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Sample records for acids potential role

  1. Potential role of amino acids in pathogenesis of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Shamaila; Shaukat, Faiza; Gul, Anjuman; Arooj, Mahwish; Malik, Arif

    2017-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a syndrome of inconclusive etiopathogenesis with a prevalence of about 1% in general population. Underlying factors include genetic predisposition and defected neurodevelopment in early stages of life. The role of amino acids has been indicated in some reports. However, very few workers have detailed the effect of each amino acid in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Thus, in the present review, we aimed to provide an insight into the potential role of amino acids levels during schizophrenia. Any single amino acid defect cannot lead to the development of the disease. Higher concentration of glycine, serine, glutamate, homocysteine, and arginine are reported by many scientists in blood samples of patients of schizophrenia. Levels of rest of the amino acids show inconsistent results. Involvement of glutamate in pathophysiology of schizophrenia was hypothesized as early as the 1980s. It was demonstrated that dissociative anesthetics which are N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists can produce all negative, psychotic, cognitive, and physiological features of schizophrenia in healthy controls. This led to the development of hypothesis of NMDA receptor hypofunctioning in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Later on, it was also found that agents enhancing functioning of NMDA receptor at glycine modulatory site, improved symptoms in patients of schizophrenia receiving antipsychotic medications. Thus, the relationship of perturb amino acid levels with the biological basis and pathophysiology of schizophrenia is an important area to be further explored for effective management of schizophrenic patients.

  2. Fatty acid and amino acid composition in haruan as a potential role in wound healing.

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    Jais, A M; McCulloch, R; Croft, K

    1994-09-01

    1. Two species of snakehead fish are available in Sabah, i.e. Channa striatus and Channa melanosoma, and are commonly known as haruan. Haruan is consumed by many Malaysians to induce healing after a clinical operations. However, there is no scientific evidence as yet to substantiate the claim, and so it was decided to analyse the biochemical composition in haruan to determine which compounds may have a possible role or potential in wound healing. 2. Samples (midline fillet) of both species were extracted separately in hexane for the qualitative analysis of fatty acids by a gas chromatography, Hewlett-Packard 5890A, using a 10 meter superox 11 column (Alltech) at temperature between 190 and 245 degrees C. Peak areas were calculated automatically using Hewlett-Packard 3393A computing integrator. Subsequently, the amino acid composition was analysed using a precolumn derivatization reverse phase HPLC waters PICO-TAG system. 3. Haruan is found to contain unusually high arachidonic acid (AA) but almost no eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). AA which is a precursor of prostaglandin may initiate blood clotting and be responsible for growth. Haruan also contains all the essential amino acids for wound healing, particularly glycine which is the most important component of human skin collagen. Therefore, haruan contained all the basic biochemical requirements for wound healing.

  3. The potential role of omega-3 fatty acids supplements in increasing athletic performance

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    Șerban GLIGOR

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Polyunsaturated omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids are essential fatty acids that cannot be produced by the body itself and therefore must be provided through nutrition. Omega-6 and particularly omega-3 fatty acids have important roles in the organism, contributing to the maintenance and promotion of health. The optimal proportion of omega-6/omega-3 fatty acids is 2:1, or even better 1:1. They are involved in normal growth and development, play a role in the prevention of coronary and cardiovascular diseases, of diabetes mellitus, of arterial hypertension, arthritis and cancer. Omega-3 fatty acids mainly have an anti-inflammatory effect, but also act as hypolipidemic and antithrombotic agents. A potential role of omega-3 fatty acids is that of increasing physical performance. Their role in the physical activity refers on one side to the global health of athletes and on the other side to their anti-inflammatory effect, as high intensity physical exercise induces increased free-radical production and microtraumas, with the induction of an inflammatory status. The anti-inflammatory effect of these fatty acids manifests through an increased production of endogenous antioxidant enzymes, through decreasing the production of prostaglandins metabolites, decreasing the production of leukotriene B4, etc. They are also effective on reducing muscle pain post eccentric exercise and on decreasing the severity of bronchoconstriction induced by exercise, as well as improving pulmonary function variables. In conclusion it seems that supplementing diets with omega-3 fatty acids, apart from having benefic effects on health and on the prevention and management of certain affections, proves to be a beneficial for physical activity and athletic performance.

  4. Biological roles and therapeutic potential of hydroxy-carboxylic acid receptors

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    Kashan eAhmed

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In the recent past, deorphanization studies have described intermediates of energy metabolism to activate G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs and to thereby regulate metabolic functions. GPR81, GPR109A and GPR109B, formerly known as the nicotinic acid receptor family, are encoded by clustered genes and share a high degree of sequence homology. Recently, hydroxy-carboxylic acids were identified as endogenous ligands of GPR81, GPR109A and GPR109B, and therefore these receptors have been placed into a novel receptor family of hydroxy-carboxylic acid (HCA receptors. The HCA1 receptor (GPR81 is activated by the glycolytic metabolite 2-hydroxy-propionic acid (lactate, the HCA2 receptor is activated by the ketone body 3-hydroxy-butyric acid and the HCA3 receptor (GPR109B is a receptor for the β-oxidation intermediate 3-hydroxy-octanoic acid. While HCA1 and HCA2 receptors are present in most mammalian species, the HCA3 receptor is exclusively found in humans and higher primates. HCA receptors are expressed in adipose tissue and mediate anti-lipolytic effects in adipocytes through Gi-type G-protein-dependent inhibition of adenylyl cyclase. HCA2 and HCA3 inhibit lipolysis during conditions of increased β-oxidation such as prolonged fasting, whereas HCA1 mediates the anti-lipolytic effects of insulin in the fed state. As HCA2 is a receptor for the established anti-dyslipidemic drug nicotinic acid, HCA1 and HCA3 also represent promising drug targets and several synthetic ligands for HCA receptors have been developed. In this article, we will summarize the deorphanization and pharmacological characterization of HCA receptors. Moreover, we will discuss recent progress in elucidating the physiological and pathophysiological role to further evaluate the therapeutic potential of the HCA receptor family for the treatment of metabolic disease.

  5. Triphenyl phosphate-induced developmental toxicity in zebrafish: Potential role of the retinoic acid receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isales, Gregory M.; Hipszer, Rachel A.; Raftery, Tara D. [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States); Chen, Albert; Stapleton, Heather M. [Division of Environmental Sciences and Policy, Nicholas School of the Environment, Duke University, Durham, NC (United States); Volz, David C., E-mail: volz@mailbox.sc.edu [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Triphenyl phosphate-induced toxicity in zebrafish embryos is enhanced in the presence of a retinoic acid receptor antagonist. • Triphenyl phosphate uptake or metabolism within zebrafish embryos is not altered in the presence of a retinoic acid receptor antagonist. • Triphenyl phosphate decreases expression of cytochrome P450 26a1 in zebrafish embryos. • Triphenyl phosphate inhibits retinoic acid-induced activation of human retinoic acid receptors. - Abstract: Using zebrafish as a model, we previously reported that developmental exposure to triphenyl phosphate (TPP) – a high-production volume organophosphate-based flame retardant – results in dioxin-like cardiac looping impairments that are independent of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor. Using a pharmacologic approach, the objective of this study was to investigate the potential role of retinoic acid receptor (RAR) – a nuclear receptor that regulates vertebrate heart morphogenesis – in mediating TPP-induced developmental toxicity in zebrafish. We first revealed that static exposure of zebrafish from 5–72 h post-fertilization (hpf) to TPP in the presence of non-toxic concentrations of an RAR antagonist (BMS493) significantly enhanced TPP-induced toxicity (relative to TPP alone), even though identical non-toxic BMS493 concentrations mitigated retinoic acid (RA)-induced toxicity. BMS493-mediated enhancement of TPP toxicity was not a result of differential TPP uptake or metabolism, as internal embryonic doses of TPP and diphenyl phosphate (DPP) – a primary TPP metabolite – were not different in the presence or absence of BMS493. Using real-time PCR, we then quantified the relative change in expression of cytochrome P450 26a1 (cyp26a1) – a major target gene for RA-induced RAR activation in zebrafish – and found that RA and TPP exposure resulted in a ∼5-fold increase and decrease in cyp26a1 expression, respectively, relative to vehicle-exposed embryos. To address whether TPP may

  6. Potential Role of Omega-3 Fatty Acids on the Myogenic Program of Satellite Cells

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    Bhullar, Amritpal S.; Putman, Charles T.; Mazurak, Vera C.

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal muscle loss is associated with aging as well as pathological conditions. Satellite cells (SCs) play an important role in muscle regeneration. Omega-3 fatty acids are widely studied in a variety of muscle wasting diseases; however, little is known about their impact on skeletal muscle regeneration. The aim of this review is to evaluate studies examining the effect of omega-3 fatty acids, α-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid on the regulation of SC proliferation and differentiation. This review highlights mechanisms by which omega-3 fatty acids may modulate the myogenic program of the stem cell population within skeletal muscles and identifies considerations for future studies. It is proposed that minimally three myogenic transcriptional regulatory factors, paired box 7 (Pax7), myogenic differentiation 1 protein, and myogenin, should be measured to confirm the stage of SCs within the myogenic program affected by omega-3 fatty acids. PMID:26884682

  7. Omega-3 fatty acids: potential role in the management of early Alzheimer’s disease

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    Gregory A Jicha

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Gregory A Jicha, William R MarkesberyUniversity of Kentucky Alzheimer’s Disease Center and the Sanders-Brown Center on Aging University of Kentucky College of Medicine, Lexington, KY, USAbstract: Omega-3 fatty acids are essential for brain growth and development. They play an important role throughout life, as critical modulators of neuronal function and regulation of oxidative stress mechanisms, in brain health and disease. Docosahexanoic acid (DHA, the major omega-3 fatty acid found in neurons, has taken on a central role as a target for therapeutic intervention in Alzheimer’s disease (AD. A plethora of in vitro, animal model, and human data, gathered over the past decade, highlight the important role DHA may play in the development of a variety of neurological and psychiatric disorders, including AD. Cross sectional and prospective cohort data have demonstrated that reduced dietary intake or low brain levels of DHA are associated with accelerated cognitive decline or the development of incipient dementia, including AD. Several clinical trials investigating the effects of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in AD have been completed and all failed to demonstrate its efficacy in the treatment of AD. However, these trials produced intriguing data suggesting that the beneficial effects of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation may depend on the stage of disease, other dietary mediators, and apolipoprotein E status.Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease, omega-3 fatty acids, oxidative stress, clinical studies, treatment

  8. A potential role for free fatty acids in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia.

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    Robinson, Nicola J; Minchell, Laura J; Myers, Jenny E; Hubel, Carl A; Crocker, Ian P

    2009-06-01

    Pregnant women with the vascular complication of preeclampsia show altered lipid metabolism characterized by elevated circulating triglycerides and nonesterified free fatty acids. We have compared the effect of maternal plasma from women with and without preeclampsia on cultured vascular endothelial cells and determined whether these plasma-induced changes were reproduced with free fatty acid solutions of palmitic, oleic and linoleic acid, representative of circulating levels reported in preeclampsia. Lipid accumulation was quantified by oil-red O staining, apoptosis by terminal dUTP nick-end labelling (TUNEL) and the measurement of mitochondrial redox capacity, and membrane potential recorded using MTT reduction and JC-1 accumulation for human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) exposed to plasma and free fatty acids. Lipid droplet accumulation was significantly increased in cultured HUVECs conditioned with maternal plasma from pregnancies with preeclampsia compared with normal uncomplicated controls. This increase was replicated following exposure to free fatty acids at the combined concentrations defined in preeclampsia. Plasma from these women also caused a significant decrease in mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity, a marked reduction in mitochondrial membrane potential and an increase in apoptosis compared with normal pregnancy. Again these effects were reproduced using free fatty acids in combination at the levels previously associated with preeclampsia. These findings support the concept of a circulating pathogenic factor for preeclampsia and highlight the possibility that this factor is not a single compound but perhaps the combined elevation of the free fatty acids palmitic, oleic and linoleic acid in the maternal circulation.

  9. Triphenyl phosphate-induced developmental toxicity in zebrafish: potential role of the retinoic acid receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isales, Gregory M; Hipszer, Rachel A; Raftery, Tara D; Chen, Albert; Stapleton, Heather M; Volz, David C

    2015-04-01

    Using zebrafish as a model, we previously reported that developmental exposure to triphenyl phosphate (TPP) - a high-production volume organophosphate-based flame retardant - results in dioxin-like cardiac looping impairments that are independent of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor. Using a pharmacologic approach, the objective of this study was to investigate the potential role of retinoic acid receptor (RAR) - a nuclear receptor that regulates vertebrate heart morphogenesis - in mediating TPP-induced developmental toxicity in zebrafish. We first revealed that static exposure of zebrafish from 5-72h post-fertilization (hpf) to TPP in the presence of non-toxic concentrations of an RAR antagonist (BMS493) significantly enhanced TPP-induced toxicity (relative to TPP alone), even though identical non-toxic BMS493 concentrations mitigated retinoic acid (RA)-induced toxicity. BMS493-mediated enhancement of TPP toxicity was not a result of differential TPP uptake or metabolism, as internal embryonic doses of TPP and diphenyl phosphate (DPP) - a primary TPP metabolite - were not different in the presence or absence of BMS493. Using real-time PCR, we then quantified the relative change in expression of cytochrome P450 26a1 (cyp26a1) - a major target gene for RA-induced RAR activation in zebrafish - and found that RA and TPP exposure resulted in a ∼5-fold increase and decrease in cyp26a1 expression, respectively, relative to vehicle-exposed embryos. To address whether TPP may interact with human RARs, we then exposed Chinese hamster ovary cells stably transfected with chimeric human RARα-, RARβ-, or RARγ to TPP in the presence of RA, and found that TPP significantly inhibited RA-induced luciferase activity in a concentration-dependent manner. Overall, our findings suggest that zebrafish RARs may be involved in mediating TPP-induced developmental toxicity, a mechanism of action that may have relevance to humans. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Potential role of uric acid in metabolic syndrome, hypertension, kidney injury, and cardiovascular diseases: is it time for reappraisal?

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    Soltani, Zohreh; Rasheed, Kashaf; Kapusta, Daniel R; Reisin, Efrain

    2013-06-01

    Elevated serum uric acid concentration is a common laboratory finding in subjects with metabolic syndrome/obesity, hypertension, kidney disease and cardiovascular events. Hyperuricemia has been attributed to hyperinsulinemia in metabolic syndrome and to decreased uric acid excretion in kidney dysfunction, and is not acknowledged as a main mediator of metabolic syndrome, renal disease, and cardiovascular disorder development. However, more recent investigations have altered this traditional view and shown, by providing compelling evidence, to support an independent link between hyperuricemia and increased risk of metabolic syndrome, diabetes, hypertension, kidney disease and cardiovascular disorders. However, despite these new findings, controversy regarding the exact role of uric acid in inducing these diseases remains to be unfolded. Furthermore, recent data suggest that the high-fructose diet in the United State, as a major cause of hyperuricemia, may be contributing to the metabolic syndrome/obesity epidemic, diabetes, hypertension, kidney disease and cardiovascular disorder. Our focus in this review is to discuss the available evidence supporting a role for uric acid in the development of metabolic syndrome, hypertension, renal disease, and cardiovascular disorder; and the potential pathophysiology mechanisms involved.

  11. The potential role of hyaluronic acid in postoperative radiofrequency surgery for chronic inferior turbinate hypertrophy.

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    Casale, Manuele; Manuele, Casale; Ciglia, Giacomo; Giacomo, Ciglia; Frari, Valeria; Valeria, Frari; Incammisa, Antonino; Antonino, Incammisa; Mazzola, Francesco; Francesco, Mazzola; Baptista, Peter; Peter, Baptista; Mladina, Ranko; Ranko, Mladina; Salvinelli, Fabrizio; Fabrizio, Salvinelli

    2013-01-01

    We prospectively evaluated the efficacy of hyaluronic acid (HA) as an adjuvant treatment to hasten the improvement of nasal respiration and to minimize patients' discomfort in the postoperative radiofrequency volumetric tissue reduction (RFVTR) of inferior turbinates. We enrolled 57 patients randomly assigned into two groups, HA (22 patients) and saline group (35 patients), which received isotonic saline nasal irrigation. We used the monopolar device somnoplasty for all patients. Visual analogic scale (VAS) and nasal endoscopy were used to assess the outcomes of the treatments during the 1st month of follow-up. The mean VAS score of the HA group at the 1st week was significantly lower than the control group (3.36 ± 1.89 versus 6.95 ± 1.52; p VAS score remained significantly lower in the HA group also at the 2nd week (3.43 ± 1.27 versus 5.75±1.39; p < 0.05), becoming similar to the control group at the 4th week (p = ns). Since the first visit the HA group also showed significantly lower crust score than the saline group (p < 0.05), and there was no crust found in either group at the last visit. The compliance to treatment was similar in both groups. The results of this prospective study suggest a role of HA as a supportive treatment for faster improvement of nasal respiration, also minimizing patients' discomfort in postoperative nasal surgery, promoting nasal mucosa healing in postoperative RFVTR for inferior turbinate hypertrophy.

  12. Modulation of the gut microbiota impacts nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: a potential role for bile acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, Aafke W.F.; Houben, Tom; Katiraei, Saeed; Dijk, Wieneke; Boutens, Lily; Bolt, van der Nieke; Wang, Zeneng; Brown, J.M.; Hazen, Stanley L.; Mandard, Stéphane; Shiri-Sverdlov, Ronit; Kuipers, Folkert; Willems van Dijk, Ko; Vervoort, Jacques; Stienstra, Rinke; Hooiveld, Guido J.E.J.; Kersten, Sander

    2017-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common liver disease worldwide, yet the pathogenesis of NAFLD is only partially understood. Here, we investigated the role of the gut bacteria in NAFLD by stimulating the gut bacteria via feeding mice the fermentable dietary fiber, guar gum (GG),

  13. Modulation of the gut microbiota impacts nonalcoholic fatty liver disease : A potential role for bile acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, Aafke Wf; Houben, Tom; Katiraei, Saeed; Dijk, Wieneke; Boutens, Lily; van der Bolt, Nieke; Wang, Zeneng; Brown, J Mark; Hazen, Stanley L; Mandard, Stéphane; Shiri-Sverdlov, Ronit; Kuipers, Folkert; Willems van Dijk, Ko; Vervoort, Jacques; Stienstra, Rinke; Hooiveld, Guido Jej; Kersten, Sander

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common liver disease worldwide, yet the pathogenesis of NAFLD is only partially understood. Here, we investigated the role of the gut bacteria in NAFLD by stimulating the gut bacteria via feeding mice the fermentable dietary fiber, guar gum (GG),

  14. Potential role of salicylic acid in modulating diacylglycerol homeostasis in response to freezing temperatures in Arabidopsis.

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    Tan, Wei-Juan; Xiao, Shi; Chen, Qin-Fang

    2015-01-01

    In our recent article in Molecular Plant, we reported that 3 lipase-like defense regulators SENESCENCE-ASSOCIATED GENE101 (SAG101), ENHANCED DISEASE SUSCEPTIBILITY1 (EDS1) and PHYTOALEXIN DEFICIENT4 (PAD4) are involved in the regulation of freezing tolerance in Arabidopsis. The transcripts of SAG101, EDS1 and PAD4 were inducible by cold stress and their knockout or knockdown mutants exhibited enhanced chilling and freezing tolerance in comparison to the wild type. The freezing tolerance phenotype showed in the sag101, eds1 and pad4 mutants was correlated with the transcriptional upregulation of C-REPEAT/DRE BINDING FACTORs (CBFs) and their regulons as well as increased levels of proline. Upon cold exposure, the sag101, eds1 and pad4 mutants showed ameliorated cell death and accumulation of hydrogen peroxide, which were highly induced by freezing stress in the wild-type leaves. Moreover, the contents of salicylic acid (SA) and diacylglycerol (DAG) were significantly decreased in the sag101, eds1 and pad4 mutants compared to the wild type. Taken together, our results suggest that the SAG101, EDS1 and PAD4 are negative regulators in the freezing response and function, at least in part, by modulating the homeostasis of SA and DAG in Arabidopsis.

  15. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids: Their potential role in blood pressure prevention and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Borghi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs from fish and fish oils appear to protect against coronary heart disease: their dietary intake is in fact inversely associated to cardiovascular disease morbidity/mortality in population studies. Recent evidence suggests that at least part of their heart protective effect is mediated by a relatively small but significant decrease in blood pressure level. In fact, omega-3 PUFAs exhibit wide-ranging biological actions that include regulating both vasomotor tone and renal sodium excretion, partly competing with omega- 6 PUFAs for common metabolic enzymes and thereby decreasing the production of vasocostrincting rather than vasodilating and anti-inflammatory eicosanoids. PUFAs also reduce angiotensin- converting enzyme (ACE activity, angiotensin II formation, TGF-beta expression, enhance eNO generation and activate the parasympathetic nervous system. The final result is improved vasodilation and arterial compliance of both small and large arteries. Preliminary clinical trials involving dyslipidemic patients, diabetics and elderly subjects, as well as normotensive and hypertensive subjects confirm this working hypothesis. Future research will clarify if PUFA supplementation could improve the antihypertensive action of specific blood pressure lowering drug classes and of statins.

  16. [Study of acetylsalicylic acid role in the potentiation of antiamnesic and neuroprotective properties of piracetam in rats with alloxan diabetes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhiliuk, V I; Levykh, A E; Mamchur, V I

    2013-01-01

    It has been established that prolonged alloxan-induced hyperglycemia in rats potentiates amnesic properties of scopolamine hydrobromide. It was characterized by shortening of the latent period by 44% (pacetylsalicylic acid was accompanied by an expressed antiamnetic potential - the reduction of early markers of proteins degradation (aldehydephenylhydrazones, APH) by 21,7% (pacetylsalicylic acid to improve microcirculation in the ischemic areas of the brain in diabetes and probably to its neuroprotective potential.

  17. Ascorbic Acid-A Potential Oxidant Scavenger and Its Role in Plant Development and Abiotic Stress Tolerance

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    Nudrat A. Akram

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Over-production of reactive oxygen species (ROS in plants under stress conditions is a common phenomenon. Plants tend to counter this problem through their ability to synthesize ROS neutralizing substances including non-enzymatic and enzymatic antioxidants. In this context, ascorbic acid (AsA is one of the universal non-enzymatic antioxidants having substantial potential of not only scavenging ROS, but also modulating a number of fundamental functions in plants both under stress and non-stress conditions. In the present review, the role of AsA, its biosynthesis, and cross-talk with different hormones have been discussed comprehensively. Furthermore, the possible involvement of AsA-hormone crosstalk in the regulation of several key physiological and biochemical processes like seed germination, photosynthesis, floral induction, fruit expansion, ROS regulation and senescence has also been described. A simplified and schematic AsA biosynthetic pathway has been drawn, which reflects key intermediates involved therein. This could pave the way for future research to elucidate the modulation of plant AsA biosynthesis and subsequent responses to environmental stresses. Apart from discussing the role of different ascorbate peroxidase isoforms, the comparative role of two key enzymes, ascorbate peroxidase (APX and ascorbate oxidase (AO involved in AsA metabolism in plant cell apoplast is also discussed particularly focusing on oxidative stress perception and amplification. Limited progress has been made so far in terms of developing transgenics which could over-produce AsA. The prospects of generation of transgenics overexpressing AsA related genes and exogenous application of AsA have been discussed at length in the review.

  18. Ascorbic Acid-A Potential Oxidant Scavenger and Its Role in Plant Development and Abiotic Stress Tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akram, Nudrat A; Shafiq, Fahad; Ashraf, Muhammad

    2017-01-01

    Over-production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in plants under stress conditions is a common phenomenon. Plants tend to counter this problem through their ability to synthesize ROS neutralizing substances including non-enzymatic and enzymatic antioxidants. In this context, ascorbic acid (AsA) is one of the universal non-enzymatic antioxidants having substantial potential of not only scavenging ROS, but also modulating a number of fundamental functions in plants both under stress and non-stress conditions. In the present review, the role of AsA, its biosynthesis, and cross-talk with different hormones have been discussed comprehensively. Furthermore, the possible involvement of AsA-hormone crosstalk in the regulation of several key physiological and biochemical processes like seed germination, photosynthesis, floral induction, fruit expansion, ROS regulation and senescence has also been described. A simplified and schematic AsA biosynthetic pathway has been drawn, which reflects key intermediates involved therein. This could pave the way for future research to elucidate the modulation of plant AsA biosynthesis and subsequent responses to environmental stresses. Apart from discussing the role of different ascorbate peroxidase isoforms, the comparative role of two key enzymes, ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and ascorbate oxidase (AO) involved in AsA metabolism in plant cell apoplast is also discussed particularly focusing on oxidative stress perception and amplification. Limited progress has been made so far in terms of developing transgenics which could over-produce AsA. The prospects of generation of transgenics overexpressing AsA related genes and exogenous application of AsA have been discussed at length in the review.

  19. Ascorbic Acid-A Potential Oxidant Scavenger and Its Role in Plant Development and Abiotic Stress Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akram, Nudrat A.; Shafiq, Fahad; Ashraf, Muhammad

    2017-01-01

    Over-production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in plants under stress conditions is a common phenomenon. Plants tend to counter this problem through their ability to synthesize ROS neutralizing substances including non-enzymatic and enzymatic antioxidants. In this context, ascorbic acid (AsA) is one of the universal non-enzymatic antioxidants having substantial potential of not only scavenging ROS, but also modulating a number of fundamental functions in plants both under stress and non-stress conditions. In the present review, the role of AsA, its biosynthesis, and cross-talk with different hormones have been discussed comprehensively. Furthermore, the possible involvement of AsA-hormone crosstalk in the regulation of several key physiological and biochemical processes like seed germination, photosynthesis, floral induction, fruit expansion, ROS regulation and senescence has also been described. A simplified and schematic AsA biosynthetic pathway has been drawn, which reflects key intermediates involved therein. This could pave the way for future research to elucidate the modulation of plant AsA biosynthesis and subsequent responses to environmental stresses. Apart from discussing the role of different ascorbate peroxidase isoforms, the comparative role of two key enzymes, ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and ascorbate oxidase (AO) involved in AsA metabolism in plant cell apoplast is also discussed particularly focusing on oxidative stress perception and amplification. Limited progress has been made so far in terms of developing transgenics which could over-produce AsA. The prospects of generation of transgenics overexpressing AsA related genes and exogenous application of AsA have been discussed at length in the review. PMID:28491070

  20. Uric Acid-Induced Adipocyte Dysfunction Is Attenuated by HO-1 Upregulation: Potential Role of Antioxidant Therapy to Target Obesity

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    Sodhi, Komal; Hilgefort, Jordan; Banks, George; Gilliam, Chelsea; Stevens, Sarah; Ansinelli, Hayden A.; Getty, Morghan; Abraham, Nader G.; Shapiro, Joseph I.

    2016-01-01

    Increased uric acid levels have been implicated in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome. To examine the mechanisms by which this occurs, we hypothesized that an increase in heme oxygenase 1, a potent antioxidant gene, will decrease uric acid levels and adipocyte dysfunction via suppression of ROS and xanthine oxidase (XO) levels. We examined the effect of uric acid on adipogenesis in human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in the presence and absence of cobalt protoporphyrin (CoPP), an HO-1 inducer, and tin mesoporphyrin (SnMP), an HO activity inhibitor. Uric acid increased adipogenesis by increasing NADPH oxidase expression and elevation in the adipogenesis markers C/EBPα, PPARγ, and Mest, while decreasing small lipid droplets and Wnt10b levels. We treated MSCs with fructose, a fuel source that increases uric acid levels. Our results showed that fructose increased XO expression as compared to the control and concomitant treatment with CoPP significantly decreased XO expression and uric acid levels. These beneficial effects of CoPP were reversed by SnMP, supporting a role for HO activity in mediating these effects. These findings demonstrate that increased levels of HO-1 appear crucial in modulating the phenotype of adipocytes exposed to uric acid and in downregulating XO and NADPH oxidase levels. PMID:26681956

  1. Uric Acid-Induced Adipocyte Dysfunction Is Attenuated by HO-1 Upregulation: Potential Role of Antioxidant Therapy to Target Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komal Sodhi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Increased uric acid levels have been implicated in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome. To examine the mechanisms by which this occurs, we hypothesized that an increase in heme oxygenase 1, a potent antioxidant gene, will decrease uric acid levels and adipocyte dysfunction via suppression of ROS and xanthine oxidase (XO levels. We examined the effect of uric acid on adipogenesis in human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs in the presence and absence of cobalt protoporphyrin (CoPP, an HO-1 inducer, and tin mesoporphyrin (SnMP, an HO activity inhibitor. Uric acid increased adipogenesis by increasing NADPH oxidase expression and elevation in the adipogenesis markers C/EBPα, PPARγ, and Mest, while decreasing small lipid droplets and Wnt10b levels. We treated MSCs with fructose, a fuel source that increases uric acid levels. Our results showed that fructose increased XO expression as compared to the control and concomitant treatment with CoPP significantly decreased XO expression and uric acid levels. These beneficial effects of CoPP were reversed by SnMP, supporting a role for HO activity in mediating these effects. These findings demonstrate that increased levels of HO-1 appear crucial in modulating the phenotype of adipocytes exposed to uric acid and in downregulating XO and NADPH oxidase levels.

  2. Cyclin A2 and CDK2 as Novel Targets of Aspirin and Salicylic acid: a Potential Role in Cancer Prevention

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    Dachineni, Rakesh; Ai, Guoqiang; Kumar, D. Ramesh; Sadhu, Satya S.; Tummala, Hemachand; Bhat, G. Jayarama

    2015-01-01

    Data emerging from the past 10 years have consolidated the rationale for investigating the use of aspirin as a chemopreventive agent; however, the mechanisms leading to its anti-cancer effects are still being elucidated. We hypothesized that aspirin’s chemopreventive actions may involve cell cycle regulation through modulation of the levels or activity of cyclin A2/cyclin dependent kinase-2 (CDK2). In this study, HT-29 and other diverse panel of cancer cells were used to demonstrate that both aspirin and its primary metabolite, salicylic acid, decreased cyclin A2 (CCNA2) and CDK2 protein and mRNA levels. The down regulatory effect of either drugs on cyclin A2 levels was prevented by pretreatment with lactacystin, an inhibitor of proteasomes, suggesting the involvement of 26S proteasomes. In-vitro kinase assays showed that lysates from cells treated with salicylic acid had lower levels of CDK2 activity. Importantly, three independent experiments revealed that salicylic acid directly binds to CDK2. Firstly, inclusion of salicylic acid in naïve cell lysates, or in recombinant CDK2 preparations, increased the ability of the anti-CDK2 antibody to immunoprecipitate CDK2, suggesting that salicylic acid may directly bind and alter its conformation. Secondly, in 8-anilino-1-naphthalene-sulfonate (ANS)-CDK2 fluorescence assays, pre-incubation of CDK2 with salicylic acid, dose-dependently quenched the fluorescence due to ANS. Thirdly, computational analysis using molecular docking studies identified Asp145 and Lys33 as the potential sites of salicylic acid interactions with CDK2. These results demonstrate that aspirin and salicylic acid down-regulate cyclin A2/CDK2 proteins in multiple cancer cell lines, suggesting a novel target and mechanism of action in chemoprevention. Implications Biochemical and structural studies indicate that the anti-proliferative actions of aspirin are mediated through cyclin A2/CDK2. PMID:26685215

  3. Cyclin A2 and CDK2 as Novel Targets of Aspirin and Salicylic Acid: A Potential Role in Cancer Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dachineni, Rakesh; Ai, Guoqiang; Kumar, D Ramesh; Sadhu, Satya S; Tummala, Hemachand; Bhat, G Jayarama

    2016-03-01

    Data emerging from the past 10 years have consolidated the rationale for investigating the use of aspirin as a chemopreventive agent; however, the mechanisms leading to its anticancer effects are still being elucidated. We hypothesized that aspirin's chemopreventive actions may involve cell-cycle regulation through modulation of the levels or activity of cyclin A2/cyclin-dependent kinase-2 (CDK2). In this study, HT-29 and other diverse panel of cancer cells were used to demonstrate that both aspirin and its primary metabolite, salicylic acid, decreased cyclin A2 (CCNA2) and CDK2 protein and mRNA levels. The downregulatory effect of either drugs on cyclin A2 levels was prevented by pretreatment with lactacystin, an inhibitor of proteasomes, suggesting the involvement of 26S proteasomes. In-vitro kinase assays showed that lysates from cells treated with salicylic acid had lower levels of CDK2 activity. Importantly, three independent experiments revealed that salicylic acid directly binds to CDK2. First, inclusion of salicylic acid in naïve cell lysates, or in recombinant CDK2 preparations, increased the ability of the anti-CDK2 antibody to immunoprecipitate CDK2, suggesting that salicylic acid may directly bind and alter its conformation. Second, in 8-anilino-1-naphthalene-sulfonate (ANS)-CDK2 fluorescence assays, preincubation of CDK2 with salicylic acid dose-dependently quenched the fluorescence due to ANS. Third, computational analysis using molecular docking studies identified Asp145 and Lys33 as the potential sites of salicylic acid interactions with CDK2. These results demonstrate that aspirin and salicylic acid downregulate cyclin A2/CDK2 proteins in multiple cancer cell lines, suggesting a novel target and mechanism of action in chemoprevention. Biochemical and structural studies indicate that the antiproliferative actions of aspirin are mediated through cyclin A2/CDK2. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  4. Potential Role of Free Fatty Acids in the Pathogenesis of Periodontitis and Primary Sjögren's Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikama, Yosuke; Kudo, Yasusei; Ishimaru, Naozumi; Funaki, Makoto

    2017-04-14

    Clinical studies have shown that metabolic disorders such as type 2 diabetes and dyslipidemia are associated with increased risk of oral-related diseases, such as periodontitis and Sjögren's syndrome. Although changes in the immune system are critical in both of these metabolic disorders and oral-related diseases, the mechanism underlying the interaction between these diseases remains largely unknown. Obesity and type 2 diabetes are known to be associated with higher concentrations of free fatty acids in blood. Among free fatty acids, saturated fatty acids such as palmitic acid have been demonstrated to induce inflammatory responses mainly via the innate immune systems, and to be involved in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes in tissues such as adipose tissue, liver, pancreas, and skeletal muscle. Here, we highlight recent advances in evidence for the potential involvement of palmitic acid in the pathogenesis of periodontitis and Sjögren's syndrome, and discuss the possibility that improvement of the lipid profile could be a new strategy for the treatment of these diseases.

  5. Changes of auditory event-related potentials in ovariectomized rats injected with d-galactose: Protective role of rosmarinic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantar-Gok, Deniz; Hidisoglu, Enis; Er, Hakan; Acun, Alev Duygu; Olgar, Yusuf; Yargıcoglu, Piraye

    2017-09-01

    Rosmarinic acid (RA), which has multiple bioactive properties, might be a useful agent for protecting central nervous system against age related alterations. In this context, the purpose of the present study was to investigate possible protective effects of RA on mismatch negativity (MMN) component of auditory event-related potentials (AERPs) as an indicator of auditory discrimination and echoic memory in the ovariectomized (OVX) rats injected with d-galactose combined with neurochemical and histological analyses. Ninety female Wistar rats were randomly divided into six groups: sham control (S); RA-treated (R); OVX (O); OVX+RA-treated (OR); OVX+d-galactose-treated (OD); OVX+d-galactose+RA-treated (ODR). Eight weeks later, MMN responses were recorded using the oddball condition. An amplitude reduction of some components of AERPs was observed due to ovariectomy with or without d-galactose administiration and these reduction patterns were diverse for different electrode locations. MMN amplitudes were significantly lower over temporal and right frontal locations in the O and OD groups versus the S and R groups, which was accompanied by increased thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE) levels. RA treatment significantly increased AERP/MMN amplitudes and lowered the TBARS/4-HNE levels in the OR and ODR groups versus the O and OD groups, respectively. Our findings support the potential benefit of RA in the prevention of auditory distortion related to the estrogen deficiency and d-galactose administration at least partly by antioxidant actions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The effect of albumin on podocytes: The role of the fatty acid moiety and the potential role of CD36 scavenger receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pawluczyk, I.Z.A., E-mail: izap1@le.ac.uk [Department of Infection, Immunity and inflammation, University of Leicester, Leicester (United Kingdom); John Walls Renal Unit, Leicester General Hospital Leicester (United Kingdom); Pervez, A.; Ghaderi Najafabadi, M. [Department of Infection, Immunity and inflammation, University of Leicester, Leicester (United Kingdom); Saleem, M.A. [Academic and Children' s Renal Unit, University of Bristol, Southmead Hospital, Bristol (United Kingdom); Topham, P.S. [Department of Infection, Immunity and inflammation, University of Leicester, Leicester (United Kingdom); John Walls Renal Unit, Leicester General Hospital Leicester (United Kingdom)

    2014-08-15

    Evidence is emerging that podocytes are able to endocytose proteins such as albumin using kinetics consistent with a receptor-mediated process. To date the role of the fatty acid moiety on albumin uptake kinetics has not been delineated and the receptor responsible for uptake is yet to be identified. Albumin uptake studies were carried out on cultured human podocytes exposed to FITC-labelled human serum albumin either carrying fatty acids (HSA{sub +FA}) or depleted of them (HSA{sub −FA}). Receptor-mediated endocytosis of FITC-HSA{sub +FA} over 60 min was 5 times greater than that of FITC-HSA{sub −FA}. 24 h exposure of podocytes to albumin up-regulated nephrin expression and induced the activation of caspase-3. These effects were more pronounced in response to HSA{sub −FA.} Individually, anti-CD36 antibodies had no effect upon endocytosis of FITC-HSA. However, a cocktail of 2 antibodies reduced uptake by nearly 50%. Albumin endocytosis was enhanced in the presence of the CD36 specific inhibitor sulfo-N-succinimidyl oleate (SSO) while knock-down of CD36 using CD36siRNA had no effect on uptake. These data suggest that receptor-mediated endocytosis of albumin by podocytes is regulated by the fatty acid moiety, although, some of the detrimental effects are induced independently of it. CD36 does not play a direct role in the uptake of albumin. - Highlights: • The fatty acid moiety is essential for receptor mediated endocytosis of albumin. • Fatty acid depleted albumin is more pathogenic to podocytes. • CD36 is not directly involved in albumin uptake by podocytes.

  7. Potential roles of myeloperoxidase and hypochlorous acid in metabolism and toxicity of alkene hydrocarbons and drug molecules containing olefinic moieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin-Yu; Elfarra, Adnan A

    2017-05-01

    Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) pose a significant health problem and are generally attributed to reactive metabolites. Olefinic moieties in drugs can undergo cytochrome P450-mediated bioactivation to produce reactive metabolites but myeloperoxidase (MPO)-mediated bioactivation of these moieties has not been reported. Thus, small molecules of alkene hydrocarbons are used as model compounds to characterize the MPO-mediated metabolism. Areas covered: The authors focus on MPO-mediated metabolism of alkene hydrocarbons to form chlorohydrins and the potential role of chlorohydrins in alkene toxicity and carcinogenicity. A case study is presented, in which a carcinogenic alkene, 1,3-butadiene, is demonstrated to form 1-chloro-2-hydroxy-3-butene (CHB) through the MPO-mediated pathway. Further bioactivation of CHB yields a cross-linking metabolite, 1-chloro-3-buten-2-one (CBO), which is highly reactive toward glutathione, proteins, nucleosides, and DNA. Toxicity and mutagenicity of CHB and CBO are also presented. Expert opinion: Alkene hydrocarbons readily undergo MPO-mediated bioactivation to form chlorohydrins, which can further be biotransformed into proteins/DNA-modifying reactive metabolites. Therefore, chlorohydrin formation may play an important role in alkene toxicity and carcinogenicity. Olefinic moieties in drugs are expected to undergo similar bioactivation, which may contribute to ADRs. Studies to investigate the roles of MPO and chlorohydrin formation in ADRs are thus warranted.

  8. Retinoic acid mediates long-paced oscillations in retinoid receptor activity: evidence for a potential role for RIP140.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly C Heim

    Full Text Available Mechanisms that underlie oscillatory transcriptional activity of nuclear receptors (NRs are incompletely understood. Evidence exists for rapid, cyclic recruitment of coregulatory complexes upon activation of nuclear receptors. RIP140 is a NR coregulator that represses the transactivation of agonist-bound nuclear receptors. Previously, we showed that RIP140 is inducible by all-trans retinoic acid (RA and mediates limiting, negative-feedback regulation of retinoid signaling.Here we report that in the continued presence of RA, long-paced oscillations of retinoic acid receptor (RAR activity occur with a period ranging from 24 to 35 hours. Endogenous expression of RIP140 and other RA-target genes also oscillate in the presence of RA. Cyclic retinoid receptor transactivation is ablated by constitutive overexpression of RIP140. Further, depletion of RIP140 disrupts cyclic expression of the RA target gene HOXA5. Evidence is provided that RIP140 may limit RAR signaling in a selective, non-redundant manner in contrast to the classic NR coregulators NCoR1 and SRC1 that are not RA-inducible, do not cycle, and may be partially redundant in limiting RAR activity. Finally, evidence is provided that RIP140 can repress and be induced by other nuclear receptors in a manner that suggests potential participation in other NR oscillations.We provide evidence for novel, long-paced oscillatory retinoid receptor activity and hypothesize that this may be paced in part, by RIP140. Oscillatory NR activity may be involved in mediating hormone actions of physiological and pathological importance.

  9. Dose-dependent immunomodulatory effects of acetylsalicylic acid and indomethacin in human whole blood: potential role of cyclooxygenase-2 inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Härtel, C; von Puttkamer, J; Gallner, F; Strunk, T; Schultz, C

    2004-10-01

    The aim of the study was to characterize the in vitro effect of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) on the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in a human whole blood assay. Whole blood samples were pre-incubated with acetylsalicylic acid, indomethacin, selective cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 inhibitor (SC-560), COX-2 inhibitor (NS-398) or prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) before stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines were determined directly at the cell level with the help of flow cytometry and/or in the plasma supernatant with the help of ELISA. High doses of acetylsalicylic acid were needed to inhibit pro-inflammatory cytokine production. In contrast, low-to-moderate doses induced a modestly enhanced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Moreover, indomethacin was demonstrated to increase the expression of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) in a dose-dependent fashion. Upon addition of PGE2, however, LPS-induced IL-6 and TNF-alpha production was suppressed regardless of indomethacin presence. Interestingly, selective COX-2 inhibition (NS-398), but not selective COX-1 inhibition (SC-560), exerted a stimulatory effect on the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. These data emphasize that the immunomodulating effects of NSAIDs in whole blood are dose-dependent. Furthermore, the induction of pro-inflammatory cytokine expression by NSAIDs is potentially mediated by COX-2 inhibition. Although NSAIDs are successfully used in clinical practice for their net anti-inflammatory properties, our observations may contribute to the understanding of side effects induced by NSAIDs and selective COX-2 inhibitors.

  10. The role of fatty acid metabolism and lipotoxicity in pancreatic β-cell injury: Identification of potential therapeutic targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haopeng Yang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Over the last 20 years, intensive research has been focused on the specific mechanisms mediating the pancreatic β-cell injury. Both the decreased viability and the dysfunction of β-cells have become the key factors in the development of diabetes mellitus. Thus, it is of utmost importance to elucidate the discrete pathological changes in pancreatic β-cells within the context of the various lipotoxicity models. The goal of these studies is to generate evidence to improve not only the clinical treatment for diabetics, but also modulate the diet and activities of groups at high risk for diabetes. In this regard, we review the role of lipotoxicity in pancreatic β-cell injury and identify potential therapeutic targets in this cell model.

  11. Potential role of nuclear receptor ligand all-trans retinoic acids in the treatment of fungal keratitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Yan Zhou

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Fungal keratitis (FK is a worldwide visual impairment disease. This infectious fungus initiates the primary innate immune response and, later the adaptive immune response. The inflammatory process is related to a variety of immune cells, including macrophages, helper T cells, neutrophils, dendritic cells, and Treg cells, and is associated with proinflammatory, chemotactic and regulatory cytokines. All-trans retinoic acids (ATRA have diverse immunomodulatory actions in a number of inflammatory and autoimmune conditions. These retinoids regulate the transcriptional levels of target genes through the activation of nuclear receptors. Retinoic acid receptor α (RAR α, retinoic acid receptor γ (RAR γ, and retinoid X receptor α (RXR α are expressed in the cornea and immune cells. This paper summarizes new findings regarding ATRA in immune and inflammatory diseases and analyzes the perspective application of ATRA in FK.

  12. Potential for Increased Photosynthetic Performance and Crop Productivity in Response to Climate Change: role of CBFs and Gibberellic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huner, Norman; Dahal, Keshav; Kurepin, Leonid; Savitch, Leonid; Singh, Jas; Ivanov, Alexander; Kane, Khalil; Sarhan, Fathey

    2014-04-01

    We propose that targeting the dwarf phenotype, enhanced photosynthetic performance typically associated with the cold acclimation of winter cultivars of rye (Secale cereale L.), wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and Brassica napus L. may provide a novel approach to improve crop yield and productivity under abiotic as well as biotic stress conditions. In support of this hypothesis, we provide the physiological, biochemical and molecular evidence that the dwarf phenotype induced by cold acclimation is coupled to significant enhancement in photosynthetic performance, resistance to photoinhibition and a decreased dependence on photoprotection through nonphotochemical quenching which result in enhanced biomass production and ultimately increased seed yield. These system-wide changes at the levels of phenotype, physiology and biochemistry appear to be governed by the family of C-repeat / dehydration-responsive family of transcription factors (CBF/DREB1). We relate this phenomenon to the semi-dwarf, gibberellic acid insensitive, cereal varieties developed during the “green revolution” of the early 1960s and 1970s. We suggest that genetic manipulation of the family of C-repeat / dehydration-responsive element binding transcription factors (CBF/DREB1) may provide a novel approach for the maintenance and perhaps even the enhancement of plant productivity under conditions of sub-optimal growth conditions predicted for our future climate.

  13. Potential for Increased Photosynthetic Performance and Crop Productivity in Response to Climate Change: role of CBFs and Gibberellic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman Peter Andrew Huner

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We propose that targeting the dwarf phenotype, enhanced photosynthetic performance typically associated with the cold acclimation of winter cultivars of rye (Secale cereale L., wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and Brassica napus L. may provide a novel approach to improve crop yield and productivity under abiotic as well as biotic stress conditions. In support of this hypothesis, we provide the physiological, biochemical and molecular evidence that the dwarf phenotype induced by cold acclimation is coupled to significant enhancement in photosynthetic performance, resistance to photoinhibition and a decreased dependence on photoprotection through nonphotochemical quenching which result in enhanced biomass production and ultimately increased seed yield. These system-wide changes at the levels of phenotype, physiology and biochemistry appear to be governed by the family of C-repeat / dehydration-responsive family of transcription factors (CBF/DREB1. We relate this phenomenon to the semi-dwarf, gibberellic acid insensitive, cereal varieties developed during the green revolution of the early 1960s and 1970s. We suggest that genetic manipulation of the family of C-repeat / dehydration-responsive element binding transcription factors (CBF/DREB1 may provide a novel approach for the maintenance and perhaps even the enhancement of plant productivity under conditions of sub-optimal growth conditions predicted for our future climate.

  14. Parabens inhibit fatty acid amide hydrolase: A potential role in paraben-enhanced 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodani, Sean D; Overby, Haley B; Morisseau, Christophe; Chen, Jiangang; Zhao, Ling; Hammock, Bruce D

    2016-11-16

    Parabens are a class of small molecules that are regularly used as preservatives in a variety of personal care products. Several parabens, including butylparaben and benzylparaben, have been found to interfere with endocrine signaling and to stimulate adipocyte differentiation. We hypothesized these biological effects could be due to interference with the endocannabinoid system and identified fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) as the direct molecular target of parabens. FAAH inhibition by parabens yields mixed-type and time-independent kinetics. Additionally, structure activity relationships indicate FAAH inhibition is selective for the paraben class of compounds and the more hydrophobic parabens have higher potency. Parabens enhanced 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation in a dose dependent fashion, different from two other FAAH inhibitors URB597 and PF622. Moreover, parabens, URB597 and PF622 all failed to enhance AEA-induced differentiation. Furthermore, rimonabant, a cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1)-selective antagonist, did not attenuate paraben-induced adipocyte differentiation. Thus, adipogenesis mediated by parabens likely occurs through modulation of endocannabinoids, but cell differentiation is independent of direct activation of CB1 by endocannabinoids. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Growth and fatty acid characterization of microalgae isolated from municipal waste-treatment systems and the potential role of algal-associated bacteria in feedstock production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stemmler, Kevin; Massimi, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    Much research has focused on growing microalgae for biofuel feedstock, yet there remain concerns about the feasibility of freshwater feedstock systems. To reduce cost and improve environmental sustainability, an ideal microalgal feedstock system would be fed by municipal, agricultural or industrial wastewater as a main source of water and nutrients. Nonetheless, the microalgae must also be tolerant of fluctuating wastewater quality, while still producing adequate biomass and lipid yields. To address this problem, our study focused on isolating and characterizing microalgal strains from three municipal wastewater treatment systems (two activated sludge and one aerated-stabilization basin systems) for their potential use in biofuel feedstock production. Most of the 19 isolates from wastewater grew faster than two culture collection strains under mixotrophic conditions, particularly with glucose. The fastest growing wastewater strains included the genera Chlorella and Dictyochloris. The fastest growing microalgal strains were not necessarily the best lipid producers. Under photoautotrophic and mixotrophic growth conditions, single strains of Chlorella and Scenedesmus each produced the highest lipid yields, including those most relevant to biodiesel production. A comparison of axenic and non-axenic versions of wastewater strains showed a notable effect of commensal bacteria on fatty acid composition. Strains grown with bacteria tended to produce relatively equal proportions of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, which is an ideal lipid blend for biodiesel production. These results not only show the potential for using microalgae isolated from wastewater for growth in wastewater-fed feedstock systems, but also the important role that commensal bacteria may have in impacting the fatty acid profiles of microalgal feedstock. PMID:26989618

  16. Growth and fatty acid characterization of microalgae isolated from municipal waste-treatment systems and the potential role of algal-associated bacteria in feedstock production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Stemmler

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Much research has focused on growing microalgae for biofuel feedstock, yet there remain concerns about the feasibility of freshwater feedstock systems. To reduce cost and improve environmental sustainability, an ideal microalgal feedstock system would be fed by municipal, agricultural or industrial wastewater as a main source of water and nutrients. Nonetheless, the microalgae must also be tolerant of fluctuating wastewater quality, while still producing adequate biomass and lipid yields. To address this problem, our study focused on isolating and characterizing microalgal strains from three municipal wastewater treatment systems (two activated sludge and one aerated-stabilization basin systems for their potential use in biofuel feedstock production. Most of the 19 isolates from wastewater grew faster than two culture collection strains under mixotrophic conditions, particularly with glucose. The fastest growing wastewater strains included the genera Chlorella and Dictyochloris. The fastest growing microalgal strains were not necessarily the best lipid producers. Under photoautotrophic and mixotrophic growth conditions, single strains of Chlorella and Scenedesmus each produced the highest lipid yields, including those most relevant to biodiesel production. A comparison of axenic and non-axenic versions of wastewater strains showed a notable effect of commensal bacteria on fatty acid composition. Strains grown with bacteria tended to produce relatively equal proportions of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, which is an ideal lipid blend for biodiesel production. These results not only show the potential for using microalgae isolated from wastewater for growth in wastewater-fed feedstock systems, but also the important role that commensal bacteria may have in impacting the fatty acid profiles of microalgal feedstock.

  17. Ascites interferes with the activity of lurbinectedin and trabectedin: Potential role of their binding to alpha 1-acid glycoprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erba, E; Romano, M; Gobbi, M; Zucchetti, M; Ferrari, M; Matteo, C; Panini, N; Colmegna, B; Caratti, G; Porcu, L; Fruscio, R; Perlangeli, M V; Mezzanzanica, D; Lorusso, D; Raspagliesi, F; D'Incalci, M

    2017-11-15

    Trabectedin and its analogue lurbinectedin are effective drugs used in the treatment of ovarian cancer. Since the presence of ascites is a frequent event in advanced ovarian cancer we asked the question whether ascites could modify the activity of these compounds against ovarian cancer cells. The cytotoxicity induced by trabectedin or lurbinectedin against A2780, OVCAR-5 cell lines or primary culture of human ovarian cancer cells was compared by performing treatment in regular medium or in ascites taken from either nude mice or ovarian cancer patients. Ascites completely abolished the activity of lurbinectedin at up to 10nM (in regular medium corresponds to the IC90), strongly reduced that of trabectedin, inhibited the cellular uptake of lurbinectedin and, to a lesser extent, that of trabectedin. Since α1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) is present in ascites at relatively high concentrations, we tested if the binding of the drugs to this protein could be responsible for the reduction of their activity. Adding AGP to the medium at concentration range of those found in ascites, we reproduced the anticytotoxic effect of ascites. Erythromycin partially restored the activity of the drugs, presumably by displacing them from AGP. Equilibrium dialysis experiments showed that both drugs bind AGP, but the affinity of binding of lurbinectedin was much greater than that of trabectedin. KD values are 8±1.7 and 87±14nM for lurbinectedin and trabectedin, respectively. The studies intimate the possibility that AGP present in ascites might reduce the activity of lurbinectedin and to a lesser extent of trabectedin against ovarian cancer cells present in ascites. AGP plasma levels could influence the distribution of these drugs and thus they should be monitored in patients receiving these compounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. High feeding intensity increases the severity of fatty liver in the American mink (Neovison vison) with potential ameliorating role for long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Morag F; Hurford, Jennifer; Lei, Sha; Mustonen, Anne-Mari; Nieminen, Petteri; Rouvinen-Watt, Kirsti

    2014-01-16

    Rapid body fat mobilization, obesity, and an inadequate supply of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) have been suggested to play roles in the etiology of fatty liver in the American mink (Neovison vison). This study examined the effects of feeding intensity and dietary fat source on fatty liver induced by fasting. In a multi-factorial design, 3 different fat sources (herring oil, rich in n-3 PUFA, soya oil, rich in n-6 PUFA, and canola oil, rich in n-9 monounsaturated fatty acids) were fed to mink at a low and high feeding intensity for 10 weeks, followed by an overnight or a 5-day fasting treatment to induce fatty liver. Fasting led to the development of fatty liver with increased severity in the mink fed at the high feeding intensity. The herring oil diet, high in long-chain n-3 PUFA, was found to decrease the severity of fatty liver in the mink at the high feeding intensity. Preventing excessive weight gain and increasing dietary intake of n-3 long-chain PUFA may help prevent excessive lipid accumulation during prolonged periods of fasting or inappetence by promoting hepatic fatty acid oxidation.

  19. Potentials of Exopolysaccharides from Lactic Acid Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Seema; Majumder, Avishek; Goyal, Arun

    2011-01-01

    Recent research in the area of importance of microbes has revealed the immense industrial potential of exopolysaccharides and their derivative oligosaccharides from lactic acid bacteria. However, due to lack of adequate technological knowledge, the exopolysaccharides have remained largely under exploited. In the present review, the enormous potentials of different types of exopolysaccharides from lactic acid bacteria are described. This also summarizes the recent advances in the applications ...

  20. Potentials of exopolysaccharides from lactic Acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Seema; Majumder, Avishek; Goyal, Arun

    2012-03-01

    Recent research in the area of importance of microbes has revealed the immense industrial potential of exopolysaccharides and their derivative oligosaccharides from lactic acid bacteria. However, due to lack of adequate technological knowledge, the exopolysaccharides have remained largely under exploited. In the present review, the enormous potentials of different types of exopolysaccharides from lactic acid bacteria are described. This also summarizes the recent advances in the applications of exopolysaccharides, certain problems associated with their commercial production and the remedies.

  1. The role of hyaluronic acid in biomineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhen-Hua; Ren, Xiu-Li; Zhou, Hui-Hui; Li, Xu-Dong

    2012-12-01

    Hyaluronic acid has been extensively investigated due to intrinsic properties of natural origin and strong ability to bind ions in water. Hyaluronic acid is an excellent crystal modifier because its abundant negatively charged carboxyl groups can bind the cations protruding from the crystal lattice. In this review, we mainly present the latest work focus on the role of hyaluronic acid in controlling the crystallization, breaking the symmetry of crystal, and the surface funtionalization of nanocrystals.

  2. Nitric oxide-induced hyperpermeability of human intestinal epithelial monolayers is augmented by inhibition of the amiloride-sensitive Na(+)-H+ antiport: potential role of peroxynitrous acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unno, N; Menconi, M J; Fink, M P

    1997-08-01

    Nitric oxide (NO.) increases the permeability of cultured intestinal epithelial monolayers. NO. reacts with superoxide anion to form peroxynitrite anion, which can be protonated under mildly acidic conditions to form the potent and versatile oxidizing agent, peroxynitrous acid. We hypothesized that intracellular acidosis induced by the Na(+)-H+ antiport blocker, amiloride, would favor the formation of peroxynitrous acid and thereby augment hyperpermeability induced by the NO. donor, SIN-1. Caco-2BBe human intestinal epithelial monolayers were grown on permeable supports in bicameral chambers. The permeability of monolayers was assessed by measuring the transepithelial flux of fluorescein disulfonic acid (FS). Incubation of monolayers with SIN-1 increased permeability to FS. Adding amiloride augmented SIN-1-induced hyperpermeability. SIN-1 plus amiloride also decreased cellular adenosine triphosphate content and caused derangements of the actin-based cytoskeleton as demonstrated by fluorescence microscopy. Coincubation of monolayers with several free-radical or peroxynitrous acid scavengers (deferoxamine, mannitol, dimethyl sulfoxide, or ascorbate) ameliorated hyperpermeability induced by SIN-1 plus amiloride. Amiloride augments NO.-induced intestinal epithelial permeability, apparently by promoting the development of intracellular acidosis and thereby favoring the formation of the peroxynitrous acid.

  3. Role of ascorbic acid in photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, B N

    2014-03-01

    Experimental data concerning the role of ascorbic acid in both the maintenance of photosynthesis and in the protection of the photosynthetic apparatus against reactive oxygen species and photoinhibition are reviewed. The function of ascorbic acid as an electron donor in the "Krasnovsky reaction", as well as its physiological role as a donor to components of the photosynthetic electron transport chain, which was first studied by A. A. Krasnovsky in the 1980s, is discussed. Data on the content and transport of ascorbic acid in plant cells and chloroplasts are presented.

  4. Potential interaction between valproic acid and doripenem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellwig, Thaddaus R; Onisk, Mallory L; Chapman, Bret A

    2011-02-01

    A potential interaction between valproate (VPA) and doripenem leading to decreased valproic acid concentrations in two patients is described. In the first patient case, a 54-year-old female presented to the emergency department following a seizure episode after stopping her medications a few days prior. She was given a 1500 mg (23 mg/kg) intravenous (IV) bolus dose of valproate and restarted on her home regimen of divalproex sodium 750 mg daily which quickly resulted in valproic acid blood concentrations within the reference range. The patient was later started on doripenem 500 mg IV every 8 hours and subsequent valproic acid concentrations decreased by 62%. The second patient was a 54-year-old female transferred from an outlying facility following a motor vehicle accident. The patient was receiving valproate 1250 mg IV every 8 hours for seizure prophylaxis following a traumatic brain injury. She developed pneumonia and was started on doripenem 500mg IV every 8 hours. Valproic acid concentrations decreased by 69% within two days. This case report describes two patients receiving concomitant valproate and doripenem resulting in a 62% and 69% reduction in valproic acid concentration.

  5. Gene expression profile of high-fat diet-fed C57BL/6J mice: in search of potential role of azelaic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthulakshmi, Shanmugam; Chakrabarti, Alok K; Mukherjee, Sanjay

    2015-03-01

    High-fat diet (HFD) elevates circulatory fatty acids and influences glucose and fat metabolism. Azelaic acid (AzA), a naturally occurring α,ω-dicarboxylic acid in wheat, rye, barley, oat seeds and sorghum, has been reported to exert antidiabetic effects in HFD-induced type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) C57BL/6J mice. The present study was undertaken to identify the genes that are differentially modulated by treatment with AzA in HFD-fed mice. Mice were fed HFD for 10 weeks and subjected to intragastric administration of 80 mg/kg body weight (BW) of AzA daily along with HFD from 11 to 15 weeks. Lipid profile, adipokines and cytokines were examined in the plasma/liver of mice. Whole genome profiling was performed in the liver of mice using microarray and validated by qRT-PCR, Western blot and immunohistochemical analyses. HFD intake resulted in significantly elevated lipids (except high-density lipoproteins), resistin, tumour necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-6 with marked reduction in adiponectin. Administration of AzA to HFD-fed mice significantly restored the lipids, adipokines and cytokines to near normal. Transcript profiling revealed that HFD intake activated the genes involved in stress response, cell cycle regulation and apoptosis. Treatment with AzA caused increased expression of genes involved in reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging, receptor-mediated signalling, transcription, protein modification and insulin signal transduction. AzA activates insulin signal molecules leading to insulin sensitivity. The ability of AzA to modulate the expression of these genes supports the notion that AzA is a promising drug candidate for the treatment of insulin resistance associated with T2DM.

  6. Role of fatty acid transporters in epidermis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miner, Jeffrey H; Jahnsen, Frode

    2011-01-01

    Skin epidermis is an active site of lipid synthesis. The intercellular lipids of human stratum corneum (SC) are unique in composition and quite different from the lipids found in most biological membranes. The three major lipids in the SC are free fatty acids, cholesterol and ceramides. Fatty acids can be synthesized by keratinocytes de novo and, in addition, need to be taken up from the circulation. The latter process has been shown to be protein mediated, and several fatty acid transporters are expressed in skin. Recent studies of transgenic and knockout animal models for fatty acid transporters and the identification of fatty acid transport protein 4 (FATP4 or SLC27A4) mutations as causative for Ichthyosis Prematurity Syndrome highlight the vital roles of fatty acid transport and metabolism in skin homeostasis. This review provides an overview of our current understanding of the role of fatty acids and their transporters in cutaneous biology, including their involvement in epidermal barrier generation and skin inflammation. PMID:21695012

  7. Re-cultivation of Neochloris oleoabundans in exhausted autotrophic and mixotrophic media: the potential role of polyamines and free fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabia, Alessandra; Baldisserotto, Costanza; Biondi, Stefania; Marchesini, Roberta; Tedeschi, Paola; Maietti, Annalisa; Giovanardi, Martina; Ferroni, Lorenzo; Pancaldi, Simonetta

    2015-12-01

    Neochloris oleoabundans (Chlorophyta) is widely considered one of the most promising microalgae for biotechnological applications. However, the large-scale production of microalgae requires large amounts of water. In this perspective, the possibility of using exhausted growth media for the re-cultivation of N. oleoabundans was investigated in order to simultaneously make the cultivation more economically feasible and environmentally sustainable. Experiments were performed by testing the following media: autotrophic exhausted medium (E+) and mixotrophic exhausted medium after cultivation with glucose (EG+) of N. oleoabundans cells grown in a 20-L photobioreactor (PBR). Both exhausted media were replenished with the same amounts of nitrate and phosphate as the control brackish medium (C). Growth kinetics, nitrate and phosphate consumption, photosynthetic pigments content, photosynthetic efficiency, cell morphology, and lipid production were evaluated. Moreover, the free fatty acid (FFA) composition of exhausted media and the polyamine (PA) concentrations of both algae and media were analyzed in order to test if some molecules, released into the medium, could influence algal growth and metabolism. Results showed that N. oleoabundans can efficiently grow in both exhausted media, if appropriately replenished with the main nutrients (E+ and EG+), especially in E+ and to the same extent as in C medium. Growth promotion of N. oleoabundans was attributed to PAs and alteration of the photosynthetic apparatus to FFAs. Taken together, results show that recycling growth medium is a suitable solution to obtain good N. oleoabundans biomass concentrations, while providing a more sustainable ecological impact on water resources.

  8. Potentiation of substance p by lysergic acid diethylamide in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivoy, W. A.

    1961-01-01

    In doses of 10 μg/kg or more, lysergic acid diethylamide enhanced the fourth potential (DR IV) of the dorsal root potential complex in the cat. Smaller doses of lysergic acid diethylamide did not in themselves alter the DR IV, but revealed an enhancement of the potential by substance P, which by itself had no effect. 2-Bromolysergic acid diethylamide had no action on the dorsal root potentials, but prevented the actions of lysergic acid diethylamide. PMID:13754427

  9. Rosmarinic acid potentiates carnosic acid induced apoptosis in lung fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahri, Sana; Mies, Frédérique; Ben Ali, Ridha; Mlika, Mona; Jameleddine, Saloua; Mc Entee, Kathleen; Shlyonsky, Vadim

    2017-01-01

    Pulmonary fibrosis is characterized by over-population and excessive activation of fibroblasts and myofibroblasts disrupting normal lung structure and functioning. Rosemary extract rich in carnosic acid (CA) and rosmarinic acid (RA) was reported to cure bleomycin-(BLM)-induced pulmonary fibrosis. We demonstrate that CA decreased human lung fibroblast (HLF) viability with IC50 value of 17.13±1.06 μM, while RA had no cytotoxic effect. In the presence of 50 μM of RA, dose-response for CA shifted to IC50 value of 11.70±1.46 μM, indicating synergic action. TGFβ-transformed HLF, rat lung fibroblasts and L929 cells presented similar sensitivity to CA and CA+RA (20μM+100μM, respectively) treatment. Rat alveolar epithelial cells died only under CA+RA treatment, while A549 cells were not affected. Annexin V staining and DNA quantification suggested that HLF are arrested in G0/G1 cell cycle phase and undergo apoptosis. CA caused sustained activation of phospho-Akt and phospho-p38 expression and inhibition of p21 protein.Addition of RA potentiated these effects, while RA added alone had no action.Only triple combination of inhibitors (MAPK-p38, pan-caspase, PI3K/Akt/autophagy) partially attenuated apoptosis; this suggests that cytotoxicity of CA+RA treatment has a complex mechanism involving several parallel signaling pathways. The in vivo antifibrotic effect of CA and RA was compared with that of Vitamine-E in BLM-induced fibrosis model in rats. We found comparable reduction in fibrosis score by CA, RA and CA+RA, attenuation of collagen deposition and normalization of oxidative stress markers. In conclusion, antifibrotic effect of CA+RA is due to synergistic pro-apoptotic action on lung fibroblasts and myofibroblasts.

  10. Rosmarinic acid potentiates carnosic acid induced apoptosis in lung fibroblasts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sana Bahri

    Full Text Available Pulmonary fibrosis is characterized by over-population and excessive activation of fibroblasts and myofibroblasts disrupting normal lung structure and functioning. Rosemary extract rich in carnosic acid (CA and rosmarinic acid (RA was reported to cure bleomycin-(BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis. We demonstrate that CA decreased human lung fibroblast (HLF viability with IC50 value of 17.13±1.06 μM, while RA had no cytotoxic effect. In the presence of 50 μM of RA, dose-response for CA shifted to IC50 value of 11.70±1.46 μM, indicating synergic action. TGFβ-transformed HLF, rat lung fibroblasts and L929 cells presented similar sensitivity to CA and CA+RA (20μM+100μM, respectively treatment. Rat alveolar epithelial cells died only under CA+RA treatment, while A549 cells were not affected. Annexin V staining and DNA quantification suggested that HLF are arrested in G0/G1 cell cycle phase and undergo apoptosis. CA caused sustained activation of phospho-Akt and phospho-p38 expression and inhibition of p21 protein.Addition of RA potentiated these effects, while RA added alone had no action.Only triple combination of inhibitors (MAPK-p38, pan-caspase, PI3K/Akt/autophagy partially attenuated apoptosis; this suggests that cytotoxicity of CA+RA treatment has a complex mechanism involving several parallel signaling pathways. The in vivo antifibrotic effect of CA and RA was compared with that of Vitamine-E in BLM-induced fibrosis model in rats. We found comparable reduction in fibrosis score by CA, RA and CA+RA, attenuation of collagen deposition and normalization of oxidative stress markers. In conclusion, antifibrotic effect of CA+RA is due to synergistic pro-apoptotic action on lung fibroblasts and myofibroblasts.

  11. Retinoic Acid and Its Role in Modulating Intestinal Innate Immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Czarnewski

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin A (VA is amongst the most well characterized food-derived nutrients with diverse immune modulatory roles. Deficiency in dietary VA has not only been associated with immune dysfunctions in the gut, but also with several systemic immune disorders. In particular, VA metabolite all-trans retinoic acid (atRA has been shown to be crucial in inducing gut tropism in lymphocytes and modulating T helper differentiation. In addition to the widely recognized role in adaptive immunity, increasing evidence identifies atRA as an important modulator of innate immune cells, such as tolerogenic dendritic cells (DCs and innate lymphoid cells (ILCs. Here, we focus on the role of retinoic acid in differentiation, trafficking and the functions of innate immune cells in health and inflammation associated disorders. Lastly, we discuss the potential involvement of atRA during the plausible crosstalk between DCs and ILCs.

  12. Retinoic Acid and Its Role in Modulating Intestinal Innate Immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarnewski, Paulo; Das, Srustidhar; Parigi, Sara M; Villablanca, Eduardo J

    2017-01-13

    Vitamin A (VA) is amongst the most well characterized food-derived nutrients with diverse immune modulatory roles. Deficiency in dietary VA has not only been associated with immune dysfunctions in the gut, but also with several systemic immune disorders. In particular, VA metabolite all-trans retinoic acid (atRA) has been shown to be crucial in inducing gut tropism in lymphocytes and modulating T helper differentiation. In addition to the widely recognized role in adaptive immunity, increasing evidence identifies atRA as an important modulator of innate immune cells, such as tolerogenic dendritic cells (DCs) and innate lymphoid cells (ILCs). Here, we focus on the role of retinoic acid in differentiation, trafficking and the functions of innate immune cells in health and inflammation associated disorders. Lastly, we discuss the potential involvement of atRA during the plausible crosstalk between DCs and ILCs.

  13. Role of acidic stores in secretory epithelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerasimenko, Julia; Peng, Shuang; Gerasimenko, Oleg

    2014-06-01

    There is growing evidence that intracellular calcium plays a primary role in the pathophysiology of the pancreas in addition to its crucial importance in major physiological functions. Pancreatic acinar cells have a remarkably large amount of Ca(2+) stored in both the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the acidic stores. The vast majority of the classical ER Ca(2+) store is located in the basal part of the acinar cells with extensions protruding into the apical area, however, the acidic stores are exclusively located in the secretory granular area of the cells. Both types of Ca(2+) store respond to all three intracellular Ca(2+) messengers - inositol trisphosphate (InsP3), cyclic-ADP-ribose (cADPR) and nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP). The two stores interact with each other via calcium-induced calcium release; however, they can be separated using pharmacological tools. The ER relies on sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA) that can be blocked by the specific inhibitor thapsigargin. The acidic store requires a low pH that can be modified by blocking vacuolar H(+)-ATPase. The acidic store is particularly important for pathological processes in the pancreas. Acute pancreatitis is initiated as a result of calcium overload in the apical pole, which leads to trypsinogen activation; two major causes are gall bladder stones and excessive alcohol consumption. Excessive Ca(2+) release from the acidic stores plays a major role in both scenarios; however NAADP-induced calcium release from acidic stores is particularly important for bile-induced pancreatitis. Cell-permeable calmodulin (CaM) activators such as CALP3 boost the natural protective effect of CaM by inhibiting excessive calcium release from the internal stores through inositol trisphosphate (InsP3R) and ryanodine receptors (RyR). Alternatively calcium overload can be dramatically reduced by inhibiting Ca(2+)-release-activated Ca(2+) (CRAC) currents that are required to reload the

  14. Rosmarinic acid potentiates carnosic acid induced apoptosis in lung fibroblasts

    OpenAIRE

    Bahri, Sana; Mies, Fr?d?rique; Ben Ali, Ridha; Mlika, Mona; Jameleddine, Saloua; Mc Entee, Kathleen; Shlyonsky, Vadim

    2017-01-01

    Pulmonary fibrosis is characterized by over-population and excessive activation of fibroblasts and myofibroblasts disrupting normal lung structure and functioning. Rosemary extract rich in carnosic acid (CA) and rosmarinic acid (RA) was reported to cure bleomycin-(BLM)-induced pulmonary fibrosis. We demonstrate that CA decreased human lung fibroblast (HLF) viability with IC50 value of 17.13?1.06 ?M, while RA had no cytotoxic effect. In the presence of 50 ?M of RA, dose-response for CA shifted...

  15. The Nephrology Clinical Research Nurse Role: Potential Role Conflicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micklos, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Clinical research nursing is becoming more visible to nephrology professionals. As more nephrology practices and units are participating in clinical trials, clinical research nursing is gaining interest as a career niche among nephrology nurses. This unique specialty requires that nephrology clinical nurse nurses (CRNs) reconcile the roles of nurse as caregiver and nurse as researcher, which may result in a role conflict. Nephrology nurses should be aware that they may experience this role conflict when transitioning from patient care to a position as a clinical research nurse. These nurses can rely on the American Nurses Association's Code of Ethics for Nurses and the Oncology Nursing Society's Oncology Clinical Trials Nurse Competencies to help reconcile the potential role conflict.

  16. Histamine selectively potentiates acid-sensing ion channel 1a.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaeva, Elina I; Tikhonova, Tatiana B; Magazanik, Lev G; Tikhonov, Denis B

    2016-10-06

    Although acid-sensitive ion channels (ASICs) play an important role in brain functions, the exact mechanism of their physiological activation remain unclear. A possible answer to the intriguing question is that some presently unknown endogenous ligand(s) positively modulate ASICs and enhance their responses to physiologically significant level. In the present work we found that histamine selectively potentiates ASIC1a homomers in CHO cells. Action of histamine was particularly pronounced at modest acidifications, which cause minor response. At these conditions micromolar concentrations of histamine have provided significant potentiation of ASIC1a response. We proposed that histamine and possibly some other endogenous amines can positively modulate ASICs functions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Potential physiological role of plant glycosidase inhibitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellincampi, D.; Carmadella, L.; Delcour, J.A.

    2004-01-01

    Carbohydrate-active enzymes including glycosidases, transglycosidases, glycosyltransferases, polysaccharide lyases and carbohydrate esterases are responsible for the enzymatic processing of carbohydrates in plants. A number of carbohydrate-active enzymes are produced by microbial pathogens...... and insects responsible of severe crop losses. Plants have evolved proteinaceous inhibitors to modulate the activity of several of these enzymes. The continuing discovery of new inhibitors indicates that this research area is still unexplored and may lead to new exciting developments. To date, the role...... of the inhibitors is not completely understood. Here we review recent results obtained on the best characterised inhibitors, pointing to their possible biological role in vivo. Results recently obtained with plant transformation technology indicate that this class of inhibitors has potential biotechnological...

  18. The role of retinoic acid signaling in thymic function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wendland, Kerstin; Sitnik, Katarzyna; Kotarsky, Knut

    Retinoic acid (RA) is a vitamin A metabolite and member of the large family of retinoids that have been used in treatment of various forms of cancer and skin disorders. Also, vitamin A deficiency is associated with impaired ability to fight infections and RA has been shown to shape peripheral immune...... responses. However, little is known about the role of RA in the development of immune cells. We are currently investigating the role of RA signaling in thymic function. In the thymus, thymic epithelial cells (TEC) are providing the specialized microenvironment that supports T cell development and proper TEC...... maturation and homeostasis is required for the generation of a functional T cell pool. TEC development and differenti-ation is dependent on crosstalk with immune and stromal cells in the thymus and previous work of our group has suggested RA as a potential key player in this process. To study the role of RA...

  19. Nucleic acid-based fluorescent probes and their analytical potential

    OpenAIRE

    Juskowiak, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    It is well known that nucleic acids play an essential role in living organisms because they store and transmit genetic information and use that information to direct the synthesis of proteins. However, less is known about the ability of nucleic acids to bind specific ligands and the application of oligonucleotides as molecular probes or biosensors. Oligonucleotide probes are single-stranded nucleic acid fragments that can be tailored to have high specificity and affinity for different targets...

  20. Predictive mapping of the acidifying potential for acid sulfate soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boman, A; Beucher, Amélie; Mattbäck, S

    Developing methods for the predictive mapping of the potential environmental impact from acid sulfate soils is important because recent studies (e.g. Mattbäck et al., under revision) have shown that the environmental hazards (e.g. leaching of acidity) related to acid sulfate soils vary depending...... on their texture (clay, silt, sand etc.). Moreover, acidity correlates, not only with the sulfur content, but also with the electrical conductivity (EC) measured after incubation. Electromagnetic induction (EMI) data collected from an EM38 proximal sensor also enabled the detailed mapping of acid sulfate soils...... over a field (Huang et al., 2014).This study aims at assessing the use of EMI data for the predictive mapping of the acidifying potential in an acid sulfate soil area in western Finland. Different supervised classification modelling techniques, such as Artificial Neural Networks (Beucher et al., 2015...

  1. Physiological functions and pathogenic potential of uric acid: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ridi, Rashika; Tallima, Hatem

    2017-09-01

    Uric acid is synthesized mainly in the liver, intestines and the vascular endothelium as the end product of an exogenous pool of purines, and endogenously from damaged, dying and dead cells, whereby nucleic acids, adenine and guanine, are degraded into uric acid. Mentioning uric acid generates dread because it is the established etiological agent of the severe, acute and chronic inflammatory arthritis, gout and is implicated in the initiation and progress of the metabolic syndrome. Yet, uric acid is the predominant anti-oxidant molecule in plasma and is necessary and sufficient for induction of type 2 immune responses. These properties may explain its protective potential in neurological and infectious diseases, mainly schistosomiasis. The pivotal protective potential of uric acid against blood-borne pathogens and neurological and autoimmune diseases is yet to be established.

  2. Potential of Different Coleus blumei Tissues for Rosmarinic Acid Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemary Vuković

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rosmarinic acid is one of the main active components of Coleus blumei and is known to have numerous health benefi ts. The pharmacological significance of rosmarinic acid and its production through in vitro culture has been the subject of numerous studies. Here, the ability of different tissues to accumulate rosmarinic acid and sustainability in production over long cultivation have been tested. Calli, tumours, normal roots and hairy roots were established routinely by application of plant growth regulators or by transformation with agrobacteria. The differences among the established tumour lines were highly heterogeneous. Hairy root lines showed the highest mean growth rate and consistency in rosmarinic acid production. Although some tumour lines produced more rosmarinic acid than the hairy root lines, over a long cultivation period their productivity was unstable and decreased. Further, the effects of plant growth regulators on growth and rosmarinic acid accumulation were tested. 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid significantly reduced tumour growth and rosmarinic acid production. 1-Naphthaleneacetic acid strongly stimulated hairy root growth whilst abscisic acid strongly enhanced rosmarinic acid production. Hairy roots cultured in an airlift bioreactor exhibited the highest potential for mass production of rosmarinic acid.

  3. Potential of Different Coleus blumei Tissues for Rosmarinic Acid Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Nataša; Vuković, Rosemary; Likić, Saša; Jelaska, Sibila

    2015-03-01

    Rosmarinic acid is one of the main active components of Coleus blumei and is known to have numerous health benefits. The pharmacological significance of rosmarinic acid and its production through in vitro culture has been the subject of numerous studies. Here, the ability of different tissues to accumulate rosmarinic acid and sustainability in production over long cultivation have been tested. Calli, tumours, normal roots and hairy roots were established routinely by application of plant growth regulators or by transformation with agrobacteria. The differences among the established tumour lines were highly heterogeneous. Hairy root lines showed the highest mean growth rate and consistency in rosmarinic acid production. Although some tumour lines produced more rosmarinic acid than the hairy root lines, over a long cultivation period their productivity was unstable and decreased. Further, the effects of plant growth regulators on growth and rosmarinic acid accumulation were tested. 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid significantly reduced tumour growth and rosmarinic acid production. 1-Naphthaleneacetic acid strongly stimulated hairy root growth whilst abscisic acid strongly enhanced rosmarinic acid production. Hairy roots cultured in an airlift bioreactor exhibited the highest potential for mass production of rosmarinic acid.

  4. Unlocked nucleic acid - an RNA modification with broad potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pasternak, Anna; Wengel, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    The first unlocked nucleic acid (UNA) monomer was described more than a decade ago, but only recent reports have revealed the true potential applications of this acyclic RNA mimic. UNA monomers enable the modulation of the thermodynamic stability of various nucleic acid structures such as RNA and...

  5. Evaluating the Acid Mine Drainage Potential at Abosso Goldfields ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Occurrence of Acid Rock Drainae (ARD) affects both plants and animals that are present in a drainage system. In some base metal and coal mining environments, the presence of sulphide minerals especially pyrite and their exposure to oxygen and water may trigger Acid Mine Drainage (AMD). Evaluation of the potential for ...

  6. Acid Mine Drainage Potential of the Coral Snake Waste Dump ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper assessed the Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) potential of the Coral Snake Waste Dump located close to the Enkansu and Kaw streams in Obuasi. Ten water and fifty rock samples were analysed for physico-chemical parameters. Acid Base Accounting (ABA) determinations using static methods were employed to ...

  7. Role of acids and bases in nanoparticle growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yli-Juuti, Taina; Barsanti, Kelley; Bzdek, Bryan; Hildebrandt Ruiz, Lea; Jokinen, Tuija; Kieloaho, Antti-Jussi; Makkonen, Ulla; Petäjä, Tuukka; Ruuskanen, Taina; Johnston, Murray; Kulmala, Markku; Riipinen, Ilona

    2014-05-01

    Secondary aerosol particles that are formed in atmosphere by gas-to-particle conversion during new particle formation events have potential to affect climate significantly due to their typically high number concentrations. This, however, requires that the freshly formed nanoparticles of about 1 nm in diameter grow tens of nanometers and reach climatically relevant sizes, i.e. sizes where they can act as cloud condensation nuclei. During the growth towards larger sizes the nanoparticles are subject to coagulational losses, and the rate at which the nanoparticles grow by condensation of vapors is a key factor affecting their probability to survive to climatically relevant sizes. Vapors that condense on the nanoparticles can be produced in the atmosphere from volatile compounds through gas phase chemical reactions, and their volatility can also be further lowered by particle phase processes. Therefore, particle composition and particle phase processes may influence nanoparticle growth. We study the growth of atmospheric nanoparticles and especially the role of particle phase salt formation in the nanoparticle growth using MABNAG model (Model for Acid-Base chemistry in NAnoparticle Growth) and by comparing to atmospheric measurements. MABNAG is a condensation growth model for aqueous solution particles. In MABNAG the dynamics of gas phase mass transport of vapors to particle are coupled with thermodynamics of particle phase acid-base chemistry, and both the composition and size dependence of equilibrium vapor pressures are accounted for. The model is applied especially for boreal forest environment. Here nanoparticle growth is modeled with a system of water, two acids (sulfuric acid and an organic acid) and two bases (ammonia and an amine) as condensing vapors. Focus is on the neutralization of acids by the bases and the related effects on the particle growth. According to the model predictions the enhancement of condensation of organic acid due to salt formation is

  8. Role of fatty acid transporters in epidermis

    OpenAIRE

    Khnykin, Denis; Miner, Jeffrey H.; Jahnsen, Frode

    2011-01-01

    Skin epidermis is an active site of lipid synthesis. The intercellular lipids of human stratum corneum (SC) are unique in composition and quite different from the lipids found in most biological membranes. The three major lipids in the SC are free fatty acids, cholesterol and ceramides. Fatty acids can be synthesized by keratinocytes de novo and, in addition, need to be taken up from the circulation. The latter process has been shown to be protein mediated, and several fatty acid transporters...

  9. Potential therapeutic roles for antibody mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, T Shantha; Strohl, William R

    2013-10-01

    With the enormous success of recombinant monoclonal antibodies (rMAbs) as human therapeutics, there are increasing efforts underway to explore new molecular entities that mimic rMAbs to replicate this huge success. In addition to naked intact rMAbs, antibody drug conjugates (ADCs), FAb and F(ab')2 fragments and also Fc fusion proteins have been developed and/or marketed as human therapeutics to treat different human diseases, including life-threatening diseases such as cancer. Several hundreds more intact rMAbs, ADCs, FAb, F(ab')2 fragments and Fc fusion proteins are currently undergoing human clinical trials. In addition to these molecules, new type of antibody fragments such as single-chain Fvs (scFvs), VH, scFv-Fc, scFv-CH, scFAb, scFv-zipper, diabodies, bispecific antibodies and similar types of constructs are also being investigated to be developed as human monotherapeutics. Further, there are quite a few current examples of combinations of biologics being developed. For example, currently, several biopharmaceutical companies are developing combinations of antibody mixtures as human therapeutics. Accordingly, the question posed here is whether it is time to consider the possibility of developing a broader range of combinations of therapeutic biologics. Combinations of small organic molecules have been successfully used as therapeutics for many years to treat many diseases, so the context of using polypharmacology to treat human diseases is not novel. For the past several decades, intravenous immunoglobulins have successfully been used in treating various autoimmune diseases. In this context, several biotechnology companies are exploring the use of combinations of antibody mixtures as human therapeutics. This editorial discusses these current efforts and the potential future role of antibody mixtures as human therapeutics.

  10. The Role of Microbial Amino Acid Metabolism in Host Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelien P. J. G. Neis

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Disruptions in gut microbiota composition and function are increasingly implicated in the pathogenesis of obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The functional output of the gut microbiota, including short-chain fatty acids and amino acids, are thought to be important modulators underlying the development of these disorders. Gut bacteria can alter the bioavailability of amino acids by utilization of several amino acids originating from both alimentary and endogenous proteins. In turn, gut bacteria also provide amino acids to the host. This could have significant implications in the context of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus, conditions associated with elevated systemic concentrations of certain amino acids, in particular the aromatic and branched-chain amino acids. Moreover, several amino acids released by gut bacteria can serve as precursors for the synthesis of short-chain fatty acids, which also play a role in the development of obesity. In this review, we aim to compile the available evidence on the contribution of microbial amino acids to host amino acid homeostasis, and to assess the role of the gut microbiota as a determinant of amino acid and short-chain fatty acid perturbations in human obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  11. Skin tumorigenic potential of benzanthrone: prevention by ascorbic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Neelam; Kumar, Sandeep; Ansari, Kausar M; Khanna, S K; Das, Mukul

    2013-09-01

    Benzanthrone (BA) exposed occupational workers have been found to exhibit toxicological manifestations in the skin, thus it is quite likely that long term exposure may lead to skin tumorigenicity. Thus, attempts were made to elucidate the tumor initiating and promoting potentials of pure (PBA) and commercial benzanthrone (CBA). Additionally, the preventive role of ascorbic acid (AsA) was also assessed. PBA showed tumor initiating activity while CBA demonstrated tumor initiating as well as promoting activities in two-stage mouse skin tumor protocol. Further, prior treatment of AsA to PBA and CBA followed by twice weekly application of 12-o-tetradecanoyl phorbal myristate acetate (TPA) resulted into delayed onset of tumor formation and similarly single application of 7,12-dimethylbenz [α] anthracene (DMBA) followed by twice weekly application of AsA and CBA showed an increase in the latency period. Thus, AsA showed a protective effect against CBA promoted skin tumor. Furthermore, the topical application of CBA significantly increased the levels of xenobiotic enzymes. The animals topically treated with AsA along with topical application of CBA, restored all the impairment observed in enzyme activities. Thus, this study suggested that AsA can be useful in preventing PBA and CBA induced skin tumorigenicity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Theobromine Inhibits Uric Acid Crystallization. A Potential Application in the Treatment of Uric Acid Nephrolithiasis

    OpenAIRE

    Felix Grases; Adrian Rodriguez; Antonia Costa-Bauza

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To assess the capacity of methylxanthines (caffeine, theophylline, theobromine and paraxanthine) to inhibit uric acid crystallization, and to evaluate their potential application in the treatment of uric acid nephrolithiasis. Materials and Methods The ability of methylxathines to inhibit uric acid nucleation was assayed turbidimetrically. Crystal morphology and its modification due to the effect of theobromine were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The ability of theobr...

  13. Fatty Acid Composition and Antioxidant Potential of Ten Cephalaria Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazli Boke Sarikahya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focused on the assessment of fatty acid composition and antioxidant properties of ten Cephalaria (C. aytachii, C. taurica, C. tuteliana, C. procera, C. speciosa, C. tchihatchewii, C. hirsuta, C. elazigensis var. elazigensis,C. anatolica and C. aristata species. The principal fatty acids in all species were oleic acid (10.28-31.65%, linoleic acid (17.81–37.67% and palmitic acid (10.54–23.81%. L inolenic acid was also the most abundant fatty acid component in C. tuteliana (24.42% and in C. speciosa (36.65% . Invitro antioxidant capacity of the hexane extracts of ten Cephalaria species was investigated by CUPRAC and DPPH methods. Total phenolic content of hexane extracts was also examined. The results showed that all species of Cephalaria have antioxidant properties with the highest trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (1.005 ± 0.13 mmol trolox equivalent per gram extact in C. aristata and the highest radical scavenging activity (IC 50 value 3.768 ± 0.67 mg/mL in C. tchihatchewii . It was found that reducing power of C. aristata and radical scavenging potential of C. tchihatchewii were mainly due to highest phenolic contents of these species (2.907 ± 0.146 and 3.037 ± 0.156 mg gallic acid equivalent per gram extract, respectively. These findings suggest that the Cephalaria species might be used as a potential source of unsaturated fatty acids as well as phenolic constituents possessing antioxidant activity in food, cosmetics and pharmaceutical industries

  14. The Role of Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiyuan Bu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Stroke is the third commonest cause of death following cardiovascular diseases and cancer. In particular, in recent years, the morbidity and mortality of stroke keep remarkable growing. However, stroke still captures people attention far less than cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Past studies have shown that oxidative stress and inflammation play crucial roles in the progress of cerebral injury induced by stroke. Evidence is accumulating that the dietary supplementation of fish oil exhibits beneficial effects on several diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases, metabolic diseases, and cancer. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs, the major component of fish oil, have been found against oxidative stress and inflammation in cardiovascular diseases. And the potential of n-3 PUFAs in stroke treatment is attracting more and more attention. In this review, we will review the effects of n-3 PUFAs on stroke and mainly focus on the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of n-3 PUFAs.

  15. Fungal Peptaibiotics: Assessing Potential Meteoritic Amino Acid Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsila, J. E.; Callahan, M. P.; Glavin, D. P.; Dworkin, J. P.; Bruckner, H.

    2010-01-01

    The presence of non-protein alpha-dialkyl-amino acids such as alpha-aminoisobutyric acid (alpha-A1B) and isovaline (Iva), which are relatively rare in the terrestrial biosphere, has long been used as an indication of the indigeneity of meteoritic amino acids, however, the discovery of alpha-AIB in peptides producers by a widespread group of filamentous fungi indicates the possibility of a terrestrial biotic source for the alpha-AIB observed in some meteorites. The alpha-AIB-containing peptides produced by these fungi are dubbed peptaibiotics. We measured the molecular distribution and stable carbon and nitrogen isotopic ratios for amino acids found in the total hydrolysates of four biologically synthesized peptaibiotics. We compared these aneasurenetts with those from the CM2 carbonaceous chondrite Murchison and from three Antarctic CR2 carbonaceous chondrites in order to understand the peptaibiotics as a potential source of meteoritic contamination.

  16. Potential lactic acid production from crude glycerol as the precursor of polylactic acid analog : literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastati, D. Y.; Hambali, E.; Syamsu, K.; Warsiki, E.

    2017-05-01

    Biodiesel has gained a significant amount of attention over the past decade as an environmentally friendly fuel. However, the biodiesel production process generates glycerol-containing waste streams which have become a disposal issue for biodiesel plants and generated an abundant of crude glycerol, a low-value byproduct of biodiesel manufacturing. Conversion crude glycerol to valuable chemical such as lactic acid, a precursor of polylactic acid (PLA), has a great potential to substitute traditional feedstocks of PLA, i.e., carbohydrate or sugar sources. Some of the process perspectives and the potential of glycerol to produce lactic acid by chemical transformation or microbial conversion are discussed in this paper, as well as the possibility of extending lactic acid to polylactic acid (PLA).

  17. Examining the role of glutamic acid 183 in chloroperoxidase catalysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yi, X.; Conesa, A.; Punt, P.J.; Hager, L.P.

    2003-01-01

    Site-directed mutagenesis has been used to investigate the role of glutamic acid 183 in chloroperoxidase catalysis. Based on the x-ray crystallographic structure of chloroperoxidase, Glu-183 is postulated to function on distal side of the heme prosthetic group as an acid-base catalyst in

  18. Evaluation of Citric Acid Production Potentials of Food Processing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To evaluate citric acid production potentials of food processing wastes. Materials and Methods: Samples of domestic wastes generated from peels of Yam (YP), Cassava (CP), red cocoyam (RCP), white cocoyam (WCP), ripe plantain (RP), unripe plantain (UPP) and garri processing chaff (GPC) were washed, ...

  19. Synthesis of Novel Piperazine-linked Anthranilic Acids as Potential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    Synthesis of Novel Piperazine-linked Anthranilic Acids as. Potential Small Molecule Kinase Inhibitors. Santanu Chakravortya, Hanna F. Kleina, Luke E. Hodsonb, Matthias Rabillierc, Zhizhou Fangd,. André Richtersd, Stephen C. Pellyb, Daniel Rauhc,d,* and Willem A.L. van Otterloa,b,*. aMolecular Sciences Institute, School ...

  20. Potential impact of acid precipitation on arsenic and selenium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushak, P

    1985-01-01

    The potential impact of acidic precipitation on the environmental mobility of the metalloids arsenic (As) and selenium (Se) has not been given much attention and is poorly understood. As with other elements, the interest here is the potential effect of environmental acidification on environmental behavior in ways that are relevant to human exposure to these metalloids. Available information on acid precipitation and the environmental behavior of these metalloids do, however, permit some preliminary conclusions to be drawn. Both As and Se appear to be mobilized from household plumbing into tap water by the corrosive action of soft, mildly acidic water, while surface water catchment systems in areas impacted by acidic deposition may contain elevated soluble As levels. Acidification of aquatic ecosystems that are drinking water sources may pose the prospect of enhanced release of As from sediment to water as well as reduction in water levels of Se. Acidification of ground waters, where As appears to be especially mobile, is of particular concern in this regard. The potential impact of acidic deposition on As and Se in soils cannot readily be assessed with respect to human exposure, but it would appear that the behavior of these metalloids in poorly buffered, poorly immobilizing soils, e.g., sandy soils of low metal hydrous oxide content, would be most affected. The effect is opposite for the two elements; lowered pH would appear to enhance As mobility and to reduce Se availability. Altered acidity of both soil and aquatic systems poses a risk for altered biotransformation processes involving both As and Se, thereby affecting the relative amounts of different chemical forms varying in their toxicity to humans as well as influencing biogeochemical cycling. PMID:4076075

  1. Theobromine Inhibits Uric Acid Crystallization. A Potential Application in the Treatment of Uric Acid Nephrolithiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grases, Felix; Rodriguez, Adrian; Costa-Bauza, Antonia

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To assess the capacity of methylxanthines (caffeine, theophylline, theobromine and paraxanthine) to inhibit uric acid crystallization, and to evaluate their potential application in the treatment of uric acid nephrolithiasis. Materials and Methods The ability of methylxathines to inhibit uric acid nucleation was assayed turbidimetrically. Crystal morphology and its modification due to the effect of theobromine were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The ability of theobromine to inhibit uric acid crystal growth on calculi fragments resulting from extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) was evaluated using a flow system. Results The turbidimetric assay showed that among the studied methylxanthines, theobromine could markedly inhibit uric acid nucleation. SEM images showed that the presence of theobromine resulted in thinner uric acid crystals. Furthermore, in a flow system theobromine blocked the regrowth of post-ESWL uric acid calculi fragments. Conclusions Theobromine, a natural dimethylxanthine present in high amounts in cocoa, acts as an inhibitor of nucleation and crystal growth of uric acid. Therefore, theobromine may be clinically useful in the treatment of uric acid nephrolithiasis. PMID:25333633

  2. Theobromine inhibits uric acid crystallization. A potential application in the treatment of uric acid nephrolithiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grases, Felix; Rodriguez, Adrian; Costa-Bauza, Antonia

    2014-01-01

    To assess the capacity of methylxanthines (caffeine, theophylline, theobromine and paraxanthine) to inhibit uric acid crystallization, and to evaluate their potential application in the treatment of uric acid nephrolithiasis. The ability of methylxathines to inhibit uric acid nucleation was assayed turbidimetrically. Crystal morphology and its modification due to the effect of theobromine were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The ability of theobromine to inhibit uric acid crystal growth on calculi fragments resulting from extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) was evaluated using a flow system. The turbidimetric assay showed that among the studied methylxanthines, theobromine could markedly inhibit uric acid nucleation. SEM images showed that the presence of theobromine resulted in thinner uric acid crystals. Furthermore, in a flow system theobromine blocked the regrowth of post-ESWL uric acid calculi fragments. Theobromine, a natural dimethylxanthine present in high amounts in cocoa, acts as an inhibitor of nucleation and crystal growth of uric acid. Therefore, theobromine may be clinically useful in the treatment of uric acid nephrolithiasis.

  3. Theobromine inhibits uric acid crystallization. A potential application in the treatment of uric acid nephrolithiasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Grases

    Full Text Available To assess the capacity of methylxanthines (caffeine, theophylline, theobromine and paraxanthine to inhibit uric acid crystallization, and to evaluate their potential application in the treatment of uric acid nephrolithiasis.The ability of methylxathines to inhibit uric acid nucleation was assayed turbidimetrically. Crystal morphology and its modification due to the effect of theobromine were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The ability of theobromine to inhibit uric acid crystal growth on calculi fragments resulting from extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL was evaluated using a flow system.The turbidimetric assay showed that among the studied methylxanthines, theobromine could markedly inhibit uric acid nucleation. SEM images showed that the presence of theobromine resulted in thinner uric acid crystals. Furthermore, in a flow system theobromine blocked the regrowth of post-ESWL uric acid calculi fragments.Theobromine, a natural dimethylxanthine present in high amounts in cocoa, acts as an inhibitor of nucleation and crystal growth of uric acid. Therefore, theobromine may be clinically useful in the treatment of uric acid nephrolithiasis.

  4. Preventive and therapeutic potential of ascorbic acid in neurodegenerative diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, Morgana; Fraga, Daiane Bittencourt; Rodrigues, Ana Lúcia S

    2017-12-01

    In this review, we summarize the involvement of ascorbic acid in neurodegenerative diseases by presenting available evidence on the behavioral and biochemical effects of this compound in animal models of neurodegeneration as well as the use of ascorbic acid as a therapeutic approach to alleviate neurodegenerative progression in clinical studies. Ascorbate, a reduced form of vitamin C, has gained interest for its multiple functions and mechanisms of action, contributing to the homeostasis of normal tissues and organs as well as to tissue regeneration. In the brain, ascorbate exerts neuromodulatory functions and scavenges reactive oxygen species generated during synaptic activity and neuronal metabolism. These are important properties as redox imbalance and abnormal protein aggregation constitute central mechanisms implicated in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Huntington's diseases, multiple sclerosis, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Indeed, several studies have indicated an association between low serum ascorbate concentrations and neurodegeneration. Moreover, ascorbic acid is a suitable candidate for supplying either antioxidant defense or modulation of neuronal and astrocytic metabolism under neurodegenerative conditions. Ascorbic acid acts mainly by decreasing oxidative stress and reducing the formation of protein aggregates, which may contribute to the reduction of cognitive and/or motor impairments observed in neurodegenerative processes. Although several studies support a possible role of ascorbic acid administration against neurodegeneration, more researches are essential to substantiate the existing results and accelerate the knowledge in this field. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Potential of lactic acid bacteria as suppressors of wine allergies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yıldırım Hatice Kalkan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Allergens causes some symptoms as all asthma, allergic conjunctivitis, and allergic rhinitis. These symptoms are seen twice as many in women than in men. The major wine allergens reported in wines are endochitinase 4A and lipid-transfer protein (LTP. This review deal with possibilities of using lactic acid bacteria as suppressors of wine allergies. Phenolic compounds present in wines have not only antioxidant properties causing radical scavenging but also some special properties reported in many in vitro studies as regulating functions in inflammatory cells as mast cells. So what is the role of lactic acid bacteria in these cases? Lactic acid bacteria are used during malolactic fermentation step of wine production with purpose of malic acid reduction. During this bioconversion complex phenolic compounds could be hydrolysed by bacterial enzymes to their aglycone forms. Obtained aglycons could pass through the intestinal epithelium of human and allowed reduction of IgE antibody production by affecting Th1/ Th2 ratio. Considering different contents and quantities of phenols in different grape varieties and consequently in different wines more studies are required in order to determine which lactic acid bacteria and strains could be effective in suppressing wine allergens.

  6. Role of dust alkalinity in acid mobilization of iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ito

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric processing of mineral aerosols by acid gases (e.g., SO2, HNO3, N2O5, and HCl may play a key role in the transformation of insoluble iron (Fe in the oxidized or ferric (III form to soluble forms (e.g., Fe(II, inorganic soluble species of Fe(III, and organic complexes of iron. On the other hand, mineral dust particles have a potential of neutralizing the acidic species due to the alkaline buffer ability of carbonate minerals (e.g., CaCO3 and MgCO3. Here we demonstrate the impact of dust alkalinity on the acid mobilization of iron in a three-dimensional aerosol chemistry transport model that includes a mineral dissolution scheme. In our model simulations, most of the alkaline dust minerals cannot be entirely consumed by inorganic acids during the transport across the North Pacific Ocean. As a result, the inclusion of alkaline compounds in aqueous chemistry substantially limits the iron dissolution during the long-range transport to the North Pacific Ocean: only a small fraction of iron (<0.2% dissolves from hematite in the coarse-mode dust aerosols with 0.45% soluble iron initially. On the other hand, a significant fraction of iron (1–2% dissolves in the fine-mode dust aerosols due to the acid mobilization of the iron-containing minerals externally mixed with carbonate minerals. Consequently, the model quantitatively reproduces higher iron solubility in smaller particles as suggested by measurements over the Pacific Ocean. It implies that the buffering effect of alkaline content in dust aerosols might help to explain the inverse relationship between aerosol iron solubility and particle size. We also demonstrate that the iron solubility is sensitive to the chemical specification of iron-containing minerals in dust. Compared with the dust sources, soluble iron from combustion sources contributes to a relatively marginal effect for deposition of soluble iron over the North

  7. Daclatasvir: potential role in hepatitis C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Choongho

    2013-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is responsible for the development of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. It has been a tremendous burden on global health care systems. With the advent of a number of new direct-acting and host-targeting antiviral agents, current interferon-α- and ribavirin-based HCV therapy has started to move towards an interferon-sparing or even interferon-free strategy. In this regard, a recently identified NS5A inhibitor, daclatasvir, showed a great promise in clinical trials as another new class of direct-acting anti-HCV therapeutics, with a distinct mechanism of action. In this review, a variety of preclinical as well as clinical proof-of-concept studies of daclatasvir, including the studies of its discovery, mechanism of action, viral resistance, and host polymorphism profiles are reviewed. In addition, a role of daclatasvir in the future therapy for HCV patients is discussed briefly. PMID:24204123

  8. The acidic and erosive potential of five sports drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Jeremy; Loyn, Theresa; McAndrew, Robert

    2005-12-01

    Sports drinks are becoming increasingly popular as we are all being encouraged to adopt a healthier lifestyle with regular exercise. However, many of these products are based on acidic fruits and may contribute to erosion. The aim of this study was to screen a number of these products for their potential to cause enamel erosion in vitro. The erosive potential of a number of readily available sports drinks was assessed in the laboratory by measuring their pH, neutralisable acidity and their ability to erode enamel. These were compared to a positive control, orange juice and a negative control, water. The pH of the sports drinks ranged from 3.16-3.70 with their neutralisable acidity ranging from 9.74-13.44 mls of 0.1M NaOH. The amount of enamel removed following 1-hour immersion in the sports drinks ranged from 1.18-5.36 microns. In comparison, the orange juice control had a pH of 3.68, a neutralisable acidity of 19.68 mls of 0.1 M NaOH and removed 3.24 microns of enamel. Many of the sports drinks tested were found to be erosive. This information will be of use to clinicians when counselling patients with tooth surface loss who use fruit based sports drinks regularly.

  9. Phenolic acid degradation potential and growth behavior of lactic acid bacteria in sunflower substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritsch, Caroline; Heinrich, Veronika; Vogel, Rudi F; Toelstede, Simone

    2016-08-01

    Sunflower flour provides a high content of protein with a well-balanced amino acid composition and is therefore regarded as an attractive source for protein. The use for human nutrition is hindered by phenolic compounds, mainly chlorogenic acid, which can lead under specific circumstances to undesirable discolorations. In this study, growth behavior and degradation ability of chlorogenic acid of four lactic acid bacteria were explored. Data suggested that significant higher fermentation performances on sunflower flour as compared to sunflower protein concentrate were reached by Lactobacillus plantarum, Pediococcus pentosaceus, Lactobacillus gasseri and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis. In fermentation with the latter two strains reduced amounts of chlorogenic acid were observed in sunflower flour (-11.4% and -19.8%, respectively), which were more pronounced in the protein concentrate (-50.7% and -95.6%, respectively). High tolerances against chlorogenic acid and the cleavage product quinic acid with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of ≥20.48 mg/ml after 48 h were recorded for all strains except Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis, which was more sensitive. The second cleavage compound, caffeic acid revealed a higher antimicrobial potential with MIC values of 0.64-5.12 mg/ml. In this proof of concept study, degradation versus inhibitory effect suggest the existence of basic mechanisms of interaction between phenolic acids in sunflower and lactic acid bacteria and a feasible way to reduce the chlorogenic acid content, which may help to avoid undesired color changes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Daclatasvir: potential role in hepatitis C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee C

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Choongho Lee College of Pharmacy, Dongguk University-Seoul, Goyang, Republic of Korea  Abstract: Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV infection is responsible for the development of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. It has been a tremendous burden on global health care systems. With the advent of a number of new direct-acting and host-targeting antiviral agents, current interferon-α- and ribavirin-based HCV therapy has started to move towards an interferon-sparing or even interferon-free strategy. In this regard, a recently identified NS5A inhibitor, daclatasvir, showed a great promise in clinical trials as another new class of direct-acting anti-HCV therapeutics, with a distinct mechanism of action. In this review, a variety of preclinical as well as clinical proof-of-concept studies of daclatasvir, including the studies of its discovery, mechanism of action, viral resistance, and host polymorphism profiles are reviewed. In addition, a role of daclatasvir in the future therapy for HCV patients is discussed briefly. Keywords: hepatitis C virus, nonstructural protein 5A, NS5A inhibitor, hepatitis C treatment

  11. Magnesium: Potential Roles in Neurovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason J Chang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Magnesium therapy has been studied extensively in pre-clinical and clinical trials in multiple organ systems. Cerebrovascular diseases are particularly likely to benefit from its neuroprotective properties. This review summarizes current studies of magnesium in a wide range of neurovascular diseases.Methods: We searched relevant terms in the National Library of Medicine PubMed database and selected research including basic science, translational reports, meta-analyses, and clinical studies.Results: Studies examining magnesium administration in ischemic stroke have failed to show any benefit in clinical outcome. Data on magnesium for intracerebral hemorrhage is limited. Preliminary investigations in subarachnoid hemorrhage were promising, but definitive studies did not reveal differences in clinical outcome between magnesium and placebo-treated groups. Studies examining magnesium administration in global ischemia following cardiac arrest suggest a trend toward improved clinical outcome. The strongest evidence for clinically relevant neuroprotection following magnesium administration derives from studies of pre-term infants and patients undergoing cardiac bypass and carotid endarterectomy procedures. Magnesium was found to have an excellent safety profile across all investigations.Conclusions: Magnesium is easy to administer and possesses a favorable safety profile. Its utility as a neuroprotectant in cardiac surgery, carotid enderaterectomy, and pre-term infant hypoxia remain promising. Value as a therapeutic agent in ischemic stroke, intracerebral hemorrhage and subarachnoid hemorrhage is unclear and appears to be limited by late administration. Ongoing clinical trials assessing magnesium administration in the first hours following symptom onset may help clarify the role of magnesium therapy in these disease processes.

  12. Role of insulin resistance in uric acid nephrolithiasis

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Hanhan; Klett, Dane E; Littleton, Raymond; Elder, Jack S; Sammon, Jesse D

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome has been implicated in the pathogenesis of uric acid stones. Although not completely understood, its role is supported by many studies demonstrating increased prevalence of uric acid stones in patients with metabolic syndrome and in particular insulin resistance, a major component of metabolic syndrome. This review presents epidemiologic studies demonstrating the association between metabolic syndrome and nephrolithiasis in general as well as the relationship between insuli...

  13. Technological and economic potential of poly(lactic acid) and lactic acid derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Datta, R.; Tsai, S.P.; Bonsignore, P.; Moon, S.H.; Frank, J.R.

    1993-10-01

    Lactic acid has been an intermediate-volume specialty chemical (world production {approximately}40,000 tons/yr) used in a wide range of food processing and industrial applications. lactic acid h,as the potential of becoming a very large volume, commodity-chemical intermediate produced from renewable carbohydrates for use as feedstocks for biodegradable polymers, oxygenated chemicals, plant growth regulators, environmentally friendly ``green`` solvents, and specially chemical intermediates. In the past, efficient and economical technologies for the recovery and purification of lactic acid from crude fermentation broths and the conversion of tactic acid to the chemical or polymer intermediates had been the key technology impediments and main process cost centers. The development and deployment of novel separations technologies, such as electrodialysis (ED) with bipolar membranes, extractive distillations integrated with fermentation, and chemical conversion, can enable low-cost production with continuous processes in large-scale operations. The use of bipolar ED can virtually eliminate the salt or gypsum waste produced in the current lactic acid processes. In this paper, the recent technical advances in tactic and polylactic acid processes are discussed. The economic potential and manufacturing cost estimates of several products and process options are presented. The technical accomplishments at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and the future directions of this program at ANL are discussed.

  14. Spatial learning and long-term potentiation of mutant mice lacking D-amino-acid oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maekawa, Masao; Watanabe, Masashi; Yamaguchi, Shigeki; Konno, Ryuichi; Hori, Yuuichi

    2005-09-01

    We evaluated the role of D-amino-acid oxidase on spatial learning and long-term potentiation (LTP) in the hippocampus, since this enzyme metabolizes D-amino-acids, some of which enhance the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor functions. The Morris water maze learning and the LTP in the CA1 area of the hippocampal slice were observed in wild-type mice and mutant mice lacking D-amino-acid oxidase. The mutant mice showed significantly shorter platform search times in the water maze and significantly larger hippocampal LTPs than the wild-type mice. These results suggest that the abundant D-amino-acids in the mutant mouse brain facilitate hippocampal LTP and spatial learning.

  15. Extracellular Vesicles: Role in Inflammatory Responses and Potential Uses in Vaccination in Cancer and Infectious Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, João Henrique; Soares, Rodrigo Pedro; Ribeiro, Kleber; Cronemberger Andrade, André; Batista, Wagner Luiz; Torrecilhas, Ana Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Almost all cells and organisms release membrane structures containing proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids called extracellular vesicles (EVs), which have a wide range of functions concerning intercellular communication and signaling events. Recently, the characterization and understanding of their biological role have become a main research area due to their potential role in vaccination, as biomarkers antigens, early diagnostic tools, and therapeutic applications. Here, we will overview the recent advances and studies of Evs shed by tumor cells, bacteria, parasites, and fungi, focusing on their inflammatory role and their potential use in vaccination and diagnostic of cancer and infectious diseases. PMID:26380326

  16. The potential role of honey and its polyphenols in preventing heart ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Honey is rich in phenolic compounds, which act as natural antioxidants and are becoming increasingly popular because of their potential role in contributing to human health. A wide range of phenolic constituents is present in honey like quercetin, caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), acacetin, kaempferol, galangin which ...

  17. Incorporated fish oil fatty acids prevent action potential shortening induced by circulating fish oil fatty acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hester M Den Ruijter

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Increased consumption of fatty fish, rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (3-PUFAs reduces the severity and number of arrhythmias. Long term 3-PUFA-intake modulates the activity of several cardiac ion channels leading to cardiac action potential shortening. Circulating 3-PUFAs in the bloodstream and incorporated 3-PUFAs in the cardiac membrane have a different mechanism to shorten the action potential. It is, however, unknown whether circulating 3-PUFAs in the bloodstream enhance or diminish the effects of incorporated 3-PUFAs. In the present study, we address this issue. Rabbits were fed a diet rich in fish oil (3 or sunflower oil (9, as control for 3 weeks. Ventricular myocytes were isolated by enzymatic dissociation and action potentials were measured using the perforated patch clamp technique in the absence and presence of acutely administered 3-PUFAs. Plasma of 3 fed rabbits contained more free eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and isolated myocytes of 3 fed rabbits contained higher amounts of both EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA in their sarcolemma compared to control. In the absence of acutely administered fatty acids, 3 myocytes had a shorter action potential with a more negative plateau than 9 myocytes. In the 9 myocytes, but not in the 3 myocytes, acute administration of a mixture of EPA+DHA shortened the action potential significantly. From these data we conclude that incorporated 3-PUFAs into the sarcolemma and acutely administered 3 fatty acids do not have a cumulative effect on action potential duration and morphology. As a consequence, patients with a high cardiac 3-PUFA status will probably not benefit from short term 3 supplementation as an antiarrhythmic therapy.

  18. Incorporated fish oil fatty acids prevent action potential shortening induced by circulating fish oil fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Den Ruijter, Hester M; Verkerk, Arie O; Coronel, Ruben

    2010-01-01

    Increased consumption of fatty fish, rich in omega-3-polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω3-PUFAs) reduces the severity and number of arrhythmias. Long-term ω3-PUFA-intake modulates the activity of several cardiac ion channels leading to cardiac action potential shortening. Circulating ω3-PUFAs in the bloodstream and incorporated ω3-PUFAs in the cardiac membrane have a different mechanism to shorten the action potential. It is, however, unknown whether circulating ω3-PUFAs in the bloodstream enhance or diminish the effects of incorporated ω3-PUFAs. In the present study, we address this issue. Rabbits were fed a diet rich in fish oil (ω3) or sunflower oil (ω9, as control) for 3 weeks. Ventricular myocytes were isolated by enzymatic dissociation and action potentials were measured using the perforated patch-clamp technique in the absence and presence of acutely administered ω3-PUFAs. Plasma of ω3 fed rabbits contained more free eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and isolated myocytes of ω3 fed rabbits contained higher amounts of both EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in their sarcolemma compared to control. In the absence of acutely administered fatty acids, ω3 myocytes had a shorter action potential with a more negative plateau than ω9 myocytes. In the ω9 myocytes, but not in the ω3 myocytes, acute administration of a mixture of EPA + DHA shortened the action potential significantly. From these data we conclude that incorporated ω3-PUFAs into the sarcolemma and acutely administered ω3 fatty acids do not have a cumulative effect on action potential duration and morphology. As a consequence, patients with a high cardiac ω3-PUFA status will probably not benefit from short term ω3 supplementation as an antiarrhythmic therapy.

  19. LACTIC ACID BACTERIA AND THEIR ROLE IN THE MEAT PROCESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Kameník

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Lactic acid bacteria (LAB play in meat processing a positive but also a negative role. The principal advantage of LAB in the production of dry fermented sausages lies in the fermentation of saccharides, i.e. the creation of lactic acid and the subsequent fall in pH. The role of LAB in fresh meat spoilage is still controversial. Several species are able to dominate the meat system in VP and MAP storage conditions and can release odor-impact molecules. On the other hand they can provide favorable antagonistic activity against other undesired microorganisms. LAB are important spoilage agents in cooked meat products.

  20. Therapeutic Potential of Amino Acids in Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yulan; Wang, Xiuying; Hu, Chien-An Andy

    2017-08-23

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), which includes both ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, is a chronic relapsing inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract, and is difficult to treat. The pathophysiology of IBD is multifactorial and not completely understood, but genetic components, dysregulated immune responses, oxidative stress, and inflammatory mediators are known to be involved. Animal models of IBD can be chemically induced, and are used to study etiology and to evaluate potential treatments of IBD. Currently available IBD treatments can decrease the duration of active disease but because of their adverse effects, the search for novel therapeutic strategies that can restore intestinal homeostasis continues. This review summarizes and discusses what is currently known of the effects of amino acids on the reduction of inflammation, oxidative stress, and cell death in the gut when IBD is present. Recent studies in animal models have identified dietary amino acids that improve IBD, but amino acid supplementation may not be adequate to replace conventional therapy. The animal models used in dietary amino acid research in IBD are described.

  1. Nucleic acid-based fluorescent probes and their analytical potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juskowiak, Bernard

    2011-03-01

    It is well known that nucleic acids play an essential role in living organisms because they store and transmit genetic information and use that information to direct the synthesis of proteins. However, less is known about the ability of nucleic acids to bind specific ligands and the application of oligonucleotides as molecular probes or biosensors. Oligonucleotide probes are single-stranded nucleic acid fragments that can be tailored to have high specificity and affinity for different targets including nucleic acids, proteins, small molecules, and ions. One can divide oligonucleotide-based probes into two main categories: hybridization probes that are based on the formation of complementary base-pairs, and aptamer probes that exploit selective recognition of nonnucleic acid analytes and may be compared with immunosensors. Design and construction of hybridization and aptamer probes are similar. Typically, oligonucleotide (DNA, RNA) with predefined base sequence and length is modified by covalent attachment of reporter groups (one or more fluorophores in fluorescence-based probes). The fluorescent labels act as transducers that transform biorecognition (hybridization, ligand binding) into a fluorescence signal. Fluorescent labels have several advantages, for example high sensitivity and multiple transduction approaches (fluorescence quenching or enhancement, fluorescence anisotropy, fluorescence lifetime, fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), and excimer-monomer light switching). These multiple signaling options combined with the design flexibility of the recognition element (DNA, RNA, PNA, LNA) and various labeling strategies contribute to development of numerous selective and sensitive bioassays. This review covers fundamentals of the design and engineering of oligonucleotide probes, describes typical construction approaches, and discusses examples of probes used both in hybridization studies and in aptamer-based assays.

  2. Fatty acid acylation of proteins: specific roles for palmitic, myristic and caprylic acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rioux Vincent

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acid acylation of proteins corresponds to the co- or post-translational covalent linkage of an acyl-CoA, derived from a fatty acid, to an amino-acid residue of the substrate protein. The cellular fatty acids which are involved in protein acylation are mainly saturated fatty acids. Palmitoylation (S-acylation corresponds to the reversible attachment of palmitic acid (C16:0 via a thioester bond to the side chain of a cysteine residue. N-terminal myristoylation refers to the covalent attachment of myristic acid (C14:0 by an amide bond to the N-terminal glycine of many eukaryotic and viral proteins. Octanoylation (O-acylation typically concerns the formation of an ester bond between octanoic acid (caprylic acid, C8:0 and the side chain of a serine residue of the stomach peptide ghrelin. An increasing number of proteins (enzymes, hormones, receptors, oncogenes, tumor suppressors, proteins involved in signal transduction, eukaryotic and viral structural proteins have been shown to undergo fatty acid acylation. The addition of the acyl moiety is required for the protein function and usually mediates protein subcellular localization, protein-protein interaction or protein-membrane interaction. Therefore, through the covalent modification of proteins, these saturated fatty acids exhibit emerging specific and important roles in modulating protein functions. This review provides an overview of the recent findings on the various classes of protein acylation leading to the biological ability of saturated fatty acids to regulate many pathways. Finally, the nutritional links between these elucidated biochemical mechanisms and the physiological roles of dietary saturated fatty acids are discussed.

  3. Bronchoconstriction induced by citric acid inhalation in guinea pigs: role of tachykinins, bradykinin, and nitric oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricciardolo, F L; Rado, V; Fabbri, L M; Sterk, P J; Di Maria, G U; Geppetti, P

    1999-02-01

    Gastroesophageal acid reflux into the airways can trigger asthma attacks. Indeed, citric acid inhalation causes bronchoconstriction in guinea pigs, but the mechanism of this effect has not been fully clarified. We investigated the role of tachykinins, bradykinin, and nitric oxide (NO) on the citric acid- induced bronchoconstriction in anesthetized and artificially ventilated guinea pigs. Citric acid inhalation (2-20 breaths) caused a dose-dependent increase in total pulmonary resistance (RL). RL value obtained after 10 breaths of citric acid inhalation was not significantly different from the value obtained after 20 breaths (p = 0.22). The effect produced by a half-submaximum dose of citric acid (5 breaths) was halved by the bradykinin B2 receptor antagonist HOE 140 (0.1 micromol x kg-1, intravenous) and abolished by the tachykinin NK2 receptor antagonist SR 48968 (0.3 micromol x kg-1, intravenous). Bronchoconstriction induced by a submaximum dose of citric acid (10 breaths) was partially reduced by the administration of HOE 140, SR 48968, or the NK1 receptor antagonist CP-99,994 (8 micromol x kg-1, intravenous) alone and completely abolished by the combination of SR 48968 and CP-99,994. Pretreatment with the NO synthase inhibitor, L-NMMA (1 mM, 10 breaths every 5 min for 30 min) increased in an L-arginine-dependent manner the effect of citric acid inhalation on RL. HOE 140 and CP-99,994 markedly reduced the L-NMMA-potentiated bronchoconstriction to inhaled citric acid. We conclude that citric acid-induced bronchoconstriction is caused by tachykinin release from sensory nerves, which, in part, is mediated by endogenously released bradykinin. Simultaneous release of NO by citric acid inhalation counteracts tachykinin-mediated bronchoconstriction. Our study suggests a possible implication of these mechanisms in asthma associated with gastroesophageal acid reflux and a potential therapeutic role of tachykinin and bradykinin antagonists.

  4. Retinoic acid is a potential dorsalising signal in the late embryonic chick hindbrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maden Malcolm

    2007-12-01

    precise role is unclear, retinoic acid is potentially well placed to regulate temporally determined cell fate decisions within the rhombic lip precursor pool.

  5. Role of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Exercise in Breast Cancer Prevention: Identifying Common Targets

    OpenAIRE

    Abdelmagid, Salma A.; MacKinnon, Jessica L.; Janssen, Sarah M.; Ma, David W.L.

    2016-01-01

    Diet and exercise are recognized as important lifestyle factors that significantly influence breast cancer risk. In particular, dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been shown to play an important role in breast cancer prevention. Growing evidence also demonstrates a role for exercise in cancer and chronic disease prevention. However, the potential synergistic effect of n-3 PUFA intake and exercise is yet to be determined. This review explores targets for breast cancer prevent...

  6. Evaluation of the potential roles of microribonucleic acids in the interaction of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) with Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bela-Ong, Dennis; Schyth, Brian Dall; Lorenzen, Niels

    Micro ribonucleic acids (miRNAs) are endogenous, 18-22-nucleotide non-coding RNAs that potently mediate post-transcriptional silencing of a broad range of genes. They are emerging as critical regulators of a broad spectrum of biological processes, including immune responses and host-pathogen inte...

  7. Potential protective role of hydrogen against cisplatin- induced side ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yi Lang1. 1Department of Radiation Oncology, Sichuan Cancer Hospital, 2Department of Oncology, Chengdu First People's Hospital,. Chengdu 610041, China ... indiscriminately interact with lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids, thus leading to .... Differential roles of hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radical in cisplatin-induced ...

  8. The multiple roles of Fatty Acid Handling Proteins in brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentine SF Moullé

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Lipids are essential components of a living organism as energy source but also as constituent of the membrane lipid bilayer. In addition fatty acid (FA derivatives interact with many signaling pathways. FAs have amphipathic properties and therefore require being associated to protein for both transport and intracellular trafficking. Here we will focus on several fatty acid handling proteins, among which the fatty acid translocase/CD36 (FAT/CD36, members of fatty acid transport proteins (FATPs, and lipid chaperones fatty acid-binding proteins (FABPs. A decade of extensive studies has helped decipher the mechanism of action of these proteins in peripheral tissue with high lipid metabolism. However, considerably less information is available regarding their role in the brain, despite the high lipid content of this tissue. This review will primarily focus on the recent studies that have highlighted the crucial role of lipid handling proteins in brain FA transport, neuronal differentiation and development, cognitive processes and brain diseases. Finally a special focus will be made on the recent studies that have revealed the role of FAT/CD36 in brain lipid sensing and nervous control of energy balance.

  9. Fatty acid composition and antibacterial potential of Cassia tora (leaves and stem collected from different geographic areas of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shipra Shukla

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The comparative analysis of the fatty acid composition of Cassia tora (leaves and stem was determined using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Twenty-seven fatty acids were identified in C. tora (leaves and stem which was collected from three different geographical areas of India: Lucknow (Uttar Pradesh, Nainital (Uttarakhand, and Bhavnagar (Gujarat, coded as CT-1, CT-2, and CT-3, respectively. The gas chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis showed the presence of various saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. The major fatty acids found were palmitic acid, linoleic acid, linolenic acid, margaric acid, melissic acid, and behenic acid. The highest amounts of saturated fatty acids were found in leaves of C. tora collected from Bhavnagar (Gujarat (60.7% ± 0.5%. Thus, the study reveals that C. tora has a major amount of nutritionally important fatty acids, along with significant antimicrobial potential. Fatty acids play a significant role in the development of fat products with enhanced nutritional value and clinical application. Remarkable differences were found in the present study between fatty acid profiles of C. tora collected from different locations in India. To the best of our knowledge there is no previously reported comparative study of the fatty acids of C. tora.

  10. Could Uric acid have a Pathogenic Role in Chronic Allograft ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Chronic allograft dysfunction (CAD) is the primary cause of chronic graft failure after kidney transplantation. The pathogenesis of CAD involves both antigen-dependent and antigen-independent mechanisms. Serum uric acid could have a role in both mechanisms. Review: Hyperuricemia in subjects with renal ...

  11. Modulatory Role of Ascorbic Acid on Behavioural Responses of Pigs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Experiments were performed on adult local pigs with the aim of investigating the modulatory role of ascorbic acid (AA) on their behavioural responses to 4-h, road transportation during the harmattan season. Sixteen adult pigs administered with AA at the dose of 250 mg/kg dissolve in sterile water served as experimental ...

  12. Role of Trichloroacetic Acid and Gelfoam in Closure of Tympanic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-02-07

    Feb 7, 2018 ... Role of trichloroacetic acid and gelfoam in closure of tympanic membrane perforations. Niger J Clin Pract 2017;20:1233-6. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons. Attribution-Non Commercial-Share Alike 3.0 License, which allows others to remix, tweak, and ...

  13. Lactic acid bacteria isolated from yak milk show probiotic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Manpreet; Singh, Harjodh; Jangra, Manoj; Kaur, Lakhwinder; Jaswal, Pallavi; Dureja, Chetna; Nandanwar, Hemraj; Chaudhuri, Saumya Ray; Raje, Manoj; Mishra, Sunita; Pinnaka, Anil Kumar

    2017-10-01

    Probiotic industries strive for new, efficient and promising probiotic strains that impart a positive impact on consumer health. Challenges are persisting in isolation, screening, and selection of the new indigenous probiotic strains. In the present research, we explored the probiotic potential of 17 lactic acid bacteria isolated from Yak milk in a series of in vitro tests. We also demonstrated their health benefits, i.e., cholesterol degradation, lactose digestion, antimicrobial activity, antioxidant, and anticancer activities. Principal component analysis revealed that more than 50% of the strains fulfilled the examined criteria, e.g., survival in acidic pH, bile concentrations, and adherent property. Approximately all the strains produced antimicrobial substances against the maximum number of tested strains including clinical strains. Most strains degraded cholesterol in comparison to the reference probiotic strain whereas strain Yc showed 1.5 times higher the degradation efficiency of the control strain. Lan4 strain exhibited remarkable anticancer activity and induced the maximum apoptosis (87%) in the Hela cells and was non-toxic to the non-cancerous HEK293 cells. Around ten strains showed positive lactose digestion. Overall, this can be concluded that selected lactic acid bacteria revealed excellent probiotic properties along with desirable health benefits. These strains need to be further investigated in details for their application in the development of novel probiotic preparations for the improvement of public health.

  14. Potentiation of phenobarbital-induced anticonvulsant activity by pipecolic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahama, K; Miyata, T; Okano, Y; Kataoka, M; Hitoshi, T; Kasé, Y

    1982-07-09

    Pipecolic acid (PA) is an intermediate of lysine metabolism in the mammalian brain. Recent findings suggest a functional connection of PA as neuromodulator in GABAergic transmission. Since many drugs are postulated to produce their effects by interaction with the central GABA system, the influence of PA on the anticonvulsant activity of phenobarbital was examined. Pretreatment of mice with 50 mg . kg-1 of PA potentiated the suppressing effects of the barbiturate on electrically and chemically induced convulsions. However, there was no potentiation of the behavioral effects and hypothermia induced by phenobarbital. PA itself had no or only little effect on the convulsions, motor function and rectal temperature when given in i.p. doses up to 500 mg . kg-1. Intraventricular administration of 500 microgram of PA also did not suppress either type of convulsion, although it produced ptosis, hypotonia, sedation and hypothermia. The results are discussed in relation to GABA system.

  15. The role of carboxylic acids in TALSQueak separations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braley, Jenifer C.; Carter, Jennifer C.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Nash, Ken L.; Lumetta, Gregg J.

    2012-04-13

    Recent reports have indicated TALSPEAK-type separations chemistry can be improved through the replacement of bis-2-ethyl(hexyl) phosphoric acid (HDEHP) and diethylenetriamine-N,N,N,N,N-pentaacetic acid (DTPA) with the weaker reagents 2-ethyl(hexyl) phosphonic acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester (HEH[EHP]) and N-(2-hydroxyethyl)ethylenediamine-N,N',N'-triacetic acid (HEDTA), respectively. This modified TALSPEAK has been provided with an adjusted acronym of TALSQueak (Trivalent Actinide Lanthanide Separation using Quicker Extractants and Aqueous Komplexes). Among several benefits, TALSQueak chemistry provides more rapid phase transfer kinetics, is less reliant on carboxylic acids to mediate lanthanide extraction and allows a simplified thermodynamic description of the separations process that generally requires only parameters available in the literature to describe metal transfer. This manuscript focuses on the role of carboxylic acids in aqueous ternary (M-HEDTA-carboxylate) complexes, americium/lanthanide separations, and extraction kinetics. Spectrophotometry (UV-vis) of the Nd hypersensitive band indicates the presence of aqueous ternary species (K111 = 1.83 {+-} 0.01 at 1.0 M ionic strength, Nd(HEDTA) + Lac <-> Nd(HEDTA)Lac). Varying the carboxylic acid does not have a significant impact on Ln/Am separations or extraction kinetics. TALSqueak separations come to equilibrium in five minutes at the conventional operational pH of 3.6 using only 0.1 M total lactate or citrate.

  16. Malaria diagnosis in the community: Challenges and potential role ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kemrilib

    (ACTs) by most African countries as first line treatment for malaria, an effective, but expensive treatment is available, and the case for an expanded role for rapid diagnostics in the fight against malaria is clear. Despite this perceived potential role for RDTs, some challenges hinder their introduction and scale-up in the public.

  17. Selected soil enzymes: Examples of their potential roles in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soil enzymes regulate ecosystem functioning and in particular play a key role in nutrient cycling. In this review we briefly summarise potential roles of selected enzymes such as amylase, arylsulphatases, -glucosidase, cellulose, chitinase, dehydrogenase, phosphatase, protease and urease in the ecosystem. We also ...

  18. Archaeal Nucleic Acid Ligases and Their Potential in Biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Cecilia R; Patrick, Wayne M

    2015-01-01

    With their ability to catalyse the formation of phosphodiester linkages, DNA ligases and RNA ligases are essential tools for many protocols in molecular biology and biotechnology. Currently, the nucleic acid ligases from bacteriophage T4 are used extensively in these protocols. In this review, we argue that the nucleic acid ligases from Archaea represent a largely untapped pool of enzymes with diverse and potentially favourable properties for new and emerging biotechnological applications. We summarise the current state of knowledge on archaeal DNA and RNA ligases, which makes apparent the relative scarcity of information on in vitro activities that are of most relevance to biotechnologists (such as the ability to join blunt- or cohesive-ended, double-stranded DNA fragments). We highlight the existing biotechnological applications of archaeal DNA ligases and RNA ligases. Finally, we draw attention to recent experiments in which protein engineering was used to modify the activities of the DNA ligase from Pyrococcus furiosus and the RNA ligase from Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus, thus demonstrating the potential for further work in this area.

  19. Prediction of the acid generating potential of coal mining spoils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monterroso, C.; Macias, F. [Universidad de Santiago, Santiago (Spain). Dept. de Edafologia y Quimica Agricola

    1998-07-01

    The sulfide oxidation impact on mined land reclamation makes it necessary for mine spoils to be classified according to their acidifying potential. In this paper predictions were made of the acid generating potential of sulfide-containing spoils from the Puentes lignite mine (Galicia, NW Spain), and the limits of sulfur contents allowable for their storage in aerobic conditions, were established. Using samples of fresh spoils, analyses were made of the content and speciation of sulfur, pH was measured after oxidation of the sample with H{sub 2}O{sub 2} (pH of oxidation = pH{sub OX}), and titration of the oxidation extract with 0.1N NaOH to pH = 7 was carried out (Net Acid Production = NAP). The total sulfur content (S{sub T}) varied between {lt} 0.01% and {gt} 3%, with pyritic-S being the most common form ({gt} 80%). pH{sub OX} varied between 1.6 and 6.4 and NAP between 1.2 and 85.0 Kg-CaCO{sub 3}t{sup -1}. A high correlation was found between the NAP and the S{sub T}(r-0.98, p{lt} 0.001). Spoils with S{sub T} {gt} 0.15% cause high risks of mine-soil acidification, and create the need for large doses of CaCO{sub 3} to be used on final surface of the mine dump. Use of fly ash, produced from the combustion of lignite, as an alternative to commercial lime is more effective in the control of acidity generated by spoils with high S{sub T}. 20 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  20. The roles of organic acids in C4 photosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha eLudwig

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Organic acids are involved in numerous metabolic pathways in all plants. The finding that some plants, known as C4 plants, have four-carbon dicarboxylic acids as the first product of carbon fixation showed these organic acids play essential roles as photosynthetic intermediates. Oxaloacetate, malate, and aspartate are substrates for the C4 acid cycle that underpins the CO2 concentrating mechanism of C4 photosynthesis. In this cycle, oxaloacetate is the immediate, short-lived, product of the initial CO2 fixation step in C4 leaf mesophyll cells. The malate and aspartate, resulting from the rapid conversion of oxaloacetate, are the organic acids delivered to the sites of carbon reduction in the bundle-sheath cells of the leaf, where they are decarboxylated, with the released CO2 used to make carbohydrates. The three-carbon organic acids resulting from the decarboxylation reactions are returned to the mesophyll cells where they are used to regenerate the CO2 acceptor pool. NADP-malic enzyme-type, NAD-malic enzyme-type and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase-type C4 plants were identified, based on the most abundant decarboxylating enzyme in the leaf tissue. The genes encoding these C4 pathway-associated decarboxylases were co-opted from ancestral C3 plant genes during the evolution of C4 photosynthesis. Malate was recognized as the major organic acid transferred in NADP-malic enzyme-type C4 species, while aspartate fills this role in NAD-malic enzyme-type and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase-type plants. However, accumulating evidence indicates that many C4 plants use a combination of organic acids and decarboxylases during CO2 fixation, and the C4-type categories are not rigid. The ability to transfer multiple organic acid species and utilize different decarboxylases has been suggested to give C4 plants advantages in changing and stressful environments, as well as during development, by facilitating the balance of energy between the two cell types

  1. Organic Solute Transporter, OSTα-OSTβ: Its Role In Bile Acid Transport and Cholestasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soroka, Carol J.; Ballatori, Nazzareno; Boyer, James L.

    2013-01-01

    Organic solute transporter α-beta (OSTα-OSTβ) is a unique heteromeric transporter localized to the basolateral membrane of epithelial cells involved in sterol transport. It is believed to be the primary bile acid efflux transporter in the intestine of mammals and is therefore essential to bile acid homeostasis and the enterohepatic circulation. First described in the evolutionarily primitive small skate, Leucoraja erinacea, this facilitated transporter requires expression of both subunits for its function. It can transport a variety of bile acids, as well as estrone 3-sulfate, dehydroepiandrosterone 3-sulfate, digoxin and prostaglandin E2. Expression of both subunits is variable between species and tissues; in humans high expression is noted in the liver, small intestine, kidney, testis, and adrenal gland. OSTα-OSTβ is directly regulated by the bile acid sensing nuclear receptor, farnesoid X receptor (FXR). Furthermore, it is part of the complex regulatory pathway that controls bile acid synthesis and homeostasis. Hepatic OSTα-OSTβ is up-regulated in cholestasis in both humans and rodents, where it appears to play a protective role. Additional studies are necessary to determine its role in liver injury, bile acid malabsorption, and lipid and glucose metabolism, as well as a potential protective role for kidney OSTα-OSTβ in cholestasis. PMID:20422499

  2. Organic solute transporter, OSTalpha-OSTbeta: its role in bile acid transport and cholestasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soroka, Carol J; Ballatori, Nazzareno; Boyer, James L

    2010-05-01

    Organic solute transporter alpha-beta (OSTalpha-OSTbeta) is a unique heteromeric transporter localized to the basolateral membrane of epithelial cells involved in sterol transport. It is believed to be the primary bile acid efflux transporter in the intestine of mammals and is therefore essential to bile acid homeostasis and the enterohepatic circulation. First described in the evolutionarily primitive small skate, LEUCORAJA ERINACEA, this facilitated transporter requires expression of both subunits for its function. It can transport a variety of bile acids, as well as estrone 3-sulfate, dehydroepiandrosterone 3-sulfate, digoxin, and prostaglandin E (2). Expression of both subunits is variable between species and tissues; in humans high expression is noted in the liver, small intestine, kidney, testis, and adrenal gland. OSTalpha-OSTbeta is directly regulated by the bile acid sensing nuclear receptor, farnesoid X receptor (FXR). Furthermore, it is part of the complex regulatory pathway that controls bile acid synthesis and homeostasis. Hepatic OSTalpha-OSTbeta is upregulated in cholestasis in both humans and rodents, where it appears to play a protective role. Additional studies are necessary to determine its role in liver injury, bile acid malabsorption, and lipid and glucose metabolism, as well as a potential protective role for kidney OSTalpha-OSTbeta in cholestasis.

  3. Recent advances in tenuazonic acid as a potential herbicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shiguo; Qiang, Sheng

    2017-11-01

    Tenuazonic acid (TeA), belonging to tetramic acids that are the largest family of natural products, is a mycotoxin produced by members of the genus Alternaria and other phytopathogenic fungi. TeA has many desirable bioactivities. In the past two decades, several studies have addressed its phytotoxic activity. Because it can cause brown leaf spot and kill seedlings of mono- and dicotyledonous plants, TeA is regarded as a potential herbicidal agent. TeA blocks electron transport beyond QA by interacting with D1 protein and is a PSII inhibitor. The chloroplast-derived oxidative burst is responsible for TeA-induced cell death and plant necrosis. Based on the model of molecular interaction between TeA and D1 protein, a series of its derivatives with stable herbicidal activity have been designed, evaluated and patented. Recently, some chemical synthetic approaches of TeA and its derivatives have been successfully developed. This paper will mainly focus on new developments regarding TeA's herbicidal activity, mode of action, biosynthesis and chemical synthesis, and characterization of new derivatives. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Mycosporine-Like Amino Acids: Potential Health and Beauty Ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrapusta, Ewelina; Kaminski, Ariel; Duchnik, Kornelia; Bober, Beata; Adamski, Michal; Bialczyk, Jan

    2017-10-21

    Human skin is constantly exposed to damaging ultraviolet radiation (UVR), which induces a number of acute and chronic disorders. To reduce the risk of UV-induced skin injury, people apply an additional external protection in the form of cosmetic products containing sunscreens. Nowadays, because of the use of some chemical filters raises a lot of controversies, research focuses on exploring novel, fully safe and highly efficient natural UV-absorbing compounds that could be used as active ingredients in sun care products. A promising alternative is the application of multifunctional mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs), which can effectively compete with commercially available filters. Here, we outline a complete characterization of these compounds and discuss their enormous biotechnological potential with special emphasis on their use as sunscreens, activators of cells proliferation, anti-cancer agents, anti-photoaging molecules, stimulators of skin renewal, and functional ingredients of UV-protective biomaterials.

  5. Mycosporine-Like Amino Acids: Potential Health and Beauty Ingredients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewelina Chrapusta

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Human skin is constantly exposed to damaging ultraviolet radiation (UVR, which induces a number of acute and chronic disorders. To reduce the risk of UV-induced skin injury, people apply an additional external protection in the form of cosmetic products containing sunscreens. Nowadays, because of the use of some chemical filters raises a lot of controversies, research focuses on exploring novel, fully safe and highly efficient natural UV-absorbing compounds that could be used as active ingredients in sun care products. A promising alternative is the application of multifunctional mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs, which can effectively compete with commercially available filters. Here, we outline a complete characterization of these compounds and discuss their enormous biotechnological potential with special emphasis on their use as sunscreens, activators of cells proliferation, anti-cancer agents, anti-photoaging molecules, stimulators of skin renewal, and functional ingredients of UV-protective biomaterials.

  6. Acid-Sensitive Magnetic Nanoparticles as Potential Drug Depots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuang, Shy Chyi; Neoh, Koon Gee; Kang, En-Tang; Leckband, Deborah E; Pack, Daniel W

    2011-06-01

    Superparamagnetic magnetic nanoparticles were successfully functionalized with poly(methacrylic acid) via atom transfer radical polymerization, followed by conjugation to doxorubicin (Dox). Because of pH-sensitive hydrazone linkages, the rate and extent of Dox release from the particles was higher at a lower pH and/or a higher temperature than at physiological conditions. Appropriate changes to the pH and temperature can increase the drug release from the particles. Because of the released drug, the particles were found to be cytotoxic to human breast cancer cells in vitro. Such magnetic nanoparticles, with the potential to retain drug under physiological conditions and release the drug in conditions where the pH is lower or temperature is higher, may be useful in magnetic drug targeting by reducing the side effects of the drug caused to healthy tissues. In addition, they may serve as hyperthermia agents where the high temperatures used in hyperthermia can trigger further drug release.

  7. Unusual binding of ursodeoxycholic acid to ileal bile acid binding protein: role in activation of FXRα.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Changming; Filipp, Fabian V; Smith, Jeffrey W

    2012-04-01

    Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA, ursodiol) is used to prevent damage to the liver in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis. The drug also prevents the progression of colorectal cancer and the recurrence of high-grade colonic dysplasia. However, the molecular mechanism by which UDCA elicits its beneficial effects is not entirely understood. The aim of this study was to determine whether ileal bile acid binding protein (IBABP) has a role in mediating the effects of UDCA. We find that UDCA binds to a single site on IBABP and increases the affinity for major human bile acids at a second binding site. As UDCA occupies one of the bile acid binding sites on IBABP, it reduces the cooperative binding that is often observed for the major human bile acids. Furthermore, IBABP is necessary for the full activation of farnesoid X receptor α (FXRα) by bile acids, including UDCA. These observations suggest that IBABP may have a role in mediating some of the intestinal effects of UDCA.

  8. The P21-activated kinase PAK4 is implicated in fatty-acid potentiation of insulin secretion downstream of free fatty acid receptor 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, Valérie; Ghislain, Julien; Poitout, Vincent

    2016-11-01

    Free fatty acid receptor 1 (FFA1/GPR40) plays a key role in the potentiation of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion by fatty acids in pancreatic β cells. We previously demonstrated that GPR40 signaling leads to cortical actin remodeling and potentiates the second phase of insulin secretion. In this study, we examined the role of p21 activated kinase 4 (PAK4), a known regulator of cytoskeletal dynamics, in GPR40-dependent potentiation of insulin secretion. The fatty acid oleate induced PAK4 phosphorylation in human islets, in isolated mouse islets and in the insulin secreting cell line INS832/13. However, oleate-induced PAK4 phosphorylation was not observed in GPR40-null mouse islets. siRNA-mediated knockdown of PAK4 in INS832/13 cells abrogated the potentiation of insulin secretion by oleate, whereas PAK7 knockdown had no effect. Our results indicate that PAK4 plays an important role in the potentiation of insulin secretion by fatty acids downstream of GPR40.

  9. Polarizable model potential function for nucleic acid bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Setsuko

    2007-07-15

    A polarizable model potential (PMP) function for adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), thymine (T), and uracil (U) is developed on the basis of ab initio molecular orbital calculations at the MP2/6-31+G* level. The PMP function consists of Coulomb, van der Waals, and polarization terms. The permanent atomic charges of the Coulomb term are determined by using electrostatic potential (ESP) optimization. The multicenter polarizabilities of the polarization term are determined by using polarized one-electron potential (POP) optimization in which the electron density changes induced by a test charge are target. Isotropic and anisotropic polarizabilities are adopted as the multicenter polarizabilities. In the PMP calculations using the optimized parameters, the interaction energies of Watson-Crick type A-T and C-G base pairs were -15.6 and -29.4 kcal/mol, respectively. The interaction energy of Hoogsteen type A-T base pair was -17.8 kcal/mol. These results reproduce well the quantum chemistry calculations at the MP2/6-311++G(3df,2pd) level within the differences of 0.6 kcal/mol. The stacking energies of A-T and C-G were -9.7 and -10.9 kcal/mol. These reproduce well the calculation results at the MP2/6-311++G (2d,2p) level within the differences of 1.3 kcal/mol. The potential energy surfaces of the system in which a sodium ion or a chloride ion is adjacent to the nucleic acid base are calculated. The interaction energies of the PMP function reproduced well the calculation results at the MP2/6-31+G* or MP2/6-311++G(2d,2p) level. The reason why the PMP function reproduces well the high-level quantum mechanical interaction energies is addressed from the viewpoint of each energy terms. Copyright (c) 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Activation of mTORC1 by leucine is potentiated by branched-chain amino acids and even more so by essential amino acids following resistance exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moberg, Marcus; Apró, William; Ekblom, Björn

    2016-01-01

    Protein synthesis is stimulated by resistance exercise and intake of amino acids, in particular leucine. Moreover, activation of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling by leucine is potentiated by the presence of other essential amino acids (EAA). However, the contribution...... of the branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) to this effect is yet unknown. Here we compare the stimulatory role of leucine, BCAA, and EAA ingestion on anabolic signaling following exercise. Accordingly, eight trained volunteers completed four sessions of resistance exercise during which they ingested either placebo...

  11. The role of tannic acid and sodium citrate in the synthesis of silver nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranoszek-Soliwoda, Katarzyna; Tomaszewska, Emilia; Socha, Ewelina; Krzyczmonik, Pawel; Ignaczak, Anna; Orlowski, Piotr; Krzyzowska, Małgorzata; Celichowski, Grzegorz; Grobelny, Jaroslaw

    2017-08-01

    We describe herein the significance of a sodium citrate and tannic acid mixture in the synthesis of spherical silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). Monodisperse AgNPs were synthesized via reduction of silver nitrate using a mixture of two chemical agents: sodium citrate and tannic acid. The shape, size and size distribution of silver particles were determined by UV-Vis spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering (DLS) and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). Special attention is given to understanding and experimentally confirming the exact role of the reagents (sodium citrate and tannic acid present in the reaction mixture) in AgNP synthesis. The oxidation and reduction potentials of silver, tannic acid and sodium citrate in their mixtures were determined using cyclic voltammetry. Possible structures of tannic acid and its adducts with citric acid were investigated in aqueous solution by performing computer simulations in conjunction with the semi-empirical PM7 method. The lowest energy structures found from the preliminary conformational search are shown, and the strength of the interaction between the two molecules was calculated. The compounds present on the surface of the AgNPs were identified using FT-IR spectroscopy, and the results are compared with the IR spectrum of tannic acid theoretically calculated using PM6 and PM7 methods. The obtained results clearly indicate that the combined use of sodium citrate and tannic acid produces monodisperse spherical AgNPs, as it allows control of the nucleation, growth and stabilization of the synthesis process. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  12. Significance of Nanoparticles and the Role of Amino Acids in Structuring Them-A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulandaisamy, Arockia Jayalatha; Rayappan, John Bosco Balaguru

    2018-08-01

    Nanoparticles has occupied an eminent place in our tech-facilitated society. The processes involved in synthesizing nanoparticles are important not only to find their applications, but also to make them eco-friendly. Attempts are being made to replace the use of harmful surfactants/reagents by amino acids, in the due course of nanoparticle synthesis. Especially in synthesizing the multifunctional metal and metal oxide nanoparticles the use of amino acids as surfactant/as catalyst, helps to obtain required size and shape. Amino acids have the inherent property in directing and assembling the superstructures. They have the tendency to act as a capping agent and their presence during the synthesis processes alters the synthesized particles' morphology. Review has been made to study the role of amino acids like histidine, lysine, arginine in structuring ZnO, FeO, Au and Ag nanoparticles. The change in their morphology that resulted due to the addition of amino acids has been compared. It is important to understand the role of amino acids in synthesizing the nanoparticles, and so it is more important to understand the internal energy variation of the same. To achieve this, the interaction between the bio (amino acids) and non-bio (metal and metal oxide) nanoparticles are to be discussed both experimentally and theoretically. At times the theoretical characterization, especially at low dimensions, help us to understand inter-particle interaction and intra-particle interaction by determining their chemical potential and Lennard-Jones potential. This review has been concluded with a model to characterize the precursor solution (amino acids and inorganic materials) by considering the Equation of State for liquids, which could also be extended to determine the structure factor of nanoparticles.

  13. The Role of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in the Prevention and Treatment of Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiajie Liu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer (BC is the most common cancer among women worldwide. Dietary fatty acids, especially n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, are believed to play a role in reducing BC risk. Evidence has shown that fish consumption or intake of long-chain n-3 PUFA, such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, are beneficial for inhibiting mammary carcinogenesis. The evidence regarding α-linolenic acid (ALA, however, remains equivocal. It is essential to clarify the relation between ALA and cancer since ALA is the principal source of n-3 PUFA in the Western diet and the conversion of ALA to EPA and DHA is not efficient in humans. In addition, the specific anticancer roles of individual n-3 PUFA, alone, have not yet been identified. Therefore, the present review evaluates ALA, EPA and DHA consumed individually as well as in n-3 PUFA mixtures. Also, their role in the prevention of BC and potential anticancer mechanisms of action are examined. Overall, this review suggests that each n-3 PUFA has promising anticancer effects and warrants further research.

  14. Malaria diagnosis in the community: Challenges and potential role ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite this perceived potential role for RDTs, some challenges hinder their introduction and scale-up in the public health sector. Among the requirements are significant investments in policy development, training, infrastructure, and supply chain and quality assurance systems. African Journal of Health Sciences Vol.

  15. The Potential Role of Artificial Intelligence Technology in Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Abdel-Badeeh M.

    The field of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Education has traditionally a technology-based focus, looking at the ways in which AI can be used in building intelligent educational software. In addition AI can also provide an excellent methodology for learning and reasoning from the human experiences. This paper presents the potential role of AI in…

  16. Genetic aspects of pediatric asthma: potential clinical role

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EL-HAKIM

    Egypt J Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2008; 6(2): 45-50. 45. Genetic aspects of pediatric asthma: potential clinical role. Sarwat E. Deraz. Professor of Pediatrics, Ain Shams University, Cairo. Introduction. Bronchial asthma is a disease of continuing inflammatory disorder of the airways that causes trouble breathing1. It is a major ...

  17. Conceptualising the Potential Role of L1 in CLIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Angel M. Y.

    2015-01-01

    Content and language integrated learning (CLIL) is a rapidly growing area of both research and practice in all parts of the world, especially in Europe and Asia. As a young discipline, CLIL has a good potential of distinguishing itself from monolingual L2 immersion education models by becoming more flexible and balanced about the role of L1 in…

  18. Original Business Modelling: Potential Roles of Creativity in Entrepreneurship Training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byrge, Christian; Kristiansen, Kristian Brøndum

    2017-01-01

    This extended abstract aims to design a research method for studying potential meaningful roles creativity may take in entrepreneurship training. It suggests an experimental setup using a 30 ECTS entrepreneurship course at a Danish university for conducting the experiments and the data collection...

  19. Histopathological changes in tendinopathy--potential roles of BMPs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lui, Pauline Po Yee

    2013-12-01

    The pathogenesis of tendinopathy remains unclear. Chondro-osteogenic BMPs such as BMP-2, BMP-4 and BMP-7 have been reported in clinical samples and animal models of tendinopathy. As chondrocyte-like cells and ossified deposits have been observed in both clinical samples and animal models of failed tendon healing tendinopathy, chondro-osteogenic BMPs might contribute to tissue metaplasia and other histopathological changes in tendinopathy. In this review I have summarized the current evidence supporting the roles of chondro-osteogenic BMPs in the histopathological changes of tendinopathy. The potential targets, effects and sources of these BMPs are discussed. I have also provided directions for future studies about the potential roles of BMPs in the pathogenesis of tendinopathy. Better understanding of the roles of these BMPs in the histopathological changes of tendinopathy could provide new options for the prevention and treatment of this disabling tendon disorder.

  20. Recognizing protein–protein interfaces with empirical potentials and reduced amino acid alphabets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wodak Shoshana

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In structural genomics, an important goal is the detection and classification of protein–protein interactions, given the structures of the interacting partners. We have developed empirical energy functions to identify native structures of protein–protein complexes among sets of decoy structures. To understand the role of amino acid diversity, we parameterized a series of functions, using a hierarchy of amino acid alphabets of increasing complexity, with 2, 3, 4, 6, and 20 amino acid groups. Compared to previous work, we used the simplest possible functional form, with residue–residue interactions and a stepwise distance-dependence. We used increased computational ressources, however, constructing 290,000 decoys for 219 protein–protein complexes, with a realistic docking protocol where the protein partners are flexible and interact through a molecular mechanics energy function. The energy parameters were optimized to correctly assign as many native complexes as possible. To resolve the multiple minimum problem in parameter space, over 64000 starting parameter guesses were tried for each energy function. The optimized functions were tested by cross validation on subsets of our native and decoy structures, by blind tests on series of native and decoy structures available on the Web, and on models for 13 complexes submitted to the CAPRI structure prediction experiment. Results Performance is similar to several other statistical potentials of the same complexity. For example, the CAPRI target structure is correctly ranked ahead of 90% of its decoys in 6 cases out of 13. The hierarchy of amino acid alphabets leads to a coherent hierarchy of energy functions, with qualitatively similar parameters for similar amino acid types at all levels. Most remarkably, the performance with six amino acid classes is equivalent to that of the most detailed, 20-class energy function. Conclusion This suggests that six carefully chosen amino

  1. The role of ammonia in sulfuric acid ion induced nucleation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. K. Ortega

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a new multi-step strategy for quantum chemical calculations on atmospherically relevant cluster structures that makes calculation for large clusters affordable with a good accuracy-to-computational effort ratio. We have applied this strategy to evaluate the relevance of ternary ion induced nucleation; we have also performed calculations for neutral ternary nucleation for comparison. The results for neutral ternary nucleation agree with previous results, and confirm the important role of ammonia in enhancing the growth of sulfuric acid clusters. On the other hand, we have found that ammonia does not enhance the growth of ionic sulfuric acid clusters. The results also confirm that ion-induced nucleation is a barrierless process at high altitudes, but at ground level there exists a barrier due to the presence of a local minimum on the free energy surface.

  2. Antimicrobial potential of bioconverted products of omega-3 fatty acids by Pseudomonas aeruginosa PR3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bioconverted omega-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (bEPA) and docosahexanoic acid (bDHA), obtained from the microbial conversion of non-bioconverted eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids by Pseudomonas aeruginosa PR3 were evaluated for their antimicrobial potential. bEPA and bDHA at 5 µl/...

  3. Role of extracellular sialic acid in regulation of neuronal and network excitability in the rat hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaev, Dmytro; Isaeva, Elena; Shatskih, Tatiana; Zhao, Qian; Smits, Nicole C; Shworak, Nicholas W; Khazipov, Rustem; Holmes, Gregory L

    2007-10-24

    The extracellular membrane surface contains a substantial amount of negatively charged sialic acid residues. Some of the sialic acids are located close to the pore of voltage-gated channel, substantially influencing their gating properties. However, the role of sialylation of the extracellular membrane in modulation of neuronal and network activity remains primarily unknown. The level of sialylation is controlled by neuraminidase (NEU), the key enzyme that cleaves sialic acids. Here we show that NEU treatment causes a large depolarizing shift of voltage-gated sodium channel activation/inactivation and action potential (AP) threshold without any change in the resting membrane potential of hippocampal CA3 pyramidal neurons. Cleavage of sialic acids by NEU also reduced sensitivity of sodium channel gating and AP threshold to extracellular calcium. At the network level, exogenous NEU exerted powerful anticonvulsive action both in vitro and in acute and chronic in vivo models of epilepsy. In contrast, a NEU blocker (N-acetyl-2,3-dehydro-2-deoxyneuraminic acid) dramatically reduced seizure threshold and aggravated hippocampal seizures. Thus, sialylation appears to be a powerful mechanism to control neuronal and network excitability. We propose that decreasing the amount of extracellular sialic acid residues can be a useful approach to reduce neuronal excitability and serve as a novel therapeutic approach in the treatment of seizures.

  4. Coal is a potential source of naphthenic acids in groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Angela C; Whittal, Randy M; Fedorak, Phillip M

    2009-03-15

    Naphthenic acids, with the general formula C(n)H(2n+Z)O(2), are found in conventional petroleums and oil sands ores. These acids are toxic to aquatic life, so their discharge from petroleum processing into receiving waters must be avoided. In a previous study, naphthenic acids were putatively identified in groundwaters from two domestic wells that were distant from petroleum sources. However, coal deposits were near these wells. In this study, waters from the two wells were extracted and analyzed by electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry to unequivocally confirm the presence of naphthenic acids and other organic acids. In addition, distilled water was percolated through three crushed coal samples and the leachates were shown to contain a variety of organic acids, including naphthenic acids. These results clearly demonstrate that coal is a source of naphthenic acids and that the naphthenic acids can leach into groundwaters. Thus, the presence of naphthenic acids in waters cannot be solely attributed to petroleum or petroleum industry activities.

  5. Symmetry in nucleic acid structure and its role in protein--nucleic acid interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobell, H.M.

    1976-01-01

    It is clear that symmetry concepts will play an increasingly important role in understanding the structural aspects of many protein--nucleic acid interactions. This review summarizes current data and concepts along these lines. Exact crystallographic symmetries are rarely expected to occur in biological systems, and the departures from symmetry that occur may eventually prove to play important roles in modulating physiological function. In this respect, x-ray crystallography can make important additions to our understanding of the atomic nature of these associations, and it is hoped that the next review in this area will describe these.

  6. The role of amino acids in hydroxyapatite mineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavafoghi, M; Cerruti, M

    2016-10-01

    Polar and charged amino acids (AAs) are heavily expressed in non-collagenous proteins (NCPs), and are involved in hydroxyapatite (HA) mineralization in bone. Here, we review what is known on the effect of single AAs on HA precipitation. Negatively charged AAs, such as aspartic acid, glutamic acid (Glu) and phosphoserine are largely expressed in NCPs and play a critical role in controlling HA nucleation and growth. Positively charged ones such as arginine (Arg) or lysine (Lys) are heavily involved in HA nucleation within extracellular matrix proteins such as collagen. Glu, Arg and Lys intake can also increase bone mineral density by stimulating growth hormone production. In vitro studies suggest that the role of AAs in controlling HA precipitation is affected by their mobility. While dissolved AAs are able to inhibit HA precipitation and growth by chelating Ca(2+) and PO4(3-) ions or binding to nuclei of calcium phosphate and preventing their further growth, AAs bound to surfaces can promote HA precipitation by attracting Ca(2+) and PO4(3-) ions and increasing the local supersaturation. Overall, the effect of AAs on HA precipitation is worth being investigated more, especially under conditions closer to the physiological ones, where the presence of other factors such as collagen, mineralization inhibitors, and cells heavily influences HA precipitation. A deeper understanding of the role of AAs in HA mineralization will increase our fundamental knowledge related to bone formation, and could lead to new therapies to improve bone regeneration in damaged tissues or cure pathological diseases caused by excessive mineralization in tissues such as cartilage, blood vessels and cardiac valves. © 2016 The Author(s).

  7. Lactic acid and methane: improved exploitation of biowaste potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreschke, G; Probst, M; Walter, A; Pümpel, T; Walde, J; Insam, H

    2015-01-01

    This feasibility study investigated a two-step biorefining approach to increase the value gained by recycling of organic municipal solid waste. Firstly, lactic acid was produced via batch fermentation at 37°C using the indigenous microbiome. Experiments revealed an optimal fermentation period of 24h resulting in high yields of lactic acid (up to 37gkg(-1)). The lactic acid proportion of total volatile fatty acid content reached up to 83%. Lactobacilli were selectively enriched to up to 75% of the bacterial community. Additionally conversion of organic matter to lactic acid was increased from 22% to 30% through counteracting end product inhibition by continuous lactic acid extraction. Secondly, fermentation residues were used as co-substrate in biomethane production yielding up to 618±41Nmlbiomethaneg(-1) volatile solids. Digestate, the only end product of this process can be used as organic fertilizer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Acid gradient across plasma membrane can drive phosphate bond synthesis in cancer cells: acidic tumor milieu as a potential energy source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar, Gautam; Sen, Suvajit; Chaudhuri, Gautam

    2015-01-01

    Aggressive cancers exhibit an efficient conversion of high amounts of glucose to lactate accompanied by acid secretion, a phenomenon popularly known as the Warburg effect. The acidic microenvironment and the alkaline cytosol create a proton-gradient (acid gradient) across the plasma membrane that represents proton-motive energy. Increasing experimental data from physiological relevant models suggest that acid gradient stimulates tumor proliferation, and can also support its energy needs. However, direct biochemical evidence linking extracellular acid gradient to generation of intracellular ATP are missing. In this work, we demonstrate that cancer cells can synthesize significant amounts of phosphate-bonds from phosphate in response to acid gradient across plasma membrane. The noted phenomenon exists in absence of glycolysis and mitochondrial ATP synthesis, and is unique to cancer. Biochemical assays using viable cancer cells, and purified plasma membrane vesicles utilizing radioactive phosphate, confirmed phosphate-bond synthesis from free phosphate (Pi), and also localization of this activity to the plasma membrane. In addition to ATP, predominant formation of pyrophosphate (PPi) from Pi was also observed when plasma membrane vesicles from cancer cells were subjected to trans-membrane acid gradient. Cancer cytosols were found capable of converting PPi to ATP, and also stimulate ATP synthesis from Pi from the vesicles. Acid gradient created through glucose metabolism by cancer cells, as observed in tumors, also proved critical for phosphate-bond synthesis. In brief, these observations reveal a role of acidic tumor milieu as a potential energy source and may offer a novel therapeutic target.

  9. Cell-free nucleic acids as potential markers for preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, S; Rusterholz, C; Hösli, I; Lapaire, O

    2011-02-01

    Preeclampsia is one of the leading causes of maternal and fetal/neonatal mortality and morbidity worldwide. Therefore, widely applicable and affordable tests are needed to make an early diagnosis before the occurrence of the clinical symptoms. Circulating cell-free nucleic acids in plasma and serum are novel biomarkers with promising clinical applications in different medical fields, including prenatal diagnosis. Quantitative changes of cell-free fetal (cff)DNA in maternal plasma as an indicator for impending preeclampsia have been reported in different studies, using real-time quantitative PCR for the male-specific SRY or DYS 14 loci. In case of early onset preeclampsia, elevated levels may be already seen in the first trimester. The increased levels of cffDNA before the onset of symptoms may be due to hypoxia/reoxygenation within the intervillous space leading to tissue oxidative stress and increased placental apoptosis and necrosis. In addition to the evidence for increased shedding of cffDNA into the maternal circulation, there is also evidence for reduced renal clearance of cffDNA in preeclampsia. As the amount of fetal DNA is currently determined by quantifying Y-chromosome specific sequences, alternative approaches such as the measurement of total cell-free DNA or the use of gender-independent fetal epigenetic markers, such as DNA methylation, offer a promising alternative. Cell-free RNA of placental origin might be another potentially useful biomarker for screening and diagnosis of preeclampsia in clinical practice. Fetal RNA is associated with subcellular placental particles that protect it from degradation. Its levels are ten-fold higher in pregnant women with preeclampsia compared to controls. In conclusion, through the use of gender-independent sequences, the universal incorporation of fetal nucleic acids into routine obstetric care and into screening or diagnostic settings using combined markers may soon become a reality. Effort has now to be put into

  10. L-Serine: a Naturally-Occurring Amino Acid with Therapeutic Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalf, J S; Dunlop, R A; Powell, J T; Banack, S A; Cox, P A

    2018-01-01

    In human neuroblastoma cell cultures, non-human primates and human beings, L-serine is neuroprotective, acting through a variety of biochemical and molecular mechanisms. Although L-serine is generally classified as a non-essential amino acid, it is probably more appropriate to term it as a "conditional non-essential amino acid" since, under certain circumstances, vertebrates cannot synthesize it in sufficient quantities to meet necessary cellular demands. L-serine is biosynthesized in the mammalian central nervous system from 3-phosphoglycerate and serves as a precursor for the synthesis of the amino acids glycine and cysteine. Physiologically, it has a variety of roles, perhaps most importantly as a phosphorylation site in proteins. Mutations in the metabolic enzymes that synthesize L-serine have been implicated in various human diseases. Dosing of animals with L-serine and human clinical trials investigating the therapeutic effects of L-serine support the FDA's determination that L-serine is generally regarded as safe (GRAS); it also appears to be neuroprotective. We here consider the role of L-serine in neurological disorders and its potential as a therapeutic agent.

  11. Polyunsaturated fatty acids: any role in rheumatoid arthritis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarini, Luca; Afeltra, Antonella; Gallo Afflitto, Gabriele; Margiotta, Domenico Paolo Emanuele

    2017-10-10

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are members of the family of fatty acids and are included in the diet. Particularly, western diet is usually low in n-3 PUFAs and high in n-6 PUFAs. PUFAs play a central role in the homeostasis of immune system: n-6 PUFAs have predominantly pro-inflammatory features, while n-3 PUFAs seem to exert anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving properties. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory arthritis in which many inflammatory pathways contribute to joint and systemic inflammation, disease activity, and structural damage. Research on PUFAs could represent an important opportunity to better understand the pathogenesis and to improve the management of RA patients. We searched PubMed, Embase, EBSCO-Medline, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), CNKI and Wanfang to identify primary research reporting the role of n-3 PUFAs in rheumatoid arthritis both in humans and in animal models up to the end of March 2017. Data from animal models allows to hypothesize that n-3 PUFAs supplementation may represent an interesting perspective in future research as much in prevention as in treating RA. In humans, several case-control and prospective cohort studies suggest that a high content of n-3 PUFAs in the diet could have a protective role for incident RA in subjects at risk. Moreover, n-3 PUFAs supplementation has been assessed as a valuable therapeutic option also for patients with RA, particularly in order to improve the pain symptoms, the tender joint count, the duration of morning stiffness and the frequency of NSAIDs assumption. n-3 PUFAs supplementation could represent a promising therapeutic option to better control many features of RA. The impact of n-3 PUFAs on radiographic progression and synovial histopathology has not been yet evaluated, as well as their role in early arthritis and the combination with biologics.

  12. The potential utilisation of indigenous South African grasses for acid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South Africa possesses large natural reserves of various metals and coal, ... resources and aquatic ecosystems. The formation of AMD ... BACKGROUND. Acid mine drainage. Acid mine drainage occurs naturally when sulphur-rich miner- als from mining operations are exposed to air and water, and undergo oxidation of ...

  13. Influence of jasmonic acid as potential activator of induced ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    MADU

    hormone, like abscisic acid, ethylene and salicylic acid. (Tifarenko et al 1997; Thomma et al 1998; Diaz et al 2002). Another mutant in tomato, def1, is deficient in jasmonate biosynthesis and fails to accumulate proteinase inhibitors. (Howe et al 1996). Proteinase inhibitors are well known regulators of plant proteases.

  14. Peptide nucleic acids and their potential applications in biotechnology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchardt, O.; Egholm, M.; Berg, R.H.

    1993-01-01

    Peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) are novel DNA mimics in which the sugar-phosphate backbone has been replaced with a backbone based on amino acids1-3. PNAs exhibit sequence-specific binding to DNA and RNA with higher affinities and specificities than unmodified DNA. They,are resistant to nuclease...

  15. Potential administration of lipoic acid and coenzyme Q against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: It was found that treatment with lipoic acid or Co-Q or combined showed increase in the activity of lipoprotein lipase (P < 0.001) and reduction of atherogenic effect and obesity index (P <0.001). The effect of combined gives good results than orlistat or individual treatment. Conclusion: lipoic acid combined with Co-Q ...

  16. Animal Model of Acid-Reflux Esophagitis: Pathogenic Roles of Acid/Pepsin, Prostaglandins, and Amino Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koji Takeuchi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Esophagitis was induced in rats within 3 h by ligating both the pylorus and transitional region between the forestomach and glandular portion under ether anesthesia. This esophageal injury was prevented by the administration of acid suppressants and antipepsin drug and aggravated by exogenous pepsin. Damage was also aggravated by pretreatment with indomethacin and the selective COX-1 but not COX-2 inhibitor, whereas PGE2 showed a biphasic effect depending on the dose; a protection at low doses, and an aggravation at high doses, with both being mediated by EP1 receptors. Various amino acids also affected this esophagitis in different ways; L-alanine and L-glutamine had a deleterious effect, while L-arginine and glycine were highly protective, both due to yet unidentified mechanisms. It is assumed that acid/pepsin plays a major pathogenic role in this model of esophagitis; PGs derived from COX-1 are involved in mucosal defense of the esophagus; and some amino acids are protective against esophagitis. These findings also suggest a novel therapeutic approach in the treatment of esophagitis, in addition to acid suppressant therapy. The model introduced may be useful to test the protective effects of drugs on esophagitis and investigate the mucosal defense mechanism in the esophagus.

  17. Animal Model of Acid-Reflux Esophagitis: Pathogenic Roles of Acid/Pepsin, Prostaglandins, and Amino Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Esophagitis was induced in rats within 3 h by ligating both the pylorus and transitional region between the forestomach and glandular portion under ether anesthesia. This esophageal injury was prevented by the administration of acid suppressants and antipepsin drug and aggravated by exogenous pepsin. Damage was also aggravated by pretreatment with indomethacin and the selective COX-1 but not COX-2 inhibitor, whereas PGE2 showed a biphasic effect depending on the dose; a protection at low doses, and an aggravation at high doses, with both being mediated by EP1 receptors. Various amino acids also affected this esophagitis in different ways; L-alanine and L-glutamine had a deleterious effect, while L-arginine and glycine were highly protective, both due to yet unidentified mechanisms. It is assumed that acid/pepsin plays a major pathogenic role in this model of esophagitis; PGs derived from COX-1 are involved in mucosal defense of the esophagus; and some amino acids are protective against esophagitis. These findings also suggest a novel therapeutic approach in the treatment of esophagitis, in addition to acid suppressant therapy. The model introduced may be useful to test the protective effects of drugs on esophagitis and investigate the mucosal defense mechanism in the esophagus. PMID:24672789

  18. Potential roles of optical interconnections within broadband switching modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalk, Gail R.; Habiby, Sarry F.; Hartman, Davis H.; Krchnavek, Robert R.; Wilson, Donald K.; Young, Kenneth C., Jr.

    1991-04-01

    An investigation of potential physical design bottlenecks in future broadband telecommunication switches has led to the identification of several areas where optical interconnections may play a role in the practical realization of required system performance. In the model used the speed and interconnection densities as well as requirements for ease-of-access and efficient power utilization challenge conventional partitioning and packaging strategies. Potential areas where optical interconnections may relieve some of the physical design bottlenecks include fiber management at the customer interface to the switch routing and distribution of high-density interconnections within the fabric of the switch and backplane interconnections to increase system throughput.

  19. Role of the Ionic Potential in High Harmonic Generation

    CERN Document Server

    Shafir, D; Higuet, J; Soifer, H; Dagan, M; Descamps, D; Mevel, E; Petit, S; Worner, H J; Pons, B; Dudovich, N; Mairesse, Y

    2013-01-01

    Recollision processes provide direct insight into the structure and dynamics of electronic wave functions. However, the strength of the process sets its basic limitations - the interaction couples numerous degrees of freedom. In this Letter we decouple the basic steps of the process and resolve the role of the ionic potential which is at the heart of a broad range of strong field phenomena. Specifically, we measure high harmonic generation from argon atoms. By manipulating the polarization of the laser field we resolve the vectorial properties of the interaction. Our study shows that the ionic core plays a significant role in all steps of the interaction. In particular, Coulomb focusing induces an angular deflection of the electrons before recombination. A complete spatiospectral analysis reveals the influence of the potential on the spatiotemporal properties of the emitted light.

  20. Rosmarinic acid potentiates ATRA-induced macrophage differentiation in acute promyelocytic leukemia NB4 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Sook-Kyoung; Noh, Eui-Kyu; Yoon, Dong-Joon; Jo, Jae-Cheol; Koh, SuJin; Baek, Jin Ho; Park, Jae-Hoo; Min, Young Joo; Kim, Hawk

    2015-01-15

    Rosmarinic acid (RA, an ester of caffeic acid and 3,4-dihydroxyphenyllactic acid) has a number of biological activities, but little is known about anti-leukemic activities of RA combined with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) against acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) cells. We examined the differentiation marker, CD11b, in bone marrow cells (BMC) of an APL patient, in NB4 cells (APL cell line), and in normal BMC and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of healthy subjects by flow cytometric analysis. ATRA/RA induced expression of CD11b in the BMC of the APL patient and in NB4 cells, but not in normal BMC or PBMC. Therefore, we realized that RA potentiated ATRA-induced macrophage differentiation in APL cells. Further characterization of the induced macrophages showed that they exhibited morphological changes and were able to phagocytose and generate reactive oxygen species. Th also had typical expression of C-C chemokine receptor type 1 (CCR1), CCR2, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). Moreover, the expression of CD11b(+) and CD14(+) cells depended on ERK-NF-κB axis activation. Together, these results indicate that RA potentiates ATRA-induced macrophage differentiation in APL cells. Thus, RA may play an important role as an appurtenant differentiation agent for functional macrophage differentiation in APL. Additionally, the differentiated macrophages might have a normal life span and, they could die. These data indicate that co-treatment with RA and ATRA has potential as an anti-leukemic therapy in APL. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Ursolic acid plays a protective role in obesity-induced cardiovascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Ting; Yu, Ya-Mei; Chang, Weng-Cheng; Chiang, Su-Yin; Chan, Hsu-Chin; Lee, Ming-Fen

    2016-06-01

    The metabolic disturbance of obesity is one of the most common risk factors of atherosclerosis. Resistin, an obesity-induced adipokine, can induce the expression of cell adhesion molecules and the attachment of monocytes to endothelial cells, which play an important role in the development of atherosclerosis. Ursolic acid, a pentacyclic triterpenoid found in fruits and many herbs, exhibits an array of biological effects such as anti-inflammatory and antioxidative properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential underlying mechanisms of the effect of ursolic acid on resistin-induced adhesion of U937 cells to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Our data indicated that ursolic acid suppressed the adhesion of U937 to HUVECs and downregulated the expression of adhesion molecules, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), intracellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), and E-selectin, in resistin-induced HUVECs by decreasing the production of intracellular reaction oxygen species (ROS) and attenuating the nuclear translocation of NFκB. Ursolic acid appeared to inhibit resistin-induced atherosclerosis, suggesting that ursolic acid may play a protective role in obesity-induced cardiovascular diseases.

  2. Original Business Modelling: Potential Roles of Creativity in Entrepreneurship Training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byrge, Christian; Kristiansen, Kristian Brøndum

    2017-01-01

    This extended abstract aims to design a research method for studying potential meaningful roles creativity may take in entrepreneurship training. It suggests an experimental setup using a 30 ECTS entrepreneurship course at a Danish university for conducting the experiments and the data collection...... to take place in autumn 2017. At the conferenceconference, we hope for any kind of feedback that may help us improve the quality of this forthcoming study....

  3. Phosphorus SAD Phasing for Nucleic Acid Structures: Limitations and Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel M. Harp

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Phasing of nucleic acid crystal diffraction data using the anomalous signal of phosphorus, P-SAD, at Cukα wavelength has been previously demonstrated using Z-DNA. Since the original work on P-SAD with Z-DNA there has been, with a notable exception, a conspicuous absence of applications of the technique to additional nucleic acid crystal structures. We have reproduced the P-SAD phasing of Z-DNA using a rotating-anode source and have attempted to phase a variety of nucleic acid crystals using P-SAD without success. A comparison of P-SAD using Z-DNA and a representative nucleic acid, the Dickerson-Drew dodecamer, is presented along with a S-SAD using only two sulfurs to phase a 2’-thio modified DNA decamer. A theoretical explanation for the limitation of P-SAD applied to nucleic acids is presented to show that the relatively high atomic displacement parameter of phosphorus in the nucleic acid backbone is responsible for the lack of success in applying P-SAD to nucleic acid diffraction data.

  4. New Functions and Potential Applications of Amino Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uneyama, Hisayuki; Kobayashi, Hisamine; Tonouchi, Naoto

    Currently, several types of amino acids are being produced and used worldwide. Nevertheless, several new functions of amino acids have been recently discovered that could result in other applications. For example, oral stimulation by glutamate triggers the cephalic phase response to prepare for food digestion. Further, the stomach and intestines have specific glutamate-recognizing systems in their epithelial mucosa. Regarding clinical applications, addition of monosodium glutamate to the medicinal diet has been shown to markedly enhance gastric secretion in a vagus-dependent manner. Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) are the major components of muscles, and ingestion of BCAAs has been found to be effective for decreasing muscle pain. BCAAs are expected to be a solution for the serious issue of aging. Further, ingestion of specific amino acids could be beneficial. Glycine can be ingested for good night's sleep: glycine ingestion before bedtime significantly improved subjective sleep quality. Ingestion of alanine and glutamine effectively accelerates alcohol metabolism, and ingestion of cystine and theanine effectively prevents colds. Finally, amino acids could be used in a novel clinical diagnostic method: the balance of amino acids in the blood could be an indicator of the risk of diseases such as cancer. These newly discovered functions of amino acids are expected to contribute to the resolution of various issues.

  5. Palmitic Acid: Physiological Role, Metabolism and Nutritional Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranca Carta

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Palmitic acid (PA has been for long time negatively depicted for its putative detrimental health effects, shadowing its multiple crucial physiological activities. PA is the most common saturated fatty acid accounting for 20–30% of total fatty acids in the human body and can be provided in the diet or synthesized endogenously via de novo lipogenesis (DNL. PA tissue content seems to be controlled around a well-defined concentration, and changes in its intake do not influence significantly its tissue concentration because the exogenous source is counterbalanced by PA endogenous biosynthesis. Particular physiopathological conditions and nutritional factors may strongly induce DNL, resulting in increased tissue content of PA and disrupted homeostatic control of its tissue concentration. The tight homeostatic control of PA tissue concentration is likely related to its fundamental physiological role to guarantee membrane physical properties but also to consent protein palmitoylation, palmitoylethanolamide (PEA biosynthesis, and in the lung an efficient surfactant activity. In order to maintain membrane phospholipids (PL balance may be crucial an optimal intake of PA in a certain ratio with unsaturated fatty acids, especially PUFAs of both n-6 and n-3 families. However, in presence of other factors such as positive energy balance, excessive intake of carbohydrates (in particular mono and disaccharides, and a sedentary lifestyle, the mechanisms to maintain a steady state of PA concentration may be disrupted leading to an over accumulation of tissue PA resulting in dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia, increased ectopic fat accumulation and increased inflammatory tone via toll-like receptor 4. It is therefore likely that the controversial data on the association of dietary PA with detrimental health effects, may be related to an excessive imbalance of dietary PA/PUFA ratio which, in certain physiopathological conditions, and in presence of an enhanced DNL, may

  6. Substituted esters of stearic acid as potential lubricants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleinova, Andrea; Fodran, Peter; Brncalova, Lucia; Cvengros, Jan [Department of Physical Chemistry and Chemical Physics, Faculty of Chemical and Food Technology, Slovak University of Technology, Radlinskeho 9, SK-812 37 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2008-04-15

    Preparation and properties of four triesters - derivatives of 9,10-dihydroxystearic acid after the epoxidation of methyl ester of the oleic acid, opening of the formed oxirane ring in suitable medium and esterification of free hydroxyl group is discussed in the paper. Removal of the double bond from acyl of the fatty acid, increase of the molar weight and change of molecular structure resulted in increase of viscosity and oxidation stability of prepared triesters. Lubrication tests performed on a four-ball machine showed better tribological characteristics of synthesized triesters when compared with mineral additive-free base oil. (author)

  7. Oxylipin signalling: a distinct role for the jasmonic acid precursor 12-Oxo-Phytodienoic Acid (OPDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuja eDave

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Oxylipins are lipid-derived compounds, many of which act as signals in the plant response to biotic and abiotic stress. They include the phytohormone jasmonic acid (JA and related jasmonate metabolites 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA, methyl jasmonate and jasmonoyl-L-isoleucine. Besides the defense response jasmonates are involved in plant growth and development and regulate a range of processes including glandular trichome development, reproduction, root growth and senescence. OPDA is known to possess a signalling role distinct from JA. The non-enzymatically derived phytoprostanes are structurally similar to OPDA and induce a common set of genes that are not responsive to JA in Arabidopsis thaliana. A novel role for OPDA in seed germination regulation has recently been uncovered based on evidence from double mutants and feeding experiments showing that OPDA interacts with abscisic acid (ABA, inhibits seed germination and increases ABI5 protein abundance. Large amounts of OPDA are esterified to galactolipids in Arabidopsis thaliana and the resulting compounds, known as Arabidopsides, are thought to act as a rapidly available source of OPDA.

  8. Chenodeoxycholic acid stimulated fibroblast growth factor 19 response - a potential biochemical test for bile acid diarrhoea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borup, Christian; Wildt, S; Rumessen, J J

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Bile acid diarrhoea (BAD) is underdiagnosed and better diagnostic tests are needed. Fasting serum fibroblast growth factor-19 (FGF19) has insufficient diagnostic value, but this may be improved by stimulation. AIM: To explore if an impaired FGF19 response identifies primary bile acid ...... response following chenodeoxycholic acid plus meal is impaired in primary bile acid diarrhoea. This may provide a biochemical diagnostic test.......BACKGROUND: Bile acid diarrhoea (BAD) is underdiagnosed and better diagnostic tests are needed. Fasting serum fibroblast growth factor-19 (FGF19) has insufficient diagnostic value, but this may be improved by stimulation. AIM: To explore if an impaired FGF19 response identifies primary bile acid...

  9. Role of nitric oxide in long-term potentiation of the rat medial vestibular nuclei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, S; Pettorossi, V E

    2000-01-01

    In rat brainstem slices, we investigated the role of nitric oxide in long-term potentiation induced in the ventral portion of the medial vestibular nuclei by high-frequency stimulation of the primary vestibular afferents. The nitric oxide scavenger [2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide ] and the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester were administered before and after induction of potentiation. Both drugs completely prevented long-term potentiation, whereas they did not impede the potentiation build-up, or affect the already established potentiation. These results demonstrate that the induction, but not the maintenance of vestibular long-term potentiation, depends on the synthesis and release into the extracellular medium of nitric oxide. In addition, we analysed the effect of the nitric oxide donor sodium nitroprusside on vestibular responses. Sodium nitroprusside induced long-term potentiation, as evidenced through the field potential enhancement and unit peak latency decrease. This potentiation was impeded by D, L-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid, and was reduced under blockade of synaptosomal platelet-activating factor receptors by ginkgolide B and group I metabotropic glutamate receptors by (R,S)-1-aminoindan-1, 5-dicarboxylic acid. When reduced, potentiation fully developed following the washout of antagonist, demonstrating an involvement of platelet-activating factor and group I metabotropic glutamate receptors in its full development. Potentiation induced by sodium nitroprusside was also associated with a decrease in the paired-pulse facilitation ratio, which persisted under ginkgolide B, indicating that nitric oxide increases glutamate release independently of platelet-activating factor-mediated presynaptic events. We suggest that nitric oxide, released after the activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors, acts as a retrograde messenger leading to an enhancement of glutamate release to a

  10. Probiotic potential of lactic acid bacteria present in home made curd in southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balamurugan, Ramadass; Chandragunasekaran, Aarthi Sophia; Chellappan, Gowri; Rajaram, Krithika; Ramamoorthi, Gayathri; Ramakrishna, Balakrishnan S

    2014-09-01

    The human gut microbiota play a significant role in nutritional processes. The concept of probiotics has led to widespread consumption of food preparations containing probiotic microbes such as curd and yogurt. Curd prepared at home is consumed every day in most homes in southern India. In this study the home-made curd was evaluated for lactic acid bacteria (LAB) with probiotic potential. Fifteen LAB (12 lactobacilli, 1 l0 actococcus , 2 Leuconostoc) and one yeast isolated from home-made curd were evaluated for resistance to acid, pepsin, pancreatin and bile salts; antimicrobial resistance; intrinsic antimicrobial activity; adherence to Caco-2 epithelial cells; ability to block pathogen adherence to Caco-2 cells; ability to inhibit interleukin (IL)-8 secretion from HT-29 epithelial cells in response to Vibrio cholerae; and ability to induce anti-inflammatory cytokine expression in THP-1 monocyte cells. Lactobacillus abundance in fermenting curd peaked sharply at 12 h. Nine of the strains survived exposure to acid (pH 3.0) for at least one hour, and all strains survived in the presence of pancreatin or bile salts for 3 h. None showed haemolytic activity. All were resistant to most antimicrobials tested, but were sensitive to imipenem. Most strains inhibited the growth of Salmonella Typhimurium while five inhibited growth of V. cholerae O139. Seven strains showed adherence to Caco-2 cells ranging from 20-104 per cent of adherence of an adherent strain of Escherichia coli, but all inhibited V. cholerae adherence to Caco-2 cells by 20-100 per cent. They inhibited interleukin-8 secretion from HT-29 cells, in response to V. cholerae, by 50-80 per cent. Two strains induced IL-10 and IL-12 messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) expression in THP-1 cells. LAB in curd had properties consistent with probiotic potential, but these were not consistent across species. LAB abundance in curd increased rapidly at 12 h of fermentation at room temperature and declined thereafter.

  11. High anabolic potential of essential amino acid mixtures in advanced nonsmall cell lung cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelen, M. P. K. J.; Safar, A. M.; Bartter, T.; Koeman, F.; Deutz, N. E. P.

    2015-01-01

    Background Conventional nutritional supplements are not or only partly successful in inducing protein accretion in advanced cancer, suggesting an attenuated anabolic response. To prevent muscle wasting and its deleterious consequences, generating an anabolic response is crucial. Dietary essential amino acids (EAA) have anabolic properties in other wasting diseases; however, data in advanced cancer are lacking. Patients and methods In 13 patients with advanced nonsmall-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) (stage III and IV) and 11 healthy age-matched subjects, we measured protein synthesis and breakdown of the whole body, and net protein anabolism (difference between protein synthesis and breakdown) after intake of 14 g of free EAA with high leucine levels (EAA/leucine) versus a balanced amino acid mixture containing both EAA and non-EAA as present in whey protein, according to a randomized, double-blind, crossover design. Results Protein synthesis and net protein anabolism were higher after intake of the EAA/leucine than the balanced amino acid mixture (P anabolism and the amount of EAA available in the systemic circulation (R2: 0.85, P anabolic benefit. Conclusions There is no anabolic resistance or attenuated anabolic potential to intake of 14 g of EAA/leucine or balanced amino acid mixture in advanced (mainly stage III) NSCLC. The high anabolic potential of dietary EAA in cancer patients is independent of their nutritional status, systemic inflammatory response or disease trajectory, suggesting a key role of EAA in new nutritional approaches to prevent muscle loss, thereby improving outcome of patients with advanced cancer. ClinicalTrails.gov NCT01172314. PMID:26113648

  12. Potential role of miRNAs in developmental haemostasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Teruel

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are an abundant class of small non-coding RNAs that are negative regulators in a crescent number of physiological and pathological processes. However, their role in haemostasis, a complex physiological process involving multitude of effectors, is just beginning to be characterized. We evaluated the changes of expression of miRNAs in livers of neonates (day one after birth and adult mice by microarray and qRT-PCR trying to identify miRNAs that potentially may also be involved in the control of the dramatic change of hepatic haemostatic protein levels associated with this transition. Twenty one out of 41 miRNAs overexpressed in neonate mice have hepatic haemostatic mRNA as potential targets. Six of them identified by two in silico algorithms potentially bind the 3'UTR regions of F7, F9, F12, FXIIIB, PLG and SERPINC1 mRNA. Interestingly, miR-18a and miR-19b, overexpressed 5.4 and 8.2-fold respectively in neonates, have antithrombin, a key anti-coagulant with strong anti-angiogenic and anti-inflammatory roles, as a potential target. The levels of these two miRNAs inversely correlated with antithrombin mRNA levels during development (miR-19b: R = 0.81; p = 0.03; miR-18a: R = 0.91; p<0.001. These data suggest that miRNAs could be potential modulators of the haemostatic system involved in developmental haemostasis.

  13. Metabolism and longevity: is there a role for membrane fatty acids?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulbert, A J

    2010-11-01

    More than 100 years ago, Max Rubner combined the fact that both metabolic rate and longevity of mammals varies with body size to calculate that "life energy potential" (lifetime energy turnover per kilogram) was relatively constant. This calculation linked longevity to aerobic metabolism which in turn led to the "rate-of-living" and ultimately the "oxidative stress" theories of aging. However, the link between metabolic rate and longevity is imperfect. Although unknown in Rubner's time, one aspect of body composition of mammals also varies with body size, namely the fatty acid composition of membranes. Fatty acids vary dramatically in their susceptibility to peroxidation and the products of lipid peroxidation are very powerful reactive molecules that damage other cellular molecules. The "membrane pacemaker" modification of the "oxidative stress" theory of aging proposes that fatty acid composition of membranes, via its influence on peroxidation of lipids, is an important determinant of lifespan (and a link between metabolism and longevity). The relationship between membrane fatty acid composition and longevity is discussed for (1) mammals of different body size, (2) birds of different body size, (3) mammals and birds that are exceptionally long-living for their size, (4) strains of mice that vary in longevity, (5) calorie-restriction extension of longevity in rodents, (6) differences in longevity between queen and worker honeybees, and (7) variation in longevity among humans. Most of these comparisons support an important role for membrane fatty acid composition in the determination of longevity. It is apparent that membrane composition is regulated for each species. Provided the diet is not deficient in polyunsaturated fat, it has minimal influence on a species' membrane fatty acid composition and likely also on it's maximum longevity. The exceptional longevity of Homo sapiens combined with the limited knowledge of the fatty acid composition of human tissues

  14. Role of deoxyribonucleic acid technology in forensic dentistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Pankaj; Datta, Sonia Sood

    2012-01-01

    In the last few years, Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) analysis methods have been applied to forensic cases. Forensic dental record comparison has been used for human identification in cases where destruction of bodily tissues or prolonged exposure to the environment has made other means of identification impractical, that is, after fire exposure or mass disaster. Teeth play an important role in identification and criminology, due to their unique characteristics and relatively high degree of physical and chemical resistance. The use of a DNA profile test in forensic dentistry offers a new perspective in human identification. The DNA is responsible for storing all the genetic material and is unique to each individual. The currently available DNA tests have high reliability and are accepted as legal proofs in courts. This article gives an overview of the evolution of DNA technology in the last few years, highlighting its importance in cases of forensic investigation. PMID:23087582

  15. Role of Pendrin in Acid-base Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jae Hyun

    2009-01-01

    Pendrin (SLC26A4) is a Na+-independent Cl-/HCO3- exchanger which is expressed in the apical membranes of type B and non-A, non-B intercalated cells within the distal convoluted tubule, the connecting tubule, and the cortical collecting duct. In those segments it mediates HCO3- secretion and chloride (Cl-) absorption. In mice, no renal abnormalities are observed under basal conditions, and individuals with genetic disruption of the pendrin (SLC26A4) gene (Pendred syndrome) have normal acid-base balance. In contrast, there are definite differences under conditions wherein the transporter is stimulated. In animal studies, pendrin (SLC26A4) is upregulated with aldosterone analogues, Cl- restriction, and metabolic alkalosis, and is down-regulated with Cl loading and metabolic acidosis, independently. However, the exact role of pendrin in humans has not been established to date, and further examinations are necessary. PMID:21468181

  16. Potential health implications for acid precipitation, corrosion, and metals contamination of drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, W E; DeWalle, D R

    1985-01-01

    Potential health effects of drinking water quality changes caused by acid precipitation are presented. Several different types of water supply are discussed and their roles in modifying acid rain impacts on drinking water are explained. Sources of metals contamination in surface water supplies are enumerated. The authors present some results from their research into acid rain impacts on roof-catchment cisterns, small surface water supplies, and lead mobilization in acid soils. A good correlation was obtained between cistern water corrosivity as measured by the Ryznar Index (RI) values and standing tapwater copper concentrations. However, lead concentrations in tapwater did not correlate well with cistern water RI. A modified linear regression model that accounted for Ryznar Index change during storage in vinyl-lined cisterns was used to predict the Ryznar Index value at a copper concentration of 1000 micrograms/L. The predicted RI was greater than the RI of precipitation with a pH of 5.3, indicating that anthropogenically acidified precipitation may result in cistern tapwater copper concentrations in excess of the 1000 micrograms/L suggested drinking water limit. Good correlations between tapwater Ryznar Index and tapwater copper and lead concentrations were not obtained for the small surface water supply. Aluminum concentrations in reservoir water were similar to those in stream source water. Limited data were also presented that indicated lead was present in acid forest soil leachate and streams draining such soils in relatively small concentrations. Where appropriate, recommendations for future research are included with the discussions of research results. PMID:4076096

  17. 1 ROLE OF FATTY ACIDS OF MILK AND DAIRY PRODUCTS IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RopSvr

    There are increasing global concerns about the role of foods in health and chronic ... 3. French. LE ROLE D'ACIDES GRAS. Lokuruka, Ph.D. Les acides myristiques et lauriques sont athérogènes, et ils aggravent le risque de maladies ..... and oxidized fatty acid products between LDL and HDL, HDL particles enriched.

  18. The role of gamma-aminobutyric acid in female depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Ramos, Mónica; Salinas, Margus; Carvajal-Lohr, Armando; Rodríguez-Bores, Lorena

    2017-01-01

    Depression is a common psychiatric disorder and a leading cause of disability worldwide. Multiple and diverse factors are involved in its cause although biologic factors are prominent. The present study reviews the evidence about the role that gamma-aminobutyric acid plays in the complex pathogenesis of depression, particularly in women. The implication of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is based mainly from animal models whereas clinical studies in depressed patients show alterations of GABA levels in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid. Neuroimaging studies using spectroscopy indicate also decreased GABA levels in different brain areas which in turn may normalize after antidepressant therapy, and these findings translate into clinical response. It has been observed that depression has a higher prevalence among women which suggests a link between depression and hormonal changes. Similarly, gonadal hormones have a regulatory effect on the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis through GABA receptors making women more vulnerable to suffer stress and depression. Therefore, the implication of GABA in the neurobiology of depression should be explored in order to search for new therapeutic strategies.

  19. A potential role for tetranectin in mineralization during osteogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wewer, U M; Ibaraki, K; Schjørring, P

    1994-01-01

    cartilage or in the surrounding skeletal muscle. Using an in vitro mineralizing system, we examined osteoblastic cells at different times during their growth and differentiation. Tetranectin mRNA appeared in the cultured osteoblastic cells in parallel with mineralization, in a pattern similar...... approximately fivefold more bone material than those produced by the untransfected PC12 cell line or by the PC12 cells transfected with the expression vector with no insert (Mann Whitney rank sum test, p important direct and/or indirect role during...... osteogenesis. In conclusion, we have established a potential role for tetranectin as a bone matrix protein expressed in time and space coincident with mineralization in vivo and in vitro....

  20. Glucocorticoid: A potential role in microgravity-induced bone loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jiancheng; Yang, Zhouqi; Li, Wenbin; Xue, Yanru; Xu, Huiyun; Li, Jingbao; Shang, Peng

    2017-11-01

    Exposure of animals and humans to conditions of microgravity, including actual spaceflight and simulated microgravity, results in numerous negative alterations to bone structure and mechanical properties. Although there are abundant researches on bone loss in microgravity, the explicit mechanism is not completely understood. At present, it is widely accepted that the absence of mechanical stimulus plays a predominant role in bone homeostasis disorders in conditions of weightlessness. However, aside from mechanical unloading, nonmechanical factors such as various hormones, cytokines, dietary nutrition, etc. are important as well in microgravity induced bone loss. The stress-induced increase in endogenous glucocorticoid (GC) levels is inevitable in microgravity environments. Moreover, it is well known that GCs have a detrimental effect to bone health at excess concentrations. Therefore, GC plays a potential role in microgravity-induced bone loss. This review summarizeds several studies and their prospective solutions to this hypothesis.

  1. Chromotropic acid-formaldehyde reaction in strongly acidic media. The role of dissolved oxygen and replacement of concentrated sulphuric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagnani, E; Melios, C B; Pezza, L; Pezza, H R

    2003-05-28

    The procedure for formaldehyde analysis recommended by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) is the Chromotropic acid spectrophotometric method, which is the one that uses concentrated sulphuric acid. In the present study the oxidation step associated with the aforementioned method for formaldehyde determination was investigated. Experimental evidence has been obtained indicating that when concentrated H(2)SO(4) (18 mol l(-1)) is used (as in the NIOSH procedure) that acid is the oxidizing agent. On the other hand, oxidation through dissolved oxygen takes place when concentrated H(2)SO(4) is replaced by concentrated hydrochloric (12 mol l(-1)) and phosphoric (14.7 mol l(-1)) acids as well as by diluted H(2)SO(4) (9.4 mol l(-1)). Based on investigations concerning the oxidation step, a modified procedure was devised, in which the use of the potentially hazardous and corrosive concentrated H(2)SO(4) was eliminated and advantageously replaced by a less harmful mixture of HCl and H(2)O(2).

  2. Potential Immune Modularly Role of Glycine in Oral Gingival Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Schaumann

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gingival epithelial cells (GECs represent a physical barrier against bacteria and are involved in the processes of innate immunity. Recently, an anti-inflammatory and immune-modulatory effect of the amino acid glycine has been demonstrated. However, there is only little information about the immune-modulatory effects of glycine in oral tissues. This study aimed to investigate the existence and role of the glycine receptor in gingival tissue analyzing tissues/cells from extracted human molars via immunohistochemical analysis. In vitro, GECs were challenged by inflammatory conditions with IL-1β alone or in combination with glycine and analyzed for cytokine expression of IL6/IL8 via real-time PCR. On protein level, the effect of nuclear translocalization of NFκB protein p65 was analyzed using immunofluorescence analysis. A distinct proof of the GlyR in oral gingival tissue and keratinocytes could be demonstrated. Isolated challenge of the keratinocytes with IL-1β as well as with glycine resulted in an upregulation of IL6 and IL8 mRNA expression and activation of NFκB pathway. The presence of glycine in combination with the inflammatory stimulus led to a significant decrease in inflammatory parameters. These results indicate a possible anti-inflammatory role of glycine in gingival inflammation and encourage further research on the utility of glycine in the prevention or therapy of inflammatory periodontitis.

  3. The potential roles of EZH2 in regenerative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Ruey-Hwang; Chiu, Lian; Yu, Yung-Luen; Shyu, Woei-Cherng

    2015-01-01

    Enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2), a catalytic component of polycomb repressive complex 2, serves as a histone methyltransferase toward histone H3K27 trimethylation and also recruits DNA methyltransferases to regulate gene expression and chromatin structure. Accumulating evidence indicates the critical roles of EZH2 in stem cell maintenance and cell fate decision in differentiation into specific cell lineages. In this article, we review the updated progress in the field and the potential application of EZH2 in regenerative medicine including nervous system, muscle, pancreas, and dental pulp regeneration.

  4. Potential Roles of Fungal Extracellular Vesicles during Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joffe, Luna S.; Nimrichter, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are produced by virtually all cell types. Within the past few years, work in this field has revealed more information about fungal EVs. Fungal EVs have been shown to carry proteins, lipids, pigments, polysaccharides, and RNA; these components are known virulence factors, a fact which supports the hypothesis that fungal EVs concentrate pathogenic determinants. Additionally, recent studies have demonstrated that fungal EVs stimulate the host immune system. In this review, putative roles of fungal EVs are discussed, including their potential as vaccination tools and their possible contribution to pathogenesis in invasive fungal diseases. PMID:27390779

  5. the potential of alginic acid and polygal for soil stabilization

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    1985-09-01

    Sep 1, 1985 ... and the changes in the engineering properties of the soils with additives admixed are discussed. The possibility of using alginic acid and polygal as ..... Soil Mechanics. McGraw Hill Univ. Series In Civ. Engineering, 1978. 18. Schofield, A.N. and Wroth, C.P.. Critical State Soil Mechanics. McGraw Hill Bk. Co.

  6. Synthesis of Novel Piperazine-linked Anthranilic Acids as Potential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Substituted anthranilic acid and piperazines were used as building blocks to prepare two libraries of compounds, with the aim being that they would exhibit biochemical activity as small molecule kinase inhibitors. The synthesized anthranilamidepiperazine compounds were subsequently tested against a panel of kinases ...

  7. Evaluation of the probiotic potential of lactic acid bacteria isolated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The predominant species among the isolated strains were Lactobacillus (Lb.) acidophilus, Lb. plantarum, Enterococcus (E.) faecium, and E. faecalis. Probiotic properties such as bile resistance, acid tolerance, and adhesion to intestinal mucous were assessed. In vitro results obtained showed that five strains, Lb. plantarum ...

  8. Influence of Salicylic Acid on the Antimicrobial Potential of Stevia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of salicylic acid (SA) on the antimicrobial profile of Stevia leaf extracts against soybean seed-borne pathogens. Methods: Stevia seeds were planted in a greenhouse and SA foliar applied after six weeks on the whole plant at concentrations of 0 and 0.1 g L-1. The extracts of the plant leaf ...

  9. Omega-3 Fatty Acid Intake of Pregnant Women and Women of Childbearing Age in the United States: Potential for Deficiency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordgren, Tara M; Lyden, Elizabeth; Anderson-Berry, Ann; Hanson, Corrine

    2017-02-26

    Omega-3 fatty acids play critical roles during fetal growth and development with increased intakes associated with improved maternal-fetal outcomes. Omega-3 fatty acid intake in Western diets is low, and the impact of socioeconomic factors on omega-3 fatty acid intake in pregnant women and women of childbearing age has not been reported. We used the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) cycles 2003-2012 to assess the relationship between omega-3 fatty acid intake and socioeconomic factors in women of childbearing age. Out of 7266 eligible participants, 6478 were women of childbearing age, while 788 were identified as pregnant at the time of the survey. Mean EPA+DHA intake of the population was 89.0 mg with no significant difference between pregnant and non-pregnant women. By univariate and multivariate analyses adjusting for confounders, omega-3 fatty acid intake was significantly associated with poverty-to-income ratio, race, and educational attainment. Our results demonstrate that omega-3 fatty acid intake is a concern in pregnant women and women of childbearing age in the United States, and that socioeconomically disadvantaged populations are more susceptible to potential deficiencies. Strategies to increase omega-3 fatty acid intake in these populations could have the potential to improve maternal and infant health outcomes.

  10. Radio-Modulatory Potential ofCaffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester: A Therapeutic Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjaly, Km; Tiku, Ashu

    2017-11-13

    Use of natural agents is an upcoming area of research in cancer biology. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester has received great attention because of its therapeutic potential in various conditions including cancer. It is an active/abundant component of propolis. Propolis is a honey bee hive product produced by bees using their enzyme-rich digestive secretions on resinous mix, bee wax and pollen from plants. It is used to protect the beehive against bacteria and other infections.Although a lot of work has been done on chemotherapeutic aspects of CAPE, its role as a radiomodulator is yet to be delineated. It can act both as radioprotector and radiosensitizer. Depending on the tissue type it can modulate the radiation response by following different mechanisms. This review will focus on the differential radiomodulatory effects of Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester in normal and cancer cells.Besides chemistry and bioavailability,it's potential as a therapeutic agent against radiation induced damage will also be discussed. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  11. Coexistence of Lactic Acid Bacteria and Potential Spoilage Microbiota in a Dairy Processing Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stellato, Giuseppina; De Filippis, Francesca; La Storia, Antonietta; Ercolini, Danilo

    2015-11-01

    Microbial contamination in food processing plants can play a fundamental role in food quality and safety. In this study, the microbiota in a dairy plant was studied by both 16S rRNA- and 26S rRNA-based culture-independent high-throughput amplicon sequencing. Environmental samples from surfaces and tools were studied along with the different types of cheese produced in the same plant. The microbiota of environmental swabs was very complex, including more than 200 operational taxonomic units with extremely variable relative abundances (0.01 to 99%) depending on the species and sample. A core microbiota shared by 70% of the samples indicated a coexistence of lactic acid bacteria with a remarkable level of Streptococcus thermophilus and possible spoilage-associated bacteria, including Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, and Psychrobacter, with a relative abundance above 50%. The most abundant yeasts were Kluyveromyces marxianus, Yamadazyma triangularis, Trichosporon faecale, and Debaryomyces hansenii. Beta-diversity analyses showed a clear separation of environmental and cheese samples based on both yeast and bacterial community structure. In addition, predicted metagenomes also indicated differential distribution of metabolic pathways between the two categories of samples. Cooccurrence and coexclusion pattern analyses indicated that the occurrence of potential spoilers was excluded by lactic acid bacteria. In addition, their persistence in the environment can be helpful to counter the development of potential spoilers that may contaminate the cheeses, with possible negative effects on their microbiological quality. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  12. Computationally Discovered Potentiating Role of Glycans on NMDA Receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinitskiy, Anton V.; Stanley, Nathaniel H.; Hackos, David H.; Hanson, Jesse E.; Sellers, Benjamin D.; Pande, Vijay S.

    2017-04-01

    N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) are glycoproteins in the brain central to learning and memory. The effects of glycosylation on the structure and dynamics of NMDARs are largely unknown. In this work, we use extensive molecular dynamics simulations of GluN1 and GluN2B ligand binding domains (LBDs) of NMDARs to investigate these effects. Our simulations predict that intra-domain interactions involving the glycan attached to residue GluN1-N440 stabilize closed-clamshell conformations of the GluN1 LBD. The glycan on GluN2B-N688 shows a similar, though weaker, effect. Based on these results, and assuming the transferability of the results of LBD simulations to the full receptor, we predict that glycans at GluN1-N440 might play a potentiator role in NMDARs. To validate this prediction, we perform electrophysiological analysis of full-length NMDARs with a glycosylation-preventing GluN1-N440Q mutation, and demonstrate an increase in the glycine EC50 value. Overall, our results suggest an intramolecular potentiating role of glycans on NMDA receptors.

  13. The Potential Roles of Bisphenol A (BPA Pathogenesis in Autoimmunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Datis Kharrazian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bisphenol A (BPA is a monomer found in commonly used consumer plastic goods. Although much attention in recent years has been placed on BPA’s impact as an endocrine disruptor, it also appears to activate many immune pathways involved in both autoimmune disease development and autoimmune reactivity provocation. The current scientific literature is void of research papers linking BPA directly to human or animal onset of autoimmunity. This paper explores the impact of BPA on immune reactivity and the potential roles these mechanisms may have on the development or provocation of autoimmune diseases. Potential mechanisms by which BPA may be a contributing risk factor to autoimmune disease development and progression include its impact on hyperprolactinemia, estrogenic immune signaling, cytochrome P450 enzyme disruption, immune signal transduction pathway alteration, cytokine polarization, aryl hydrocarbon activation of Th-17 receptors, molecular mimicry, macrophage activation, lipopolysaccharide activation, and immunoglobulin pathophysiology. In this paper a review of these known autoimmune triggering mechanisms will be correlated with BPA exposure, thereby suggesting that BPA has a role in the pathogenesis of autoimmunity.

  14. Potential role of microRNAs in mammalian female fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesfaye, Dawit; Salilew-Wondim, Dessie; Gebremedhn, Samuel; Sohel, Md Mahmodul Hasan; Pandey, Hari Om; Hoelker, Michael; Schellander, Karl

    2016-01-01

    Since the first evidence for the involvement of microRNAs (miRNAs) in various reproductive processes through conditional knockout of DICER, several studies have been conducted to investigate the expression pattern and role of miRNAs in ovarian follicular development, oocyte maturation, embryo development, embryo-maternal communication, pregnancy establishment and various reproductive diseases. Although advances in sequencing technology have fuelled miRNA studies in mammalian species, the presence of extracellular miRNAs in various biological fluids, including follicular fluid, blood plasma, urine and milk among others, has opened a new door in miRNA research for their use as diagnostic markers. This review presents data related to the identification and expression analysis of cellular miRNA in mammalian female fertility associated with ovarian folliculogenesis, oocyte maturation, preimplantation embryo development and embryo implantation. In addition, the relevance of miRNAs to female reproductive disorders, including polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), endometritis and abnormal pregnancies, is discussed for various mammalian species. Most importantly, the mechanism of release and the role of extracellular miRNAs in cell-cell communication and their potential role as non-invasive markers in female fertility are discussed in detail. Understanding this layer of regulation in female reproduction processes will pave the way to understanding the genetic regulation of female fertility in mammalian species.

  15. Potential role of viruses in white plague coral disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soffer, Nitzan; Brandt, Marilyn E; Correa, Adrienne M S; Smith, Tyler B; Thurber, Rebecca Vega

    2014-02-01

    White plague (WP)-like diseases of tropical corals are implicated in reef decline worldwide, although their etiological cause is generally unknown. Studies thus far have focused on bacterial or eukaryotic pathogens as the source of these diseases; no studies have examined the role of viruses. Using a combination of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and 454 pyrosequencing, we compared 24 viral metagenomes generated from Montastraea annularis corals showing signs of WP-like disease and/or bleaching, control conspecific corals, and adjacent seawater. TEM was used for visual inspection of diseased coral tissue. No bacteria were visually identified within diseased coral tissues, but viral particles and sequence similarities to eukaryotic circular Rep-encoding single-stranded DNA viruses and their associated satellites (SCSDVs) were abundant in WP diseased tissues. In contrast, sequence similarities to SCSDVs were not found in any healthy coral tissues, suggesting SCSDVs might have a role in WP disease. Furthermore, Herpesviridae gene signatures dominated healthy tissues, corroborating reports that herpes-like viruses infect all corals. Nucleocytoplasmic large DNA virus (NCLDV) sequences, similar to those recently identified in cultures of Symbiodinium (the algal symbionts of corals), were most common in bleached corals. This finding further implicates that these NCLDV viruses may have a role in bleaching, as suggested in previous studies. This study determined that a specific group of viruses is associated with diseased Caribbean corals and highlights the potential for viral disease in regional coral reef decline.

  16. Trichomonas vaginalis: pathogenicity and potential role in human reproductive failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielczarek, Ewelina; Blaszkowska, Joanna

    2016-08-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis, which colonizes the genitourinary tract of men and women, is a sexually transmitted parasite causing symptomatic or asymptomatic trichomoniasis. The host-parasite relationship is very complex, and clinical symptoms cannot likely be attributed to a single pathogenic effect. Among the many factors responsible for interactions between T. vaginalis and host tissues, contact-dependent and contact-independent mechanisms are important in pathogenicity, as is the immune response. This review focuses on the potential virulence properties of T. vaginalis and its role in female and male infertility. It highlights the association between T. vaginalis infection and serious adverse health consequences experienced by women, including infertility, preterm birth and low-birth-weight infants. Long-term clinical observations and results of in vitro experimental studies indicate that in men, trichomoniasis has been also associated with infertility through inflammatory damage to the genitourinary tract or interference with sperm function. These results contribute significantly to improving our knowledge of the role of parasitic virulence factors in the development of infection and its role in human infertility.

  17. Molecular and Therapeutic Potential and Toxicity of Valproic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Chateauvieux

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Valproic acid (VPA, a branched short-chain fatty acid, is widely used as an antiepileptic drug and a mood stabilizer. Antiepileptic properties have been attributed to inhibition of Gamma Amino Butyrate (GABA transaminobutyrate and of ion channels. VPA was recently classified among the Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors, acting directly at the level of gene transcription by inhibiting histone deacetylation and making transcription sites more accessible. VPA is a widely used drug, particularly for children suffering from epilepsy. Due to the increasing number of clinical trials involving VPA, and interesting results obtained, this molecule will be implicated in an increasing number of therapies. However side effects of VPA are substantially described in the literature whereas they are poorly discussed in articles focusing on its therapeutic use. This paper aims to give an overview of the different clinical-trials involving VPA and its side effects encountered during treatment as well as its molecular properties.

  18. Anti-inflammatory potential of ellagic acid, gallic acid and punicalagin A&B isolated from Punica granatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BenSaad, Lamees A; Kim, Kah Hwi; Quah, Chin Chew; Kim, Wee Ric; Shahimi, Mustafa

    2017-01-14

    Punica granatum (pomegranate), an edible fruit originating in the Middle East, has been used as a traditional medicine for treatment of pain and inflammatory conditions such as peptic ulcer. The numerous risks associated with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) for treatment of pain and inflammation give rise to using medicinal herbs as alternative therapies. This study aimed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect of isolated compounds from the ethyl acetate (EtOAc) fraction of P. granatum by determination of their inhibitory effects on lipopolysaccharide (LPS), stimulated nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE-2), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and cyclooxxgenase-2 (COX-2) release from RAW264.7 cells. The compounds ellagic acid, gallic acid and punicalagin A&B were isolated from EtOAc by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and further identified by mass spectrometry (MS). The inhibitory effect of ellagic acid, gallic acid and punicalagin A&B were evaluated on the production of LPS-induced NO by Griess reagent, PGE-2 and IL-6 by immunoassay kit and prostaglandin E2 competitive ELISA kit, and COX-2 by Western blotting. Ellagic acid, gallic acid and punicalagin A&B potentially inhibited LPS-induced NO, PGE-2 and IL-6 production. The results indicate that ellagic acid, gallic acid and punicalagin may be the compounds responsible for the anti-inflammatory potential of P. granatum.

  19. Potential of lactic acid bacteria as suppressors of wine allergies

    OpenAIRE

    Yıldırım Hatice Kalkan; Dündar Ezgi

    2017-01-01

    Allergens causes some symptoms as all asthma, allergic conjunctivitis, and allergic rhinitis. These symptoms are seen twice as many in women than in men. The major wine allergens reported in wines are endochitinase 4A and lipid-transfer protein (LTP). This review deal with possibilities of using lactic acid bacteria as suppressors of wine allergies. Phenolic compounds present in wines have not only antioxidant properties causing radical scavenging but also some special properties reported in ...

  20. The potential of amino acids in alkaliphilic bioleaching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barthen, Robert; Karimzadeh, Lotfallah; Gruendig, Marion; Franke, Karsten; Lippmann-Pipke, Johanna [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Reactive Transport; Heim, J. [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany)

    2017-06-01

    Bioleaching has become a major production process for copper contributing currently to around 15 % of the world wide copper production. However, non-sulfidic and/or complex ores are still not efficiently minable by conventional methods. In this study, we investigated the effect of copper complexing molecules such as amino acids on Cu{sup 2+} and S{sup 2-} solubilization from covellite.

  1. Acid-Sensitive Magnetic Nanoparticles as Potential Drug Depots

    OpenAIRE

    Wuang, Shy Chyi; Neoh, Koon Gee; Kang, En-Tang; Deborah E. Leckband; Pack, Daniel W.

    2011-01-01

    Superparamagnetic magnetic nanoparticles were successfully functionalized with poly(methacrylic acid) via atom transfer radical polymerization, followed by conjugation to doxorubicin (Dox). Because of pH-sensitive hydrazone linkages, the rate and extent of Dox release from the particles was higher at a lower pH and/or a higher temperature than at physiological conditions. Appropriate changes to the pH and temperature can increase the drug release from the particles. Because of the released dr...

  2. Bacteriophage and their potential roles in the human oral cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Edlund

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The human oral cavity provides the perfect portal of entry for viruses and bacteria in the environment to access new hosts. Hence, the oral cavity is one of the most densely populated habitats of the human body containing some 6 billion bacteria and potentially 35 times that many viruses. The role of these viral communities remains unclear; however, many are bacteriophage that may have active roles in shaping the ecology of oral bacterial communities. Other implications for the presence of such vast oral phage communities include accelerating the molecular diversity of their bacterial hosts as both host and phage mutate to gain evolutionary advantages. Additional roles include the acquisitions of new gene functions through lysogenic conversions that may provide selective advantages to host bacteria in response to antibiotics or other types of disturbances, and protection of the human host from invading pathogens by binding to and preventing pathogens from crossing oral mucosal barriers. Recent evidence suggests that phage may be more involved in periodontal diseases than were previously thought, as their compositions in the subgingival crevice in moderate to severe periodontitis are known to be significantly altered. However, it is unclear to what extent they contribute to dysbiosis or the transition of the microbial community into a state promoting oral disease. Bacteriophage communities are distinct in saliva compared to sub- and supragingival areas, suggesting that different oral biogeographic niches have unique phage ecology shaping their bacterial biota. In this review, we summarize what is known about phage communities in the oral cavity, the possible contributions of phage in shaping oral bacterial ecology, and the risks to public health oral phage may pose through their potential to spread antibiotic resistance gene functions to close contacts.

  3. Acid-Sensing Ion Channels as Potential Therapeutic Targets in Neurodegeneration and Neuroinflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey Ortega-Ramírez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs are a family of proton-sensing channels that are voltage insensitive, cation selective (mostly permeable to Na+, and nonspecifically blocked by amiloride. Derived from 5 genes (ACCN1–5, 7 subunits have been identified, 1a, 1b, 2a, 2b, 3, 4, and 5, that are widely expressed in the peripheral and central nervous system as well as other tissues. Over the years, different studies have shown that activation of these channels is linked to various physiological and pathological processes, such as memory, learning, fear, anxiety, ischemia, and multiple sclerosis to name a few, so their potential as therapeutic targets is increasing. This review focuses on recent advances that have helped us to better understand the role played by ASICs in different pathologies related to neurodegenerative diseases, inflammatory processes, and pain.

  4. Excitatory amino acid transporters as potential drug targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bunch, Lennart; Erichsen, Mette Navy; Jensen, Anders Asbjørn

    2009-01-01

    roles or functions in the CNS are yet to be fully understood due to the shortage of subtype-selective ligands. OBJECTIVE/METHODS: We examine the latest developments in this field by addressing EAAT expression pattern, localization and pharmacology. We present highlights of published work on inhibitors...

  5. Perioxidases play important roles in abscisic acid (ABA)-simulating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    indoleacetic acid (IAA), cytokinins (CKs), abscisic acid (ABA) concentrations, and superoxide dismutase (SOD), total peroxidases (POX), catalase (CAT), total antioxidative activity (TAA) and PS II thermostability before and after 30 min dark exposition to ...

  6. Potential Role of Atomic Force Microscopy in Systems Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Srinivasan; Arce, Fernando Teran; Lal, Ratnesh

    2011-01-01

    Systems biology is a quantitative approach for understanding a biological system at its global level through systematic perturbation and integrated analysis of all its components. Simultaneous acquisition of information datasets pertaining to the system components (e.g., genome, proteome) is essential to implement this approach. There are limitations to such an approach in measuring gene expression levels and accounting for all proteins in the system. The success of genomic studies is critically dependent on PCR for its amplification, but PCR is very uneven in amplifying the samples, ineffective in scarce samples and unreliable in low copy number transcripts. On the other hand, lack of amplifying techniques for proteins critically limits their identification to only a small fraction of high concentration proteins. Atomic force microscopy (AFM), AFM cantilever sensors and AFM force spectroscopy in particular, could address these issues directly. In this article, we reviewed and assessed their potential role in systems biology. PMID:21766465

  7. Potential role of microorganisms in the pathogenesis of rosacea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Anna D

    2013-12-01

    Rosacea is a skin condition of abnormal inflammation and vascular dysfunction. The active contribution of a microbial agent in the development or progression of rosacea continues to be debated. Research supports the presence of commensal Demodex folliculorum mites at increased density in the skin and associates Helicobacter pylori infection of the gut with rosacea. Fewer studies implicate Staphylococcus epidermidis, Chlamydophila pneumoniae, and the Demodex-associated bacteria Bacillus oleronius. No research, however, provides a mechanism by which colonization by a microorganism translates to manifestation of the condition. Prevailing and emerging principles in the biology of the microbiome and the pathophysiology of rosacea may help to reconcile these lingering questions. Here the microorganisms implicated in rosacea are reviewed and the reaction of the microbiome to inflammation and to changes in microenvironments and macroenvironments are discussed to explain potential roles for microorganisms in rosacea pathophysiology. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The potential role of microorganisms in the development of rosacea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazaridou, Elizabeth; Giannopoulou, Christina; Fotiadou, Christina; Vakirlis, Eustratios; Trigoni, Anastasia; Ioannides, Demetris

    2011-01-01

    Rosacea is a chronic cutaneous disorder characterized by centrofacial persisting erythema, telangiectases, papules, pustules, edema, phymas and ocular involvement. Despite being one of the most common skin disorders, its pathogenesis remains unclear and controversial. Although the disease triggering factors are well recognized, the underlying causes of rosacea have not yet been identified. Several different postulates about its pathogenesis can be found in the medical literature. Abnormalities of the pilosebaceous unit, as well as genetic, vascular, inflammatory, environmental and microbial factors have been described. The microorganisms that have been associated include Helicobacter pylori, Demodex folliculorum, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Chlamydia pneumonia; all the studies have been inconclusive. We review currently available scientific data on the potential pathogenetic role of microorganisms in the development of rosacea. © The Authors • Journal compilation © Blackwell Verlag GmbH, Berlin.

  9. The role of transient receptor potential channels in metabolic syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Daoyan; Zhu, Zhiming; Tepel, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is correlated with increased cardiovascular risk and characterized by several factors, including visceral obesity, hypertension, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia. Several members of a large family of nonselective cation entry channels, e.g., transient receptor potential (TRP......) canonical (TRPC), vanilloid (TRPV), and melastatin (TRPM) channels, have been associated with the development of cardiovascular diseases. Thus, disruption of TRP channel expression or function may account for the observed increased cardiovascular risk in metabolic syndrome patients. TRPV1 regulates...... there is no evidence that a single TRP channelopathy may be the cause of all metabolic syndrome characteristics, further studies will help to clarify the role of specific TRP channels involved in the metabolic syndrome. (Hypertens Res 2008; 31: 1989-1995)....

  10. Cytokines: Roles in atherosclerosis disease progression and potential therapeutic targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Joe W. E.; Ramji, Dipak P.

    2017-01-01

    Atherosclerosis, the primary cause of cardiovascular disease (CVD), is a chronic inflammatory disorder in the walls of medium and large arteries. CVD is currently responsible for about one in three global deaths and this is expected to rise in the future due to an increase in the prevalence of obesity and diabetes. Current therapies for atherosclerosis mainly modulate lipid homeostasis and whilst successful at reducing the risk of a CVD-related death, they are associated with considerable residual risk and various side effects. There is therefore a need for alternative therapies aimed at regulating inflammation in order to reduce atherogenesis. This review will highlight the key role cytokines play during disease progression as well as potential therapeutic strategies to target them. PMID:27357616

  11. Potential coordination role between O-GlcNAcylation and epigenetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donglu Wu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Dynamic changes of the post-translational O-GlcNAc modification (O-GlcNAcylation are controlled by O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT and the glycoside hydrolase O-GlcNAcase (OGA in cells. O-GlcNAcylation often occurs on serine (Ser and threonine (Thr residues of the specific substrate proteins via the addition of O-GlcNAc group by OGT. It has been known that O-GlcNAcylation is not only involved in many fundamental cellular processes, but also plays an important role in cancer development through various mechanisms. Recently, accumulating data reveal that O-GlcNAcylation at histones or non-histone proteins can lead to the start of the subsequent biological processes, suggesting that O-GlcNAcylation as ‘protein code’ or ‘histone code’ may provide recognition platforms or executive instructions for subsequent recruitment of proteins to carry out the specific functions. In this review, we summarize the interaction of O-GlcNAcylation and epigenetic changes, introduce recent research findings that link crosstalk between O-GlcNAcylation and epigenetic changes, and speculate on the potential coordination role of O-GlcNAcylation with epigenetic changes in intracellular biological processes.

  12. Expression Patterns and Potential Biological Roles of Dip2a.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luqing Zhang

    Full Text Available Disconnected (disco-interacting protein 2 homolog A is a member of the DIP2 protein family encoded by Dip2a gene. Dip2a expression pattern has never been systematically studied. Functions of Dip2a in embryonic development and adult are not known. To investigate Dip2a gene expression and function in embryo and adult, a Dip2a-LacZ mouse model was generated by insertion of β-Gal cDNA after Dip2a promoter using CRISPR/Cas9 technology. Dip2a-LacZ mouse was designed to be a lacZ reporter mouse as well as a Dip2a knockout mouse. Heterozygous mice were used to study endogenous Dip2a expression and homozygotes to study DIP2A-associated structure and function. LacZ staining indicated that Dip2a is broadly expressed in neuronal, reproductive and vascular tissues, as well as in heart, kidney, liver and lung. Results demonstrate that Dip2a is expressed in ectoderm-derived tissues in developing embryos. Adult tissues showed rich staining in neurons, mesenchymal, endothelial, smooth muscle cells and cardiomyocytes by cell types. The expression pattern highly overlaps with FSTL1 and supports previous report that DIP2A to be potential receptor of FSTL1 and its protective roles of cardiomyocytes. Broad and intense embryonic and adult expression of Dip2a has implied their multiple structural and physiological roles.

  13. Assessment of nanofiltration and reverse osmosis potentialities to recover metals, sulfuric acid, and recycled water from acid gold mining effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, Bárbara C; Ferreira, Carolina D; Marques, Larissa S; Martins, Sofia S; Amaral, Míriam C S

    This work assessed the potential of nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) to treat acid streams contaminated with metals, such as effluent from the pressure oxidation process (POX) used in refractory gold ore processing. NF and RO were evaluated in terms of rejections of sulfuric acid and metals. Regarding NF, high sulfuric acid permeation (∼100%), was observed, while metals were retained with high efficiencies (∼90%), whereas RO led to high acid rejections (<88%) when conducted in pH values higher than 1. Thus, sequential use of NF and RO was proved to be a promising treatment for sulfuric acid solutions contaminated by metals, such as POX effluent. In this context, a purified acid stream could be recovered in NF permeate, which could be further concentrated in RO. Recovered acid stream could be reused in the gold ore processing or commercialized. A metal-enriched stream could be also recovered in NF retentate and transferred to a subsequent metal recovery stage. In addition, considering the high acid rejection obtained through the proposed system, RO permeate could be used as recycling water.

  14. Potential Use of Gelidium amansii Acid Hydrolysate for Lactic Acid Production by Lactobacillus rhamnosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Soo Jang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Galactose and glucose are the main monosaccharides produced from the saccharification of Gelidium amansii. They were hydrolysed with 3 % (by volume H2SO4 at 140 °C for 5 min and obtained at concentrations of 19.60 and 10.21 g/L, respectively. G. amansii hydrolysate (5 %, by mass per volume was used as a substrate for L(+-lactic acid production by Lactobacillus rhamnosus. The maximum lactic acid yield (YP/S was 42.03 % with optical purity of 84.54 %. Lactic acid produced from G. amansii hydrolysate can be applicable, among others, for the production of lactic acid esters, like ethyl or methyl lactate, and disinfectant in seaweed cultivation.

  15. Porifera Lectins: Diversity, Physiological Roles and Biotechnological Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Gardères

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available An overview on the diversity of 39 lectins from the phylum Porifera is presented, including 38 lectins, which were identified from the class of demosponges, and one lectin from the class of hexactinellida. Their purification from crude extracts was mainly performed by using affinity chromatography and gel filtration techniques. Other protocols were also developed in order to collect and study sponge lectins, including screening of sponge genomes and expression in heterologous bacterial systems. The characterization of the lectins was performed by Edman degradation or mass spectrometry. Regarding their physiological roles, sponge lectins showed to be involved in morphogenesis and cell interaction, biomineralization and spiculogenesis, as well as host defense mechanisms and potentially in the association between the sponge and its microorganisms. In addition, these lectins exhibited a broad range of bioactivities, including modulation of inflammatory response, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities, as well as anticancer and neuromodulatory activity. In view of their potential pharmacological applications, sponge lectins constitute promising molecules of biotechnological interest.

  16. Extracellular Vesicles from Adipose Tissue—A Potential Role in Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan Gao

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue plays a key role in the development of insulin resistance and its pathological sequelae, such as type 2 diabetes and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Dysfunction in the adipose tissue response to storing excess fatty acids as triglyceride can lead to adipose tissue inflammation and spillover of fatty acids from this tissue and accumulation of fatty acids as lipid droplets in ectopic sites, such as liver and muscle. Extracellular vesicles (EVs are released from adipocytes and have been proposed to be involved in adipocyte/macrophage cross talk and to affect insulin signaling and transforming growth factor β expression in liver cells leading to metabolic disease. Furthermore EV produced by adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSC can promote angiogenesis and cancer cell migration and have neuroprotective and neuroregenerative properties. ADSC EVs have therapeutic potential in vascular and neurodegenerative disease and may also be used to target specific functional miRNAs to cells. Obesity is associated with an increase in adipose-derived EV which may be related to the metabolic complications of obesity. In this review, we discuss our current knowledge of EV produced by adipose tissue and the potential impact of adipose tissue-derived EV on metabolic diseases associated with obesity.

  17. Highly Acidic Ambient Particles, Soluble Metals, and Oxidative Potential: A Link between Sulfate and Aerosol Toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Ting; Guo, Hongyu; Zeng, Linghan; Verma, Vishal; Nenes, Athanasios; Weber, Rodney J

    2017-03-07

    Soluble transition metals in particulate matter (PM) can generate reactive oxygen species in vivo by redox cycling, leading to oxidative stress and adverse health effects. Most metals, such as those from roadway traffic, are emitted in an insoluble form, but must be soluble for redox cycling. Here we present the mechanism of metals dissolution by highly acidic sulfate aerosol and the effect on particle oxidative potential (OP) through analysis of size distributions. Size-segregated ambient PM were collected from a road-side and representative urban site in Atlanta, GA. Elemental and organic carbon, ions, total and water-soluble metals, and water-soluble OP were measured. Particle pH was determined with a thermodynamic model using measured ionic species. Sulfate was spatially uniform and found mainly in the fine mode, whereas total metals and mineral dust cations were highest at the road-side site and in the coarse mode, resulting in a fine mode pH metals and OP peaked at the intersection of these modes demonstrating that sulfate plays a key role in producing highly acidic fine aerosols capable of dissolving primary transition metals that contribute to aerosol OP. Sulfate-driven metals dissolution may account for sulfate-health associations reported in past studies.

  18. Food acid content and erosive potential of sugar-free confections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, P; Walker, G D; Yuan, Y; Reynolds, C; Stacey, M A; Reynolds, E C

    2017-06-01

    Dental erosion is an increasingly prevalent problem associated with frequent consumption of acidic foods and beverages. The aim of this study was to measure the food acid content and the erosive potential of a variety of sugar-free confections. Thirty sugar-free confections were selected and extracts analysed to determine pH, titratable acidity, chemical composition and apparent degree of saturation with respect to apatite. The effect of the sugar-free confections in artificial saliva on human enamel was determined in an in vitro dental erosion assay using change in surface microhardness. The change in surface microhardness was used to categorize the confections as high, moderate or low erosive potential. Seventeen of the 30 sugar-free confections were found to contain high concentrations of food acids, exhibit low pH and high titratable acidity and have high erosive potential. Significant correlations were found between the dental erosive potential (change in enamel surface microhardness) and pH and titratable acidity of the confections. Ten of these high erosive potential confections displayed dental messages on the packaging suggesting they were safe for teeth. Many sugar-free confections, even some with 'Toothfriendly' messages on the product label, contain high contents of food acids and have erosive potential. © 2017 Australian Dental Association.

  19. Potential human health effects of acid rain: report of a workshop

    OpenAIRE

    Goyer, Robert A.; Bachmann, John; Clarkson, Thomas W.; Ferris, Benjamin G.; Graham, Judith; Mushak, Paul; Perl, Daniel P.; Rall, David P.; Schlesinger, Richard; Sharpe, William; Wood, John M.

    1985-01-01

    This report summarizes the potential impact of the acid precipitation phenomenon on human health. There are two major components to this phenomenon: the predepositional phase, during which there is direct human exposure to acidic substances from ambient air, and the post-depositional phase, in which the deposition of acid materials on water and soil results in the mobilization, transport, and even chemical transformation of toxic metals. Acidification increases bioconversion of mercury to met...

  20. A meteorological potential forecast model for acid rain in Fujian Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yi Yong; Lin, Chang Cheng; Liu, Jing Xiong; Wu, De Hui; Lian, Dong Ying; Chen, Bin Bin

    2010-05-01

    Based on the acid rain and concurrent meteorological observational data during the past 10 years in Fujian Province, China, the dependence of distribution characteristics of acid rain on season, rain rate, weather pattern and dominant airflow in four regions of Fujian Province is analyzed. On the annual average, the acid rain frequency is the highest (above 40%) in the southern and mid-eastern regions, and the lowest (16.2%) in the western region. The acid rain occurs most frequently in spring and winter, and least frequent in summer. The acid rain frequency in general increases with the increase of precipitation. It also depend on the direction of dominant airflows at 850 hPa. In the mid-eastern region, more than 40% acid rains appear when the dominant wind directions are NW, W, SW, S and SE. In the southern region, high acid rain occurrence happens when the dominant wind directions are NW, W, SW and S. In the northern region, 41.8% acid rains occur when the southwesterly is pronounced. In the western region, the southwesterly is associated with a 17% acid rain rate. The examination of meteorological sounding conditions over Fuzhou, Xiamen and Shaowu cities shows that the acid rain frequency increases with increased inversion thickness. Based on the results above, a meteorological potential forecast model for acid rain is established and tested in 2007. The result is encouraging. The model provides an objective basis for the development of acid rain forecasting operation in the province.

  1. Erosive potential of calcium-modified acidic candies in irradiated dry mouth patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensdottir, Thorbjörg; Buchwald, Christian von; Nauntofte, Brigitte

    2010-01-01

    Patients who have received irradiation therapy on the head and neck area are known to suffer from reduced saliva flow and may therefore use acidic candies to relieve symptoms of dry mouth. However, such acidic candies have erosive potential even among healthy individuals. Therefore, the aim...

  2. Erosive potential of calcium-modified acidic candies in irradiated dry mouth patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensdottir, Thorbjörg; Buchwald, Christian; Nauntofte, Birgitte

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: Patients who have received irradiation therapy on the head and neck area are known to suffer from reduced saliva flow and may therefore use acidic candies to relieve symptoms of dry mouth. However, such acidic candies have erosive potential even among healthy individuals. Therefore...

  3. Metallothioneins in human tumors and potential roles in carcinogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherian, M. George; Jayasurya, A.; Bay, Boon-Huat

    2003-12-10

    Metallothioneins (MT) are a group of low-molecular weight, cysteine rich intracellular proteins, which are encoded by a family of genes containing at least 10 functional isoforms in human. The expression and induction of these proteins have been associated with protection against DNA damage, oxidative stress and apoptosis. Moreover, MT may potentially activate certain transcriptional factors by donating zinc. Although MT is a cytosolic protein in resting cells, it can be translocated transiently to the cell nucleus during cell proliferation and differentiation. A number of studies have shown an increased expression of MT in various human tumors of the breast, colon, kidney, liver, lung, nasopharynx, ovary, prostate, salivary gland, testes, thyroid and urinary bladder. However, MT is down-regulated in certain tumors such as hepatocellular carcinoma and liver adenocarcinoma. Hence, the expression of MT is not universal to all human tumors, but may depend on the differentiation status and proliferative index of tumors, along with other tissue factors and gene mutations. In certain tumors such as germ cell carcinoma, the expression of MT is closely related to the tumor grade and proliferative activity. Increased expression of MT has also been observed in less differentiated tumors. Thus, expression of MT may be a potential prognostic marker for certain tumors. There are few reports on the expression of the different isoforms of MT which have been analyzed by specific gene probes. They reveal that certain isoforms are expressed in specific cell types. The factors which can influence MT induction in human tumors are not yet understood. Down-regulation of MT synthesis in hepatic tumors may be related to hypermethylation of the MT-promoter or mutation of other genes such as the p53 tumor suppressor gene. In vitro studies using human cancer cells suggest a possible role for p53 and the estrogen-receptor on the expression and induction of MT in epithelial neoplastic cells

  4. Ammonia Transporters and Their Role in Acid-Base Balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, I David; Verlander, Jill W

    2017-04-01

    Acid-base homeostasis is critical to maintenance of normal health. Renal ammonia excretion is the quantitatively predominant component of renal net acid excretion, both under basal conditions and in response to acid-base disturbances. Although titratable acid excretion also contributes to renal net acid excretion, the quantitative contribution of titratable acid excretion is less than that of ammonia under basal conditions and is only a minor component of the adaptive response to acid-base disturbances. In contrast to other urinary solutes, ammonia is produced in the kidney and then is selectively transported either into the urine or the renal vein. The proportion of ammonia that the kidney produces that is excreted in the urine varies dramatically in response to physiological stimuli, and only urinary ammonia excretion contributes to acid-base homeostasis. As a result, selective and regulated renal ammonia transport by renal epithelial cells is central to acid-base homeostasis. Both molecular forms of ammonia, NH3 and NH4(+), are transported by specific proteins, and regulation of these transport processes determines the eventual fate of the ammonia produced. In this review, we discuss these issues, and then discuss in detail the specific proteins involved in renal epithelial cell ammonia transport. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  5. The diverse role of Pdr12 in resistance to weak organic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nygård, Yvonne; Mojzita, Dominik; Toivari, Mervi; Penttilä, Merja; Wiebe, Marilyn G; Ruohonen, Laura

    2014-06-01

    Resistance to weak organic acids is important relative to both weak organic acid preservatives and the development of inhibitor tolerant yeast as industrial production organisms. The ABC transporter Pdr12 is important for resistance to sorbic and propionic acid, but its role in tolerance to other weak organic acids with industrial relevance is not well established. In this study, yeast strains with altered expression of PDR12 and/or CMK1, a protein kinase associated with post-transcriptional negative regulation of Pdr12, were exposed to seven weak organic acids: acetic, formic, glycolic, lactic, propionic, sorbic and levulinic acid. These are widely used as preservatives, present in lignocellulosic hydrolysates or attractive as chemical precursors. Overexpression of PDR12 increased tolerance to acids with longer chain length, such as sorbic, propionic and levulinic acid, whereas deletion of PDR12 increased tolerance to the shorter acetic and formic acid. The viability of all strains decreased dramatically in acetic or propionic acid, but the Δpdr12 strains recovered more rapidly than other strains in acetic acid. Furthermore, our results indicated that Cmk1 plays a role in weak organic acid tolerance, beyond its role in regulation of Pdr12, since deletion of both Cmk1 and Pdr12 resulted in different responses to exposure to acids than were explained by deletion of Pdr12 alone. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Potential Role of Honey in Learning and Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahiruddin Othman

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The composition and physicochemical properties of honey are variable depending on its floral source and often named according to the geographical location. The potential medicinal benefits of Tualang honey, a multifloral jungle honey found in Malaysia, have recently been attracting attention because of its reported beneficial effects in various diseases. This paper reviews the effects of honey, particularly Tualang honey, on learning and memory. Information regarding the effects of Tualang honey on learning and memory in human as well as animal models is gleaned to hypothesize its underlying mechanisms. These studies show that Tualang honey improves morphology of memory-related brain areas, reduces brain oxidative stress, increases brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and acetylcholine (ACh concentrations, and reduces acetylcholinesterase (AChE in the brain homogenates. Its anti-inflammatory roles in reducing inflammatory trigger and microglial activation have yet to be investigated. It is hypothesized that the improvement in learning and memory following Tualang honey supplementation is due to the significant improvement in brain morphology and enhancement of brain cholinergic system secondary to reduction in brain oxidative damage and/or upregulation of BDNF concentration. Further studies are imperative to elucidate the molecular mechanism of actions.

  7. Exploring the potential roles of biochars on land degradation mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.K. Berek

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Land degradation was exacerbated and its management was challenged by population growth and global climate change. The impacts of land degradation on food security, ecosystem services and biodiversity become a more serious problem particularly in developing countries. Biochar, based on the current research findings, is capable to amend degraded lands. This paper reviewed relevant biocharproperties and identified the opportunities of its using for recovering deteriorated lands.Biochar was traditionally recognized as a good absorbent, energy source, and its ash was used by farmers to recover soil fertility. Recent findings revealed that application of biochar improved soil water retention, enhanced soil aggregation, decreased soil bulk density and increased soil infiltration. It also increased soil cation exchange capacity, soil pH, mineral nutrients, reduced nutrient leaching, support microbial population and activities, and suppressed the pest. The sorption capacity of biochar to soil and water pollutants such as Pb, Cu, Ni, Cr, Cd,dioxine, atrazine, and concurrently eliminatedthe environmental problems such as hypoxia, eutrophication, and algae bloom, have also been investigated. Investigation on its role to mitigate climate change revealed that biochar is capable in reducing greenhouse gasesemissions such as CO2, N2O, and CH4. All those beneficial effects of biochars were attributed to its high porosity, large surface area and surface charge, high carbon, ash and nutrient content, and its stability to be degraded. Thus, biochar could be potential for ameliorating degraded lands

  8. Potential Role of Epigenetic Mechanism in Manganese Induced Neurotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarale, Prashant; Chakrabarti, Tapan; Sivanesan, Saravanadevi; Naoghare, Pravin; Bafana, Amit; Krishnamurthi, Kannan

    2016-01-01

    Manganese is a vital nutrient and is maintained at an optimal level (2.5-5 mg/day) in human body. Chronic exposure to manganese is associated with neurotoxicity and correlated with the development of various neurological disorders such as Parkinson's disease. Oxidative stress mediated apoptotic cell death has been well established mechanism in manganese induced toxicity. Oxidative stress has a potential to alter the epigenetic mechanism of gene regulation. Epigenetic insight of manganese neurotoxicity in context of its correlation with the development of parkinsonism is poorly understood. Parkinson's disease is characterized by the α-synuclein aggregation in the form of Lewy bodies in neuronal cells. Recent findings illustrate that manganese can cause overexpression of α-synuclein. α-Synuclein acts epigenetically via interaction with histone proteins in regulating apoptosis. α-Synuclein also causes global DNA hypomethylation through sequestration of DNA methyltransferase in cytoplasm. An individual genetic difference may also have an influence on epigenetic susceptibility to manganese neurotoxicity and the development of Parkinson's disease. This review presents the current state of findings in relation to role of epigenetic mechanism in manganese induced neurotoxicity, with a special emphasis on the development of Parkinson's disease.

  9. Potential Antidepressant Role of Neurotransmitter CART: Implications for Mental Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peizhong Mao

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Depression is one of the most prevalent and debilitating public health concerns. Although no single cause of depression has been identified, it appears that interaction among genetic, epigenetic, biochemical, environmental, and psychosocial factors may explain its etiology. Further, only a fraction of depressed patients show full remission while using current antidepressants. Therefore, identifying common pathways of the disorder and using that knowledge to develop more effective pharmacological treatments are two primary targets of research in this field. Brain-enriched neurotransmitter CART (cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript has multiple functions related to emotions. It is a potential neurotrophic factor and is involved in the regulation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and stress response as well as in energy homeostasis. CART is also highly expressed in limbic system, which is considered to have an important role in regulating mood. Notably, adolescents carrying a missense mutation in the CART gene exhibit increased depression and anxiety. Hence, CART peptide may be a novel promising antidepressant agent. In this paper, we summarize recent progress in depression and CART. In particular, we emphasize a new antidepressant function for CART.

  10. A potential role for bat tail membranes in flight control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James D Gardiner

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Wind tunnel tests conducted on a model based on the long-eared bat Plecotus auritus indicated that the positioning of the tail membrane (uropatagium can significantly influence flight control. Adjusting tail position by increasing the angle of the legs ventrally relative to the body has a two-fold effect; increasing leg-induced wing camber (i.e., locally increased camber of the inner wing surface and increasing the angle of attack of the tail membrane. We also used our model to examine the effects of flying with and without a tail membrane. For the bat model with a tail membrane increasing leg angle increased the lift, drag and pitching moment (nose-down produced. However, removing the tail membrane significantly reduced the change in pitching moment with increasing leg angle, but it had no significant effect on the level of lift produced. The drag on the model also significantly increased with the removal of the tail membrane. The tail membrane, therefore, is potentially important for controlling the level of pitching moment produced by bats and an aid to flight control, specifically improving agility and manoeuvrability. Although the tail of bats is different from that of birds, in that it is only divided from the wings by the legs, it nonetheless, may, in addition to its prey capturing function, fulfil a similar role in aiding flight control.

  11. Role of Glycol Chitosan-incorporated Ursolic Acid Nanoparticles in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of ursolic acid (UA)-incorporated glycol chitosan (GC) nanoparticles on inhibition of human osteosarcoma. Methods: U2OS and Saos-2 osteosarcoma cells were transfected with ursolic acid (UA) incorporated glycol chitosan (GC) nanoparticles. Ultraviolet (UV) spectrophotometry was used ...

  12. The role of lactic acid adsorption by ion exchange chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qiang; Liu, Fabao; Zhang, Tongcun; Zhang, Jian; Jia, Shiru; Yu, Changyan; Jiang, Kunyu; Gao, Nianfa

    2010-11-11

    The polyacrylic resin Amberlite IRA-67 is a promising adsorbent for lactic acid extraction from aqueous solution, but little systematic research has been devoted to the separation efficiency of lactic acid under different operating conditions. In this paper, we investigated the effects of temperature, resin dose and lactic acid loading concentration on the adsorption of lactic acid by Amberlite IRA-67 in batch kinetic experiments. The obtained kinetic data followed the pseudo-second order model well and both the equilibrium and ultimate adsorption slightly decreased with the increase of the temperature at 293-323K and 42.5 g/liter lactic acid loading concentration. The adsorption was a chemically heterogeneous process with a mean free energy value of 12.18 kJ/mol. According to the Boyd(_)plot, the lactic acid uptake process was primarily found to be an intraparticle diffusion at a lower concentration (70 g/liter). The values of effective diffusion coefficient D(i) increased with temperature. By using our Equation (21), the negative values of ΔG° and ΔH° revealed that the adsorption process was spontaneous and exothermic. Moreover, the negative value of ΔS° reflected the decrease of solid-liquid interface randomness at the solid-liquid interface when adsorbing lactic acid on IRA-67. With the weakly basic resin IRA-67, in situ product removal of lactic acid can be accomplished especially from an open and thermophilic fermentation system without sterilization.

  13. The Roles of Acids and Bases in Enzyme Catalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Hilton M.

    2007-01-01

    Many organic reactions are catalyzed by strong acids or bases that protonate or deprotonate neutral reactants leading to reactive cations or anions that proceed to products. In enzyme reactions, only weak acids and bases are available to hydrogen bond to reactants and to transfer protons in response to developing charges. Understanding this…

  14. the roles of gastric acid and nitric oxide

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    Fujishita, T., Furutani, K and Okabe, S. (2003):. Pharmacological control of gastric acid secretion for the treatment of acid-related peptic disease: past, present and future. Pharmacol. Ther. 98:109-127. Amure, B.O., and Ginsburg, M. (1964). Inhibitors of histamine catabolism and the action of gastrin in the rat. Br. J. Pharmacol.

  15. The role of bile acids in the pathogenesis of bowel diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Panek-Jeziorna

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Bile acids not only play a cardinal role in the digestion and absorption of fat and fat-soluble vitamins, but also significantly affect gastrointestinal motor, sensory and secretory functions, intestinal barrier permeability and the regulation of the inflammatory response. The results of recent studies have revealed complex interactions between bile acids and the gut microbiota. In addition, bile acids also play a role of signaling molecules regulating the activity of lipid and glucose metabolic pathways, as well as a role of ligands for transcription factors. Genetic factors associated with the regulation of bile acid synthesis, transport and action may significantly influence gastrointestinal function and predispose to diarrhea resulting from bile acid malabsorption. Methods used in the diagnosis of bile acid malabsorption include 75selenium-homotaurocholic acid test, serum C4 and fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19, as well as fecal bile acid levels. The paper presents the latest data on the role of bile acid in the pathogenesis of irritable bowel syndrome, inflammatory bowel diseases and colorectal cancer. Advances in the treatment of disturbances in bile acids absorption and synthesis are also presented. A better understanding of molecular mechanisms regulating bile acid action may have implication for colorectal cancer prevention.

  16. Intestinal lactic acid bacteria from Muscovy duck as potential probiotics that alter adhesion factor gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Z L; Bai, D P; Xie, L N; Zhang, W N; Huang, X H; Huang, Y F

    2015-10-09

    The purpose of this study was to assess the suitability of lactic acid bacteria (LABs) isolated from Muscovy duck as a potential probiotic. Isolates were identified by targeted polymerase chain reaction and assessed in vitro for probiotic characteristics such as autoaggregation; surface-charge; hydrophobicity; tolerance to acidic pH, bile salts and protease; and expression of genes involved in Caco-2 cell adhesion. The LAB isolates exhibited strong resistance to high bile concentration and acidic pH, produced lactic acid, and bacteriostatic (P probiotic bacteria and can facilitate the establishment of criteria to select probiotic strains for the prevention of diarrhea.

  17. Isolation and evaluation of antiglycation potential of polyalthic acid (furano-terpene from Daniella oliveri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olubunmi Atolani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A furano-diterpene (polyalthic acid was isolated as a major stable compound for the first time from the oleoresin of the Daniella oliveri of the family Caesalpiniacea through column chromatography fractionation. Polyalthic acid was characterized using data obtained from EIMS, HREIMS, ESI-MS, MALDI-MS as well as 1D and 2D NMR and it was evaluated for its potential to inhibit the formation of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs using a standard in vitro antiglycation procedure. Polyalthic acid indicated a negative antiglycation potential compared to standard inhibitor that has 85% inhibition, which is an indication that polyalthic acid may not contribute to the antiglycation activity of the plant as acclaimed in folkloric medicine. The negative antiglycation observed could indicate that the polyalthic acid could trigger glycation, thereby subjecting users to various degrees of complications. The bioactivity evaluation on molinspiration evaluator indicated that polyalthic acid could be a potential drug candidate. The biological and chemical insights gained on polyalthic acid provide a good basis for future research. Keywords: Daniella oliveria, Polyalthic acid, Furano-diterpene, Antiglycation, Matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI

  18. Evaluation of Sikora instead of SMP buffer to estimate the potential acidity of brazilian soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Alice Santanna

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite the efficiency of the Shoemaker, McLean, Pratt (SMP buffer method in estimating soil acidity, the presence of p-nitrophenol and potassium chromate in the solution, both hazardous substances, has caused increasing environmental concerns. The purpose of this study was to test Sikora method (Sikora, 2006 as an alternative to the adapted SMP buffer method, generally used to estimate potential acidity of Southern Brazilian soils. For the test, 21 soils in the South and Cerrado regions of Brazil were sampled. (1 The potential acidity values of these soils range from 35.95 to 4.02 cmol c kg-1 of soil, reflecting a wide acidity variation. The Sikora buffer does not mimic the adapted SMP buffer used in Southern Brazil, since the former has a low ability to distinguish soils with different acidity from each other, probably due to the higher buffer capacity than of the adapted SMP solution.

  19. Calcium ion binding to a soil fulvic acid using a Donnan Potential model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marinsky, J.A. [State Univ. of New York, Albany, NY (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Mathuthu, A. [National Univ. of Science and Technology, Bulawayo (Zimbabwe). Dept. of Applied Chemistry; Ephraim, J.H. [Linkoeping Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Theme Research, Water and Environmental Studies; Reddy, M.M. [Geological Survey, Boulder, CO (United States)

    1999-10-01

    Calcium ion binding to a soil fulvic acid (Armadale Bh Horizon) was evaluated over a range of calcium ion concentrations, from pH 3.8 to 7.3, using potentiometric titrations and calcium ion electrode measurements. Fulvic acid concentration was constant (100 milligrams per liter) and calcium ion concentration varied up to 8 x 10{sup -4} moles per liter. Experiments discussed here included: (1) titrations of fulvic acid-calcium ion containing solutions with sodium hydroxide; and (2) titrations of fully neutralized fulvic acid with calcium chloride solutions. Apparent binding constants (expressed as the logarithm of the value, log {beta}{sub app}) vary with solution pH, calcium ion concentration, degree of acid dissociation, and ionic strength (from log {beta}{sub app}=2.5 to 3.9) and are similar to those reported by others. Fulvic acid charge, and the associated Donnan Potential, influences calcium ion-fulvic acid ion pair formation. A Donnan Potential correction term allowed calculation of intrinsic calcium ion-fulvic acid binding constants. Intrinsic binding constants vary from 1.2 to 2.5 (the average value is about log {beta}=1.6) and are similar to, but somewhat higher than, stability constants for calcium ion-carboxylic acid monodentate complexes. (orig.)

  20. The origin of life and the potential role of soaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanczyc, Martin M.; Monnard, Pierre-Alain

    2016-01-01

    Single chain amphiphiles, such as fatty acids and alkyl sulfates, have found industrial uses as emulsifying agents, lubricants, detergents and soaps. Fatty acids are also used as excipients and, because of their biochemical activity, even as active ingredients in drug formulations. The applicatio...... of chemical model systems, so called protocells, aiming at understanding how cellular life emerged on the early Earth, at the time abiotic environment, and could evolve toward contemporary cells....

  1. Nutrition and brain aging: role of fatty acids with an epidemiological perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samieri Cécilia

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In the absence of identified etiologic treatment for dementia, the potential preventive role of nutrition may offer an interesting perspective. The objective of the thesis of C. Samieri was to study the association between nutrition and brain aging in 1,796 subjects, aged 65 y or older, from the Bordeaux sample of the Three-City study, with a particular emphasis on fatty acids. Considering the multidimensional nature of nutritional data, several complementary strategies were used. At the global diet level, dietary patterns actually observed in the population were identified by exploratory methods. Older subjects with a ‘‘healthy’’ pattern, who consumed more than 3.5 weekly servings of fish in men and more than 6 daily servings of fruits and vegetables in women, showed a better cognitive and psychological health. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet, measured according to a score-based confirmatory method, was associated with slower global cognitive decline after 5 y of follow-up. At the nutrient biomarker level, higher plasma eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, a long-chain omega-3 fatty acid, was associated with a decreased dementia risk, and the omega-6-to-omega-3 fatty acids ratio to an increased risk, particularly in depressed subjects. EPA was also related to slower working memory decline in depressed subjects or in carriers of the e4 allele of the ApoE gene. Docosahexaenoic acid was related to slower working memory decline only in ApoE4 carriers. Overall, this work suggests a positive impact of a healthy diet rich in fruits and vegetables and fish, and notably the Mediterranean diet, on cognition in older subjects. Long-chain n-3 PUFA, in particular EPA, may be key protective nutrients against risk of dementia and cognitive decline.

  2. Potential role of Demodex mites and bacteria in the induction of rosacea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarmuda, Stanislaw; O'Reilly, Niamh; Zaba, Ryszard; Jakubowicz, Oliwia; Szkaradkiewicz, Andrzej; Kavanagh, Kevin

    2012-11-01

    Rosacea is a common dermatological condition that predominantly affects the central regions of the face. Rosacea affects up to 3 % of the world's population and a number of subtypes are recognized. Rosacea can be treated with a variety of antibiotics (e.g. tetracycline or metronidazole) yet no role for bacteria or microbes in its aetiology has been conclusively established. The density of Demodex mites in the skin of rosacea patients is higher than in controls, suggesting a possible role for these mites in the induction of this condition. In addition, Bacillus oleronius, known to be sensitive to the antibiotics used to treat rosacea, has been isolated from a Demodex mite from a patient with papulopustular rosacea and a potential role for this bacterium in the induction of rosacea has been proposed. Staphylococcus epidermidis has been isolated predominantly from the pustules of rosacea patients but not from unaffected skin and may be transported around the face by Demodex mites. These findings raise the possibility that rosacea is fundamentally a bacterial disease resulting from the over-proliferation of Demodex mites living in skin damaged as a result of adverse weathering, age or the production of sebum with an altered fatty acid content. This review surveys the literature relating to the role of Demodex mites and their associated bacteria in the induction and persistence of rosacea and highlights possible therapeutic options.

  3. Peroxynitrite and NO+ donors form colored nitrite adducts with sinapinic acid: potential applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhter, Shirin; Green, James R; Root, Paul; Thatcher, Gregory J; Mutus, Bulent

    2003-06-01

    Sinapinic acid (3,5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxycinnamic acid, SA) reacted with peroxynitrous acid at neutral pH with a second-order rate constant of 812 M(-1)s(-1), to yield a red product (lambda(max), 532 nm). The identical colored product could be formed with acidified decomposed peroxynitrous acid solutions or nitrite at slower rates (0.1M HCl, 8.32 M(-1)s(-1); 10% acetic acid, 0.0004 M(-1)s(-1)). The red compound is thought to be O-nitrososinapinic acid (3,5-dimethoxy-4-nitrosooxycinnamic acid) which can be formed by reaction with either peroxynitrous acid or nitrous acid. The extinction coefficient of O-nitrososinapinic acid (ONSA) was estimated to be 8419 M(-1)cm(-1) at 510 nm in 10% acetic acid and 90% acetonitrile. ONSA was also formed via NO(+) transfer from S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO). ONSA in turn can S-nitrosate low molecular weight thiols and protein thiols. SA was also shown to act as a peroxynitrite sink as it effectively prevented the oxidation of dihydrorhodamine under physiological conditions. The fact that O-nitrososinapinic acid is stable and can be used to S-nitrosate thiol containing amino acids, peptides, and proteins makes it a potentially useful reagent in the study of S-nitrosothiol biochemistry and physiology. In addition, the relatively high extinction coefficient of O-nitrososinapinic acid means that it could be utilized as an analyte for the spectroscopic detection of peroxynitrite or NO(+)-donors in the submicromolar range.

  4. the roles of gastric acid and nitric oxide

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    metavanadate at (0, 50 and 200 ppm) in drinking water for 10weeks after which ulcer was induced using pylorus ... that can reduce or curb the aggressive factors (gastric acid, abnormal .... Table 4 shows the effects of vanadium on gastric.

  5. The role of lactic acid adsorption by ion exchange chromatography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Gao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The polyacrylic resin Amberlite IRA-67 is a promising adsorbent for lactic acid extraction from aqueous solution, but little systematic research has been devoted to the separation efficiency of lactic acid under different operating conditions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this paper, we investigated the effects of temperature, resin dose and lactic acid loading concentration on the adsorption of lactic acid by Amberlite IRA-67 in batch kinetic experiments. The obtained kinetic data followed the pseudo-second order model well and both the equilibrium and ultimate adsorption slightly decreased with the increase of the temperature at 293-323K and 42.5 g/liter lactic acid loading concentration. The adsorption was a chemically heterogeneous process with a mean free energy value of 12.18 kJ/mol. According to the Boyd(_plot, the lactic acid uptake process was primarily found to be an intraparticle diffusion at a lower concentration (70 g/liter. The values of effective diffusion coefficient D(i increased with temperature. By using our Equation (21, the negative values of ΔG° and ΔH° revealed that the adsorption process was spontaneous and exothermic. Moreover, the negative value of ΔS° reflected the decrease of solid-liquid interface randomness at the solid-liquid interface when adsorbing lactic acid on IRA-67. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: With the weakly basic resin IRA-67, in situ product removal of lactic acid can be accomplished especially from an open and thermophilic fermentation system without sterilization.

  6. Low phytic acid lentils (Lens culinaris L.): a potential solution for increased micronutrient bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thavarajah, Pushparajah; Thavarajah, Dil; Vandenberg, Albert

    2009-10-14

    Phytic acid is an antinutrient present mainly in seeds of grain crops such as legumes and cereals. It has the potential to bind mineral micronutrients in food and reduce their bioavailability. This study analyzed the phytic acid concentration in seeds of 19 lentil ( Lens culinaris L.) genotypes grown at two locations for two years in Saskatchewan, Canada. The objectives of this study were to determine (1) the levels of phytic acid in commercial lentil genotypes and (2) the impact of postharvest processing and (3) the effect of boiling on the stability of phytic aid in selected lentil genotypes. The phytic acid was analyzed by high-performance anion exchange separation followed by conductivity detection. The Saskatchewan-grown lentils were naturally low in phytic acid (phytic acid = 2.5-4.4 mg g(-1); phytic acid phosphorus = 0.7-1.2 mg g(-1)), with concentrations lower than those reported for low phytic acid mutants of corn, wheat, common bean, and soybean. Decortication prior to cooking further reduced total phytic acid by >50%. As lowering phytic acid intake can lead to increased mineral bioavailability, dietary inclusion of Canadian lentils may have significant benefits in regions with widespread micronutrient malnutrition.

  7. The role of D-amino acids in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis pathogenesis: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Praveen; de Belleroche, Jacqueline

    2012-11-01

    A potential role for D-amino acids in motor neuron disease/amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is emerging. D-Serine, which is an activator/co-agonist at the N-methyl-D-aspartate glutamate receptor subtype, is elevated both in spinal cord from sporadic cases of ALS and in an animal model of ALS. Furthermore, we have shown that a mutation in D-amino acid oxidase (DAO), an enzyme strongly localized to spinal cord motor neurons and brain stem motor nuclei, is associated with familial ALS. DAO plays an important role in regulating levels of D-serine, and its function is impaired by the presence of this mutation and this may contribute to the pathogenic process in ALS. In sporadic ALS cases, elevated D-serine may arise from induction of serine racemase, its synthetic enzyme, caused by cell stress and inflammatory processes thought to contribute to disease progression. Both these abnormalities in D-serine metabolism lead to an increase in synaptic D-serine which may contribute to disease pathogenesis.

  8. Tuning intermicellar potential of Triton X-100–anthranilic acid mixed ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-11-27

    Nov 27, 2015 ... The observed variation in the interaction potential with pH of the micellar solution can be explained in terms of the reversal of charge on anthranilic acid due to shift in the acid–base equilibrium. The variation in interaction potential and cloud point with pH is modelled using Coulombic repulsion of charged ...

  9. Tauro-β-muricholic acid restricts bile acid-induced hepatocellular apoptosis by preserving the mitochondrial membrane potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denk, Gerald Ulrich; Kleiss, Carl Philipp; Wimmer, Ralf; Vennegeerts, Timo; Reiter, Florian Paul; Schulz, Sabine; Zischka, Hans; Rust, Christian

    2012-08-10

    β-Muricholic acid (βMCA) is a trihydroxylated bile acid that constitutes the major bile acid in rat and mouse. βMCA is more hydrophilic than ursodeoxycholic acid and has been evaluated for dissolution of cholesterol gallstones. Since it is unknown if βMCA has beneficial effects on hepatocyte cell death we determined the effect of tauro-βMCA (TβMCA) on apoptosis in vitro. Human Ntcp-transfected HepG2 cells and primary hepatocytes from rat and mouse were incubated with the proapoptotic glycochenodeoxycholic acid (GCDCA) as well as the free fatty acid palmitate in the absence and presence of TβMCA. Apoptosis was quantified using caspase 3/7-assays and after Hoechst 33342 staining. The mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) was measured fluorometrically using JC-1 (5,5',6,6'-tetrachloro-1,1',3,3'-tetraethyl-benzimidazol-carbocyaniniodide). Immunoblotting was performed against the proapoptotic Bcl-2-protein Bax. In Ntcp-HepG2 cells, GCDCA markedly increased apoptosis after 4h. Co-incubation with TβMCA reduced apoptosis to 49% (p<0.01 vs. GCDCA, each; n=6). While GCDCA (100μmol/L) reduced the MMP to 34% after 6h, combination treatment with TβMCA restored the MMP to control levels at all time points (n=4). TβMCA also restored breakdown of the MMP induced by palmitate. GCDCA induced a translocation of Bax from the cytosol to mitochondria that was inhibited by simultaneous treatment with TβMCA in eqimolar concentrations. TβMCA restricts hepatocellular apoptosis induced by low micromolar concentrations of GCDCA or palmitate via inhibition of Bax translocation to mitochondria and preservation of the MMP. Thus, further studies are warranted to evaluate a potential use of TβMCA in ameliorating liver injury in cholestasis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Uric acid and blood pressure: exploring the role of uric acid production in The Maastricht Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheepers, Lieke E J M; Boonen, Annelies; Dagnelie, Pieter C; Schram, Miranda T; van der Kallen, Carla J H; Henry, Ronald M A; Kroon, Abraham A; Stehouwer, Coen D A; Arts, Ilja C W

    2017-10-01

    Accumulation of reactive oxygen species by increased uric acid production has been suggested as a possible underlying mechanism for the association between uric acid and high blood pressure (BP). We, therefore, investigated the association between serum uric acid concentration and 24-h urinary uric acid excretion, as proxy for uric acid production, with ambulatory 24-h blood pressure and hypertension. Cross-sectional analyses were conducted among 2555 individuals [52% men, mean age 60.0 ± 8.2 years; 27% type 2 diabetes (by design)] from The Maastricht Study. Multivariable regression analyses were performed to investigate the association of serum uric acid and 24-h urinary uric acid excretion with 24-h pulse pressure, 24-h mean arterial pressure (MAP), and hypertension. After adjustment for traditional hypertension risk factors, serum uric acid concentration (per SD of 81 μmol/l) was associated with higher 24-h MAP [β 0.63 mmHg; confidence interval (CI) 0.27-1.00] and positively associated with hypertension (odds ratio 1.43; CI 1.27-1.61). Urinary uric acid excretion (per SD of 140 mg/day/1.73 m) was associated with higher 24-h MAP (β 0.79 mmHg; CI 0.46-1.12) and with hypertension (odds ratio 1.13; CI 1.02-1.25). There was no significant association between serum and 24-h urinary uric acid excretion with 24-h pulse pressure. There was no interaction with sex or age for the aforementioned associations. Higher serum and urinary uric acid concentrations were associated with higher 24-h MAP and hypertension. These results suggest that serum and 24-urinary uric acid concentrations, the latter as proxy for uric acid production are, independent of each other, associated with BP and hypertension.

  11. Dietary supplementation of propionylated starch to domestic cats provides propionic acid as gluconeogenic substrate potentially sparing the amino acid valine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochus, Kristel; Cools, An; Janssens, Geert P J; Vanhaecke, Lynn; Wuyts, Birgitte; Lockett, Trevor; Clarke, Julie M; Fievez, Veerle; Hesta, Myriam

    2014-01-01

    In strict carnivorous domestic cats, a metabolic competition arises between the need to use amino acids for gluconeogenesis and for protein synthesis both in health and disease. The present study investigated the amino acid-sparing potential of propionic acid in cats using dietary propionylated starch (HAMSP) supplementation. A total of thirty cats were fed a homemade diet, supplemented with either HAMSP, acetylated starch (HAMSA) or celite (Control) for three adaptation weeks. Propionylated starch was hypothesised to provide propionic acid as an alternative gluconeogenic substrate to amino acids, whereas acetic acid from HAMSA would not provide any gluconeogenic benefit. Post-adaptation, a 5-d total faecal collection was carried out to calculate apparent protein digestibility coefficients. Fresh faecal and blood samples were collected to analyse fermentation endproducts and metabolites. The apparent protein digestibility coefficients did not differ between supplements (P = 0·372) and were not affected by the protein intake level (P = 0·808). Faecal propionic acid concentrations were higher in HAMSP than in HAMSA (P = 0·018) and Control (P = 0·003) groups, whereas concentrations of ammonia (P = 0·007) were higher in HAMSA than in HAMSP cats. Tendencies for or higher propionylcarnitine concentrations were observed in HAMSP compared with HAMSA (P = 0·090) and Control (P = 0·037) groups, and for tiglyl- + 3-methylcrotonylcarnitine concentrations in HAMSP as compared with Control (P = 0·028) cats. Methylmalonylcarnitine concentrations did not differ between groups (P = 0·740), but were negatively correlated with the protein intake level (r -0·459, P = 0·016). These results suggest that HAMSP cats showed more saccharolytic fermentation patterns than those supplemented with HAMSA, as well as signs of sparing of valine in cats with a sufficient protein intake.

  12. Potential role of aromatase inhibitors in the treatment of endometriosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Hashim H

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Hatem Abu HashimDepartment of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Mansoura, EgyptAbstract: Endometriosis is an estrogen-dependent chronic inflammatory disease affecting 5%–10% of reproductive-age women, with a prevalence of 5%–50% in infertile women and >33% of women with chronic pelvic pain. Third-generation aromatase inhibitors (AIs are approved adjuvants for the treatment of estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer. Molecular studies have revealed the presence of aromatase P450, the key enzyme in the biosynthesis of ovarian estradiol, inside the endometriotic tissue, indicating local synthesis of estradiol. Thereby, AIs represent an appealing medical option for the management of different aspects of this enigmatic disease, especially pelvic pain and infertility. Accordingly, this review aims to evaluate the potential role of AIs in the treatment of endometriosis-associated symptoms, mainly pain and infertility. Notably, several studies have demonstrated that the combination of AIs with conventional therapy as oral contraceptive pills, progestins, or gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs can be used to control endometriosis-associated pain and pain recurrence in premenopausal women, particularly those with pain due to rectovaginal endometriosis refractory to other medical or surgical treatment. Some case reports have shown promising results in the treatment of postmenopausal endometriosis as first-line treatment, when surgery is contraindicated, or as second-line treatment in the case of postoperative recurrence. Third-generation AIs, especially letrozole, have challenged clomiphene citrate as an ovulation-induction agent in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome and in cases of unexplained infertility. However, few studies are available regarding the use of AIs to treat endometriosis-associated infertility. Therefore, larger multicenter randomized trials using AIs for the treatment of endometriosis

  13. [Role of omega-3 fatty acids in cardiovascular disease prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñeiro-Corrales, Guadalupe; Lago Rivero, N; Culebras-Fernández, Jesús M

    2013-01-01

    Fatty acids, in addition to its known energy value and its structural function, have other beneficial properties. In particular, the polyunsaturated fatty acids omega-3 acting on the cardiovascular apparatus through many channels exerting a protective effect against cardiovascular risk. The benefits associated with the reduction in cardiac mortality and sudden death particular, are related to the incorporation of EPA and DHA in phospholipid membrane of cardiomyocytes. An index is established that relates the percentage of EPA + DHA of total fatty acids in erythrocytes and risk of death from cardiovascular disease may layering in different degrees. Therefore, the primary source of fatty fish w-3 PUFA, behaves like a reference food in cardiosaludables diets. Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  14. Cardiovascular disease and the potential protective role of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-07-20

    Jul 20, 2009 ... or the metabolic syndrome refers to a combination of health problems which include insulin resistance, abnor ... assist in avoidance of the characteristics of this syndrome. (Department of Health, UK, 1994; Amira et al., 2006; .... Uric acid and polyphenols. (flavonoids inclusive) are also recognized as a group ...

  15. Role of acidic chemistries in steam treatment of aluminium alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Din, Rameez Ud; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Ambat, Rajan

    2015-01-01

    The effect of acidic chemistry on the accelerated growth of oxide on aluminium alloys Peraluman 706TM and AA6060 under exposure to high temperature steam was investigated. Studied chemistries were based on citrates and phosphates. Results showed that the presence of citrate and phosphate anions...... initiate doxide growth at the intermetallic particles while growth and corrosion performance of oxide was found tobe a function of anions type and their concentration. Further, steam treatment with phosphates exhibited better performance under acetic acid salt spray and filiform corrosion test whereas...

  16. Role of bile acids in carcinogenesis of pancreatic cancer: An old topic with new perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Hui-Yi; Chen, Yang-Chao

    2016-09-07

    The role of bile acids in colorectal cancer has been well documented, but their role in pancreatic cancer remains unclear. In this review, we examined the risk factors of pancreatic cancer. We found that bile acids are associated with most of these factors. Alcohol intake, smoking, and a high-fat diet all lead to high secretion of bile acids, and bile acid metabolic dysfunction is a causal factor of gallstones. An increase in secretion of bile acids, in addition to a long common channel, may result in bile acid reflux into the pancreatic duct and to the epithelial cells or acinar cells, from which pancreatic adenocarcinoma is derived. The final pathophysiological process is pancreatitis, which promotes dedifferentiation of acinar cells into progenitor duct-like cells. Interestingly, bile acids act as regulatory molecules in metabolism, affecting adipose tissue distribution, insulin sensitivity and triglyceride metabolism. As a result, bile acids are associated with three risk factors of pancreatic cancer: obesity, diabetes and hypertriglyceridemia. In the second part of this review, we summarize several studies showing that bile acids act as cancer promoters in gastrointestinal cancer. However, more question are raised than have been solved, and further oncological and physiological experiments are needed to confirm the role of bile acids in pancreatic cancer carcinogenesis.

  17. Fibrous Agricultural Biomass as a Potential Source for Bioconversion to Vanillic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Ling Tang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to assess the potential of six fibrous agricultural residues, namely, oil palm empty fruit bunch fiber (OPEFBF, coconut coir fiber (CCF, pineapple peel (PP, pineapple crown leaves (PCL, kenaf bast fiber (KBF, and kenaf core fiber (KCF, as a source of ferulic acid and phenolic compounds for bioconversion into vanillic acid. The raw samples were pretreated with organosolv (NaOH-glycerol and alkaline treatment (NaOH, to produce phenol-rich black liquor. The finding showed that the highest amount of phenolic compounds and ferulic acid was produced from CCF and PP, respectively. This study also found that organosolv treatment was the superior method for phenolic compound extraction, whereas alkaline treatment was the selective method for lignin extraction. Vanillic acid production by Aspergillus niger I-1472 was only observed when the fermentation broth was fed with liquors from PP and PCL, possibly due to the higher levels of ferulic acid in those samples.

  18. Roles of d-Amino Acids on the Bioactivity of Host Defense Peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hao; Anuwongcharoen, Nuttapat; Malik, Aijaz Ahmad; Prachayasittikul, Virapong; Wikberg, Jarl E S; Nantasenamat, Chanin

    2016-06-30

    Host defense peptides (HDPs) are positively-charged and amphipathic components of the innate immune system that have demonstrated great potential to become the next generation of broad spectrum therapeutic agents effective against a vast array of pathogens and tumor. As such, many approaches have been taken to improve the therapeutic efficacy of HDPs. Amongst these methods, the incorporation of d-amino acids (d-AA) is an approach that has demonstrated consistent success in improving HDPs. Although, virtually all HDP review articles briefly mentioned about the role of d-AA, however it is rather surprising that no systematic review specifically dedicated to this topic exists. Given the impact that d-AA incorporation has on HDPs, this review aims to fill that void with a systematic discussion of the impact of d-AA on HDPs.

  19. The role of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in cardiovascular health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Sara Jean

    2013-01-01

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs) play an important role in both primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Clinicians should strongly consider therapy with ω-3 PUFAs for individuals at risk for CVD and with known CVD, particularly individuals who are at increased risk for sudden cardiac death. The amount of ω-3 PUFA in erythrocyte membranes, which is the ω-3 index, could prove to be a modifiable risk factor for CVD. This review outlines potential mechanisms of action, the ω-3 index, results of clinical and prevention trials, and recommendations for ω-3 PUFA therapy in CVD. The majority of epidemiologic and controlled interventional studies have demonstrated that marine- and plant-derived ω-3 PUFAs have beneficial effects on CVD. The ω-3 index may prove to be a valuable tool for assessing an individual's need for increased ω-3 PUFAs through diet or supplementation.

  20. Roles of d-Amino Acids on the Bioactivity of Host Defense Peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Li

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Host defense peptides (HDPs are positively-charged and amphipathic components of the innate immune system that have demonstrated great potential to become the next generation of broad spectrum therapeutic agents effective against a vast array of pathogens and tumor. As such, many approaches have been taken to improve the therapeutic efficacy of HDPs. Amongst these methods, the incorporation of d-amino acids (d-AA is an approach that has demonstrated consistent success in improving HDPs. Although, virtually all HDP review articles briefly mentioned about the role of d-AA, however it is rather surprising that no systematic review specifically dedicated to this topic exists. Given the impact that d-AA incorporation has on HDPs, this review aims to fill that void with a systematic discussion of the impact of d-AA on HDPs.

  1. Unusual binding of ursodeoxycholic acid to ileal bile acid binding protein: role in activation of FXRα[S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Changming; Filipp, Fabian V.; Smith, Jeffrey W.

    2012-01-01

    Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA, ursodiol) is used to prevent damage to the liver in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis. The drug also prevents the progression of colorectal cancer and the recurrence of high-grade colonic dysplasia. However, the molecular mechanism by which UDCA elicits its beneficial effects is not entirely understood. The aim of this study was to determine whether ileal bile acid binding protein (IBABP) has a role in mediating the effects of UDCA. We find that UDCA binds to a single site on IBABP and increases the affinity for major human bile acids at a second binding site. As UDCA occupies one of the bile acid binding sites on IBABP, it reduces the cooperative binding that is often observed for the major human bile acids. Furthermore, IBABP is necessary for the full activation of farnesoid X receptor α (FXRα) by bile acids, including UDCA. These observations suggest that IBABP may have a role in mediating some of the intestinal effects of UDCA. PMID:22223860

  2. The biochemical, physiological and therapeutic roles of ascorbic acid

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-29

    Dec 29, 2008 ... Ascorbic acid is an important micronutrient necessary for a significant number of metabolic reactions in humans and other primates. It is a strong reducing agent involved in reduction reaction and it is structurally related to glucose. Experimental and epidemiological studies have documented the.

  3. The biochemical, physiological and therapeutic roles of ascorbic acid

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ascorbic acid is an important micronutrient necessary for a significant number of metabolic reactions in humans and other primates. It is a strong reducing agent involved in reduction reaction and it is structurally related to glucose. Experimental and epidemiological studies have documented the biochemical, physiological ...

  4. Role of Trichloroacetic Acid and Gelfoam in Closure of Tympanic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-12-05

    Dec 5, 2017 ... mm, after applying TCA to the margins of the perforation, a piece of Gelfoam larger than the size of perforation was soaked ... trichloroacetic acid (TCA) and Gelfoam (which is easily available) was carried out in our .... Any local complication(s) of the cauterizing agent was recorded. 3. A repeat audiogram ...

  5. Increased urinary lysophosphatidic acid in mouse with subtotal nephrectomy: potential involvement in chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzoyan, Koryun; Baïotto, Anna; Dupuy, Aude; Marsal, Dimitri; Denis, Colette; Vinel, Claire; Sicard, Pierre; Bertrand-Michel, Justine; Bascands, Jean-Loup; Schanstra, Joost P; Klein, Julie; Saulnier-Blache, Jean-Sébastien

    2016-12-01

    Increased incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) with consecutive progression to end-stage renal disease represents a significant burden to healthcare systems. Renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis (TIF) is a classical hallmark of CKD and is well correlated with the loss of renal function. The bioactive lysophospholipid lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), acting through specific G-protein-coupled receptors, was previously shown to be involved in TIF development in a mouse model of unilateral ureteral obstruction. Here, we study the role of LPA in a mouse subjected to subtotal nephrectomy (SNx), a more chronic and progressive model of CKD. Five months after surgical nephron reduction, SNx mice showed massive albuminuria, extensive TIF, and glomerular hypertrophy when compared to sham-operated animals. Urinary and plasma levels of LPA were analyzed using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. LPA was significantly increased in SNx urine, not in plasma, and was significantly correlated with albuminuria and TIF. Moreover, SNx mice showed significant downregulation in the renal expression of lipid phosphate phosphohydrolases (LPP1, 2, and 3) that might be involved in reduced LPA bioavailability through dephosphorylation. We concluded that SNx increases urinary LPA through a mechanism that could involve co-excretion of plasma LPA with albumin associated with a reduction of its catabolism in the kidney. Because of the previously demonstrated profibrotic activity of LPA, the association of urinary LPA with TIF suggests the potential involvement of LPA in the development of advanced CKD in the SNx mouse model. Targeting LPA metabolism might represent an interesting approach in CKD treatment.

  6. Potential immunological consequences of pharmacological suppression of gastric acid production in patients with multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biswas Sangita

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Corticosteroids are standard treatment for patients with multiple sclerosis experiencing acute relapse. Because dyspeptic pain is a common side effect of this intervention, patients can be given a histamine receptor-2 antagonist, proton pump inhibitor or antacid to prevent or ameliorate this disturbance. Additionally, patients with multiple sclerosis may be taking these medications independent of corticosteroid treatment. Interventions for gastric disturbances can influence the activation state of the immune system, a principal mediator of pathology in multiple sclerosis. Although histamine release promotes inflammation, activation of the histamine receptor-2 can suppress a proinflammatory immune response, and blocking histamine receptor-2 with an antagonist could shift the balance more towards immune stimulation. Studies utilizing an animal model of multiple sclerosis indicate that histamine receptor-2 antagonists potentially augment disease activity in patients with multiple sclerosis. In contrast, proton pump inhibitors appear to favor immune suppression, but have not been studied in models of multiple sclerosis. Antacids, histamine receptor-2 antagonists and proton pump inhibitors also could alter the intestinal microflora, which may indirectly lead to immune stimulation. Additionally, elevated gastric pH can promote the vitamin B12 deficiency that patients with multiple sclerosis are at risk of developing. Here, we review possible roles of gastric acid inhibitors on immunopathogenic mechanisms associated with multiple sclerosis.

  7. The role of peroxisomal fatty acyl-CoA beta-oxidation in bile acid biosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, H.; Miwa, A. (Josai Univ., Saitama (Japan))

    1989-11-01

    The physiological role of the peroxisomal fatty acyl-CoA beta-oxidizing system (FAOS) is not yet established. We speculated that there might be a relationship between peroxisomal degradation of long-chain fatty acids in the liver and the biosynthesis of bile acids. This was investigated using (1-{sup 14}C)butyric acid and (1-{sup 14}C)lignoceric acid as substrates of FAOS in mitochondria and peroxisomes, respectively. The incorporation of ({sup 14}C)lignoceric acid into primary bile acids was approximately four times higher than that of ({sup 14}C)butyric acid (in terms of C-2 units). The pools of these two fatty acids in the liver were exceedingly small. The incorporations of radioactivity into the primary bile acids were strongly inhibited by administration of aminotriazole, which is a specific inhibitor of peroxisomal FAOS in vivo. Aminotriazole inhibited preferentially the formation of cholate, the major primary bile acid, from both ({sup 14}C)lignoceric acid and ({sup 14}C)butyric acid, rather than the formation of chenodeoxycholate. The former inhibition was about 70% and the latter was approximately 40-50%. In view of reports that cholate is biosynthesized from endogenous cholesterol, the above results indicate that peroxisomal FAOS may have an anabolic function, supplying acetyl CoA for bile acid biosynthesis.

  8. Interpretation of humic acid coagulation and soluble soil organic matter using a calculated electrostatic potential

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weng, L.P.; Temminghoff, E.J.M.; Riemsdijk, van W.H.

    2002-01-01

    The coagulation of humic substances and its role in controlling the solubility of organic matter in soils are not well understood. We therefore studied the physico-chemical behaviour of purified humic acid from forest soil coagulated with Na, Ca, Cu, Al at pH 4 and 6, and then modelled the behaviour

  9. The role of local field potential coupling in epileptic synchronization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiongxing; Yang, Heng; Peng, Yufeng; Fang, Liangjuan; Zheng, Wen; Song, Zhi

    2013-03-15

    (1) Neuronal synchronization underlies brain functioning, and it seems possible that blocking excessive synchronization in an epileptic neural network could reduce or even control seizures. (2) Local field potential coupling is a very common phenomenon during synchronization in networks. Removal of neurons or neuronal networks that are coupled can significantly alter the extracellular field potential. Interventions of coupling mediated by local field potentials could result in desynchronization of epileptic seizures. (3) The synchronized electrical activity generated by neurons is sensitive to changes in the size of the extracellular space, which affects the efficiency of field potential transmission and the threshold of cell excitability. (4) Manipulations of the field potential fluctuations could help block synchronization at seizure onset.

  10. The role of local field potential coupling in epileptic synchronization☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiongxing; Yang, Heng; Peng, Yufeng; Fang, Liangjuan; Zheng, Wen; Song, Zhi

    2013-01-01

    This review hopes to clearly explain the following viewpoints: (1) Neuronal synchronization underlies brain functioning, and it seems possible that blocking excessive synchronization in an epileptic neural network could reduce or even control seizures. (2) Local field potential coupling is a very common phenomenon during synchronization in networks. Removal of neurons or neuronal networks that are coupled can significantly alter the extracellular field potential. Interventions of coupling mediated by local field potentials could result in desynchronization of epileptic seizures. (3) The synchronized electrical activity generated by neurons is sensitive to changes in the size of the extracellular space, which affects the efficiency of field potential transmission and the threshold of cell excitability. (4) Manipulations of the field potential fluctuations could help block synchronization at seizure onset. PMID:25206721

  11. Characteristics and potential role of M2 macrophages in COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He S

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Shengyang He, Lihua Xie, Junjuan Lu, Shenghua SunDepartment of Respiratory Medicine, The Third Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, People’s Republic of China Background: COPD is a multi-pathogenesis disease mainly caused by smoking. A further understanding of the mechanism of smoking-related COPD might contribute to preventions and treatments of this disease in the early stages. This study was designed to identify the characteristics of M2 macrophages in COPD for a better understanding about their potential role.Materials and methods: COPD models were built in the C57BL/6 mouse by cigarette smoke (CS exposure combined with intraperitoneal injection of cigarette smoke extract (CSE. The modeling efficiency was evaluated by lung function and hematoxylin and eosin (H&E staining. The number of different macrophage phenotypes was detected by immunohistochemical staining (IHS of CD206, CD86 and CD68 on the lung tissue paraffin section. The RAW264.7 cells were polarized toward the M2 phenotype by interleukin IL-4 and confirmed by a flow cytometer. The gene expression levels of TGF-βRII, Smad2, Smad3 and Smad7 in CSE-treated M2 macrophages were detected by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. The expression levels of TGF-β/Smad pathway-related makers (TGF-βRII, p-Smad2, p-Smad3, Smad7 and TGF-β in alveolar M2 macrophages were detected by two consecutive paraffin section IHS.Results: The COPD model is well established, which is confirmed by the lung function test and lung H&E staining. The whole number of macrophages and the ratio of M2/M1 phenotype are both increased (p<0.05. The level of CD206+ cells in IL-4-stimulated RAW264.7 cells is up to 93.4%, which is confirmed by a flow cytometer. The gene expression of TGF-βRII, Smad2, Smad3 and Smad7 are all enhanced (p<0.05 in CES-treated M2 macrophages, which is detected by RT-PCR. The protein levels of TGF-β/Smad pathway-related markers are

  12. The multifaceted role of amino acids in chemical evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasdeit, Henry; Fox, Stefan; Dalai, Punam

    We present an overview of recent ideas about α-amino acids on the Hadean / early Archean Earth and Noachian Mars. Pertinent simulation experiments are discussed. Electrical dis-charges in early Earth's bulk, probably non-reducing atmosphere [1, 2] and in volcanic ash-gas clouds [3] are likely to have synthesized amino acids abiotically. In principle, this may have been followed by the synthesis of peptides. Different kinds of laboratory simulations have, however, revealed severe difficulties with the condensation process under presumed prebiotic conditions. It therefore appears that peptides on the early Earth were mainly di-, tri-and tetramers and slightly longer only in the case of glycine homopeptides. But even such short peptides may have shown primitive catalytic activity after complexation of metal ions to form proto-metalloenzymes. L-enantiomeric excesses (L-ee) of meteoritic amino acids were possibly involved in the origin of biohomochirality [4, 5]. This idea also faces some problems, mainly dilution of the amino acids on Earth and a resulting low overall L-ee. However, as yet unknown reactions might exist that are highly enantioselective even under such unfavorable conditions, perhaps by a combination of autocatalysis and inhibition (compare the Soai reaction). Primor-dial volcanic islands are prebiotically interesting locations. At their hot coasts, solid sea salt probably embedded amino acids [6]. Our laboratory experiments showed that further heating of the salt crusts, simulating the vicinity of lava streams, produced pyrroles among other prod-ucts. Pyrroles are building blocks of biomolecules such as bilins, chlorophylls and heme. Thus, an abiotic route from amino acids to the first photoreceptor and electron-transfer molecules might have existed. There is no reason to assume that the chemical evolutionary processes described above were singular events restricted to Earth and Mars. In fact, they might take place even today on terrestrial exoplanets

  13. Amino acid signaling in the intestine : The roles of glutamine, leucine and arginine

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshida, Kazuhiro; Naomoto, Yoshio; Shigemitsu, Kaori; YAMATSUJI, Tomoki; TAKAOKA, MUNENORI; Fukazawa, Takuya; Hayashi, Jiro; ISHIDA, Naomasa; HIRABAYASHI, Yoko; URAKAMI, Atsushi; Nakashima, Kazutaka; Morita, Ichiro; Haisa, Minoru

    2014-01-01

    Amino acids have an influence on the function of organs, glands, tendons and arteries. Some of them play crucial roles in the control of gene expression by controlling the initiation phase of mRNA translation. Furthermore, recent studies have revealed that some kinds of amino acids directly participate in important signal transduction in the immune system. Glutamine, leucine and arginine play crucial roles in intestinal growth, integrity, and function through cellular signaling mechanisms. In...

  14. The role of γ -aminobutyric acid (Gaba) in somatic embryogenesis of Acca sellowiana Berg. (Myrtaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Booz, Maristela Raitz; Gilberto B. Kerbauy; Guerra, Miguel Pedro; Pescador, Rosete

    2009-01-01

    The γ-aminobutyric acid (Gaba) is a non-protein amino acid found in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Its role in plant development has not been fully established. This study reports a quantification of the levels of endogenous Gaba, as well as investigation of its role in different stages of somatic embryogenesis in Acca sellowiana Berg. (Myrtaceae). Zygotic embryos were used as explants and they were inoculated into the culture medium contained different concentrations of Gaba (0,2, 4, 6, 8 ...

  15. Characterization of the Shewanella oneidensis Fur gene: roles in iron and acid tolerance response

    OpenAIRE

    Wu Liyou; Luo Feng; Harris Daniel P; Yang Yunfeng; Parsons Andrea B; Palumbo Anthony V; Zhou Jizhong

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Iron homeostasis is a key metabolism for most organisms. In many bacterial species, coordinate regulation of iron homeostasis depends on the protein product of a Fur gene. Fur also plays roles in virulence, acid tolerance, redox-stress responses, flagella chemotaxis and metabolic pathways. Results We conducted physiological and transcriptomic studies to characterize Fur in Shewanella oneidensis, with regard to its roles in iron and acid tolerance response. A S. oneidensisf...

  16. Role of roasting conditions in the level of chlorogenic acid content in coffee beans: correlation with coffee acidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Joon-Kwan; Yoo, Hyui Sun; Shibamoto, Takayuki

    2009-06-24

    Total chlorogenic acids of nine isomers from seven commercial green and roasted coffee beans ranged from 34.43 +/- 1.50 to 41.64 +/- 3.28 mg/g and from 2.05 +/- 0.07 to 7.07 +/- 0.16 mg/g, respectively. Methanol/water (7:3) extracts from four commercial green coffee beans roasted at different conditions (230 degrees C, 12 min; 24 degrees C, 14 min; 250 degrees C, 17 min; and 250 degrees C, 21 min) were also analyzed for chlorogenic acids. The total chlorogenic acid found in green coffee beans ranged from 86.42 +/- 2.04 to 61.15 +/- 1.40 mg/g. Total chlorogenic acids present were reduced in accordance with the intensity of roasting conditions. When green beans were roasted at 230 degrees C for 12 min and at 250 degrees C for 21 min, total chlorogenic acid content was reduced to nearly 50% and to almost trace levels, respectively. The results indicate that roasting conditions play an important role in chlorogenic acid content in roasted coffee beans. A general correlation between total caffeoylquinic acids and pH was observed.

  17. Dietary ω-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid DHA: A Potential Adjuvant in the Treatment of Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolò Merendino

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available ω-3 Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs, mainly present in fish oil, are part of the human diet. Among PUFAs, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA has received particular attention for its anti-inflammatory, antiproliferative, proapoptotic, antiangiogenetic, anti-invasion, and antimetastatic properties. These data suggest that DHA can exert antitumor activity potentially representing an effective adjuvant in cancer chemotherapy. This review is focused on current knowledge supporting the potential use of DHA for the enhancement of the efficacy of anticancer treatments in relation to its ability to enhance the uptake of anticancer drugs, regulate the oxidative status of tumor cells, and inhibit tumor cell invasion and metastasis.

  18. Role of inorganic carbon in lactic acid bacteria metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Arsène-Ploetze, Florence; Bringel, Françoise

    2004-01-01

    International audience; Capnophiles are bacteria stimulated by bicarbonate and CO$_2$, the two major forms of inorganic carbon (IC) in physiological neutral liquids. Capnophiles are often pathogenic heterotrophs found in IC-rich ecological niches such as human cavities. Like capnophiles, the growth of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) such as Lactobacillus plantarum and Enterococcus faecalis is stimulated by IC. CO$_2$ or HCO$^{-}_3$ are substrates in carbamoyl phosphate (CP) synthesis and other car...

  19. Lysophosphatidic Acid Regulation and Roles in Human Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-08-01

    therapeutic measures. LPA (lysophosphatidic acid): a potent mitogen for prostate cancer For over 50 years, the primary form of therapy for advanced prostate...androgen independent, resistant to therapy , and ultimately cause the death of the patient. The most likely way to develop new and effective therapies ...Mazurais, D., Robert, P., Gout , B., Berrebi-Bertrand, I., Laville, M. P., and Calmels, T. (2002). Cell type-specific localization of human cardiac S1P

  20. The role of omega-3 fatty acids in child development*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osendarp Saskia JM

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA are important constituents of the maturing brain and therefore considered crucial for brain development in utero and in early infancy. However, it is uncertain whether n-3 LCPUFA supplementation during pregnancy and lactation can have beneficial, sustainable effects on visual or cognitive development. Beneficial effects on child cognitive function after supplementation with EPA and DHA during pregnancy and lactation were observed at 4 years of age, but not at 3, 6 months or 7 years. In term infants LCPUFA when given in relative high dosages, seems to improve visual acuity, but not cognitive function. Evidence for an effect of LCPUFA supplementation of preterm infants remains inconclusive. In children older than 2 years of age, epidemiological evidence suggests an association between psychiatric or neurodevelopmental disorders and omega-3 fatty acid deficiencies. However, the evidence from randomized controlled trials exploring the impact of omega-3 fatty acids on cognitive performance or brain function in school-aged children is not conclusive. In conclusion, n-3 LCPUFA are highly present in the maturing brain and are important for normal brain functioning and development. When provided in relative high dosages, n-3 LCPUFA may improve visual acuity in term infants. However, it remains unclear whether supplementation with n-3 LCPUFA during pregnancy, early infancy, and childhood can improve cognitive function.

  1. Omega-3 fatty acids: role in metabolism and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Philipp A; Gouni-Berthold, Ioanna; Berneis, Kaspar

    2013-01-01

    The inverse association of cardiovascular risk with intake of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids was suspected early in populations that are known to have a high consumption of fish and fish oil. Subsequent cohort studies confirmed such associations in other populations. Further evidence of possible beneficial effects on metabolism and cardiovascular health was provided by many studies that were able to show specific mechanisms that may underlie these observations. These include improvement of the function of tissues involved in the alterations occurring during the development of obesity and the metabolic syndrome, as adipose tissue, the liver and skeletal muscle. Direct action on the cardiovascular system was not only shown regarding vascular function and the formation of atherosclerotic plaques, but also by providing antiarrhythmic effects on the heart. Data on these effects come from in vitro as well as in vivo studies that were conducted in animal models of disease, in healthy humans and in humans suffering from cardiovascular disease. To define prophylactic as well as treatment options in primary and secondary prevention, large clinical trial assessed the effect of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on end points as cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. However, so far these trials provided ambiguous data that do allow recommendations regarding the use of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in higher dosages and beyond the dietary advice of regular fish intake only in few clinical situations, such as severe hypertriglyceridemia.

  2. Role of Folic Acid on Symptoms of Chronic Arsenic Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghose, Nelima; Majumdar, Kunal Kanti; Ghose, A. K.; Saha, C. K.; Nandy, A. K.; Mazumder, D. N. Guha

    2014-01-01

    Background: Chronic arsenic toxicity (Arsenicosis) due to drinking of arsenic contaminated ground water is a global problem. However, its treatment is unsatisfactory. Methylation of arsenic facilitates its urinary excretion. Persons with relatively lower proportion of urinary dimethyl arsenic acid (DMA) are found to have at greater risk of developing symptoms of arsenicosis including its complications. The biochemical pathway responsible for methylation of arsenic is a folate-dependent pathway. Studies in rodents and humans suggest that folate nutritional status influences the metabolism of arsenic. Methods: The present study compares the effect of giving folic acid on 32 arsenicosis patients during a 6-month period and comparing the results with clinical effect of taking only arsenic-free safe water on 45 age and sex-matched arsenic-affected people for the same period. Results: There was significant improvement of arsenical skin lesion score of both patients treated with folic acid (2.96 ± 1.46 to 1.90 ± 0.90, P arsenicosis cases could help in reducing clinical symptoms of arsenicosis. PMID:24554997

  3. The potential role of sports psychology in the obesity epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelli, Vincent; Davis, Carolyn

    2013-06-01

    Sports psychologists play an important role in enhancing performance among athletes. In conjunction with team physicians, they can also shed light on psychological disorders common in athletes, such as mood and eating disorders, and overtraining syndrome. Sports psychologists can also lend their expertise to assist with injury prevention and recovery and compliance issues. Sports psychology has a role in helping to reverse the growing obesity epidemic among school-aged children. These professionals, working with coaches, can increase children's levels of physical activity. Cognitive-behavioral techniques could lead to enhanced enjoyment, increased participation, improved school performance, and a reduction in obesity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Potential role of lampalizumab for treatment of geographic atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoades, William; Dickson, Drew; Do, Diana V

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the pathways underlying age-related macular degeneration and potential therapeutic targets, focusing on the complement pathway and the recent MAHALO Phase II trial of the investigational drug lampalizumab. This trial was the first to have shown positive results for the treatment of geographic atrophy in age-related macular degeneration. It has potential as a future treatment, and is currently undergoing a Phase III trial.

  5. Role of Sodium Channel on Cardiac Action Potential

    OpenAIRE

    S. H. Sabzpoushan; A. Faghani Ghodrat

    2012-01-01

    Sudden cardiac death is a major cause of death worldwide. In most cases, it's caused by abnormal action potential propagation that leads to cardiac arrhythmia. The aim of this article is to study the abnormal action potential propagation through sodium ion concentration variations. We use a new electrophysiological model that is both detailed and computationally efficient. This efficient model is based on the partial differential equation method. The central finite difference method is used f...

  6. A role for AMPK in the inhibition of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase by polyunsaturated fatty acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohan, Alison B.; Talukdar, Indrani; Walsh, Callee M. [Department of Biochemistry, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV (United States); Salati, Lisa M., E-mail: lsalati@hsc.wvu.edu [Department of Biochemistry, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2009-10-09

    Both polyunsaturated fatty acids and AMPK promote energy partitioning away from energy consuming processes, such as fatty acid synthesis, towards energy generating processes, such as {beta}-oxidation. In this report, we demonstrate that arachidonic acid activates AMPK in primary rat hepatocytes, and that this effect is p38 MAPK-dependent. Activation of AMPK mimics the inhibition by arachidonic acid of the insulin-mediated induction of G6PD. Similar to intracellular signaling by arachidonic acid, AMPK decreases insulin signal transduction, increasing Ser{sup 307} phosphorylation of IRS-1 and a subsequent decrease in AKT phosphorylation. Overexpression of dominant-negative AMPK abolishes the effect of arachidonic acid on G6PD expression. These data suggest a role for AMPK in the inhibition of G6PD by polyunsaturated fatty acids.

  7. Systematic review: role of acid, weakly acidic and weakly alkaline reflux in gastroesophageal reflux disease

    OpenAIRE

    Boeckxstaens, Guy E; Smout, Smout J

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The importance of weakly acidic and weakly alkaline reflux in gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is gaining recognition. Aim To quantify the proportions of reflux episodes that are acidic (pH 7) in adult patients with GERD, and to evaluate their correlation with symptoms. Methods Studies were identified by systematic PubMed and Embase searches. Data are presented as sample-size weighted ...

  8. Antibodies and their receptors: different potential roles in mucosal defense

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horton, Rachel E.; Vidarsson, Gestur

    2013-01-01

    Over recent years it has become increasingly apparent that mucosal antibodies are not only restricted to the IgM and IgA isotypes, but that also other isotypes and particularly IgG can be found in significant quantities at some mucosal surfaces, such as in the genital tract. Their role is more

  9. Genetic aspects of pediatric asthma: potential clinical role

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EL-HAKIM

    There is evidence that gene-environment interactions play an especially important role in diseases, such as asthma, that have a great deal of variability in their clinical expression. Environmental factors can modify the clinical expression of genetic variability in a variety of patterns. In fact, certain genetic polymorphisms can.

  10. The potential role of flaxseed oil on lead acetateinduced kidney ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lead (Pb+2) intoxication may initiate many disorders in humans and animals. This study investigated the role of flaxseed oil in protecting rats against Pb+2 exposures. The results showed that the administration of flaxseed oil efficiently protected albino rats against the Pb+2 caused injury, as revealed by some improvement ...

  11. The potential role of agroforestry in maintaining soil fertility on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite legislation curtailing their use, they are being used for grazing, and crop and vegetable production. The soils in the cultivated dambos suffer from major phosphorus and sulphur deficiencies and have low nitrogen and organic matter content. Organic fertilizers play a significant role in maintaining soil fertility on these ...

  12. Potential role for wild vegetables in household food security: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The value of wild edible vegetables in food security has not been given sufficient attention in South Africa. Consequently, there are no formal interventions that seek to encourage people to use traditional vegetables as sources of essential nutrients. Studies on the role of wild leafy vegetables in food security could provide ...

  13. Potential role of probiotics in the management of gastric ulcer

    Science.gov (United States)

    KHODER, GHALIA; AL-MENHALI, ASMA A.; AL-YASSIR, FARAH; KARAM, SHERIF M.

    2016-01-01

    Gastric ulcer is one of the most common chronic gastrointestinal diseases characterized by a significant defect in the mucosal barrier. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection and the frequent long-term use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are major factors involved in gastric ulcer development. Acid inhibitors and antibiotics are commonly used to treat gastric ulcer. However, in the last few decades, the accumulating evidence for resistance to antibiotics and the side effects of antibiotics and acid inhibitors have drawn attention to the possible use of probiotics in the prevention and treatment of gastric ulcer. Probiotics are live microorganisms that when administered in adequate amounts confer health benefits on the host. Currently, the available experimental and clinical studies indicate that probiotics are promising for future applications in the management of gastric ulcers. This review aims to provide an overview of the general health benefits of probiotics on various systemic and gastrointestinal disorders with a special focus on gastric ulcer and the involved cellular and molecular mechanisms: i) Protection of gastric mucosal barrier; ii) upregulation of prostaglandins, mucus, growth factors and anti-inflammatory cytokines; iii) increased cell proliferation to apoptosis ratio; and iv) induction of angiogenesis. Finally, some of the available data on the possible use of probiotics in H. pylori eradication are discussed. PMID:27347010

  14. Allelopathy: Potential Role to Achieve New Milestones in Rice Cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.K. Amb

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Rice fields are ecosystems with many types of plants, microbes, invertebrates, birds and animals. The rice farming protects the biodiversity of the region and maintains the ecosystem for the benefit of environment. Some rice varieties release biocidal allelochemicals which might affect major weeds, microbial and pathogenic diversity around rice plants, even soil characteristics. A large number of compounds such as phenolic acids, fatty acids, indoles and terpenes have been identified in rice root exudates and decomposing rice residues, as putative allelochemicals which can interact with surrounding environment. Since these allelopathic interactions may be positive, they can be used as effective contributor for sustainable and eco-friendly agro-production system. Genetic modification of crop plants to improve their allelopathic properties and enhancement of desirable traits has been suggested. Development of crops with enhanced allelopathic traits by genetic modification should be done cautiously, keeping in view of the ecological risk assessment (non-toxic and safe for humans and ecosystem, crop productivity, ratio of benefit and cost, etc..

  15. Role of Sodium Channel on Cardiac Action Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. H. Sabzpoushan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Sudden cardiac death is a major cause of death worldwide. In most cases, it's caused by abnormal action potential propagation that leads to cardiac arrhythmia. The aim of this article is to study the abnormal action potential propagation through sodium ion concentration variations. We use a new electrophysiological model that is both detailed and computationally efficient. This efficient model is based on the partial differential equation method. The central finite difference method is used for numerical solving of the two-dimensional (2D wave propagation equation. Simulations are implemented in two stages, as a single cardiac cell and as a two-dimensional grid of cells. In both stages, the normal action potential formation in case of a single cell and it's normal propagation in case of a two-dimensional grid of cells were simulated with nominal sodium ion conductance. Then, the effect of sodium ion concentration on the action potential signal was studied by reducing the sodium ion conductance. It is concluded that reducing the sodium ion conductance, decreases both passing ability and conduction velocity of the action potential wave front.

  16. The role of essential fatty acids and prostaglandins.

    OpenAIRE

    Crawford, M. A.

    1980-01-01

    The FAO/WHO Rome Report recommended an increase in the consumption of fat in countries where malnutrition is endemic; for maintenance, 3% of the dietary energy as essential fatty acids (EFA) may be adequate; in pregnancy and lactation an additional 1.5 to 2.4% energy as EFA is needed. For population at high risk for atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease (CHD) the recommendations were to decrease saturated fat in particular and increase EFA intake in the diet, reduce sugar, alcohol and ch...

  17. Reduction of Heart Rate by Omega-3 Fatty Acids and the Potential Underlying Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Xuan Kang

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available An elevated resting heart rate is one of the strongest predictors of cardiovascular mortality and is independently associated with sudden cardiac death (SCD. Agents capable of reducing heart rate without significant side effects are therefore of particular interest for the prevention of SCD. Recent human and animal studies have shown that omega-3 fatty acids can reduce heart rate. Our work has shown that omega-3 fatty acids significantly reduce membrane electrical excitability of the cardiac myocyte by lowering its resting membrane potential and the duration of the refractory period through inhibition of ion channels. We propose that these actions may be the underlying mechanisms for the omega-3 fatty acid-induced reduction of heart rate observed in both humans and animals. The heart rate-lowering capability of omega-3 fatty acids may contribute to their preventive effect against SCD.

  18. Lipids and Fatty Acids of Nudibranch Mollusks: Potential Sources of Bioactive Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia V. Zhukova

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The molecular diversity of chemical compounds found in marine animals offers a good chance for the discovery of novel bioactive compounds of unique structures and diverse biological activities. Nudibranch mollusks, which are not protected by a shell and produce chemicals for various ecological uses, including defense against predators, have attracted great interest for their lipid composition. Lipid analysis of eight nudibranch species revealed dominant phospholipids, sterols and monoalkyldiacylglycerols. Among polar lipids, 1-alkenyl-2-acyl glycerophospholipids (plasmalogens and ceramide-aminoethyl phosphonates were found in the mollusks. The fatty acid compositions of the nudibranchs differed greatly from those of other marine gastropods and exhibited a wide diversity: very long chain fatty acids known as demospongic acids, a series of non-methylene-interrupted fatty acids, including unusual 21:2∆7,13, and an abundance of various odd and branched fatty acids typical of bacteria. Symbiotic bacteria revealed in some species of nudibranchs participate presumably in the production of some compounds serving as a chemical defense for the mollusks. The unique fatty acid composition of the nudibranchs is determined by food supply, inherent biosynthetic activities and intracellular symbiotic microorganisms. The potential of nudibranchs as a source of biologically active lipids and fatty acids is also discussed.

  19. Lipids and fatty acids of nudibranch mollusks: potential sources of bioactive compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukova, Natalia V

    2014-08-19

    The molecular diversity of chemical compounds found in marine animals offers a good chance for the discovery of novel bioactive compounds of unique structures and diverse biological activities. Nudibranch mollusks, which are not protected by a shell and produce chemicals for various ecological uses, including defense against predators, have attracted great interest for their lipid composition. Lipid analysis of eight nudibranch species revealed dominant phospholipids, sterols and monoalkyldiacylglycerols. Among polar lipids, 1-alkenyl-2-acyl glycerophospholipids (plasmalogens) and ceramide-aminoethyl phosphonates were found in the mollusks. The fatty acid compositions of the nudibranchs differed greatly from those of other marine gastropods and exhibited a wide diversity: very long chain fatty acids known as demospongic acids, a series of non-methylene-interrupted fatty acids, including unusual 21:2∆7,13, and an abundance of various odd and branched fatty acids typical of bacteria. Symbiotic bacteria revealed in some species of nudibranchs participate presumably in the production of some compounds serving as a chemical defense for the mollusks. The unique fatty acid composition of the nudibranchs is determined by food supply, inherent biosynthetic activities and intracellular symbiotic microorganisms. The potential of nudibranchs as a source of biologically active lipids and fatty acids is also discussed.

  20. Acidic conditions exacerbate interferon-gamma-induced intestinal epithelial hyperpermeability: role of peroxynitrous acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unno, N; Hodin, R A; Fink, M P

    1999-08-01

    Nitric oxide (NO*) derived from exogenous donors has been shown to increase the permeability of cultured intestinal epithelial monolayers, an effect that is augmented by mildly acidic conditions. Because interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) also increases intestinal epithelial permeability, at least partly by an NO*-dependent mechanism, we sought to determine whether IFN-gamma-induced hyperpermeability is increased under acidic conditions. Human intestinal epithelial (Caco-2BBe) cells were grown as monolayers on permeable supports in bicameral chambers. Permeability was assessed by measuring transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) or the transepithelial passage of fluorescein disulfonic acid. Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) messenger RNA expression was determined by northern blot analysis. Concentrations of nitrite and nitrate (NO2-/NO3-), stable oxidation products of NO*, were determined using the Greiss reaction. Cellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels were determined using the luciferin/luciferase method. Incubation of Caco-2BBe monolayers with INF-gamma (1000 units/mL) at an extracellular pH (pHo) of 7.4 increased permeability to fluorescein disulfonic acid and decreased TER. However, incubation of monolayers with IFN-gamma under mildly acidic conditions (i.e., pHo 7.0-6.6) accelerated the decrease in TER and augmented the increase in permeability induced by the cytokine. IFN-gamma-induced iNOS messenger RNA expression and NO2-/NO3- accumulation in medium were unaffected by acidic conditions. At pHo 7.4, incubation of Caco-2BBe monolayers with IFN-gamma (1000 units/mL) for 72 hrs had no effect on intracellular ATP content compared with monolayers simultaneously incubated under the same conditions but in the absence of the cytokine. However, when the cells were incubated for 72 hrs with the same concentration of IFN-gamma under mildly acidic conditions (i.e., pHo 7.0 or 6.6), ATP levels were significantly decreased. At pHo 7.0, IFN

  1. The Role of Acid Suppression in Barrett's Esophagus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Pooja S; Castell, Don O

    2017-05-01

    In recent years, proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) have come under great scrutiny due to possible adverse, long-term side effects. At the same time, Barrett's esophagus, a premalignant condition in the esophagus, continues to be a disease whose course is thought to be improved by the use of PPIs. We review the impact of proton pump therapy on the esophagus and on Barrett's mucosa. In analyzing changes on a cellular level, we explore the effect of mixed gastric refluxate and the complex cascade that ensues with esophageal exposure of these contents. Because the incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma is on the rise, we explore other factors that may contribute to the progression of Barrett's from non-dysplastic mucosa to esophageal adenocarcinoma. By revisiting the need for adequate acid suppression in Barrett's and increasing our understanding of other possible factors that may have an effect of Barrett's progression, we hope to support our multifaceted approach to acid suppression in patients with Barrett's esophagus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Role of Membrane Lipid Fatty Acids in Sperm Cryopreservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajes Mandal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lipid is an important constituent of cell membrane. Membrane lipid composition of spermatozoa has been correlated to different function. Many researchers have related membrane lipid with survival success after cryopreservation or cold shock. Sperm maturation and acrosome reactions are natural phenomenon, but cryopreservation or cold shock is not. Therefore, sperm cells are not programmed for such change and undergo stress. So the change in membrane lipid composition due to cold shock or cryopreservation may be looked upon as response of spermatozoa to a certain stressed condition. A significant body of research worked on the relationship between membrane lipid and fatty acid composition and ability of cell to tolerate adverse change in temperature. However, as the approach of different research groups was different, it is very difficult to compare the changes. Studies have been done with different species, ejaculated/seminal or epididymal sperm. Lipid analyses have been done with whole cell membrane isolated by different methods. Fatty acids estimated were from whole cell, plasma membrane, head membrane, or phospholipids. The cryopreservation condition, media composition, and diluents/cryoprotectants were also different. At this onset a comprehensive review is needed to cover changes of sperm membrane lipid composition of different species under different cryopreservation conditions.

  3. Screening of potential probiotic lactic acid bacteria based on gastrointestinal properties and perfluorooctanoate toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Jiali; Wang, Fan; Xu, Qi; Yin, Boxing; Fang, Dongsheng; Zhao, Jianxin; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Yong Q; Wang, Gang; Chen, Wei

    2016-08-01

    The consumption of lactic acid bacteria capable of binding or degrading food-borne carcinogens may reduce human exposure to these deleterious compounds. In this study, 25 Lactobacillus strains isolated from human, plant, or dairy environments were investigated for their potential probiotic capacity against perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) toxicity. The PFOA binding, tolerance ability, and acid and bile salt tolerance were investigated and assessed by principal component analysis. Additionally, the effect of different pH levels and binding times was assessed. These strains exhibited different degrees of PFOA binding; the strain with the highest PFOA binding capability was Lactobacillus plantarum CCFM738, which bound to 49.40 ± 1.5 % of available PFOA. This strain also exhibited relatively good cellular antioxidative properties, acid and bile salt tolerance, and adhesion to Caco-2 cells. This study suggests that L. plantarum CCFM738 could be used as a potential probiotic in food applications against PFOA toxicity.

  4. Composition, texture and methane potential of cellulosic residues from Lewis acids organosolv pulping of wheat straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constant, Sandra; Barakat, Abdellatif; Robitzer, Mike; Di Renzo, Francesco; Dumas, Claire; Quignard, Françoise

    2016-09-01

    Cellulosic pulps have been successfully isolated from wheat straw through a Lewis acids organosolv treatment. The use of Lewis acids with different hardness produced pulps with different delignification degrees. The cellulosic residue was characterised by chemical composition, X-ray diffraction, FT-IR spectroscopy, N2 physisorption, scanning electron microscopy and potential for anaerobic digestibility. Surface area and pore volume increased with the hardness of the Lewis acid, in correspondence with the decrease of the amount of lignin and hemicellulose in the pulp. The non linearity of the correlation between porosity and composition suggests that an agglomeration of cellulose fibrils occurs in the early stages of pulping. All organosolv pulps presented a significantly higher methane potential than the parent straw. A methane evolution of 295Ncm(3)/g OM was reached by a moderate improvement of the accessibility of the native straw. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Potential human health effects of acid rain: report of a workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyer, R A; Bachmann, J; Clarkson, T W; Ferris, B G; Graham, J; Mushak, P; Perl, D P; Rall, D P; Schlesinger, R; Sharpe, W

    1985-05-01

    This report summarizes the potential impact of the acid precipitation phenomenon on human health. There are two major components to this phenomenon: the predepositional phase, during which there is direct human exposure to acidic substances from ambient air, and the post-depositional phase, in which the deposition of acid materials on water and soil results in the mobilization, transport, and even chemical transformation of toxic metals. Acidification increases bioconversion of mercury to methylmercury, which accumulates in fish, increasing the risk to toxicity in people who eat fish. Increase in water and soil content of lead and cadmium increases human exposure to these metals which become additive to other sources presently under regulatory control. The potential adverse health effects of increased human exposure to aluminum is not known at the present time.

  6. Activation of mTORC1 by leucine is potentiated by branched-chain amino acids and even more so by essential amino acids following resistance exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moberg, Marcus; Apró, William; Ekblom, Björn; van Hall, Gerrit; Holmberg, Hans-Christer; Blomstrand, Eva

    2016-06-01

    Protein synthesis is stimulated by resistance exercise and intake of amino acids, in particular leucine. Moreover, activation of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling by leucine is potentiated by the presence of other essential amino acids (EAA). However, the contribution of the branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) to this effect is yet unknown. Here we compare the stimulatory role of leucine, BCAA, and EAA ingestion on anabolic signaling following exercise. Accordingly, eight trained volunteers completed four sessions of resistance exercise during which they ingested either placebo, leucine, BCAA, or EAA (including the BCAA) in random order. Muscle biopsies were taken at rest, immediately after exercise, and following 90 and 180 min of recovery. Following 90 min of recovery the activity of S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) was greater than at rest in all four trials (PlaceboBCAABCAA. However, after 180 min of recovery this difference between EAA and BCAA had disappeared, although with both these supplements the increases were still higher than with leucine (40%, P BCAA. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  7. Free amino acids in the Arctic snow and ice core samples: Potential markers for paleoclimatic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbaro, Elena; Spolaor, Andrea; Karroca, Ornela; Park, Ki-Tae; Martma, Tõnu; Isaksson, Elisabeth; Kohler, Jack; Gallet, Jean Charles; Bjorkman, Mats P; Cappelletti, David; Spreen, Gunnar; Zangrando, Roberta; Barbante, Carlo; Gambaro, Andrea

    2017-12-31

    The role of oceanic primary production on climate variability has long been debated. Defining changes in past oceanic primary production can help understanding of the important role that marine algae have in climate variability. In ice core research methanesulfonic acid is the chemical marker commonly used for assessing changes in past primary production. However, other organic compounds such as amino acids, can be produced and emitted into the atmosphere during a phytoplankton bloom. These species can be transported and deposited onto the ice cap in polar regions. Here we investigate the correlation between the concentration of chlorophyll-a, marker of marine primary production, and amino acids present in an ice core. For the first time, free l- and d-amino acids in Arctic snow and firn samples were determined by a sensitive and selective analytical method based on liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. The new method for the determination of free amino acids concentrations was applied to firn core samples collected on April 2015 from the summit of the Holtedahlfonna glacier, Svalbard (N 79'08.424, E 13'23.639, 1120m a.s.l.). The main results of this work are summarized as follows: (1) glycine, alanine and proline, were detected and quantified in the firn core samples; (2) their concentration profiles, compared with that of the stable isotope δ18O ratio, show a seasonal cycling with the highest concentrations during the spring and summer time; (3) back-trajectories and Greenland Sea chlorophyll-a concentrations obtained by satellite measurements were compared with the amino acids profile obtained from ice core samples, this provided further insights into the present results. This study suggests that the amino acid concentrations in the ice samples collected from the Holtedahlfonna glaciers could reflect changes in oceanic phytoplankton abundance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Potential role of street foods as micronutrients source among low ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although more than 40% of Nairobi's lower-income groups consume street foods, there is paucity of information available for urban policy makers and programmers on the potential contribution of street foods to micronutrient intake. A cross-sectional survey and a non-repetitive 24-hour dietary recall were employed to ...

  9. Do patients with advanced cancer have any potential for protein anabolism in response to amino acid therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevalier, Stéphanie; Winter, Aaron

    2014-05-01

    There is evidence that protein anabolism is achievable before cancer evolves into refractory cachexia with attenuation of muscle loss and even muscle gain. This review summarizes recent observations on the role of total and specific amino acids in promoting protein anabolism in human cancer and revisits prior studies in this context. Analysis of muscle changes in advanced cancer patients indicated opportunities for inducing anabolism. Maintenance and gain in muscle was reported in a majority of patients, from initiation of oncologic treatment and before the final refractory stage. In addition to being substrates, some amino acids, for example leucine, act as intracellular signals to promote protein synthesis. Recent acute studies demonstrated that provision of amino acids, sufficient to considerably elevate circulating leucine concentrations concurrent with other amino acid and nutrient availability, resulted in significant protein anabolism in cancer patients. This occurred even during weight loss and inflammation. Patients with cancer have an anabolic potential to be exploited early on in cachexia development. High-leucine and protein supplements are worth testing as part of a multimodal anabolic approach in long-term trials to confirm their efficacy to sustain anabolism, and attenuate or even reverse muscle wasting.

  10. Amino Acid Flux from Metabolic Network Benefits Protein Translation: the Role of Resource Availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiao-Pan; Yang, Yi; Ma, Bin-Guang

    2015-06-09

    Protein translation is a central step in gene expression and affected by many factors such as codon usage bias, mRNA folding energy and tRNA abundance. Despite intensive previous studies, how metabolic amino acid supply correlates with protein translation efficiency remains unknown. In this work, we estimated the amino acid flux from metabolic network for each protein in Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae by using Flux Balance Analysis. Integrated with the mRNA expression level, protein abundance and ribosome profiling data, we provided a detailed description of the role of amino acid supply in protein translation. Our results showed that amino acid supply positively correlates with translation efficiency and ribosome density. Moreover, with the rank-based regression model, we found that metabolic amino acid supply facilitates ribosome utilization. Based on the fact that the ribosome density change of well-amino-acid-supplied genes is smaller than poorly-amino-acid-supply genes under amino acid starvation, we reached the conclusion that amino acid supply may buffer ribosome density change against amino acid starvation and benefit maintaining a relatively stable translation environment. Our work provided new insights into the connection between metabolic amino acid supply and protein translation process by revealing a new regulation strategy that is dependent on resource availability.

  11. Usefulness of Amino Acid Profiling in Ovarian Cancer Screening with Special Emphasis on Their Role in Cancerogenesis

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    Szymon Plewa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to quantitate 42 serum-free amino acids, propose the biochemical explanation of their role in tumor development, and identify new ovarian cancer (OC biomarkers for potential use in OC screening. The additional value of this work is the schematic presentation of the interrelationship between metabolites which were identified as significant for OC development and progression. The liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry technique using highly-selective multiple reaction monitoring mode and labeled internal standards for each analyzed compound was applied. Performed statistical analyses showed that amino acids are potentially useful as OC biomarkers, especially as variables in multi-marker models. For the distinguishing metabolites the following metabolic pathways involved in cancer growth and development were proposed: histidine metabolism; tryptophan metabolism; arginine biosynthesis; arginine and proline metabolism; and alanine, aspartate and glutamine metabolism. The presented research identifies histidine and citrulline as potential new OC biomarkers. Furthermore, it provides evidence that amino acids are involved in metabolic pathways related to tumor growth and play an important role in cancerogenesis.

  12. Role Of Ascorbic Acid In Imparting Tolerance To Plants Against Oxidizing Pollutants

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    Priyanka Sharma

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Ascorbic acid is an antioxidant in plants which play important role in activation of many physiological and defense mechanisms. The level of ascorbic acid in plants is determinant of its tolerance against the adverse effect of oxidizing pollutants. The present study tries to relate the variation in ascorbic acid content with the tolerance and sensitivity of two selected plant species viz. Azadirachtaindica and Pongamiapinnata by calculating their Air Pollution Tolerance Index APTI during winter season from November to March in the urban city Delhi of North India. Moreover ascorbic acid is also an important part of chloroplast it protects different components of photosynthetic system from oxidative stress. Thus to understand the role of ascorbic acid in imparting tolerance to plants against oxidizing pollutants the changes in chlorophyll content of the selected plant species with variation in ambient ozone concentration was analysed. It was found that as per APTI values Azadirachta sp. came under tolerant range with highest ascorbic acid content whereas Pongamia sp. was under intermediate range with less ascorbic acid content. It was statistically established that ozone has no significant relation with chlorophyll content of Azadirachta sp. which has the highest ascorbic acid content. Whereas ambient ozone concentrations showed significant negative relation with the chlorophyll content of Pongamia sp. p 0.05. Thus it was observed that the plants with high ascorbic acid content are tolerant and have greater ability to remediate pollutants.

  13. Potential Role of Dipeptidyl Peptidase IV in the Pathophysiology of Heart Failure

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    Thiago A. Salles

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPPIV is a widely expressed multifunctional serine peptidase that exists as a membrane-anchored cell surface protein or in a soluble form in the plasma and other body fluids. Numerous substrates are cleaved at the penultimate amino acid by DPPIV, including glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1, brain natriuretic peptide (BNP and stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-α, all of which play important roles in the cardiovascular system. In this regard, recent reports have documented that circulating DPPIV activity correlates with poorer cardiovascular outcomes in human and experimental heart failure (HF. Moreover, emerging evidence indicates that DPPIV inhibitors exert cardioprotective and renoprotective actions in a variety of experimental models of cardiac dysfunction. On the other hand, conflicting results have been found when translating these promising findings from preclinical animal models to clinical therapy. In this review, we discuss how DPPIV might be involved in the cardio-renal axis in HF. In addition, the potential role for DPPIV inhibitors in ameliorating heart disease is revised, focusing on the effects of the main DPPIV substrates on cardiac remodeling and renal handling of salt and water.

  14. Gut microbiota as a potential target of metabolic syndrome: the role of probiotics and prebiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Mingqian; Shi, Bingyin

    2017-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MS) comprises central obesity, increased plasma glucose levels, hyperlipidemia and hypertension, and its incidence is increasing due to changes in lifestyle and dietary structure in recent years. MS has been proven to be associated with an increased incidence of cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes mellitus, leading to morbidity and mortality. In this manuscript, we review recent studies concerning the role of the gut microbiota in MS modulation. Manipulation of the gut microbiota through the administration of prebiotics or probiotics may assist in weight loss and reduce plasma glucose and serum lipid levels, decreasing the incidence of cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes mellitus. To the best of our knowledge, short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), bile salt hydrolase (BSH), metabolic endotoxemia and the endocannabinoid (eCB) system are essential in regulating the initiation and progression of MS through the normalization of adipogenesis and the regulation of insulin secretion, fat accumulation, energy homeostasis, and plasma cholesterol levels. Therefore, the gut microbiota may serve as a potential therapeutic target for MS. However, further studies are needed to enhance our understanding of manipulating the gut microbiota and the role of the gut microbiota in MS prevention and treatment.

  15. Potential role of dopamine transporter in behavioral flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cybulska-Klosowicz, Anita; Dabrowska, Julia; Niedzielec, Sebastian; Zakrzewska, Renata; Rozycka, Aleksandra

    2017-01-01

    Behavioral flexibility is subserved by the prefrontal cortex and the basal ganglia. Orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and dorsomedial striatum (DMS) form a functional frontocorticostriatal circuit crucial for the mediation of flexibility during reversal learning via dopamine (DA) neurotransmission. The regulatory control in maintaining DA homeostasis and function is provided by the dopamine transporter (DAT), which therefore likely plays a significant role in controlling the influence of DA on cognitive processes. Here we used a gene knockout mouse model to investigate the role of DAT in the performance on the Attentional Set-Shifting Task (ASST) stages dependent upon the OFC and the DMS. Additionally, behavior of mice after repeated administration of selective DAT inhibitor, GBR 12909, was examined. The animals were treated with the inhibitor to elicit a compensatory DAT up-regulation following withdrawal. Learning was slower and the number of errors during reversal learning and intra-dimensional shift stages was higher in DAT+/- mutant mice than in WT mice. GBR 12909-treated mice had deficits in reversal stages of the ASST. Neuronal activation in the OFC and DMS during the ASST was examined with early growth response proteins 1 and 2 (egr-1, egr-2) immunohistochemistry. Density of egr-2 labeled cells in the OFC was lower in mutant mice than in wild-types during reversal learning and the expression of the egr-1 was lower in mutant mice in the OFC and DMS during reversal and intra-dimensional shift stages. Mice with decreased DAT levels displayed behavioral difficulties that were accompanied by a lower task-induced activation of neurons in brain regions involved in the reversal learning. Altogether, these data indicate the role of the DAT in the behavioral flexibility.

  16. The Role of Highly Unsaturated Fatty Acids in Aquatic Food Webs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perhar, G.; Arhonditsis, G. B.

    2009-05-01

    .e. diatoms), at their base can attain inverted biomass distributions with efficient energy transfer between trophic levels, making HUFA pathways in aquatic food webs of special interest to fisheries and environmental managers. Built on our previous work, which implicitly considered HUFAs through a proxy (generic food quality term, which also indexes ingestibility, digestibility and toxicity), our aim is to elucidate the underlying mechanisms controlling HUFA transport through the lower aquatic food web, with an emphasis on the hypothesized somatic growth limiting potential. A biochemical submodel coupled to a plankton model has been formulated and calibrated, accounting explicitly for the omega 3 and omega 6 families of fatty acids; specifically, Alpha Linoleic acid (ALA, a precursor to EPA), EPA and DHA. Further insights into the role of HUFAs on food web dynamics and the subsequent implications on ecosystem functioning are gained through bifurcation analysis of the model. Our research aims to elucidate the existing gaps in the literature pertaining to the role and impact of HUFAs on plankton dynamics, which have traditionally been thought to be driven by stoichiometric ratios and limiting nutrients. In this study, we challenge the notion of nutrients being the primary driving factor of aquatic ecosystem patterns by introducing a modeling framework that accounts for the interplay between nutrients and HUFAs.

  17. The amino acid transporter SLC6A14 in cancer and its potential use in chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangzom D. Bhutia

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Tumor cells have an increased demand for glucose and amino acids to support their rapid growth, and also exhibit alterations in biochemical pathways that metabolize these nutrients. Transport across the plasma membrane is essential to feed glucose and amino acids into these tumor cell-selective metabolic pathways. Transfer of amino acids across biological membranes occurs via a multitude of transporters; tumor cells must upregulate one or more of these transporters to satisfy their increased demand for amino acids. Among the amino acid transporters, SLC6A14 stands out with specific functional features uniquely suited for the biological needs of the tumor cells. This transporter is indeed upregulated in tumors of epithelial origin, including colon cancer, cervical cancer, breast cancer, and pancreatic cancer. Since normal cells express this transporter only at low levels, blockade of this transporter should lead to amino acid starvation selectively in tumor cells, thus having little effect on normal cells. This offers a novel, yet logical, strategy for the treatment of cancers that are associated with upregulation of SLC6A14. In addition, a variety of amino acid-based prodrugs are recognized as substrates by SLC6A14, thus raising the possibility that anticancer drugs can be delivered into tumor cells selectively via this transporter in the form of amino acid prodrugs. This strategy allows exposure of SLC6A14-positive tumor cells to chemotherapy with minimal off-target effects. In conclusion, the amino acid transporter SLC6A14 holds great potential not only as a direct drug target for cancer therapy but also for tumor cell-selective delivery of anticancer drugs.

  18. Inflammatory cells′ role in acetic acid-induced colitis

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    Mohammad H Sanei

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Free radicals are the known mechanisms responsible for inducing colitis with two origins: Inflammatory cells and tissues. Only the inflammatory cells can be controlled by corticosteroids. Our aim was to assess the importance of neutrophils as one of the inflammatory cells in inducing colitis and to evaluate the efficacy of corticosteroids in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. Materials and Methods: Thirty-six mice were divided into six groups of six mice each. Colitis was induced in three groups by exposing them to acetic acid through enema (group 1, ex vivo (group 3, and enema after immune suppression (group 5. Each group had one control group that was exposed to water injection instead of acetic acid. Tissue samples were evaluated and compared based on macroscopic damages and biochemical and pathological results. Results: Considering neutrophilic infiltration, there were significant differences between groups 1, 3, 5, and the control of group 1. Groups 3, 5, and their controls, and group 1 and the control of group 3 had significant differences in terms of goblet depletion. Based on tissue originated H 2 O 2 , we found significant differences between group 1 and its control and group 3, and also between groups 5 and the control of group 3. All the three groups were significantly different from their controls based on Ferric Reducing Ability of Plasma (FRAP and such differences were also seen between group 1 with two other groups. Conclusion: Neutrophils may not be the only cause of oxidation process in colitis, and also makes the effectiveness of corticosteroids in the treatment of this disease doubtful.

  19. Potential role of remote sensing in disaster relief management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rush, M.; Holguin, A.; Vernon, S.

    1976-01-01

    Baseline or predisaster data which would be useful to decision making in the immediate postdisaster period were suggested for the six areas of public health concern along with guidelines for organizing these data. Potential sources of these data are identified. In order to fully assess the impact of a disaster on an area, information about its predisaster status must be known. Aerial photography is one way of acquiring and recording such data.

  20. Uric acid: a starring role in the intricate scenario of metabolic syndrome with cardio-renal damage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stellato, Davide; Morrone, Luigi Francesco; Di Giorgio, Chiara; Gesualdo, Loreto

    2012-02-01

    Elevated uric acid levels are a common finding in patients with metabolic syndrome and in those with cardiovascular and renal disease, but the meaning of this elevation is still unclear. In patients with chronic kidney diseases, it could merely reflect the reduction in glomerular filtration rate: but uric acid levels are known to be elevated in people, also in younger ones, prior to the development of hypertension or renal disease, independently of several risk factors. Multiple potential mechanisms suggest a causative role for uric acid in vascular disease. Uric acid has been shown to be involved in metabolic pathways that lead to oxidative stress, endothelial disfunction, and to a vascular and systemic inflammatory response. Moreover, the elevation in uric acid levels observed after fructose ingestion, with a consequent reduction in nitric oxide, may lead to a reduced glucose uptake in the skeletal muscle, hyperinsulinemia, and insulin resistance. Besides these bench research data, also clinical studies showed the beneficial effects of lowering uric acid therapies on several markers of cardiovascular and renal disease. To date, however, there is no evidence indicating that such therapies, that are not free of risk, may reduce cardiovascular events; so that to manage our prescriptions, we need larger, prospective, interventional data.

  1. The potential role of nintedanib in treating colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Antonio; Latiano, Tiziana Pia; Parente, Paola; Chiarazzo, Cinzia; Limosani, Filomena; Di Maggio, Gabriele; Maiello, Evaristo

    2017-08-01

    Angiogenesis leads to the growth, progression, and metastases of a variety of solid tumors, including metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC), involving particularly the family of vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGF) and their receptors (VEGFR). Several anti-angiogenic inhibitors are already registered for mCRC therapy: bevacizumab, aflibercept, ramucirumab, regorafenib. Nintedanib is a new triple angiokinase oral inhibitor that potently blocks the proangiogenic pathways mediated by VEGFR, platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR), and fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR). Areas covered: The current state-of-the-art of anti-angiogenic inhibitors employed in the treatment mCRC patients, and in particular the role of nintedanib in this setting, is reviewed and discussed here. A structured search of bibliographic databases for peer-reviewed research literature and of main meetings using a focused review question was undertaken. Expert opinion: In first-line therapy, a phase II randomized trial showed that nintedanib plus chemotherapy was not inferior to the bevacizumab-based regimen. In heavily pretreated mCRC patients nintedanib improved some outcomes. During the natural history of mCRC resistances to anti-angiogenic therapies can set in and in this context, nintedanib, due to its triple inhibition, might play a role in compensatory angiogenesis overcoming the resistance developed due to VEGF directed therapy.

  2. The potential role of Neutral Beam Injection in EU DEMO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincenzi, Pietro; Artaud, Jean-Francois; Bolzonella, Tommaso; Giruzzi, Gerardo

    2016-10-01

    EU DEMO studies for pulsed (DEMO1) and steady-state (DEMO2) concepts are currently in the pre-conceptual phase. Present DEMO1 design is based on ITER baseline H-mode scenario, while DEMO2 is based on advanced scenarios with moderate reversed q profile sustained by non-inductive currents. One of the possible flattop heating power systems currently considered is Neutral Beam Injection (NBI). In this work the role of NBI in DEMO1 and DEMO2 is investigated by means of integrated simulations of DEMO scenarios using METIS fast tokamak modelling tool. Limitations, requirements and benefits of the use of a NBI system are discussed. For DEMO1 pulsed concept, the role of NBI is mainly central plasma heating for scenario stability (high fusion power H-mode). As a by-product of the tangential injection, NBI is capable of current drive, which is favorable in order to extend the discharge duration. Regarding a steady-state DEMO2 concept, in addition to plasma heating, NBI becomes a direct actuator for the advanced scenario by driving a considerable part of the plasma current. This requires more than 100MW with off-axis injection. The effect of an increase of the injection energy on the driven current density profile is also presented for DEMO2.

  3. The Role of Uric Acid in Hypertension of Adolescents, Prehypertension and Salt Sensitivity of Blood Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Hu, Jia-Wen; Lv, Yong-Bo; Chu, Chao; Wang, Ke-Ke; Zheng, Wen-Ling; Cao, Yu-Meng; Yuan, Zu-Yi; Mu, Jian-Jun

    2017-02-13

    Uric acid is the end product of purine metabolism. Metabolic disorders of uric acid are associated with many disease states. Substantial evidence suggests the possible role of uric acid as a mediator of high blood pressure. Elevated uric acid is closely associated with new onset essential hypertension in adolescents and prehypertension; and urate-lowering agents can significantly improve these early stages of hypertension. Uric acid also influences salt sensitivity of blood pressure through two phases. Local renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system activation initiates renal damage, arteriolopathy, and endothelium dysfunction, which is followed by the dysregulation of sodium homeostasis, thereby leading to increased salt sensitivity. In this review we summarize the available evidence to contribute to a better understanding of the casual relationship between uric acid and early or intermediate stages of hypertension. We hope our review can contribute to the prevention of hypertension or provide new insights into a treatment that would slow the progression of hypertension.

  4. The role of omega-3 fatty acids in adult hippocampal neurogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyall Simon C.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Neurogenesis occurs in limited areas of the adult mammalian brain, and has been reported in the hippocampus of rodents and man. Neurogenesis is enhanced in conditions associated with enhanced synaptic plasticity and following neuronal injury, suggesting a role for neurogenesis in cognition and brain repair. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs have been shown to promote hippocampal neurogenesis in a variety of models. Importantly, recent work has shown that the fat-1 transgenic mouse, an animal model of endogenous omega-3 PUFA enrichment, exhibits enhanced neurogenesis, with concomitant improvements in spatial memory compared to wild type mice. During ageing, the rate of neurogenesis declines significantly and there is a strong correlation between memory impairment in hippocampal-dependent tasks and this decline. Interestingly, there is a strong correlation between omega-3 PUFA and hippocampal-dependent memory tasks, and we have recently shown that supplementation of aged rats with omega-3 PUFAs partially reverses the age-related decline in neurogenesis. Thus omega-3 PUFAs positively influence neurogenesis, and these effects may contribute to improved cognitive performance. However, the mechanisms by which omega-3 PUFAs regulate neurogenesis remain unclear, although a number or putative targets have been suggested. The aims of this paper are to review the role of omega-3 PUFA in hippocampal neurogenesis, and explore some of the potential mechanisms of action which may underlie the observed effects.

  5. Role of Dietary Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Infant Allergies and Respiratory Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynette P. Shek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Maternal nutrition has critical effects on the developing structures and functions of the fetus. Malnutrition during pregnancy can result in low birth weight and small for gestational age babies, increase risk for infection, and impact the immune system. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs have been reported to have immunomodulatory effects. Decreased consumption of omega-6 PUFAs, in favor of more anti-inflammatory omega-3 PUFAs in modern diets, has demonstrated the potential protective role of omega-3 PUFAs in allergic and respiratory diseases. In this paper, we examine the role of PUFAs consumption during pregnancy and early childhood and its influence on allergy and respiratory diseases. PUFAs act via several mechanisms to modulate immune function. Omega-3 PUFAs may alter the T helper (Th cell balance by inhibiting cytokine production which in turn inhibits immunoglobulin E synthesis and Th type 2 cell differentiation. PUFAs may further modify cellular membrane, induce eicosanoid metabolism, and alter gene expression. These studies indicate the benefits of omega-3 PUFAs supplementation. Nevertheless, further investigations are warranted to assess the long-term effects of omega-3 PUFAs in preventing other immune-mediated diseases, as well as its effects on the later immunodefense and health status during early growth and development.

  6. The role of whey acidic protein four-disulfide-core proteins in respiratory health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Donna M; Doherty, Declan F; Dougan, Caoifa M; Weldon, Sinéad; Taggart, Clifford C

    2017-04-01

    Members of the whey acidic protein (WAP) or WAP four-disulfide-core (WFDC) family of proteins are a relatively under-explored family of low molecular weight proteins. The two most prominent WFDC proteins, secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI) and elafin (or the precursor, trappin-2), have been shown to possess multiple functions including anti-protease, anti-bacterial, anti-viral and anti-inflammatory properties. It is therefore of no surprise that both SLPI and elafin/trappin-2 have been developed as potential therapeutics. Given the abundance of SLPI and elafin/trappin-2 in the human lung, most work in the area of WFDC research has focused on the role of WFDC proteins in protecting the lung from proteolytic attack. In this review, we will outline the current evidence regarding the expanding role of WFDC protein function with a focus on WFDC activity in lung disease as well as emerging data regarding the function of some of the more recently described WFDC proteins.

  7. The human milk microbiota: origin and potential roles in health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Leónides; Langa, Susana; Martín, Virginia; Maldonado, Antonio; Jiménez, Esther; Martín, Rocío; Rodríguez, Juan M

    2013-03-01

    Human milk has been traditionally considered sterile; however, recent studies have shown that it represents a continuous supply of commensal, mutualistic and/or potentially probiotic bacteria to the infant gut. Culture-dependent and -independent techniques have revealed the dominance of staphylococci, streptococci, lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria in this biological fluid, and their role on the colonization of the infant gut. These bacteria could protect the infant against infections and contribute to the maturation of the immune system, among other functions. Different studies suggest that some bacteria present in the maternal gut could reach the mammary gland during late pregnancy and lactation through a mechanism involving gut monocytes. Thus, modulation of maternal gut microbiota during pregnancy and lactation could have a direct effect on infant health. On the other hand, mammary dysbiosis may lead to mastitis, a condition that represents the first medical cause for undesired weaning. Selected strains isolated from breast milk can be good candidates for use as probiotics. In this review, their potential uses for the treatment of mastitis and to inhibit mother-to-infant transfer of HIV are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Role and Potential of Direct Interspecies Electron Transfer in Anaerobic Digestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gahyun Baek

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic digestion (AD is an effective biological treatment for stabilizing organic compounds in waste/wastewater and in simultaneously producing biogas. However, it is often limited by the slow reaction rates of different microorganisms’ syntrophic biological metabolisms. Stable and fast interspecies electron transfer (IET between volatile fatty acid-oxidizing bacteria and hydrogenotrophic methanogens is crucial for efficient methanogenesis. In this syntrophic interaction, electrons are exchanged via redox mediators such as hydrogen and formate. Recently, direct IET (DIET has been revealed as an important IET route for AD. Microorganisms undergoing DIET form interspecies electrical connections via membrane-associated cytochromes and conductive pili; thus, redox mediators are not required for electron exchange. This indicates that DIET is more thermodynamically favorable than indirect IET. Recent studies have shown that conductive materials (e.g., iron oxides, activated carbon, biochar, and carbon fibers can mediate direct electrical connections for DIET. Microorganisms attach to conductive materials’ surfaces or vice versa according to particle size, and form conductive biofilms or aggregates. Different conductive materials promote DIET and improve AD performance in digesters treating different feedstocks, potentially suggesting a new approach to enhancing AD performance. This review discusses the role and potential of DIET in methanogenic systems, especially with conductive materials for promoting DIET.

  9. Oleanolic Acid and Its Derivatives: Biological Activities and Therapeutic Potential in Chronic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taiwo Betty Ayeleso

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The increasing demand for natural products as an alternative therapy for chronic diseases has encouraged research into the pharmacological importance of bioactive compounds from plants. Recently, there has been a surge of interest in the therapeutic potential of oleanolic acid (OA in the prevention and management of chronic diseases. Oleanolic acid is a pentacyclic triterpenoid widely found in plants, including fruits and vegetables with different techniques and chromatography platforms being employed in its extraction and isolation. Several studies have demonstrated the potential therapeutic effects of OA on different diseases and their symptoms. Furthermore, oleanolic acid also serves as a framework for the development of novel semi-synthetic triterpenoids that could prove vital in finding therapeutic modalities for various ailments. There are recent advances in the design and synthesis of chemical derivatives of OA to enhance its solubility, bioavailability and potency. Some of these derivatives have also been therapeutic candidates in a number of clinical trials. This review consolidates and expands on recent reports on the biological effects of oleanolic acid from different plant sources and its synthetic derivatives as well as their mechanisms of action in in vitro and in vivo study models. This review suggests that oleanolic acid and its derivatives are important candidates in the search for alternative therapy in the treatment and management of chronic diseases.

  10. Opioid Tolerance and Physical Dependence: Role of Spinal Neuropeptides, Excitatory Amino Acids and Their Messengers

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    Khem Jhamandas

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic opioid treatment results in the development of tolerance and physical dependence. The mechanisms underlying opioid tolerance and/or physical dependence are unclear. Recent studies suggest that opioid receptor or nociceptive, neural network-based adaptations contribute to this phenomenon. At the spinal level, the genesis of tolerance and physical dependence is associated with increased excitatory amino acid activity expressed through N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors in the dorsal horn. However, recent evidence also implicates spinal neuropeptide transmitters such as calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP and  substance P in the development of opioid tolerance. Long term spinal morphine treatment increases CGRP-like immunostaining in the dorsal horn, and coadministration of morphine with CGRP8-37, a competitive CGRP1 receptor antagonist, prevents this response as well as loss of the analgesic potency. CGRP8-37, like N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists, has the potential to restore morphine potency in experimental animals who are already tolerant to the opioid agonist. Recent evidence suggests that the effects of excitatory amino acid and neuropeptide receptor activity may be expressed through the generation of messengers such as nitric oxide and prostanoids. Agents that inhibit the synthesis of nitric oxide and prostanoids have the potential to inhibit and reverse spinal opioid tolerance, suggesting that this phenomenon may be expressed through the activity of these mediators. Nociceptive transmission in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord also involves activity of a number of other mediators including morphine modulatory neuropeptides, neuropeptide FF  and neuropeptide SF. The role of these mediators and their relationship with other factors implicated in tolerance remain to be determined.

  11. Amino acid profiles as potential biomarkers for pediatric cancers: a preliminary communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Synakiewicz, Anna; Sawicka-Zukowska, Malgorzata; Adrianowska, Natalia; Galezowska, Grazyna; Ratajczyk, Joanna; Owczarzak, Anna; Konieczna, Lucyna; Stachowicz-Stencel, Teresa

    2017-08-03

    Childhood cancer remains one of the main cause of death in the pediatric population. Amino acids (AAs) level alterations in plasma are considered to play a role in carcinogenesis and further course of the disease. Seventy-seven children with cancer, including 47 with hematological and 30 with solid tumors were enrolled in this study and compared with healthy children. Twenty-two plasma-free AAs were determined by HPLC with fluorometric detection. The results revealed significant decrease in glutamine levels for oncological patients and significant increase in aspartic acid, glutamic acid, asparagine, serine, citrulline, alanine, GABA, tryptophan, methionine, valine, phenylalanine and isoleucine levels in cancer children versus control. Plasma-free AA profile as a biomarker, which combines metabolic and clinical data, as an innovative and interdisciplinary approach, may allow for faster detection of tumor occurrence, and in the future for monitoring patient during treatment, and possible prediction of cancer recurrence.

  12. Myristic acid potentiates palmitic acid-induced lipotoxicity and steatohepatitis associated with lipodystrophy by sustaning de novo ceramide synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Laura; Torres, Sandra; Baulies, Anna; Alarcón-Vila, Cristina; Elena, Montserrat; Fabriàs, Gemma; Casas, Josefina; Caballeria, Joan; Fernandez-Checa, Jose C; García-Ruiz, Carmen

    2015-12-08

    Palmitic acid (PA) induces hepatocyte apoptosis and fuels de novo ceramide synthesis in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Myristic acid (MA), a free fatty acid highly abundant in copra/palmist oils, is a predictor of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and stimulates ceramide synthesis. Here we investigated the synergism between MA and PA in ceramide synthesis, ER stress, lipotoxicity and NASH. Unlike PA, MA is not lipotoxic but potentiated PA-mediated lipoapoptosis, ER stress, caspase-3 activation and cytochrome c release in primary mouse hepatocytes (PMH). Moreover, MA kinetically sustained PA-induced total ceramide content by stimulating dehydroceramide desaturase and switched the ceramide profile from decreased to increased ceramide 14:0/ceramide16:0, without changing medium and long-chain ceramide species. PMH were more sensitive to equimolar ceramide14:0/ceramide16:0 exposure, which mimics the outcome of PA plus MA treatment on ceramide homeostasis, than to either ceramide alone. Treatment with myriocin to inhibit ceramide synthesis and tauroursodeoxycholic acid to prevent ER stress ameliorated PA plus MA induced apoptosis, similar to the protection afforded by the antioxidant BHA, the pan-caspase inhibitor z-VAD-Fmk and JNK inhibition. Moreover, ruthenium red protected PMH against PA and MA-induced cell death. Recapitulating in vitro findings, mice fed a diet enriched in PA plus MA exhibited lipodystrophy, hepatosplenomegaly, increased liver ceramide content and cholesterol levels, ER stress, liver damage, inflammation and fibrosis compared to mice fed diets enriched in PA or MA alone. The deleterious effects of PA plus MA-enriched diet were largely prevented by in vivo myriocin treatment. These findings indicate a causal link between ceramide synthesis and ER stress in lipotoxicity, and imply that the consumption of diets enriched in MA and PA can cause NASH associated with lipodystrophy.

  13. Antibodies and their receptors: different potential roles in mucosal defence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel eHorton

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Over recent years it has become increasingly apparent that mucosal antibodies are not only restricted to the IgM and IgA isotypes, but that also other isotypes and particularly IgG can be found in significant quantities at some mucosal surfaces, such as in the genital tract. Their role is more complex than traditionally believed with, among other things, the discovery of novel function of mucosal immunoglobulin receptors. A thorough knowledge in the source and function and mucosal immunoglobulins is particularly important in development of vaccines providing mucosal immunity, and also in the current climate of microbicide development, to combat major world health issues such as HIV. We present here a comprehensive review of human antibody mediated mucosal immunity.

  14. Potential Role of Probiotics in Mechanism of Intestinal Immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran Rashid Rajput and Wei Fen Li*

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics are nonpathogenic bacteria exert a constructive influence on health or physiology of the host. Effect of probiotics in the intestinal defense against variety of diseases is well known. The probiotics are involved in the mechanism of intestinal defense, support as antagonist against pathogens, improve intestinal epithelial layer and boost the innate as well as adaptive immunity. However these responses are also exerted by intestinal components. The intestinal components as well as probiotics play a reciprocal role to enhance the immune response of the individual. The possibilities of mechanism of action include the stimulation of epithelial cells, activation of dendritic cells via toll-like receptors (TLRs, conversely produce cytokines. These observations reviewed together advocate that specific immunomodulatory properties of probiotic bacteria should be focusing on mechanism of action via antigen presenting cells (APC.

  15. Electrospun fibers of acid-labile biodegradable polymers with acetal groups as potential drug carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Wenguo; Qi, Mingbo; Li, Xiaohong; Huang, Shaozhou; Zhou, Shaobing; Weng, Jie

    2008-09-01

    The local delivery and controllable release profiles make electrospun ultrafine fibers as potential implantable drug carriers and functional coatings of medical devices. Till date there is no literature report on drug delivery from acid-labile electrospun fibers, whose degradation and drug release behaviors respond to the local pathological pH environment. Acid-labile groups have been incorporated into nonbiodegradable backbones as crosslinkers or linkers of the side chains. A novel strategy was developed in this study to synthesize acid-labile polymers by introducing acetal groups into biodegradable backbone of poly(dl-lactide)-poly(ethylene glycol). In vitro release study showed that the total amount of drug released from acid-labile polymeric fibers was accelerated on account of pH-induced structural and morphological changes of fibrous mats and the degradation of matrix polymers, and the burst release was significant higher for polymers with higher contents of acid-labile segments. During the investigational period, almost no molecular weight reduction and mass loss was detected in neutral buffer solutions, but the degradation was enhanced in acid buffers with a two-stage degradation profile. Surface erosion mechanism was initially detected for fibrous mats with distinct fiber morphologies, and bulk degradation was determined during the following incubation for polymeric films resulting from the morphological changes.

  16. Phytochemistry and potential therapeutic actions of Boswellic acids: A mini-review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farah Iram

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The pentacyclic triterpenic acids isolated from the oleo gum resin of various Boswellia species are collectively called as Boswellic acids (BA. The oleo gum resin obtained from Indian variety i.e. Boswellia serrata (Family – Burseraceae is commonly known as Salai guggal. The resin fraction of Salai guggal is rich in Boswellic acids and its essential oil is composed of a mixture of mono, di and sesquiterpenes while gum fraction chiefly contains pentose and hexose sugars. This oleo-gum resin is quite popular among traditional practitioners of traditional Chinese and Indian Systems of medicine owing to their wide range of useful biological properties such as anti-inflammatory, anti-arthritic, anti-rheumatic, anti-diarrheal, anti-hyperlipidemic, anti-asthmatic, anti-cancer, anti-microbial anti-fungal, anti-complementary and analgesic activity, etc. It has been used as a herbal medicine since the prehistoric time to cure acute and chronic ailments including inflammatory diseases. Phytochemical investigation of this herbal medicine lead to identification of Boswellic acids which are found to be novel, potent, specific anti-inflammatory agents due to non-redox inhibition of 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO enzyme. However, the other important targets of Boswellic acids also include topoisomerases, angiogenesis, and cytochrome p450 enzymes. This review is a sincere attempt to discuss and present the current status of therapeutic potential, phytochemical as well as pharmacological profile of Boswellic acids primarily obtained from B. serrata.

  17. Polyunsaturated Fatty acids of marine macroalgae: potential for nutritional and pharmaceutical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Hugo; Barreira, Luísa; Figueiredo, Filipe; Custódio, Luísa; Vizetto-Duarte, Catarina; Polo, Cristina; Rešek, Eva; Engelen, Aschwin; Varela, João

    2012-09-01

    As mammals are unable to synthesize essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), these compounds need to be taken in through diet. Nowadays, obtaining essential PUFA in diet is becoming increasingly difficult; therefore this work investigated the suitability of using macroalgae as novel dietary sources of PUFA. Hence, 17 macroalgal species from three different phyla (Chlorophyta, Phaeophyta and Rhodophyta) were analyzed and their fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) profile was assessed. Each phylum presented a characteristic fatty acid signature as evidenced by clustering of PUFA profiles of algae belonging to the same phylum in a Principal Components Analysis. The major PUFA detected in all phyla were C(18) and C(20), namely linoleic, arachidonic and eicosapentaenoic acids. The obtained data showed that rhodophytes and phaeophytes have higher concentrations of PUFA, particularly from the n-3 series, thereby being a better source of these compounds. Moreover, rhodophytes and phaeophytes presented "healthier" ∑n-6/∑n-3 and PUFA/saturated fatty acid ratios than chlorophytes. Ulva was an exception within the Chlorophyta, as it presented high concentrations of n-3 PUFA, α-linolenic acid in particular. In conclusion, macroalgae can be considered as a potential source for large-scale production of essential PUFA with wide applications in the nutraceutical and pharmacological industries.

  18. Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids of Marine Macroalgae: Potential for Nutritional and Pharmaceutical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Varela

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available As mammals are unable to synthesize essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, these compounds need to be taken in through diet. Nowadays, obtaining essential PUFA in diet is becoming increasingly difficult; therefore this work investigated the suitability of using macroalgae as novel dietary sources of PUFA. Hence, 17 macroalgal species from three different phyla (Chlorophyta, Phaeophyta and Rhodophyta were analyzed and their fatty acid methyl esters (FAME profile was assessed. Each phylum presented a characteristic fatty acid signature as evidenced by clustering of PUFA profiles of algae belonging to the same phylum in a Principal Components Analysis. The major PUFA detected in all phyla were C18 and C20, namely linoleic, arachidonic and eicosapentaenoic acids. The obtained data showed that rhodophytes and phaeophytes have higher concentrations of PUFA, particularly from the n-3 series, thereby being a better source of these compounds. Moreover, rhodophytes and phaeophytes presented “healthier” ∑n-6/∑n-3 and PUFA/saturated fatty acid ratios than chlorophytes. Ulva was an exception within the Chlorophyta, as it presented high concentrations of n-3 PUFA, α-linolenic acid in particular. In conclusion, macroalgae can be considered as a potential source for large-scale production of essential PUFA with wide applications in the nutraceutical and pharmacological industries.

  19. Potential Biological Applications of Bio-Based Anacardic Acids and Their Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma B. Hamad

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Cashew nut shells (CNS, which are agro wastes from cashew nut processing factories, have proven to be among the most versatile bio-based renewable materials in the search for functional materials and chemicals from renewable resources. CNS are produced in the cashew nut processing process as waste, but they contain cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL up to about 30–35 wt. % of the nut shell weight depending on the method of extraction. CNSL is a mixture of anacardic acid, cardanol, cardol, and methyl cardol, and the structures of these phenols offer opportunities for the development of diverse products. For anacardic acid, the combination of phenolic, carboxylic, and a 15-carbon alkyl side chain functional group makes it attractive in biological applications or as a synthon for the synthesis of a multitude of bioactive compounds. Anacardic acid, which is about 65% of a CNSL mixture, can be extracted from the agro waste. This shows that CNS waste can be used to extract useful chemicals and thus provide alternative green sources of chemicals, apart from relying only on the otherwise declining petroleum based sources. This paper reviews the potential of anacardic acids and their semi-synthetic derivatives for antibacterial, antitumor, and antioxidant activities. The review focuses on natural anacardic acids from CNS and other plants and their semi-synthetic derivatives as possible lead compounds in medicine. In addition, the use of anacardic acid as a starting material for the synthesis of various biologically active compounds and complexes is reported.

  20. Potential Biological Applications of Bio-Based Anacardic Acids and Their Derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamad, Fatma B.; Mubofu, Egid B.

    2015-01-01

    Cashew nut shells (CNS), which are agro wastes from cashew nut processing factories, have proven to be among the most versatile bio-based renewable materials in the search for functional materials and chemicals from renewable resources. CNS are produced in the cashew nut processing process as waste, but they contain cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) up to about 30–35 wt. % of the nut shell weight depending on the method of extraction. CNSL is a mixture of anacardic acid, cardanol, cardol, and methyl cardol, and the structures of these phenols offer opportunities for the development of diverse products. For anacardic acid, the combination of phenolic, carboxylic, and a 15-carbon alkyl side chain functional group makes it attractive in biological applications or as a synthon for the synthesis of a multitude of bioactive compounds. Anacardic acid, which is about 65% of a CNSL mixture, can be extracted from the agro waste. This shows that CNS waste can be used to extract useful chemicals and thus provide alternative green sources of chemicals, apart from relying only on the otherwise declining petroleum based sources. This paper reviews the potential of anacardic acids and their semi-synthetic derivatives for antibacterial, antitumor, and antioxidant activities. The review focuses on natural anacardic acids from CNS and other plants and their semi-synthetic derivatives as possible lead compounds in medicine. In addition, the use of anacardic acid as a starting material for the synthesis of various biologically active compounds and complexes is reported. PMID:25894225

  1. Changes in oxidative potential of soil and fly ash after reaction with gaseous nitric acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Ying; Ginder-Vogel, Matthew; Shafer, Martin M.; Rudich, Yinon; Pardo, Michal; Katra, Itzhak; Katoshevski, David; Schauer, James J.

    2018-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the impact of simulated atmospheric aging on the oxidative potential of inorganic aerosols comprised primarily of crustal materials. Four soil samples and one coal fly ash sample were artificially aged in the laboratory through exposure to the vapor from 15.8 M nitric acid solution for 24 h at room temperature. Native and acid-aged samples were analyzed with a cellular macrophage and acellular dithionthreitol assays to determine oxidative potential. Additionally, the samples were analyzed to determine the concentration of 50 elements, both total and the water-soluble fraction of these elements by Sector Field Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (SF-ICMS) and crystalline mineral composition using X-ray Diffraction (XRD). The results show that reactions with gaseous nitric acid increase the water-soluble fraction of many elements, including calcium, iron, magnesium, zinc, and lead. The mineral composition analysis documented that calcium-rich minerals present in the soils (e.g., calcite) are converted into different chemical forms, such as calcium nitrate (Ca(NO3)2). The nitric acid aging process, which can occur in the atmosphere, leads to a 200-600% increase in oxidative potential, as measured by cellular and acellular assays. This laboratory study demonstrates that the toxic effects of aged versus freshly emitted atmospheric dust may be quite different. In addition, the results suggest that mineralogical analysis of atmospheric dust may be useful in understanding its degree of aging.

  2. Hydrogen Isotopes in Amino Acids and Soils Offer New Potential to Study Complex Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogel, M. L.; Newsome, S. D.; Williams, E. K.; Bradley, C. J.; Griffin, P.; Nakamoto, B. J.

    2016-12-01

    Hydrogen isotopes have been analyzed extensively in the earth and biogeosciences to trace water through various environmental systems. The majority of the measurements have been made on water in rocks and minerals (inorganic) or non-exchangeable H in lipids (organic), important biomarkers that represent a small fraction of the organic molecules synthesized by living organisms. Our lab has been investigating hydrogen isotopes in amino acids and complex soil organic matter, which have traditionally been thought to be too complex to interpret owing to complications from potentially exchangeable hydrogen. For the amino acids, we show how hydrogen in amino acids originates from two sources, food and water, and demonstrate that hydrogen isotopes can be routed directly between organisms. Amino acid hydrogen isotopes may unravel cycling in extremophiles in order to discover novel biochemical pathways central to the organism. For soil organic matter, recent approaches to understanding the origin of soil organic matter are pointing towards root exudates along with microbial biomass as the source, rather than aboveground leaf litter. Having an isotope tracer in very complex, potentially exchangeable organic matter can be handled with careful experimentation. Although no new instrumentation is being used per se, extension of classes of organic matter to isotope measurements has potential to open up new doors for understanding organic matter cycling on earth and in planetary materials.

  3. 3-Hydroxykynurenine oxidizes alpha-crystallin: potential role in cataractogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korlimbinis, Anastasia; Hains, Peter G; Truscott, Roger J W; Aquilina, J Andrew

    2006-02-14

    The alpha-, beta-, and gamma-crystallins are the major structural proteins of mammalian lenses. The human lens also contains tryptophan-derived UV filters, which are known to spontaneously deaminate at physiological pH and covalently attach to lens proteins. 3-Hydroxykynurenine (3OHKyn) is the third most abundant of the kynurenine UV filters in the lens, and previous studies have shown this compound to be unstable and to be oxidized under physiological conditions, producing H2O2. In this study, we show that methionine and tryptophan amino acid residues are oxidized when bovine alpha-crystallin is incubated with 3-hydroxykynurenine. We observed almost complete oxidation of methionines 1 and 138 in alphaA-crystallin and a similar extent of oxidation of methionines 1 and 68 in alphaB-crystallin after 48 h. Tryptophans 9 and 60 in alphaB-crystallin were oxidized to a lesser extent. AlphaA-crystallin was also found to have 3OHKyn bound to its single cysteine residue. Examination of normal aged human lenses revealed no evidence of oxidation of alpha-crystallin; however, oxidation was detected at methionine 1 in both alphaA- and alphaB-crystallin from human cataractous lenses. Age-related nuclear cataract is associated with coloration and insolubilization of lens proteins and extensive oxidation of cysteine and methionine residues. Our findings demonstrate that 3-hydroxykynurenine can readily catalyze the oxidation of methionine residues in both alphaB- and alphaA-crystallin, and it has been reported that alpha-crystallin modified in this way is a poorer chaperone. Thus, 3-hydroxykynurenine promotes the oxidation and modification of crystallins and may contribute to oxidative stress in the human lens.

  4. The Role for Dietary Omega-3 Fatty Acids Supplementation in Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessio Molfino

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Optimal nutrition is one of the most important determinants of healthier ageing, reducing the risk of disability, maintaining mental and physical functions, and thus preserving and ensuring a better quality of life. Dietary intake and nutrient absorption decline with age, thus increasing the risk of malnutrition, morbidity and mortality. Specific nutrients, particularly long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs, might have the potential of preventing and reducing co-morbidities in older adults. Omega-3 PUFAs are able to modulate inflammation, hyperlipidemia, platelet aggregation, and hypertension. Different mechanisms contribute to these effects, including conditioning cell membrane function and composition, eicosanoid production, and gene expression. The present review analyzes the influence of omega-3 PUFAs status and intake on brain function, cardiovascular system, immune function, muscle performance and bone health in older adults. Omega-3 FAs may have substantial benefits in reducing the risk of cognitive decline in older people. The available data encourage higher intakes of omega-3 PUFAs in the diet or via specific supplements. More studies are needed to confirm the role of omega-3 FAs in maintaining bone health and preventing the loss of muscle mass and function associated with ageing. In summary, omega-3 PUFAs are now identified as potential key nutrients, safe and effective in the treatment and prevention of several negative consequences of ageing.

  5. The role for dietary omega-3 fatty acids supplementation in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molfino, Alessio; Gioia, Gianfranco; Rossi Fanelli, Filippo; Muscaritoli, Maurizio

    2014-10-03

    Optimal nutrition is one of the most important determinants of healthier ageing, reducing the risk of disability, maintaining mental and physical functions, and thus preserving and ensuring a better quality of life. Dietary intake and nutrient absorption decline with age, thus increasing the risk of malnutrition, morbidity and mortality. Specific nutrients, particularly long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), might have the potential of preventing and reducing co-morbidities in older adults. Omega-3 PUFAs are able to modulate inflammation, hyperlipidemia, platelet aggregation, and hypertension. Different mechanisms contribute to these effects, including conditioning cell membrane function and composition, eicosanoid production, and gene expression. The present review analyzes the influence of omega-3 PUFAs status and intake on brain function, cardiovascular system, immune function, muscle performance and bone health in older adults. Omega-3 FAs may have substantial benefits in reducing the risk of cognitive decline in older people. The available data encourage higher intakes of omega-3 PUFAs in the diet or via specific supplements. More studies are needed to confirm the role of omega-3 FAs in maintaining bone health and preventing the loss of muscle mass and function associated with ageing. In summary, omega-3 PUFAs are now identified as potential key nutrients, safe and effective in the treatment and prevention of several negative consequences of ageing.

  6. Potential Benefits of Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Non-Melanoma Skin Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Black, Homer S.; Rhodes, Lesley E.

    2016-01-01

    Considerable circumstantial evidence has accrued from both experimental animal and human clinical studies that support a role for omega-3 fatty acids (FA) in the prevention of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC). Direct evidence from animal studies has shown that omega-3 FA inhibit ultraviolet radiation (UVR) induced carcinogenic expression. In contrast, increasing levels of dietary omega-6 FA increase UVR carcinogenic expression, with respect to a shorter tumor latent period and increased tumor ...

  7. The role of essential fatty acids and prostaglandins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, M A

    1980-08-01

    The FAO/WHO Rome Report recommended an increase in the consumption of fat in countries where malnutrition is endemic; for maintenance, 3% of the dietary energy as essential fatty acids (EFA) may be adequate; in pregnancy and lactation an additional 1.5 to 2.4% energy as EFA is needed. For population at high risk for atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease (CHD) the recommendations were to decrease saturated fat in particular and increase EFA intake in the diet, reduce sugar, alcohol and cholesterol. These recommendations were similar to those of the Royal College of Physicians but the report went further by saying that EFA loss through industrial hydrogenation should be minimized and associated nutrients such as vitamin E and carotene should be restored if lost in processing. In terms of production, they asked for an increase in edible plant oils in developing countries and requested that intensive animal feeding and breeding should be corrected to avoid the excess accumulation of saturated fats. In addition, the Rome Report requested meaningful labelling of amounts and quality of fat in foods containing added fats. The basic aims of the Report were to state the position of lipid nutrition. The issue of the nutrient correction in terms of CHD cannot properly be discussed without taking into account the essential components which are needed for the integrity and development of the vascular system.

  8. Role of fatty acids in Bacillus environmental adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Esther Diomande

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The large bacterial genus genus Bacillus is widely distributed in the environment and is able to colonize highly diverse niches. Some Bacillus species harbour pathogenic characteristics. The fatty acid (FA composition is among the essential criteria used to define Bacillus species. Some elements of the FA pattern composition are common to Bacillus species, whereas others are specific and can be categorized in relation to the ecological niches of the species. Bacillus species are able to modify their FA patterns to adapt to a wide range of environmental changes, including changes in the growth medium, temperature, food processing conditions, and pH. Like many other Gram-positive bacteria, Bacillus strains display a well-defined FA synthesis II system that is equilibrated with a FA degradation pathway and regulated to efficiently respond to the needs of the cell. Like endogenous FAs, exogenous FAs may positively or negatively affect the survival of Bacillus vegetative cells and the spore germination ability in a given environment. Some of these exogenous FAs may provide a powerful strategy for preserving food against contamination by the Bacillus pathogenic strains responsible for foodborne illness.

  9. Role of fatty acids in Bacillus environmental adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diomandé, Sara E.; Nguyen-The, Christophe; Guinebretière, Marie-Hélène; Broussolle, Véronique; Brillard, Julien

    2015-01-01

    The large bacterial genus Bacillus is widely distributed in the environment and is able to colonize highly diverse niches. Some Bacillus species harbor pathogenic characteristics. The fatty acid (FA) composition is among the essential criteria used to define Bacillus species. Some elements of the FA pattern composition are common to Bacillus species, whereas others are specific and can be categorized in relation to the ecological niches of the species. Bacillus species are able to modify their FA patterns to adapt to a wide range of environmental changes, including changes in the growth medium, temperature, food processing conditions, and pH. Like many other Gram-positive bacteria, Bacillus strains display a well-defined FA synthesis II system that is equilibrated with a FA degradation pathway and regulated to efficiently respond to the needs of the cell. Like endogenous FAs, exogenous FAs may positively or negatively affect the survival of Bacillus vegetative cells and the spore germination ability in a given environment. Some of these exogenous FAs may provide a powerful strategy for preserving food against contamination by the Bacillus pathogenic strains responsible for foodborne illness. PMID:26300876

  10. Scytonemin Plays a Potential Role in Stabilizing the Exopolysaccharidic Matrix in Terrestrial Cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiang

    2017-02-01

    Cyanobacteria are photosynthetic oxygen-evolving prokaryotes that are distributed in diverse habitats. They synthesize the ultraviolet (UV)-screening pigments, scytonemin (SCY) and mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs), located in the exopolysaccharide (EPS) matrix. Multiple roles for both pigments have gradually been recognized, such as sunscreen ability, antioxidant activity, and heat dissipation from absorbed UV radiation. In this study, a filamentous terrestrial cyanobacterium Nostoc flagelliforme was used to evaluate the potential stabilizing role of SCY on the EPS matrix. SCY (∼3.7 %) was partially removed from N. flagelliforme filaments by rinsing with 100 % acetone for 5 s. The physiological damage to cells resulting from this treatment, in terms of photosystem II activity parameter Fv/Fm, was repaired after culturing the sample for 40 h. The physiologically recovered sample was further desiccated by natural or rapid drying and then allowed to recovery for 24 h. Compared with the normal sample, a relatively slower Fv/Fm recovery was observed in the SCY-partially removed sample, suggesting that the decreased SCY concentration in the EPS matrix caused cells to suffer further damage upon desiccation. In addition, the SCY-partially removed sample could allow the release of MAAs (∼25 %) from the EPS matrix, while the normal sample did not. Therefore, damage caused by drying of the former resulted from at least the reduction of structural stability of the EPS matrix as well as the loss of partial antioxidant compounds. Considering that an approximately 4 % loss of SCY led to this significant effect, the structurally stabilizing potential of SCY on the EPS matrix is crucial for terrestrial cyanobacteria survival in complex environments.

  11. On the potential role of glutamate transport in mental fatigue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansson Elisabeth

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Mental fatigue, with decreased concentration capacity, is common in neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases, often appearing prior to other major mental or physical neurological symptoms. Mental fatigue also makes rehabilitation more difficult after a stroke, brain trauma, meningitis or encephalitis. As increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines are reported in these disorders, we wanted to explore whether or not proinflammatory cytokines could induce mental fatigue, and if so, by what mechanisms. It is well known that proinflammatory cytokines are increased in major depression, "sickness behavior" and sleep deprivation, which are all disorders associated with mental fatigue. Furthermore, an influence by specific proinflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin (IL-1, on learning and memory capacities has been observed in several experimental systems. As glutamate signaling is crucial for information intake and processing within the brain, and due to the pivotal role for glutamate in brain metabolism, dynamic alterations in glutamate transmission could be of pathophysiological importance in mental fatigue. Based on this literature and observations from our own laboratory and others on the role of astroglial cells in the fine-tuning of glutamate neurotransmission we present the hypothesis that the proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-1β and IL-6 could be involved in the pathophysiology of mental fatigue through their ability to attenuate the astroglial clearance of extracellular glutamate, their disintegration of the blood brain barrier, and effects on astroglial metabolism and metabolic supply for the neurons, thereby attenuating glutamate transmission. To test whether our hypothesis is valid or not, brain imaging techniques should be applied with the ability to register, over time and with increasing cognitive loading, the extracellular concentrations of glutamate and potassium (K+ in humans suffering from

  12. On the potential role of glutamate transport in mental fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rönnbäck, Lars; Hansson, Elisabeth

    2004-11-04

    Mental fatigue, with decreased concentration capacity, is common in neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases, often appearing prior to other major mental or physical neurological symptoms. Mental fatigue also makes rehabilitation more difficult after a stroke, brain trauma, meningitis or encephalitis. As increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines are reported in these disorders, we wanted to explore whether or not proinflammatory cytokines could induce mental fatigue, and if so, by what mechanisms.It is well known that proinflammatory cytokines are increased in major depression, "sickness behavior" and sleep deprivation, which are all disorders associated with mental fatigue. Furthermore, an influence by specific proinflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-1, on learning and memory capacities has been observed in several experimental systems. As glutamate signaling is crucial for information intake and processing within the brain, and due to the pivotal role for glutamate in brain metabolism, dynamic alterations in glutamate transmission could be of pathophysiological importance in mental fatigue. Based on this literature and observations from our own laboratory and others on the role of astroglial cells in the fine-tuning of glutamate neurotransmission we present the hypothesis that the proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha, IL-1beta and IL-6 could be involved in the pathophysiology of mental fatigue through their ability to attenuate the astroglial clearance of extracellular glutamate, their disintegration of the blood brain barrier, and effects on astroglial metabolism and metabolic supply for the neurons, thereby attenuating glutamate transmission. To test whether our hypothesis is valid or not, brain imaging techniques should be applied with the ability to register, over time and with increasing cognitive loading, the extracellular concentrations of glutamate and potassium (K+) in humans suffering from mental fatigue. At

  13. Cannabinoids: is there a potential treatment role in epilepsy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Robert E; Deshpande, Laxmikant S; DeLorenzo, Robert J

    2015-01-01

    Cannabinoids have been used medicinally for centuries, and in the last decade, attention has focused on their broad therapeutic potential particularly in seizure management. While some cannabinoids have demonstrated anticonvulsant activity in experimental studies, their efficacy for managing clinical seizures has not been fully established. This commentary will touch on our understanding of the brain endocannabinoid system's regulation of synaptic transmission in both physiological and pathophysiological conditions, and review the findings from both experimental and clinical studies on the effectiveness of cannabinoids to suppress epileptic seizures. At present, there is preliminary evidence that non-psychoactive cannabinoids may be useful as anticonvulsants, but additional clinical trials are needed to fully evaluate the efficacy and safety of these compounds for the treatment of epilepsy.

  14. The potential roles of nanobiomaterials in distraction osteogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhdom, Asim M; Nayef, Lamees; Tabrizian, Maryam; Hamdy, Reggie C

    2015-01-01

    Distraction osteogenesis (DO) technique is used worldwide to treat many orthopedic conditions. Although successful, one limitation of this technique is the extended period of fixators until the bone is consolidated. The application of growth factors (GFs) is one promising approach to accelerate bone regeneration during DO. Despite promising in vivo results, its use is still limited in the clinic. This is secondary to inherent limitations of these GFs. Therefore, a development of delivery systems that allow sustained sequential release is necessary. Nanoparticles and nanocomposites have prevailing properties that can overcome the limitations of the current delivery systems. In addition, their use can overcome the current challenges associated with the insufficient mechanical properties of scaffolds and suboptimal osteogenic differentiation of transplanted cells in the distraction gap. We discuss the clinical implications, and potential early applications of the nanoparticles and nanocomposites for developing new treatments to accelerate bone regeneration in DO. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The role of local voltage potentials in outflow tract ectopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, P.E.B.; Johannessen, A.; Jons, C.

    2010-01-01

    Discrete, fragmented, local voltage potentials (LVPs) have been observed in electrograms recorded at the ablation site in patients undergoing radiofrequency ablation for arrhythmias originating in both the right and left ventricular outflow tract; however, the incidence and the significance...... of the LVP with respect to arrhythmogenesis is uncertain. We studied 25 patients with outflow tract arrhythmias referred for radiofrequency catheter ablation and recorded high-amplified intracardiac electrograms close to the site of origin of the arrhythmia. Ten patients undergoing ablation...... in the ventricular premature beats. In 10 patients, ventricular parasystole was suggested by varying coupling intervals > 100 ms, and fusion beats allowing for the estimation of the least common denominator of R-R intervals. In 23 of the 25 patients, the 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) and intracardiac contact...

  16. The potential role of dopamine D₃ receptor neurotransmission in cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Shinichiro; Gerretsen, Philip; Takeuchi, Hiroyoshi; Caravaggio, Fernando; Chow, Tiffany; Le Foll, Bernard; Mulsant, Benoit; Pollock, Bruce; Graff-Guerrero, Ariel

    2013-08-01

    Currently available treatments have limited pro-cognitive effects for neuropsychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease. The primary objective of this work is to review the literature on the role of dopamine D₃ receptors in cognition, and propose dopamine D₃ receptor antagonists as possible cognitive enhancers for neuropsychiatric disorders. A literature search was performed to identify animal and human studies on D₃ receptors and cognition using PubMed, MEDLINE and EMBASE. The search terms included "dopamine D₃ receptor" and "cognition". The literature search identified 164 articles. The results revealed: (1) D₃ receptors are associated with cognitive functioning in both healthy individuals and those with neuropsychiatric disorders; (2) D₃ receptor blockade appears to enhance while D₃ receptor agonism seems to impair cognitive function, including memory, attention, learning, processing speed, social recognition and executive function independent of age; and (3) D₃ receptor antagonists may exert their pro-cognitive effect by enhancing the release of acetylcholine in the prefrontal cortex, disinhibiting the activity of dopamine neurons projecting to the nucleus accumbens or prefrontal cortex, or activating CREB signaling in the hippocampus. These findings suggest that D₃ receptor blockade may enhance cognitive performance in healthy individuals and treat cognitive dysfunction in individuals with a neuropsychiatric disorder. Clinical trials are needed to confirm these effects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  17. The potential role of DNA methylation in abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryer, Evan J; Ronning, Kaitryn E; Erdman, Robert; Schworer, Charles M; Elmore, James R; Peeler, Thomas C; Nevius, Christopher D; Lillvis, John H; Garvin, Robert P; Franklin, David P; Kuivaniemi, Helena; Tromp, Gerard

    2015-05-18

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a complex disorder that has a significant impact on the aging population. While both genetic and environmental risk factors have been implicated in AAA formation, the precise genetic markers involved and the factors influencing their expression remain an area of ongoing investigation. DNA methylation has been previously used to study gene silencing in other inflammatory disorders and since AAA has an extensive inflammatory component, we sought to examine the genome-wide DNA methylation profiles in mononuclear blood cells of AAA cases and matched non-AAA controls. To this end, we collected blood samples and isolated mononuclear cells for DNA and RNA extraction from four all male groups: AAA smokers (n = 11), AAA non-smokers (n = 9), control smokers (n = 10) and control non-smokers (n = 11). Methylation data were obtained using the Illumina 450k Human Methylation Bead Chip and analyzed using the R language and multiple Bioconductor packages. Principal component analysis and linear analysis of CpG island subsets identified four regions with significant differences in methylation with respect to AAA: kelch-like family member 35 (KLHL35), calponin 2 (CNN2), serpin peptidase inhibitor clade B (ovalbumin) member 9 (SERPINB9), and adenylate cyclase 10 pseudogene 1 (ADCY10P1). Follow-up studies included RT-PCR and immunostaining for CNN2 and SERPINB9. These findings are novel and suggest DNA methylation may play a role in AAA pathobiology.

  18. SLE and pregnancy: the potential role for regulatory T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tower, Clare; Crocker, Ian; Chirico, Debora; Baker, Philip; Bruce, Ian

    2011-02-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multisystem autoimmune disorder that disproportionally affects women, especially in their reproductive years. SLE is associated with considerable pregnancy-related morbidity--including fetal loss, preterm birth, fetal growth restriction and pre-eclampsia. CD4+CD25+ regulatory T (T(REG)) cells have a potent immunosuppressive function and contribute to immunological self-tolerance. These cells might be essential for successful placental development by ensuring fetal tolerance. The numbers of T(REG) cells are augmented during normal pregnancy and, conversely, diminished numbers are associated with pregnancy loss and pre-eclampsia. Several studies have shown that patients with SLE have decreased numbers of T(REG) cells that might be functionally defective. This defective T(REG) cell functioning could predispose women with SLE to pregnancy complications. This article provides an overview of current knowledge of the role and function of T(REG) cells in SLE and pregnancy and how these cells might contribute to improving pregnancy-related outcomes in patients with SLE in the future.

  19. The Potential Role of Satellites in Detecting and Tracking Tsunamis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, T.

    2007-12-01

    Until the morning of December 26 2004 it was not entirely clear if a radar altimeter in polar-orbit around the Earth could detect a low amplitude tsunami wave travelling at high speed across the ocean surface. The answer came when by chance the satellite Jason flew over the Indian Ocean on that fateful morning and recorded a double- peaked wave with peak-to-trough amplitude of 80 cm. A constellation of fit-for-purpose microsatellites, equipped with radar altimeters, had already been proposed as a means of delivering continuous global observations on sea state to ships, platforms and forecasting centres. It will be demonstrated through a computer animation how such a system, working in conjunction with the global network of ground stations for detecting undersea earthquakes, could be instantly switched to pick up and track the progress of a tsunami. Furthermore, all studies carried out to date on the role of ocean currents and eddies in determining the global transport of heat, and its effect on future climate, have concluded that finer spatial resolution is required than that achieved today. It will be shown how this requirement could also be met by a constellation of altimeters. Various schemes for operating such a system will be discussed.

  20. Peripheral artery disease: potential role of ACE-inhibitor therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Coppola

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Giuseppe Coppola, Giuseppe Romano, Egle Corrado, Rosa Maria Grisanti, Salvatore NovoDepartment of Internal Medicine, Cardiovascular and Nephro-Urological Diseases, Chair of Cardiovascular Disease, University of Palermo, Palermo, ItalyAbstract: Subjects with peripheral arterial disease (PAD of the lower limbs are at high risk for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events and the prevalence of coronary artery disease in such patients is elevated. Recent studies have shown that regular use of cardiovascular medications, such as therapeutic and preventive agents for PAD patients, seems to be promising in reducing long-term mortality and morbidity. The angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE system plays an important role in the pathogenesis and progression of atherosclerosis, and ACE-inhibitors (ACE-I seem to have vasculoprotective and antiproliferative effects as well as a direct antiatherogenic effect. ACE-I also promote the degradation of bradykinin and the release of nitric oxide, a potent vasodilator; further, thay have shown important implications for vascular oxidative stress. Other studies have suggested that ACE-I may also improve endothelial dysfunction. ACE-I are useful for reducing the risk of cardiovascular events in clinical and subclinical PAD. Particularly, one agent of the class (ie, ramipril has shown in many studies to able to significantly reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients with PAD.Keywords: atherosclerosis, peripheral arterial disease, endothelial dysfunction, ACE-inhibitors

  1. Potential role of rivaroxaban in patients with acute coronary syndrome

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    Fitchett DH

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available David H FitchettDivision of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, St Michael's Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, CanadaAbstract: Patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS continue to be at risk for recurrent ischemic events, despite an early invasive strategy and the use of dual antiplatelet therapy. The anticoagulant pathway remains activated for a prolonged period after ACS and, consequently, has been a target for treatment. Early studies with warfarin indicated its benefit, but the risk of bleeding and the complexities of warfarin anticoagulation resulted in little use of this strategy. Rivaroxaban, apixaban, and dabigatran are new specific inhibitors of anticoagulant factors (Xa or IIa currently available for the prevention of thrombosis and/or thromboembolism. Thus far, studies with dabigatran and apixaban in ACS have shown no clinical benefit and bleeding has been increased. The ATLAS ACS 2-TIMI 51 trial observed the impact of rivaroxaban 2.5 mg and 5 mg twice daily in patients with recent ACS receiving current management (both early invasive strategy and dual antiplatelet therapy with aspirin and clopidogrel over a follow-up period of over 1 year. Rivaroxaban 2.5 mg twice daily reduced cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke by 16%, and both cardiovascular and all-cause mortality by approximately 20%. Although major bleeding increased from 0.6% to 2.1% and intracranial hemorrhage from 0.2% to 0.6%, there was no increase in fatal bleeding. The role of rivaroxaban in the management of ACS is discussed in this review. The reduction in mortality is the main finding that could lead to the use of rivaroxaban in the management of ACS in high-risk individuals with a low bleeding risk.Keywords: cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, stroke, anticoagulation, bleeding risk

  2. alpha-Methylene and glycidic acid analogs of IPPA as potential myocardial imaging agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruyan, M K; Bakan, D A; Skinner, R W; Newman, C; Gross, M D; Counsell, R E

    1995-01-01

    Using organozinc cross-coupling reactions, two radiolabeled analogs of 15-(p-iodophenyl) pentadecanoic acid (IPPA) have been designed and synthesized as potential scintigraphic imaging agents for the heart. Both 15-(4-iodophenyl)-tridecylglycidic acid and 15-(4-iodophenyl)-2-methylene pentadecanoic acid were synthesized and radioiodinated. In tissue biodistribution studies in rats, only the alpha-methylene derivative of IPPA displayed a consistently higher heart to blood ratio and a substantially lower degree of thyroid accumulation than did IPPA alone. With respect to a scintigraphic imaging efficacy, the alpha-methylene analog of IPPA and IPPA itself showed essentially equivalent cardiac imaging profiles in rabbits, with a slight extension in imaging time for the alpha-methylene analog of IPPA.

  3. {alpha}-methylene and glycidic acid analogs of IPPA as potential myocardial imaging agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruyan, M. K.; Bakan, D. A.; Skinner, R. W. S.; Newman, C.; Gross, M. D.; Counsell, R. E

    1995-01-01

    Using organozinc cross-coupling reactions, two radiolabeled analogs of 15-(p-iodophenyl) pentadecanoic acid (IPPA) have been designed and synthesized as potential scintigraphic imaging agents for the heart. Both 15-(4-iodophenyl)-tridecylglycidic acid and 15-(4-iodophenyl)-2-methylene pentadecanoic acid were synthesized and radioiodinated. In tissue biodistribution studies in rats, only the {alpha}-methylene derivative of IPPA displayed a consistently higher heart to blood ratio and a substantially lower degree of thyroid accumulation than did IPPA alone. With respect to a scintigraphic imaging efficacy, the {alpha}-methylene analog of IPPA and IPPA itself showed essentially equivalent cardiac imaging profiles in rabbits, with a slight extension in imaging time for the {alpha}-methylene analog of IPPA.

  4. Evapotranspiration Cycles in a High Latitude Agroecosystem: Potential Warming Role

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruairuen, Watcharee

    2015-01-01

    As the acreages of agricultural lands increase, changes in surface energetics and evapotranspiration (ET) rates may arise consequently affecting regional climate regimes. The objective of this study was to evaluate summertime ET dynamics and surface energy processes in a subarctic agricultural farm in Interior Alaska. The study includes micrometeorological and hydrological data. Results covering the period from June to September 2012 and 2013 indicated consistent energy fractions: LE/Rnet (67%), G/Rnet (6%), H/Rnet (27%) where LE is latent heat flux, Rnet is the surface net radiation, G is ground heat flux and H is the sensible heat flux. Additionally actual surface evapotranspiration from potential evaporation was found to be in the range of 59 to 66%. After comparing these rates with those of most prominent high latitude ecosystems it is argued here that if agroecosystem in high latitudes become an emerging feature in the land-use, the regional surface energy balance will significantly shift in comparison to existing Arctic natural ecosystems. PMID:26368123

  5. Somatic growth of lean children: the potential role of sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yan-Rui; Spruyt, Karen; Chen, Wen-Juan; Shen, Xiao-Ming; Jiang, Fan

    2014-08-01

    Despite the current obesity pandemic, childhood malnutrition remains an urgent, public health concern. Similar to the obesity pandemic, childhood malnutrition is influenced by genetic and a number of social, environmental and biological factors. In this study, we investigated the association between sleep duration and somatic growth in lean children. A stratified, randomly clustered sampling design was used to select fifth grade students from 10 primary schools in Shanghai. Based on a body mass index below the 15th percentile a subsample of 143 lean children aged 10-11 years old was defined. Sleep duration and other potential confounders were surveyed through parental or self-report questionnaires. Body measurements were collected and used to calculate the Z score of weight, height, body mass index as well as body fat percentage. Compared with children who slept gained more weight after adjusting for confounding factors. When children slept 9-10 hours, they had significantly higher Z score of weight and body mass index. Prolonged sleep not only benefits weight gain but also improves height in lean children. Our findings might provide important public health advice such that prolonged sleep may be an effective modifier of nutritional problems in childhood.

  6. Salmonella-mediated cancer therapy: Roles and potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Vu Hong [Dept. of Experimental TherapeuticsBeckman Research Institute of City of Hope, Duarte (United States); Min, Jung Joon [Dept. of Nuclear MedicineChonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    The use of bacteria for cancer therapy, which was proposed many years ago, was not recognized as a potential therapeutic strategy until recently. Technological advances and updated knowledge have enabled the genetic engineering of bacteria for their safe and effective application in the treatment of cancer. The efficacy of radiotherapy depends mainly on tissue oxygen levels, and low oxygen concentrations in necrotic and hypoxic regions are a common cause of treatment failure. In addition, the distribution of a drug is important for the therapeutic effect of chemotherapy, and the poor vasculature in tumors impairs drug delivery, limiting the efficacy of a drug, especially in necrotic and hypoxic regions. Bacteria-mediated cancer therapy (BMCT) relies on facultative anaerobes that can survive in well or poorly oxygenated regions, and it therefore improves the therapeutic efficacy drug distribution throughout the tumor mass. Since the mid-1990s, the number of published bacterial therapy papers has increased rapidly, with a doubling time of 2.5 years in which the use of Salmonella increased significantly. BMCT is being reevaluated to overcome some of the drawbacks of conventional therapies. This review focuses on Salmonella-mediated cancer therapy as the most widely used type of BMCT.{sub 2}.

  7. Potential role of punicalagin against oxidative stress induced testicular damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faiza Rao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Punicalagin is isolated from pomegranate and widely used for the treatment of different diseases in Chinese traditional medicine. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of Punicalagin (purity ≥98% on oxidative stress induced testicular damage and its effect on fertility. We detected the antioxidant potential of punicalagin in lipopolysaccharide (LPS induced oxidative stress damage in testes, also tried to uncover the boosting fertility effect of Punicalagin (PU against oxidative stress-induced infertility. Results demonstrated that 9 mg kg−1 for 7 days treatment significantly decreases LPS induced oxidative damage in testes and nitric oxide production. The administration of oxidative stress resulted in a significant reduction in testes antioxidants GSH, T-SOD, and CAT raised LPO, but treatment with punicalagin for 7 days increased antioxidant defense GSH, T-SOD, and CAT by the end of the experiment and reduced LPO level as well. PU also significantly activates Nrf2, which is involved in regulation of antioxidant defense systems. Hence, the present research categorically elucidates the protective effect of punicalagin against LPS induced oxidative stress induced perturbation in the process of spermatogenesis and significantly increased sperm health and number. Moreover, fertility success significantly decreased in LPS-injected mice compared to controls. Mice injected with LPS had fertility indices of 12.5%, while others treated with a combination of PU + LPS exhibited 75% indices. By promoting fertility and eliminating oxidative stress and inflammation, PU may be a useful nutrient for the treatment of infertility.

  8. Potential role of punicalagin against oxidative stress induced testicular damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Faiza; Tian, Hui; Li, Wenqing; Hung, Helong; Sun, Fei

    2016-01-01

    Punicalagin is isolated from pomegranate and widely used for the treatment of different diseases in Chinese traditional medicine. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of Punicalagin (purity ≥98%) on oxidative stress induced testicular damage and its effect on fertility. We detected the antioxidant potential of punicalagin in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced oxidative stress damage in testes, also tried to uncover the boosting fertility effect of Punicalagin (PU) against oxidative stress-induced infertility. Results demonstrated that 9 mg kg-1 for 7 days treatment significantly decreases LPS induced oxidative damage in testes and nitric oxide production. The administration of oxidative stress resulted in a significant reduction in testes antioxidants GSH, T-SOD, and CAT raised LPO, but treatment with punicalagin for 7 days increased antioxidant defense GSH, T-SOD, and CAT by the end of the experiment and reduced LPO level as well. PU also significantly activates Nrf2, which is involved in regulation of antioxidant defense systems. Hence, the present research categorically elucidates the protective effect of punicalagin against LPS induced oxidative stress induced perturbation in the process of spermatogenesis and significantly increased sperm health and number. Moreover, fertility success significantly decreased in LPS-injected mice compared to controls. Mice injected with LPS had fertility indices of 12.5%, while others treated with a combination of PU + LPS exhibited 75% indices. By promoting fertility and eliminating oxidative stress and inflammation, PU may be a useful nutrient for the treatment of infertility.

  9. The potential role of exercise in neuro-oncology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prue eCormie

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Patients with brain and other central nervous system cancers experience debilitating physical, cognitive and emotional effects that significantly compromise quality of life. Few efficacious pharmacological strategies or supportive care interventions exist to ameliorate these sequelae and patients report high levels of unmet needs in these areas. There is strong theoretical rationale to suggest exercise may be an effective intervention to aid in the management of neuro-oncological disorders. Clinical research has established the efficacy of appropriate exercise in counteracting physical impairments such as fatigue and functional decline, cognitive impairment as well as psychological effects including depression and anxiety. While there is promise for exercise to enhance physical and psychosocial wellbeing of patients diagnosed with neurologic malignancies, these patients have unique needs and research is urgently required to explore optimal exercise prescription specific to these patients to maximise safety and efficacy. This perspective article is a discussion of potential rehabilitative effects of targeted exercise programs for patients with brain and other central nervous system cancers and highlights future research directions.

  10. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder: Potential Role of Endocannabinoids Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balapal S. Basavarajappa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the unique features of prenatal alcohol exposure in humans is impaired cognitive and behavioral function resulting from damage to the central nervous system (CNS, which leads to a spectrum of impairments referred to as fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD. Human FASD phenotypes can be reproduced in the rodent CNS following prenatal ethanol exposure. Several mechanisms are expected to contribute to the detrimental effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on the developing fetus, particularly in the developing CNS. These mechanisms may act simultaneously or consecutively and differ among a variety of cell types at specific developmental stages in particular brain regions. Studies have identified numerous potential mechanisms through which alcohol can act on the fetus. Among these mechanisms are increased oxidative stress, mitochondrial damage, interference with the activity of growth factors, glia cells, cell adhesion molecules, gene expression during CNS development and impaired function of signaling molecules involved in neuronal communication and circuit formation. These alcohol-induced deficits result in long-lasting abnormalities in neuronal plasticity and learning and memory and can explain many of the neurobehavioral abnormalities found in FASD. In this review, the author discusses the mechanisms that are associated with FASD and provides a current status on the endocannabinoid system in the development of FASD.

  11. Is there A Role for Alpha-Linolenic Acid in the Fetal Programming of Health?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia I. Leikin-Frenkel

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The role of ω3 alpha linolenic acid (ALA in the maternal diet during pregnancy and lactation, and its effect on the prevention of disease and programming of health in offspring, is largely unknown. Compared to ALA, ω3 docosahexaenoic (DHA and eicosapentaenoic (EPA acids have been more widely researched due to their direct implication in fetal neural development. In this literature search we found that ALA, the essential ω3 fatty acid and metabolic precursor of DHA and EPA has been, paradoxically, almost unexplored. In light of new and evolving findings, this review proposes that ALA may have an intrinsic role, beyond the role as metabolic parent of DHA and EPA, during fetal development as a regulator of gene programming for the prevention of metabolic disease and promotion of health in offspring.

  12. Is there A Role for Alpha-Linolenic Acid in the Fetal Programming of Health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leikin-Frenkel, Alicia I

    2016-03-23

    The role of ω3 alpha linolenic acid (ALA) in the maternal diet during pregnancy and lactation, and its effect on the prevention of disease and programming of health in offspring, is largely unknown. Compared to ALA, ω3 docosahexaenoic (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic (EPA) acids have been more widely researched due to their direct implication in fetal neural development. In this literature search we found that ALA, the essential ω3 fatty acid and metabolic precursor of DHA and EPA has been, paradoxically, almost unexplored. In light of new and evolving findings, this review proposes that ALA may have an intrinsic role, beyond the role as metabolic parent of DHA and EPA, during fetal development as a regulator of gene programming for the prevention of metabolic disease and promotion of health in offspring.

  13. Potential roles of force cues in human stance control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cnyrim, Christian; Mergner, Thomas; Maurer, Christoph

    2009-04-01

    Human stance is inherently unstable. A small deviation from upright body orientation is enough to yield a gravitational component in the ankle joint torque, which tends to accelerate the body further away from upright ('gravitational torque'; magnitude is related to body-space lean angle). Therefore, to maintain a given body lean position, a corresponding compensatory torque must be generated. It is well known that subjects use kinematic sensory information on body-space lean from the vestibular system for this purpose. Less is known about kinetic cues from force/torque receptors. Previous work indicated that they are involved in compensating external contact forces such as a pull or push having impact on the body. In this study, we hypothesized that they play, in addition, a role when the vestibular estimate of the gravitational torque becomes erroneous. Reasons may be sudden changes in body mass, for instance by a load, or an impairment of the vestibular system. To test this hypothesis, we mimicked load effects on the gravitational torque in normal subjects and in patients with chronic bilateral vestibular loss (VL) with eyes closed. We added/subtracted extra torque to the gravitational torque by applying an external contact force (via cable winches and a body harness). The extra torque was referenced to body-space lean, using different proportionality factors. We investigated how it affected body-space lean responses that we evoked using sinusoidal tilts of the support surface (motion platform) with different amplitudes and frequencies (normals +/-1 degrees, +/-2 degrees, and +/-4 degrees at 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, and 0.4 Hz; patients +/-1 degrees and +/-2 degrees at 0.05 and 0.1 Hz). We found that added/subtracted extra torque scales the lean response in a systematic way, leading to increase/decrease in lean excursion. Expressing the responses in terms of gain and phase curves, we compared the experimental findings to predictions obtained from a recently published

  14. The potential role of neuropathic mechanisms in dry eye syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcmonnies, Charles W

    Dry eye syndromes can involve both nociceptive and neuropathic symptoms. Nociceptive symptoms are the normal physiological responses to noxious stimuli. Neuropathic symptoms are caused by a lesion or disease of the somatosensory nervous system and can be the result of hypersensitisation of peripheral or central corneal and conjunctival somatosensory nerves. For example, inflammation could induce neuroplastic peripheral sensitisation of the ocular surface or lid wiper and exacerbate nociceptive symptoms. Neuropathic symptoms may explain the incommensurate relation between signs and symptoms in some dry eye syndromes although absence of signs of a dry eye syndrome may also be a consequence of inappropriate methods used when examining for them. Involvement of neuropathic mechanisms may also help explain dry eye symptoms which occur in association with reduced corneal sensitivity. This review includes a discussion of the potential for ocular symptoms involving neuropathic mechanisms to contribute to psychosocial problems such as depression, stress, anxiety and sleep disorders as well as for these types of psychosocial problems to contribute to neuropathic mechanisms and dry eye syndromes. Failure to consider the possibility that neuropathic mechanisms can contribute to dry eye syndromes may reduce accuracy of diagnosis and the suitability of treatment provided. Dry eye symptoms in the absence of commensurate evidence of tear dysfunction, and unsatisfactory response to tear dysfunction therapies should prompt consideration of neuropathic mechanisms being involved. Symptoms which persist after local anaesthetic instillation are more likely to be neuropathic in origin. Reducing inflammation may help limit any associated neuroplastic hypersensitivity. Copyright © 2016 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Potential renovascular hypertension, space missions, and the role of magnesium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William J Rowe

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available William J RoweFormer Assistant Clinical Professor of Medicine, Medical University of Ohio at Toledo, Keswick, VA, USAAbstract: Space flight (SF and dust inhalation in habitats cause hypertension whereas in SF (alone there is no consistent hypertension but reduced diurnal blood pressure (BP variation instead. Current pharmaceutical subcutaneous delivery systems are inadequate and there is impairment in the absorption, metabolism, excretion, and deterioration of some pharmaceuticals. Data obtained from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration through the Freedom of Information Act shows that Irwin returned from his 12-day Apollo 15 mission in 1971 and was administered a bicycle stress test. With just three minutes of exercise, his BP was >275/125 mm Hg (heart rate of only 130 beats per minute. There was no acute renal insult. Irwin’s apparent spontaneous remission is suggested to be related to the increase of a protective vasodilator, and his atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP reduced with SF because of reduced plasma volume. With invariable malabsorption and loss of bone/muscle storage sites, there are significant (P < 0.0001 reductions of magnesium (Mg required for ANP synthesis and release. Reductions of Mg and ANP can trigger pronounced angiotensin (200%, endothelin, and catecholamine elevations (clearly shown in recent years and vicious cycles between the latter and Mg deficits. There is proteinuria, elevated creatinine, and reduced renal concentrating ability with the potential for progressive inflammatory and oxidative stress-induced renal disease and hypertension with vicious cycles. After SF, animals show myocardial endothelial injuries and increased vascular resistance of extremities in humans. Even without dust, hypertension might eventually develop from renovascular hypertension during very long missions. Without sufficient endothelial protection from pharmaceuticals, a comprehensive gene research program should begin now

  16. Formulation, evaluation and bioactive potential of Xylaria primorskensis terpenoid nanoparticles from its major compound xylaranic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adnan, Mohd; Patel, Mitesh; Reddy, Mandadi Narsimha; Alshammari, Eyad

    2018-01-29

    In recent years, fungi have been shown to produce a plethora of new bioactive secondary metabolites of interest, as new lead structures for medicinal and other pharmacological applications. The present investigation was carried out to study the pharmacological properties of a potent and major bioactive compound: xylaranic acid, which was obtained from Xylaria primorskensis (X. primorskensis) terpenoids in terms of antibacterial activity, antioxidant potential against DPPH & H 2 O 2 radicals and anticancer activity against human lung cancer cells. Due to terpenoid nature, low water solubility and wretched bioavailability, its pharmacological use is limited. To overcome these drawbacks, a novel xylaranic acid silver nanoparticle system (AgNPs) is developed. In addition to improving its solubility and bioavailability, other advantageous pharmacological properties has been evaluated. Furthermore, enhanced anticancer activity of xylaranic acid and its AgNPs due to induced apoptosis were also confirmed by determining the expression levels of apoptosis regulatory genes p53, bcl-2 and caspase-3 via qRT PCR method. This is the first study developing the novel xylaranic acid silver nanoparticle system and enlightening its therapeutic significance with its improved physico-chemical properties and augmented bioactive potential.

  17. Residual mitochondrial transmembrane potential decreases unsaturated fatty acid level in sake yeast during alcoholic fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawada, Kazutaka; Kitagaki, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Oxygen, a key nutrient in alcoholic fermentation, is rapidly depleted during this process. Several pathways of oxygen utilization have been reported in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae during alcoholic fermentation, namely synthesis of unsaturated fatty acid, sterols and heme, and the mitochondrial electron transport chain. However, the interaction between these pathways has not been investigated. In this study, we showed that the major proportion of unsaturated fatty acids of ester-linked lipids in sake fermentation mash is derived from the sake yeast rather than from rice or koji (rice fermented with Aspergillus). Additionally, during alcoholic fermentation, inhibition of the residual mitochondrial activity of sake yeast increases the levels of unsaturated fatty acids of ester-linked lipids. These findings indicate that the residual activity of the mitochondrial electron transport chain reduces molecular oxygen levels and decreases the synthesis of unsaturated fatty acids, thereby increasing the synthesis of estery flavors by sake yeast. This is the first report of a novel link between residual mitochondrial transmembrane potential and the synthesis of unsaturated fatty acids by the brewery yeast during alcoholic fermentation.

  18. Residual mitochondrial transmembrane potential decreases unsaturated fatty acid level in sake yeast during alcoholic fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazutaka Sawada

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxygen, a key nutrient in alcoholic fermentation, is rapidly depleted during this process. Several pathways of oxygen utilization have been reported in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae during alcoholic fermentation, namely synthesis of unsaturated fatty acid, sterols and heme, and the mitochondrial electron transport chain. However, the interaction between these pathways has not been investigated. In this study, we showed that the major proportion of unsaturated fatty acids of ester-linked lipids in sake fermentation mash is derived from the sake yeast rather than from rice or koji (rice fermented with Aspergillus. Additionally, during alcoholic fermentation, inhibition of the residual mitochondrial activity of sake yeast increases the levels of unsaturated fatty acids of ester-linked lipids. These findings indicate that the residual activity of the mitochondrial electron transport chain reduces molecular oxygen levels and decreases the synthesis of unsaturated fatty acids, thereby increasing the synthesis of estery flavors by sake yeast. This is the first report of a novel link between residual mitochondrial transmembrane potential and the synthesis of unsaturated fatty acids by the brewery yeast during alcoholic fermentation.

  19. Coarse-Grained Modeling of Nucleic Acids Using Anisotropic Gay-Berne and Electric Multipole Potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guohui; Shen, Hujun; Zhang, Dinglin; Li, Yan; Wang, Honglei

    2016-02-09

    In this work, we attempt to apply a coarse-grained (CG) model, which is based on anisotropic Gay-Berne and electric multipole (EMP) potentials, to the modeling of nucleic acids. First, a comparison has been made between the CG and atomistic models (AMBER point-charge model) in the modeling of DNA and RNA hairpin structures. The CG results have demonstrated a good quality in maintaining the nucleic acid hairpin structures, in reproducing the dynamics of backbone atoms of nucleic acids, and in describing the hydrogen-bonding interactions between nucleic acid base pairs. Second, the CG and atomistic AMBER models yield comparable results in modeling double-stranded DNA and RNA molecules. It is encouraging that our CG model is capable of reproducing many elastic features of nucleic acid base pairs in terms of the distributions of the interbase pair step parameters (such as shift, slide, tilt, and twist) and the intrabase pair parameters (such as buckle, propeller, shear, and stretch). Finally, The GBEMP model has shown a promising ability to predict the melting temperatures of DNA duplexes with different lengths.

  20. Isolation of lactic acid bacteria with potential protective culture characteristics from fruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, Nurul Huda; Sani, Norrakiah Abdullah

    2015-09-01

    Lactic acid bacteria are also known as beneficial microorganisms abundantly found in fermented food products. In this study, lactic acid bacteria were isolated from fresh cut fruits obtained from local markets. Throughout the isolation process from 11 samples of fruits, 225 presumptive lactic acid bacteria were isolated on MRS agar medium. After catalase and oxidase tests, 149 resulted to fit the characteristics of lactic acid bacteria. Further identification using Gram staining was conducted to identify the Gram positive bacteria. After this confirmation, the fermentation characteristics of these isolates were identified. It was found that 87 (58.4%) isolates were heterofermentative, while the rest of 62 (41.6%) are homofermentative lactic acid bacteria. Later, all these isolates were investigated for the ability to inhibit growth of Staphylococcus aureus using agar spot assay method. Seven (4.7%) isolates showed strong antagonistic capacity, while 127 (85.2%) and 8 (5.4%) isolates have medium and weak antagonistic capacity, respectively. The other 7 (4.7%) isolates indicated to have no antagonistic effect on S. aureus. Results support the potential of LAB isolated in this study which showed strong antagonistic activity against S. aureus may be manipulated to become protective cultures in food products. While the homofermentative or heterofermentative LAB can be utilized in fermentation of food and non-food products depending on the by-products required during the fermentation.

  1. Evaluation of lactic acid bacterium from chilli waste as a potential antifungal agent for wood products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Callahan, D R; Singh, T; McDonald, I R

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to isolate lactic acid bacteria from chilli waste and evaluate metabolites produced for the ability to arrest wood decay. Using an optical density screening method, one bacterium (isolate C11) was identified as having pronounced antifungal properties against Oligoporus placenta. This isolate was identified as Lactobacillus brevis by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. To determine antifungal activity in wood, Pinus radiata blocks were impregnated with Lact. brevis [C11] cell-free supernatant and exposed to brown rot fungi O. placenta, Antrodia xantha and Coniophora puteana. The treated timber demonstrated resistance to degradation from all fungi. The antifungal metabolites were heat stable and not affected by proteinase K, but were affected by neutralization with NaOH suggesting the metabolites were of an acidic nature. The presence of lactic and acetic acid was confirmed by HPLC analysis. Lactobacillus brevis [C11] produced acidic metabolites that were able to inhibit the growth of wood decay fungi and subsequent wood decay. Traditional wood treatments are becoming an environmental issue as the public demands more benign options. The use of lactic acid bacteria which are considered safe for general use is a potential alternative to the conventional heavy metal chemicals currently in use. © 2011 Scion. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2011 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  2. Assessing the potential of fatty acids produced by filamentous fungi as feedstock for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivaldi, Juan Daniel; Carvalho, Ana Karine F; da Conceição, Leyvison Rafael V; de Castro, Heizir F

    2017-11-26

    Increased costs and limited availability of traditional lipid sources for biodiesel production encourage researchers to find more sustainable feedstock at low prices. Microbial lipid stands out as feedstock replacement for vegetable oil to convert fatty acid esters. In this study, the potential of three isolates of filamentous fungi (Mucor circinelloides URM 4140, M. hiemalis URM 4144, and Penicillium citrinum URM 4126) has been assessed as single-cell oil (SCO) producers. M. circinelloides 4140 had the highest biomass concentration with lipid accumulation of up to 28 wt% at 120 hr of cultivation. The profile of fatty acids revealed a high content of saturated (SFA) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), including palmitic (C16:0, 33.2-44.1 wt%) and oleic (C18:1, 20.7-31.2 wt%) acids, with the absence of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) having more than four double bonds. Furthermore, the predicted properties of biodiesel generated from synthesized SCOs have been estimated by using empirical models which were in accordance with the limits imposed by the USA (ASTM D6715), European Union (EN 14214), and Brazilian (ANP 45/2014) standards. These results suggest that the assessed filamentous fungus strains can be considered as alternative feedstock sources for high-quality biofuel production.

  3. In vitro evaluation of the erosive potential of viscosity-modified soft acidic drinks on enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aykut-Yetkiner, Arzu; Wiegand, Annette; Ronay, Valerie; Attin, Rengin; Becker, Klaus; Attin, Thomas

    2014-04-01

    The objective of this in vitro study was to investigate the effect of viscosity-modified soft acidic drinks on enamel erosion. A total of 108 bovine enamel samples (∅ = 3 mm) were embedded in acrylic resin and allocated into six groups (n = 18). Soft acidic drinks (orange juice, Coca-Cola, Sprite) were used both in their regular forms and at a kinetic viscositiy of 5 mm(2)/s, which was adjusted by adding hydroxypropyl cellulose. All solutions were pumped over the enamel surface from a reservoir with a drop rate of 3 ml/min. Each specimen was eroded for 10 min at 20 °C. Erosion of enamel surfaces was measured using profilometry. Data were analyzed using independent t tests and one-way ANOVAs (p viscosity-modified drinks (Coca-Cola, 4.90 ± 0.34 μm; Sprite, 4.46 ± 0.39 μm; orange juice, 1.10 ± 0.22 μm). For both regular and viscosity-modified forms, Coca-Cola and Sprite caused higher enamel loss than orange juice. Increasing the viscosity of acidic soft drinks to 5 mm(2)/s reduced enamel erosion by 12.6-18.7 %. The erosive potential of soft acidic drinks is not only dependent on various chemical properties but also on the viscosity of the acidic solution and can be reduced by viscosity modification.

  4. Fatty acids as a tool to understand microbial diversity and their role in food webs of Mediterranean temporary ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Carla C C R; Caramujo, Maria-José

    2014-04-30

    Temporary Mediterranean ponds are complex ecosystems which support a high diversity of organisms that include heterotrophic microorganisms, algae, crustaceans, amphibians and higher plants, and have the potential to supply food and a resting place to migratory birds. The role of heterotrophs at the base of the food web in providing energy to the higher trophic levels was studied in temporary ponds in Central and Southern Portugal. The relative quantification of the hetero and autotrophic biomass at the base of the food web in each pond was derived from the polar fatty acid (PLFA) composition of seston through the application of the matrix factorization program CHEMTAX that used specific PLFA and their relative proportion as markers for e.g., classes of bacteria, algae and fungi. The species composition of the culturable microbial communities was identified through their fatty acid profiles. The biomass in the lower trophic level of some ponds presented an even proportion of auto to heterotrophic organisms whilst either bacteria or algae dominated in others. In a selected subset of ponds, the incorporation of bacterial fatty acids was observed to occur in potentially herbivorous zooplankton crustacean. Zooplankton consumed and incorporated bacterial fatty acids into their body tissues, including into their phospholipids, which indicates that energy of heterotrophic origin contributes to the aquatic food webs of temporary ponds.

  5. Role of fatty acid transporters in epidermis: Implications for health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khnykin, Denis; Miner, Jeffrey H; Jahnsen, Frode

    2011-04-01

    Skin epidermis is an active site of lipid synthesis. The intercellular lipids of human stratum corneum (SC) are unique in composition and quite different from the lipids found in most biological membranes. The three major lipids in the SC are free fatty acids, cholesterol and ceramides. Fatty acids can be synthesized by keratinocytes de novo and, in addition, need to be taken up from the circulation. The latter process has been shown to be protein mediated, and several fatty acid transporters are expressed in skin. Recent studies of transgenic and knockout animal models for fatty acid transporters and the identification of fatty acid transport protein 4 (FATP4 or SLC27A4) mutations as causative for Ichthyosis Prematurity Syndrome highlight the vital roles of fatty acid transport and metabolism in skin homeostasis. This review provides an overview of our current understanding of the role of fatty acids and their transporters in cutaneous biology, including their involvement in epidermal barrier generation and skin inflammation.

  6. Bile acid-induced virulence gene expression of Vibrio parahaemolyticus reveals a novel therapeutic potential for bile acid sequestrants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuyoshi Gotoh

    Full Text Available Vibrio parahaemolyticus, a bacterial pathogen, causes human gastroenteritis. A type III secretion system (T3SS2 encoded in pathogenicity island (Vp-PAI is the main contributor to enterotoxicity and expression of Vp-PAI encoded genes is regulated by two transcriptional regulators, VtrA and VtrB. However, a host-derived inducer for the Vp-PAI genes has not been identified. Here, we demonstrate that bile induces production of T3SS2-related proteins under osmotic conditions equivalent to those in the intestinal lumen. We also show that bile induces vtrA-mediated vtrB transcription. Transcriptome analysis of bile-responsive genes revealed that bile strongly induces expression of Vp-PAI genes in a vtrA-dependent manner. The inducing activity of bile was diminished by treatment with bile acid sequestrant cholestyramine. Finally, we demonstrate an in vivo protective effect of cholestyramine on enterotoxicity and show that similar protection is observed in infection with a different type of V. parahaemolyticus or with non-O1/non-O139 V. cholerae strains of vibrios carrying the same kind of T3SS. In summary, these results provide an insight into how bacteria, through the ingenious action of Vp-PAI genes, can take advantage of an otherwise hostile host environment. The results also reveal a new therapeutic potential for widely used bile acid sequestrants in enteric bacterial infections.

  7. Oxylipin Signaling: A Distinct Role for the Jasmonic Acid Precursor cis-(+)-12-Oxo-Phytodienoic Acid (cis-OPDA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, Anuja; Graham, Ian A.

    2012-01-01

    Oxylipins are lipid-derived compounds, many of which act as signals in the plant response to biotic and abiotic stress. They include the phytohormone jasmonic acid (JA) and related jasmonate metabolites cis-(+)-12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (cis-OPDA), methyl jasmonate, and jasmonoyl-L-isoleucine (JA-Ile). Besides the defense response, jasmonates are involved in plant growth and development and regulate a range of processes including glandular trichome development, reproduction, root growth, and senescence. cis-OPDA is known to possess a signaling role distinct from JA-Ile. The non-enzymatically derived phytoprostanes are structurally similar to cis-OPDA and induce a common set of genes that are not responsive to JA in Arabidopsis thaliana. A novel role for cis-OPDA in seed germination regulation has recently been uncovered based on evidence from double mutants and feeding experiments showing that cis-OPDA interacts with abscisic acid (ABA), inhibits seed germination, and increases ABA INSENSITIVE5 (ABI5) protein abundance. Large amounts of cis-OPDA are esterified to galactolipids in A. thaliana and the resulting compounds, known as Arabidopsides, are thought to act as a rapidly available source of cis-OPDA. PMID:22645585

  8. Role of an acidic compartment in synthesis of disaturated phosphatidylcholine by rat granular pneumocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chander, Avinash; Fisher, Aron B.; Strauss, Jerome F.

    1982-01-01

    A possible role for an acidic subcellular compartment in biosynthesis of lung surfactant phospholipids was evaluated with granular pneumocytes in primary culture. Incubation with chloroquine (100μm) was used to perturb this compartment. With control cells, incorporation of [9,10-3H]palmitic acid into total lipids and into total phosphatidylcholines increased linearly with time up to 4h. Total incorporation into phosphatidylcholine during a 1h incubation was 999+85pmol of [9,10-3H]palmitic acid, 458±18pmol of [1-14C]oleic acid and 252±15pmol of [U-14C]glucose per μg of phosphatidylcholine phosphorus. The cellular content of either disaturated phosphatidylcholine or total phosphatidylcholines did not change during a 2h incubation with chloroquine. In the presence of chloroquine, the specific radioactivity of [3H]palmitic acid in disaturated phosphatidylcholine increased by 40%, and that of disaturated-phosphatidylcholine fatty acids from [U-14C]glucose increased by 125%. Incorporation of [1-14C]oleic acid into phosphatidylcholine was decreased by chloroquine by 79% and 33% in the presence or absence of palmitic acid respectively. Chloroquine stimulated phospholipase activity in intact cells, and in sonicated cells at pH4.0, but not at pH8.5. The observations indicate that chloroquine stimulates synthesis of disaturated phosphatidylcholine in granular pneumocytes from fatty acids, both exogenous and synthesized de novo, which can be due to stimulation of acidic phospholipase. This stimulation of acidic phospholipase A activity by chloroquine appears to be coupled to the synthesis of disaturated phosphatidylcholine, thereby enhancing remodelling of phosphatidylcholine synthesized de novo. Our findings, therefore, implicate the involvement of an acidic subcellular compartment in the remodelling pathway of disaturated phosphatidylcholine synthesis by granular pneumocytes. ImagesPLATE 1 PMID:7165723

  9. Role of sodium tungstate as a potential antiplatelet agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández-Ruiz R

    2015-05-01

    slightly this response. In human blood, a dose-dependent effect was observed. At 200 µM, closure times in the PFA-100 were prolonged. On denuded vessels, %SC and thrombi formation (%T decreased with Na2O4W. Neither the aggregating response nor the viscoelastic clot properties were affected.Conclusion: Na2O4W decreases consistently the hemostatic capacity of platelets, inhibiting their adhesive and cohesive properties under flow conditions in mice and in human blood, resulting in smaller thrombi. Although Na2O4W may be acting on platelet PTP1B, other potential targets should not be disregarded. Keywords: sodium tungstate, protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B, platelet adhesion, antiplatelet agents

  10. On the role of deformed Coulomb potential in fusion using energy ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    any important role at higher incident energies, are dominating factors at below barrier energies. At low incident energies, many potentials are available to calculate the nuclear part of the interaction potential such as proximity-based potential models [4]. Among the various proximity-based models, the Skyrme energy density ...

  11. Multi-phase partitioning, ecological risk and fate of acidic pharmaceuticals in a wastewater receiving river: The role of colloids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, Yan-Ping [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Meng, Xiang-Zhou, E-mail: xzmeng@tongji.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Wen, Zhi-Hao [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Ke, Run-Hui [China National Research Institute of Food and Fermentation Industries, Beijing 100027 (China); Chen, Ling [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China)

    2013-03-01

    The occurrence and multi-phase distribution of five pharmaceutical compounds were investigated in an urban wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) receiving river by analysis of pharmaceuticals in sediment, particulate matter, conventional dissolved phase (> 0.7 μm), colloidal phase (5 kDa to 0.7 μm), and truly dissolved phase (< 5 kDa) water. Diclofenac was found in all samples, followed by clofibric acid, ibuprofen, ketoprofen, and naproxen with the decreasing detection frequency. All targets in WWTP outfall site were higher than those in the upstream and downstream, indicating that the WWTP is an important input source of pharmaceuticals in the river. The colloidal phase contributed 10–14% of ketoprofen, 8–26% of naproxen, 17–36% of clofibric acid, 22–33% of diclofenac, and 9–28% of ibuprofen in the aquatic system, suggesting the colloids will play an important role as carrier to contaminants in the aquatic environment. Based on truly dissolved concentrations of pharmaceuticals in water, only the risk quotient (RQ) value for diclofenac towards fish was higher than 1, indicating it poses a potential risk to aquatic organisms. Finally, a Level III fugacity model was used to further assess the environmental fate of the selected pharmaceuticals (exemplified for clofibric acid and diclofenac). Both clofibric acid and diclofenac tend to accumulate in water compartment with the percentage of 99.7% and 60.6%, respectively. Advection in river is a significant loss process for clofibric acid (56.4%) and diclofenac (54.4%). - Highlights: ► WWTP is the main source of pharmaceuticals to the receiving river in Shanghai. ► The colloids contribute 9–36% to the total pharmaceutical concentration in water. ► Truly dissolved diclofenac poses a potential risk to aquatic organisms. ► Clofibric acid and diclofenac tend to accumulate in water compartment.

  12. L-Amino Acids Elicit Diverse Response Patterns in Taste Sensory Cells: A Role for Multiple Receptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shreoshi Pal Choudhuri

    Full Text Available Umami, the fifth basic taste, is elicited by the L-amino acid, glutamate. A unique characteristic of umami taste is the response potentiation by 5' ribonucleotide monophosphates, which are also capable of eliciting an umami taste. Initial reports using human embryonic kidney (HEK cells suggested that there is one broadly tuned receptor heterodimer, T1r1+T1r3, which detects L-glutamate and all other L-amino acids. However, there is growing evidence that multiple receptors detect glutamate in the oral cavity. While much is understood about glutamate transduction, the mechanisms for detecting the tastes of other L-amino acids are less well understood. We used calcium imaging of isolated taste sensory cells and taste cell clusters from the circumvallate and foliate papillae of C57BL/6J and T1r3 knockout mice to determine if other receptors might also be involved in detection of L-amino acids. Ratiometric imaging with Fura-2 was used to study calcium responses to monopotassium L-glutamate, L-serine, L-arginine, and L-glutamine, with and without inosine 5' monophosphate (IMP. The results of these experiments showed that the response patterns elicited by L-amino acids varied significantly across taste sensory cells. L-amino acids other than glutamate also elicited synergistic responses in a subset of taste sensory cells. Along with its role in synergism, IMP alone elicited a response in a large number of taste sensory cells. Our data indicate that synergistic and non-synergistic responses to L-amino acids and IMP are mediated by multiple receptors or possibly a receptor complex.

  13. L-Amino Acids Elicit Diverse Response Patterns in Taste Sensory Cells: A Role for Multiple Receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal Choudhuri, Shreoshi; Delay, Rona J.; Delay, Eugene R.

    2015-01-01

    Umami, the fifth basic taste, is elicited by the L-amino acid, glutamate. A unique characteristic of umami taste is the response potentiation by 5’ ribonucleotide monophosphates, which are also capable of eliciting an umami taste. Initial reports using human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells suggested that there is one broadly tuned receptor heterodimer, T1r1+T1r3, which detects L-glutamate and all other L-amino acids. However, there is growing evidence that multiple receptors detect glutamate in the oral cavity. While much is understood about glutamate transduction, the mechanisms for detecting the tastes of other L-amino acids are less well understood. We used calcium imaging of isolated taste sensory cells and taste cell clusters from the circumvallate and foliate papillae of C57BL/6J and T1r3 knockout mice to determine if other receptors might also be involved in detection of L-amino acids. Ratiometric imaging with Fura-2 was used to study calcium responses to monopotassium L-glutamate, L-serine, L-arginine, and L-glutamine, with and without inosine 5’ monophosphate (IMP). The results of these experiments showed that the response patterns elicited by L-amino acids varied significantly across taste sensory cells. L-amino acids other than glutamate also elicited synergistic responses in a subset of taste sensory cells. Along with its role in synergism, IMP alone elicited a response in a large number of taste sensory cells. Our data indicate that synergistic and non-synergistic responses to L-amino acids and IMP are mediated by multiple receptors or possibly a receptor complex. PMID:26110622

  14. The protective role of folic acid against testicular dysfunction in lead-intoxicated rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomaa, Asmaa Ms; Abou Khalil, Nasser S; Abdel-Ghani, Mohammed A

    2017-07-01

    There is an increasing concern over male reproductive toxicity caused by lead exposure. Folic acid (FA) is supposed to be a promising therapeutic strategy against lead toxicity. Therefore, the aim of this experimental study was to shed light on the potential protective role of FA on lead-induced testicular dysfunction in rats and its possible underlying mechanistic pathways. Rats (n = 24) were divided into four groups: Control, FA, Lead, and FA+Lead group. After 4 weeks, lead intoxication resulted in a marked reduction in the relative testicular weight and the serum level of testosterone, an impairment in the characters of semen analysis, and an increased content of lead, malondialdehyde and both interleukin-6 and -10 and a decreased antioxidant enzyme levels in the testicular tissue homogenate. Furthermore, marked degenerative histological changes and an increased expression of NF-κB were also noticed in the testicular tissue of Lead group. Supplementation of FA in association with lead considerably alleviated these adverse outcome responses most probably owing to its cytoprotective ability as emerged from combating the oxidative stress and inflammatory reactions. We concluded that FA could act as a highly effective fighting approach against lead-associated testicular toxicity.

  15. Role of chlorogenic acid quinone and interaction of chlorogenic acid quinone and catechins in the enzymatic browning of apple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaki, Kanako; Saito, Eri; Taniguchi, Kumiko; Joshita, Keiko; Murata, Masatsune

    2011-01-01

    Chlorogenic acid (CQA) is one of the major polyphenols in apple and a good substrate for the polyphenol oxidase (PPO) in apple. Apple contains catechins as well as CQA, and the role of CQA quinone and its interaction with catechins in the enzymatic browning of apple were examined. Browning was repressed and 2-cysteinyl-CQA was formed when cysteine was added to apple juice. CQA quinone was essential for browning to occur. Although catechins and CQA were oxidized by PPO, some catechins seemed to be non-enzymatically oxidized by CQA quinone.

  16. Obesity and Cancer Progression: Is There a Role of Fatty Acid Metabolism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaban, Seher; Lee, Lisa S.; Schreuder, Mark; Hoy, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    Currently, there is renewed interest in elucidating the metabolic characteristics of cancer and how these characteristics may be exploited as therapeutic targets. Much attention has centered on glucose, glutamine and de novo lipogenesis, yet the metabolism of fatty acids that arise from extracellular, as well as intracellular, stores as triacylglycerol has received much less attention. This review focuses on the key pathways of fatty acid metabolism, including uptake, esterification, lipolysis, and mitochondrial oxidation, and how the regulators of these pathways are altered in cancer. Additionally, we discuss the potential link that fatty acid metabolism may serve between obesity and changes in cancer progression. PMID:25866768

  17. Obesity and Cancer Progression: Is There a Role of Fatty Acid Metabolism?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seher Balaban

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, there is renewed interest in elucidating the metabolic characteristics of cancer and how these characteristics may be exploited as therapeutic targets. Much attention has centered on glucose, glutamine and de novo lipogenesis, yet the metabolism of fatty acids that arise from extracellular, as well as intracellular, stores as triacylglycerol has received much less attention. This review focuses on the key pathways of fatty acid metabolism, including uptake, esterification, lipolysis, and mitochondrial oxidation, and how the regulators of these pathways are altered in cancer. Additionally, we discuss the potential link that fatty acid metabolism may serve between obesity and changes in cancer progression.

  18. A dominant conformational role for amino acid diversity in minimalist protein–protein interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbreth, Ryan N. [Univ. of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States); Esaki, Kaori [Univ. of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States); Koide, Akiko [Univ. of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States); Sidhu, Sachdev S. [Genentech, San Francisco, CA (United States); Koide, Shohei [Univ. of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2008-08-01

    Recent studies have shown that highly simplified interaction surfaces consisting of combinations of just two amino acids, Tyr and Ser, exhibit high affinity and specificity. The high functional levels of such minimalist interfaces might thus indicate small contributions of greater amino acid diversity seen in natural interfaces. Toward addressing this issue, we have produced a pair of binding proteins built on the fibronectin type III scaffold, termed “monobodies.” One monobody contains the Tyr/Ser binary-code interface (termed YS) and the other contains an expanded amino acid diversity interface (YSX), but both bind to an identical target, maltose-binding protein. The YSX monobody bound with higher affinity, a slower off rate and a more favorable enthalpic contribution than the YS monobody. High-resolution X-ray crystal structures revealed that both proteins bound to an essentially identical epitope, providing a unique opportunity to directly investigate the role of amino acid diversity in a protein interaction interface. Surprisingly, Tyr still dominates the YSX paratope and the additional amino acid types are primarily used to conformationally optimize contacts made by tyrosines. Scanning mutagenesis showed that while all contacting Tyr side chains are essential in the YS monobody, the YSX interface was more tolerant to mutations. These results suggest that the conformational, not chemical, diversity of additional types of amino acids provided higher functionality and evolutionary robustness, supporting the dominant role of Tyr and the importance of conformational diversity in forming protein interaction interfaces.

  19. A dominant conformational role for amino acid diversity in minimalist protein-protein interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbreth, Ryan N; Esaki, Kaori; Koide, Akiko; Sidhu, Sachdev S; Koide, Shohei

    2008-08-29

    Recent studies have shown that highly simplified interaction surfaces consisting of combinations of just two amino acids, Tyr and Ser, exhibit high affinity and specificity. The high functional levels of such minimalist interfaces might thus indicate small contributions of greater amino acid diversity seen in natural interfaces. Toward addressing this issue, we have produced a pair of binding proteins built on the fibronectin type III scaffold, termed "monobodies." One monobody contains the Tyr/Ser binary-code interface (termed YS) and the other contains an expanded amino acid diversity interface (YSX), but both bind to an identical target, maltose-binding protein. The YSX monobody bound with higher affinity, a slower off rate and a more favorable enthalpic contribution than the YS monobody. High-resolution X-ray crystal structures revealed that both proteins bound to an essentially identical epitope, providing a unique opportunity to directly investigate the role of amino acid diversity in a protein interaction interface. Surprisingly, Tyr still dominates the YSX paratope and the additional amino acid types are primarily used to conformationally optimize contacts made by tyrosines. Scanning mutagenesis showed that while all contacting Tyr side chains are essential in the YS monobody, the YSX interface was more tolerant to mutations. These results suggest that the conformational, not chemical, diversity of additional types of amino acids provided higher functionality and evolutionary robustness, supporting the dominant role of Tyr and the importance of conformational diversity in forming protein interaction interfaces.

  20. Serum uric acid and chronic kidney disease: The role of hypertension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Sedaghat (Sanaz); E.J. Hoorn (Ewout); F.J.A. van Rooij (Frank); A. Hofman (Albert); O.H. Franco (Oscar); J.C.M. Witteman (Jacqueline); A. Dehghan (Abbas)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground: There are inconsistent findings on the role of hyperuricemia as an independent risk factor for chronic kidney disease (CKD). Hypertension has been implicated as a factor influencing the association between serum uric acid and CKD. In this population-based study we

  1. The role of transport processes in survival of lactic acid bacteria. Energy transduction and multidrug resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konings, W.N; Lolkema, J.S.; Bolhuis, H; van Veen, H.W.; Poolman, B.; Driessen, A.J.M.

    Lactic acid bacteria play an essential role in many food fermentation processes. They are anaerobic organisms which obtain their metabolic energy by substrate phosphorylation. In addition three secondary energy transducing processes can contribute to the generation of a proton motive force:

  2. Biological effects of propionic acid in humans; metabolism, potential applications and underlying mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Lahham, Sa'ad H; Peppelenbosch, Maikel P; Roelofsen, Han; Vonk, Roel J; Venema, Koen

    2010-11-01

    Undigested food is fermented in the colon by the microbiota and gives rise to various microbial metabolites. Short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), including acetic, propionic and butyric acid, are the principal metabolites produced. However, most of the literature focuses on butyrate and to a lesser extent on acetate; consequently, potential effects of propionic acid (PA) on physiology and pathology have long been underestimated. It has been demonstrated that PA lowers fatty acids content in liver and plasma, reduces food intake, exerts immunosuppressive actions and probably improves tissue insulin sensitivity. Thus increased production of PA by the microbiota might be considered beneficial in the context of prevention of obesity and diabetes type 2. The molecular mechanisms by which PA may exert this plethora of physiological effects are slowly being elucidated and include intestinal cyclooxygenase enzyme, the G-protein coupled receptors 41 and 43 and activation of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, in turn inhibiting the sentinel transcription factor NF-κB and thus increasing the threshold for inflammatory responses in general. Taken together, PA emerges as a major mediator in the link between nutrition, gut microbiota and physiology. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Acidic Potassium Permanganate Chemiluminescence for the Determination of Antioxidant Potential in Three Cultivars of Ocimum basilicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Shivani; Adholeya, Alok; Conlan, Xavier A; Cahill, David M

    2016-03-01

    Ocimum basilicum, a member of the family Lamiaceae, is a rich source of polyphenolics that have antioxidant properties. The present study describes the development and application of an online HPLC-coupled acidic potassium permanganate chemiluminescence assay for the qualitative and quantitative assessment of antioxidants in three cultivars of O. basilicum grown under greenhouse conditions. The chemiluminescence based assay was found to be a sensitive and efficient method for assessment of total and individual compound antioxidant potential. Leaves, flowers and roots were found to be rich reserves of the antioxidant compounds which showed intense chemiluminescence signals. The polyphenolics such as rosmarinic, chicoric, caffeic, p-coumaric, m-coumaric and ferulic acids showed antioxidant activity. Further, rosmarinic acid was found to be the major antioxidant component in water-ethanol extracts. The highest levels of rosmarinic acid was found in the leaves and roots of cultivars "holy green" (14.37; 11.52 mM/100 g DW respectively) followed by "red rubin" (10.02; 10.75 mM/100 g DW respectively) and "subja" (6.59; 4.97 mM/100 g DW respectively). The sensitivity, efficiency and ease of use of the chemiluminescence based assay should now be considered for its use as a primary method for the identification and quantification of antioxidants in plant extracts.

  4. Effects of Fungicide Treatment on Free Amino Acid Concentration and Acrylamide-Forming Potential in Wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Tanya Y; Powers, Stephen J; Halford, Nigel G

    2016-12-28

    Acrylamide forms from free asparagine and reducing sugars during frying, baking, roasting, or high-temperature processing, and cereal products are major contributors to dietary acrylamide intake. Free asparagine concentration is the determining factor for acrylamide-forming potential in cereals, and this study investigated the effect of fungicide application on free asparagine accumulation in wheat grain. Free amino acid concentrations were measured in flour from 47 varieties of wheat grown in a field trial in 2011-2012. The wheat had been supplied with nitrogen and sulfur and treated with growth regulators and fungicides. Acrylamide formation was measured after the flour had been heated at 180 °C for 20 min. Flour was also analyzed from 24 (of the 47) varieties grown in adjacent plots that were treated in identical fashion except that no fungicide was applied, resulting in visible infection by Septoria tritici, yellow rust, and brown rust. Free asparagine concentration in the fungicide-treated wheat ranged from 1.596 to 3.987 mmol kg(-1), with a significant (p acids apart from cysteine and ornithine. There was also a significant (p acid concentration also increased, whereas free glutamic acid concentration increased in some varieties but decreased in others, and free proline concentration decreased. The study showed disease control by fungicide application to be an important crop management measure for mitigating the problem of acrylamide formation in wheat products.

  5. White Paper on Potential Hazards Associated with Contaminated Cheesecloth Exposed to Nitric Acid Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hypes, Philip A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-20

    This white paper addresses the potential hazards associated with waste cheesecloth that has been exposed to nitric acid solutions. This issue was highlighted by the cleanup of a 100 ml leak of aqueous nitric acid solution containing Heat Source (HS) plutonium on 21 June 2016. Nitration of cellulosic material is a well-understood process due to industrial/military applications of the resulting material. Within the Department of Energy complex, nitric acids have been used extensively, as have cellulosic wipes. If cellulosic materials are nitrated, the cellulosic material can become ignitable and in extreme cases, reactive. We have chemistry knowledge and operating experience to support the conclusion that all current wastes are safe and compliant. There are technical questions worthy of further experimental evaluation. An extent of condition evaluation has been conducted back to 2004. During this time period there have been interruptions in the authorization to use cellulosic wipes in PF-4. Limited use has been authorized since 2007 (for purposes other than spill cleanup), so our extent of condition includes the entire current span of use. Our evaluation shows that there is no indication that process spills involving high molarity nitric acid were cleaned up with cheesecloth since 2007. The materials generated in the 21 June leak will be managed in a safe manner compliant with all applicable requirements.

  6. Role of Pipecolic Acid in the Biosynthesis of Lysine in Rhodotorula glutinis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinzel, Jerome J.; Bhattacharjee, J. K.

    1979-01-01

    The role of pipecolic acid in the biosynthesis of lysine was investigated in Rhodotorula glutinis, an aerobic red yeast. Supplementation of pipecolic acid in the minimal medium supported the growth of mutants lys2, lys3, and lys5; α-aminoadipic acid supported the growth of lys5; but neither α-aminoadipic acid nor pipecolic acid supported the growth of mutants MNNG42 and MNNG37. During the growth of the appropriate mutants, pipecolic acid was removed from the growth medium and the intracellular pool. In tracer experiments, radioactivity from [14C]pipecolic acid was selectively incorporated into the cellular lysine of lys5 and the wild-type strain. l-Pipecolic acid-dependent enzyme activity did not require any cofactor and was inhibited by mercuric chloride and potassium cyanide. This activity was present in the wild-type strain and all of the mutants tested and was repressed in mutant lys5 when grown in the presence of higher concentration of lysine. The reaction product of pipecolic acid was converted to saccharopine by lys5 enzyme in the presence of glutamate and reduced nicotin-amide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. Mutant MNNG37 lacked the saccharopine dehydrogenase activity, indicating that this step is involved in the conversion of α-aminoadipic acid and pipecolic acid to lysine. Mutants MNNG37 and MNNG42 accumulated a p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde-reacting product in the culture supernatant and in the intracellular pool. Chromatographic properties of the p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde adduct and that of the pipecolic acid-dependent reaction product were similar. The reaction product and the accumulation product were characterized on the basis of mass and absorption spectra as α-aminoadipic-semialdehyde, which in solution remains in equilibrium with Δ1-piperideine-6-carboxylic acid. Since α-aminoadipic-semialdehyde is a known intermediate of the α-aminoadipic acid pathway for the biosynthesis of lysine, it is concluded that pipecolic acid is converted to

  7. Anaerobic growth and potential for amino acid production by nitrate respiration in Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeno, Seiki; Ohnishi, Junko; Komatsu, Tomoha; Masaki, Tatsuya; Sen, Kikuo; Ikeda, Masato

    2007-07-01

    Oxygen limitation is a crucial problem in amino acid fermentation by Corynebacterium glutamicum. Toward this subject, our study was initiated by analysis of the oxygen-requiring properties of C. glutamicum, generally regarded as a strict aerobe. This organism formed colonies on agar plates up to relatively low oxygen concentrations (0.5% O(2)), while no visible colonies were formed in the absence of O(2). However, in the presence of nitrate (NO3-), the organism exhibited limited growth anaerobically with production of nitrite (NO2-), indicating that C. glutamicum can use nitrate as a final electron acceptor. Assays of cell extracts from aerobic and hypoxic cultures yielded comparable nitrate reductase activities, irrespective of nitrate levels. Genome analysis revealed a narK2GHJI cluster potentially relevant to nitrate reductase and transport. Disruptions of narG and narJ abolished the nitrate-dependent anaerobic growth with the loss of nitrate reductase activity. Disruption of the putative nitrate/nitrite antiporter gene narK2 did not affect the enzyme activity but impaired the anaerobic growth. These indicate that this locus is responsible for nitrate respiration. Agar piece assays using L-lysine- and L-arginine-producing strains showed that production of both amino acids occurred anaerobically by nitrate respiration, indicating the potential of C. glutamicum for anaerobic amino acid production.

  8. Potential Role of Concentrating Solar Power in Enabling High Renewables Scenarios in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denholm, P.; Hand, M.; Mai, T.; Margolis, R.; Brinkman, G.; Drury, E.; Mowers, M.; Turchi, C.

    2012-10-01

    This work describes the analysis of concentrating solar power (CSP) in two studies -- The SunShot Vision Study and the Renewable Electricity Futures Study -- and the potential role of CSP in a future energy mix.

  9. The potential role of perceived support for reduction of special education teachers’ burnout

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Viviana Langher; Andrea Caputo; Maria Elisabetta Ricci

    2017-01-01

    .... This study explored the potential role of perceived support for reduction of burnout in a sample of 276 special education teachers working in lower (n=130) and higher (n=146) secondary schools...

  10. Role of Root Exudates in Adaptative Reactions of Buckwheat Plants in Aluminium-acid Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.E. Smirnov

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aliminium toxicity is major limiting factor of crop production in acidic soils. It is known that mechanisms of toxic effects of aluminium are differing in biochemical characters, research of aluminium toxicity complicated by variety of its chemical forms and migration in soil and water ability. The root exudates qualitative composition of common buckwheat was evaluated. Organic complexing agents – oxalic acid and phenolic compounds were revealed. The role of these complexing agents in the buckwheat aluminium resistance under acidic stress, participation in processes of external and internal detoxification was shown. Spectrophometric assay revealed an increase in root secretion of oxalic acid by 2.5 times and decrease in content of phenolic compounds in root exudates solution by 3 times upon aluminium (50 µM treatment. In the meanwhile the same concentration of the metal had induced phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activity by 2 times.

  11. Studies on the role of amino acid stereospecificity in amyloid beta aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Veer Bala; Indi, S S; Rao, K S J

    2008-01-01

    Amyloid beta (Abeta) deposition and neurodegeneration are the two related events in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. Several factors modulate the conformation and physical properties of Abeta, which in turn affects its biological functions. Among these, age-dependent changes in the stereospecificity of the amino acids comprising Abeta is one such factors. In the present study, we investigated the aggregation property of Abeta as a function of the stereospecificity of amino acids comprising the peptide. We carried out our study by comparing the physical properties of Abeta(1-40) all-L and Abeta(1-40) all-D enantiomers using various biophysical techniques. These results indicated that the aggregation and folding parameters of Abeta are stereospecific and the aggregation property strongly depends upon the amino acid sequence and their stereospecificity. This may possibly help to understand the stereospecific role of amino acids comprising Abeta in its aggregation and its relevance to neurodegeneration.

  12. Role of fatty acid composites in the toxicity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles used in cosmetic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, JuOae; Lee, Chang-Woo; Alsulimani, Helal Hussain; Choi, Jee Eun; Lee, Joo-Kyung; Kim, AhYoung; Park, Bae Ho; Kim, Jonghan; Lee, HeaYeon

    2016-01-01

    It has been recognized that the use of nanoparticles (NPs) in the cosmetic industry results in products with better efficacy and functionality. However, recent advances in molecular toxicology have revealed that NP exposure can promote cytotoxicity and oxidative damage, which has raised health concerns in the use of NPs in personal care products. Nevertheless, the mechanistic basis for the toxicity and safety of cosmetic NPs is poorly understood. The goal of the study was to determine the cytotoxicity and intracellular distribution of titanium dioxide (TiO2) NPs containing fatty acid composites (palmitoleic acid, palmitic acid, stearic acid and oleic acid) commonly used in cosmetic products. Two types of cells, human fibroblast skin cells and adenocarcinoma lung cells, were exposed to either bare TiO2 NPs or TiO2 NPs mixed with fatty acids for up to 48 hr. NMR analysis confirmed that the fatty acid composites remained in the NPs after wash. The cytotoxicity of TiO2 NPs was determined by cell viability measurement using quantitative confocal microscopy, and the localization of two different forms of TiO2 NPs were assessed using electron spectroscopic imaging with transmission electron microscopy. TiO2 NPs containing fatty acids posed significantly reduced cytotoxicity (80-88% decreases) than bare NPs in both cell types. Furthermore, there was less intracellular penetration of the NPs containing fatty acid composites compared with bare NPs. These results provide important insights into the role of fatty acids in protecting the cells from possible toxicity caused by NPs used in the production of cosmetic products.

  13. The role of thyroid hormones in regulating of fatty acid spectrum of brain lipids: ontogenetic aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodynskiy A.G.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In experiments on rats of three age groups the role of thyroid hormones in the regulation of fatty acid spectrum of cortical and hippocampus lipids was studied. It was found that on the background of decreased thyroid status content of polyunsaturated fractions of free fatty acids, significantly changed depending on the age of the animals. In particular, in juvenile rats hypothyroidism was accompanied by a decrease almost twice the number of pentacodan acid decreased lipids viscosity in neurocortex. In old rats reduce of pentacodan acid in the cortex (38% was supplemented by significant (77% decrease in linoleic and linolenic acids. Unlike the two age groups deficiency of thyroid hormones in young animals caused accumulation of free polyunsatarated fatty acids (C18: 2.3 in the cerebral cortex by 74%, which may be associated with a decrease of this fraction in fatty acid spectrum of lipids and increase of viscosity properties of the membranes. These restruc­turing may be associated with modulation of synaptic transmission of specific neurotransmitter systems in the brain.

  14. Effects of salicylic acid foliar application on germination, growth and antioxidant potential of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Karalija, Erna; Parić, Adisa

    2018-01-01

    Salicylic acid is one of endogenous plant growth regulators that plays a key role in many physiological processes. The present study analysed the effect of different concentrations (0, 0.01, 0.1, ad 1.0 mM) of salicylic acid on morphological parameters, photosynthetic pigments, protein, proline, total carbohydrates, and secondary metabolites content as well as peroxidase activity. One month after sowing seedlings were replanted in new pots, and salicylic acid was applied in form of a foliar s...

  15. Media Impact on Fright Reactions and Belief in UFOs: The Potential Role of Mental Imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Glenn G.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Explores the potential role of mental imagery for media effects in emotional responses to frightening mass media, and in the effects of the media on beliefs in UFOs. Finds that individual differences in vividness of mental imagery may play a crucial role in moderating both types of media impact. (SR)

  16. The potential role of hydrogen energy in India and Western Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ruijven, B.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304834521; Lakshmikanth, H.D.; van Vuuren, D.P.; de Vries, B.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/068361599

    2008-01-01

    We used the TIMER energy model to explore the potential role of hydrogen in the energy systems of India and Western Europe, looking at the impacts on its main incentives: climate policy, energy security and urban air pollution. We found that hydrogen will not play a major role in both regions

  17. Fatty acid specificity of T1 lipase and its potential in acylglycerol synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Xiao-Li; Lan, Dong-Ming; Zhong, Jin-Feng; Liu, Lu; Wang, Yong-Hua; Yang, Bo

    2014-06-01

    T1 lipase has received considerable attention due to its thermostability. Fatty acid specificity of T1 lipase (crude and purified) was investigated, and its potential in the synthesis of acylglycerols was also evaluated. Fatty acid specificity of T1 lipase (crude and purified) was investigated in the esterification of fatty acids (C6:0 to C18:3), suggesting that crude and purified T1 lipase had the lowest preference for C18:0 [specificity constant (1/α) = 0.08] followed by C18:1 (1/α = 0.12) and showed the highest preference for C8:0 (1/α = 1). A structural model was constructed to briefly explore interactions between the lipase and its substrate. Furthermore, crude T1 lipase-catalysed synthesis of diacylglycerols (DAGs) and monoacylglycerols (MAGs) by esterification of glycerol with C18:1 was studied for evaluating its potential in acylglycerols synthesis. The optimal conditions were glycerol/oleic acid molar ratio 5:1, the lipase concentration 9.7 U g(-1) of substrates, water content 50 g kg(-1) of substrates and temperature 50 °C, which yielded 42.25% DAGs, 26.34% MAGs and 9.18% triacylglycerols at 2 h. DAGs and MAGs were synthesised in good yields although C18:1 (a much poorer substrate) was used. Our work demonstrates that T1 lipase, which was discovered to show 1,3-regio-selectivity, is a promising biocatalyst for lipids modification. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. The role of vitamin D in multiple sclerosis: biology & biochemistry, epidemiology and potential roles in treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Steve; der Mei, Ingrid van; Taylor, Bruce

    2017-09-21

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a progressive, demyelinating condition of the central nervous system, manifesting in loss or alterations in function of sensory, motor and cognitive function. Of the various environmental and behavioural risk factors identified as playing a role in MS onset and progression, perhaps none has been as consistent as vitamin D. In this review, we will endeavour to present a general background on the role of vitamin D in human health and particularly in MS, as well as the substantial epidemiological evidence in support of vitamin D's role in MS. Identified initially indirectly via the oft-noted latitudinal gradient in MS prevalence and incidence, vitamin D has since been demonstrated to have a strong and consistent inverse association with MS risk and clinical course. Cases have much lower levels of the diagnostic metabolite of vitamin D, 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) compared to healthy controls, while those with more active disease have lower levels of 25(OH)D than other cases with less active disease. These case-control and cross-sectional study results led the way to cohort studies which indicated significant inverse associations between serum 25(OH)D and clinical activity in MS. The combined weight of indirect and direct observational evidence have been the impetus for completed and ongoing randomised trials of vitamin D supplementation, alone or in addition to standard immunomodulatory medications, as an intervention in MS onset and clinical course. Moreover, in addition to being a distinct factor in MS aetiology, vitamin D has been demonstrated to interact with a variety of other risk factors, from genetic predictors like HLA-DR1 genotype to behavioural factors like smoking. There is an abundance of epidemiological evidence, both direct and indirect, as well as significant biological plausibility substantiating a role for vitamin D in the onset & progression of multiple sclerosis. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries

  19. Synthesis and structural characterization of derivatives of 2- and 3-benzo[b]furan carboxylic acids with potential cytotoxic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossakowski, Jerzy; Ostrowska, Kinga; Hejchman, Elzbieta; Wolska, Irena

    2005-01-01

    Derivatives of 2- and 3-benzo[b]furancarboxylic acids were prepared and evaluated for their cytotoxic potential in the National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, USA. Six compounds: 7-acetyl-6-hydroxy-3-methyl-2-benzofurancarboxylic acid (2), 6-hydroxy-7-(p-methoxycinnamoyl)-3-methyl-2-benzofurancarboxylic acid (4), 5-bromo-7-hydroxy-6-methoxy-2-benzofurancarboxylic acid methyl ester (6a), 6-acetyl-5-(O-ethyl-2'-diethylamino)-2-methyl-3-benzofurancarboxylic acid methyl ester (1f), 6-(O-ethyl-2'-diethylamino)-7-p-methoxycinnamoyl)-3-methyl-2-benzofurancarboxylic acid methyl ester hydrochloride (4b), 5-bromo-7-(O-ethyl-2'-diethylamino)-6-methoxy-2-benzofurancarboxylic acid methyl ester (6b) showed significant cytotoxic activities against human cancer cell lines. In addition the crystal structures of 7-methoxy-2-benzofurancarboxylic acid methyl ester (7a) has been solved by X-ray structure analysis of single crystals.

  20. The potential of lactic acid bacteria for the production of safe and wholesome food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammes, W P; Tichaczek, P S

    1994-03-01

    By tradition lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are involved in the production of fermented foods. These constitute one quarter of our diet and are characterized by a safe history, certain beneficial health effects, and an extended shelf life when compared with raw materials. The various fermenting substrates are habitats for specific LAB that differ in their metabolic potential. The health effects exerted by LAB are the following: 1. Production of lactic acid and minor amounts of acetic and formic acid. These cause: a drop in pH and thereby growth inhibition of food spoiling or poisoning bacteria; killing of certain pathogens; detoxification by degradation of noxious compounds of plant origin (usually in combination with plant-derived enzymatic activities). 2. Production of antimicrobial compounds (e.g. bacteriocins, H2O2, fatty acids). 3. Probiotic effects as live organisms in food. The wholesomeness of LAB can also be extended to fields outside human nutrition, as they may act as probiotics in animal production or as plant protectives in agriculture and thus contribute to healthy raw materials for food production. Modern concepts or perspectives of the application of LAB include the following: 1. Selection of the best adapted and safely performing LAB strains. 2. Selection of strains with probiotic effects. 3. Selection of strains with health-promoting effects (e.g. production of vitamins or essential amino acids, anti-tumour activity). 4. Selection of strains with food protective activities (inhibiting spoilage or food pathogens). These strains can be added to food or used as starters in food fermentations. They may be found as wild-type organisms or can be obtained by genetic engineering.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Antimicrobial Potentials of Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated From a Nigerian Menstruating Woman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Funmilola Abidemi Ayeni

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background: Racial differences affect the composition of lactic acid bacteria (LAB in women’s vagina. However, the bacteria present in women’s vagina exert protective effect against invading uropathogens through production of several inhibitory compounds. The LAB composition of the vagina of a menstruating Nigerian woman was examined to detect any difference between the subject’s vaginal LAB flora and reported cases of women from western world and to investigate the antimicrobial activities of these lactic acid bacteria against potential uropathogens and enteropathogens with analysis of possible compounds that may be responsible for inhibition. Methods: Informed consent was obtained from the subject. LAB were identified by partially sequencing the 16S rRNA gene. The organic acids were detected through High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC while the volatile compounds were detected by gas chromatography. The hydrogen peroxide production was assayed through enzymatic reactions. Results: Enterococcus faecalis FAA025 and Streptococcus equines FAA026 were the only bacterial strains isolated. The two LAB strains inhibited the growth of all tested uropathogens and enteropathogens to remarkable degree. Both strains produced high quantities of lactic acid while high quantities of hydrogen peroxide, acetic acid and ethanol were only observed in Streptococcus equines FAA026. Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that in spite of absence of lactobacilli during menstruation in the subject, other LAB present (Enterococcus faecalis FAA025 and Streptococcus equines FAA026 can exert protective effects against invading uropathogens. Also, the LAB composition of the Nigerian woman is similar to her counterparts in the West. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2013; 12(3.000: 283-290

  2. Dietary Fatty Acids and Their Potential for Controlling Metabolic Diseases Through Activation of FFA4/GPR120

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulven, Trond; Christiansen, Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that the amount and type of ingested fat impacts the development of obesity and metabolic diseases, but the potential for beneficial effects from fat has received less attention. It is becoming clear that the composition of the individual fatty acids in diet is important. Besides...... for the treatment of metabolic disorders, including type 2 diabetes and obesity. In this review, we discuss the various types of dietary fatty acids, the link between FFA4 and metabolic diseases, the potential effects of the individual fatty acids on health, and the ability of fatty acids to activate FFA4. We also...

  3. Diversity and Probiotic Potential of Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Horreh, a Traditional Iranian Fermented Food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasiee, Alireza; Alizadeh Behbahani, Behrooz; Tabatabaei Yazdi, Farideh; Mortazavi, Seyed Ali; Noorbakhsh, Hamid

    2017-05-19

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the probiotic potential of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains isolated from Horreh. Some probiotic properties, e.g., resistance to acid, bile tolerance, antibacterial activity, and antibiotic susceptibility, were investigated. A total of 140 Gram-positive and catalase-negative isolates from Horreh were subjected to identification and grouping by cultural methods and the 16S rRNA sequencing. The new isolates were identified to be Lactobacillus (fermentum, plantarum, and brevis) Weissella cibaria, Enterococcus (faecium and faecalis), Leuconostoc (citreum and mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides) and Pediococcus pentosaceus. Probiotic potential study of LAB isolates showed that Lb. plantarum and Leu. mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides isolates were able to grow at pH 2.5 and 3.5. Lactobacillus plantarum (isolate A44) showed the highest cell hydrophobicity (84.5%). According to antibacterial activity tests, Listeria innocua and Staphylococcus aureus were the most sensitive indicators against the selected LAB strains, while Escherichia coli and Bacillus cereus were the most resistant. In addition, all the isolated LAB species were resistant to vancomycin. The results of the present study suggested that the Lactobacillus fermentum and plantarum isolated from Horreh, characterized in this study, have potential use for industrial purposes as probiotics.

  4. PAMAM Dendrimers as Potential Carriers of Gadolinium Complexes of Iminodiacetic Acid Derivatives for Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Markowicz-Piasecka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This is the first study describing the utilization of PAMAM dendrimers as delivery vehicles of novel magnetic resonance imaging (MRI contrast agents. The purpose of this paper was to establish the potential of G4 PAMAM dendrimers as carriers of gadolinium complexes of iminodiacetic acid derivatives and determine imaging properties of synthesized compounds in in vivo studies. Furthermore, we examined the influence of four synthesized complexes on the process of clot formation, stabilization, and lysis and on amidolytic activity of thrombin. Biodistribution studies have shown that the compounds composed of PAMAM G4 dendrimers and gadolinium complexes of iminodiacetic acid derivatives increase signal intensity preferably in liver in range of 59–116% in MRI studies which corresponds with the greatest accumulation of gadolinium after administration of the compounds. Synthesized compounds affect kinetic parameters of the proces of clot formation, its stabilization, and lysis. However, only one synthesized compound at concentration 10-fold higher than potential plasma concentrations contributed to the increase of general parameters such as the overall potential of clot formation and lysis (↑CLAUC and total time of the process (↑T. Results of described studies provide additional insight into delivery properties of PAMAM dendrimers but simultaneously underscore the necessity for further research.

  5. Fatty acid amide hydrolase: a potential target for next generation therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maccarrone, Mauro

    2006-01-01

    Endocannabinoids are amides, esters and ethers of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, which act as new lipid mediators. Anandamide (N-arachidonoylethanolamine; AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol are the main endogenous agonists of cannabinoid receptors, able to mimic several pharmacological effects of Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol, the active principle of Cannabis sativa preparations like hashish and marijuana. The activity of AEA at its receptors is limited by cellular uptake through a specific membrane transporter, followed by intracellular degradation by a fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). Growing evidence demonstrates that FAAH is the critical regulator of the endogenous levels of AEA, suggesting that it may serve as an attractive therapeutic target for the treatment of human disorders. In particular, FAAH inhibitors may be next generation therapeutic drugs of potential value for the treatment of pathologies in the central nervous system and in the periphery. Here, the potential applications of these inhibitors for human disease will be reviewed, with an emphasis on the properties of hydro(pero)xy-anandamides. In fact, these oxygenated derivatives of AEA are the most powerful inhibitors of FAAH of natural origin as yet discovered. In addition, new insights into the promoter region of FAAH gene will be presented, and the therapeutic potential of mimetics of transcription factors of this gene in the management of human infertility will be discussed.

  6. [The role of omega-3 fatty acids from fish in prevention of cardiovascular diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiner, Eljko; Tedeschi-Reiner, Eugenia; Stajminger, Gordana

    2007-01-01

    Fish and fish oil are rich sources of omega-3 fatty acids--essential polyunsaturated fatty acids. These acids in doses of 1 g per day have been shown to significantly reduce the all-cause mortality in post myocardial infarction (MI) patients and the risk for sudden death caused by cardiac arrhythmias. One of the recently most studied mechanisms that may contribute to this benefits of omega-3 fatty acids is their anti-arrhythmic effect. Namely, these acids influence membrane ion channels, increase ventricular fibrillation threshold and increase heart rate variability. Although the data concerning primary prevention is less straightforward than the data relating secondary prevention, it seems that the use of omega-3 fatty acids in primary prevention might be justified as well. In higher doses (2 to 4 g per day) they are used to treat hypertriglyceridemia. Potential mechanisms by which omega-3 fatty acids may reduce risk for cardiovascular disease include also antithrombotic (they decrease platelet aggregation/reactivity, reduce plasma viscosity, enhance fibrinolysis) and anti-inflammatory effects (e.g. they decrease IL-6, MCP-1, TNF), improving vascular endothelial cell function (e.g. they increase availability of nitric oxide), reducing expression of endothelial cells adhesion molecules, inhibiting smooth muscle cells migration and proliferation, and reducing blood pressure. Based upon clinical studies the use of omega-3 fatty acids should be considered today at least as a part of comprehensive secondary prevention strategy in post-MI patients. It has been also shown that adding highly concentrated omega-3 fatty acids to standard treatment in the secondary prevention of MI is cost effective versus standard treatment alone. Particularly important is that there are no significant drug interactions with omega-3 fatty acids.

  7. Prolactin potentiates the activity of acid-sensing ion channels in female rat primary sensory neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ting-Ting; Qu, Zu-Wei; Ren, Cuixia; Gan, Xiong; Qiu, Chun-Yu; Hu, Wang-Ping

    2016-04-01

    Prolactin (PRL) is a polypeptide hormone produced and released from the pituitary and extrapituitary tissues. It regulates activity of nociceptors and causes hyperalgesia in pain conditions, but little is known the molecular mechanism. We report here that PRL can exert a potentiating effect on the functional activity of acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs), key sensors for extracellular protons. First, PRL dose-dependently increased the amplitude of ASIC currents with an EC50 of (5.89 ± 0.28) × 10(-8) M. PRL potentiation of ASIC currents was also pH dependent. Second, PRL potentiation of ASIC currents was blocked by Δ1-9-G129R-hPRL, a PRL receptor antagonist, and removed by intracellular dialysis of either protein kinase C inhibitor GF109203X, protein interacting with C-kinase 1(PICK1) inhibitor FSC-231, or PI3K inhibitor AS605240. Third, PRL altered acidosis-evoked membrane excitability of DRG neurons and caused a significant increase in the amplitude of the depolarization and the number of spikes induced by acid stimuli. Four, PRL exacerbated nociceptive responses to injection of acetic acid in female rats. Finally, PRL displayed a stronger effect on ASIC mediated-currents and nociceptive behavior in intact female rats than OVX female and male rats and thus modulation of PRL may be gender-dependent. These results suggest that PRL up-regulates the activity of ASICs and enhances ASIC mediated nociceptive responses in female rats, which reveal a novel peripheral mechanism underlying PRL involvement in hyperalgesia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Relative abundance of short chain and polyunsaturated fatty acids in propionic acid-induced autistic features in rat pups as potential markers in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Ansary, Afaf; Al-Ayadhi, Laila

    2014-08-31

    Fatty acids are essential dietary nutrients, and one of their important roles is providing polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) for the growth and function of nervous tissue. Short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are a group of compounds derived from the host microbiome that were recently linked to effects on the gut, the brain, and behavior. They are therefore linked to neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism. Reduced levels of PUFAs are associated with impairments in cognitive and behavioral performance, which are particularly important during brain development. Recent studies suggest that omega -3 fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are involved in neurogenesis, neurotransmission, and protection from oxidative stress. Omega-3 PUFAs mediate some of these effects by antagonizing Omega-6 PUFA (arachidonic acid, AA)-induced proinflammatory prostaglandin E₂ (PGE₂) formation. In this work, the absolute and relative concentrations of propionic (PPA), butyric and acetic acids, as well as PUFAs and their precursors (α-Linolenic and linoleic), were measured in the brain tissue of PPA-neurointoxicated rat pups (receiving 250 mg PPA/Kg body weight for 3 consecutive days) as a rodent model with persistent autistic features compared with healthy controls. The data revealed remarkably lower levels of omega6/omega3, α-Linolenic/Linoleic, α-Linolenic/EPA, α-Linolenic/DHA, EPA/DHA, and AA/Linoleic acid ratios in PPA-intoxicated rats. The role of these impaired ratios is discussed in relation to the activity of desaturases and elongases, which are the two enzymatic groups involved in the synthesis of PUFAs from their precursors. The relationship between the abnormal relative concentrations of the studied fatty acids and oxidative stress, neurotransmission, and neuroinflammation is also discussed in detail. This study demonstrates that fatty acid ratios are useful for understanding the mechanism of PPA neurotoxicity in a rodent model

  9. Nicotinic acid receptor abnormalities in human skin cancer: implications for a role in epidermal differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yira Bermudez

    Full Text Available Chronic UV skin exposure leads to epidermal differentiation defects in humans that can be largely restored by pharmacological doses of nicotinic acid. Nicotinic acid has been identified as a ligand for the human G-protein-coupled receptors GPR109A and GPR109B that signal through G(i-mediated inhibition of adenylyl cyclase. We have examined the expression, cellular distribution, and functionality of GPR109A/B in human skin and skin derived epidermal cells.Nicotinic acid increases epidermal differentiation in photodamaged human skin as judged by the terminal differentiation markers caspase 14 and filaggrin. Both GPR109A and GPR109B genes are transcribed in human skin and in epidermal keratinocytes, but expression in dermal fibroblasts is below limits of detection. Receptor transcripts are greatly over-expressed in squamous cell cancers. Receptor protein in normal skin is prominent from the basal through granular layers of the epidermis, with cellular localization more dispersive in the basal layer but predominantly localized at the plasma membrane in more differentiated epidermal layers. In normal human primary and immortalized keratinocytes, nicotinic acid receptors show plasma membrane localization and functional G(i-mediated signaling. In contrast, in a squamous cell carcinoma derived cell line, receptor protein shows a more diffuse cellular localization and the receptors are nearly non-functional.The results of these studies justify future genetic and pharmacological intervention studies to define possible specific role(s of nicotinic acid receptors in human skin homeostasis.

  10. Historical perspective on the role of the kidney in acid-base regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smogorzewski, Miroslaw J

    2009-01-01

    Early observations on the acidity of normal urine by J. B. von Helmont (1527-1644) and on urine content of sulfate, phosphate and carbonate by J. J. Berzelius (1779-1848), followed by the studies of Bence Jones (1813-1878) on the connection between food, nutrition and urine acidity, pointed to the role of the kidney in regulation of acid-base status in humans and animals. The next important steps in this field of science were studies by F. Walter (1877) on decreased "alkali" in blood and increased ammonia in the urine of dogs after infusion into their blood of hydrochloric acid, and the observations of B. Naunyn (1939-1925) and O. Minkowski (1853-1931) on the presence of beta-hydroxybutyric acid in urine and on increased ammonia excretion in urine from patients with diabetic coma. Also it was found that patients with uremia had decreased titratable "alkali' in blood (R. von Jaksch 1855-1947) and reduced ability to excrete ammonia (W. W. Palmer and L. J. Henderson 1915). Finally, studies by R. F. Pitts (1908-1977) defined the role of the kidney in reabsorption of bicarbonate in the tubules and linked hydrogen secretion to sodium excretion in the urine.

  11. Role of retinoic acid receptors in squamous-cell carcinoma in human esophagus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergheim, I.; Wolfgarten, E.; Bollschweiler, E.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Worldwide, cancer in the esophagus ranks among the 10 most common cancers. Alterations of retinoic acid receptors (e.g. RARalpha, beta, gamma, and RXRalpha, beta, gamma) expression is considered to play an important role in development of squamous-cell carcinoma (SCC), which is the mo...... and that in some patients life style (e.g. smoking and alcohol consumption) may be a critical component in the alteration of retinoic acid receptor levels in esophagus.......BACKGROUND: Worldwide, cancer in the esophagus ranks among the 10 most common cancers. Alterations of retinoic acid receptors (e.g. RARalpha, beta, gamma, and RXRalpha, beta, gamma) expression is considered to play an important role in development of squamous-cell carcinoma (SCC), which is the most...... common esophageal cancer. Alcohol consumption and smoking, which can alter retinoic acid receptor levels, have been identified as key risk factors in the development of carcinoma in the aero-digestive tract. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate protein levels of retinoic acid receptors...

  12. The role of uric acid in metabolic syndrome in patients with psoriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berna Solak

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: Psoriasis patients have increased risk of obesity, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease. Uric acid is a metabolic marker associated with metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases. Uric acid levels increase in psoriasis as well. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of uric acid in metabolic syndrome in patients with psoriasis. Materials and Methods: Chronic plaque psoriasis patients who presented to the dermatology outpatient clinics in a university-affiliated training and research hospital and age- and gender-matched healthy individuals were included in the study. Waist circumference, height and weight measurements in both groups were recorded, and body mass index was calculated. Serum uric acid, urea, creatinine, C-reactive protein, fasting blood glucose, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, total cholesterol, triglyceride and insulin levels were determined. Metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance status were evaluated. The findings were compared statistically. Results: Seventy patients with chronic plaque psoriasis (37 females, 33 males and 60 healthy individuals (31 females, 29 males were included in the study. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome and uric acid levels were found to be higher in the psoriasis group than in control group (p=0.003 and p=0.008, respectively. Serum uric acid levels and Psoriasis Area and Severity Index scores were higher in psoriasis patients with metabolic syndrome than in those without metabolic syndrome when psoriasis patients were evaluated separately (p=0.041, p=0.024, respectively. A positive correlation was observed between abdominal circumference and serum uric acid levels in psoriasis patients (p=0.003, r=0.350 Conclusion: The results of this study show that uric acid levels are elevated in psoriasis patients with metabolic syndrome. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was also significantly higher. Hence, patients should be followed up for development

  13. Chemoproteomic Profiling of Acetanilide Herbicides Reveals Their Role in Inhibiting Fatty Acid Oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Counihan, Jessica L; Duckering, Megan; Dalvie, Esha; Ku, Wan-Min; Bateman, Leslie A; Fisher, Karl J; Nomura, Daniel K

    2017-03-17

    Acetanilide herbicides are among the most widely used pesticides in the United States, but their toxicological potential and mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here, we have used chemoproteomic platforms to map proteome-wide cysteine reactivity of acetochlor (AC), the most widely used acetanilide herbicide, in vivo in mice. We show that AC directly reacts with >20 protein targets in vivo in mouse liver, including the catalytic cysteines of several thiolase enzymes involved in mitochondrial and peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation. We show that the fatty acids that are not oxidized, due to impaired fatty acid oxidation, are instead diverted into other lipid pathways, resulting in heightened free fatty acids, triglycerides, cholesteryl esters, and other lipid species in the liver. Our findings show the utility of chemoproteomic approaches for identifying novel mechanisms of toxicity associated with environmental chemicals like acetanilide herbicides.

  14. The role of dietary acid load and mild metabolic acidosis in insulin resistance in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Rebecca S; Kozan, Pinar; Samocha-Bonet, Dorit

    2016-05-01

    Type 2 diabetes is increasingly being recognised as a global health crisis (World Health Organisation). Insulin resistance is closely associated with obesity and precedes the development of type 2 diabetes. However, there is now increasing evidence to suggest that diet itself may independently be associated with type 2 diabetes risk. A diet with a high acid load (or high potential renal net acid load, PRAL) can result in a decrease in pH towards the lower end of the normal physiological range, which may in turn lead to the development of insulin resistance. Conversely, reducing dietary acid load (the so called 'alkaline diet') may be protective and prevent the onset of type 2 diabetes. Here, we explore the influence of dietary acid load on the development of mild metabolic acidosis and induction of insulin resistance. Whilst large prospective cohort studies link high dietary acid load or low serum bicarbonate with the development of type 2 diabetes, the effect of a diet with a low acid (or high alkaline) load remains unclear. Further interventional studies are required to investigate the influence of dietary composition on the body's acid/base balance, insulin resistance and incidence of type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  15. Role of HCA₂ (GPR109A) in nicotinic acid and fumaric acid ester-induced effects on the skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Julien; Gille, Andreas; Offermanns, Stefan

    2012-10-01

    Nicotinic acid (NA) and fumaric acid esters (FAE) such as monomethyl fumarate or dimethyl fumarate are drugs that elicit a cutaneous reaction called flushing as a side effect. NA is used to reduce progression of atherosclerosis through its anti-dyslipidemic activity and lipid-independent mechanisms involving immune cells, whereas FAE are used to treat psoriasis via largely unknown mechanisms. Both, NA and FAE, induce flushing by the activation of the G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) Hydroxy-carboxylic acid receptor 2 (HCA₂, GPR109A) in cells of the epidermis. While the wanted effects of NA are at least in part also mediated by HCA₂, it is currently not clear whether this receptor is also involved in the anti-psoriatic effects of FAE. The HCA₂-mediated flushing response to these drugs involves the formation of prostaglandins D₂ and E₂ by Langerhans cells and keratinocytes via COX-1 in Langerhans cells and COX-2 in keratinocytes. This review summarizes recent progress in the understanding of the mechanisms underlying HCA₂-mediated flushing, describes strategies to mitigate it and discusses the potential link between flushing, HCA₂ and the anti-psoriatic effects of FAE. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluate the role of organic acids in the protection of ligands from radiolytic degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Anneka [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Mezyk, Stehpen [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Peterman, Dean [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-08-01

    In the Advanced TALSPEAK process, the bis(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid (HDEHP) extractant used in the traditional TALSPEAK process is replaced by the extractant 2-ethylhexylphosphonic acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester (HEH[EHP]). In addition, the aqueous phase complexant and buffer used in traditional TALSPEAK is replaced with the combination of N-(2-hydroxyethyl)ethylenediamine-N,N’,N’-triacetic acid (HEDTA) and citric acid. In order to evaluate the possible impacts of gamma radiolysis upon the efficacy of the Advanced TALSPEAK flowsheet, aqueous and organic phases corresponding to the extraction section of the proposed flowsheet were irradiated in the INL test loop under an ambient atmosphere. The results of these studies conducted at INL, led INL researchers to conclude that the scarcity of values of rate constants for the reaction of hydroxyl radical with the components of the Advanced TALSPEAK process chemistry was severely limiting the interpretation of the results of radiolysis studies performed at the INL. In this work, the rate of reaction of hydroxyl radical with citric acid at several pH values was measured using a competitive pulse radiolysis technique. This report describes those results and is written in completion of milestone M3FT-16IN030102028, the goal of which was to evaluate the role of organic acids in the protection of ligands from radiolytic degradation. The results reported here demonstrate the importance of obtaining hydroxyl radical reaction rate data for the conditions that closely resemble actual solution conditions expected to be used in an actual solvent extraction process. This report describes those results and is written in completion of milestone M3FT-16IN030102028, the goal of which was to evaluate the role of organic acids in the protection of ligands from radiolytic degradation.

  17. Sulphur-containing Amino Acids: Protective Role Against Free Radicals and Heavy Metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colovic, Mirjana B; Vasic, Vesna M; Djuric, Dragan M; Krstic, Danijela Z

    2018-01-30

    Sulphur is an abundant element in biological systems, which plays an important role in processes essential for life as a constituent of proteins, vitamins and other crucial biomolecules. The major source of sulphur for humans is plants being able to use inorganic sulphur in the purpose of sulphur-containing amino acids synthesis. Sulphur-containing amino acids include methionine, cysteine, homocysteine, and taurine. Methionine and cysteine are classified as proteinogenic, canonic amino acids incorporated in protein structure. Sulphur amino acids are involved in the synthesis of intracellular antioxidants such as glutathione and N-acetyl cysteine. Moreover, naturally occurring sulphur-containing ligands are effective and safe detoxifying agents, often used in order to prevent toxic metal ions effects and their accumulation in human body. Literature search for peer-reviewed articles was performed using PubMed and Scopus databases, and utilizing appropriate keywords. This review is focused on sulphur-containing amino acids - methionine, cysteine, taurine, and their derivatives - glutathione and N-acetylcysteine, and their defense effects as antioxidant agents against free radicals. Additionally, the protective effects of sulphur-containing ligands against the toxic effects of heavy and transition metal ions, and their reactivation role towards the enzyme inhibition are described. Sulphur-containing amino acids represent a powerful part of cell antioxidant system. Thus, they are essential in the maintenance of normal cellular functions and health. In addition to their worthy antioxidant action, sulphur-containing amino acids may offer a chelating site for heavy metals. Accordingly, they may be supplemented during chelating therapy, providing beneficial effects in eliminating toxic metals. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  18. Role of naphthenic acids in stabilizing water-in-diluted model oil emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Song; Moran, Kevin; Xu, Zhenghe; Masliyah, Jacob

    2010-06-17

    The need for alkaline conditions in oil sands processing is, in part, to produce natural surfactants from bitumen. Previous studies have shown that the produced surfactants are primarily carboxylic salts of naphthenic acids with the possibility of sulfonic salts as well. The role of these natural surfactants, particularly those in the naphthenate class, is to provide a physicochemical basis for several subprocesses in bitumen extraction. In this study, it was found that the content of indigenous naphthenic acids in bitumen can destabilize, to some extent, the water-in-oil emulsion by lowering the interfacial tension, reducing the rigidity and promoting the coalescence of water droplets.

  19. THE ROLE OF FOOD ENRICHED WITH ῶ-3 POLYUNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS IN CHILDREN’S NUTRITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.N. Stepanova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes a structure and functions of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA and their role in infants’ nutrition. It was marked that Russian market has only one product for additional food enriched with PUFA ῶ-3 for children from 4 months old. It is milkless buckwheat «Heinz».Key words: children, nutrition, additional food, long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2010;9(2:169-173

  20. Roles of gibberellic acid and zinc sulphate in increasing size and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-12-15

    Dec 15, 2009 ... 2005), litchi (Stern and Gazit, 2000; Chang and Lin,. 2006), guava (El-Sharkawy et al., 2005), and pear. (Zhang et al., 2007). In all species so far studied, gibberellins had the potential for increasing fruit size. The beneficial effects of Gibberellic acid (GA3) and nutrient elements sprays specially zinc on yield ...

  1. Assessment of rosmarinic acid content in six Lamiaceae species extracts and their antioxidant and antimicrobial potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedec, Daniela; Hanganu, Daniela; Oniga, Ilioara; Tiperciuc, Brindusa; Olah, Neli-Kinga; Raita, Oana; Bischin, Cristina; Silaghi-Dumitrescu, Radu; Vlase, Laurian

    2015-11-01

    In the present study, six indigenous species of Lamiaceae family (Origanum vulgare L., Melissa officinalis L., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Ocimum basilicum L., Salvia officinalis L. and Hyssopus officinalis L.), have been analyzed to assess the rosmarinic acid, phenyl propane derivatives and polyphenolic contents and their antioxidant and antimicrobial potential. HPLC-MS method has been used for the analysis ofrosmarinicacid. The phenyl propane derivatives and total phenolic contents were determined using spectrophotometric method. The ethanolic extracts were screened for antioxidant activities by DPPH radical scavenging, HAPX (hemoglobin ascorbate per oxidase activity inhibition), and EPR (electron paramagnetic resonance) methods. The ethanolic extracts revealed the presence of rosmarinic acid in the largest amount in O. vulgare (12.40mg/g) and in the lowest in R. officinalis (1.33 mg/g). O. vulgare extracts exhibited the highest antioxidant capacity, in line with the rosmarinic acid and polyphenolic contents. The antimicrobial testing showed a significant activity against L. monocytogenes, S. aureus and C. albicans for all six extracts.

  2. Citric acid compounds of tangerines peel extract (Citrus reticulata) as potential materials teeth whitening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratiwi, F.; Tinata, J. K.; Prakasa, A. W.; Istiqomah; Hartini, E.; Isworo, S.

    2017-04-01

    Peel of citrus fruit (Citrus reticulata) has a variety of possible chemical compounds that may serve as a potential whitening teeth. This research is conducted on a laboratory scale; therefore, it needs to be developed on an application scale. A quasi-experimental was employed in this study. Citric acid extraction was carried out on the type of Sweet Orange (Citrus Aurantium L), Tangerine (Citrus Reticulata Blanco or Citrus Nobilis), Pomelo (Citrus Maxima Merr, Citrus grandis Osbeck), and Lemon (Citrus Limon Linn). Citric acid’s ability test as teeth whitener was performed on premolar teeth with concentrations of 2.5%, 5%, and 10%. The experiments were replicated in 3 times, and teeth whiteness level was measured using Shade Guide VITA Classical. The result of this research showed that citric acid in every kind of orange peel with various concentration has different abilities on whitening teeth. The highest colour level obtained from Tangerine peel’s citric acid concentration of 5%. Orange peel extract has the best teeth whitening abilities tested by the method of Gass Chromatography to know the active ingredients.

  3. Comparison of gas chromotography, spectrophotometry and near infrared spectroscopy to quantify prussic acid potential in forages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, Ben M; Moore, Kenneth J; Fales, Steven L; Pedersen, Jeffery F

    2011-06-01

    Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] has been shown to contain the cyanogenic glycoside dhurrin, which is responsible for the disorder known as prussic acid poisoning in livestock. The current standard method for estimating hydrogen cyanide (HCN) uses spectrophotometry to measure the aglycone, p-hydroxybenzaldehyde (p-HB), after hydrolysis. Errors may occur due to the inability of this method to solely estimate the absorbance of p-HB at a given wavelength. The objective of this study was to compare the use of gas chromatography (GC) and near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) methods, along with a spectrophotometry method to estimate the potential for prussic acid (HCNp) of sorghum and sudangrasses over three stages maturities. It was shown that the GC produced higher HCNp estimates than the spectrophotometer for the grain sorghums, but lower concentrations for the sudangrass. Based on what is known about the analytical process of each method, the GC data is likely closer to the true HCNp concentrations of the forages. Both the GC and spectrophotometry methods yielded robust equations with the NIRS method; however, using GC as the calibration method resulted in more accurate and repeatable estimates. The HCNp values obtained from using the GC quantification method are believed to be closer to the actual values of the forage, and that use of this method will provide a more accurate and easily automated means of quantifying prussic acid. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Phytostabilization potential of Jatropha curcas L. in polymetallic acid mine tailings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qihang; Wang, Shizhong; Thangavel, Palaniswamy; Li, Qingfei; Zheng, Han; Bai, Jun; Qiu, Rongliang

    2011-09-01

    Greenhouse pot experiments were conducted to determine the growth response, metal tolerance, and phytostabilization potential of Jatropha curcas L The plants were grown on different degrees of multi-metal contaminated acid mine soils (T0, control; T1, moderately and T2, highly contaminated soils) with or without limestone amendments. The order of metal accumulation in J. curcas was roots>stems>leaves. The higher tolerance index (>90%) with no phytotoxic symptoms and growth reduction in T1 showed that this plant has the ability to tolerate polymetallic acid mine tailings. Further, various enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants also actively involved in metal defense mechanism in J. curcas. On the other hand, to alleviate the predominant phytoavailable toxic metals such as Al, Cu, and Pb, different rates (0.1, 0.25, 0.50, and 1%) of limestone amendments were added in both T1 and T2 soils. The growth performance of J. curcas was improved due to the increase in soil pH and decrease in phytoavailable soil A1 (95%), Zn (approximately 75%), and Cu (approximately 65%) contents at 0.50% of lime addition. Based on the inherent tolerance ability of J. curcas in existing adverse environmental conditions without liming, it could be used as a suitable candidate for phytostabilization in acid mine tailings.

  5. Endophytes from medicinal plants and their potential for producing indole acetic acid, improving seed germination and mitigating oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Abdul Latif; Gilani, Syed Abdullah; Waqas, Muhammad; Al-Hosni, Khadija; Al-Khiziri, Salima; Kim, Yoon-Ha; Ali, Liaqat; Kang, Sang-Mo; Asaf, Sajjad; Shahzad, Raheem; Hussain, Javid; Lee, In-Jung; Al-Harrasi, Ahmed

    Medicinal plants have been used by marginal communities to treat various ailments. However, the potential of endophytes within these bio-prospective medicinal plants remains unknown. The present study elucidates the endophytic diversity of medicinal plants (Caralluma acutangula, Rhazya stricta, and Moringa peregrina) and the endophyte role in seed growth and oxidative stress. Various organs of medicinal plants yielded ten endophytes, which were identified as Phoma sp. (6 isolates), Alternaria sp. (2), Bipolaris sp. (1), and Cladosporium sp. (1) based on 18S rDNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. The culture filtrates (CFs; 25%, 50%, and 100% concentrations) from these endophytes were tested against the growth of normal and dwarf mutant rice lines. Endophytic CF exhibited dose-dependent growth stimulation and suppression effects. CF (100%) of Phoma sp. significantly increased rice seed germination and growth compared to controls and other endophytes. This growth-promoting effect was due to the presence of indole acetic acid in endophytic CF. The gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis showed the highest indole acetic acid content ((54.31±0.21) µmol/L) in Bipolaris sp. In addition, the isolate of Bipolaris sp. exhibited significantly higher radical scavenging and anti-lipid peroxidation activity than the other isolates. Bipolaris sp. and Phoma sp. also exhibited significantly higher flavonoid and phenolic contents. The medicinal plants exhibited the presence of bio-prospective endophytic strains, which could be used for the improvement of crop growth and the mitigation of oxidative stresses.

  6. Endophytes from medicinal plants and their potential for producing indole acetic acid, improving seed germination and mitigating oxidative stress* #

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Abdul Latif; Gilani, Syed Abdullah; Waqas, Muhammad; Al-Hosni, Khadija; Al-Khiziri, Salima; Kim, Yoon-Ha; Ali, Liaqat; Kang, Sang-Mo; Asaf, Sajjad; Shahzad, Raheem; Hussain, Javid; Lee, In-Jung; Al-Harrasi, Ahmed

    2017-01-01

    Medicinal plants have been used by marginal communities to treat various ailments. However, the potential of endophytes within these bio-prospective medicinal plants remains unknown. The present study elucidates the endophytic diversity of medicinal plants (Caralluma acutangula, Rhazya stricta, and Moringa peregrina) and the endophyte role in seed growth and oxidative stress. Various organs of medicinal plants yielded ten endophytes, which were identified as Phoma sp. (6 isolates), Alternaria sp. (2), Bipolaris sp. (1), and Cladosporium sp. (1) based on 18S rDNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. The culture filtrates (CFs; 25%, 50%, and 100% concentrations) from these endophytes were tested against the growth of normal and dwarf mutant rice lines. Endophytic CF exhibited dose-dependent growth stimulation and suppression effects. CF (100%) of Phoma sp. significantly increased rice seed germination and growth compared to controls and other endophytes. This growth-promoting effect was due to the presence of indole acetic acid in endophytic CF. The gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis showed the highest indole acetic acid content ((54.31±0.21) µmol/L) in Bipolaris sp. In addition, the isolate of Bipolaris sp. exhibited significantly higher radical scavenging and anti-lipid peroxidation activity than the other isolates. Bipolaris sp. and Phoma sp. also exhibited significantly higher flavonoid and phenolic contents. The medicinal plants exhibited the presence of bio-prospective endophytic strains, which could be used for the improvement of crop growth and the mitigation of oxidative stresses. PMID:28124841

  7. Variations in mitochondrial membrane potential correlate with malic acid production by natural isolates of Saccharomyces cerevisiae sake strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oba, Takahiro; Kusumoto, Kenichi; Kichise, Yuki; Izumoto, Eiji; Nakayama, Shunichi; Tashiro, Kosuke; Kuhara, Satoru; Kitagaki, Hiroshi

    2014-08-01

    Research on the relationship between mitochondrial membrane potential and fermentation profile is being intensely pursued because of the potential for developing advanced fermentation technologies. In the present study, we isolated naturally occurring strains of yeast from sake mash that produce high levels of malic acid and demonstrate that variations in mitochondrial membrane potential correlate with malic acid production. To define the underlying biochemical mechanism, we determined the activities of enzymes required for malic acid synthesis and found that pyruvate carboxylase and malate dehydrogenase activities in strains that produce high levels of malic acid were elevated compared with the standard sake strain K901. These results inspired us to hypothesize that decreased mitochondrial membrane potential was responsible for increased malic acid synthesis, and we present data supporting this hypothesis. Thus, the mitochondrial membrane potential of high malic acid producers was lower compared with standard strains. We conclude that mitochondrial membrane potential correlates with malic acid production. © 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The therapeutic potential of allosteric ligands for free fatty acid sensitive GPCRs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hudson, Brian D; Ulven, Trond; Milligan, Graeme

    2013-01-01

    G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) are the most historically successful therapeutic targets. Despite this success there are many important aspects of GPCR pharmacology and function that have yet to be exploited to their full therapeutic potential. One in particular that has been gaining attention...... in recent times is that of GPCR ligands that bind to allosteric sites on the receptor distinct from the orthosteric site of the endogenous ligand. As therapeutics, allosteric ligands possess many theoretical advantages over their orthosteric counterparts, including more complex modes of action, improved...... of identifying allosteric leads and their often flat or confusing SAR. The present review will consider the advantages and challenges associated with allosteric GPCR ligands, and examine how the particular properties of these ligands may be exploited to uncover the therapeutic potential for free fatty acid...

  9. Synthesis and role of salicylic acid in wheat varieties with different levels of cadmium tolerance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovács, Viktória; Gondor, Orsolya K.; Szalai, Gabriella; Darkó, Éva; Majláth, Imre; Janda, Tibor; Pál, Magda, E-mail: pal.magda@agrar.mta.hu

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • Cd induces the salicylic acid metabolism in wheat. • Salicylic acid is synthesized via benzoic acid and/or ortho-hydroxy-cinnamic acid. • Cd tolerance can be explained by the highly induced glutathione metabolism. • Salicylic acid signalling is correlated with glutathione-related mechanisms. - Abstract: Wheat genotypes with different endogenous SA contents were investigated, in order to reveal how cadmium influences salicylic acid (SA) synthesis, and to find possible relationships between SA and certain protective compounds (members of the antioxidants and the heavy metal detoxification system) and between the SA content and the level of cadmium tolerance. Cadmium exposure induced SA synthesis, especially in the leaves, and it is suggested that the phenyl-propanoid synthesis pathway is responsible for the accumulation of SA observed after cadmium stress. Cadmium influenced the synthesis and activation of protective compounds to varying extents in wheat genotypes with different levels of tolerance; the roots and leaves also responded differently to cadmium stress. Although a direct relationship was not found between the initial SA levels and the degree of cadmium tolerance, the results suggest that the increase in the root SA level during cadmium stress in the Mv varieties could be related with the enhancement of the internal glutathione cycle, thus inducing the antioxidant and metal detoxification systems, which promote Cd stress tolerance in wheat seedlings. The positive correlation between certain SA-related compounds and protective compounds suggests that SA-related signalling may also play a role in the acclimation to heavy metal stress.

  10. Changes in oxidation-reduction potential during milk fermentation by wild lactic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morandi, Stefano; Silvetti, Tiziana; Tamburini, Alberto; Brasca, Milena

    2016-08-01

    Oxidation-reduction potential (E h) is a fundamental physicochemical property of lactic acid bacteria that determines the microenvironment during the cheese manufacture and ripening. For this reason the E h is of growing interest in dairy research and the dairy industry. The objective of the study was to perform a comprehensive study on the reduction activity of wild lactic acid bacteria strains collected in different periods (from 1960 to 2012) from Italian dairy products. A total of 709 strains belonging to Lactococcus lactis, Enterococcus durans, E. faecium, E. faecalis and Streptococcus thermophilus species were studied for their reduction activity in milk. Kinetics of milk reduction were characterised by the minimum redox potential (E h7) and time of reaching E h7 (t min), the maximum difference between two measures (Δmax) and the time at which these maximum differences occurred (t*). Broad diversity in kinetic parameters was observed at both species and strain levels. E. faecalis and L. lactis resulted to be the most reducing species, while S. thermophilus was characterised by the lowest reducing power while the greatest heterogeneity was pointed out among E. durans and E. faecium strains. Considering the period of collection (1960-2012) we observed that the more recently isolated strains generally showed less reducing activity. This trend was particularly evident for the species E. durans, E. faecium and L. lactis while an opposite trend was observed in E. faecalis species. Data reported in this research provide new information for a deeper understanding of redox potential changes during milk fermentation due to bacterial growth. Gain knowledge of the redox potential of the LAB cultures could allow a better control and standardisation of cheesemaking process.

  11. Nucleic acid binding properties of allicin: spectroscopic analysis and estimation of anti-tumor potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, Gunjan; Pradhan, Shrikant; Srivastava, Tapasya; Mehrotra, Ranjana

    2014-01-01

    Allicin has received much attention due to its anti-proliferative activity and not-well elucidated underlying mechanism of action. This work focuses towards determining the cellular toxicity of allicin and understanding its interaction with nucleic acid at molecular level. MTT assay was used to assess the cell viability of A549 lung cancer cells against allicin. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and UV-visible spectroscopy were used to study the binding parameters of nucleic acid-allicin interaction. Allicin inhibits the proliferation of cancer cells in a concentration dependent manner. FTIR spectroscopy exhibited that allicin binds preferentially to minor groove of DNA via thymine base. Analysis of tRNA allicin complex has also revealed that allicin binds primarily through nitrogenous bases. Some amount of external binding with phosphate backbone was also observed for both DNA and RNA. UV visible spectra of both DNA allicin and RNA allicin complexes showed hypochromic shift with an estimated binding constant of 1.2×10(4)M(-1) for DNA and 1.06×10(3)M(-1)for RNA binding. No major transition from the B-form of DNA and A-form of RNA is observed after their interaction with allicin. The results demonstrated that allicin treatment inhibited the proliferation of A549 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Biophysical outcomes are suggestive of base binding and helix contraction of nucleic acid structure upon binding with allicin. The results describe cytotoxic potential of allicin and its binding properties with cellular nucleic acid, which could be helpful in deciphering the complete mechanism of cell death exerted by allicin. © 2013.

  12. Assessment of the Potential Role of Streptomyces in Cave Moonmilk Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Maciejewska

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Moonmilk is a karstic speleothem mainly composed of fine calcium carbonate crystals (CaCO3 with different textures ranging from pasty to hard, in which the contribution of biotic rock-building processes is presumed to involve indigenous microorganisms. The real microbial input in the genesis of moonmilk is difficult to assess leading to controversial hypotheses explaining the origins and the mechanisms (biotic vs. abiotic involved. In this work, we undertook a comprehensive approach in order to assess the potential role of filamentous bacteria, particularly a collection of moonmilk-originating Streptomyces, in the genesis of this speleothem. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM confirmed that indigenous filamentous bacteria could indeed participate in moonmilk development by serving as nucleation sites for CaCO3 deposition. The metabolic activities involved in CaCO3 transformation were furthermore assessed in vitro among the collection of moonmilk Streptomyces, which revealed that peptides/amino acids ammonification, and to a lesser extend ureolysis, could be privileged metabolic pathways participating in carbonate precipitation by increasing the pH of the bacterial environment. Additionally, in silico search for the genes involved in biomineralization processes including ureolysis, dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonia, active calcium ion transport, and reversible hydration of CO2 allowed to identify genetic predispositions for carbonate precipitation in Streptomyces. Finally, their biomineralization abilities were confirmed by environmental SEM, which allowed to visualize the formation of abundant mineral deposits under laboratory conditions. Overall, our study provides novel evidences that filamentous Actinobacteria could be key protagonists in the genesis of moonmilk through a wide spectrum of biomineralization processes.

  13. Effects of water availability on free amino acids, sugars, and acrylamide-forming potential in potato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muttucumaru, Nira; Powers, Stephen J; Elmore, J Stephen; Mottram, Donald S; Halford, Nigel G

    2015-03-11

    Irrigation is used frequently in potato cultivation to maximize yield, but water availability may also affect the composition of the crop, with implications for processing properties and food safety. Five varieties of potatoes, including drought-tolerant and -sensitive types, which had been grown with and without irrigation, were analyzed to show the effect of water supply on concentrations of free asparagine, other free amino acids, and sugars and on the acrylamide-forming potential of the tubers. Two varieties were also analyzed under more severe drought stress in a glasshouse. Water availability had profound effects on tuber free amino acid and sugar concentrations, and it was concluded that potato farmers should irrigate only if necessary to maintain the health and yield of the crop, because irrigation may increase the acrylamide-forming potential of potatoes. Even mild drought stress caused significant changes in composition, but these differed from those caused by more extreme drought stress. Free proline concentration, for example, increased in the field-grown potatoes of one variety from 7.02 mmol/kg with irrigation to 104.58 mmol/kg without irrigation, whereas free asparagine concentration was not affected significantly in the field but almost doubled from 132.03 to 242.26 mmol/kg in response to more severe drought stress in the glasshouse. Furthermore, the different genotypes were affected in dissimilar fashion by the same treatment, indicating that there is no single, unifying potato tuber drought stress response.

  14. Food-associated lactic acid bacteria with antimicrobial potential from traditional Mexican foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado, C; García Almendárez, B E; Martin, S E; Regalado, C

    2006-01-01

    This work was conducted to identify indigenous LAB capable of antimicrobial activity, present in traditional Mexican-foods with potential as natural preservatives. A total of 27 artisan unlabeled Mexican products were evaluated, from which 94 LAB strains were isolated, and only 25 strains showed antimicrobial activity against at least one pathogen indicator microorganism. Most of the inhibitory activity showed by the isolated LAB strains was attributed to pH reduction by organic acids. Lactobacillus and Lactococcus strains were good acid producers, depending on the substrate, and may enhance the safety of food products. Cell free cultures of Leuconostoc mesenteroides CH210, and PT8 (from chorizo and pulque, respectively) reduced the number of viable cells of enteropathogenic E. coli in broth system. Lb. plantarum CC10 (from "madre" of vinegar) showed significant inhibitory effect against S. aureus 8943. E. faecium QPII (from panela cheese) produced a bacteriocin with wide anti-L. monocytogenes activity. Selected LAB from traditional Mexican foods showed good potential as bio-preservatives.

  15. Isolation, enumeration, molecular identification and probiotic potential evaluation of lactic acid bacteria isolated from sheep milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.B. Acurcio

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acid bacteria species were molecularly identified in milk from Lacaune, Santa Inês and crossbred sheep breeds and their in vitro probiotic potential was evaluated. The species identified were Enterococcus faecium (56.25%, E. durans (31.25% and E. casseliflavus (12.5%. No other lactic acid bacteria species, such as lactobacilli, was identified. Most of the isolated enterococci were resistant to gastric pH (2.0 and to 0.3% oxgall. All tested enterococci were resistant to ceftazidime, oxacillin and streptomycin and sensible to clindamycin, erythromycin and penicillin. The resistance to ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, tetracycline and vancomycin varied among tested species. All tested enterococci strongly inhibited (P<0.05 Escherichia coli and Listeria monocytogenes, moderately inhibited E. faecalis and Staphylococcus aureus and did not inhibit Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella enterica var. Typhimurium and also one E. durans sample isolated from sheep milk. Four samples of E. faecium, one of E. durans and one of E. casseliflavus presented the best probiotic potential.

  16. A classical reactive potential for molecular clusters of sulphuric acid and water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stinson, Jake L.; Kathmann, Shawn M.; Ford, Ian J.

    2015-10-12

    We present a two state empirical valence bond (EVB) potential describing interactions between sulphuric acid and water molecules and designed to model proton transfer between them within a classical dynamical framework. The potential has been developed in order to study the properties of molecular clusters of these species, which are thought to be relevant to atmospheric aerosol nucleation. The particle swarm optimisation method has been used to fit the parameters of the EVB model to density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Features of the parametrised model and DFT data are compared and found to be in satisfactory agreement. In particular, it is found that a single sulphuric acid molecule will donate a proton when clustered with four water molecules at 300 K and that this threshold is temperature dependent. SMK was supported in part by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences; JLS and IJF were supported by the IMPACT scheme at University College London (UCL). We acknowledge the UCL Legion High Performance Computing Facility, and associated support services together with the resources of the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC), which is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02- 05CH11231. JLS thanks Dr. Gregory Schenter, Dr. Theo Kurtén and Prof. Hanna Vehkamäki for important guidance and discussions.

  17. The role of salicylic acid, L-ascorbic acid and oxalic acid in promoting the oxidation of alkenes with H(2)O(2) catalysed by [Mn(IV) (2)(O)(3)(tmtacn)(2)](2+)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Johannes W.; Alsters, Paul L.; Meetsma, Auke; Hage, Ronald; Browne, Wesley R.; Feringa, Ben L.

    2008-01-01

    The role played by the additives salicylic acid, L-ascorbic acid and oxalic acid in promoting the catalytic activity of [Mn(IV) (2)(O)(3)(tmtacn)(2)](PF(6))(2) {1(PF(6))(2), where tmtacn = N, N ', N ''-trimethyl-1,4,7-triazacyclononane} in the epoxidation and cis-dihydroxylation of alkenes with

  18. Links between Ammonia Oxidizer Community Structure, Abundance, and Nitrification Potential in Acidic Soils ▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Huaiying; Gao, Yangmei; Nicol, Graeme W.; Campbell, Colin D.; Prosser, James I.; Zhang, Limei; Han, Wenyan; Singh, Brajesh K.

    2011-01-01

    Ammonia oxidation is the first and rate-limiting step of nitrification and is performed by both ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB). However, the environmental drivers controlling the abundance, composition, and activity of AOA and AOB communities are not well characterized, and the relative importance of these two groups in soil nitrification is still debated. Chinese tea orchard soils provide an excellent system for investigating the long-term effects of low pH and nitrogen fertilization strategies. AOA and AOB abundance and community composition were therefore investigated in tea soils and adjacent pine forest soils, using quantitative PCR (qPCR), terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and sequence analysis of respective ammonia monooxygenase (amoA) genes. There was strong evidence that soil pH was an important factor controlling AOB but not AOA abundance, and the ratio of AOA to AOB amoA gene abundance increased with decreasing soil pH in the tea orchard soils. In contrast, T-RFLP analysis suggested that soil pH was a key explanatory variable for both AOA and AOB community structure, but a significant relationship between community abundance and nitrification potential was observed only for AOA. High potential nitrification rates indicated that nitrification was mainly driven by AOA in these acidic soils. Dominant AOA amoA sequences in the highly acidic tea soils were all placed within a specific clade, and one AOA genotype appears to be well adapted to growth in highly acidic soils. Specific AOA and AOB populations dominated in soils at particular pH values and N content, suggesting adaptation to specific niches. PMID:21571885

  19. Potential Approach of Microbial Conversion to Develop New Antifungal Products of Omega-3 Fatty Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omega-3/('-3) or n-3 fatty acids are a family of unsaturated fatty acids that have in common a final carbon-carbon double bond in the n-3 position. n-3 Fatty acids which are important in human nutrition are: a-linolenic acid (18:3, n-3; ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5, n-3; EPA), and docosahexaen...

  20. The potential effects of chlorogenic acid, the main phenolic components in coffee, on health: a comprehensive review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajik, Narges; Tajik, Mahboubeh; Mack, Isabelle; Enck, Paul

    2017-10-01

    Chlorogenic acid (CGA), an important biologically active dietary polyphenol, is produced by certain plant species and is a major component of coffee. Reduction in the risk of a variety of diseases following CGA consumption has been mentioned in recent basic and clinical research studies. This systematic review discusses in vivo animal and human studies of the physiological and biochemical effects of chlorogenic acids (CGAs) on biomarkers of chronic disease. We searched PubMed, Embase, Amed and Scopus using the following search terms: ("chlorogenic acid" OR "green coffee bean extract") AND (human OR animal) (last performed on April 1st, 2015) for relevant literature on the in vivo effects of CGAs in animal and human models, including clinical trials on cardiovascular, metabolic, cancerogenic, neurological and other functions. After exclusion of editorials and letters, uncontrolled observations, duplicate and not relevant publications the remaining 94 studies have been reviewed. The biological properties of CGA in addition to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects have recently been reported. It is postulated that CGA is able to exert pivotal roles on glucose and lipid metabolism regulation and on the related disorders, e.g. diabetes, cardiovascular disease (CVD), obesity, cancer, and hepatic steatosis. The wide range of potential health benefits of CGA, including its anti-diabetic, anti-carcinogenic, anti-inflammatory and anti-obesity impacts, may provide a non-pharmacological and non-invasive approach for treatment or prevention of some chronic diseases. In this study, the effects of CGAs on different aspects of health by reviewing the related literatures have been discussed.

  1. Chloromonilinic Acids C and D, Phytotoxic Tetrasubstituted 3-Chromanonacrylic Acids Isolated from Cochliobolus australiensis with Potential Herbicidal Activity against Buffelgrass (Cenchrus ciliaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masi, Marco; Meyer, Susan; Clement, Suzette; Pescitelli, Gennaro; Cimmino, Alessio; Cristofaro, Massimo; Evidente, Antonio

    2017-10-27

    The fungal pathogen Cochliobolus australiensis isolated from infected leaves of the invasive weed buffelgrass (Pennisetum ciliare) was grown in vitro to evaluate its ability to produce phytotoxic metabolites that could potentially be used as natural herbicides against this weed. Two new tetrasubstituted 3-chromanonacrylic acids, named chloromonilinic acids C (1) and D (2), were isolated from the liquid cultures of C. australiensis, together with the known chloromonilinic acid B. Chloromonilinic acids C and D were characterized by spectroscopic and chemical methods as (E)-3-chloro-3-[(5-hydroxy-3-(1-hydroxy-2-methoxy-2-oxoethyl)-7-methyl-4-oxo-4H-chromen-2-yl)]acrylic acid and (Z)-3-chloro-3-[(5-hydroxy-3-(2-methoxy-2-oxoethyl)-7-methyl-4-oxo-4H-chromen-2-yl)]acrylic acid, respectively. The stereochemistry of chloromonilinic acids C and D was determined using a combination of spectroscopic and computational methods, including electronic circular dichroism. The fungus produced these compounds in two different liquid media together with cochliotoxin, radicinin, radicinol, and their 3-epimers. The radicinin-related compounds were also produced when the fungus was grown in wheat seed solid culture, but chloromonilinic acids were not found in the solid culture organic extract. All three chloromonilinic acids were toxic to buffelgrass in a seedling elongation bioassay, with significantly delayed germination and dramatically reduced radicle growth, especially at a concentration of 5 × 10(-3) M.

  2. Hyaluronic Acid Gel-Based Scaffolds as Potential Carrier for Growth Factors: An In Vitro Bioassay on Its Osteogenic Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masako Fujioka-Kobayashi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Hyaluronic acid (HA has been utilized for a variety of regenerative medical procedures due to its widespread presence in connective tissue and perceived biocompatibility. The aim of the present study was to investigate HA in combination with recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 9 (rhBMP9, one of the most osteogenic growth factors of the BMP family. HA was first combined with rhBMP9 and assessed for the adsorption and release of rhBMP9 over 10 days by ELISA. Thereafter, ST2 pre-osteoblasts were investigated by comparing (1 control tissue culture plastic, (2 HA alone, and (3 HA with rhBMP9 (100 ng/mL. Cellular proliferation was investigated by a MTS assay at one, three and five days and osteoblast differentiation was investigated by alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity at seven days, alizarin red staining at 14 days and real-time PCR for osteoblast differentiation markers. The results demonstrated that rhBMP9 adsorbed within HA scaffolds and was released over a 10-day period in a controlled manner. While HA and rhBMP9 had little effect on cell proliferation, a marked and pronounced effect was observed for cell differentiation. rhBMP9 significantly induced ALP activity, mRNA levels of collagen1α2, and ALP and osteocalcin (OCN at three or 14 days. HA also demonstrated some ability to induce osteoblast differentiation by increasing mRNA levels of OCN and increasing alizarin red staining at 14 days. In conclusion, the results from the present study demonstrate that (1 HA may serve as a potential carrier for various growth factors, and (2 rhBMP9 is a potent and promising inducer of osteoblast differentiation. Future animal studies are now necessary to investigate this combination approach in vivo.

  3. Esterification of free fatty acids in waste cooking oils (WCO): Role of ion-exchange resins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nalan Ozbay; Nuray Oktar; N. Alper Tapan [Gazi University, Ankara (Turkey). Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Department of Chemical Engineering

    2008-08-15

    Although WCO plays a crucial role for the economical production of biodiesel, free fatty acid (FFA) level in the nature of WCO cause saponification problems during transesterification. Acidic ion-exchange resins can be used to decrease WCO free fatty acid level. In this study, activities of resins (Amberlyst-15 (A-15), Amberlyst-35 (A-35), Amberlyst-16 (A-16) and Dowex HCR-W2) in direct FFA esterification were examined in the temperature range of 50-60{sup o}C and the effect of catalyst amount (1-2 wt%) on FFA conversion was also analyzed. FFA conversion increased with increasing reaction temperature and catalyst amount. Order of catalytic activities was found as A-15 > A-35 > A-16 > Dowex HCR-W2. This was related to the size of average pore diameters and magnitude of BET surface area. 44 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Potentiation of vasoconstriction and pressor response by low concentration of monomethylarsonous acid (MMA(III)).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Kyung-Min; Shin, Yoo-Sun; Kang, Seojin; Noh, Ji-Yoon; Kim, Keunyoung; Chung, Seung-Min; Yun, Yeo-Pyo; Chung, Jin-Ho

    2011-09-10

    A close link between arsenic exposure and hypertension has been well-established through many epidemiological reports, yet the mechanism underlying it remains unclear. Here we report that nanomolar concentrations of monomethylarsonous acid (MMA(III)), a toxic trivalent methylated arsenic metabolite, can potentiate agonist-induced vasoconstriction and pressor responses. In freshly isolated rat aortic ring, exposure to nanomolar MMA(III) (100-500 nM) potentiated phenylephrine (PE)-induced vasoconstriction while at higher concentrations (≥2.5 μM), suppression of vasoconstriction and apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle were observed. Potentiation of agonist-induced vasoconstriction was also observed with other contractile agonists and it was retained in endothelium-denuded aortic rings, suggesting that these events are agonist-independent and smooth muscle cell dependent. Interestingly, exposure to MMA(III) resulted in increased myosin light chain phosphorylation while PE-induced Ca2+ influx was not affected, reflecting that Ca2+ sensitization is involved. In line with this, MMA(III) enhanced agonist-induced activation of small GTPase RhoA, a key contributor to Ca2+ sensitization. Of note, treatment of MMA(III) to rats induced significantly higher pressor responses in vivo, demonstrating that this event can occur in vivo indeed. We believe that RhoA-mediated Ca2+ sensitization and the resultant potentiation of vasoconstriction by MMA(III) may shed light on arsenic-associated hypertension. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  5. Variations in mitochondrial membrane potential correlate with malic acid production by natural isolates of Saccharomyces cerevisiae sake strains

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Oba, Takahiro; Kusumoto, Kenichi; Kichise, Yuki; Izumoto, Eiji; Nakayama, Shunichi; Tashiro, Kosuke; Kuhara, Satoru; Kitagaki, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    .... In the present study, we isolated naturally occurring strains of yeast from sake mash that produce high levels of malic acid and demonstrate that variations in mitochondrial membrane potential...

  6. The role of humic and fulvic acids in the phototransformation of phenolic compounds in seawater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calza, P., E-mail: paola.calza@unito.it; Vione, D.; Minero, C.

    2014-09-15

    Humic substances (HS) are known to act as photosensitizers toward the transformation of pollutants in the surface layer of natural waters. This study focused on the role played by HS toward the transformation of xenobiotics in seawater, with the purpose of assessing the prevailing degradation routes. Phenol was chosen as model xenobiotic and its transformation was investigated under simulated sunlight in the presence of terrestrial or marine humic and fulvic acids, in pure water at pH 8, artificial seawater (ASW) or natural seawater (NSW). The following parameters were determined: (1) the phenol degradation rate; (2) the variation in HS concentration with irradiation time; (3) the production of transformation products; (4) the influence of iron species on the transformation process. Faster transformation of phenol was observed with humic acids (HA) compared to fulvic acids (SRFA), and transformation induced by both HA and SRFA was faster in ASW than that in pure water. These observations can be explained by assuming an interplay between different competing and sometimes opposite processes, including the competition between chloride, bromide and dissolved oxygen for reaction with HS triplet states. The analysis of intermediates formed in the different matrices under study showed the formation of several hydroxylated (hydroquinone, 1,4-benzoquinone, resorcinol) and condensed compounds (2,2′-bisphenol, 4,4′-bisphenol, 4-phenoxyphenol). Although 1,4-benzoquinone was the main transformation product, formation of condensed molecules was significant with both HA and SRFA. Experiments on natural seawater spiked with HS confirmed the favored formation of condensed products, suggesting a key role of humic matter in dimerization reactions occurring in saline water. - Highlights: • Phenol transformation in seawater can be photosensitized by humic substances. • Dimeric species are peculiar intermediates formed in the process. • Phenol degradation occurred faster with

  7. Linking child maltreatment history with child abuse potential: Relative roles of maltreatment types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitkovic-Voncina Marija

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The independent roles of each childhood maltreatment type on child abuse potential in adults have been insufficiently explored and are inconsistent, with dissociation as one of the possible suggested mediators of intergenerational child abuse. We investigated these effects among 164 non-clinical adult parents, who filled in general questionnaires: Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ, Child Abuse Potential Inventory (CAPI and Dissociative Experience Scale (DES. Among all maltreatment types (emotional, physical and sexual abuse, emotional and physical neglect, emotional abuse was the only independent predictor in the regression model of child abuse potential. The relationship between emotional abuse history and child abuse potential was partially mediated by dissociation. The findings could speak in favor of the potentially unique detrimental role of emotional abuse in intergenerational maltreatment, with dissociation as one of the possible mechanisms.

  8. The role of micro-ribonucleic acids in normal hematopoiesis and leukemic T-lymphogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.N. Slavov

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Micro-ribonucleic acids (microRNAs are small molecules containing 20-23 nucleotides. Despite their small size, it is likely that almost every cellular process is regulated by them. Moreover, aberrant microRNA expression has been involved in the development of various diseases, including cancer. Although many data are available about the role of microRNAs in various lymphoproliferative disorders, their impact on the development of acute lymphoblastic leukemia of T-cell progenitors is largely unknown. In this review, we present recent information about how specific microRNAs are expressed and regulated during malignant T-lymphopoiesis and about their role during normal hematopoiesis.

  9. Roles of Organic Acid Anion Secretion in Aluminium Tolerance of Higher Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lin-Tong; Qi, Yi-Ping; Jiang, Huan-Xin; Chen, Li-Song

    2013-01-01

    Approximately 30% of the world's total land area and over 50% of the world's potential arable lands are acidic. Furthermore, the acidity of the soils is gradually increasing as a result of the environmental problems including some farming practices and acid rain. At mildly acidic or neutral soils, aluminium(Al) occurs primarily as insoluble deposits and is essentially biologically inactive. However, in many acidic soils throughout the tropics and subtropics, Al toxicity is a major factor limiting crop productivity. The Al-induced secretion of organic acid (OA) anions, mainly citrate, oxalate, and malate, from roots is the best documented mechanism of Al tolerance in higher plants. Increasing evidence shows that the Al-induced secretion of OA anions may be related to the following several factors, including (a) anion channels or transporters, (b) internal concentrations of OA anions in plant tissues, (d) temperature, (e) root plasma membrane (PM) H+-ATPase, (f) magnesium (Mg), and (e) phosphorus (P). Genetically modified plants and cells with higher Al tolerance by overexpressing genes for the secretion and the biosynthesis of OA anions have been obtained. In addition, some aspects needed to be further studied are also discussed. PMID:23509687

  10. Roles of Organic Acid Anion Secretion in Aluminium Tolerance of Higher Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin-Tong Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 30% of the world’s total land area and over 50% of the world’s potential arable lands are acidic. Furthermore, the acidity of the soils is gradually increasing as a result of the environmental problems including some farming practices and acid rain. At mildly acidic or neutral soils, aluminium(Al occurs primarily as insoluble deposits and is essentially biologically inactive. However, in many acidic soils throughout the tropics and subtropics, Al toxicity is a major factor limiting crop productivity. The Al-induced secretion of organic acid (OA anions, mainly citrate, oxalate, and malate, from roots is the best documented mechanism of Al tolerance in higher plants. Increasing evidence shows that the Al-induced secretion of OA anions may be related to the following several factors, including (a anion channels or transporters, (b internal concentrations of OA anions in plant tissues, (d temperature, (e root plasma membrane (PM H+-ATPase, (f magnesium (Mg, and (e phosphorus (P. Genetically modified plants and cells with higher Al tolerance by overexpressing genes for the secretion and the biosynthesis of OA anions have been obtained. In addition, some aspects needed to be further studied are also discussed.

  11. Identification of metalloprotease/disintegrins in Xenopus laevis testis with a potential role in fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilling, F M; Krätzschmar, J; Cai, H; Weskamp, G; Gayko, U; Leibow, J; Myles, D G; Nuccitelli, R; Blobel, C P

    1997-06-15

    Proteins containing a membrane-anchored metalloprotease domain, a disintegrin domain, and a cysteine-rich region (MDC proteins) are thought to play an important role in mammalian fertilization, as well as in somatic cell-cell interactions. We have identified PCR sequence tags encoding the disintegrin domain of five distinct MDC proteins from Xenopus laevis testis cDNA. Four of these sequence tags (xMDC9, xMDC11.1, xMDC11.2, and xMDC13) showed strong similarity to known mammalian MDC proteins, whereas the fifth (xMDC16) apparently represents a novel family member. Northern blot analysis revealed that the mRNA for xMDC16 was only expressed in testis, and not in heart, muscle, liver, ovaries, or eggs, whereas the mRNAs corresponding to the four other PCR products were expressed in testis and in some or all somatic tissues tested. The xMDC16 protein sequence, as predicted from the full-length cDNA, contains a metalloprotease domain with the active-site sequence HEXXH, a disintegrin domain, a cysteine-rich region, an EGF repeat, a transmembrane domain, and a short cytoplasmic tail. To study a potential role for these xMDC proteins in fertilization, peptides corresponding to the predicted integrin-binding domain of each protein were tested for their ability to inhibit X. laevis fertilization. Cyclic and linear xMDC16 peptides inhibited fertilization in a concentration-dependent manner, whereas xMDC16 peptides that were scrambled or had certain amino acid replacements in the predicted integrin-binding domain did not affect fertilization. Cyclic and linear xMDC9 peptides and linear xMDC13 peptides also inhibited fertilization similarly to xMDC16 peptides, whereas peptides corresponding to the predicted integrin-binding site of xMDC11.1 and xMDC11.2 did not. These results are discussed in the context of a model in which multiple MDC protein-receptor interactions are necessary for fertilization to occur.

  12. The role of omega-3 fatty acids in adult hippocampal neurogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Dyall Simon C.

    2011-01-01

    Neurogenesis occurs in limited areas of the adult mammalian brain, and has been reported in the hippocampus of rodents and man. Neurogenesis is enhanced in conditions associated with enhanced synaptic plasticity and following neuronal injury, suggesting a role for neurogenesis in cognition and brain repair. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been shown to promote hippocampal neurogenesis in a variety of models. Importantly, recent work has shown that the fat-1 transgenic mouse, ...

  13. Phenolic content, antioxidant activities and stimulatory roles of citrus fruits on some lactic acid bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Irkin Reyhan; Dogan Serap; Degirmencioglu Nurcan; Diken Mehmet Emin; Guldas Metin

    2015-01-01

    In this study, phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities in citrus fruits and their peels were determined, and their stimulatory roles on some lactic acid bacteria were investigated. Phenolic compounds in citrus fruits such as mandarin, lemon, orange and grapefruit were determined either in the juices or in the peel extracts. Total phenolic content was determined in a spectrophotometer at 685 nm using the adapted Folin-Ciocalteu method. Total flavonoid ...

  14. Antiviral Properties of Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester and Its Potential Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haci Kemal Erdemli

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE is found in variety of plants and well known active ingredient of the honeybee propolis. CAPE showed anti-inflammatory, anticarcinogenic, antimitogenic, antiviral and immunomodulatory properties in several studies. The beneficial effects of CAPE on different health issues attracted scientists to make more studies on CAPE. Specifically, the anti-viral effects of CAPE and its molecular mechanisms may reveal the important properties of virus-induced diseases. CAPE and its targets may have important roles to design new therapeutics and understand the molecular mechanisms of virus related diseases. In this mini-review, we summarize the antiviral effects of CAPE under the light of medical and chemical literature. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2015; 4(4.000: 344-347

  15. The role of enamel proteins in protecting mature human enamel against acidic environments: a double layer force spectroscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubarsky, Gennady V; D'Sa, Raechelle A; Deb, Sanjukta; Meenan, Brian J; Lemoine, Patrick

    2012-12-01

    Characterisation of the electrostatic properties of dental enamel is important for understanding the interfacial processes that occur on a tooth surface and how these relate to the natural ability of our teeth to withstand chemical attack from the acids in many soft drinks. Whereas, the role of the mineral component of the tooth enamel in providing this resistance to acid erosion has been studied extensively, the influence of proteins that are also present within the structure is not well understood. In this paper, we report for the first time the use of double-layer force spectroscopy to directly measure electrostatic forces on as received and hydrazine-treated (deproteinated) enamel surfaces in solutions with different pH to determine how the enamel proteins influence acid erosion surface potential and surface charge of human dental enamel. The deproteination of the treated samples was confirmed by the loss of the amide bands (~1,300-1,700 cm(-1)) in the FTIR spectrum of the sample. The force characteristics observed were found to agree with the theory of electrical double layer interaction under the assumption of constant potential and allowed the surface charge per unit area to be determined for the two enamel surfaces. The values and, importantly, the sign of these adsorbed surface charges indicates that the protein content of dental enamel contributes significantly to the electrostatic double layer formation near the tooth surface and in doing so can buffer the apatite crystals against acid attack. Moreover, the electrostatic interactions within this layer are a driving factor for the mineral transfer from the tooth surface and the initial salivary pellicle formation.

  16. Selection of potential probiotic lactic acid bacteria from fermented olives by in vitro tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argyri, Anthoula A; Zoumpopoulou, Georgia; Karatzas, Kimon-Andreas G; Tsakalidou, Effie; Nychas, George-John E; Panagou, Efstathios Z; Tassou, Chrysoula C

    2013-04-01

    The present study aims to evaluate the probiotic potential of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from naturally fermented olives and select candidates to be used as probiotic starters for the improvement of the traditional fermentation process and the production of newly added value functional foods. Seventy one (71) lactic acid bacterial strains (17 Leuconostoc mesenteroides, 1 Ln. pseudomesenteroides, 13 Lactobacillus plantarum, 37 Lb. pentosus, 1 Lb. paraplantarum, and 2 Lb. paracasei subsp. paracasei) isolated from table olives were screened for their probiotic potential. Lb. rhamnosus GG and Lb. casei Shirota were used as reference strains. The in vitro tests included survival in simulated gastrointestinal tract conditions, antimicrobial activity (against Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella Enteritidis, Escherichia coli O157:H7), Caco-2 surface adhesion, resistance to 9 antibiotics and haemolytic activity. Three (3) Lb. pentosus, 4 Lb. plantarum and 2 Lb. paracasei subsp. paracasei strains demonstrated the highest final population (>8 log cfu/ml) after 3 h of exposure at low pH. The majority of the tested strains were resistant to bile salts even after 4 h of exposure, while 5 Lb. plantarum and 7 Lb. pentosus strains exhibited partial bile salt hydrolase activity. None of the strains inhibited the growth of the pathogens tested. Variable efficiency to adhere to Caco-2 cells was observed. This was the same regarding strains' susceptibility towards different antibiotics. None of the strains exhibited β-haemolytic activity. As a whole, 4 strains of Lb. pentosus, 3 strains of Lb. plantarum and 2 strains of Lb. paracasei subsp. paracasei were found to possess desirable in vitro probiotic properties similar to or even better than the reference probiotic strains Lb. casei Shirota and Lb. rhamnosus GG. These strains are good candidates for further investigation both with in vivo studies to elucidate their potential health benefits and in olive fermentation processes

  17. Amino acid composition, including key derivatives of eccrine sweat: potential biomarkers of certain atopic skin conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, Harker; Harding, Clive R

    2013-04-01

    The free amino acid (AA) composition of eccrine sweat is different from other biological fluids, for reasons which are not properly understood. We undertook the detailed analysis of the AA composition of freshly isolated pure human eccrine sweat, including some of the key derivatives of AA metabolism, to better understand the key biological mechanisms governing its composition. Eccrine sweat was collected from the axillae of 12 healthy subjects immediately upon formation. Free AA analysis was performed using an automatic AA analyser after ninhydrin derivatization. Pyrrolidine-5-carboxylic acid (PCA) and urocanic acid (UCA) levels were determined using GC/MS. The free AA composition of sweat was dominated by the presence of serine accounting for just over one-fifth of the total free AA composition. Glycine was the next most abundant followed by PCA, alanine, citrulline and threonine, respectively. The data obtained indicate that the AA content of sweat bears a remarkable similarity to the AA composition of the epidermal protein profilaggrin. This protein is the key source of free AAs and their derivatives that form a major part of the natural moisturizing factor (NMF) within the stratum corneum (SC) and plays a major role in maintaining the barrier integrity of human skin. As perturbations in the production of NMF can lead to abnormal barrier function and can arise as a consequence of filaggrin genotype, we propose the quantification of AAs in sweat may serve as a non-invasive diagnostic biomarker for certain atopic skin conditions, that is, atopic dermatitis (AD). © 2012 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  18. GPCR-styrene maleic acid lipid particles (GPCR-SMALPs): their nature and potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheatley, Mark; Charlton, Jack; Jamshad, Mohammed; Routledge, Sarah J; Bailey, Sian; La-Borde, Penelope J; Azam, Maria T; Logan, Richard T; Bill, Roslyn M; Dafforn, Tim R; Poyner, David R

    2016-04-15

    G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) form the largest class of membrane proteins and are an important target for therapeutic drugs. These receptors are highly dynamic proteins sampling a range of conformational states in order to fulfil their complex signalling roles. In order to fully understand GPCR signalling mechanisms it is necessary to extract the receptor protein out of the plasma membrane. Historically this has universally required detergents which inadvertently strip away the annulus of lipid in close association with the receptor and disrupt lateral pressure exerted by the bilayer. Detergent-solubilized GPCRs are very unstable which presents a serious hurdle to characterization by biophysical methods. A range of strategies have been developed to ameliorate the detrimental effect of removing the receptor from the membrane including amphipols and reconstitution into nanodics stabilized by membrane scaffolding proteins (MSPs) but they all require exposure to detergent. Poly(styrene-co-maleic acid) (SMA) incorporates into membranes and spontaneously forms nanoscale poly(styrene-co-maleic acid) lipid particles (SMALPs), effectively acting like a 'molecular pastry cutter' to 'solubilize' GPCRs in the complete absence of detergent at any stage and with preservation of the native annular lipid throughout the process. GPCR-SMALPs have similar pharmacological properties to membrane-bound receptor, exhibit enhanced stability compared with detergent-solubilized receptors and being non-proteinaceous in nature, are fully compatible with downstream biophysical analysis of the encapsulated GPCR. © 2016 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.

  19. The role of piRNA and its potential clinical implications in cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assumpção, Carolina Baraúna; Calcagno, Danielle Queiroz; Araújo, Taíssa Maíra Thomaz; dos Santos, Sidney Emmanuel Batista; dos Santos, Ândrea Kely Campos Ribeiro; Riggins, Gregory Joseph; Burbano, Rommel Rodriguez; Assumpção, Paulo Pimentel

    2016-01-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms work in an orchestrated fashion to control gene expression in both homeostasis and diseases. Among small noncoding RNAs, piRNAs seem to meet the necessary requirements to be included in this epigenetic network due to their role in both transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation. piRNAs and PIWI proteins might play important roles in cancer occurrence, prognosis and treatment as reported previously. Nevertheless, the potential clinical relevance of these molecules has yet been elucidated. A brief overview of piRNA biogenesis and their potential roles as part of an epigenetic network that is possibly involved in cancer is provided. Moreover, potential strategies based on the use of piRNAs and PIWI proteins as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers as well as for cancer therapeutics are discussed. PMID:25929784

  20. Phenolic content, antioxidant activities and stimulatory roles of citrus fruits on some lactic acid bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irkin Reyhan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities in citrus fruits and their peels were determined, and their stimulatory roles on some lactic acid bacteria were investigated. Phenolic compounds in citrus fruits such as mandarin, lemon, orange and grapefruit were determined either in the juices or in the peel extracts. Total phenolic content was determined in a spectrophotometer at 685 nm using the adapted Folin-Ciocalteu method. Total flavonoid content was measured using LC/MS (liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The effects of the fruit juices and peel extracts on the selected lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus delbrueckii NRRL B5448, Lb. casei NRRL B1922, Lb. acidophilus NRRL B4495 were investigated. The tested lactic acid bacteria were significantly affected by chlorogenic acid, hesperidin, naringin and caffeic acid compared to the control samples (P≤0.05. Antioxidant properties of fruit samples were also measured using the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl method. The phenolics positively affected the metabolism of bacteria, with the stimulatory effects of the assayed samples being influenced by the phenolic profile.

  1. Genomics of lactation: role of nutrigenomics and nutrigenetics in the fatty acid composition of human milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa-Castillo, Elizabeth; Rodríguez-Cruz, Maricela; Moltó-Puigmartí, Carolina

    2017-08-01

    Human milk covers the infant's nutrient requirements during the first 6 months of life. The composition of human milk progressively changes during lactation and it is influenced by maternal nutritional factors. Nowadays, it is well known that nutrients have the ability to interact with genes and modulate molecular mechanisms impacting physiological functions. This has led to a growing interest among researchers in exploring nutrition at a molecular level and to the development of two fields of study: nutrigenomics, which evaluates the influence of nutrients on gene expression, and nutrigenetics, which evaluates the heterogeneous individual response to nutrients due to genetic variation. Fatty acids are one of the nutrients most studied in relation to lactation given their biologically important roles during early postnatal life. Fatty acids modulate transcription factors involved in the regulation of lipid metabolism, which in turn causes a variation in the proportion of lipids in milk. This review focuses on understanding, on the one hand, the gene transcription mechanisms activated by maternal dietary fatty acids and, on the other hand, the interaction between dietary fatty acids and genetic variation in genes involved in lipid metabolism. Both of these mechanisms affect the fatty acid composition of human milk.

  2. The role of arbuscular mycorrhizas in decreasing aluminium phytotoxicity in acidic soils: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seguel, Alex; Cumming, Jonathan R; Klugh-Stewart, Katrina; Cornejo, Pablo; Borie, Fernando

    2013-04-01

    Soil acidity is an impediment to agricultural production on a significant portion of arable land worldwide. Low productivity of these soils is mainly due to nutrient limitation and the presence of high levels of aluminium (Al), which causes deleterious effects on plant physiology and growth. In response to acidic soil stress, plants have evolved various mechanisms to tolerate high concentrations of Al in the soil solution. These strategies for Al detoxification include mechanisms that reduce the activity of Al3+ and its toxicity, either externally through exudation of Al-chelating compounds such as organic acids into the rhizosphere or internally through the accumulation of Al-organic acid complexes sequestered within plant cells. Additionally, root colonization by symbiotic arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi increases plant resistance to acidity and phytotoxic levels of Al in the soil environment. In this review, the role of the AM symbiosis in increasing the Al resistance of plants in natural and agricultural ecosystems under phytotoxic conditions of Al is discussed. Mechanisms of Al resistance induced by AM fungi in host plants and variation in resistance among AM fungi that contribute to detoxifying Al in the rhizosphere environment are considered with respect to altering Al bioavailability.

  3. Role of Brønsted acid in selective production of furfural in biomass pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haiyan; Liu, Xuejun; Lu, Meizhen; Hu, Xinyue; Lu, Leigang; Tian, Xiaoning; Ji, Jianbing

    2014-10-01

    In this work, the role of Brønsted acid for furfural production in biomass pyrolysis on supported sulfates catalysts was investigated. The introduction of Brønsted acid was shown to improve the degradation of polysaccharides to intermediates for furfural, which did not work well when only Lewis acids were used in the process. Experimental results showed that CuSO4/HZSM-5 catalyst exhibited the best performance for furfural (28% yield), which was much higher than individual HZSM-5 (5%) and CuSO4 (6%). The optimum reaction conditions called for the mass ratio of CuSO4/HZSM-5 to be 0.4 and the catalyst/biomass mass ratio to be 0.5. The recycled catalyst exhibited low productivity (9%). Analysis of the catalysts by Py-IR revealed that the CuSO4/HZSM-5 owned a stronger Brønsted acid intensity than HZSM-5 or the recycled CuSO4/HZSM-5. Therefore, the existence of Brønsted acid is necessary to achieve a more productive degradation of biomass for furfural. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The Role of Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) in the Control of Obesity and Metabolic Derangements in Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molfino, Alessio; Amabile, Maria Ida; Monti, Massimo; Arcieri, Stefano; Rossi Fanelli, Filippo; Muscaritoli, Maurizio

    2016-04-05

    Obesity represents a major under-recognized preventable risk factor for cancer development and recurrence, including breast cancer (BC). Healthy diet and correct lifestyle play crucial role for the treatment of obesity and for the prevention of BC. Obesity is significantly prevalent in western countries and it contributes to almost 50% of BC in older women. Mechanisms underlying obesity, such as inflammation and insulin resistance, are also involved in BC development. Fatty acids are among the most extensively studied dietary factors, whose changes appear to be closely related with BC risk. Alterations of specific ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), particularly low basal docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) levels, appear to be important in increasing cancer risk and its relapse, influencing its progression and prognosis and affecting the response to treatments. On the other hand, DHA supplementation increases the response to anticancer therapies and reduces the undesired side effects of anticancer therapies. Experimental and clinical evidence shows that higher fish consumption or intake of DHA reduces BC cell growth and its relapse risk. Controversy exists on the potential anticancer effects of marine ω-3 PUFAs and especially DHA, and larger clinical trials appear mandatory to clarify these aspects. The present review article is aimed at exploring the capacity of DHA in controlling obesity-related inflammation and in reducing insulin resistance in BC development, progression, and response to therapies.

  5. The Role of Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA in the Control of Obesity and Metabolic Derangements in Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessio Molfino

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Obesity represents a major under-recognized preventable risk factor for cancer development and recurrence, including breast cancer (BC. Healthy diet and correct lifestyle play crucial role for the treatment of obesity and for the prevention of BC. Obesity is significantly prevalent in western countries and it contributes to almost 50% of BC in older women. Mechanisms underlying obesity, such as inflammation and insulin resistance, are also involved in BC development. Fatty acids are among the most extensively studied dietary factors, whose changes appear to be closely related with BC risk. Alterations of specific ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs, particularly low basal docosahexaenoic acid (DHA levels, appear to be important in increasing cancer risk and its relapse, influencing its progression and prognosis and affecting the response to treatments. On the other hand, DHA supplementation increases the response to anticancer therapies and reduces the undesired side effects of anticancer therapies. Experimental and clinical evidence shows that higher fish consumption or intake of DHA reduces BC cell growth and its relapse risk. Controversy exists on the potential anticancer effects of marine ω-3 PUFAs and especially DHA, and larger clinical trials appear mandatory to clarify these aspects. The present review article is aimed at exploring the capacity of DHA in controlling obesity-related inflammation and in reducing insulin resistance in BC development, progression, and response to therapies.

  6. Evaluation of the Potential Sensitization of Chlorogenic Acid: A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingbao Lin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlorogenic acid (CGA widely exists in many plants, which are used as medicinal substances in traditional Chinese medicine injectables (TCMIs that have been widely applied in clinical treatments. However, it is still controversial whether CGA is responsible for TCMIs-related hypersensitivity. Several studies have been performed to evaluate its potential sensitization property, but the results were inconclusive. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate its potential sensitization systematically using meta-analysis based on data extracted from literatures, searching databases of PubMed, EMBASE, ISI Web of Knowledge, CNKI, VIP, and CHINAINFO from January 1979 to October 2012, a total of 108 articles were retrieved by electronic search strategy, out of which 13 studies met the inclusion criteria. In ASA test, odds ratio of behavior changes was 4.33 (1.62, 11.60, showing significant changes after CGA treatment (P=0.004. Serum IgG, serum histamine, PLN cellularity, and IgG1 AFCs were significantly enhanced after CGA treatment (P<0.05. Totally, these results indicated that CGA could induce a positive reaction in potential sensitization, and intravenous administration of it might be a key factor for sensitization triggering, which could at least warrant more careful application of TCMIs containing CGA in clinical practices.

  7. POTENTIAL PRODUCTION OF CYCLOPIAZONIC ACID BY PENICILLIUM CAMEMBERTI STRAINS ISOLATED FROM CAMEMBERT TYPE CHEESE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslava Císarová

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to isolate the strains of fungi from Camembert type cheese, identify them and to test isolated strains of Penicillium camemberti for their ability to produce cyclopiazonic acid. The description of micro- and macromorphological features was used for identification of Penicillium camemberti strains. Strains were subsequently in vitro tested on their potential ability to produce mycotoxin cyclopiazonic acid (CPA. All of the 14 strains of Penicillium camemberti, which were obtained from 20 samples of Camembert type cheese, were cultivated 7, 14, 21, 27 and 30 days on CYA medium at 10±1°C, 15±1°C and 25±1°C in the dark. For determination of CPA production ability by P. camemberti isolates in vitro was TLC used. After 7 days of cultivation cyclopiazonic acid was produced only by 5 from 14 strains cultivated at all cultivation temperatures. After 14 and 21 days of cultivation was CPA produced by 6 strains at all of cultivation temperatures. After 27 and 30 days of cultivation was CPA identified in 7 strains cultivated at all temperatures of cultivation. The other strains also produced mycotoxin, however, not at each temperature. The most productive at all temperatures and after all days were 5 out of 14 tested strains (S9, S10, S13, S18 and S19. Strains S6 and S16 did not produce CPA at any temperature. The lowest production after all days of cultivation was found at 10±1 °C (44% and the highest at 25±1 °C (85%.

  8. Inhibition and biotransformation potential of naphthenic acids under different electron accepting conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misiti, Teresa; Tandukar, Madan; Tezel, Ulas; Pavlostathis, Spyros G

    2013-01-01

    Naphthenic acids (NAs) are a complex group of alkyl-substituted acyclic, monocyclic and polycyclic carboxylic acids present in crude oil, oil sands process water and tailings ponds, as well as in refinery wastewater. Bioassays were performed to investigate the biotransformation potential and inhibitory effect of a commercial NA mixture to nitrification, denitrification and fermentation/methanogenesis using mixed cultures not previously exposed to NAs. NAs inhibited nitrification in a mixed aerobic heterotrophic/nitrifying culture at concentrations as low as 80 mg NA/L, whereas, an enriched nitrifying culture was only affected at 400 mg NA/L. The lower nitrification inhibition in the latter assay is attributed to the higher population size of nitrosofying and nitrifying bacteria compared to the mixed heterotrophic/nitrifying culture. The NA mixture was not inhibitory to denitrifiers up to 400 mg/L. At higher NA concentrations, cell lysis was pronounced and lysis products were the main source of degradable carbon driving denitrification in culture series prepared without an external carbon source. In the presence of a degradable external carbon source, no difference was observed in nitrate reduction rates or nitrogen gas production at all NA concentrations tested. Methanogenesis was completely inhibited at NA concentrations equal to or higher than 200 mg/L. Methanogenic culture series amended with 80 mg NA/L were transiently inhibited and methane production in culture series prepared with NAs and an external carbon source or NAs only recovered in 136 and 41 days, respectively. Accumulation of volatile fatty acids was observed at inhibitory NA concentrations; however, carbon dioxide production was not affected by NAs, indicating that fermentation and acidogenesis were not affected by NAs. NAs were not degraded under nitrate-reducing or fermentative/methanogenic conditions used in the present study, regardless of the presence or not of another, degradable carbon

  9. Evaluation of the potentials of humic acid removal in water by gas phase surface discharge plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tiecheng; Qu, Guangzhou; Ren, Jingyu; Yan, Qiuhe; Sun, Qiuhong; Liang, Dongli; Hu, Shibin

    2016-02-01

    Degradation of humic acid (HA), a predominant type of natural organic matter in ground water and surface waters, was conducted using a gas phase surface discharge plasma system. HA standard and two surface waters (Wetland, and Weihe River) were selected as the targets. The experimental results showed that about 90.9% of standard HA was smoothly removed within 40 min's discharge plasma treatment at discharge voltage 23.0 kV, and the removal process fitted the first-order kinetic model. Roles of some active species in HA removal were studied by evaluating the effects of solution pH and OH radical scavenger; and the results presented that O3 and OH radical played significant roles in HA removal. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and FTIR analysis showed that HA surface topography and molecular structure were changed during discharge plasma process. The mineralization of HA was analyzed by UV-Vis spectrum, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), specific UV absorbance (SUVA), UV absorption ratios, and excitation-emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence. The formation of disinfection by-products during HA sample chlorination was also identified, and CHCl3 was detected as the main disinfection by-product, but discharge plasma treatment could suppress its formation to a certain extent. In addition, approximately 82.3% and 67.9% of UV254 were removed for the Weihe River water and the Wetland water after 40 min of discharge plasma treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The Predicting Role of Difficulties in Emotion Regulation and Distress Tolerance in Students’ Addiction Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Esmaeilinasab

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to determine the predicting role of difficulties in emotion regulation and distress tolerance in addiction potential in university students. Method: The sample included 180 students of Allameh Tabatabaei University (82 males and 88 females who were selected randomly. For this correlational study, the Addiction Potential Scale, Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale, and Distress Tolerance Scale (Simons & Gaher, 2005 were administered among selected sample. Results: The results showed that difficulties in emotion regulation could predict 37.5 percent of addiction potential and between its subscales, lack of emotional clarity, had the most important role. Also, distress tolerance was not significantly related to addiction potential. Conclusion: By considering of results, it can be said students’ training in improving of emotion regulation is useful in preventing of addiction.

  11. Probiotic potential of selected lactic acid bacteria strains isolated from Brazilian kefir grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, A M O; Miguel, M A L; Peixoto, R S; Ruas-Madiedo, P; Paschoalin, V M F; Mayo, B; Delgado, S

    2015-06-01

    A total of 34 lactic acid bacteria isolates from 4 different Brazilian kefir grains were identified and characterized among a group of 150 isolates, using the ability to tolerate acidic pH and resistance to bile salts as restrictive criteria for probiotic potential. All isolates were identified by amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis and 16S rDNA sequencing of representative amplicons. Eighteen isolates belonged to the species Leuconostoc mesenteroides, 11 to Lactococcus lactis (of which 8 belonged to subspecies cremoris and 3 to subspecies lactis), and 5 to Lactobacillus paracasei. To exclude replicates, a molecular typing analysis was performed by combining repetitive extragenic palindromic-PCR and random amplification of polymorphic DNA techniques. Considering a threshold of 90% similarity, 32 different strains were considered. All strains showed some antagonistic activity against 4 model food pathogens. In addition, 3 Lc. lactis strains and 1 Lb. paracasei produced bacteriocin-like inhibitory substances against at least 2 indicator organisms. Moreover, 1 Lc. lactis and 2 Lb. paracasei presented good total antioxidative activity. None of these strains showed undesirable enzymatic or hemolytic activities, while proving susceptible or intrinsically resistant to a series of clinically relevant antibiotics. The Lb. paracasei strain MRS59 showed a level of adhesion to human Caco-2 epithelial cells comparable with that observed for Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG. Taken together, these properties allow the MRS59 strain to be considered a promising probiotic candidate. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Newly isolated lactic acid bacteria with probiotic features for potential application in food industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divya, Jayakumar Beena; Varsha, Kontham Kulangara; Nampoothiri, Kesavan Madhavan

    2012-07-01

    Five newly isolated lactic acid bacteria were identified as Weissella cibaria, Enterococcus faecium, and three different strains of Lactobacillus plantarum by 16S rRNA sequencing. Essential probiotic requirements of these isolates such as tolerance to phenol, low pH, high sodium chloride, and bile salt concentration were checked. Efficiency in adherence to mucin and hydrophobicity of the bacterial cell were also evaluated by in vitro studies. Antimicrobial activities against some pathogens were tried, and the sensitivity of these strains against 25 different antibiotics was also checked. Further studies revealed Weissella and Enterococcus as substantial producers of folic acid. Folate is involved as a cofactor in many metabolic reactions, and it has to be an essential component in the human diet. The folate level in the fermented samples was determined by microbiological assay using Lactobacillus casei NCIM 2364 as indicator strain. The three strains of L. plantarum showed significant inhibitory activity against various fungi that commonly contaminate food stuffs indicating their potential as a biopreservative of food material.

  13. Surface Functionalization of Iron Oxide Nanoparticles with Gallic Acid as Potential Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Tawab Shah

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this research, we report the size-controlled synthesis and surface-functionalization of magnetite with the natural antioxidant gallic acid (GA as a ligand, using in situ and post-synthesis methods. GA functionalization provided narrow size distribution, with an average particle size of 5 and 8 nm for in situ synthesis of gallic acid functionalized magnetite IONP@GA1 and IONP@GA2, respectively, which are ultra-small particles as compared to unfunctionalized magnetite (IONP and post functionalized magnetite IONP@GA3 with average size of 10 and 11 nm respectively. All the IONPs@GA samples were found hydrophilic with stable aggregation state. Prior to commencement of experimental lab work, PASS software was used to predict the biological activities of GA and it is found that experimental antioxidant activity using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH assay and antimicrobial studies using well diffusion method are in good agreement with the simulated results. Furthermore, the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50 values of DPPH antioxidant assay revealed a 2–4 fold decrease as compared to unfunctionalized IONP. In addition to antioxidant activity, all the three IONP@GA proved outstanding antimicrobial activity while testing on different bacterial and fungal strains. The results collectively indicate the successful fabrication of novel antioxidant, antimicrobial IONP@GA composite, which are magnetically separable, efficient, and low cost, with potential applications in polymers, cosmetics, and biomedical and food industries.

  14. Effect of gibberellic acid on germination potential in vitro seed Carica quercifolia (St. Hil.. Hieron. (Caricaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Gerber

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The species Carica quercifolia (St. Hil.. Hieron. (Caricaceae, native to the region west of Santa Catarina has ornamental potential and fruitful, however, its seeds have low germination rates. Thus, the objective was to evaluate the effect of gibberellic acid (GA on seed germination of C. quercifolia in vitro. Initially, the seeds were subjected to an aseptic treatment with sodium hypochlorite and 70% alcohol, then subjected to five different treatments with gibberellic acid (control, 50, 100, 150 and 200 mg.L-1 and subsequently inoculatedinoculated on MS medium. Each treatment had 12 replications and six sub-repetitions. After inoculation, seeds were kept in a germination chamber with a photoperiod of 16 hours (50 mol photons m-² s-¹ and temperature of 26 ± 2 ° C. The onset of germination was observed at day 35 of culture only in treatments with 100 and 200 mg L-1 GA. After 42 days of cultivation, there was low germination rate in both control seeds and seeds treated with GA, and there were no statistically significant differences. The results suggest that the concentrations of GA were used possibly lower, unable to induce the germination C. quercifolia.

  15. Folic acid modified gelatine coated quantum dots as potential reagents for in vitro cancer diagnostics

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gerard, Valerie A

    2011-11-10

    Abstract Background Gelatine coating was previously shown to effectively reduce the cytotoxicity of CdTe Quantum Dots (QDs) which was a first step towards utilising them for biomedical applications. To be useful they also need to be target-specific which can be achieved by conjugating them with Folic Acid (FA). Results The modification of QDs with FA via an original "one-pot" synthetic route was proved successful by a range of characterisation techniques including UV-visible absorption spectroscopy, Photoluminescence (PL) emission spectroscopy, fluorescence life-time measurements, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS). The resulting nanocomposites were tested in Caco-2 cell cultures which over-express FA receptors. The presence of FA on the surface of QDs significantly improved the uptake by targeted cells. Conclusions The modification with folic acid enabled to achieve a significant cellular uptake and cytotoxicity towards a selected cancer cell lines (Caco-2) of gelatine-coated TGA-CdTe quantum dots, which demonstrated good potential for in vitro cancer diagnostics.

  16. Chlorpheniramine Potentiates the Analgesic Effect in Migraine of Usual Caffeine, Acetaminophen, and Acetylsalicylic Acid Combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voicu, Victor A; Mircioiu, Ion; Sandulovici, Roxana; Mircioiu, Constantin; Plesa, Cristina; Velescu, Bruno S; Anuta, Valentina

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies indicated that addition of the antihistaminic chlorpheniramine to the usual combination of acetylsalicylic acid, acetaminophen, and caffeine further increases their synergism both in terms of anti-inflammatory and analgesic effect. The present non-interventional study tested the superiority of two Algopirin® tablets, containing a total of 250 mg acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), 150 mg acetaminophen (paracetamol, PAR), 30 mg caffeine (CAF) and 4 mg chlorpheniramine (CLF) vs. a combination containing 250 mg ASA, 250 mg PAR, and 65 mg CAF recognized as "safe and effective" by FDA in treating migraine. Patients evaluated their pain intensity on the Visual Analog Scale-VAS(PI) before and 30, 60, 120, 180, and 240 min after drug intake. Interpretation of the pain curves as "survival pain curves" was considered as a method for direct comparison of the pain curves. This interpretation permitted the application of the log rank test for comparison of pain hazards. The results of the applied parametric and non-parametric statistical tests indicated significant differences between the main endpoints: both Areas Under Pain Curves and time to decrease of the pain intensity to less than 50% of the initial value comparisons highlighted that Algopirin® was more efficient in spite of smaller doses of PAR and CAF. Comparison of "survival of pain" led to the same conclusion concerning the superiority of Algopririn. Consequently, the addition of CLF permitted decreasing of ASA, PAR, and CAF doses as well as their potential side effects, without a loss of analgesic effect.

  17. Potentially bioavailable natural organic carbon and hydrolyzable amino acids in aquifer sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Lashun K.; Widdowson, Mark A.; Novak, John T.; Chapelle, Francis H.; Benner, Ronald; Kaiser, Karl

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the relationship between concentrations of operationally defined potentially bioavailable organic -carbon (PBOC) and hydrolyzable amino acids (HAAs) in sediments collected from a diverse range of chloroethene--contaminated sites. Concentrations of PBOC and HAA were measured using aquifer sediment samples collected at six selected study sites. Average concentrations of total HAA and PBOC ranged from 1.96 ± 1.53 to 20.1 ± 25.6 mg/kg and 4.72 ± 0.72 to 443 ± 65.4 mg/kg, respectively. Results demonstrated a statistically significant positive relationship between concentrations of PBOC and total HAA present in the aquifer sediment (p amino acids are known to be readily biodegradable carbon compounds, this relationship suggests that the sequential chemical extraction procedure used to measure PBOC is a useful indicator of bioavailable carbon in aquifer sediments. This, in turn, is consistent with the interpretation that PBOC measurements can be used for estimating the amount of natural organic carbon available for driving the reductive dechlorination of chloroethenes in groundwater systems.

  18. Folic acid modified gelatine coated quantum dots as potential reagents for in vitro cancer diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gérard, Valérie A; Maguire, Ciaran M; Bazou, Despina; Gun'ko, Yurii K

    2011-11-10

    Gelatine coating was previously shown to effectively reduce the cytotoxicity of CdTe Quantum Dots (QDs) which was a first step towards utilising them for biomedical applications. To be useful they also need to be target-specific which can be achieved by conjugating them with Folic Acid (FA). The modification of QDs with FA via an original "one-pot" synthetic route was proved successful by a range of characterisation techniques including UV-visible absorption spectroscopy, Photoluminescence (PL) emission spectroscopy, fluorescence life-time measurements, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS). The resulting nanocomposites were tested in Caco-2 cell cultures which over-express FA receptors. The presence of FA on the surface of QDs significantly improved the uptake by targeted cells. The modification with folic acid enabled to achieve a significant cellular uptake and cytotoxicity towards a selected cancer cell lines (Caco-2) of gelatine-coated TGA-CdTe quantum dots, which demonstrated good potential for in vitro cancer diagnostics.

  19. Folic acid modified gelatine coated quantum dots as potential reagents for in vitro cancer diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gérard Valérie A

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gelatine coating was previously shown to effectively reduce the cytotoxicity of CdTe Quantum Dots (QDs which was a first step towards utilising them for biomedical applications. To be useful they also need to be target-specific which can be achieved by conjugating them with Folic Acid (FA. Results The modification of QDs with FA via an original "one-pot" synthetic route was proved successful by a range of characterisation techniques including UV-visible absorption spectroscopy, Photoluminescence (PL emission spectroscopy, fluorescence life-time measurements, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM and Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS. The resulting nanocomposites were tested in Caco-2 cell cultures which over-express FA receptors. The presence of FA on the surface of QDs significantly improved the uptake by targeted cells. Conclusions The modification with folic acid enabled to achieve a significant cellular uptake and cytotoxicity towards a selected cancer cell lines (Caco-2 of gelatine-coated TGA-CdTe quantum dots, which demonstrated good potential for in vitro cancer diagnostics.

  20. Evaluation of Potential Effects of NaCl and Sorbic Acid on Staphylococcal Enterotoxin A Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikoleta Zeaki

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The prophage-encoded staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA is recognized as the main cause of staphylococcal food poisoning (SFP, a common foodborne intoxication disease, caused by Staphylococcus aureus. Studies on the production of SEA suggest that activation of the SOS response and subsequent prophage induction affect the regulation of the sea gene and the SEA produced, increasing the risk for SFP. The present study aims to evaluate the effect of NaCl a