and enhances fecal BA excretion in rats. However, it is still unclear whether dietary proteins...

  10. Deposition of LDH on plasma treated polylactic acid to reduce water permeability

    KAUST Repository

    Bugatti, Valeria

    2013-04-01

    A simple and scalable deposition process was developed to prepare polylactic acid (PLA) coatings with enhanced water barrier properties for food packaging applications. This method based on electrostatic interactions between the positively charged layers of layered double hydroxides (LDHs) modified with ionic liquids (ILs) and the negatively charged plasma treated polylactic acid leads to homogeneous, stable, and highly durable coatings. Deposition of the LDH coatings increases the surface hydrophobicity of the neat PLA, which results to a decrease in water permeability by about 35%. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

  11. Hepatic entrapment of esterified cholesterol drives continual expansion of whole body sterol pool in lysosomal acid lipase-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aqul, Amal; Lopez, Adam M; Posey, Kenneth S; Taylor, Anna M; Repa, Joyce J; Burns, Dennis K; Turley, Stephen D

    2014-10-15

    Cholesteryl ester storage disease (CESD) results from loss-of-function mutations in LIPA, the gene that encodes lysosomal acid lipase (LAL). Hepatomegaly and deposition of esterified cholesterol (EC) in multiple organs ensue. The present studies quantitated rates of synthesis, absorption, and disposition of cholesterol, and whole body cholesterol pool size in a mouse model of CESD. In 50-day-old lal(-/-) and matching lal(+/+) mice fed a low-cholesterol diet, whole animal cholesterol content equalled 210 and 50 mg, respectively, indicating that since birth the lal(-/-) mice sequestered cholesterol at an average rate of 3.2 mg·day(-1)·animal(-1). The proportion of the body sterol pool contained in the liver of the lal(-/-) mice was 64 vs. 6.3% in their lal(+/+) controls. EC concentrations in the liver, spleen, small intestine, and lungs of the lal(-/-) mice were elevated 100-, 35-, 15-, and 6-fold, respectively. In the lal(-/-) mice, whole liver cholesterol synthesis increased 10.2-fold, resulting in a 3.2-fold greater rate of whole animal sterol synthesis compared with their lal(+/+) controls. The rate of cholesterol synthesis in the lal(-/-) mice exceeded that in the lal(+/+) controls by 3.7 mg·day(-1)·animal(-1). Fractional cholesterol absorption and fecal bile acid excretion were unchanged in the lal(-/-) mice, but their rate of neutral sterol excretion was 59% higher than in their lal(+/+) controls. Thus, in this model, the continual expansion of the body sterol pool is driven by the synthesis of excess cholesterol, primarily in the liver. Despite the severity of their disease, the median life span of the lal(-/-) mice was 355 days.

  12. Altered maternal micronutrients (folic acid, vitamin B(12)) and omega 3 fatty acids through oxidative stress may reduce neurotrophic factors in preterm pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhobale, Madhavi; Joshi, Sadhana

    2012-04-01

    Preterm pregnancies account for approximately 10% of the total pregnancies and are associated with low birth weight (LBW) babies. Recent studies have shown that LBW babies are at an increased risk of developing brain disorders such as cognitive dysfunction and psychiatric disorders. Maternal nutrition, particularly, micronutrients involved in one-carbon metabolism (folic acid, vitamin B(12), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)) have a major role during pregnancy for developing fetus and are important determinants of epigenesis. A series of our studies in pregnancy complications have well established the importance of omega 3 fatty acids especially DHA. DHA regulates levels of neurotrophins like brain-derived neurotrophic factor and nerve growth factor, which are required for normal neurological development. We have recently described that in one carbon metabolic pathway, membrane phospholipids are major methyl group acceptors and reduced DHA levels may result in diversion of methyl groups toward deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) ultimately resulting in DNA methylation. In this review, we propose that altered maternal micronutrients (folic acid, vitamin B(12)), increased homocysteine, and oxidative stress levels that cause epigenetic modifications may be one of the mechanisms that contribute to preterm birth and poor fetal outcome, increasing risk for behavioural disorders in children.

  13. Beta-resorcylic acid reduces Campylobacter jejuni in post-harvest poultry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human Campylobacter infections, a leading food borne illnesses globally, has been linked with high prevalence of this bacterium in retail chicken meat. Reduction of Campylobacter in poultry will greatly reduce the risk of this disease. Unfortunately, strategies employed to reduce Campylobacter in li...

  14. A high mixed protein diet reduces body fat without altering the mechanical properties of bone in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pye, Kathleen M; Wakefield, Andrew P; Aukema, Harold M; House, James D; Ogborn, Malcolm R; Weiler, Hope A

    2009-11-01

    Long-term consumption of high-protein (HP) diets at 35% of energy is postulated to negatively influence bone health. Previous studies have not comprehensively examined the biochemical, physical, and biomechanical properties of bone required to arrive at this conclusion. Our objective in this study was to examine the long-term effect of a HP diet on bone metabolism, mass, and strength in rats. Adult female Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 80) were randomized to receive for 4, 8, 12, or 17 mo a normal-protein (NP) control diet (15% of energy) or a HP diet (35% of energy). Diets were balanced for calcium because the protein sources were rich in calcium. At each time point, measurements included weight, body composition, and bone mass using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, mechanical strength at the mid-diaphysis of femur and tibia, microarchitecture of femurs using microcomputerized tomography and serum osteocalcin, carboxy-terminal crosslinks of type I collagen (CTX), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), leptin, and adiponectin. Effects of diet, time, and their interaction were tested using factorial ANOVA. The HP diet resulted in lower body weight, total body, and abdominal fat and higher lean mass. Serum leptin and adiponectin were greater in HP-fed than in NP-fed rats, but IGF-1 did not differ between the groups. Whereas the HP diet resulted in higher relative bone mineral content (g/kg) in the femur, tibia, and vertebrae, serum osteocalcin and CTX and bone internal architecture and biomechanical strength were unaffected. In conclusion, HP diets at 35% of energy lower body fat content without hindering the mechanical and weight-bearing properties of bone.

  15. Degradation of Opioids and Opiates During Acid Hydrolysis Leads to Reduced Recovery Compared to Enzymatic Hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitasuwan, Pongkwan; Melendez, Cathleen; Marinova, Margarita; Mastrianni, Kaylee R; Darragh, Alicia; Ryan, Emily; Lee, L Andrew

    2016-10-01

    Drug monitoring laboratories utilize a hydrolysis process to liberate the opiates from their glucuronide conjugates to facilitate their detection by tandem mass spectrometry (MS). Both acid and enzyme hydrolysis have been reported as viable methods, with the former as a more effective process for recovering codeine-6-glucuronide and morphine-6-glucuronide. Here, we report concerns with acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of opioids, including a significant loss of analytes and conversions of oxycodone to oxymorphone, hydrocodone to hydromorphone and codeine to morphine. The acid-catalyzed reaction was monitored in neat water and patient urine samples by liquid chromatography-time-of-flight and tandem MS. These side reactions with acid hydrolysis may limit accurate quantitation due to loss of analytes, possibly lead to false positives, and poorly correlate with pharmacogenetic profiles, as cytochrome P450 enzyme (CYP2D6) is often involved with oxycodone to oxymorphone, hydrocodone to hydromorphone and codeine to morphine conversions. Enzymatic hydrolysis process using the purified, genetically engineered β-glucuronidase (IMCSzyme(®)) addresses many of these concerns and demonstrates accurate quantitation and high recoveries for oxycodone, hydrocodone, oxymorphone and hydromorphone.

  16. ADS genes for reducing saturated fatty acid levels in seed oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilmann, Ingo H.; Shanklin, John

    2010-02-02

    The present invention relates to enzymes involved in lipid metabolism. In particular, the present invention provides coding sequences for Arabidopsis Desaturases (ADS), the encoded ADS polypeptides, and methods for using the sequences and encoded polypeptides, where such methods include decreasing and increasing saturated fatty acid content in plant seed oils.

  17. Effects of Ascorbic Acid and Reduced Glutathione on the Alleviation of Salinity Stress in Olive Plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aliniaeifard, S.; Hajilou, J.; Tabatabaei, S.J.; Seifi Kalhor, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of low molecular mass antioxidants and NaCl salinity on growth, ionic balance, proline, and water contents of ‘Zard’ olive trees under controlled greenhouse conditions. The experiment was carried out by spraying 2 mM of ascorbic acid (Asc) and 3 m

  18. Treatment with oleic acid reduces IgE binding to peanut and cashew allergens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleic acid (OA) is known to bind and change the bioactivities of proteins, such as a-lactalbumin and ß-lactoglobulin in vitro. The objective of this study was to determine if OA binds to allergens from a peanut extract or cashew allergen and changes their allergenic properties. Peanut extract or c...

  19. Clostridium acetireducens sp nov, a novel amino acid-oxidizing, acetate-reducing anaerobic bacterium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orlygsson, J; Krooneman, J; Collins, Matthew D.; Pascual, C; Gottschall, JC

    1996-01-01

    Strain 30A(T) (T = type strain), which was isolated from an anaerobic bioreactor fed on waste from a potato starch factory in De Krim, The Netherlands, is a nonmotile, gram-positive, anaerobic, rod-shaped organism that is able to degrade various amino acids, including alanine, leucine, isoleucine, v

  20. Enteric coating can lead to reduced antiplatelet effect of low-dose acetylsalicylic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fentz Haastrup, Peter; Grønlykke, Thor; Jarbøl, Dorte Ejg

    2015-01-01

    Low-dose acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) is widely used as antithrombotic prophylaxis. Enteric coated ASA has been developed in order to decrease the risk of gastrointestinal side effects. The consequences of enteric coating on pharmacokinetics and antiplatelet effect of ASA have not systematically been...

  1. Amperometric Determination of Ascorbic Acid in Pharmaceutical Formulations by a Reduced Graphene Oxide-cobalt Hexacyanoferrate Nanocomposite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heli, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Investigation of the redox properties of drugs and their determination are performed by electrochemical techniques. Data obtained from electrochemical techniques are often correlated with molecular structure and pharmacological activity of drugs. In this regard, different modified electrodes were applied as sensors for quantification of different drugs. A nanocomposite of reduced graphene oxide-cobalt hexacyanoferrate was synthesized by a simple precipitation route. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the nanocomposite comprised nanoparticles of cobalt hexacyanoferrate attached to the reduced graphene oxide nanosheets. A nanocomposite-modified carbon paste electrode was then fabricated. It represented prominent activity toward the electrocatalytic oxidation of ascorbic acid, and the kinetics of the electrooxidation process was evaluated. Finally, an amperometric method was developed for the quantification of ascorbic acid in different pharmaceutical formulations. PMID:25901152

  2. Increased dietary sodium chloride concentrations reduce endogenous amino acid flow and influence the physiological response to the ingestion of phytic acid by broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowieson, A J; Bedford, M R; Ravindran, V; Selle, P H

    2011-10-01

    A total of 240 Ross 308 broilers were used to investigate the effect of sodium (1·5 or 2·5 g/kg), phytate-P (0 or 3·2 g/kg), and phytase (0 or 1000 FTU/kg; 2x2x2 factorial) on endogenous amino acid flow using the enzyme-hydrolysed casein method. The ingestion of phytate increased endogenous amino acid flow (∼30%) compared with the phytate-free control diets. Phytase reduced endogenous amino acid flow only when fed in concert with phytate, resulting in a significant phytate x phytase interaction. Increasing dietary sodium concentration from 1·5 to 2·5 g/kg reduced endogenous amino acid flow by around 10%. This reduction of endogenous flow was particularly evident in diets which contained phytate, resulting in a significant sodium x phytate interaction for several amino acids, including Thr and Ser. Further, high sodium concentrations muted the effect of phytase resulting in a significant sodium x phytase interaction for some amino acids. The concentration of Asp, Thr, Ser and some other amino acids was increased in the endogenous protein in response to the ingestion of phytate. Both sodium and phytase essentially restored the composition of endogenous protein to that of the phytate-free control. Further, as both sodium and phytase had similar effects there were significant interactions between sodium and phytase for most amino acids, such that one was only effective in the absence of the other. These data confirm previous reports that phytate is a nutritional aggressor, causing quantitative and qualitative changes in endogenous protein flow. However, this is the first report which has shown that dietary sodium concentrations play a role in the severity of this antinutritional effect and consequently may blunt the efficacy of exogenous phytase. The mechanism is obscure, though it has been previously demonstrated that sodium can disrupt phytate:protein complexes, thus mitigating one of the mechanisms by which phytate exerts its antinutritional effect.

  3. Wastes from the coal-enrichment process as alternative reducers for lead smelting from lead-acid accmulator scrap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Lipart

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, results of the study on a possible utilization of coal-enrichment wastes as alternative reducers for lead smelting from acid-lead accumulator scrap are presented. For the experiments, the following alternative carboniferous reducers were selected: coal slurry, anthracite dust and coal soot. The investigations included both laboratoryscale experiments and semi-industrial tests in a rotary furnace. The findings allowed for a review of the effects of a sample type (loose material or material post a preliminary agglomeration process, loaded into the furnace, on a final process yield.

  4. Caffeic acid: potential applications in nanotechnology as a green reducing agent for sustainable synthesis of gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Yu Seon; Cha, Song-Hyun; Yoon, Hye-Ran; Kang, Young-Hwa; Park, Youmie

    2015-04-01

    The sustainable synthesis of gold nanoparticles from gold ions was conducted with caffeic acid as a green reducing agent. The formation of gold nanoparticles was confirmed by spectroscopic and microscopic methods. Spherical nanoparticles with an average diameter of 29.99 ± 7.43 nm were observed in high- resolution transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy images. The newly prepared gold nanoparticles exhibited catalytic activity toward the reduction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol in the presence of sodium borohydride. This system enables the preparation of green catalysts using plant natural products as reducing agents, which fulfills the growing need for sustainability initiatives.

  5. Oral branched-chain amino acid supplements that reduce brain serotonin during exercise in rats also lower brain catecholamines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sujean; Disilvio, Briana; Fernstrom, Madelyn H; Fernstrom, John D

    2013-11-01

    Exercise raises brain serotonin release and is postulated to cause fatigue in athletes; ingestion of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA), by competitively inhibiting tryptophan transport into brain, lowers brain tryptophan uptake and serotonin synthesis and release in rats, and reputedly in humans prevents exercise-induced increases in serotonin and fatigue. This latter effect in humans is disputed. But BCAA also competitively inhibit tyrosine uptake into brain, and thus catecholamine synthesis and release. Since increasing brain catecholamines enhances physical performance, BCAA ingestion could lower catecholamines, reduce performance and thus negate any serotonin-linked benefit. We therefore examined in rats whether BCAA would reduce both brain tryptophan and tyrosine concentrations and serotonin and catecholamine synthesis. Sedentary and exercising rats received BCAA or vehicle orally; tryptophan and tyrosine concentrations and serotonin and catecholamine synthesis rates were measured 1 h later in brain. BCAA reduced brain tryptophan and tyrosine concentrations, and serotonin and catecholamine synthesis. These reductions in tyrosine concentrations and catecholamine synthesis, but not tryptophan or serotonin synthesis, could be prevented by co-administering tyrosine with BCAA. Complete essential amino acid mixtures, used to maintain or build muscle mass, were also studied, and produced different effects on brain tryptophan and tyrosine concentrations and serotonin and catecholamine synthesis. Since pharmacologically increasing brain catecholamine function improves physical performance, the finding that BCAA reduce catecholamine synthesis may explain why this treatment does not enhance physical performance in humans, despite reducing serotonin synthesis. If so, adding tyrosine to BCAA supplements might allow a positive action on performance to emerge.

  6. Nitrogen dioxide reducing ascorbic acid technologies in the ventilator circuit leads to uniform NO concentration during inspiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezone, Matthew J; Wakim, Matthew G; Denton, Ryan J; Gamero, Lucas G; Roscigno, Robert F; Gilbert, Richard J; Lovich, Mark A

    2016-08-31

    Conventional inhaled NO systems deliver NO by synchronized injection or continuous NO flow in the ventilator circuitry. Such methods can lead to variable concentrations during inspiration that may differ from desired dosing. NO concentrations in these systems are generally monitored through electrochemical methods that are too slow to capture this nuance and potential dosing error. A novel technology that reduces NO2 into NO via low-resistance ascorbic-acid cartridges just prior to inhalation has recently been described. The gas volume of these cartridges may enhance gas mixing and reduce dosing inconsistency throughout inhalation. The impact of the ascorbic-acid cartridge technology on NO concentration during inspiration was characterized through rapid chemiluminescence detection during volume control ventilation, pressure control ventilation, synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation and continuous positive airway pressure using an in vitro lung model configured to simulate the complete uptake of NO. Two ascorbic acid cartridges in series provided uniform and consistent dosing during inspiration during all modes of ventilation. The use of one cartridge showed variable inspiratory concentration of NO at the largest tidal volumes, whereas the use of no ascorbic acid cartridge led to highly inconsistent NO inspiratory waveforms. The use of ascorbic acid cartridges also decreased breath-to-breath variation in SIMV and CPAP ventilation. The ascorbic-acid cartridges, which are designed to convert NO2 (either as substrate or resulting from NO oxidation during injection) into NO, also provide the benefit of minimizing the variation of inhaled NO concentration during inspiration. It is expected that the implementation of this method will lead to more consistent and predictable dosing.

  7. THE EFFECTS OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED MAIZE SILAGE ON THE CONTENTS OF FATTY ACIDS IN BODY TISSUES OF LAMBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa SIMINSKA

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was the evaluation of fatty acids contents in meat and selected offal in lambs fed a diet containing silage of whole plants of genetically modified maize (Bt MON 810 line. The material consisted of 14 Polish Merino lambs of mean start body weight 24 kg. There were two feeding groups selected of 7 lambs each. In the control group (K the lambs were fed isogenic maize silage, which in the second group (GMO was substituted with the modified maize silage (Bt MON 810 line. After 70 days of feeding (feed portions were standardised according to the DLG system the lambs were slaughtered and dissected. The results were evaluated statistically and the significance of differences was calculated with the two factor variation analysis (nutrition, tissue. Feeding genetically modified maize silage did not change, in a statistically significant way, the contents of any main fatty acids in the pool of all acids nor the contents of the totals and their proportions, while the factor causing clear differences was the tissue. Differences for the majority of the results were statistically significant. Statistically significant interactions noted (nutrition x tissue are probably due to different values of these traits in the analysed tissues.

  8. Teneligliptin Decreases Uric Acid Levels by Reducing Xanthine Dehydrogenase Expression in White Adipose Tissue of Male Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chihiro Moriya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of teneligliptin on uric acid metabolism in male Wistar rats and 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The rats were fed with a normal chow diet (NCD or a 60% high-fat diet (HFD with or without teneligliptin for 4 weeks. The plasma uric acid level was not significantly different between the control and teneligliptin groups under the NCD condition. However, the plasma uric acid level was significantly decreased in the HFD-fed teneligliptin treated rats compared to the HFD-fed control rats. The expression levels of xanthine dehydrogenase (Xdh mRNA in liver and epididymal adipose tissue of NCD-fed rats were not altered by teneligliptin treatment. On the other hand, Xdh expression was reduced significantly in the epididymal adipose tissue of the HFD-fed teneligliptin treated rats compared with that of HFD-fed control rats, whereas Xdh expression in liver did not change significantly in either group. Furthermore, teneligliptin significantly decreased Xdh expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. DPP-4 treatment significantly increased Xdh expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. With DPP-4 pretreatment, teneligliptin significantly decreased Xdh mRNA expression compared to the DPP-4-treated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In conclusion, our studies suggest that teneligliptin reduces uric acid levels by suppressing Xdh expression in epididymal adipose tissue of obese subjects.

  9. [Effect of reduced oxygen concentrations and hydrogen sulfide on the amino acid metabolism and mesenchymal cells proliferation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnikova, L N; Berezovskii, V A; Veselskii, S P

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effect of hydrogen sulfide donor (10(-12) mol/l NaHS--I group) alone and together with the reduced oxygen concentrations (5% O2--II group, 3% O2--III group, 24 h) on the biological processes of human stem cells culture. It was shown that the cells proliferation by the third day of cultivation in I, II and III group decreased 1,7; 2,8 and 4,2 times. On the 4th day of culture proliferation inhibited in I, II and III group by 29; 33 and 54% compared to the control. Thus, adverse effects NaHS enhanced by reducing the oxygen concentration. It was established that in all experimental versions rapidly absorbed from the culture medium amino acids: cysteine and cystine, serine and aspartic acid, valine and tryptophan, proline and hydroxyproline, which are involved in the synthesis of proteins, in particular collagen. In the culture medium increased the concentration of free amino acids of the three factions: arginine, histidine and taurine; glycine and methionine; alanine and glutamine. We believe that in the applied concentration of hydrogen sulfide donor in conditions of low oxygen in a gaseous medium incubation inhibits the proliferation and alters the amino acid metabolism of human cells line 4BL.

  10. Trans-10, cis-12-conjugated linoleic acid does not increase body fat loss induced by energy restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasa, Arrate; Churruca, Itziar; Simón, Edurne; Fernández-Quintela, Alfredo; Rodríguez, Victor Manuel; Portillo, María Puy

    2008-12-01

    Very little evidence exists concerning the effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on body fat reduction induced by energy restriction. Moreover, although an effect of trans-10, cis-12-CLA on lipolysis has been suggested, it has not been consistently shown. The aims of the present study were to determine whether trans-10, cis-12-CLA increases the reduction of body fat induced by energy restriction, and to analyse its effect on lipolysis and adipose tissue lipase expression (hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) and adipose tissue TAG lipase (ATGL)). Male Syrian Golden hamsters were fed a high-fat diet during 7 weeks in order to make them fatter. Then they were submitted to a mild energy restriction (25 %) without or with supplementation of 0.5 % trans-10, cis-12-CLA for 3 weeks. Basal glycerol release and lipolysis stimulated by several drugs acting at different levels of the lipolytic cascade were measured in epididymal adipose tissue. The expression of HSL and ATGL was assessed by real-time RT-PCR. No differences were found in adipose tissues size between the experimental groups. Medium adipocyte size and total number of adipocytes were similar in both experimental groups. Animals fed the CLA-enriched diet showed similar lipolytic rates as well as HSL and ATGL expressions to the controls. In conclusion, trans-10, cis-12-CLA does not promote adipose tissue lipid mobilisation nor does it heighten body fat reduction induced by energy restriction. Consequently, this CLA isomer does not seem to be a useful tool to be included in body weight-loss strategies followed in obesity treatment.

  11. Effects of Arachidonic Acid Supplementation on Acute Anabolic Signaling and Chronic Functional Performance and Body Composition Adaptations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo O De Souza

    Full Text Available The primary purpose of this investigation was to examine the effects of arachidonic acid (ARA supplementation on functional performance and body composition in trained males. In addition, we performed a secondary study looking at molecular responses of ARA supplementation following an acute exercise bout in rodents.Thirty strength-trained males (age: 20.4 ± 2.1 yrs were randomly divided into two groups: ARA or placebo (i.e. CTL. Then, both groups underwent an 8-week, 3-day per week, non-periodized training protocol. Quadriceps muscle thickness, whole-body composition scan (DEXA, muscle strength, and power were assessed at baseline and post-test. In the rodent model, male Wistar rats (~250 g, ~8 weeks old were pre-fed with either ARA or water (CTL for 8 days and were fed the final dose of ARA prior to being acutely strength trained via electrical stimulation on unilateral plantar flexions. A mixed muscle sample was removed from the exercised and non-exercised leg 3 hours post-exercise.Lean body mass (2.9%, p<0.0005, upper-body strength (8.7%, p<0.0001, and peak power (12.7%, p<0.0001 increased only in the ARA group. For the animal trial, GSK-β (Ser9 phosphorylation (p<0.001 independent of exercise and AMPK phosphorylation after exercise (p-AMPK less in ARA, p = 0.041 were different in ARA-fed versus CTL rats.Our findings suggest that ARA supplementation can positively augment strength-training induced adaptations in resistance-trained males. However, chronic studies at the molecular level are required to further elucidate how ARA combined with strength training affect muscle adaptation.

  12. Long-Chain Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids May Be Beneficial for Reducing Obesity—A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Howe, Peter R. C.; Buckley, Jonathan D.

    2010-01-01

    Current recommendations for counteracting obesity advocate the consumption of a healthy diet and participation in regular physical activity, but many individuals have difficulty complying with these recommendations. Studies in rodents and humans have indicated that long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFA) potentially elicit a number of effects which might be useful for reducing obesity, including suppression of appetite, improvements in circulation which might facilitate n...

  13. Dietary fat type, body composition and fatty acid metabolism in broiler chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wongsuthavas, S.

    2007-01-01

    An increased intake of PUFA in the form of soybean oil at the expense of SFA in the form of tallow reduced abdominal deposition by broiler chickens in a does-dependent fashion, the relationship being essentially independent of the fat level of the diet. Dietary fats rich in MCT would diminish abdomi

  14. Carboxydothermus pertinax sp. nov., a thermophilic, hydrogenogenic, Fe(III)-reducing, sulfur-reducing carboxydotrophic bacterium from an acidic hot spring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yoneda, Yasuko; Yoshida, Takashi; Kawaichi, Satoshi;

    2012-01-01

    growth on CO, H(2) and CO(2) were produced. Growth occurred on molecular hydrogen as an energy source and carbon dioxide as a sole carbon source. Growth was observed on various organic compounds under an N(2) atmosphere with the reduction of ferric iron. The temperature range for carboxydotrophic growth......A novel anaerobic, Fe(III)-reducing, hydrogenogenic, carboxydotrophic bacterium, designated strain Ug1(T), was isolated from a volcanic acidic hot spring in southern Kyushu Island, Japan. Cells of the isolate were rod-shaped (1.0-3.0 µm long) and motile due to peritrichous flagella. Strain Ug1(T...... oxidation. On the basis of phylogenetic analysis and unique physiological features, the isolate represents a novel species of the genus Carboxydothermus for which the name Carboxydothermus pertinax sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain of the novel species is Ug1(T) (=DSM 23698(T)=NBRC 107576(T))....

  15. Lifestyle modification and behavior therapy effectively reduce body weight and increase serum level of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in obese non-diabetic patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Feng-Chih; Lee, Chien-Hsing; Hsieh, Chang-Hsun; Kuo, Philip; Chen, Yi-Chyan; Hung, Yi-Jen

    2013-09-30

    The goal of the study was to elucidate the relationship between serum circulating brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and body weight reduction via lifestyle modification and behavior therapy in obese non-diabetic patients with chronic schizophrenia. Thirty-three obese non-diabetic subjects with schizophrenia treated with stable antipsychotic medication in a day-care unit for at least 3 months were recruited. Thirty age-, body weight-matched subjects without psychiatric disorders were enrolled as controls. All participants underwent a 10-week weight reduction program, including lifestyle modification, psychosocial treatment, behavior therapy and exercise in the day-care unit. Blood biochemistry, serum BDNF, adipokine (adiponectin), inflammatory markers (C-reactive protein, tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6) and oral glucose tolerance test were evaluated before and after the program. Serum BDNF concentrations were significantly lower among patients with schizophrenia compared to control subjects. Serum BDNF levels were significantly increased following the weight reduction program. Elevations in serum BDNF levels were positively correlated with body weight and body mass index reduction. Altogether, our results demonstrate that a non-pharmacological weight reduction program effectively reduces body weight with significant elevation of serum BDNF levels in obese non-diabetic patients with schizophrenia.

  16. Accelerometer thresholds: Accounting for body mass reduces discrepancies between measures of physical activity for individuals with overweight and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raiber, Lilian; Christensen, Rebecca A G; Jamnik, Veronica K; Kuk, Jennifer L

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore whether accelerometer thresholds that are adjusted to account for differences in body mass influence discrepancies between self-report and accelerometer-measured physical activity (PA) volume for individuals with overweight and obesity. We analyzed 6164 adults from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey between 2003-2006. Established accelerometer thresholds were adjusted to account for differences in body mass to produce a similar energy expenditure (EE) rate as individuals with normal weight. Moderate-, vigorous-, and moderate- to vigorous-intensity PA (MVPA) durations were measured using established and adjusted accelerometer thresholds and compared with self-report. Durations of self-report were longer than accelerometer-measured MVPA using established thresholds (normal weight: 57.8 ± 2.4 vs 9.0 ± 0.5 min/day, overweight: 56.1 ± 2.7 vs 7.4 ± 0.5 min/day, and obesity: 46.5 ± 2.2 vs 3.7 ± 0.3 min/day). Durations of subjective and objective PA were negatively associated with body mass index (BMI) (P overweight and obese groups by 6.0 ± 0.3 min/day and 17.7 ± 0.8 min/day, respectively (P overweight and obese groups. However, accelerometer-measured PA generally remained shorter than durations of self-report within all BMI categories. Further research may be necessary to improve analytical approaches when using objective measures of PA for individuals with overweight or obesity.

  17. Proteolytic Activity in Reduced-Fat Cheddar Cheese Made with Lactic Acid Bacteria and Camel Chymosin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børsting, Mette Winther

    be the need of an extended ripening period to reach a similar cheese structure as in cheeses produced with BC. The aim of this project was to compensate for the lower proteolytic activity in cheese produced with CC compared to BC. Selection of dairy lactic acid bacteria (LAB) for cheese production with high...... for their ability to influence proteolysis and structure during cheese ripening. In an attempt to improve the screening methods and contribute to the development of a new classification system of Latcococcus lactic strains, the peptide profile formed by selected strains after growth in milk was analyzed...... mediated an increase in the total amount of amino acids as well as a shorter structure. A model system, used to study the retention of chymosin in a curd, showed that the retention of CC was less dependent on pH compared to BC, and the retention of CC was higher than BC in the pH interval 6...

  18. Trans-11 vaccenic acid reduces hepatic lipogenesis and chylomicron secretion in JCR:LA-cp rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ye; Jacome-Sosa, M Miriam; Ruth, Megan R; Goruk, Sue D; Reaney, Martin J; Glimm, David R; Wright, David C; Vine, Donna F; Field, Catherine J; Proctor, Spencer D

    2009-11-01

    Trans-11 vaccenic acid (VA) is the predominant trans isomer in ruminant fat and a major precursor to the endogenous synthesis of cis9,trans11-conjugated linoleic acid in humans and animals. We have previously shown that 3-wk VA supplementation has a triglyceride (TG)-lowering effect in a rat model of dyslipidemia, obesity, and metabolic syndrome (JCR:LA-cp rats). The objective of this study was to assess the chronic effect (16 wk) of VA on lipid homeostasis in both the liver and intestine in obese JCR:LA-cp rats. Plasma TG (P JCR:LA-cp rats. The appreciable hypolipidemic benefits of VA may be attributed to a reduction in both intestinal CM and hepatic de novo lipogenesis pathways.

  19. Eicosapentaenoic acid reduces membrane fluidity, inhibits cholesterol domain formation, and normalizes bilayer width in atherosclerotic-like model membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, R Preston; Jacob, Robert F; Shrivastava, Sandeep; Sherratt, Samuel C R; Chattopadhyay, Amitabha

    2016-12-01

    Cholesterol crystalline domains characterize atherosclerotic membranes, altering vascular signaling and function. Omega-3 fatty acids reduce membrane lipid peroxidation and subsequent cholesterol domain formation. We evaluated non-peroxidation-mediated effects of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), other TG-lowering agents, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and other long-chain fatty acids on membrane fluidity, bilayer width, and cholesterol domain formation in model membranes. In membranes prepared at 1.5:1 cholesterol-to-phospholipid (C/P) mole ratio (creating pre-existing domains), EPA, glycyrrhizin, arachidonic acid, and alpha linolenic acid promoted the greatest reductions in cholesterol domains (by 65.5%, 54.9%, 46.8%, and 45.2%, respectively) compared to controls; other treatments had modest effects. EPA effects on cholesterol domain formation were dose-dependent. In membranes with 1:1 C/P (predisposing domain formation), DHA, but not EPA, dose-dependently increased membrane fluidity. DHA also induced cholesterol domain formation without affecting temperature-induced changes in-bilayer unit cell periodicity relative to controls (d-space; 57Å-55Å over 15-30°C). Together, these data suggest simultaneous formation of distinct cholesterol-rich ordered domains and cholesterol-poor disordered domains in the presence of DHA. By contrast, EPA had no effect on cholesterol domain formation and produced larger d-space values relative to controls (60Å-57Å; pmembrane bilayer width, membrane fluidity, and cholesterol crystalline domain formation; suggesting omega-3 fatty acids with differing chain length or unsaturation may differentially influence membrane lipid dynamics and structural organization as a result of distinct phospholipid/sterol interactions.

  20. Intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin E reduces the risk of developing amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Veldink, J. H.; Kalmijn, S; Groeneveld, G J; Wunderink, W.; Köster, B.; de Vries; Luyt, van der, J.; Wokke, J. H. J.; Berg, L.H.

    2007-01-01

    Background: To assess whether the premorbid dietary intake of fatty acids, cholesterol, lutamate, or anti- oxidants was associated with the risk of developing ALS. Methods: Patients referred to our clinic during the one-year period, 2001-2002, who had definite, probable or possible ALS according to El Escorial criteria, without a familial history of ALS, were asked to participate in a case-control study (132 patients and 220 healthy controls). A food-frequency questionnaire was used to assess...

  1. Facile synthesis of graphene from graphite using ascorbic acid as reducing agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrijanto, Eko; Shoelarta, Shoerya; Subiyanto, Gatot; Rifki, Sadur

    2016-04-01

    Graphene has attracted a tremendous attention in recent years due to its unique properties such as mechanical, thermal, optical and electrical properties. However, a large scale production of this material is still an issue and subjected to intense research efforts. Here, we show a simple and green approach of the graphene synthesis from graphene oxide using ascorbic acid as reduction agent. A facile synthesis of graphene (rGO) through chemical oxidation of graphite into graphene oxide (GO) was described using modified Hummers method (Improved Tour Method/ITM). The ITM method does not produce toxic gas and the temperature of the oxidation is easily controlled using ice bath. The synthesized of graphene oxide was highly soluble and stable in water. The reduction of graphene oxide into graphene was performed using ascorbic acid (AA) in mild condition. The combined ITM method and green reduction using ascorbic acid open the avenue of replacing hydrazine in the reduction of graphite oxide into graphene and may be very important step for bulk production of graphene.

  2. Application of Cornelian Cherry Iridoid-Polyphenolic Fraction and Loganic Acid to Reduce Intraocular Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szumny, Dorota; Sozański, Tomasz; Kucharska, Alicja Z.; Dziewiszek, Wojciech; Piórecki, Narcyz; Magdalan, Jan; Chlebda-Sieragowska, Ewa; Kupczynski, Robert; Szeląg, Adam; Szumny, Antoni

    2015-01-01

    One of the most common diseases of old age in modern societies is glaucoma. It is strongly connected with increased intraocular pressure (IOP) and could permanently damage vision in the affected eye. As there are only a limited number of chemical compounds that can decrease IOP as well as blood flow in eye vessels, the up-to-date investigation of new molecules is important. The chemical composition of the dried Cornelian cherry (Cornus mas L.) polar, iridoid-polyphenol-rich fraction was investigated. Loganic acid (50%) and pelargonidin-3-galactoside (7%) were found as the main components. Among the other constituents, iridoid compound cornuside and the anthocyans cyanidin 3-O-galactoside, cyanidin 3-O-robinobioside, and pelargonidin 3-O-robinobioside were quantified in the fraction. In an animal model (New Zealand rabbits), the influence of loganic acid and the polyphenolic fraction isolated from Cornelian cherry fruit was investigated. We found a strong IOP-hypotensive effect for a 0.7% solution of loganic acid, which could be compared with the widely ophthalmologically used timolol. About a 25% decrease in IOP was observed within the first 3 hours of use. PMID:26124854

  3. Metformin reduces lipid accumulation in macrophages by inhibiting FOXO1-mediated transcription of fatty acid-binding protein 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Jun [Qilu Hospital, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong (China); Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Michael E. DeBakey Department of Surgery, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States); Texas Heart Institute at St. Luke' s Episcopal Hospital, Houston, TX (United States); Ren, Pingping; Zhang, Lin [Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Michael E. DeBakey Department of Surgery, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States); Texas Heart Institute at St. Luke' s Episcopal Hospital, Houston, TX (United States); Wang, Xing Li [Qilu Hospital, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong (China); Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Michael E. DeBakey Department of Surgery, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States); Texas Heart Institute at St. Luke' s Episcopal Hospital, Houston, TX (United States); Chen, Li [Qilu Hospital, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong (China); Shen, Ying H., E-mail: hyshen@bcm.edu [Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Michael E. DeBakey Department of Surgery, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States); Texas Heart Institute at St. Luke' s Episcopal Hospital, Houston, TX (United States)

    2010-02-26

    Objective: The accumulation of lipids in macrophages contributes to the development of atherosclerosis. Strategies to reduce lipid accumulation in macrophages may have therapeutic potential for preventing and treating atherosclerosis and cardiovascular complications. The antidiabetic drug metformin has been reported to reduce lipid accumulation in adipocytes. In this study, we examined the effects of metformin on lipid accumulation in macrophages and investigated the mechanisms involved. Methods and results: We observed that metformin significantly reduced palmitic acid (PA)-induced intracellular lipid accumulation in macrophages. Metformin promoted the expression of carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (CPT-1), while reduced the expression of fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4) which was involved in PA-induced lipid accumulation. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that metformin regulates FABP4 expression at the transcriptional level. We identified forkhead transcription factor FOXO1 as a positive regulator of FABP4 expression. Inhibiting FOXO1 expression with FOXO1 siRNA significantly reduced basal and PA-induced FABP4 expression. Overexpression of wild-type FOXO1 and constitutively active FOXO1 significantly increased FABP4 expression, whereas dominant negative FOXO1 dramatically decreased FABP4 expression. Metformin reduced FABP4 expression by promoting FOXO1 nuclear exclusion and subsequently inhibiting its activity. Conclusions: Taken together, these results suggest that metformin reduces lipid accumulation in macrophages by repressing FOXO1-mediated FABP4 transcription. Thus, metformin may have a protective effect against lipid accumulation in macrophages and may serve as a therapeutic agent for preventing and treating atherosclerosis in metabolic syndrome.

  4. Inhibition of gastric lipase as a mechanism for body weight and plasma lipids reduction in Zucker rats fed a rosemary extract rich in carnosic acid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Romo Vaquero

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L. extracts (REs exhibit hepatoprotective, anti-obesity and anti-inflammatory properties and are widely used in the food industry. REs are rich in carnosic acid (CA and carnosol which may be responsible for some of the biological activities of REs. The aim of this study was to investigate whether inhibition of lipase activity in the gut may be a mechanism by which a RE enriched in CA (40% modulates body weight and lipids levels in a rat model of metabolic disorders and obesity. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: RE was administered for 64 days to lean (fa/+ and obese (fa/fa female Zucker rats and body weight, food intake, feces weight and blood biochemical parameters were monitored throughout the study. Lipase activity (hydrolysis of p-nitrophenylbutyrate was measured in the gastrointestinal tract at the end of the study and the contents of CA, carnosol and methyl carnosate were also determined. Sub-chronic administration of RE moderately reduced body weight gain in both lean and obese animals but did not affect food intake. Serum triglycerides, cholesterol and insulin levels were also markedly decreased in the lean animals supplemented with RE. Importantly, lipase activity was significantly inhibited in the stomach of the RE-supplemented animals where the highest content of intact CA and carnosol was detected. CONCLUSIONS: Our results confirm that long-term administration of RE enriched in CA moderates weight gain and improves the plasma lipids profile, primarily in the lean animals. Our data also suggest that these effects may be caused, at least in part, by a significant inhibition of gastric lipase and subsequent reduction in fat absorption.

  5. Low-level parasitic worm burdens may reduce body condition in free-ranging red deer (Cervus elaphus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine, R J; Corbishley, H; Pilkington, J G; Albon, S D

    2006-10-01

    Regulation of ungulate populations by parasites relies on establishing a density-dependent relationship between infection and vital demographic rates which may act through the effect of parasites on body condition. We examine evidence for parasite impacts in 285 red deer (Cervus elaphus) harvested during 1991 and 1992 on the Isle of Rum. In the abomasa, prevalence of nematodes was 100% and the most abundant genus observed were Ostertagia species, however, mean intensity of infection was low (less than 1000) relative to other studies. Additional species, also present in low numbers, included Nematodirus spp., Capillaria spp., Cooperia spp., Monieza expanza, Oesophagostomum venulosum and Trichuris ovis. Lungworm (Dictyocaulus spp.) and tissue worm (Elaphostronygylus cervi) larvae were also observed in faecal samples. There was no evidence for acquired immunity to abomasal nematodes. Despite low levels of infection, both adult male and female deer showed significant negative correlation between indices of condition (kidney fat index, dressed carcass weight and larder weight) and intensity of Ostertagia spp. infection. However, there was no evidence that pregnancy rate in females was related to intensity of infection. For calves, there was no relationship between body condition and intensity of infection. The apparent subclinical effects of low-level parasite infection on red deer performance could alternatively be due to animals in poorer nutritional state being more susceptible to infection. Either way the results suggest that further studies of wild populations are justified, in particular where high local host densities exist or alternative ungulate hosts are present, and, where experimental treatments are tractable.

  6. Decreased body weight and hepatic steatosis with altered fatty acid ethanolamide metabolism in aged L-Fabp -/- mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newberry, Elizabeth P; Kennedy, Susan M; Xie, Yan; Luo, Jianyang; Crooke, Rosanne M; Graham, Mark J; Fu, Jin; Piomelli, Daniele; Davidson, Nicholas O

    2012-04-01

    The tissue-specific sources and regulated production of physiological signals that modulate food intake are incompletely understood. Previous work showed that L-Fabp(-/-) mice are protected against obesity and hepatic steatosis induced by a high-fat diet, findings at odds with an apparent obesity phenotype in a distinct line of aged L-Fabp(-/-) mice. Here we show that the lean phenotype in L-Fabp(-/-) mice is recapitulated in aged, chow-fed mice and correlates with alterations in hepatic, but not intestinal, fatty acid amide metabolism. L-Fabp(-/-) mice exhibited short-term changes in feeding behavior with decreased food intake, which was associated with reduced abundance of key signaling fatty acid ethanolamides, including oleoylethanolamide (OEA, an agonist of PPARα) and anandamide (AEA, an agonist of cannabinoid receptors), in the liver. These reductions were associated with increased expression and activity of hepatic fatty acid amide hydrolase-1, the enzyme that degrades both OEA and AEA. Moreover, L-Fabp(-/-) mice demonstrated attenuated responses to OEA administration, which was completely reversed with an enhanced response after administration of a nonhydrolyzable OEA analog. These findings demonstrate a role for L-Fabp in attenuating obesity and hepatic steatosis, and they suggest that hepatic fatty acid amide metabolism is altered in L-Fabp(-/-) mice.

  7. Dodecanedioic acid infusion induces a sparing effect on whole-body glucose uptake, mainly in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingrone, G; De Gaetano, A; Greco, A V; Capristo, E; Benedetti, G; Castagneto, M; Gasbarrini, G

    1997-11-01

    Even-numbered dicarboxylic acids (DA) have been proposed as an alternative fuel substrate in parenteral nutrition. In particular, dodecanedioic acid (C12) shows a rapid plasma clearance from tissues, a very low urinary excretion compared with other DA and a high oxidation rate. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of C12 infusion on insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) compared with healthy volunteers. A primed-constant infusion of C12 (0.39 mmol/min) was administered over 240 min, and at 120 min a 2 h euglycaemic hyperinsulinaemic clamp was performed. Blood specimens were sampled every 30 min and fractioned urines were collected over 24 h. The levels of C12 were measured by HPLC. Indirect calorimetry was performed continuously during the entire session. Body composition was assessed in all subjects studied to obtain fat-free mass (FFM) values. Whole-body glucose uptake decreased significantly during C12 infusion in both groups, although this effect was much more evident (P < 0.01) in NIDDM patients (52.4 (SD 15.8) % decrease compared with saline) than in controls (25.9 (SD 12.1) % decrease). The M value (mumol/kgFFM per min) was reduced by C12 to lower levels in NIDDM patients than in normal controls (12.6 (SD 3.9) v. 25.9 (SD 4.5), P < 0.01). Urinary excretion of C12 over 24 h was significantly lower in NIDDM patients than in controls (4.26 (SD 0.30) mmol v. 5.43 (SD 0.48), P < 0.01), corresponding to less than 3% of the administered dose. The infusion of C12 decreased non-protein RQ significantly in both groups of patients. In conclusion, this study shows, for the first time, that C12 significantly reduces glucose uptake in both normal controls and NIDDM patients, although this sparing effect on glucose uptake is much more pronounced in diabetic patients. These data suggest that C12 decreases glucose uptake and oxidation, mainly through a mechanism of substrate competition. Thus

  8. Distribution of omega-6 and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the whole rat body and 25 compartments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, N M; Lin, Y H; Moriguchi, T; Lim, S Y; Salem, N; Hibbeln, J R

    2015-09-01

    The steady state compositions of omega-6 and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) throughout the various viscera and tissues within the whole body of rats have not previously been described in a comprehensive manner. Dams consumed diets containing 10wt% fat (15% linoleate and 3% α-linolenate). Male offspring (n=9) at 7-week of age were euthanized and dissected into 25 compartments. Total lipid fatty acids for each compartment were quantified by GC/FID and summed for the rat whole body; total n-6 PUFA was 12wt% and total n-3 PUFA was 2.1% of total fatty acids. 18:2n-6 accounted for 84% of the total n-6 PUFA, 20:4n-6 was 12%, 18:3n-3 was 59% of the total n-3 PUFA, 20:5n-3 was 2.1%, and 22:6n-3 was 32%. The white adipose tissue contained the greatest amounts of 18:2n-6 (1.5g) and 18:3n-3 (0.2g). 20:4n-6 was highest in muscle (60mg) and liver (57mg), while 22:6n-3 was greatest in muscle (46mg), followed by liver (27mg) and carcass (20mg). In terms of fatty acid composition expressed as a percentage, 18:2n-6 was the highest in the heart (13wt%), while 18:3n-3 was about 1.3wt% for skin, white adipose tissue and fur. 20:4n-6 was highest (21-25wt%) in the circulation, kidney, and spleen, while 22:6n-3 was highest in the brain (12wt%), followed by the heart (7.9wt%), liver (5.9wt%), and spinal cord (5.1wt%). Selectivity was greatest when comparing 22:6n-3 in brain (12%) to white adipose (0.08%) (68-fold) and 22:5n-6 in testes (15.6%) compared to white adipose (0.02%), 780-fold.

  9. Increased Hatha yoga experience predicts lower body mass index and reduced medication use in women over 45 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Moliver

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions: A long-term yoga practice was associated with little or no obesity in a non-probability sample of women over 45 years. Relationships showed a dose-response effect, with increased yoga experience predicting lower BMI and reduced medication use.

  10. Reducing isozyme competition increases target fatty acid accumulation in seed triacylglycerols of transgenic Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Erp, Harrie; Shockey, Jay; Zhang, Meng; Adhikari, Neil D; Browse, John

    2015-05-01

    One goal of green chemistry is the production of industrially useful fatty acids (FAs) in crop plants. We focus on hydroxy fatty acids (HFAs) and conjugated polyenoic FAs (α-eleostearic acids [ESAs]) using Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) as a model. These FAs are found naturally in seed oils of castor (Ricinus communis) and tung tree (Vernicia fordii), respectively, and used for the production of lubricants, nylon, and paints. Transgenic oils typically contain less target FA than that produced in the source species. We hypothesized that competition between endogenous and transgenic isozymes for substrates limits accumulation of unique FAs in Arabidopsis seeds. This hypothesis was tested by introducing a mutation in Arabidopsis diacylglycerol acyltransferase1 (AtDGAT1) in a line expressing castor FA hydroxylase and acyl-Coenzyme A:RcDGAT2 in its seeds. This led to a 17% increase in the proportion of HFA in seed oil. Expression of castor phospholipid:diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1A in this line increased the proportion of HFA by an additional 12%. To determine if our observations are more widely applicable, we investigated if isozyme competition influenced production of ESA. Expression of tung tree FA conjugase/desaturase in Arabidopsis produced approximately 7.5% ESA in seed lipids. Coexpression of VfDGAT2 increased ESA levels to approximately 11%. Overexpression of VfDGAT2 combined with suppression of AtDGAT1 increased ESA accumulation to 14% to 15%. Our results indicate that isozyme competition is a limiting factor in the engineering of unusual FAs in heterologous plant systems and that reduction of competition through mutation and RNA suppression may be a useful component of seed metabolic engineering strategies.

  11. Body weight loss, reduced urge for palatable food and increased release of GLP-1 through daily supplementation with green-plant membranes for three months in overweight women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montelius, Caroline; Erlandsson, Daniel; Vitija, Egzona; Stenblom, Eva-Lena; Egecioglu, Emil; Erlanson-Albertsson, Charlotte

    2014-10-01

    The frequency of obesity has risen dramatically in recent years but only few effective and safe drugs are available. We investigated if green-plant membranes, previously shown to reduce subjective hunger and promote satiety signals, could affect body weight when given long-term. 38 women (40-65 years of age, body mass index 25-33 kg/m(2)) were randomized to dietary supplementation with either green-plant membranes (5 g) or placebo, consumed once daily before breakfast for 12 weeks. All individuals were instructed to follow a three-meal paradigm without any snacking between the meals and to increase their physical activity. Body weight change was analysed every third week as was blood glucose and various lipid parameters. On days 1 and 90, following intake of a standardized breakfast, glucose, insulin and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) in plasma were measured, as well as subjective ratings of hunger, satiety and urge for different palatable foods, using visual analogue scales. Subjects receiving green-plant membranes lost significantly more body weight than did those on placebo (p weight loss with green-plant extract was 5.0 ± 2.3 kg compared to 3.5 ± 2.3 kg in the control group. Consumption of green-plant membranes also reduced total and LDL-cholesterol (p weight loss, improves obesity-related risk-factors, and reduces the urge for palatable food. The mechanism may reside in the observed increased release of GLP-1.

  12. Novel application of pre-operative vertebral body embolization to reduce intraoperative blood loss during a three-column spinal osteotomy for non-oncologic spinal deformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuchman, Alexander; Mehta, Vivek A; Mack, William J; Acosta, Frank L

    2015-04-01

    Three column osteotomies (3CO) of the lumbar spine are powerful corrective procedures used in the treatment of kyphoscoliosis. Their efficacy comes at the cost of high reported complication rates, notably significant estimated blood loss (EBL). Previously reported techniques to reduce EBL have had modest efficacy. Here we describe a potential technique to decrease EBL during pedicle subtraction osteotomy (PSO) of the lumbar spine by means of pre-operative vertebral body embolization - a technique traditionally used to reduce blood loss prior to spinal column tumor resection. We present a 62-year-old man with iatrogenic kyphoscoliosis who underwent staged deformity correction. Stage 1 involved thoracolumbar instrumentation followed by transarterial embolization of the L4 vertebral body through bilateral segmental arteries. A combination of polyvinyl alcohol particles and Gelfoam (Pfizer, New York, NY, USA) were used. Following embolization there was decreased angiographic blood flow to the small vessels of the L4 vertebral body, while the segmental arteries remained patent. Stage 2 consisted of an L4 PSO and fusion. The EBL during the PSO procedure was 1L, which compared favorably to that during previous PSO at this institution as well as to quantities reported in previous literature. There have been no short term (5 month follow-up) complications attributable to the vertebral body embolization or surgical procedure. Although further investigation into this technique is required to better characterize its safety and efficacy in reducing EBL during 3CO, we believe this patient illustrates the potential utility of pre-operative vertebral embolization in the setting of non-oncologic deformity correction surgery.

  13. Canola Oil in Lactating Dairy Cow Diets Reduces Milk Saturated Fatty Acids and Improves Its Omega-3 and Oleic Fatty Acid Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welter, Katiéli Caroline; Martins, Cristian Marlon de Magalhães Rodrigues; de Palma, André Soligo Vizeu; Martins, Mellory Martinson; Dos Reis, Bárbara Roqueto; Schmidt, Bárbara Laís Unglaube; Saran Netto, Arlindo

    2016-01-01

    To produce milk that is healthier for human consumption, the present study evaluated the effect of including canola oil in the diet of dairy cows on milk production and composition as well as the nutritional quality of this milk fat. Eighteen Holstein cows with an average daily milk yield of 22 (± 4) kg/d in the middle stage of lactation were used. The cows were distributed in 6 contemporary 3x3 Latin squares consisting of 3 periods and 3 treatments: control diet (without oil), 3% inclusion of canola oil in the diet and 6% inclusion of canola oil in the diet (dry matter basis). The inclusion of 6% canola oil in the diet of lactating cows linearly reduced the milk yield by 2.51 kg/d, short-chain fatty acids (FA) by 41.42%, medium chain FA by 27.32%, saturated FA by 20.24%, saturated/unsaturated FA ratio by 39.20%, omega-6/omega-3 ratio by 39.45%, and atherogenicity index by 48.36% compared with the control treatment. Moreover, with the 6% inclusion of canola oil in the diet of cows, there was an increase in the concentration of long chain FA by 45.91%, unsaturated FA by 34.08%, monounsaturated FA by 40.37%, polyunsaturated FA by 17.88%, milk concentration of omega-3 by 115%, rumenic acid (CLA) by 16.50%, oleic acid by 44.87% and h/H milk index by 94.44% compared with the control treatment. Thus, the inclusion of canola oil in the diet of lactating dairy cows makes the milk fatty acid profile nutritionally healthier for the human diet; however, the lactating performance of dairy cows is reduce.

  14. Canola Oil in Lactating Dairy Cow Diets Reduces Milk Saturated Fatty Acids and Improves Its Omega-3 and Oleic Fatty Acid Content.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katiéli Caroline Welter

    Full Text Available To produce milk that is healthier for human consumption, the present study evaluated the effect of including canola oil in the diet of dairy cows on milk production and composition as well as the nutritional quality of this milk fat. Eighteen Holstein cows with an average daily milk yield of 22 (± 4 kg/d in the middle stage of lactation were used. The cows were distributed in 6 contemporary 3x3 Latin squares consisting of 3 periods and 3 treatments: control diet (without oil, 3% inclusion of canola oil in the diet and 6% inclusion of canola oil in the diet (dry matter basis. The inclusion of 6% canola oil in the diet of lactating cows linearly reduced the milk yield by 2.51 kg/d, short-chain fatty acids (FA by 41.42%, medium chain FA by 27.32%, saturated FA by 20.24%, saturated/unsaturated FA ratio by 39.20%, omega-6/omega-3 ratio by 39.45%, and atherogenicity index by 48.36% compared with the control treatment. Moreover, with the 6% inclusion of canola oil in the diet of cows, there was an increase in the concentration of long chain FA by 45.91%, unsaturated FA by 34.08%, monounsaturated FA by 40.37%, polyunsaturated FA by 17.88%, milk concentration of omega-3 by 115%, rumenic acid (CLA by 16.50%, oleic acid by 44.87% and h/H milk index by 94.44% compared with the control treatment. Thus, the inclusion of canola oil in the diet of lactating dairy cows makes the milk fatty acid profile nutritionally healthier for the human diet; however, the lactating performance of dairy cows is reduce.

  15. Weak effect of trans-10, cis-12-conjugated linoleic acid on body fat accumulation in adult hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Jonatan; Churruca, Itziar; Fernández-Quintela, Alfredo; Rodríguez, Victor Manuel; Macarulla, María Teresa; Simón, Edurne; Portillo, María Puy

    2009-12-01

    It has been proposed that young animals and subjects are more responsive to conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) than the adults. Nevertheless, there is very little information concerning the effectiveness of CLA in adult animals. In the present study we aimed to explore the effects of trans-10, cis-12-CLA on body fat accumulation in adult hamsters, as well as on some of the molecular mechanisms described in young animals as responsible for the CLA body fat-lowering effect, such as lipogenesis, lipoprotein lipase (LPL)-mediated fat uptake and thermogenesis. The experiment was conducted with sixteen adult male Syrian Golden hamsters (aged 8 months) fed a high-fat diet supplemented or not with 0.5 % trans-10, cis-12-CLA for 6 weeks. Acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACX), fatty acid synthase (FAS), LPL, PPARgamma, sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP)-1a and SREBP-1c expressions were assessed in subcutaneous and perirenal adipose tissues by real-time RT-PCR. Total and heparin-releasable LPL activities were determined in subcutaneous adipose tissue by fluorimetry and FAS activity by spectrophotometry. Uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1) expression in interscapular brown adipose tissue was assessed by Western blot. Hamsters fed the trans-10, cis-12-CLA diet showed a significant reduction in subcutaneous adipose tissue. No changes were observed in the expression of ACX, FAS, LPL, SREBP-1a, SREBP-1c and PPARgamma, nor in total and heparin-releasable LPL and FAS activities. Trans-10, cis-12-CLA induced a significant increase in the amount of UCP1. These results suggest a low responsiveness to trans-10, cis-12-CLA in adults, lower than that in young hamsters. One of the reasons explaining this difference is the lack of effect on LPL.

  16. Lysosomal Acid Lipase Activity Is Reduced Both in Cryptogenic Cirrhosis and in Cirrhosis of Known Etiology.

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    Umberto Vespasiani-Gentilucci

    Full Text Available Liver cirrhosis is characterized by a severe acquired reduction of LAL-activity, the precise causes and consequences of which need to be further addressed. DBS-determined lysosomal enzyme activities seem to be affected by white blood cell and platelet counts, and the specificity of these tests can be reduced when applied to determined populations, such as cirrhotics.

  17. Enhanced fatty acid production in engineered chemolithoautotrophic bacteria using reduced sulfur compounds as energy sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beller, Harry R.; Zhou, Peng; Jewell, Talia N.M.;

    2016-01-01

    Chemolithoautotrophic bacteria that oxidize reduced sulfur compounds, such as H2S, while fixing CO2 are an untapped source of renewable bioproducts from sulfide-laden waste, such as municipal wastewater. In this study, we report engineering of the chemolithoautotrophic bacterium Thiobacillus...

  18. Ergot alkaloids reduce rumen epithelial blood flow and volatile fatty acid absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergot alkaloids have been shown to induce vasoconstriction of both peripheral and ruminal vessels. Constriction of ruminal vessels could lead to a reduction in epithelial blood flow thereby reducing nutrient absorption. The objectives of this experiment were to determine if steers receiving endophyt...

  19. Beta-resorcylic acid, a phytophenolic compound, reduces Campylobacter jejuni in post-harvest poultry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human Campylobacter infections, a leading foodborne illness globally, has been linked with the high prevalence of this bacterium on raw retail chicken products. Reduction of Campylobacter counts on poultry products would greatly reduce the risk of subsequent infections in humans. To this end, this s...

  20. Seed-specific silencing of OsMRP5 reduces seed phytic acid and weight in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen-Xu; Zhao, Hai-Jun; Pang, Wei-Qin; Cui, Hai-Rui; Poirier, Yves; Shu, Qing-Yao

    2014-08-01

    Phytic acid (PA) is poorly digested by humans and monogastric animals and negatively affects human/animal nutrition and the environment. Rice mutants with reduced PA content have been developed but are often associated with reduced seed weight and viability, lacking breeding value. In the present study, a new approach was explored to reduce seed PA while attaining competitive yield. The OsMRP5 gene, of which mutations are known to reduce seed PA as well as seed yield and viability, was down-regulated specifically in rice seeds by using an artificial microRNA driven by the rice seed specific promoter Ole18. Seed PA contents were reduced by 35.8-71.9% in brown rice grains of transgenic plants compared to their respective null plants (non-transgenic plants derived from the same event). No consistent significant differences of plant height or number of tillers per plant were observed, but significantly lower seed weights (up to 17.8% reduction) were detected in all transgenic lines compared to null plants, accompanied by reductions of seed germination and seedling emergence. It was observed that the silencing of the OsMRP5 gene increased the inorganic P (Pi) levels (up to 7.5 times) in amounts more than the reduction of PA-P in brown rice. This indicates a reduction in P content in other cellular compounds, such as lipids and nucleic acids, which may affect overall seed development. Put together, the present study demonstrated that seed specific silencing of OsMRP5 could significantly reduce the PA content and increase Pi levels in seeds; however, it also significantly lowers seed weight in rice. Discussions were made regarding future directions towards producing agronomically competitive and nutritionally valuable low PA rice.

  1. Gastric-resistant isoniazid pellets reduced degradation of rifampicin in acidic medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fátima Duarte Freire

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Isoniazid and rifampicin are considered the first-line medication for preventing and treating tuberculosis. Rifampicin is degraded in the stomach acidic environment, especially when combined with isoniazid, factor contributing to treatment failure. In this study, gastric-resistant isoniazid pellets were obtained to physical contact of this drug with rifampicin and to bypass the stomach´s acidic environment. The pellets were fabricated using the extrusion-spheronization technique. The coating process was conducted in a fluid spray coater using Acrycoat L 100(r solution as the coating agent. The pellets obtained were submitted to a dissolution test in HCl 0.1 N and phosphate buffer media. The results indicated that optimum gastric-resistance was only attained with the highest amount of coating material, with isoniazid almost fully released in phosphate buffer. The amount of rifampicin released from its mixture with non-coated isoniazid pellets in HCl 0.1 N was less than that released from its mixture with the enteric-coated pellets. Acrycoat L 100(r was shown to be an effective enteric/gastric-resistant coating since the stability of rifampicin appeared to be enhanced when physical contact of this drug with isoniazid was prevented at low pH.

  2. Efficacy of salicylic acid to reduce Penicillium expansum inoculum and preserve apple fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Rocha Neto, Argus Cezar; Luiz, Caroline; Maraschin, Marcelo; Di Piero, Robson Marcelo

    2016-03-16

    Apples are among the most commonly consumed fruits worldwide. Blue mold (Penicillium expansum) is one of the major diseases in apples postharvest, leading to wide use of fungicides and the search for alternative products to control the pathogen. In this context, this study aimed to evaluate the potential of salicylic acid (SA) as an alternative product to control blue mold and to preserve the physicochemical characteristics of apple fruit postharvest. The antimicrobial effect of SA was determined both in vitro and in situ, by directly exposing conidia to solutions of different concentrations SA or by inoculating the fruit with P. expansum and treating them curatively, eradicatively, or preventively with a 2.5mM SA solution. The physiological effects of SA on fruit were determined by quantifying the weight loss, total soluble solids content, and titratable acidity. In addition, the accumulation of SA in the fruit was determined by HPLC. SA (2.5mM) inhibited 100% of fungal germination in vitro and also controlled blue mold in situ when applied eradicatively. In addition, HPLC analysis demonstrated that SA did not persist in apple fruit. SA also maintained the physicochemical characteristics of fruit of different quality categories. Thus, SA may be an alternative to the commercial fungicides currently used against P. expansum.

  3. Nanostructured hydroxyapatite/poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) composite coating for controlling magnesium degradation in simulated body fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ian; Akari, Khalid; Liu, Huinan

    2013-09-01

    Biodegradable magnesium (Mg) and its alloys have many attractive properties (e.g. comparable mechanical properties to cortical bone) for orthopedic implant applications, but they degrade too rapidly in the human body to meet clinical requirements. Nanostructured hydroxyapatite (nHA)/poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) composite coatings provide synergistic properties for controlling degradation of Mg-based substrates and improving bone-implant integration. In this study, nHA/PLGA composites were spin coated onto Mg-based substrates and the results showed that the nHA/PLGA coatings retained nano-scale features with nHA dispersed in PLGA matrix. In comparison with non-coated Mg, the nHA/PLGA composite coated Mg increased the corrosion potential and decreased the corrosion current in revised simulated body fluid (rSBF). After 24 h of immersion in rSBF, increased calcium phosphate (CaP) deposition and formation of Mg-substituted CaP rosettes were observed on the surface of the nHA/PLGA coated Mg, indicating greater bioactivity. In contrast, no significant CaP was deposited on the PLGA coated Mg. Since both PLGA coating and nHA/PLGA coating showed some degree of delamination from Mg-based substrates during extended immersion in rSBF, the coating processing and properties should be further optimized in order to take full advantage of biodegradable Mg and nHA/PLGA nanocomposites for orthopedic applications.

  4. THE EFFECT OF BODY WEIGHT OF PIGS ON TRUE AND APPARENT ILEAL AMINO ACIDS DIGESTIBILITY OF RYE

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    Nitrayová

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available It is generally accepted that the ability of pigs to digest protein increases with age. However, it has been shown that small pigs excreted more endogenous nitrogen (N than large pigs. Consequently, the apparent amino acids (AA digestibility may be lower in young pigs while true digestibility, which is corrected for endogenous losses, may be comparable with that found in older pigs. To test this hypothesis, six cannulated piglets (mean body weight 20.6 kg fitted with a simple T-cannula at terminal ileum were used to estimate apparent and true digestibilities of AA and of total N in a rye-based diet (96 % rye. The digestibility study was repeated on the same pigs fed the same diet when they reached mean body weight 61.7 kg. The apparent ileal digestibilities of total AA and total N were significantly higher in heavier pigs than in piglets. Except for methionine and phenylalanine, the apparent digestibilities of individual AA showed a similar pattern. In contrast, there was no significant difference between piglets and heavier pigs for the true ileal digestibility of total N. True digestibility of most AA was lower in heavier pigs than in piglets, the differences for total and some individual AA being significant. The present results suggest that the higher apparent digestibility values found in heavier pigs as compared to piglets are due to the confounding effect of endogenous N losses rather than the better ability of older pigs to digest protein.

  5. Reducing Colonization and Eggborne Transmission of Salmonella Enteritidis in Layer Chickens by In-Feed Supplementation of Caprylic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyaya, Indu; Upadhyay, Abhinav; Yin, Hsin-Bai; Nair, Meera S; Bhattaram, Varun K; Karumathil, Deepti; Kollanoor-Johny, Anup; Khan, Mazhar I; Darre, Michael J; Curtis, Patricia A; Venkitanarayanan, Kumar

    2015-07-01

    Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) is a major foodborne pathogen responsible for causing gastrointestinal infections in humans, predominantly due to the consumption of contaminated eggs. In layer hens, SE colonizes the intestine and migrates to various organs, including the oviduct, thereby leading to egg yolk and shell contamination. This study investigated the efficacy of caprylic acid (CA), a medium-chain fatty acid, in reducing SE colonization and egg contamination in layers. Caprylic acid was supplemented in the feed at 0%, 0.7%, or 1% (vol/wt) from day 1 of the experiment. Birds were challenged with 10(10) log colony-forming units (CFU)/mL of SE by crop gavage on day 10, and re-inoculated (10(10) log CFU/mL) on day 35. After 7 days post first inoculation, eggs were collected daily and tested for SE on the shell and in the yolk separately. The birds were sacrificed on day 66 to determine SE colonization in the ceca, liver, and oviduct. The consumer acceptability of eggs was also determined by triangle test. The experiment was replicated twice. In-feed supplementation of CA (0.7% and 1%) to birds consistently decreased SE on eggshell and in the yolk (p0.05). The results suggest that CA could potentially be used as a feed additive to reduce eggborne transmission of SE.

  6. High-fat feeding reduces endothelium-dependent vasodilation in rats: differential mechanisms for saturated and unsaturated fatty acids?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Guang-Yao; Gao, Yu; Di, Yu-Wei; Pan, Li-Li; Zhou, Yu; Ye, Ji-Ming

    2006-08-01

    1. Chronic feeding with a high-fat diet can cause metabolic syndrome in rodents similar to humans, but the role of saturated versus unsaturated fats in vascular tension remains unclear. 2. The present study shows that rats on a diet rich in either saturated or unsaturated fat had higher blood pressure compared with chow-fed rats (approximately 130 vs 100 mmHg, respectively), along with hyperlipidaemia and insulin resistance. Compared with responses of phenylephrine-preconstricted artery segments from chow-fed rats, vasorelaxation of isolated renal arteries from high-fat fed rats was reduced substantially (> 50%) in response to acetylcholine (0.01-10 micromol/L) and moderately to nitroprusside (>or=1 micromol/L) at low concentrations. Acetylcholine-induced vasorelaxation of arteries from high-fat fed rats was also more sensitive to inhibition by the nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitors NG-nitro-L-arginine and methylene blue. 3. In human umbilical vein endothelial cells, the production of NO and endothelin-1 was significantly inhibited by unsaturated fatty acids. In comparison, saturated fatty acids stimulated endothelin-1 production without altering NO production. 4. The data indicate that both saturated and unsaturated high-fat feeding may result in an increase in blood pressure owing to reduced endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation in the arterial system. The impaired endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation induced by saturated and unsaturated fatty acids may involve different mechanisms.

  7. 黄粉虫幼虫多不饱和脂肪酸的降脂作用%Reducing Fat of Tenebrio molitor Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雷; 付勇; 严善春; 赵玉田

    2014-01-01

    ) , lipoprotein lipase ( LPL) , malondialdehyde ( MDA) and hepar lipo-fuscin (LF).Compared with obesity control group, the body weight, TC, TG, LDL-C and MDA levels were reduced sig-nificantly (P<0.01) by T.molitor polyunsaturated fatty acid.HDL-C (P<0.01), HL (P<0.01), LPL (P<0.05) and LA (P<0.01) levels were enhanced significantly.There was no significant change in LF level. Therefore, T.molitor pol-yunsaturated fatty acid can enhance the mouse lipid metabolism .

  8. Does closure of acid-sensing ion channels reduce ischemia/reperfusion injury in the rat brain?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie Wang; Yinghui Xu; Zhigang Lian; Jian Zhang; Tingzhun Zhu; Mengkao Li; Yi Wei; Bin Dong

    2013-01-01

    Acidosis is a common characteristic of brain damage. Because studies have shown that permeable Ca2+-acid-sensing ion channels can mediate the toxic effects of calcium ions, they have become new targets against pain and various intracranial diseases. However, the mechanism associated with expression of these channels remains unclear. This study sought to observe the expression characteristics of permeable Ca2+-acid-sensing ion channels during different reperfusion inflows in rats after cerebral ischemia. The rat models were randomly divided into three groups: adaptive ischemia/reperfusion group, one-time ischemia/reperfusion group, and severe cerebral ischemic injury group. Western blot assays and immunofluorescence staining results exhibited that when compared with the one-time ischemia/reperfusion group, acid-sensing ion channel 3 and Bcl-x/l expression decreased in the adaptive ischemia/reperfusion group. Calmodulin expression was lowest in the adaptive ischemia/reperfusion group. Following adaptive reperfusion, common carotid artery flow was close to normal, and the pH value improved. Results verified that adaptive reperfusion following cerebral ischemia can suppress acid-sensing ion channel 3 expression, significantly reduce Ca2+ influx, inhibit calcium overload, and diminish Ca2+ toxicity. The effects of adaptive ischemia/reperfusion on suppressing cell apoptosis and relieving brain damage were better than that of one-time ischemia/reperfusion.

  9. Reduced Appendicular Lean Body Mass, Muscle Strength, and Size of Type II Muscle Fibers in Patients with Spondyloarthritis versus Healthy Controls: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristine Røren Nordén

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The purpose of this study was to investigate body composition, muscle function, and muscle morphology in patients with spondyloarthritis (SpA. Methods. Ten male SpA patients (mean ± SD age 39±4.1 years were compared with ten healthy controls matched for sex, age, body mass index, and self-reported level of physical exercise. Body composition was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Musculus quadriceps femoris (QF strength was assessed by maximal isometric contractions prior to test of muscular endurance. Magnetic resonance imaging of QF was used to measure muscle size and calculate specific muscle strength. Percutaneous needle biopsy samples were taken from m. vastus lateralis. Results. SpA patients presented with significantly lower appendicular lean body mass (LBM (p=0.02, but there was no difference in bone mineral density, fat mass, or total LBM. Absolute QF strength was significantly lower in SpA patients (p=0.03 with a parallel trend for specific strength (p=0.08. Biopsy samples from the SpA patients revealed significantly smaller cross-sectional area (CSA of type II muscle fibers (p=0.04, but no difference in CSA type I fibers. Conclusions. Results indicate that the presence of SpA disease is associated with reduced appendicular LBM, muscle strength, and type II fiber CSA.

  10. Green tea beverages enriched with catechins with a galloyl moiety reduce body fat in moderately obese adults: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Makoto; Kawano, Takanori; Ukawa, Yuuichi; Sagesaka, Yuko M; Fukuhara, Ikuo

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine whether ingesting a green tea beverage enriched with catechins with a galloyl moiety during a meal reduces body fat in moderately obese adults. Design Randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study. Subjects A total of 126 obese subjects (25 ≤ body mass index tea beverages without catechins (placebo), or a group receiving green tea beverages with a low or high content of catechins with a galloyl moiety. Each subject ingested 500 mL bottled green tea beverages containing 25, 180, or 279.5 mg green tea catechins (0, 149.5, or 246.5 mg catechins with a galloyl moiety, respectively), at mealtimes for 12 weeks; the subjects were instructed to ingest the beverage during the meal that had the highest fat content on that day. Methods Anthropometric measurements and blood chemistry analysis were performed during the run-in period; at weeks 0, 4, 8, and 12 of the intake period; and at the end of the withdrawal period. Abdominal fat area was measured by computed tomography at weeks 0, 8, and 12 of the intake period and at the end of the withdrawal period. Results Both the low- and high-dose groups exhibited significant reductions in visceral and subcutaneous fat areas compared to the control group at 12 weeks post-intervention. Conclusion Ingestion of a green tea beverage enriched with catechins with a galloyl moiety during a high-fat meal reduces body fat in moderately obese adults.

  11. Efficacy of phosphatidic acid ingestion on lean body mass, muscle thickness and strength gains in resistance-trained men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoffman Jay R

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phosphatidic acid (PA has been reported to activate the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR signaling pathway and is thought to enhance the anabolic effects of resistance training. The purpose of this pilot study was to examine if oral phosphatidic acid administration can enhance strength, muscle thickness and lean tissue accruement during an 8-week resistance training program. Methods Sixteen resistance-trained men were randomly assigned to a group that either consumed 750 mg of PA (n = 7, 23.1 ± 4.4 y; 176.7 ± 6.7 cm; 86.5 ± 21.2 kg or a placebo (PL, n = 9, 22.5 ± 2.0 y; 179.8 ± 5.4 cm; 89.4 ± 13.6 kg group. During each testing session subjects were assessed for strength (one repetition maximum [1-RM] bench press and squat and body composition. Muscle thickness and pennation angle were also measured in the vastus lateralis of the subject’s dominant leg. Results Subjects ingesting PA demonstrated a 12.7% increase in squat strength and a 2.6% increase in LBM, while subjects consuming PL showed a 9.3% improvement in squat strength and a 0.1% change in LBM. Although parametric analysis was unable to demonstrate significant differences, magnitude based inferences indicated that the Δ change in 1-RM squat showed a likely benefit from PA on increasing lower body strength and a very likely benefit for increasing lean body mass (LBM. Conclusions Results of this study suggest that a combination of a daily 750 mg PA ingestion, combined with a 4-day per week resistance training program for 8-weeks appears to have a likely benefit on strength improvement, and a very likely benefit on lean tissue accruement in young, resistance trained individuals.

  12. Conjugated linoleic acid reduces hepatic steatosis and restores liver triacylglycerol secretion and the fatty acid profile during protein repletion in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreoli, María F; Illesca, Paola G; González, Marcela A; Bernal, Claudio A

    2010-11-01

    Protein depletion is associated with hepatic steatosis and decreased circulating triacylglycerol (TAG). Since conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) increases lean body mass, protects against muscle catabolism, and modulates lipid metabolism, the aim of this work was to investigate the effects of CLA with two different amounts of dietary fat on the regulation of plasma and hepatic TAG concentration, and its possible connections with changes in fatty acid (FA) profile in plasma, liver and adipose tissue and hepatic oxidative status during protein repletion. Rats were fed a low protein diet (14 days) and then a protein repletion diet (30 days), supplemented or not with CLA, containing 7% (w/w) or 20% (w/w) of fat. Hepatic TAG secretion and removal by muscle and adipose tissue lipoprotein lipase, FA profile and liver oxidative status were evaluated. Protein depletion affected hepatic TAG secretion and peripheral removal, decreasing plasma and increasing liver TAG concentration, whereas protein repletion with CLA improved these abnormalities independently of the amount of dietary fat by increasing hepatic TAG secretion. This prevention in the absence of CLA was not observed. CLA was incorporated in plasma and tissues (adipose > liver > plasma, and c9,t11-CLA > t10,c12-CLA), accompanied by alterations in FA composition, mainly in adipose tissue. The hepatic oxidative stress was overcome by protein repletion. CLA had a beneficial impact on TAG metabolism in protein repleted animals, preventing hepatic steatosis through higher hepatic TAG secretion.

  13. Tranexamic acid reduces the blood loss and blood transfusion requirements following peri-acetabular osteotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassilew, G I; Perka, C; Janz, V; Krämer, M; Renner, L

    2015-12-01

    We have investigated the effect of using tranexamic acid (TXA) during peri-acetabular osteotomy (PAO) on peri-operative blood loss and blood transfusion requirements. In addition we analysed whether the use of TXA was associated with an increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) following this procedure. A consecutive series of 96 PAOs, performed by a single surgeon, were reviewed. A total of 48 patients received TXA and 48 did not. The TXA group received a continuous infusion of TXA at a rate of 10 mg/kg/h. The primary outcome measure was the requirement for blood transfusion. Secondary outcomes included total blood loss, the decrease in the level of haemoglobin in the blood, the length of hospital stay, and the complications of this treatment. The mean rate of transfusion was significantly lower in the TXA group (62.5% vs 12.5%, p transfusion after PAO significantly, without adverse effects such as an increased rate of VTE.

  14. A Thr94Ala mutation in human liver fatty acid-binding protein contributes to reduced hepatic glycogenolysis and blunted elevation of plasma glucose levels in lipid-exposed subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weickert, Martin O; Loeffelholz, Christian V; Roden, Michael; Chandramouli, Visvanathan; Brehm, Attila; Nowotny, Peter; Osterhoff, Martin A; Isken, Frank; Spranger, Jochen; Landau, Bernard R; Pfeiffer, Andreas F H; Möhlig, Matthias

    2007-10-01

    Liver fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP) is a highly conserved key factor in lipid metabolism. Amino acid replacements in L-FABP might alter its function and thereby affect glucose metabolism in lipid-exposed subjects, as indicated by studies in L-FABP knockout mice. Amino acid replacements in L-FABP were investigated in a cohort of 1,453 Caucasian subjects. Endogenous glucose production (EGP), gluconeogenesis, and glycogenolysis were measured in healthy carriers of the only common Thr(94)-to-Ala amino acid replacement (Ala/Ala(94)) vs. age-, sex-, and BMI-matched wild-type (Thr/Thr(94)) controls at baseline and after 320-min lipid/heparin-somatostatin-insulin-glucagon clamps (n = 18). Whole body glucose disposal was further investigated (subset; n = 13) using euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamps without and with lipid/heparin infusion. In the entire cohort, the only common Ala/Ala(94) mutation was significantly associated with reduced body weight, which is in agreement with a previous report. In lipid-exposed, individually matched subjects there was a genotype vs. lipid-treatment interaction for EGP (P = 0.009) driven mainly by reduced glycogenolysis in Ala/Ala(94) carriers (0.46 +/- 0.05 vs. 0.59 +/- 0.05 mgxkg(-1)xmin(-1), P = 0.013). The lipid-induced elevation of plasma glucose levels was smaller in Ala/Ala(94) carriers compared with wild types (P glycogenolysis and less severe hyperglycemia in lipid-exposed humans and was further associated with reduced body weight in a large cohort. Data clearly show that investigation of L-FABP phenotypes in the basal overnight-fasted state yielded incomplete information, and a challenge test was essential to detect phenotypical differences in glucose metabolism between L-FABP genotypes.

  15. Reduced hepatic triglyceride secretion in rats fed docosahexaenoic acid-rich fish oil suppresses postprandial hypertriglyceridemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, I; Kumamaru, J; Nakatani, N; Sakono, M; Murota, I; Imaizumi, K

    2001-04-01

    To evaluate the mechanisms of suppression of postprandial hypertriglyceridemia by fish oil rich in docosahexaenoic acid, the effect on the intestinal absorption of triglyceride, activities of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and hepatic triglyceride lipase (HTGL) and metabolism of chylomicrons (CM) and CM remnants were compared with that of safflower oil in Sprague-Dawley rats in a series of studies. The feeding of fish oil for 3 wk suppressed postprandial hypertriglyceridemia (study 1). Dietary fish oil did not alter the rate of lymphatic absorption of triglyceride (study 2). The activities of LPL and HTGL were measured at 5 h after the beginning of feeding, when serum triglyceride concentrations were highest in both dietary groups. The activities of LPL in adipose tissue and heart were greater (P fish oil (study 3). In contrast, there were no differences in the activities of LPL and HTGL in postheparin plasma between the fish and safflower oil groups (study 4). The clearance rates of CM and CM remnants were measured by injecting intravenously CM collected from rats fed safflower or fish oils with [14C]triolein and [3H]cholesterol (study 5). Dietary oil did not influence the half-lives of CM or CM remnants. The secretion of triglyceride from the liver of rats injected with Triton WR-1339 was lower (P fish oil, than those fed linoleic acid, a major component of safflower oil (study 6). These observations strongly support the hypothesis that in rats, the principal cause of the suppression of postprandial hypertriglyceridemia by fish oil is the depression of triglyceride secretion from the liver.

  16. The toc132toc120 heterozygote mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana accumulates reduced levels of hexadecatrienoic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afitlhile, Meshack; Duffield-Duncan, Kayla; Fry, Morgan; Workman, Samantha; Hum-Musser, Sue; Hildebrand, David

    2015-11-01

    A null and heterozygous mutant for the Arabidopsis thaliana TOC132 and TOC120 genes accumulates increased levels of 16:0 and decreased 16:3, suggesting altered homeostasis in fatty acid synthesis. The FAD5 gene encodes a plastid desaturase that catalyzes the first step in the synthesis of 16:3 in monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG). In non-acclimated toc132toc120+/- mutant plants, the FAD5 gene was repressed and this correlated with decreased levels of 16:3. In cold-acclimated mutant however, the FAD5 gene was upregulated and there was a small increase in 16:3 levels relative to the non-acclimated mutant plants. The MGD1 gene was expressed at control levels and the mutant accumulated levels of MGDG that were similar to the wild type. In the mutant however, MGDG had decreased 16:3 levels, suggesting that the activity of FAD5 desaturase was compromised. In the mutant, the FAD2 and FAD3 genes were downregulated but levels of 18:3-PC were increased, suggesting posttranscriptional regulation for the ER-localized fatty acid desaturases. The Toc120 or Toc159 receptor is likely to compensate for a defective Toc132 receptor. In the cold-acclimated mutant, the TOC159 gene was repressed ca. 300-fold, whereas the TOC120 gene was repressed 7-fold relative to the non-acclimated wild type. Thus, the TOC159 gene is more sensitive to cold-stress and might not compensate for defect in the TOC132 gene under these conditions. Overall, these data show that a mutation in the TOC132 gene results in decreased 16:3 levels, indicating the need for an intact Toc132/Toc120 receptor, presumably to facilitate the import of the FAD5 preprotein into chloroplasts.

  17. Fatty acids and small organic compounds bind to mineralo-organic nanoparticles derived from human body fluids as revealed by metabolomic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, Jan; Wu, Cheng-Yeu; Hung, Cheng-Yu; Wong, Tsui-Yin; Cheng, Ann-Joy; Cheng, Mei-Ling; Shiao, Ming-Shi; Young, John D

    2016-03-14

    Nanoparticles entering the human body instantly become coated with a "protein corona" that influences the effects and distribution of the particles in vivo. Yet, whether nanoparticles may bind to other organic compounds remains unclear. Here we use an untargeted metabolomic approach based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography and quadruple time-of-flight mass spectrometry to identify the organic compounds that bind to mineral nanoparticles formed in human body fluids (serum, plasma, saliva, and urine). A wide range of organic compounds is identified, including fatty acids, glycerophospholipids, amino acids, sugars, and amides. Our results reveal that, in addition to the proteins identified previously, nanoparticles harbor an "organic corona" containing several fatty acids which may affect particle-cell interactions in vivo. This study provides a platform to study the organic corona of biological and synthetic nanoparticles found in the human body.

  18. Hydrogen-Rich Water Ameliorates Total Body Irradiation-Induced Hematopoietic Stem Cell Injury by Reducing Hydroxyl Radical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junling Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined whether consumption of hydrogen-rich water (HW could ameliorate hematopoietic stem cell (HSC injury in mice with total body irradiation (TBI. The results indicated that HW alleviated TBI-induced HSC injury with respect to cell number alteration and to the self-renewal and differentiation of HSCs. HW specifically decreased hydroxyl radical (OH∙ levels in the c-kit+ cells of 4 Gy irradiated mice. Proliferative bone marrow cells (BMCs increased and apoptotic c-kit+ cells decreased in irradiated mice uptaken with HW. In addition, the mean fluorescence intensity (MFI of γ-H2AX and percentage of 8-oxoguanine positive cells significantly decreased in HW-treated c-kit+ cells, indicating that HW can alleviate TBI-induced DNA damage and oxidative DNA damage in c-kit+ cells. Finally, the cell cycle (P21, cell apoptosis (BCL-XL and BAK, and oxidative stress (NRF2, HO-1, NQO1, SOD, and GPX1 proteins were significantly altered by HW in irradiated mouse c-kit+ cells. Collectively, the present results suggest that HW protects against TBI-induced HSC injury.

  19. A quick responding quartz crystal microbalance sensor array based on molecular imprinted polyacrylic acids coating for selective identification of aldehydes in body odor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Sunil K; Hayashi, Kenshi

    2015-03-01

    In present work, a novel quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) sensor array has been developed for prompt identification of primary aldehydes in human body odor. Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIP) are prepared using the polyacrylic acid (PAA) polymer matrix and three organic acids (propenoic acid, hexanoic acid and octanoic acid) as template molecules, and utilized as QCM surface coating layer. The performance of MIP films is characterized by 4-element QCM sensor array (three coated with MIP layers and one with pure PAA for reference) dynamic and static responses to target aldehydes: hexanal, heptanal, and nonanal in single, binary, and tertiary mixtures at distinct concentrations. The target aldehydes were selected subsequent to characterization of body odor samples with solid phase-micro extraction gas chromatography mass spectrometer (SPME-GC-MS). The hexanoic acid and octanoic acid imprinted PAA exhibit fast response, and better sensitivity, selectivity and reproducibility than the propenoic acid, and non-imprinted PAA in array. The response time and recovery time for hexanoic acid imprinted PAA are obtained as 5 s and 12 s respectively to typical concentrations of binary and tertiary mixtures of aldehydes using the static response. Dynamic sensor array response matrix has been processed with principal component analysis (PCA) for visual, and support vector machine (SVM) classifier for quantitative identification of target odors. Aldehyde odors were identified successfully in principal component (PC) space. SVM classifier results maximum recognition rate 79% for three classes of binary odors and 83% including single, binary, and tertiary odor classes in 3-fold cross validation.

  20. The role of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids and prostaglandins in reducing blood pressure and improving thrombogenic indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacono, J M; Dougherty, R M

    1983-01-01

    Evidence linking dietary fats to blood pressure and thrombogenic indices is reviewed. Results of dietary studies performed at Beltsville, Maryland, have demonstrated that under controlled dietary conditions, i.e., when total fat intake is maintained at 25% fat calories with a P/S ratio of 1, at either a fixed or free-choice salt intake and where the body weight is maintained relatively constant, blood pressure can be lowered and platelet aggregation indices can be improved in men and women in the 40-60 age group. Results of a pilot epidemiologic study of farmers aged 40-45 in Finland and Italy generally confirm the experimental nutrition studies reported above. A possible explanation of these results based on the conversion of linoleic acid to prostaglandins as well as the physiological actions of prostaglandins is discussed.

  1. Tranexamic acid reduces blood loss during and after cesarean section:A double blinded, randomized, controlled trial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amr H Yehia; Magdy H Koleib; Ibrahim A Abdelazim; Ahmed Atik

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the efficacy of tranexamic acid in reduction of blood loss during and after cesarean section.Methods:Women included in the current double blinded, randomized, controlled trial were recruited from women attending for elective cesarean section and randomized into two groups; study group: received tranexamic acid with induction of anesthesia plus10IU of oxytocin injection after delivery of the baby.Control group: received only oxytocin 10IU injection after delivery of the baby.Results:Twenty four hours post-operative hemoglobin level was significantly higher in study group(11.2±1.5 mg/dL) compared to control(9.6±1.2 mg/dL), also24 hours post-operative hematocrit was significantly higher in study group(30.2±6.6) compared to control(29.2±2.8).Calculated total blood loss from placental delivery till end of cesarean section was significantly less in study group compared to control(369.5±198.0 versus606.8±193.0 mL; respectively), also, calculated vaginal bleeding during first6 hours post-operative was significantly less in study group compared to control(85.0±30.7 mL versus130.8±49.3 mL, respectively).The incidence of post-partum hemorrhage was significantly less in study group compared to control(31.1% versus63.2%; respectively), also the need for iron replacement therapy was significantly less frequent in study group compared to control(0.9% versus6.6%, respectively). Conclusions:Tranexamic acid can be used safely to reduce blood loss during cesarean section. Reduced blood loss after tranexamic acid was associated with improvement of post-operative hemoglobin, hematocrit and with reduction of post-partum need for iron replacement.

  2. Climate warming is predicted to reduce omega-3, long-chain, polyunsaturated fatty acid production in phytoplankton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hixson, Stefanie M; Arts, Michael T

    2016-08-01

    Phytoplankton are the main source of energy and omega-3 (n-3) long-chain essential fatty acids (EFA) in aquatic ecosystems. Their growth and biochemical composition are affected by surrounding environmental conditions, including temperature, which continues to increase as a result of climate warming. Increasing water temperatures may negatively impact the production of EFA by phytoplankton through the process of homeoviscous adaptation. To investigate this, we conducted an exploratory data synthesis with 952 fatty acid (FA) profiles from six major groups of marine and freshwater phytoplankton. Temperature was strongly correlated with a decrease in the proportion of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated FA (LC-PUFA) and an increase in omega-6 FA and saturated FA. Based on linear regression models, we predict that global n-3 LC-PUFA production will be reduced by 8.2% for eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and 27.8% for docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) with an increase in water temperature of 2.5 °C. Using a previously published estimate of the global production of EPA by diatoms, which contribute to most of the world's supply of EPA, we predict a loss of 14.2 Mt of EPA annually as a result of ocean warming. The n-3 LC-PUFA are vitally important for an array of key physiological functions in aquatic and terrestrial organisms, and these FA are mainly produced by phytoplankton. Therefore, reduced production of these EFA, as a consequence of climate warming, is predicted to negatively affect species that depend on these compounds for optimum physiological function. Such profound changes in the biochemical composition of phytoplankton cell membranes can lead to cascading effects throughout the world's ecosystems.

  3. Mutations in γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transaminase genes in plants or Pseudomonas syringae reduce bacterial virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Duck Hwan; Mirabella, Rossana; Bronstein, Philip A; Preston, Gail M; Haring, Michel A; Lim, Chun Keun; Collmer, Alan; Schuurink, Robert C

    2010-10-01

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 is a bacterial pathogen of Arabidopsis and tomato that grows in the apoplast. The non-protein amino acid γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) is produced by Arabidopsis and tomato and is the most abundant amino acid in the apoplastic fluid of tomato. The DC3000 genome harbors three genes annotated as gabT GABA transaminases. A DC3000 mutant lacking all three gabT genes was constructed and found to be unable to utilize GABA as a sole carbon and nitrogen source. In complete minimal media supplemented with GABA, the mutant grew less well than wild-type DC3000 and showed strongly reduced expression of hrpL and avrPto, which encode an alternative sigma factor and effector, respectively, associated with the type III secretion system. The growth of the gabT triple mutant was weakly reduced in Arabidopsis ecotype Landberg erecta (Ler) and strongly reduced in the Ler pop2-1 GABA transaminase-deficient mutant that accumulates higher levels of GABA. Much of the ability to grow on GABA-amended minimal media or in Arabidopsis pop2-1 leaves could be restored to the gabT triple mutant by expression in trans of just gabT2. The ability of DC3000 to elicit the hypersensitive response (HR) in tobacco leaves is dependent upon deployment of the type III secretion system, and the gabT triple mutant was less able than wild-type DC3000 to elicit this HR when bacteria were infiltrated along with GABA at levels of 1 mm or more. GABA may have multiple effects on P. syringae-plant interactions, with elevated levels increasing disease resistance.

  4. A conjugated linoleic acid (CLA supplement containing trans-10, cis-12 CLA reduces milk fat synthesis in lactating goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Bauman

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of a lipid-encapsulated trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid supplement (LE-CLA on milk production and milk fatty acid (FA profile was investigated. Thirty multiparous Alpine lactating goats (50 ± 7.4 kg in late lactation were used in a 3 × 3 Latin square design. Does were fed a diet of bermudagrass hay, dehydrated alfalfa pellets, and concentrate. Does were randomly allocated to three treatments; A unsupplemented (Control, B supplemented with 30 g/d LE-CLA (low-dose; LLE, and C supplemented with 60 g/d LE-CLA (high-dose; HLE. Milk yield, DMI, and milk protein content and yield were unaffected by treatment (P > 0.05. Compared with Control, milk fat yield was reduced 8.1% by the LLE treatment and 21.2% by the HLE treatment (P < 0.001, with milk fat content reduced 4.8 and 17.6% by the LLE and HLE treatments, respectively (P < 0.001. Milk fat content of trans-10, cis-12 CLA was 0.03, 0.09 and 0.19 g/100 g of fatty acids for the Control, LLE and HLE treatments, respectively. The transfer efficiency of trans-10, cis-12 CLA from the two levels of CLA supplement into milk fat was not different between treatments and averaged 1.85%. In conclusion, trans-10, cis- 12 CLA reduced milk fat synthesis in lactating goats in a manner similar to that observed for lactating dairy cows and sheep. However, dose-response comparisons suggest that the degree of reduction in milk fat synthesis is less in goats compared with sheep and dairy cows.

  5. Enhanced anabolic response to milk protein sip feeding in elderly subjects with COPD is associated with a reduced splanchnic extraction of multiple amino acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelen, MPKJ; De Castro, CLN; Rutten, EPA; Wouters, EFM; Schols, AMWJ; Deutz, NEP

    2012-01-01

    Background & Aims We previously observed in elderly subjects with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) an enhanced anabolic response to milk protein sip feeding, associated with reduced splanchnic extraction (SPE) of phenylalanine. Milk proteins are known for their high Branched-chain Amino Acids (BCAA) content, but no information is present about splanchnic extraction and metabolism of the individual BCAA in COPD. Objective To investigate whether BCAA metabolism and SPE of the individual BCAA are altered in COPD during milk protein sip feeding. Design In elderly subjects with COPD and in healthy age-matched elderly SPE, endogenous rate of appearance (Raendo) of the leucine (LEU), isoleucine (ILE) and valine (VAL) were measured before and during sip feeding of a Whey protein meal. To study the effect of aging, the healthy elderly were compared to a group of healthy young subjects. Stable isotopes of L-[2H3]-LEU, L-[1-13C]-ILE and L-[1-13C]-VAL were given on two separate test days orally or intravenously. Simultaneously, L-[ring-2H5]-phenylalanine (PHE) and L-[ring-2H2]-tyrosine (TYR) were given to determine the whole body protein breakdown (WbPB), synthesis (WbPS) and NetPS. Results SPE of all BCAA, TYR, and PHE (p<0.01) were lower in the COPD group, and the increase in netPS during feeding was higher in the COPD group (P<0.01) due to higher values for PS (P<0.001). Raendo of all BCAA, PHE and TYR were higher in the COPD than the healthy elderly group (P<0.05) before and during feeding (P<0.001). Sip feeding resulted in a reduction of Raendo of PHE, ILE and VAL (P<0.05). Postabsorptive Raendo was not different for any of the measured amino acids between the healthy elderly and young group, while sip feeding resulted in a reduction of Raendo of PHE. Only SPE of TYR was higher in the elderly (P<0.05) and the increase in netPS during sip feeding was independent of aging. Conclusion The enhanced anabolic response to milk protein sip feeding in normal

  6. Reduced risk of Parkinson's disease associated with lower body mass index and heavy leisure-time physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sääksjärvi, Katri; Knekt, Paul; Männistö, Satu; Lyytinen, Jukka; Jääskeläinen, Tuija; Kanerva, Noora; Heliövaara, Markku

    2014-04-01

    The risk factors for Parkinson's disease (PD) are not well established. We therefore examined the prediction of various lifestyle factors on the incidence of PD in a cohort drawn from the Finnish Mobile Clinic Health Examination Survey, conducted in 1973-1976. The study population comprised 6,715 men and women aged 50-79 years and free of PD at the baseline. All of the subjects completed a baseline health examination (including height and weight measurements) and a questionnaire providing information on leisure-time physical activity, smoking, and alcohol consumption. During a 22-year follow-up, 101 incident cases of PD occurred. The statistical analyses were based on Cox's model including age, sex, education, community density, occupation, coffee consumption, body mass index (BMI), leisure-time physical activity, smoking and alcohol consumption as independent variables. At first, BMI was not associated with PD risk, but after exclusion of the first 15 years of follow-up, an elevated risk appeared at higher BMI levels (P for trend 0.02). Furthermore, subjects with heavy leisure-time physical activity had a lower PD risk than those with no activity [relative risk (RR) 0.27, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.08-0.90]. In variance with findings for other chronic diseases, current smokers had a lower PD risk than those who had never smoked (RR 0.23, 95 % CI 0.08-0.67), and individuals with moderate alcohol intake (at the level of Parkinson's disease, but more research is needed.

  7. A Modified method for reducing renal injury in zoledronic acid treatment of hypercalcemia and adverse skeletal events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: In this paper, we have reported a previously undescribed risk factor of deterioration of renal function in zoledronic acid treatment of skeletal metastasis - high serum calcium level. Based on this consideration, a modified method of treatment of hypercalcemia (HCM with zoledronic acid is suggested in this paper. Material and Methods: Bone scan findings of 1090 cancer patients were analyzed, of which 26 had intense renal parenchymal uptake as a result of HCM or bone metastases. Subsequently, a total of 56 bone metastases patients with zoledronic acid treatment were divided into three groups: HCM group who were pre-treated to normal serum calcium level (13 patients, HCM group (19 patients, and normal serum calcium group (24 patients. Results: More patients with intense renal parenchymal uptake were hyperglycemic, statistically significantly (18/26 versus 19/1064, P = 2.1, E-78. No more patients with intense renal parenchymal uptake were associated with bone metastases (14/26 versus 438/1064, P = 0.20. Subsequently, more HCM patients receiving zoledronic acid treatment showed renal injury compared to patients with normal serum calcium level (5/15 versus 2/24, P < 0.05 and HCM patients with pre-treatment to normal serum calcium level (5/15 versus 1/17, P < 0.05. Conclusions: Intense renal parenchymal uptake of bisphosphonates is closely related to HCM rather than to bone metastases in cancer patients. The serum calcium should be measured and reduced to normal level before zoledronic acid is used in managements of adverse skeletal events in order to decrease the risk of renal injury.

  8. Differential vulnerability of substantia nigra and corpus striatum to oxidative insult induced by reduced dietary levels of essential fatty acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henriqueta Dias Cardoso

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress (OS has been implicated in the etiology of certain neurodegenerative disorders. Some of these disorders have been associated with unbalanced levels of essential fatty acids (EFA. The response of certain brain regions to OS, however, is not uniform and a selective vulnerability or resilience can occur. In our previous study on rat brains, we observed that a two-generation EFA dietary restriction reduced the number and size of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (SN rostro-dorso-medial. To understand whether OS contributes to this effect, we assessed the status of lipid peroxidation and anti-oxidant markers in both SN and corpus striatum (CS of rats submitted to this dietary treatment for one (F1 or two (F2 generations. Wistar rats were raised from conception on control or experimental diets containing adequate or reduced levels of linoleic and α-linolenic fatty acids, respectively. Lipid peroxidation (LP was measured using the thiobarbituric acid reaction method (TBARS and the total superoxide dismutase (t-SOD and catalase (CAT enzymatic activities were assessed. The experimental diet significantly reduced the docosahexaenoic acid levels of SN phospholipids in the F1 (~28% and F2 (~50% groups. In F1 adult animals of the experimental group there was no LP in both SN and CS. Consistently, there was a significant increase in the t-SOD activity (p<0.01 in both regions. In EF2 young animals, degeneration in dopaminergic and non-dopaminergic neurons and a significant increase in LP (p<0.01 and decrease in the CAT activity (p<0.001 were detected in the SN, while no inter-group difference was found for these parameters in the CS. Conversely, a significant increase in t-SOD activity (p<0.05 was detected in the CS of the experimental group compared to the control. The results show that unbalanced EFA dietary levels reduce the redox balance in the SN and reveal mechanisms of resilience in the CS under this stressful condition.

  9. iDNA-Prot|dis: identifying DNA-binding proteins by incorporating amino acid distance-pairs and reduced alphabet profile into the general pseudo amino acid composition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Liu

    Full Text Available Playing crucial roles in various cellular processes, such as recognition of specific nucleotide sequences, regulation of transcription, and regulation of gene expression, DNA-binding proteins are essential ingredients for both eukaryotic and prokaryotic proteomes. With the avalanche of protein sequences generated in the postgenomic age, it is a critical challenge to develop automated methods for accurate and rapidly identifying DNA-binding proteins based on their sequence information alone. Here, a novel predictor, called "iDNA-Prot|dis", was established by incorporating the amino acid distance-pair coupling information and the amino acid reduced alphabet profile into the general pseudo amino acid composition (PseAAC vector. The former can capture the characteristics of DNA-binding proteins so as to enhance its prediction quality, while the latter can reduce the dimension of PseAAC vector so as to speed up its prediction process. It was observed by the rigorous jackknife and independent dataset tests that the new predictor outperformed the existing predictors for the same purpose. As a user-friendly web-server, iDNA-Prot|dis is accessible to the public at http://bioinformatics.hitsz.edu.cn/iDNA-Prot_dis/. Moreover, for the convenience of the vast majority of experimental scientists, a step-by-step protocol guide is provided on how to use the web-server to get their desired results without the need to follow the complicated mathematic equations that are presented in this paper just for the integrity of its developing process. It is anticipated that the iDNA-Prot|dis predictor may become a useful high throughput tool for large-scale analysis of DNA-binding proteins, or at the very least, play a complementary role to the existing predictors in this regard.

  10. Inhibition of fatty acid synthase by amentoflavone reduces coxsackievirus B3 replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilsky, Steffi; Sobotta, Katharina; Wiesener, Nadine; Pilas, Johanna; Althof, Nadine; Munder, Thomas; Wutzler, Peter; Henke, Andreas

    2012-02-01

    Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) is a human pathogen that causes acute and chronic infections, but an antiviral drug to treat these diseases has not yet been developed for clinical use. Several intracellular pathways are altered to assist viral transcription, RNA replication, and progeny release. Among these, fatty acid synthase (FAS) expression is increased. In order to test the potential of FAS inhibition as an anti-CVB3 strategy, several experiments were performed, including studies on the correlation of CVB3 replication and FAS expression in human Raji cells and an analysis of the time and dose dependence of the antiviral effect of FAS inhibition due to treatment with amentoflavone. The results demonstrate that CVB3 infection induces an up-regulation of FAS expression already at 1 h postinfection (p.i.). Incubation with increasing concentrations of amentoflavone inhibited CVB3 replication significantly up to 8 h p.i. In addition, suppression of p38 MAP kinase activity by treatment with SB239063 decreased FAS expression as well as viral replication. These data provide evidence that FAS inhibition via amentoflavone administration might present a target for anti-CVB3 therapy.

  11. Optimizing Techology to Reduce Mercury and Acid Gas Emissions from Electric Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffrey C. Quick; David E. Tabet; Sharon Wakefield; Roger L. Bon

    2004-01-31

    More than 56,000 coal quality data records from five public data sets have been selected for use in this project. These data will be used to create maps showing where coals with low mercury and acid-gas emissions might be found for power plants classified by air-pollution controls. Average coal quality values, calculated for 51,156 commercial coals by U.S. county-of-origin, are listed in the appendix. Coal moisture values are calculated for commercially shipped coal from 163 U.S. counties, where the raw assay data (including mercury and chlorine values) are reported on a dry basis. The calculated moisture values are verified by comparison with observed moisture values in commercial coal. Moisture in commercial U.S. coal shows provincial variation. For example, high volatile C bituminous rank coal from the Interior province has 3% to 4% more moisture than equivalent Rocky Mountain province coal. Mott-Spooner difference values are calculated for 4,957 data records for coals collected from coal mines and exploration drill holes. About 90% of the records have Mott-Spooner difference values within {+-}250 Btu/lb.

  12. Mechanically stable thermally crosslinked poly(acrylic acid)/reduced graphene oxide aerogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Heonjoo; Shanmuganathan, Kadhiravan; Ellison, Christopher J

    2015-03-25

    Graphene oxide (GO) aerogels, high porosity (>99%) low density (∼3-10 mg cm(-3)) porous materials with GO pore walls, are particularly attractive due to their lightweight, high surface area, and potential use in environmental remediation, superhydrophobic and superoleophilic materials, energy storage, etc. However, pure GO aerogels are generally weak and delicate which complicates their handling and potentially limits their commercial implementation. The focus of this work was to synthesize highly elastic, mechanically stable aerogels that are robust and easy to handle without substantially sacrificing their high porosity or low density. To overcome this challenge, a small amount of readily available and thermally cross-linkable poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) was intermixed with GO to enhance the mechanical integrity of the aerogel without disrupting other desirable characteristic properties. This method is a simple straightforward procedure that does not include multistep or complicated chemical reactions, and it produces aerogels with mass densities of about 4-6 mg cm(-3) and >99.6% porosity that can reversibly support up to 10,000 times their weight with full recovery of their original volume. Finally, pressure sensing capabilities were demonstrated and their oil absorption capacities were measured to be around 120 g oil per g aerogel(-1) which highlights their potential use in practical applications.

  13. Krill protein hydrolysate reduces plasma triacylglycerol level with concurrent increase in plasma bile acid level and hepatic fatty acid catabolism in high-fat fed mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie S. Ramsvik

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Krill powder, consisting of both lipids and proteins, has been reported to modulate hepatic lipid catabolism in animals. Fish protein hydrolysate diets have also been reported to affect lipid metabolism and to elevate bile acid (BA level in plasma. BA interacts with a number of nuclear receptors and thus affects a variety of signaling pathways, including very low density lipoprotein (VLDL secretion. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether a krill protein hydrolysate (KPH could affect lipid and BA metabolism in mice. Method: C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat (21%, w/w diet containing 20% crude protein (w/w as casein (control group or KPH for 6 weeks. Lipids and fatty acid composition were measured from plasma, enzyme activity and gene expression were analyzed from liver samples, and BA was measured from plasma. Results: The effect of dietary treatment with KPH resulted in reduced levels of plasma triacylglycerols (TAG and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs. The KPH treated mice had also a marked increased plasma BA concentration. The increased plasma BA level was associated with induction of genes related to membrane canalicular exporter proteins (Abcc2, Abcb4 and to BA exporters to blood (Abcc3 and Abcc4. Of note, we observed a 2-fold increased nuclear farnesoid X receptor (Fxr mRNA levels in the liver of mice fed KPH. We also observed increased activity of the nuclear peroxiosme proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα target gene carnitine plamitoyltransferase 2 (CPT-2. Conclusion: The KPH diet showed to influence lipid and BA metabolism in high-fat fed mice. Moreover, increased mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation and elevation of BA concentration may regulate the plasma level of TAGs and NEFAs.

  14. Acute oral administration of lauric acid reduces energy intake in healthy male

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feltrin, K. L.; Brennan, I.M.; Rades, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    12 would result in a dose-related suppression of appetite and subsequent energy intake at breakfast and lunch. Methods 14 healthy men were studied on four separate occasions in double-blind, randomised fashion. Following ingestion of C12 (2 g (77 kJ), 4 g (153 kJ), or 6 g (230 kJ)) or control, energy...... intake at breakfast (30 min after C12 ingestion), perceptions of appetite, nausea and bloating (for 180 min following breakfast), and energy intake at lunch (180 min after breakfast), were measured. Results C12 ingestion did not induce nausea or bloating. While there was no effect of C12 on energy intake...... at breakfast, energy intake at lunch was reduced significantly after ingestion of both C12(2 g) (by 13.7%, P

  15. Losartan Reduces Trinitrobenzene Sulphonic Acid-Induced Colorectal Fibrosis in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dov Wengrower

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal fibrosis – a chronic and progressive process mediated by several factors – occurs in several fibrostenosing enteropathies, but most frequently in patients with Crohn’s disease (CD. Despite the advances made in the understanding of CD and its management over the past 20 years, surgical intervention remains the only treatment strategy for patients with fibrostenosing CD. The results of several studies, however, have suggested that fibrosis may be a reversible and/or preventable phenomenon. Following an overview summarizing the contemporary knowledge regarding the cellular, cytokine and growth factor interactions that contribute to inflammation and the progression of fibrosis, this article describes an experimental animal model of colitis resembling human CD, which the authors used to investigate whether losartan, an angiotensin II receptor antagonist, could be used as a prophylactic agent to reduce the risk of intestinal fibrosis and strictures in patients with CD.

  16. Optimizing Technology to Reduce Mercury and Acid Gas Emissions from Electric Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffrey C. Quick; David E. Tabet; Sharon Wakefield; Roger L. Bon

    2005-01-31

    Revised maps and associated data show potential mercury, sulfur, and chlorine emissions for U.S. coal by county of origin. Existing coal mining and coal washing practices result in a 25% reduction of mercury in U.S. coal before it is delivered to the power plant. Selection of low-mercury coal is a good mercury control option for plants having hot-side ESP, cold-side ESP, or hot-side ESP/FGD emission controls. Chlorine content is more important for plants having cold-side ESP/FGD or SDA/FF controls; optimum net mercury capture is indicated where chlorine is between 500 and 1000 ppm. Selection of low-sulfur coal should improve mercury capture where carbon in fly ash is used to reduce mercury emissions.

  17. Tranexamic acid reduces perioperative blood loss of posterior lumbar surgery for stenosis or spondylolisthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Houyin; Ou, Yunsheng; Jiang, Dianming; Quan, Zhengxue; Zhao, Zenghui; Zhu, Yong

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: A prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was performed. The routine usage of TA in spinal surgery is controversial. Only a few studies have focused on patients undergoing posterior lumbar surgery for stenosis or spondylolisthesis, although a large clinical cohort exists in the population. This study aimed to evaluate the effect and safety of TA in reducing perioperative blood loss in posterior lumbar surgery for stenosis or spondylolisthesis. Methods: 100 eligible patients out of 126 were randomized to receive either a bolus dose of 30 mg/kg TA i.v, a maintenance dosage of 2 mg/kg/h TA, or an equivalent volume of normal saline. The pedicle screw system was used for fixing in all the patients, followed by decompression and posterior lumbar interbody fusion. The primary outcomes were intraoperative estimated blood loss and total blood loss. The secondary outcomes were receiving packed red blood cells and postoperative hemoglobin and hematocrit levels. Results: In total, 4 patients were excluded from the analyses, 50 patients were in the TA group, and 46 in the placebo group. The demographic and baseline data between the groups were not statistically different. The intraoperative estimated blood loss and the total blood loss were 33% and 41% lower in the TA group than the placebo group, respectively. The blood transfusion rate did not vary significantly (P = 0.191). Except a patient with a dural tear in the placebo group, no other complications were observed. Conclusion: TA significantly reduced the perioperative blood loss in patients undergoing posterior lumbar surgery for stenosis or spondylolisthesis. PMID:28072709

  18. Pleiotropic effects of a disrupted K+ channel gene: Reduced body weight, impaired motor skill and muscle contraction, but no seizures

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, Chi Shun; Grange, Robert W.; Joho, Rolf H.

    1997-01-01

    To investigate the roles of K+ channels in the regulation and fine-tuning of cellular excitability, we generated a mutant mouse carrying a disrupted gene for the fast activating, voltage-gated K+ channel Kv3.1. Kv3.1−/− mice are viable and fertile but have significantly reduced body weights compared with their Kv3.1+/− littermates. Wild-type, heterozygous, and homozygous Kv3.1 channel-deficient mice exhibit similar spontaneous locomotor and exploratory activity. In a test for coordinated moto...

  19. Valproic acid reduces the tolerability of temsirolimus in children and adolescents with solid tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulter, Don W; Walko, Christine; Patel, Jai; Moats-Staats, Billie M; McFadden, Andrew; Smith, Scott V; Khan, Wasiuddin A; Bridges, Arlene S; Deal, Allison M; Oesterheld, Javier; Davis, Ian J; Blatt, Julie

    2013-04-01

    A pediatric study has established a maximum tolerated dose (MTD) for temsirolimus (Tem) of more than 150 mg/m intravenously/week. A phase I trial was conducted to establish the MTD for Tem in combination with valproic acid (VPA) in children and adolescents with refractory solid tumors. The secondary aims included expression of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) markers on archival tumor tissue; Tem pharmacokinetics; assessment of histone acetylation (HA); and tumor response. Patients were treated with VPA (5 mg/kg orally three times daily) with a target serum level of 75-100 mcg/ml. Tem was started at an initial dose of 60 mg/m/week. Pharmacokinetics and HA measurements were performed during weeks 1 and 5. Two of the first three patients experienced dose-limiting toxicity (grade 3 mucositis). Tem at 35 mg/m/week was found to be tolerable. Peak Tem concentrations were higher in all patients compared with those in previously published reports of single agent Tem. Increases in HA are correlated with VPA levels. All tumor samples expressed mTORC1 and mTORC2. An objective response was observed in one patient (melanoma), whereas transient stable disease was observed in four other patients (spinal cord ependymoma, alveolar soft part sarcoma, medullary thyroid carcinoma, and hepatocellular carcinoma). The MTD of Tem when administered with VPA is considerably lower than when used as a single agent, with mucositis the major dose-limiting toxicity. The combination merits further study and may have activity in melanoma. Attention to drug-drug interactions will be important in future multiagent trials including Tem.

  20. Awareness of folic acid use increases its consumption, and reduces the risk of spina bifida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Atsuo; Morota, Nobuhito; Date, Hiroaki; Yoshifuji, Kazuhisa; Morishima, Toshibumi; Miyazato, Minoru; Shirane, Reizo; Sakai, Hideki; Pooh, Kyong Hon; Watanabe, Tomoyuki

    2015-07-14

    The majority of neural tube defects were believed to be folic acid (FA)-preventable in the 1990s. The Japanese government recommended women planning pregnancy to take FA supplements of 400 μg/d in 2000, but the incidence of spina bifida has not decreased. We aimed to evaluate the OR of having an infant with spina bifida for women who periconceptionally took FA supplements and the association between an increase in supplement use and possible promoters for the increase. This is a case-control study which used 360 case women who gave birth to newborns afflicted with spina bifida, and 2333 control women who gave birth to healthy newborns during the first 12 years of this century. They were divided into two 6-year periods; from 2001 to 2006 and from 2007 to 2012. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to compute OR between cases and controls. The adjusted OR of having an infant with spina bifida for supplement users was 0.48 in the first period, and 0.53 in the second period. The proportion of women who periconceptionally consumed supplements significantly increased from 10 % in the first period to 30 % in the second period. Awareness of the preventive role of FA was a promoter for an increase in supplement use, and thus an FA campaign in high school seems rational and effective. The failure of the current public health policy is responsible for an epidemic of spina bifida. Mandatory food fortification with FA is urgent and long overdue in Japan.

  1. Antibiotics suppress Cyp3a in the mouse liver by reducing lithocholic acid-producing intestinal flora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toda, Takahiro; Ohi, Kanna; Kudo, Toshiyuki; Yoshida, Tomoyuki; Ikarashi, Nobutomo; Ito, Kiyomi; Sugiyama, Kiyoshi

    2009-05-01

    We previously demonstrated that ciprofloxacin (CPX), a new quinolone antibiotic, suppresses Cyp3a in the mouse liver by reducing the hepatic level of lithocholic acid (LCA) produced by intestinal flora. The present study investigated the possibility that other antibiotics with antibacterial activity against LCA-producing bacteria also cause a decrease in the LCA level in the liver, leading to reduced expression of Cyp3a11. While the mRNA expression of Cyp3a11 in the liver was significantly reduced when SPF mice were administered antibiotics such as ampicillin, CPX, levofloxacin, or a combination of vancomycin and imipenem, no significant changes were observed after antibiotic treatment of GF mice lacking intestinal flora. LCA-producing bacteria in the feces as well as the hepatic level of the taurine conjugate of LCA were significantly reduced in the antibiotic-treated SPF mice, suggesting that the decrease in Cyp3a11 expression can be attributed to the reduction in LCA-producing intestinal flora following antibiotic administration. These results suggest that the administration of antibiotics with activity against LCA-producing bacteria can also cause a decrease in the LCA level in humans, which may lower CYP3A4 expression. The intestinal flora are reported to be altered not only by drugs, such as antibiotics, but also by stress, disease, and age. The findings of the present study suggest that these changes in intestinal flora could modify CYP expression and contribute to the individual differences in pharmacokinetics.

  2. Reactivity of partially reduced arylhydroxylamine and nitrosoarene metabolites of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) toward biomass and humic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Farrukh; Hughes, Joseph B

    2002-10-15

    Sequential anaerobic/aerobic treatment of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) generally results in the incorporation of residues into biomass and natural organic matter fractions of a system. To better understand the potential contribution of hydroxylamine and nitroso moieties in these reactions, studies were conducted using model systems taking advantage of the biocatalytic-activity of Clostridium acetobutylicum that does not produce aminated TNT derivatives. To evaluate binding to biomass only, systems containing cell-free extracts of C. acetobutylicum and molecular hydrogen as a reductant were employed. At the end of treatment, mass balance studies showed that 10% of the total 14C was associated with an insoluble protein-containing precipitate that could not be extracted with organic solvents. Model reactions were conducted between a mixture of 2,4-dihydroxylamino-6-nitrotoluene (DHA6NT) and 4-hydroxylamino-2,6-dinitrotoluene (4HADNT) and 1-thioglycerol to test the involvement of the nitroso-thiol reaction in binding to biomass. It was demonstrated that DHA6NT formed a new and relatively polar product with 1-thioglycerol only in the presence of oxygen. The oxygen requirement confirmed that the nitroso functionality was responsible for the binding reaction. The reactivity of arylhydroxylamino and nitrosoarene functionalities toward International Humic Substance Society (IHSS) peat humic acid was evaluated under anaerobic and aerobic conditions, respectively. 4HADNT showed no appreciable reactivity toward peat humic acid. Conversely, the nitrosoarene compound, nitrosobenzene, showed rapid reactivity with peat humic acid (50% removal in 48 h). When tested with two other humic acids (selected on the basis of their protein content), it became apparent that the proteinaceous fraction was responsible at least in part for the nitrosoarene's removal from solution. Furthermore, the pretreatment of the humic acids with a selective thiol derivatizing agent had a considerable effect

  3. Relative Humidity of 40% Inhibiting the Increase of Pulse Rate, Body Temperature, and Blood Lactic Acid During Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nengah Sandi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Excessive sweating of the body is a reaction to decrease the heat caused by prolonged exercise at high relative humidity (RH. This situation may cause an increase in pulse rate (PR, body temperature (BT, and blood lactic acid (BLA workout. Objective: This study aimed to prove that a RH of 40% better than a RH of 50% and 60% RH in inhibiting the increase of PR, BT, and BLA during exercise. Methods: The study was conducted on 54 samples randomly selected from the IKIP PGRI Bali students. The samples were divided into three groups, and each group was given cycling exercise with a load of 80 Watt for 2 x 30 minutes with rest between sets for five minutes. Group-1 of cycling at 40% of RH, Group-2 at a RH of 50%, and the Group-3 at a RH of 60%. Data PR, BT, and BLA taken before and during exercise. The mean difference between groups before and during exercise were analyzed by One-way Anova and a further test used Least Significant Difference (LSD. Significance used was α = 0.05. Results: The mean of PR during exercise was significantly different between groups with p = 0.045, the mean of BT during exercises was significantly different between groups with p = 0.006, and the mean of BLA during exercises was significantly different between groups with p = 0.005 (p <0.05. Also found that PR, BT, and BLA during exercise at 40% RH was lower than 50% RH and 60% RH (p <0.05. Conclusion: Thus, the RH of 40% was better than RH of 50% and 60 % in inhibiting the increase of PR, BT, and BLA during exercise. Therefore, when practiced in a closed room is expected at 40% relative humidity.

  4. Effect of high-dose growth hormone and glutamine on body composition, urine creatinine excretion, fatty acid absorption, and essential fatty acids status in short bowel patients - A randomized, double-blind, crossover, placebo-controlled study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, P.B.; Szkudlarek, J.; Høy, Carl-Erik;

    2001-01-01

    Background: Positive effects of high dose growth hormone and glutamine (GH+GLN) on body composition in short bowel patients have been described. Lack of effects on intestinal absorption found in some studies has been ascribed to concomitant essential fatty acid (EFA) deficiency. This study...... describes changes in body weight (BW) and composition, 24-h urine creatinine excretion, intestinal fatty acid absorption (total, saturated, unsaturated and EFA), and EFA status in relation to treatment with GH+GLN in s short bowel patients. Methods: A double-blind, crossover study between placebo and growth...... hormone (mean, 0.12 mg/kg/day) plus oral (mean, 28 g/day) and parenteral glutamine (mean, 5.28/day) for 28 days. Body composition was measured by dual-energy absorptiometry (DEXA) scans. intestinal fatty acid absorption was evaluated in balance studies, and EFAs were measured in plasma phospholipids...

  5. Acute oral administration of a tyrosine and phenylalanine-free amino acid mixture reduces exercise capacity in the heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumilty, Les; Davison, Glen; Beckmann, Manfred; Thatcher, Rhys

    2013-06-01

    Acute tyrosine administration is associated with increased exercise capacity in the heat. To explore whether reduced plasma tyrosine and phenylalanine (tyrosine precursor) is associated with impaired exercise capacity in the heat, eight healthy, moderately trained male volunteers, unacclimated to exercise in the heat, performed two tests in a crossover design separated by at least 7 days. In a randomised, double-blind fashion, subjects ingested 500 mL flavoured, sugar-free water containing amino acids [(TYR-free; isoleucine 15 g, leucine 22.5 g, valine 17.5 g, lysine 17.5 g, methionine 5 g, threonine 10 g, tryptophan 2.5 g)] to lower the ratio of plasma tyrosine plus phenylalanine:amino acids competing for blood-brain barrier uptake (CAA), a key determinant of brain uptake, or a balanced mixture (BAL; TYR-free plus 12.5 g tyrosine and 12.5 g phenylalanine). One hour later, subjects cycled to exhaustion at 63 ± 5 % [Formula: see text]O2peak in 30 °C and 60 % relative humidity. Pre-exercise ratio of plasma tyrosine plus phenylalanine:ΣCAA declined 75 ± 5 % from rest in TYR-free (P 0.05) and thermal sensation (P > 0.05) were similar at exhaustion in both trials. These data indicate that acutely depleting plasma catecholamine precursors:ΣCAA is associated with reduced submaximal exercise capacity in the heat.

  6. Antagonizing arachidonic acid-derived eicosanoids reduces inflammatory Th17 and Th1 cell-mediated inflammation and colitis severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monk, Jennifer M; Turk, Harmony F; Fan, Yang-Yi; Callaway, Evelyn; Weeks, Brad; Yang, Peiying; McMurray, David N; Chapkin, Robert S

    2014-01-01

    During colitis, activation of two inflammatory T cell subsets, Th17 and Th1 cells, promotes ongoing intestinal inflammatory responses. n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid- (PUFA-) derived eicosanoids, such as prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), promote Th17 cell-mediated inflammation, while n-3 PUFA antagonize both Th17 and Th1 cells and suppress PGE2 levels. We utilized two genetic mouse models, which differentially antagonize PGE2 levels, to examine the effect on Th17 cells and disease outcomes in trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid- (TNBS-) induced colitis. Fat-1 mice contain the ω3 desaturase gene from C. elegans and synthesize n-3 PUFA de novo, thereby reducing the biosynthesis of n-6 PUFA-derived eicosanoids. In contrast, Fads1 Null mice contain a disrupted Δ5 desaturase gene and produce lower levels of n-6 PUFA-derived eicosanoids. Compared to Wt littermates, Fat-1 and Fads1 Null mice exhibited a similar colitic phenotype characterized by reduced colonic mucosal inflammatory eicosanoid levels and mRNA expression of Th17 cell markers (IL-17A, RORγτ, and IL-23), decreased percentages of Th17 cells and, improved colon injury scores (P ≤ 0.05). Thus, during colitis, similar outcomes were obtained in two genetically distinct models, both of which antagonize PGE2 levels via different mechanisms. Our data highlight the critical impact of n-6 PUFA-derived eicosanoids in the promotion of Th17 cell-mediated colonic inflammation.

  7. Antagonizing Arachidonic Acid-Derived Eicosanoids Reduces Inflammatory Th17 and Th1 Cell-Mediated Inflammation and Colitis Severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer M. Monk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available During colitis, activation of two inflammatory T cell subsets, Th17 and Th1 cells, promotes ongoing intestinal inflammatory responses. n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid- (PUFA- derived eicosanoids, such as prostaglandin E2 (PGE2, promote Th17 cell-mediated inflammation, while n-3 PUFA antagonize both Th17 and Th1 cells and suppress PGE2 levels. We utilized two genetic mouse models, which differentially antagonize PGE2 levels, to examine the effect on Th17 cells and disease outcomes in trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid- (TNBS- induced colitis. Fat-1 mice contain the ω3 desaturase gene from C. elegans and synthesize n-3 PUFA de novo, thereby reducing the biosynthesis of n-6 PUFA-derived eicosanoids. In contrast, Fads1 Null mice contain a disrupted Δ5 desaturase gene and produce lower levels of n-6 PUFA-derived eicosanoids. Compared to Wt littermates, Fat-1 and Fads1 Null mice exhibited a similar colitic phenotype characterized by reduced colonic mucosal inflammatory eicosanoid levels and mRNA expression of Th17 cell markers (IL-17A, RORγτ, and IL-23, decreased percentages of Th17 cells and, improved colon injury scores (P≤0.05. Thus, during colitis, similar outcomes were obtained in two genetically distinct models, both of which antagonize PGE2 levels via different mechanisms. Our data highlight the critical impact of n-6 PUFA-derived eicosanoids in the promotion of Th17 cell-mediated colonic inflammation.

  8. Supplementation of a Fermented Soybean Extract Reduces Body Mass and Prevents Obesity in High Fat Diet-Induced C57BL/6J Obese Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae Yeon; Aravinthan, Adithan; Park, Young Shik; Hwang, Kyo Yeol; Seong, Su-Il; Hwang, Kwontack

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a growing health problem that many countries face, mostly due to the consumption of a Westernized diet. In this present study we observed the effects of a soybean extract fermented by Bacillus subtilis MORI (BTD-1) containing 1-deoxynojirimycin against high fat diet-induced obesity. The results obtained from this study indicated that BTD-1 reduced body weight, regulated hepatic lipid content and adipose tissue, and also affected liver antioxidant enzymes and glucose metabolism. These results suggest that administration of BTD-1 affects obesity by inhibiting hyperglycemia and free radical-mediated stress; it also reduces lipid accumulation. Therefore, BTD-1 may be potentially useful for the prevention of obesity and its related secondary complications. PMID:27752494

  9. Lipid Replacement Therapy Functional Food Formulation with NT Factor for Reducing Weight, Girth, Body Mass, Appetite and Fatigue While Improving Blood Lipid Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita R. Ellithorpe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lipid Replacement Therapy using NT Factor® plus kidney bean alpha-amylase inhibitor (Healthy Curb® was used in a two month weight loss clinical trial to reduce weight and improve fatigue without changing easting or exercise patterns and without use of drugs, stimulants or herbs. Objectives: To determine the effects of an all-natural functional food, NT Factor® plus alpha-amylase inhibitor (Healthy Curb®, on weight loss, body girth, body mass and index, basal metabolic rate, appetite, carvings for sweets and fatigue as well as blood lipid profiles during a 2-month open label clinical trial without food restrictions or increases in physical activity.Methods: Thirty subjects (Mean Age = 56.8 ± 1.8; 24 females and 6 males used the functional food containing NT Factor® (500 mg and alpha-amylase inhibitor (500 mg 30 min before each meal in tablet form. Participants were told to eat and exercise normally. Weight, waist and hip measurements were taken weekly. Appetite and sweet cravings were assessed weekly by standard methods. Fatigue was determined using the Piper Fatigue Scale. Blood samples were taken prior to and at the end of the trial for lipid and chemical analyses. Results: Sixty-three percent of the participants lost an average of 6.11 ± 0.28 pounds (2.77 ± 0.12 Kg (p<0.001 along with average reductions of 2.51 ± 0.05 inches (6.4 ± 0.13 cm (p<0.0001 and 1.5 ± 0.04 inches (3.8 ± 0.10 cm (p<0.0001 from waist and hip circumferences, respectively. The entire Functional Foods in Health and Disease 2012, 2(1:11-24 group lost an average of 3.63 ± 0.13 pounds (1.65 ± 0.11 Kg (p<0.001 with average reductions of 1.59 ± 0.03 inches (4.04 ± 0.06 cm (p<0.0001 and 1.13 ± 0.02 inch (2.87 ± 0.05 cm (p<0.0001 from waist and hip circumferences, respectively. Weight loss and body measurement decreases were gradual, consistent and significant, along with reductions in body mass index (BMI and basal metabolic rate (BMR measurements

  10. Palmitic Acid Reduces Circulating Bone Formation Markers in Obese Animals and Impairs Osteoblast Activity via C16-Ceramide Accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsahli, Ahmad; Kiefhaber, Kathryn; Gold, Tziporah; Muluke, Munira; Jiang, Hongfeng; Cremers, Serge; Schulze-Späte, Ulrike

    2016-05-01

    Obesity and impaired lipid metabolism increase circulating and local fatty acid (FA) levels. Our previous studies showed that a high high-saturated -fat diet induced greater bone loss in mice than a high high-unsaturated-fat diet due to increased osteoclast numbers and activity. The impact of elevated FA levels on osteoblasts is not yet clear. We induced obesity in 4 week old male mice using a palmitic acid (PA)- or oleic acid (OA)-enriched high fat high-fat diet (HFD) (20 % of calories from FA), and compared them to mice on a normal (R) caloric diet (10 % of calories from FA). We collected serum to determine FA and bone metabolism marker levels. Primary osteoblasts were isolated; cultured in PA, OA, or control (C) medium; and assessed for mineralization activity, gene expression, and ceramide levels. Obese animals in the PA and OA groups had significantly lower serum levels of bone formation markers P1NP and OC compared to normal weight animals (*p < 0.001), with the lowest marker levels in animals on an PA-enriched HFD (*p < 0.001). Accordingly, elevated levels of PA significantly reduced osteoblast mineralization activity in vitro (*p < 0.05). Elevated PA intake significantly increased C16 ceramide accumulation. This accumulation was preventable through inhibition of SPT2 (serine palmitoyl transferase 2) using myriocin. Elevated levels of PA reduce osteoblast function in vitro and bone formation markers in vivo. Our findings suggest that saturated PA can compromise bone health by affecting osteoblasts, and identify a potential mechanism through which obesity promotes bone loss.

  11. Fortification of reduced-fat Cheddar cheese with n-3 fatty acids: effect on off-flavor generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, S; Thurgood, J E; Brothersen, C; Ward, R; McMahon, D J

    2009-05-01

    The objective of this study was to fortify 50% reduced fat Cheddar cheese with n-3 fatty acids and evaluate whether this fortification generated specific off-flavors in the cheese. Docosahexaenoic (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic (EPA) fatty acids were added to the cheese to obtain 3 final fortification levels [18, 35, and 71 mg of DHA/EPA per serving size (28 g) of cheese] representing 10, 20, and 40% of the suggested daily intake level for DHA/EPA. The presence of oxidized, rancid, and fishy flavors as a function of fortification level and cheese aging (6 mo) was evaluated using a sensory descriptive panel. No differences were found in the oxidized and rancid flavors as a consequence of DHA/EPA fortification, with only slight intensities of these flavors. The presence of fishy off-flavor was dependent on the fortification level. Cheeses with low fortification levels (18 and 35 mg of DHA/EPA per serving size) did not develop significant fishy off-flavor compared with the control, whereas at the highest fortification level (71 mg of DHA/EPA per serving size) the fishy off-flavor was significantly stronger in young cheeses. The fishy flavor decreased as a function of age and became nonsignificant compared with the control at 3 mo of storage. Even though fishy flavors were detected in the fortified cheeses, the DHA/EPA content during storage remained constant and complied with the suggested values for food fortification. Results obtained from this research indicate that 50% reduced-fat Cheddar cheese aged for 3 mo can be used as a vehicle for delivery of n-3 fatty acids without generation of off-flavors.

  12. USE OF QUINOLONES IN BULL SEMEN EXTENDERS TO REDUCE SPERM DEOXYRIBONUCLEIC ACID DAMAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Gonzalez-Marin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cryopreserved sperm samples from Holstein bulls (n = 20 were examined for bacterial presence and Sperm DNA Fragmentation (SDF dynamics. SDF was assessed after thawing (T0 and at 4, 24 and 48 h of incubation (37°C and the rate of SDF (r-SDF, as an estimator of the DNA degradation over time, was calculated. Two groups of bulls were identified based on the presence or absence of bacteria: One group (n = 10 had a readily detectable bacterial presence, while the other group (n = 10 had an undetectable bacterial presence. Differences in the SDF at T0 were not observed between these two groups. However, statistically different results were found after 24 h of incubation at 37°C (Kaplan-Meier estimator; Log-Rank Matel-Cox, p-1 of ciprofloxacin at T0. Differences in the r-SDF (p>0.05 were not detected between the control and the quinolone treated sample for those samples without bacteria. However, differences (p<0.000 in SDF were observed for quinolone treated samples that previously presented bacteria. Incubation of sealed straws showed that bacterial contamination occurred prior to cryopreservation. These results call attention to three points: (1 sperm samples were in contact with bacteria before cryopreservation; (2 the r-SDF can be directly correlated with bacterial presence but this effect remains cryptic after thawing and (3 the r-SDF can be reduced by treating the semen samples with an adequate antibiotic such as quinolones, a finding not previously reported in the scientific literature, but important in terms of reproduction.

  13. Increased biomass yield of Lactococcus lactis by reduced overconsumption of amino acids and increased catalytic activities of enzymes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaarel Adamberg

    Full Text Available Steady state cultivation and multidimensional data analysis (metabolic fluxes, absolute proteome, and transcriptome are used to identify parameters that control the increase in biomass yield of Lactococcus lactis from 0.10 to 0.12 C-mol C-mol(-1 with an increase in specific growth rate by 5 times from 0.1 to 0.5 h(-1. Reorganization of amino acid consumption was expressed by the inactivation of the arginine deiminase pathway at a specific growth rate of 0.35 h(-1 followed by reduced over-consumption of pyruvate directed amino acids (asparagine, serine, threonine, alanine and cysteine until almost all consumed amino acids were used only for protein synthesis at maximal specific growth rate. This balanced growth was characterized by a high glycolytic flux carrying up to 87% of the carbon flow and only amino acids that relate to nucleotide synthesis (glutamine, serine and asparagine were consumed in higher amounts than required for cellular protein synthesis. Changes in the proteome were minor (mainly increase in the translation apparatus. Instead, the apparent catalytic activities of enzymes and ribosomes increased by 3.5 times (0.1 vs 0.5 h(-1. The apparent catalytic activities of glycolytic enzymes and ribosomal proteins were seen to follow this regulation pattern while those of enzymes involved in nucleotide metabolism increased more than the specific growth rate (over 5.5 times. Nucleotide synthesis formed the most abundant biomonomer synthetic pathway in the cells with an expenditure of 6% from the total ATP required for biosynthesis. Due to the increase in apparent catalytic activity, ribosome translation was more efficient at higher growth rates as evidenced by a decrease of protein to mRNA ratios. All these effects resulted in a 30% decrease of calculated ATP spilling (0.1 vs 0.5 h(-1. Our results show that bioprocesses can be made more efficient (using a balanced metabolism by varying the growth conditions.

  14. Plasma bile acids show a positive correlation with body mass index and are negatively associated with cognitive restraint of eating in obese patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinz, Philip; Hofmann, Tobias; Ahnis, Anne; Elbelt, Ulf; Goebel-Stengel, Miriam; Klapp, Burghard F.; Rose, Matthias; Stengel, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Bile acids may be involved in the regulation of food intake and energy metabolism. The aim of the study was to investigate the association of plasma bile acids with body mass index (BMI) and the possible involvement of circulating bile acids in the modulation of physical activity and eating behavior. Blood was obtained in a group of hospitalized patients with normal weight (BMI 18.5–25 kg/m2), underweight (anorexia nervosa, BMI 50 kg/m2, n = 14–15/group) and plasma bile acid concentrations assessed. Physical activity and plasma bile acids were measured in a group of patients with anorexia nervosa (BMI 14.6 ± 0.3 kg/m2, n = 43). Lastly, in a population of obese patients (BMI 48.5 ± 0.9 kg/m2, n = 85), psychometric parameters related to disordered eating and plasma bile acids were assessed. Plasma bile acids showed a positive correlation with BMI (r = 0.26, p = 0.03) in the population of patients with broad range of BMI (9–85 kg/m2, n = 74). No associations were observed between plasma bile acids and different parameters of physical activity in anorexic patients (p > 0.05). Plasma bile acids were negatively correlated with cognitive restraint of eating (r = −0.30, p = 0.008), while no associations were observed with other psychometric eating behavior-related parameters (p > 0.05) in obese patients. In conclusion, these data may point toward a role of bile acids in the regulation of body weight. Since plasma bile acids are negatively correlated with the cognitive restraint of eating in obese patients, this may represent a compensatory adaptation to prevent further overeating. PMID:26089773

  15. Plasma bile acids show a positive correlation with body mass index and are negatively associated with cognitive restraint of eating in obese patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip ePrinz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Bile acids may be involved in the regulation of food intake and energy metabolism. The aim of the study was to investigate the association of plasma bile acids with body mass index (BMI and the possible involvement of circulating bile acids in the modulation of physical activity and eating behavior. Blood was obtained in a group of hospitalized patients with normal weight (BMI 18.5-25 kg/m2, underweight (anorexia nervosa, BMI 50 kg/m2, n=14-15/group and plasma bile acid concentrations assessed. Physical activity and plasma bile acids were measured in a group of patients with anorexia nervosa (BMI 14.6±0.3 kg/m2, n=43. Lastly, in a population of obese patients (BMI 48.5±0.9 kg/m2, n=85, psychometric parameters related to disordered eating and plasma bile acids were assessed. Plasma bile acids showed a positive correlation with BMI (r=0.26, p=0.03 in the population of patients with broad range of BMI (9-85 kg/m2, n=74. No associations were observed between plasma bile acids and different parameters of physical activity in anorexic patients (p>0.05. Plasma bile acids were negatively correlated with cognitive restraint of eating (r=-0.30, p=0.008, while no associations were observed with other psychometric eating behavior-related parameters (p>0.05 in obese patients. In conclusion, these data may point towards a role of bile acids in the regulation of body weight. Since plasma bile acids are negatively correlated with the cognitive restraint of eating in obese patients, this may represent a compensatory adaptation to prevent further overeating.

  16. OPTIMIZING TECHNOLOGY TO REDUCE MERCURY AND ACID GAS EMISSIONS FROM ELECTRIC POWER PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffrey C. Quick; David E. Tabet; Sharon Wakefield; Roger L. Bon

    2005-10-01

    Maps showing potential mercury, sulfur, chlorine, and moisture emissions for U.S. coal by county of origin were made from publicly available data (plates 1, 2, 3, and 4). Published equations that predict mercury capture by emission control technologies used at U.S. coal-fired utilities were applied to average coal quality values for 169 U.S. counties. The results were used to create five maps that show the influence of coal origin on mercury emissions from utility units with: (1) hot-side electrostatic precipitator (hESP), (2) cold-side electrostatic precipitator (cESP), (3) hot-side electrostatic precipitator with wet flue gas desulfurization (hESP/FGD), (4) cold-side electrostatic precipitator with wet flue gas desulfurization (cESP/FGD), and (5) spray-dry adsorption with fabric filter (SDA/FF) emission controls (plates 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9). Net (lower) coal heating values were calculated from measured coal Btu values, and estimated coal moisture and hydrogen values; the net heating values were used to derive mercury emission rates on an electric output basis (plate 10). Results indicate that selection of low-mercury coal is a good mercury control option for plants having hESP, cESP, or hESP/FGD emission controls. Chlorine content is more important for plants having cESP/FGD or SDA/FF controls; optimum mercury capture is indicated where chlorine is between 500 and 1000 ppm. Selection of low-sulfur coal should improve mercury capture where carbon in fly ash is used to reduce mercury emissions. Comparison of in-ground coal quality with the quality of commercially mined coal indicates that existing coal mining and coal washing practice results in a 25% reduction of mercury in U.S. coal before it is delivered to the power plant. Further pre-combustion mercury reductions may be possible, especially for coal from Texas, Ohio, parts of Pennsylvania and much of the western U.S.

  17. Higher body mass, older age and higher monounsaturated fatty acids intake reflect better quantitative ultrasound parameters in Inuit preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayek, Jessy El; Egeland, Grace; Weiler, Hope

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Investigate the effects of selected factors associated with quantitative ultrasound parameters among Inuit preschoolers living in Arctic communities (56° 32′–72° 40′N). Materials and methods Children were selected randomly in summer and early fall (n=296). Dietary intake was assessed through the administration of a 24-h dietary recall (24-h recall) and a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Anthropometry was measured using standardized procedures. Plasma 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) and parathyroid hormone (PTH) were measured using a chemiluminescent assay (Liaison, Diasorin). Quantitative ultrasound parameters were measured using Sahara Sonometer, (Hologic Inc.). Results Children divided by speed of sound (SoS) and broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) quartiles were not different for age (years), sex (M/F), calcium (mg/d) and vitamin D intake (µg/d) and plasma 25(OH)D concentration (nmol/L). However, children in the highest BUA and SoS quartile had higher body mass index (BMI) compared to those in quartile 1. Using multivariate linear regression, higher BMI, older age and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) intake were predictors of BUA while only BMI was a predictor of SoS. Conclusions Further investigation assessing intakes of traditional foods (TF) and nutrients affecting bone parameters along with assessment of vitamin D status of Inuit children across seasons is required. PMID:22789515

  18. Higher body mass, older age and higher monounsaturated fatty acids intake reflect better quantitative ultrasound parameters in Inuit preschoolers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessy El Hayek

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Investigate the effects of selected factors associated with quantitative ultrasound parameters among Inuit preschoolers living in Arctic communities (56° 32′–72° 40′N. Materials and methods. Children were selected randomly in summer and early fall (n=296. Dietary intake was assessed through the administration of a 24-h dietary recall (24-h recall and a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ. Anthropometry was measured using standardized procedures. Plasma 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OHD and parathyroid hormone (PTH were measured using a chemiluminescent assay (Liaison, Diasorin. Quantitative ultrasound parameters were measured using Sahara Sonometer, (Hologic Inc.. Results. Children divided by speed of sound (SoS and broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA quartiles were not different for age (years, sex (M/F, calcium (mg/d and vitamin D intake (µg/d and plasma 25(OHD concentration (nmol/L. However, children in the highest BUA and SoS quartile had higher body mass index (BMI compared to those in quartile 1. Using multivariate linear regression, higher BMI, older age and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA intake were predictors of BUA while only BMI was a predictor of SoS. Conclusions. Further investigation assessing intakes of traditional foods (TF and nutrients affecting bone parameters along with assessment of vitamin D status of Inuit children across seasons is required.

  19. Biomineralization behavior of a vinylphosphonic acid-based copolymer added with polymerization accelerator in simulated body fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryo Hamai

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Apatite-polymer composites have been evaluated in terms of its potential application as bone substitutes. Biomimetic processes using simulated body fluid (SBF are well-known methods for preparation of such composites. They are reliant on specific functional groups to induce the heterogeneous apatite nucleation and phosphate groups possess good apatite-forming ability in SBF. Improving the degree of polymerization is important for obtaining phosphate-containing polymers, because the release of significant quantities of monomer or low molecular weight polymers can lead to suppression of the apatite formation. To date, there have been very few studies pertaining to the effect of adding a polymerization accelerator to the polymerization reaction involved in the formation of these composite materials under physiological conditions. In this study, we have prepared a copolymer from triethylene glycol dimethacrylate and vinylphosphonic acid (VPA in the presence of different amounts of sodium p-toluenesulfinate (p-TSS as a polymerization accelerator. The effects of p-TSS on the chemical durability and apatite formation of the copolymers were investigated in SBF. The addition of 0.1–1.0 wt% of p-TSS was effective for suppressing the dissolution of the copolymers in SBF, whereas larger amount had a detrimental effect. A calcium polyvinylphosphate instead of the apatite was precipitated in SBF.

  20. Comparison of Growth Performance and Whole-body Amino Acid Composition in Red Seabream (Pagrus major) Fed Free or Dipeptide Form of Phenylalanine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung-Sam; Rahimnejad, Samad; Song, Jin-Woo; Lee, Kyeong-Jun

    2012-08-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of the dipeptide form of phenylalanine as a new source of amino acid in terms of growth performance and whole-body amino acid composition in comparison to the free form for red seabream (Pagrus major). Fish (1.46±0.001 g) were fed four isonitrogenous and isocaloric experimental diets containing 0.7 or 1.4% phenylalanine either in free or dipeptide form. A feeding trial was carried out in three replicates and the fish were fed to apparent satiation for six weeks. At the end of the feeding trial, feed intake of fish was influenced by both phenylalanine form and level and significantly higher values were obtained at an inclusion level of 0.7% and by the use of dipeptide form. However, the other growth parameters did not significantly differ among treatments. Whole-body amino acid compositions revealed no significant changes in concentrations of both essential and non-essential amino acids regardless of the increase in phenylalanine levels or the use of its different forms. The finding in this study indicates that juvenile red seabream can utilize dipeptide phenylalanine as efficiently as free form without any undesirable effects on growth performance or whole-body amino acid composition.

  1. A lower proportion of dietary saturated/monounsaturated/polyunsaturated fatty acids reduces the expression of adiponectin in rats fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xuefeng; Zhang, Yi; Lin, Jieyi; Pen, Anfang; Ying, Chenjiang; Cao, Wenhong; Mao, Limei

    2012-04-01

    The role for the amount of different dietary fatty acids in regulating expression of adiponectin and metabolism of glucose and lipids has been implicated, but the optimal amount has not been established yet. To address this issue, we fed male Wistar rats with either chow diet or various high-fat diets (HFDs) for 12 weeks. The HFDs contained the same percentage of fat (35% energy from fat) but had different proportions of saturated/monounsaturated/polyunsaturated (S/M/P) (1:1.7:1.2, 1:1:1, 2:1.5:1, 1:2:1, or 1:1:2) fat. Glucose and lipid metabolism and adiponectin expression were subsequently examined. In comparison with chow diet, HFD with any proportion of S/M/P increased energy intake but had no obvious effect on body weight gain. The HFD with the S/M/P proportion at 1:1:1 or 1:1:2 significantly decreased the serum triglyceride level and increased the serum level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in comparison with the HFD with the S/M/P proportion at 1:1.7:1.2, 2:1.5:1, or 1:2:1. The HFD containing the highest level of saturated fatty acids (S/M/P proportion at 2:1.5:1) increased levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and blood glucose. Levels of serum insulin and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance index were significantly increased by HFD with S/M/P proportions at 1:1.7:1.2, 1:1:1, 2:1.5:1, or 1:2:1 but not by the HFD with the S/M/P proportions at 1:1:2 (containing the highest level of polyunsaturated fatty acids). Levels of adiponectin messenger RNA in subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues were reduced by the HFD with the S/M/P proportion at 1:1.7:1.2 or 1:1:1 but increased by the HFD with the S/M/P proportion at 1:1:2. These changes in expression of adiponectin were inversely associated with those in levels of triglyceride, insulin, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance. Together, the proportion of different fatty acids in diets plays an important role in expression of adiponectin and

  2. Role of ω3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in reducing cardio-metabolic risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeywardena, Mahinda Y; Patten, Glen S

    2011-09-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality in many economically developed nations, and its incidence is increasing at a rapid rate in emerging economies. Diet and lifestyle issues are closely associated with a myriad of cardiovascular disease risk factors including abnormal plasma lipids, hypertension, insulin resistance, diabetes and obesity, suggesting that diet-based approaches may be of benefit. Omega-3 longchain-polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω3 LC-PUFA) are increasingly being used in the prevention and management of several cardiovascular risk factors. Both the ω3 and ω6 PUFA families are considered essential, as the human body is itself unable to synthesize them. The conversion of the two precursor fatty acids - linoleic acid (18:2ω6) and α-linoleic acid (α18:3ω3) - of these two pathways to longer (≥C(20)) PUFA is inefficient. Although there is an abundance of ω6 PUFA in the food supply; in many populations the relative intake of ω3 LC-PUFA is low with health authorities advocating increased consumption. Fish oil, rich in eicosapentaenoic (EPA, 20:5ω3) and docosahexaenoic (DHA, 22:6ω3) acids, has been found to cause a modest reduction in blood pressure at a dose level of >3g/d both in untreated and treated hypertensives. Whilst a multitude of mechanisms may contribute to the blood pressure lowering action of ω3 LC-PUFA, improved vascular endothelial cell function appears to play a central role. Recent studies which evaluated the potential benefits of fish oil in type-2 diabetes have helped to alleviate concerns raised in some previous studies which used relatively large dose (5-8 g/d) and reported a worsening of glycemic control. Several meta-analyses have confirmed that the most consistent action of ω3 LC-PUFA in insulin resistance and type-2 diabetes is the reduction in triglycerides. In some studies, fish oil has been found to cause a small rise in LDL-cholesterol, but a change in the LDL particle size, from the smaller more

  3. Heterogeneous Distributions of Amino Acids Provide Evidence of Multiple Sources Within the Almahata Sitta Parent Body, Asteroid 2008 TC(sub 3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Aaron S.; Glavin, Daniel P.; Callahan, Michael P.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Jenniskens, Peter; Shaddad, Muawia H.

    2011-01-01

    Two new fragments of the Almahata Sitta meteorite and a sample of sand from the related strewn field in the Nubian Desert, Sudan, were analyzed for two to six carbon aliphatic primary amino acids by ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography with UV-fluorescence detection and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-FT/ToF-MS). The distribution of amino acids in fragment #25, an H5 ordinary chondrite, and fragment #27, a polymict ureilite, were compared with results from the previously analyzed fragment #4, also a polymict ureilite. All three meteorite fragments contain 180-270 parts-per-billion (ppb) of amino acids, roughly 1000-fold lower than the total amino acid abundance of the Murchison carbonaceous chondrite. All of the Almahata Sitta fragments analyzed have amino acid distributions that differ from the Nubian Desert sand, which primarily contains L-alpha-amino acids. In addition, the meteorites contain several amino acids that were not detected in the sand, indicating that many of the amino acids are extraterrestrial in origin. Despite their petrological differences, meteorite fragments #25 and #27 contain similar amino acid compositions; however, the distribution of amino acids in fragment #27 was distinct from those in fragment #4, even though both arc polymict ureilites from the same parent body. Unlike in CM2 and CR2/3 meteorites, there are low relative abundances of alpha-amino acids in the Almahata Sitta meteorite fragments, which suggest that Strecker-type chemistry was not a significant amino acid formation mechanism. Given the high temperatures that asteroid 2008 TC3 appears to have experienced and lack of evidence for aqueous alteration on the asteroid, it is possible that the extraterrestrial amino acids detected in Almahata Sitta were formed by Fischer-Tropsch/Haber-Bosch type gas-grain reactions at elevated temperatures.

  4. Branched-Chain Amino Acid Plus Glucose Supplement Reduces Exercise-Induced Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness in College-Age Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leahy, Danielle T.; Pintauro, Stephen J.

    2013-01-01

    Supplementation with branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) has been used to stimulate muscle protein synthesis following exercise. The purpose of this study was to determine if supplementation with BCAAs in combination with glucose would reduce exercise-induced delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS). Using a double-blind crossover design, 20 subjects (11 females, 9 males) were randomly assigned to either BCAA (n = 10) or placebo (n = 10) groups. Subjects performed a squatting exercise to elicit DOMS and rated their muscle soreness every 24 hours for four days following exercise while continuing to consume the BCAA or placebo. Following a three-week recovery period, subjects returned and received the alternate BCAA or placebo treatment, repeating the same exercise and DOMS rating protocol for the next four days. BCAA supplementation in female subjects resulted in a significant decrease in DOMS versus placebo at 24 hours following exercise (P = 0.018). No significant effect of BCAA supplementation versus placebo was noted in male subjects nor when male and female results were analyzed together. This gender difference may be related to dose per body weight differences between male and female subjects. PMID:24967261

  5. Caprylic acid reduces Salmonella Enteritidis populations in various segments of digestive tract and internal organs of 3- and 6-week-old broiler chickens, therapeutically

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kollanoor-Johny, A.; Mattson, T.; Baskaran, S.A.; Amalaradjou, M.A.; Hoagland, T.A.; Darre, M.J.; Khan, M.I.; Schreiber, D.T.; Donoghue, A.M.; Donoghue, D.J.; Venkitanarayanan, K.

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the efficacy of feed supplemented with caprylic acid (CA), a natural, 8-carbon fatty acid for reducing Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis colonization in commercial broiler chickens. In separate 3- and 6-wk trials, 1-d-old straight-run broiler chicks (n = 70 birds/trial) were as

  6. The omega-3 fatty acid DHA dose-dependently reduces atherosclerosis: a putative role for F4-neuroprostanes a specific class of peroxidized metabolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective. Consumption of long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids is associated with reduced risks of cardiovascular disease but the role of their oxygenated metabolites remains unclear. We hypothesized that peroxidized metabolites of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6 n-3) could play a role in ...

  7. Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation for 8 weeks does not affect body composition, lipid profile, or safety biomarkers in overweight, hyperlipidemic men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Shama V; Jacques, Hélène; Plourde, Mélanie; Mitchell, Patricia L; McLeod, Roger S; Jones, Peter J H

    2011-07-01

    The usefulness of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) as a nutraceutical remains ambiguous. Our objective was, therefore, to investigate the effect of CLA on body composition, blood lipids, and safety biomarkers in overweight, hyperlipidemic men. A double-blinded, 3-phase crossover trial was conducted in overweight (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m(2)), borderline hypercholesterolemic [LDL-cholesterol (C) ≥ 2.5 mmol/L] men aged 18-60 y. During three 8-wk phases, each separated by a 4-wk washout period, 27 participants consumed under supervision in random order 3.5 g/d of safflower oil (control), a 50:50 mixture of trans 10, cis 12 and cis 9, trans 11 (c9, t11) CLA:Clarinol G-80, and c9, t11 isomer:c9, t11 CLA. At baseline and endpoint of each phase, body weight, body fat mass, and lean body mass were measured by DXA. Blood lipid profiles and safety biomarkers, including insulin sensitivity, blood concentrations of adiponectin, and inflammatory (high sensitive-C-reactive protein, TNFα, and IL-6) and oxidative (oxidized-LDL) molecules, were measured. The effect of CLA consumption on fatty acid oxidation was also assessed. Compared with the control treatment, the CLA treatments did not affect changes in body weight, body composition, or blood lipids. In addition, CLA did not affect the β-oxidation rate of fatty acids or induce significant alterations in the safety markers tested. In conclusion, although no detrimental effects were caused by supplementation, these results do not confirm a role for CLA in either body weight or blood lipid regulation in humans.

  8. Metallothionein reduces central nervous system inflammation, neurodegeneration, and cell death following kainic acid-induced epileptic seizures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penkowa, Milena; Florit, Sergi; Giralt, Mercedes

    2005-01-01

    We examined metallothionein (MT)-induced neuroprotection during kainic acid (KA)-induced excitotoxicity by studying transgenic mice with MT-I overexpression (TgMT mice). KA induces epileptic seizures and hippocampal excitotoxicity, followed by inflammation and delayed brain damage. We show...... for the first time that even though TgMT mice were more susceptible to KA, the cerebral MT-I overexpression decreases the hippocampal inflammation and delayed neuronal degeneration and cell death as measured 3 days after KA administration. Hence, the proinflammatory responses of microglia......, such as oxidative stress (formation of nitrotyrosine, malondialdehyde, and 8-oxoguanine), neurodegeneration (neuronal accumulation of abnormal proteins), and apoptotic cell death (judged by TUNEL and activated caspase-3). This reduced bystander damage in TgMT mice could be due to antiinflammatory and antioxidant...

  9. Increased fatty acid β-oxidation as a possible mechanism for fat-reducing effect of betaine in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Zhixian; Fu, Qin; Yang, Xue; Ding, Liren; Wen, Chao; Zhou, Yanmin

    2016-08-01

    Two hundred and forty 1-day-old male Arbor Acres broiler chickens were randomly assigned to five dietary treatments with six replicates of eight chickens per replicate cage for a 42-day feeding trial. Broiler chickens were fed a basal diet supplemented with 0 (control), 250, 500, 750 or 1000 mg/kg betaine, respectively. Growth performance was not affected by betaine. Incremental levels of betaine decreased the absolute and relative weight of abdominal fat (linear P betaine increased linearly (P betaine supplementation did not affect growth performance of broilers, but was effective in reducing abdominal fat deposition in a dose-dependent manner, which was probably caused by combinations of a decrease in fatty acid synthesis and an increase in β-oxidation.

  10. Managing potential drug-drug interactions between gastric acid-reducing agents and antiretroviral therapy: experience from a large HIV-positive cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, J M; Stott, K E; Monnery, D; Seden, K; Beeching, N J; Chaponda, M; Khoo, S; Beadsworth, M B J

    2016-02-01

    Drug-drug interactions between antiretroviral therapy and other drugs are well described. Gastric acid-reducing agents are one such class. However, few data exist regarding the frequency of and indications for prescription, nor risk assessment in the setting of an HIV cohort receiving antiretroviral therapy. To assess prevalence of prescription of gastric acid-reducing agents and drug-drug interaction within a UK HIV cohort, we reviewed patient records for the whole cohort, assessing demographic data, frequency and reason for prescription of gastric acid-reducing therapy. Furthermore, we noted potential drug-drug interaction and whether risk had been documented and mitigated. Of 701 patients on antiretroviral therapy, 67 (9.6%) were prescribed gastric acid-reducing therapy. Of these, the majority (59/67 [88.1%]) were prescribed proton pump inhibitors. We identified four potential drug-drug interactions, which were appropriately managed by temporally separating the administration of gastric acid-reducing agent and antiretroviral therapy, and all four of these patients remained virally suppressed. Gastric acid-reducing therapy, in particular proton pump inhibitor therapy, appears common in patients prescribed antiretroviral therapy. Whilst there remains a paucity of published data, our findings are comparable to those in other European cohorts. Pharmacovigilance of drug-drug interactions in HIV-positive patients is vital. Education of patients and staff, and accurate data-gathering tools, will enhance patient safety.

  11. Gibberellic acid alleviates cadmium toxicity by reducing nitric oxide accumulation and expression of IRT1 in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Xiao Fang [State Key Laboratory of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Jiang, Tao [Key Laboratory of Conservation Biology for Endangered Wildlife of the Ministry of Education, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Wang, Zhi Wei [State Key Laboratory of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Lei, Gui Jie [Key Laboratory of Conservation Biology for Endangered Wildlife of the Ministry of Education, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Shi, Yuan Zhi [The Key Laboratory of Tea Chemical Engineering, Ministry of Agriculture, Yunqi Road 1, Hangzhou 310008 (China); Li, Gui Xin, E-mail: guixinli@zju.edu.cn [College of Agronomy and Biotechnology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Zheng, Shao Jian [State Key Laboratory of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Key Laboratory of Conservation Biology for Endangered Wildlife of the Ministry of Education, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China)

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cd reduces endogenous GA levels in Arabidopsis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer GA exogenous applied decreases Cd accumulation in plant. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer GA suppresses the Cd-induced accumulation of NO. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Decreased NO level downregulates the expression of IRT1. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Suppressed IRT1 expression reduces Cd transport across plasma membrane. - Abstract: Gibberellic acid (GA) is involved in not only plant growth and development but also plant responses to abiotic stresses. Here it was found that treating the plants with GA concentrations from 0.1 to 5 {mu}M for 24 h had no obvious effect on root elongation in the absence of cadmium (Cd), whereas in the presence of Cd{sup 2+}, GA at 5 {mu}M improved root growth, reduced Cd content and lipid peroxidation in the roots, indicating that GA can partially alleviate Cd toxicity. Cd{sup 2+} increased nitric oxide (NO) accumulation in the roots, but GA remarkably reduced it, and suppressed the up-regulation of the expression of IRT1. In contrary, the beneficial effect of GA on alleviating Cd toxicity was not observed in an IRT1 knock-out mutant irt1, suggesting the involvement of IRT1 in Cd{sup 2+} absorption. Furthermore, the GA-induced reduction of NO and Cd content can also be partially reversed by the application of a NO donor (S-nitrosoglutathione [GSNO]). Taken all these together, the results showed that GA-alleviated Cd toxicity is mediated through the reduction of the Cd-dependent NO accumulation and expression of Cd{sup 2+} uptake related gene-IRT1 in Arabidopsis.

  12. Poly(DL:lactic acid-castor oil) 3:7-bupivacaine formulation: reducing burst effect prolongs efficacy in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolsky-Papkov, Marina; Golovanevski, Ludmila; Domb, Abraham J; Weiniger, Carolyn F

    2010-06-01

    Prolonged analgesia may be achieved using a single injection of slow-release local anesthetic formulation. The study objective was to improve the efficacy of a previously reported formulation comprising 10% bupivacaine in poly(DL:lactic acid co castor oil) 3:7. The polymer was loaded with 15% bupivacaine and injected through a 22G needle close to the sciatic nerve of ICR mice. Sensory and motor nerve blockade were measured. The efficacy and toxicity of the polymer-drug combination were determined. Sixty percent of the incorporated bupivacaine was released during 1 week in vitro. During in vitro release no burst effect was seen, suggesting low toxicity of the formulation. Single injection of 0.1 mL of 15% polymer-bupivacaine formulation caused motor block that lasted 64 h and sensory block that lasted 96 h. The MTD of the polymer-drug formulation was established as 0.175 mL. Microscopic examination of the injection sites revealed reversible nerve inflammation and normal internal organs. The polymer poly(DL:lactic acid co castor oil) 3:7 is a safe carrier for prolonged activity of bupivacaine up to 96 h. The increase of drug load in the formulation reduces the drug release rates due to stronger polymer-drug interactions and higher overall hydrophobicity of the formulation.

  13. Increased hepatic fatty acids uptake and oxidation by LRPPRC-driven oxidative phosphorylation reduces blood lipid levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Zhou

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Hyperlipidemia is one of the major risk factors of atherosclerosis and other cardiovascular diseases. This study aimed to investigate the impact of leucine rich pentatricopeptide repeat containing protein (LRPPRC-driven hepatic oxidative phoshorylation on blood lipid levels. The hepatic LRPPRC level was modulated by liver-specific transgenic or adeno-associated virus 8 carried shRNA targeting Lrpprc (aav-shLrpprc. Mice were fed with a high fat diet to induce obesity. Gene expression was analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR and / or western blot. The hepatic ATP level, hepatic and serum lipids contents, and mitochondria oxidative phosphorylation complex activities were measured using specific assay kits. The uptake and oxidation of fatty acid by hepatocytes were assessed using 14C-palmitate. LRPPRC regulated the expression of genes encoded by mitochondrial genome but not those by nuclear genome involved in mitochondria biogenesis, oxidative phosphorylation, and lipid metabolism. Increased oxidative phosphorylation in liver mediated by LRPPRC resulted in the increase of hepatic ATP level. Lrpprc promoted palmitate uptake and oxidation by hypatocytes. The hepatic and serum triglyceride and total cholesterol levels were inversely associated with the hepatic LRPPRC level. These data demonstrated that LRPPRC-driven hepatic oxidative phosphorylation could promote fatty acids uptake and oxidation by hepatocytes and reduce both hepatic and circulating triglyceride and cholesterol levels.

  14. Conjugated Linoleic Acid Reduces Cholera Toxin Production In Vitro and In Vivo by Inhibiting Vibrio cholerae ToxT Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withey, Jeffrey H; Nag, Drubhajyoti; Plecha, Sarah C; Sinha, Ritam; Koley, Hemanta

    2015-12-01

    The severe diarrheal disease cholera is endemic in over 50 countries. Current therapies for cholera patients involve oral and/or intravenous rehydration, often combined with the use of antibiotics to shorten the duration and intensity of the disease. However, as antibiotic resistance increases, treatment options will become limited. Linoleic acid has been shown to be a potent negative effector of V. cholerae virulence that acts on the major virulence transcription regulator protein, ToxT, to inhibit virulence gene expression. ToxT activates transcription of the two major virulence factors required for disease, cholera toxin (CT) and toxin-coregulated pilus (TCP). A conjugated form of linoleic acid (CLA) is currently sold over the counter as a dietary supplement and is generally recognized as safe by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. This study examined whether CLA could be used as a new therapy to reduce CT production, which, in turn, would decrease disease duration and intensity in cholera patients. CLA could be used in place of traditional antibiotics and would be very unlikely to generate resistance, as it affects only virulence factor production and not bacterial growth or survival.

  15. Docosahexaenoic Acid Reduces Cerebral Damage and Ameliorates Long-Term Cognitive Impairments Caused by Neonatal Hypoxia-Ischemia in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arteaga, Olatz; Revuelta, M; Urigüen, L; Martínez-Millán, L; Hilario, E; Álvarez, A

    2016-10-29

    As the interest in the neuroprotective possibilities of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) for brain injury has grown in the recent years, we aimed to investigate the long-term effects of this fatty acid in an experimental model of perinatal hypoxia-ischemia in rats. To this end, motor activity, aspects of learning, and memory function and anxiety, as well as corticofugal connections visualized by using tracer injections, were evaluated at adulthood. We found that in the hours immediately following the insult, DHA maintained mitochondrial inner membrane integrity and transmembrane potential, as well as the integrity of synaptic processes. Seven days later, morphological damage at the level of the middle hippocampus was reduced, since neurons and myelin were preserved and the astroglial reactive response and microglial activation were seen to be diminished. At adulthood, the behavioral tests revealed that treated animals presented better long-term working memory and less anxiety than non-treated hypoxic-ischemic animals, while no difference was found in the spontaneous locomotor activity. Interestingly, hypoxic-ischemic injury caused alterations in the anterograde corticofugal neuronal connections which were not so evident in rats treated with DHA. Thus, our results indicate that DHA treatment can lead to long-lasting neuroprotective effects in this experimental model of neonatal hypoxia-ischemic brain injury, not only by mitigating axonal changes but also by enhancing cognitive performance at adulthood.

  16. Conjugated Linoleic Acid Reduces Cholera Toxin Production In Vitro and In Vivo by Inhibiting Vibrio cholerae ToxT Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nag, Drubhajyoti; Plecha, Sarah C.; Sinha, Ritam; Koley, Hemanta

    2015-01-01

    The severe diarrheal disease cholera is endemic in over 50 countries. Current therapies for cholera patients involve oral and/or intravenous rehydration, often combined with the use of antibiotics to shorten the duration and intensity of the disease. However, as antibiotic resistance increases, treatment options will become limited. Linoleic acid has been shown to be a potent negative effector of V. cholerae virulence that acts on the major virulence transcription regulator protein, ToxT, to inhibit virulence gene expression. ToxT activates transcription of the two major virulence factors required for disease, cholera toxin (CT) and toxin-coregulated pilus (TCP). A conjugated form of linoleic acid (CLA) is currently sold over the counter as a dietary supplement and is generally recognized as safe by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. This study examined whether CLA could be used as a new therapy to reduce CT production, which, in turn, would decrease disease duration and intensity in cholera patients. CLA could be used in place of traditional antibiotics and would be very unlikely to generate resistance, as it affects only virulence factor production and not bacterial growth or survival. PMID:26392502

  17. Effects of milk supplementation with conjugated linoleic acid on weight control and body composition in healthy overweight people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brida López-Plaza

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs have shown beneficial effects in weight control therapy however this relation is not clear. Objetive: The aim of the study was to examine the effects and safety of 3 g of a 1:1 mix of c9-t11 and t10-c12 on weight control and body composition in healthy overweight individuals. Methods: A prospective, placebo-controlled, randomised double-blind, parallel clinical trial lasting 24 weeks was carried out in 38 volunteers (29w, 9m aged 30-55 years and BMI ≥ 27 -<30 kg/m² who consumed 200 ml/day of skimmed milk with 3g of CLAs or 3g olive oil (placebo. Anthropometric, biochemical and dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA tests were measured. Diet and physical activity were assessed. Results: Subjects maintained their habitual dietary and exercise patterns over the study. Only CLA group showed a significant decrease in weight (74.43 ± 10.45 vs 73.54 ± 11.66 kg, p = 0.029 and waist circumference (91.45 ± 10.33 vs 90.65 ± 9.84 cm, p = 0.012 between baseline and end of the study. BMI and waist height ratio decreased (28.44 ± 1.08 vs 27.81 ± 1.43 kg/m², p = 0.030 and 0.57 ± 0.05 vs 0.56 ± 0.04 p = 0.013 respectively in CLA group at the end. CLA group experienced a reduction in total fat mass after 24 weeks (38.62 ± 5.02 vs 36.65 ± 5.64%, p = 0.035. No decrease was observed in Control group. HOMA index had no changes. Conclusions: The consumption of skimmed milk enriched with 3g of a 1:1 mixture of c9-t11 and t10-c12 for 24 weeks led to a decrease in body weight and total fat mass in healthy, overweight subjects who maintained habitual diets and exercise patterns. No adverse effects were observed. Registered under ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier No. NCT01503047.

  18. Body Position Modulates Gastric Emptying and Affects the Post-Prandial Rise in Plasma Amino Acid Concentrations Following Protein Ingestion in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew M. Holwerda

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Dietary protein digestion and amino acid absorption kinetics determine the post-prandial muscle protein synthetic response. Body position may affect gastrointestinal function and modulate the post-prandial rise in plasma amino acid availability. We aimed to assess the impact of body position on gastric emptying rate and the post-prandial rise in plasma amino acid concentrations following ingestion of a single, meal-like amount of protein. In a randomized, cross-over design, eight healthy males (25 ± 2 years, 23.9 ± 0.8 kg·m−2 ingested 22 g protein and 1.5 g paracetamol (acetaminophen in an upright seated position (control and in a −20° head-down tilted position (inversion. Blood samples were collected during a 240-min post-prandial period and analyzed for paracetamol and plasma amino acid concentrations to assess gastric emptying rate and post-prandial amino acid availability, respectively. Peak plasma leucine concentrations were lower in the inversion compared with the control treatment (177 ± 15 vs. 236 ± 15 mmol·L−1, p < 0.05, which was accompanied by a lower plasma essential amino acid (EAA response over 240 min (31,956 ± 6441 vs. 50,351 ± 4015 AU; p < 0.05. Peak plasma paracetamol concentrations were lower in the inversion vs. control treatment (5.8 ± 1.1 vs. 10.0 ± 0.6 mg·L−1, p < 0.05. Gastric emptying rate and post-prandial plasma amino acid availability are significantly decreased after protein ingestion in a head-down tilted position. Therefore, upright body positioning should be considered when aiming to augment post-prandial muscle protein accretion in both health and disease.

  19. Manganese [III] Tetrakis [5,10,15,20]-Benzoic Acid Porphyrin Reduces Adiposity and Improves Insulin Action in Mice with Pre-Existing Obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan R Brestoff

    Full Text Available The superoxide dismutase mimetic manganese [III] tetrakis [5,10,15,20]-benzoic acid porphyrin (MnTBAP is a potent antioxidant compound that has been shown to limit weight gain during short-term high fat feeding without preventing insulin resistance. However, whether MnTBAP has therapeutic potential to treat pre-existing obesity and insulin resistance remains unknown. To investigate this, mice were treated with MnTBAP or vehicle during the last five weeks of a 24-week high fat diet (HFD regimen. MnTBAP treatment significantly decreased body weight and reduced white adipose tissue (WAT mass in mice fed a HFD and a low fat diet (LFD. The reduction in adiposity was associated with decreased caloric intake without significantly altering energy expenditure, indicating that MnTBAP decreases adiposity in part by modulating energy balance. MnTBAP treatment also improved insulin action in HFD-fed mice, a physiologic response that was associated with increased protein kinase B (PKB phosphorylation and expression in muscle and WAT. Since MnTBAP is a metalloporphyrin molecule, we hypothesized that its ability to promote weight loss and improve insulin sensitivity was regulated by heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1, in a similar fashion as cobalt protoporphyrins. Despite MnTBAP treatment increasing HO-1 expression, administration of the potent HO-1 inhibitor tin mesoporphyrin (SnMP did not block the ability of MnTBAP to alter caloric intake, adiposity, or insulin action, suggesting that MnTBAP influences these metabolic processes independent of HO-1. These data demonstrate that MnTBAP can ameliorate pre-existing obesity and improve insulin action by reducing caloric intake and increasing PKB phosphorylation and expression.

  20. Manganese [III] Tetrakis [5,10,15,20]-Benzoic Acid Porphyrin Reduces Adiposity and Improves Insulin Action in Mice with Pre-Existing Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brestoff, Jonathan R; Brodsky, Tim; Sosinsky, Alexandra Z; McLoughlin, Ryan; Stansky, Elena; Fussell, Leila; Sheppard, Aaron; DiSanto-Rose, Maria; Kershaw, Erin E; Reynolds, Thomas H

    2015-01-01

    The superoxide dismutase mimetic manganese [III] tetrakis [5,10,15,20]-benzoic acid porphyrin (MnTBAP) is a potent antioxidant compound that has been shown to limit weight gain during short-term high fat feeding without preventing insulin resistance. However, whether MnTBAP has therapeutic potential to treat pre-existing obesity and insulin resistance remains unknown. To investigate this, mice were treated with MnTBAP or vehicle during the last five weeks of a 24-week high fat diet (HFD) regimen. MnTBAP treatment significantly decreased body weight and reduced white adipose tissue (WAT) mass in mice fed a HFD and a low fat diet (LFD). The reduction in adiposity was associated with decreased caloric intake without significantly altering energy expenditure, indicating that MnTBAP decreases adiposity in part by modulating energy balance. MnTBAP treatment also improved insulin action in HFD-fed mice, a physiologic response that was associated with increased protein kinase B (PKB) phosphorylation and expression in muscle and WAT. Since MnTBAP is a metalloporphyrin molecule, we hypothesized that its ability to promote weight loss and improve insulin sensitivity was regulated by heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), in a similar fashion as cobalt protoporphyrins. Despite MnTBAP treatment increasing HO-1 expression, administration of the potent HO-1 inhibitor tin mesoporphyrin (SnMP) did not block the ability of MnTBAP to alter caloric intake, adiposity, or insulin action, suggesting that MnTBAP influences these metabolic processes independent of HO-1. These data demonstrate that MnTBAP can ameliorate pre-existing obesity and improve insulin action by reducing caloric intake and increasing PKB phosphorylation and expression.

  1. Effects of a rapeseed oil-enriched hypoenergetic diet with a high content of α-linolenic acid on body weight and cardiovascular risk profile in patients with the metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxheinrich, Andrea; Stratmann, Bernd; Lee-Barkey, Young Hee; Tschoepe, Diethelm; Wahrburg, Ursel

    2012-08-01

    In therapy of the metabolic syndrome, the optimal dietary approach with regard to its macronutrient composition and metabolically favourable food components, such as the plant-derived n-3 fatty acid α-linolenic acid (ALA), is still a matter of debate. We investigated the effects of a hypoenergetic diet with low energy density (ED) enriched in rapeseed oil, resulting in high MUFA content and an ALA intake of 3.5 g/d on body weight and cardiovascular risk profile in eighty-one patients with the metabolic syndrome in comparison with an olive oil diet rich in MUFA, but with a low ALA content. After a 6-month dietary intervention, body weight was significantly reduced in the rapeseed oil and olive oil groups ( -7.8 v. -6.0 kg; P rapeseed oil diet, diastolic blood pressure declined more than after the olive oil diet (P < 0.05 for time × group interaction). Furthermore, concentrations of serum TAG were significantly reduced after the high ALA intake, but not in the low ALA group (P < 0.05 for time × group interaction). In conclusion, our dietary food pattern with a low ED and high intakes of MUFA and ALA may be a practical approach for long-term dietary treatment in patients with the metabolic syndrome, leading to weight reduction and an improvement in the overall cardiovascular risk profile.

  2. Conservation of body calcium by increased dietary intake of potassium: A potential measure to reduce the osteoporosis process during prolonged exposure to microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nechay, Bohdan R.

    1989-01-01

    During the 1988 NASA Summer Faculty Fellowship Program, it was proposed that the loss of skeletal calcium upon prolonged exposure to microgravity could be explained, in part, by a renal maladjustment characterized by an increased urinary excretion of calcium. It was theorized that because the conservation of body fluids and electrolytes depends upon the energy of adenosine triphosphate and enzymes that control the use of its energy for renal ion transport, an induction of renal sodium and potassium-dependent adenosine triphosphatase (Na + K ATPase) by oral loading with potassium would increase the reabsorption of sodium directly and that of calcium indirectly, leading to improved hydration and to reduced calcium loss. Preliminary studies showed the following. Rats drinking water containing 0.2 M potassium chloride for six to 13 days excreted in urine 22 muEq of calcium and 135 muEq of sodium per 100 grams of body weight per day. The corresponding values for control rats drinking tap water were 43 muEq and 269 muEq respectively. Renal Na + K ATPase activity in potassium loaded rats was higher than in controls. Thus, oral potassium loading resulted in increased Na + K ATPase activity and diminished urinary excretion of calcium and of sodium as predicted by the hypothesis. An extension of these studies to humans has the potential of resulting in development of harmless, non-invasive, drug-free, convenient measures to reduce bone loss and other electrolyte and fluid problems in space travelers exposed to prolonged periods of microgravity.

  3. High-molecular-weight adiponectin is selectively reduced in women with polycystic ovary syndrome independent of body mass index and severity of insulin resistance.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connor, A

    2010-03-01

    Context: High-molecular-weight (HMW) adiponectin contributes to insulin resistance (IR), which is closely associated with the pathophysiology of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Abnormalities in adipocyte function have been identified in PCOS and potentially contribute to lower adiponectin concentrations. Objective: Our objective was to determine which variables in plasma and adipose tissue influence HMW adiponectin in a well characterized cohort of women with PCOS. Design: This was a cross-sectional study. Settings and Participants: A teaching hospital. Women with PCOS (n = 98) and body mass index (BMI)-matched controls (n = 103) (including 68 age-, BMI-, and IR-matched pairs). Interventions: A standard 75-g oral glucose tolerance test was performed for each participant. Subcutaneous adipose tissue samples were taken by needle biopsy for a subset of PCOS women (n = 9) and controls (n = 8). Main Outcome Measures: Serum levels of HMW adiponectin and their relation to indices of insulin sensitivity, body composition, and circulating androgens as well as adipose tissue expression levels of ADIPOQ, TNFalpha, PPARgamma, and AR were assessed. Results: HMW adiponectin was significantly lower in women with PCOS compared with both BMI- and BMI- and IR-matched controls (P = 0.009 and P = 0.027, respectively). Although BMI and IR were the main predictors of HMW adiponectin, an interaction between waist to hip ratio and plasma testosterone contributed to its variance (P = 0.026). Adipose tissue gene expression analysis demonstrated that AR and TNFalpha (P = 0.008 and P = 0.035, respectively) but not ADIPOQ mRNA levels were increased in PCOS compared with controls. Conclusions: HMW adiponectin is selectively reduced in women with PCOS, independent of BMI and IR. Gene expression analysis suggests that posttranscriptional\\/translational modification contributes to reduced HMW adiponectin in PCOS.

  4. Tor-Sch9 deficiency activates catabolism of the ketone body-like acetic acid to promote trehalose accumulation and longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jia; Wei, Min; Mirzaei, Hamed; Madia, Federica; Mirisola, Mario; Amparo, Camille; Chagoury, Shawna; Kennedy, Brian; Longo, Valter D

    2014-06-01

    In mammals, extended periods of fasting leads to the accumulation of blood ketone bodies including acetoacetate. Here we show that similar to the conversion of leucine to acetoacetate in fasting mammals, starvation conditions induced ketone body-like acetic acid generation from leucine in S. cerevisiae. Whereas wild-type and ras2Δ cells accumulated acetic acid, long-lived tor1Δ and sch9Δ mutants rapidly depleted it through a mitochondrial acetate CoA transferase-dependent mechanism, which was essential for lifespan extension. The sch9Δ-dependent utilization of acetic acid also required coenzyme Q biosynthetic genes and promoted the accumulation of intracellular trehalose. These results indicate that Tor-Sch9 deficiency extends longevity by switching cells to an alternative metabolic mode, in which acetic acid can be utilized for the storage of stress resistance carbon sources. These effects are reminiscent of those described for ketone bodies in fasting mammals and raise the possibility that the lifespan extension caused by Tor-S6K inhibition may also involve analogous metabolic changes in higher eukaryotes.

  5. Transgenic increase in N-3/n-6 Fatty Acid ratio reduces maternal obesity-associated inflammation and limits adverse developmental programming in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret J R Heerwagen

    Full Text Available Maternal and pediatric obesity has risen dramatically over recent years, and is a known predictor of adverse long-term metabolic outcomes in offspring. However, which particular aspects of obese pregnancy promote such outcomes is less clear. While maternal obesity increases both maternal and placental inflammation, it is still unknown whether this is a dominant mechanism in fetal metabolic programming. In this study, we utilized the Fat-1 transgenic mouse to test whether increasing the maternal n-3/n-6 tissue fatty acid ratio could reduce the consequences of maternal obesity-associated inflammation and thereby mitigate downstream developmental programming. Eight-week-old WT or hemizygous Fat-1 C57BL/6J female mice were placed on a high-fat diet (HFD or control diet (CD for 8 weeks prior to mating with WT chow-fed males. Only WT offspring from Fat-1 mothers were analyzed. WT-HFD mothers demonstrated increased markers of infiltrating adipose tissue macrophages (P<0.02, and a striking increase in 12 serum pro-inflammatory cytokines (P<0.05, while Fat1-HFD mothers remained similar to WT-CD mothers, despite equal weight gain. E18.5 Fetuses from WT-HFD mothers had larger placentas (P<0.02, as well as increased placenta and fetal liver TG deposition (P<0.01 and P<0.02, respectively and increased placental LPL TG-hydrolase activity (P<0.02, which correlated with degree of maternal insulin resistance (r = 0.59, P<0.02. The placentas and fetal livers from Fat1-HFD mothers were protected from this excess placental growth and fetal-placental lipid deposition. Importantly, maternal protection from excess inflammation corresponded with improved metabolic outcomes in adult WT offspring. While the offspring from WT-HFD mothers weaned onto CD demonstrated increased weight gain (P<0.05, body and liver fat (P<0.05 and P<0.001, respectively, and whole body insulin resistance (P<0.05, these were prevented in WT offspring from Fat1-HFD mothers. Our results

  6. Long-chain SFA at the sn-1, 3 positions of TAG reduce body fat deposition in C57BL/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouk, Shiou Wah; Cheng, Sit Foon; Mok, Josephine Shiueh Lian; Ong, Augustine Soon Hock; Chuah, Cheng Hock

    2013-12-14

    The present study aimed to determine the effect of positional distribution of long-chain SFA in TAG, especially at the sn-1, 3 positions, on fat deposition using the C57BL/6 mouse model. Throughout the 15 weeks of the study, mice were fed with diets fortified with palm olein (POo), chemically interesterified POo (IPOo) and soyabean oil (SOY). Mice receiving the SOY-enriched diet gained significantly higher amounts of subcutaneous fat (P= 0·011) and total fat (P= 0·013) compared with the POo group, despite similar body mass gain being recorded. During normalisation with food consumption to obtain the fat:feed ratio, mice fed with the POo-enriched diet exhibited significantly lower visceral (P= 0·044), subcutaneous (P= 0·006) and total (P= 0·003) fat:feed than those fed with the SOY-enriched diet. It is noteworthy that mice fed with the IPOo-enriched diet gained 14·3 % more fat per food consumed when compared with the POo group (P= 0·013), despite their identical total fatty acid compositions. This was mainly attributed to the higher content of long-chain SFA at the sn-1, 3 positions of TAG in POo, which results in delayed absorption after deacylation as evidenced by the higher amounts of long-chain SFA excreted in the faeces of mice fed with the POo-enriched diet. Negative correlations were found between the subcutaneous, visceral as well as total fat accretion per food consumption and the total SFA content at the sn-1, 3 positions, while no relationships were found for MUFA and PUFA. The present results show that the positional distribution of long-chain SFA exerts a more profound effect on body fat accretion than the total SFA content.

  7. Electrodeposited reduced graphene oxide incorporating polymerization of l-lysine on electrode surface and its application in simultaneous electrochemical determination of ascorbic acid, dopamine and uric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongdong; Li, Lingzhi; Ma, Weina; Chen, Xia; Zhang, Yanmin

    2017-01-01

    This paper demonstrates a novel strategy for the construction of a graphene hybrid composites film, which was fabricated by electrodeposited reduced graphene oxide (ERGO) incorporating polymerization of l-lysine (PLL) onto glassy carbon electrode (GCE). Here we show that graphene films can be prepared on electrodes directly from GO dispersions by one-step electrodeposition technique based on electropolymerized PLL as a positively charged polymer interface to adsorb negatively charged GO nanosheets through electrostatic attraction. The thickness of graphene film can be easily controlled by using the electrodeposition technique, a distinct advantage over previously developed methods. The electrochemically reduced process of GO and electropolymerization of l-lysine were investigated by cyclic voltammetry with a wide potential range. The surface morphology of the modified electrode was characterized by scanning electron microscopy. The ERGO/PLL/GCE shows conducive to electron transfer kinetics for Fe(CN)6(3-)/Fe(CN)6(4-) redox probes, compared with bare GCE, PLL/GCE and ERGO/GCE. The electrochemical behaviors of ascorbic acid (AA), dopamine (DA) and uric acid (UA) at ERGO/PLL/GCE were investigated by cyclic voltammetry, and the results suggest that the modified electrode exhibits enhanced electrocatalytic activity toward these important molecules. Under physiological condition and in the co-existence system of AA, DA and UA, the ERGO/PLL/GCE showed linear voltammetric responses in the concentration of 100μM-1200μM for AA, 2.0μM-60μM for DA and 20μM-200μM for UA, and with the detection limits (S/N=3) of 2.0μM, 0.10μM and 0.15μM for AA, DA and UA, respectively. The developed method has been applied to simultaneous determination of AA, DA and UA in human urine with satisfactory recoveries of 104.2%, 95.4% and 99.9%, respectively. This work demonstrates that the attractive features of ERGO/PLL provide promising applications in simultaneous determination of AA, DA

  8. Bile acid sequestration reduces plasma glucose levels in db/db mice by increasing its metabolic clearance rate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxi Meissner

    Full Text Available AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Bile acid sequestrants (BAS reduce plasma glucose levels in type II diabetics and in murine models of diabetes but the mechanism herein is unknown. We hypothesized that sequestrant-induced changes in hepatic glucose metabolism would underlie reduced plasma glucose levels. Therefore, in vivo glucose metabolism was assessed in db/db mice on and off BAS using tracer methodology. METHODS: Lean and diabetic db/db mice were treated with 2% (wt/wt in diet Colesevelam HCl (BAS for 2 weeks. Parameters of in vivo glucose metabolism were assessed by infusing [U-(13C]-glucose, [2-(13C]-glycerol, [1-(2H]-galactose and paracetamol for 6 hours, followed by mass isotopologue distribution analysis, and related to metabolic parameters as well as gene expression patterns. RESULTS: Compared to lean mice, db/db mice displayed an almost 3-fold lower metabolic clearance rate of glucose (p = 0.0001, a ∼300% increased glucokinase flux (p = 0.001 and a ∼200% increased total hepatic glucose production rate (p = 0.0002. BAS treatment increased glucose metabolic clearance rate by ∼37% but had no effects on glucokinase flux nor total hepatic or endogenous glucose production. Strikingly, BAS-treated db/db mice displayed reduced long-chain acylcarnitine content in skeletal muscle (p = 0.0317 but not in liver (p = 0.189. Unexpectedly, BAS treatment increased hepatic FGF21 mRNA expression 2-fold in lean mice (p = 0.030 and 3-fold in db/db mice (p = 0.002. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: BAS induced plasma glucose lowering in db/db mice by increasing metabolic clearance rate of glucose in peripheral tissues, which coincided with decreased skeletal muscle long-chain acylcarnitine content.

  9. Maternal and postweaning folic acid supplementation interact to influence body weight, insulin resistance, and food intake regulatory gene expression in rat offspring in a sex-specific manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huot, Pedro S P; Ly, Anna; Szeto, Ignatius M Y; Reza-López, Sandra A; Cho, Daniel; Kim, Young-In; Anderson, G Harvey

    2016-04-01

    Maternal intake of multivitamins or folic acid above the basal dietary requirement alters the growth and metabolic trajectory of rat offspring. We hypothesized that a modest increase in the folic acid content of maternal diets would alter the offspring's metabolic phenotype, and that these effects could be corrected by matching the folic acid content of the offspring's diet with that of the maternal diet. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were placed on a control or a 2.5× folic acid-supplemented diet prior to mating and during pregnancy and lactation. At weaning, pups from each maternal diet group were randomized to the control or to the 2.5× folic acid-supplemented diet for 25 weeks. Male pups from dams fed the folic acid-supplemented diet were 3.7% heavier than those from control-fed dams and had lower mRNA expression for leptin receptor Obrb isoform (Lepr) (11%) and Agouti-related protein (Agrp) (14%). In contrast, female pups from folic acid-supplemented dams were 5% lighter than those from control-fed dams and had lower proopiomelanocortin (Pomc) (42%), Lepr (32%), and Agrp (13%), but higher neuropeptide Y (Npy) (18%) mRNA expression. Folic acid supplementation ameliorated the alterations induced by maternal folic acid supplementation in male pups and led to the lowest insulin resistance, but the effects were smaller in female pups and led to the highest insulin resistance. In conclusion, maternal folic acid supplementation at 2.5× the control level was associated with alterations in body weight and hypothalamic gene expression in rat offspring in a sex-specific manner, and some of these effects were attenuated by postweaning folic acid supplementation.

  10. Frequency domain reduced order model of aligned-spin effective-one-body waveforms with generic mass-ratios and spins

    CERN Document Server

    Pürrer, Michael

    2015-01-01

    I provide a frequency domain reduced order model (ROM) for the aligned-spin effective-one-body (EOB) model "SEOBNRv2" for data analysis with second and third generation ground based gravitational wave (GW) detectors. SEOBNRv2 models the dominant mode of the GWs emitted by the coalescence of black hole (BH) binaries. The large physical parameter space (dimensionless spins $-1 \\leq \\chi_i \\leq 0.99$ and symmetric mass-ratios $0.01 \\leq \\eta \\leq 0.25$) requires sophisticated reduced order modeling techniques, including patching in the parameter space and in frequency. I find that the time window over which the inspiral-plunge and the merger-ringdown waveform in SEOBNRv2 are connected is discontinuous when the spin of the deformed Kerr BH $\\chi=0.8$ or the symmetric mass-ratio $\\eta \\sim 0.083$. This discontinuity increases resolution requirements for the ROM. The ROM can be used for compact binary systems with total masses of $2 M_\\odot$ or higher for the advanced LIGO (aLIGO) design sensitivity and a $10$ Hz l...

  11. A high-fat, high-oleic diet, but not a high-fat, saturated diet, reduces hepatic alpha-linolenic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid content in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Considerable research centers upon the role of linoleic acid (LNA; 18:2n6) as a competitive inhibitor of a-linolenic (ALA; 18:3n3) metabolism; however, little data exist as to the impact of saturated fatty acids (SFA) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) on ALA metabolism. We tested the hypothesi...

  12. Effects of Graphene Nanoplatelets and Reduced Graphene Oxide on Poly(lactic acid and Plasticized Poly(lactic acid: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buong Woei Chieng

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The superlative mechanical properties of graphene-based materials make them the ideal filler materials for polymer composites reinforcement. Two types of graphene-based materials, graphene nanoplatelets (xGnP and reduced graphene oxide (rGO, were used as nanofiller in poly(lactic acid (PLA polymer matrix, as well as plasticized PLA. The addition of rGO into PLA or plasticized PLA substantially enhanced the tensile strength without deteriorating elasticity, compared to xGnP nanocomposites. In addition, the investigation of the thermal properties has found that the presence of rGO in the system is very beneficial for improving thermal stability of the PLA or plasticized PLA. Scanning electron microscope (SEM images of the rGO nanocomposites display homogenous and good uniformity morphology. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM images revealed that the rGO remained intact as graphene sheet layers and were dispersed well into the polymer matrix, and it was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD results, which shows no graphitic peak in the XRD pattern.

  13. Salicylic acid modulates arsenic toxicity by reducing its root to shoot translocation in rice (Oryza sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Pal Singh

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic (As is posing serious health concerns in South East Asia where rice, an efficient accumulator of As, is prominent crop. Salicylic acid (SA is an important signalling molecule and plays a crucial role in resistance against biotic and abiotic stress in plants. In present study, ameliorative effect of SA against arsenate (AsV toxicity has been investigated in rice (Oryza sativa L.. Arsenate stress hampered the plant growth in terms of root, shoots length and biomass as well as it enhanced the level of H2O2 and MDA in dose dependent manner in shoot. Exogenous application of SA, reverted the growth and oxidative stress caused byAsV and significantly decreased As translocation to the shoots. Level of As in shoot was positively correlated with the expression of OsLsi2, efflux transporter responsible for root to shoot translocation of arsenic in the form of arsenite (AsIII. Salicylic acid also overcame AsV induced oxidative stress and modulated the activities of antioxidant enzymes in a differential manner in shoots. Arsenic treatment hampered the translocation of Fe in the shoot which was compensated by the SA treatment. The level of Fe in root and shoot was positively correlated with the transcript level of transporters responsible for the accumulation of Fe,OsNRAMP5 and OsFRDL1, in the root and shoot respectively. Co-application of SA was more effective than pre-treatment for reducing As accumulation as well as imposed toxicity.

  14. Instant coffee extract with high chlorogenic acids content inhibits hepatic G-6-Pase in vitro, but does not reduce the glycaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassoli, Bruna Kempfer; Cassolla, Priscila; Borba-Murad, Glaucia Regina; Constantin, Jorgete; Salgueiro-Pagadigorria, Clairce Luzia; Bazotte, Roberto Barbosa; de Souza, Helenir Medri

    2015-06-01

    Coffee is the main source of chlorogenic acid in the human diet, and it contains several chlorogenic acid isomers, of which the 5-caffeoylquinic acid (5-CQA) is the predominant isomer. Because there are no available data about the action of chlorogenic acids from instant coffee on hepatic glucose-6-phosphatase (G-6-Pase) activity and blood glucose levels, these effects were investigated in rats. The changes on G-6-Pase activity and liver glucose output induced by 5-CQA were also investigated. Instant coffee extract with high chlorogenic acids content (37.8%) inhibited (p  0.05). Similarly, 5-CQA (1 mM) reduced (p  0.05) on glucose output arising from glycogenolysis in liver perfusion. It was concluded that instant coffee extract with high content of chlorogenic acids inhibited hepatic G-6-Pase in vitro, but failed to reduce the glycaemia probably because the coffee chlorogenic acids did not reach enough levels within the hepatocytes to inhibit the G-6-Pase and reduce the liver glucose output.

  15. Increasing serum pre-adipocyte factor-1 (Pref-1) correlates with decreased body fat, increased free fatty acids, and level of recent alcohol consumption in excessive alcohol drinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liangpunsakul, Suthat; Bennett, Rachel; Westerhold, Chi; Ross, Ruth A; Crabb, David W; Lai, Xianyin; Witzmann, Frank A

    2014-12-01

    Patients with alcoholic liver disease have been reported to have a significantly lower percentage of body fat (%BF) than controls. The mechanism for the reduction in %BF in heavy alcohol users has not been elucidated. In adipose tissue, Pref-1 is specifically expressed in pre-adipocytes but not in adipocytes. Pref-1 inhibits adipogenesis and elevated levels are associated with reduced adipose tissue mass. We investigated the association between serum Pref-1 and %BF, alcohol consumption, and serum free fatty acids (FFA) in a well-characterized cohort of heavy alcohol users compared to controls. One hundred forty-eight subjects were prospectively recruited. The Time Line Follow-Back (TLFB) questionnaire was used to quantify the amount of alcohol consumed over the 30-day period before their enrollment. Anthropometric measurements were performed to calculate %BF. Serum Pref-1 and FFA were measured. Fifty-one subjects (mean age 32 ± 9 years, 88% men) were non-excessive drinkers whereas 97 were excessive drinkers (mean age 41 ± 18 years, 69% men). Compared to non-excessive drinkers, individuals with excessive drinking had significantly higher levels of Pref-1 (p<0.01), FFA (p < 0.001), and lower %BF (p = 0.03). Serum levels of Pref-1 were associated with the amount of alcohol consumed during the previous 30 days. Serum Pref-1 was negatively correlated with %BF, but positively associated with serum FFA. Our data suggest that elevated Pref-1 levels in excessive drinkers might inhibit the expansion of adipose tissue, decreasing %BF in alcoholics. Further work is needed to validate these findings and to better understand the role of Pref-1 and its clinical significance in subjects with heavy alcohol use.

  16. Selection for higher body weight in Nelore cattle is effective in achieving an increase of longissimus muscle area without reducing subcutaneous fat thickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Roque Pinheiro

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to estimate heritabilities and genetic and phenotypic correlations between carcass traits measured by ultrasound and other economically important traits generally used as selection criteria in beef cattle and to estimate the genetic changes in the carcass traits as a result of selection for post-yearling weight. Carcass traits measured by ultrasound at two ages (12 and 18 months and the correlation of these traits with weight, hip height and body condition score of males (yearling and females (post-yearling were analyzed. Multi-trait analysis was performed using the restricted maximum likelihood method under an animal model. To demonstrate the effect of selection for growth, phenotypic and expected breeding value means of the carcass traits and weights according to selection line (Nellore control line, selection line and traditional line were estimated using records from animals born in the last 3 years (2006 to 2008. The heritability estimates were high for longissimus muscle area (LMA at 12 and 18 months of age (0.47 and 0.40, respectively. For fat thickness measures, heritabilities ranged from 0.37 to 0.29. Genetic correlations of the same trait between the two ages were high for LMA (0.95. The Nellore breed shows medium to high genetic variability in carcass traits measured by ultrasound at 12 and 18 months of age, and a greater response is expected if selection for backfat thickness is performed at about 12 months of age. Selection for higher body weight will lead to an increase of LMA at the two ages without reducing subcutaneous fat thickness.

  17. Reduced Triacylglycerol Mobilization during Seed Germination and Early Seedling Growth in Arabidopsis Containing Nutritionally Important Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Pushkar; Callahan, Damien L.; Singh, Surinder P.; Petrie, James R.; Zhou, Xue-Rong

    2016-01-01

    There are now several examples of plant species engineered to synthesize and accumulate nutritionally important polyunsaturated fatty acids in their seed triacylglycerols (TAG). The utilization of TAG in germinating seeds of such transgenic plants was unknown. In this study, we examined the TAG utilization efficiency during seed germination in transgenic Arabidopsis seeds containing several examples of these fatty acids. Seed TAG species with native fatty acids had higher utilization rate than the TAG species containing transgenically produced polyunsaturated fatty acids. Conversely, quantification of the fatty acid components remaining in the total TAG after early stages of seed germination revealed that the undigested TAGs tended to contain elevated levels of the engineered polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). LC-MS analysis further revealed asymmetrical mobilization rates for the individual TAG species. TAGs which contained multiple PUFA fatty acids were mobilized slower than the species containing single PUFA. The mobilized engineered fatty acids were used in de novo membrane lipid synthesis during seedling development.

  18. A suplementação com ácido linoléico conjugado reduziu a gordura corporal em ratos Wistar Conjugated linoleic acid suplementation decreased the body fat in Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Prais Botelho

    2005-08-01

    animals were supplemented via a stomach tube. For the body composition analyses, the gut contents were removed to obtain the empty carcass weight. The carcasses were then frozen in liquid nitrogen, chopped, dried, ground and stored at -25ºC, until analyzed for water, ash, protein and fat. The AE1 group showed higher feed intake and weight gain, but did not differ in food efficiency from the other groups (p< 0.05. In terms of body composition, body fat reduced in groups AE2 (11.2% and AE4 (11.6%, as compared to the control (13.9%. Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation at a rate of 2.0% and 4.0% with respect to the daily feed intake, decreased body fat by 18.0% in Wistar rats.

  19. The combination of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and extra virgin olive oil increases mitochondrial and body metabolism and prevents CLA-associated insulin resistance and liver hypertrophy in C57Bl/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baraldi, Flávia G; Vicentini, Tatiane M; Teodoro, Bruno G; Dalalio, Felipe M; Dechandt, Carlos R P; Prado, Ieda M R; Curti, Carlos; Cardoso, Fernanda C; Uyemura, Sergio A; Alberici, Luciane C

    2016-02-01

    Clinical conditions associated with obesity can be improved by daily intake of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) or extra virgin olive oil (EVOO). Here we investigated whether dietary supplementation with CLA and EVOO, either alone or in combination, changes body metabolism associated with mitochondrial energetics. Male C57Bl/6 mice were divided into one of four groups: CLA (1:1 cis-9, trans-11:trans-10, cis-12; 18:2 isomers), EVOO, CLA plus EVOO or control (linoleic acid). Each mouse received 3 g/kg body weight of the stated oil by gavage on alternating days for 60 days. Dietary supplementation with CLA, alone or in combination with EVOO: (a) reduced the white adipose tissue gain; (b) increased body VO2 consumption, VCO2 production and energy expenditure; (c) elevated uncoupling protein (UCP)-2 expression and UCP activity in isolated liver mitochondria. This organelle, when energized with NAD(+)-linked substrates, produced high amounts of H2O2 without inducing oxidative damage. Dietary supplementation with EVOO alone did not change any metabolic parameter, but supplementation with CLA itself promoted insulin resistance and elevated weight, lipid content and acetyl-CoA carboxylase-1 expression in liver. Interestingly, the in vivo antioxidant therapy with N-acetylcysteine abolished the CLA-induced rise of body metabolism and liver UCP expression and activity, while the in vitro antioxidant treatment with catalase mitigated the CLA-dependent UCP-2 expression in hepatocytes; these findings suggest the participation of an oxidative-dependent pathway. Therefore, this study clarifies the mechanisms by which CLA induces liver UCP expression and activity, and demonstrates for the first time the beneficial effects of combined CLA and EVOO supplementation.

  20. Eight Weeks of Phosphatidic Acid Supplementation in Conjunction with Resistance Training Does Not Differentially Affect Body Composition and Muscle Strength in Resistance-Trained Men

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    Thomas L. Andre, Joshua J. Gann, Sarah K. McKinley-Barnard, Joon J. Song, Darryn S. Willoughby

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study attempted to determine the effects of eight weeks of resistance training (RT combined with phosphatidic acid (PA supplementation at a dose of either 250 mg or 375 mg on body composition and muscle size and strength. Twenty-eight resistance-trained men were randomly assigned to ingest 375 mg [PA375 (n = 9] or 250 mg [PA250 (n = 9] of PA or 375 mg of placebo [PLC (n = 10] daily for eight weeks with RT. Supplements were ingested 60 minutes prior to RT and in the morning on non-RT days. Participants’ body composition, muscle size, and lower-body muscle strength were determined before and after training/supplementation. Separate group x time ANOVAs for each criterion variable were used employing an alpha level of ≤ 0.05. Magnitude- based inferences were utilized to determine the likely or unlikely impact of PA on each criterion variable. A significant main effect for time was observed for improvements in total body mass (p = 0.003, lean mass (p = 0.008, rectus femoris cross-sectional area [RF CSA (p = 0.011], and lower-body strength (p 0.05. Collectively, magnitude-based inferences determined both doses of PA to have a likely impact of increasing body mass (74.2%, lean mass (71.3%, RF CSA (92.2%, and very likely impact on increasing lower-body strength (98.1% beneficial. When combined with RT, it appears that PA has a more than likely impact on improving lower-body strength, whereas a likely impact exists for increasing muscle size and lean mass.

  1. Eight Weeks of Phosphatidic Acid Supplementation in Conjunction with Resistance Training Does Not Differentially Affect Body Composition and Muscle Strength in Resistance-Trained Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andre, Thomas L; Gann, Joshua J; McKinley-Barnard, Sarah K; Song, Joon J; Willoughby, Darryn S

    2016-09-01

    This study attempted to determine the effects of eight weeks of resistance training (RT) combined with phosphatidic acid (PA) supplementation at a dose of either 250 mg or 375 mg on body composition and muscle size and strength. Twenty-eight resistance-trained men were randomly assigned to ingest 375 mg [PA375 (n = 9)] or 250 mg [PA250 (n = 9)] of PA or 375 mg of placebo [PLC (n = 10)] daily for eight weeks with RT. Supplements were ingested 60 minutes prior to RT and in the morning on non-RT days. Participants' body composition, muscle size, and lower-body muscle strength were determined before and after training/supplementation. Separate group x time ANOVAs for each criterion variable were used employing an alpha level of ≤ 0.05. Magnitude- based inferences were utilized to determine the likely or unlikely impact of PA on each criterion variable. A significant main effect for time was observed for improvements in total body mass (p = 0.003), lean mass (p = 0.008), rectus femoris cross-sectional area [RF CSA (p = 0.011)], and lower-body strength (p 0.05). Collectively, magnitude-based inferences determined both doses of PA to have a likely impact of increasing body mass (74.2%), lean mass (71.3%), RF CSA (92.2%), and very likely impact on increasing lower-body strength (98.1% beneficial). When combined with RT, it appears that PA has a more than likely impact on improving lower-body strength, whereas a likely impact exists for increasing muscle size and lean mass.

  2. The effect of dietary prebiotics and probiotics on body weight, large intestine indices, and fecal bile acid profile in wild type and IL10-/- mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiu-Ming Kuo

    Full Text Available Previous studies have suggested roles of probiotics and prebiotics on body weight management and intestinal function. Here, the effects of a dietary prebiotic, inulin (50 mg/g diet, and probiotic, Bfidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis (Bb12 (final dose verified at 10(5 colony forming unit (cfu/g diet, comparable to human consumption, were determined separately and in combination in mice using cellulose-based AIN-93G diets under conditions allowed for the growth of commensal bacteria. Continuous consumption of Bb12 and/or inulin did not affect food intake or body, liver, and spleen weights of young and adult mice. Fecal bile acid profiles were determined by nanoESI-MS/MS tandem mass spectrometry. In the presence of inulin, more bacterial deconjugation of taurine from primary bile acids was observed along with an increased cecal weight. Consumption of inulin in the absence or presence of Bb12 also increased the villus cell height in the proximal colon along with a trend of higher bile acid sulfation by intestinal cells. Feeding Bb12 alone at the physiological dose did not affect bile acid deconjugation and had little effect on other intestinal indices. Although interleukin (IL10-null mice are susceptible to enterocolitis, they maintained the same body weight as the wild type mice under our specific pathogen-free housing condition and showed no signs of inflammation. Nevertheless, they had smaller cecum suggesting a mildly compromised intestinal development even before the disease manifestation. Our results are consistent with the notion that dietary factors such as prebiotics play important roles in the growth of intestinal microbiota and may impact on the intestinal health. In addition, fecal bile acid profiling could potentially be a non-invasive tool in monitoring the intestinal environment.

  3. The effect of dietary prebiotics and probiotics on body weight, large intestine indices, and fecal bile acid profile in wild type and IL10-/- mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Shiu-Ming; Merhige, Patricia M; Hagey, Lee R

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested roles of probiotics and prebiotics on body weight management and intestinal function. Here, the effects of a dietary prebiotic, inulin (50 mg/g diet), and probiotic, Bfidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis (Bb12) (final dose verified at 10(5) colony forming unit (cfu)/g diet, comparable to human consumption), were determined separately and in combination in mice using cellulose-based AIN-93G diets under conditions allowed for the growth of commensal bacteria. Continuous consumption of Bb12 and/or inulin did not affect food intake or body, liver, and spleen weights of young and adult mice. Fecal bile acid profiles were determined by nanoESI-MS/MS tandem mass spectrometry. In the presence of inulin, more bacterial deconjugation of taurine from primary bile acids was observed along with an increased cecal weight. Consumption of inulin in the absence or presence of Bb12 also increased the villus cell height in the proximal colon along with a trend of higher bile acid sulfation by intestinal cells. Feeding Bb12 alone at the physiological dose did not affect bile acid deconjugation and had little effect on other intestinal indices. Although interleukin (IL)10-null mice are susceptible to enterocolitis, they maintained the same body weight as the wild type mice under our specific pathogen-free housing condition and showed no signs of inflammation. Nevertheless, they had smaller cecum suggesting a mildly compromised intestinal development even before the disease manifestation. Our results are consistent with the notion that dietary factors such as prebiotics play important roles in the growth of intestinal microbiota and may impact on the intestinal health. In addition, fecal bile acid profiling could potentially be a non-invasive tool in monitoring the intestinal environment.

  4. Populations of carbonic acid isomers at 210 K from a fast two-electron reduced-density matrix theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwerdtfeger, Christine A; Mazziotti, David A

    2011-11-03

    Parametrization of the 2-electron reduced density matrix (2-RDM) rather than the many-electron wave function yields a new family of electronic-structure methods that are faster and more accurate than traditional coupled electron-pair methods including coupled cluster with single and double excitations. Deriving the parametrization from N-representability conditions generates a 2-RDM that captures significant correlation from triple and higher-order excitations at the cost of double excitations. We apply the parametric 2-RDM method to confirm recent experiments determining the relative thermodynamic populations of the cis-cis and cis-trans isomers of carbonic acid. In 2010 Bernard et al. showed by infrared spectroscopy that the populations of cis-cis and cis-trans isomers have a 10:1 ratio at 210 K. By use of the parametric 2-RDM method, we predict a 8:1 ratio at 210 K. Comparable ab initio methods overestimate the stability of the cis-cis isomer with 24:1 and 21:1 ratios. These 2-RDM-based methods promise to have significant applications throughout chemistry.

  5. Sulfur alleviates arsenic toxicity by reducing its accumulation and modulating proteome, amino acids and thiol metabolism in rice leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Garima; Singh, Amit Pal; Kumar, Amit; Dwivedi, Sanjay; Deeba, Farah; Kumar, Smita; Suman, Shankar; Adhikari, Bijan; Shukla, Yogeshwar; Trivedi, Prabodh Kumar; Pandey, Vivek; Tripathi, Rudra Deo

    2015-11-01

    Arsenic (As) contamination of water is a global concern and rice consumption is the biggest dietary exposure to human posing carcinogenic risks, predominantly in Asia. Sulfur (S) is involved in di-sulfide linkage in many proteins and plays crucial role in As detoxification. Present study explores role of variable S supply on rice leaf proteome, its inclination towards amino acids (AA) profile and non protein thiols under arsenite exposure. Analysis of 282 detected proteins on 2-DE gel revealed 113 differentially expressed proteins, out of which 80 were identified by MALDI-TOF-TOF. The identified proteins were mostly involved in glycolysis, TCA cycle, AA biosynthesis, photosynthesis, protein metabolism, stress and energy metabolism. Among these, glycolytic enzymes play a major role in AA biosynthesis that leads to change in AAs profiling. Proteins of glycolytic pathway, photosynthesis and energy metabolism were also validated by western blot analysis. Conclusively S supplementation reduced the As accumulation in shoot positively skewed thiol metabolism and glycolysis towards AA accumulation under AsIII stress.

  6. Branched-chain amino acid supplementation reduces oxidative stress and prolongs survival in rats with advanced liver cirrhosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motoh Iwasa

    Full Text Available Long-term supplementation with branched-chain amino acids (BCAA is associated with prolonged survival and decreased frequency of development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC in patients with liver cirrhosis. However, the pharmaceutical mechanism underlying this association is still unclear. We investigated whether continuous BCAA supplementation increases survival rate of rats exposed to a fibrogenic agent and influences the iron accumulation, oxidative stress, fibrosis, and gluconeogenesis in the liver. Further, the effects of BCAA on gluconeogenesis in cultured cells were also investigated. A significant improvement in cumulative survival was observed in BCAA-supplemented rats with advanced cirrhosis compared to untreated rats with cirrhosis (P<0.05. The prolonged survival due to BCAA supplementation was associated with reduction of iron contents, reactive oxygen species production and attenuated fibrosis in the liver. In addition, BCAA ameliorated glucose metabolism by forkhead box protein O1 pathway in the liver. BCAA prolongs survival in cirrhotic rats and this was likely the consequences of reduced iron accumulation, oxidative stress and fibrosis and improved glucose metabolism in the liver.

  7. The Value of Tranexamic Acid in Reducing Blood Loss following Hip Reconstruction in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majid, I.; Alshryda, S.; Somanchi, B.; Morakis, E.; Foster, A.

    2015-01-01

    This is a retrospective study of 51 consecutive hip reconstructions in children with cerebral palsy performed between 2011 and 2013. Tranexamic acid (TXA) was used in 14 hip reconstructions only. Transfusion rate was higher, postoperative Hb was lower, and patients stayed longer in the TXA group. This did not reach a statistical significance (P = 0.75, 0.5, and 0.71, resp.). More than half of the patients who had TXA underwent bilateral hip reconstructions in comparison with 27% only in the non-TXA group. Bilateral hip reconstructions mean more surgery, more blood loss, and more blood transfusion. The patients who had TXA were significantly more disabled as evident by the higher proportions of patient with worse GMFCS levels. Although we have not been able to demonstrate the value of TXA in reducing blood loss and transfusion rate in children with CP who underwent hip reconstruction, it is hoped that an interest in exploring the value of TXA in paediatric orthopaedic surgery is generated. Ideally this should be explored further in an adequately powered, randomised controlled trial where risk of bias is minimized. PMID:26664830

  8. The Value of Tranexamic Acid in Reducing Blood Loss following Hip Reconstruction in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Majid

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a retrospective study of 51 consecutive hip reconstructions in children with cerebral palsy performed between 2011 and 2013. Tranexamic acid (TXA was used in 14 hip reconstructions only. Transfusion rate was higher, postoperative Hb was lower, and patients stayed longer in the TXA group. This did not reach a statistical significance (P = 0.75, 0.5, and 0.71, resp.. More than half of the patients who had TXA underwent bilateral hip reconstructions in comparison with 27% only in the non-TXA group. Bilateral hip reconstructions mean more surgery, more blood loss, and more blood transfusion. The patients who had TXA were significantly more disabled as evident by the higher proportions of patient with worse GMFCS levels. Although we have not been able to demonstrate the value of TXA in reducing blood loss and transfusion rate in children with CP who underwent hip reconstruction, it is hoped that an interest in exploring the value of TXA in paediatric orthopaedic surgery is generated. Ideally this should be explored further in an adequately powered, randomised controlled trial where risk of bias is minimized.

  9. Melatonin promotes Bax sequestration to mitochondria reducing cell susceptibility to apoptosis via the lipoxygenase metabolite 5-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid

    KAUST Repository

    Radogna, Flavia

    2015-03-01

    Extra-neurological functions of melatonin include control of the immune system and modulation of apoptosis. We previously showed that melatonin inhibits the intrinsic apoptotic pathway in leukocytes via stimulation of high affinity MT1/MT2 receptors, thereby promoting re-localization of the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein to mitochondria. Here we show that Bcl-2 sequesters pro-apoptotic Bax into mitochondria in an inactive form after melatonin treatment, thus reducing cell propensity to apoptosis. Bax translocation and the anti-apoptotic effect of melatonin are strictly dependent on the presence of Bcl-2, and on the 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) metabolite 5-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (5-HETE), which we have previously shown to be produced as a consequence of melatonin binding to its low affinity target calmodulin. Therefore, the anti-apoptotic effect of melatonin requires the simultaneous, independent interaction with high (MT1/MT2) and low (calmodulin) affinity targets, eliciting two independent signal transduction pathways converging into Bax sequestration and inactivation. MT1/MT2 vs. lipoxygenase pathways are activated by 10-9 vs. 10-5M melatonin, respectively; the anti-apoptotic effect of melatonin is achieved at 10-5M, but drops to 10-9M upon addition of exogenous 5-HETE, revealing that lipoxygenase activation is the rate-limiting pathway. Therefore, in areas of inflammation with increased 5-HETE levels, physiological nanomolar concentrations of melatonin may suffice to maintain leukocyte viability.

  10. P2X7 antagonism using Brilliant Blue G reduces body weight loss and prolongs survival in female SOD1G93A amyotrophic lateral sclerosis mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Rachael; Sluyter, Vanessa; Watson, Debbie

    2017-01-01

    Background Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a rapidly progressive neurodegenerative disease characterised by the accumulation of aggregated proteins, microglia activation and motor neuron loss. The mechanisms underlying neurodegeneration and disease progression in ALS are unknown, but the ATP-gated P2X7 receptor channel is implicated in this disease. Therefore, the current study aimed to examine P2X7 in the context of neurodegeneration, and investigate whether the P2X7 antagonist, Brilliant Blue G (BBG), could alter disease progression in a murine model of ALS. Methods Human SOD1G93A transgenic mice, which normally develop ALS, were injected with BBG or saline, three times per week, from pre-onset of clinical disease (62–64 days of age) until end-stage. During the course of treatment mice were assessed for weight, clinical score and survival, and motor coordination, which was assessed by rotarod performance. Various parameters from end-stage mice were assessed as follows. Motor neuron loss and microgliosis were assessed by immunohistochemistry. Relative amounts of lumbar spinal cord SOD1 and P2X7 were quantified by immunoblotting. Serum monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 was measured by ELISA. Splenic leukocyte populations were assessed by flow cytometry. Relative expression of splenic and hepatic P2X7 mRNA was measured by quantitative real-time PCR. Lumbar spinal cord SOD1 and P2X7 were also quantified by immunoblotting in untreated female SOD1G93A mice during the course of disease. Results BBG treatment reduced body weight loss in SOD1G93A mice of combined sex, but had no effect on clinical score, survival or motor coordination. BBG treatment reduced body weight loss in female, but not male, SOD1G93A mice. BBG treatment also prolonged survival in female, but not male, SOD1G93A mice, extending the mean survival time by 4.3% in female mice compared to female mice treated with saline. BBG treatment had no effect on clinical score or motor coordination in

  11. P2X7 antagonism using Brilliant Blue G reduces body weight loss and prolongs survival in female SOD1G93A amyotrophic lateral sclerosis mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachael Bartlett

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is a rapidly progressive neurodegenerative disease characterised by the accumulation of aggregated proteins, microglia activation and motor neuron loss. The mechanisms underlying neurodegeneration and disease progression in ALS are unknown, but the ATP-gated P2X7 receptor channel is implicated in this disease. Therefore, the current study aimed to examine P2X7 in the context of neurodegeneration, and investigate whether the P2X7 antagonist, Brilliant Blue G (BBG, could alter disease progression in a murine model of ALS. Methods Human SOD1G93A transgenic mice, which normally develop ALS, were injected with BBG or saline, three times per week, from pre-onset of clinical disease (62–64 days of age until end-stage. During the course of treatment mice were assessed for weight, clinical score and survival, and motor coordination, which was assessed by rotarod performance. Various parameters from end-stage mice were assessed as follows. Motor neuron loss and microgliosis were assessed by immunohistochemistry. Relative amounts of lumbar spinal cord SOD1 and P2X7 were quantified by immunoblotting. Serum monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 was measured by ELISA. Splenic leukocyte populations were assessed by flow cytometry. Relative expression of splenic and hepatic P2X7 mRNA was measured by quantitative real-time PCR. Lumbar spinal cord SOD1 and P2X7 were also quantified by immunoblotting in untreated female SOD1G93A mice during the course of disease. Results BBG treatment reduced body weight loss in SOD1G93A mice of combined sex, but had no effect on clinical score, survival or motor coordination. BBG treatment reduced body weight loss in female, but not male, SOD1G93A mice. BBG treatment also prolonged survival in female, but not male, SOD1G93A mice, extending the mean survival time by 4.3% in female mice compared to female mice treated with saline. BBG treatment had no effect on clinical score or motor

  12. Reduced Plasma Nonesterified Fatty Acid Levels and the Advent of an Acute Lung Injury in Mice after Intravenous or Enteral Oleic Acid Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassiano Felippe Gonçalves de Albuquerque

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although exerting valuable functions in living organisms, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs can be toxic to cells. Increased blood concentration of oleic acid (OLA and other fatty acids is detected in many pathological conditions. In sepsis and leptospirosis, high plasma levels of NEFA and low albumin concentrations are correlated to the disease severity. Surprisingly, 24 h after intravenous or intragastric administration of OLA, main NEFA levels (OLA inclusive were dose dependently decreased. However, lung injury was detected in intravenously treated mice, and highest dose killed all mice. When administered by the enteral route, OLA was not toxic in any tested conditions. Results indicate that OLA has important regulatory properties on fatty acid metabolism, possibly lowering circulating fatty acid through activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors. The significant reduction in blood NEFA levels detected after OLA enteral administration can contribute to the already known health benefits brought about by unsaturated-fatty-acid-enriched diets.

  13. Exercise-induced muscle damage is reduced in resistance-trained males by branched chain amino acids: a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled study

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    Howatson Glyn

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is well documented that exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD decreases muscle function and causes soreness and discomfort. Branched-chain amino acid (BCAA supplementation has been shown to increase protein synthesis and decrease muscle protein breakdown, however, the effects of BCAAs on recovery from damaging resistance training are unclear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the effects of a BCAA supplementation on markers of muscle damage elicited via a sport specific bout of damaging exercise in trained volunteers. Methods Twelve males (mean ± SD age, 23 ± 2 y; stature, 178.3 ± 3.6 cm and body mass, 79.6 ± 8.4 kg were randomly assigned to a supplement (n = 6 or placebo (n = 6 group. The damaging exercise consisted of 100 consecutive drop-jumps. Creatine kinase (CK, maximal voluntary contraction (MVC, muscle soreness (DOMS, vertical jump (VJ, thigh circumference (TC and calf circumference (CC were measured as markers of muscle damage. All variables were measured immediately before the damaging exercise and at 24, 48, 72 and 96 h post-exercise. Results A significant time effect was seen for all variables. There were significant group effects showing a reduction in CK efflux and muscle soreness in the BCAA group compared to the placebo (P Conclusion The present study has shown that BCAA administered before and following damaging resistance exercise reduces indices of muscle damage and accelerates recovery in resistance-trained males. It seems likely that BCAA provided greater bioavailablity of substrate to improve protein synthesis and thereby the extent of secondary muscle damage associated with strenuous resistance exercise. Clinical Trial Registration Number: NCT01529281.

  14. Whole body retention of Se-75-homotaurocholic acid (SeBCAT) using a Gamma Camera: A new test in chronic diarrhea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amaral, H.; Palma, R.; Pfau, J.; Coudeu, I.; Bauer, K.

    1985-05-01

    Bile acid malabsorption has been recognized as an important cause of chronic diarrhea. Se-75HCAT, a bile acid, is absorbed in the terminal ileum. Therefore, measurement of its body retention indicate ileal function not requiring fecal collections. The authors studied 8 normal volunteers presenting with chronic recurrent diarrhea for more than 2 years. Each received orally a 10 ..mu..Ci capsule of SeHCAT (Amersham Intl.) and 3 hours later anterior and posterior whole body activity was measured using a digital camera without collimator. Measurements were repeated daily for 7 days and expressed as % of retention. Three patients had normal retention (1 celiac disease, 1 inactive Crohn disease and 1 functional diarrhea), another was borderline (an immunodeficiency) and 4 patients presented abnormal bile acid absorption (2 had vagotomy, 1 Crohn disease and 1 idiopathic diarrhea). This last group was treated with cholestyramine showing improvement of the diarrhea, and relapse on drug withdrawal. These findings demonstrate that this technique can identify bile acid malabsorption as the cause of chronic diarrhea by external counting.

  15. The Refsum disease marker phytanic acid, a branched chain fatty acid, affects Ca2+ homeostasis and mitochondria, and reduces cell viability in rat hippocampal astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahlert, Stefan; Schönfeld, Peter; Reiser, Georg

    2005-02-01

    The saturated branched chain fatty acid, phytanic acid, a degradation product of chlorophyll, accumulates in Refsum disease, an inherited peroxisomal disorder with neurological clinical features. To elucidate the pathogenic mechanism, we investigated the influence of phytanic acid on cellular physiology of rat hippocampal astrocytes. Phytanic acid (100 microM) induced an immediate transient increase in cytosolic Ca2+ concentration, followed by a plateau. The peak of this biphasic Ca2+ response was largely independent of extracellular Ca2+, indicating activation of cellular Ca2+ stores by phytanic acid. Phytanic acid depolarized mitochondria without causing in situ swelling of mitochondria. The slow decrease of mitochondrial potential is not consistent with fast and simultaneous opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore. However, phytanic acid induced substantial generation of reactive oxygen species. Phytanic acid caused astroglia cell death after a few hours of exposure. We suggest that the cytotoxic effect of phytanic acid seems to be due to a combined action on Ca2+ regulation, mitochondrial depolarization, and increased ROS generation in brain cells.

  16. Oil Palm Workers: Designing Ergonomics Harvesting Tool Us¬ing User Centered Design Approach to Reducing Awkward Body Posture by Catia Simulation

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    Irwan Syah MOHD YUSOFF

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study is to develop a new ergonomics chisel based on user centered design approach and to evaluate the effectiveness for reducing awkward posture using CATIA software for simulation analysis.Methods: Respondents were selected using purposive sampling – age 18 – 49 years old, men, experience using chisel (>1 month. A set of questionnaire were used to interview workers while postural risks were determined using Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA. Selected anthropometric parameters were taken and user centered design concept were applied to determine mismatch and to facilitate design process. CATIA software was used to integrate the results of postural analysis and anthropometric measurement using 3D modeling.Results: A total of 273 male harvesters participated in this study. The result shows 5.2% of the chisels’ length of handles matches with the respondents whereas none (100% of the chisels’ circumference of handle matches with respondents’ internal grip diameter. Tool-chisel usage, majority of harvester bend forward while harvesting (96.7% and most of workers having blister (83.2%, redness (85.3% and numbness (65.9% during harvesting. RULA simulation analysis showed the score action level for new design is 3(further investigated need and changes may be required compared to existing tool are in action score 7(investigated and changes required immediately.Conclusions: The study showed that the design of new harvesting tool has the potential to reduce awkward body posture during harvesting activities as compared to existing tools. Keywords: Harvesting tool, Awkward posture, User centered design, CATIA simulation

  17. The development of an intervention programme to reduce whole-body vibration exposure at work induced by a change in behaviour: a study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frings-Dresen Monique HW

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Whole body vibration (WBV exposure at work is common and studies found evidence that this exposure might cause low back pain (LBP. A recent review concluded there is a lack of evidence of effective strategies to reduce WBV exposure. Most research in this field is focussed on the technical implications, although changing behaviour towards WBV exposure might be promising as well. Therefore, we developed an intervention programme to reduce WBV exposure in a population of drivers with the emphasis on a change in behaviour of driver and employer. The hypothesis is that an effective reduction in WBV exposure, in time, will lead to a reduction in LBP as WBV exposure is a proxy for an increased risk of LBP. Methods/Design The intervention programme was developed specifically for the drivers of vibrating vehicles and their employers. The intervention programme will be based on the most important determinants of WBV exposure as track conditions, driving speed, quality of the seat, etc. By increasing knowledge and skills towards changing these determinants, the attitude, social influence and self-efficacy (ASE of both drivers and employers will be affected having an effect on the level of exposure. We used the well-known ASE model to develop an intervention programme aiming at a change or the intention to change behaviour towards WBV exposure. The developed programme consists of: individual health surveillance, an information brochure, an informative presentation and a report of the performed field measurements. Discussion The study protocol described is advantageous as the intervention program actively tries to change behaviour towards WBV exposure. The near future will show if this intervention program is effective by showing a decrease in WBV exposure.

  18. Investigation of the Prebiotic Synthesis of Amino Acids and RNA Bases from CO2 using FeS/H2S as a Reducing Agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, Anthony D.; Miller, Stanley L.; McDonald, Gene; Bada, Jeffrey

    1995-01-01

    An autotrophic theory of the origin of metabolism and life has been proposed in which carbon dioxide is reduced by ferrous sulfide and hydrogen sulfide by means of a reversed citric acid cycle, leading to the production of amino acids. Similar processes have been proposed for purine synthesis. Ferrous sulfide is a strong reducing agent in the presence of hydrogen sulfide and can produce hydrogen as well as reduce alkenes, alkynes, and thiols to saturated hydrocarbons and reduce ketones to thiols. However, the reduction of carbon dioxide has not been demonstrated. We show here that no amino acids, purines, or pyrimidines are produced from carbon dioxide with the ferrous sulfide and hydrogen sulfide system. Furthermore, this system does not produce amino acids from carboxylic acids by reductive amination and carboxylation. Thus, the proposed autotrophic theory, using carbo