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Sample records for acids inorganic

  1. Studies on inorganic exchangers - polyantimonic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From the detailed experimental investigations carried out, it may be mentioned that the inorganic exchanger polyantimonic acid could be used for effectively separating strontium from fission product waste solutions free from caesium and zirconium at acidities of the order of 2M or so. After thorough washing of the column with 2M HNO3 acid to remove any residual activity unadsorbed, the strontium can be eluted with a mixture of 1M AgNO3 +6M HNO3 at room temperature. The column after regeneration and conditioning can be used for further adsorption and elution up to a maximum of 6 cycles without much deterioration in column characteristics. (author)

  2. Ionisation constants of inorganic acids and bases in aqueous solution

    CERN Document Server

    Perrin, D D

    2013-01-01

    Ionisation Constants of Inorganic Acids and Bases in Aqueous Solution, Second Edition provides a compilation of tables that summarize relevant data recorded in the literature up to the end of 1980 for the ionization constants of inorganic acids and bases in aqueous solution. This book includes references to acidity functions for strong acids and bases, as well as details about the formation of polynuclear species. This text then explains the details of each column of the tables, wherein column 1 gives the name of the substance and the negative logarithm of the ionization constant and column 2

  3. Water-free Alkaline Polymer-inorganic Acid Complexes with High Conductivity at Ambient Temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    O.V.Chervakov; M.V.Andriianova; V.V.Riabenko; A.V.Markevich; E.M.Shembel; D.Meshri

    2007-01-01

    1 Results Recently increased interest is shown to proton conducting materials based on the alkaline polymer-inorganic acid complexes that is caused by a possibility of their application as the high-temperature electrolyte systems for various electrochemical devices (fuel cells,sensors,lithium power sources etc.).Complexes of inorganic acids with the alkaline polymers (polybenzimidazoles[1],polyvinylpyridines[2]) are characterized by high ionic conductivity at ambient temperatures (up to 10-2 Ω-1·cm-1) a...

  4. Nitrate reductase and acid phosphatase activities as affected by inorganic phosphate in corn roots

    OpenAIRE

    Marie Kummerova; Józef Buczek

    2014-01-01

    The deficieny of inorganic phosphate in nutrient solution reduces by about 50 per cent NO3- absorption in corn seedlings, it decreases both in vitro and in vivo nitrate reductase (NR) activity, as well the potential and actual NR level and has a very weak effect on NR induction. Acid phosphatases activities increase in corn roots when the plants are grown in nutrient solution without phosphorus. We suggest that inorganic phosphate is required mainly for maintenance of NR activity rather, than...

  5. Probing the interaction of individual amino acids with inorganic surfaces using atomic force spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razvag, Yair; Gutkin, Vitaly; Reches, Meital

    2013-08-13

    This article describes single-molecule force spectroscopy measurements of the interaction between individual amino acid residues and inorganic surfaces in an aqueous solution. In each measurement, there is an amino acid residue, lysine, glutamate, phenylalanine, leucine, or glutamine, and each represents a class of amino acids (positively or negatively charged, aromatic, nonpolar, and polar). Force-distance curves measured the interaction of the individual amino acid bound to a silicon atomic force microscope (AFM) tip with a silcon substrate, cut from a single-crystal wafer, or mica. Using this method, we were able to measure low adhesion forces (below 300 pN) and could clearly determine the strength of interactions between the individual amino acid residues and the inorganic substrate. In addition, we observed how changes in the pH and ionic strength of the solution affected the adsorption of the residues to the substrates. Our results pinpoint the important role of hydrophobic interactions among the amino acids and the substrate, where hydrophobic phenylalanine exhibited the strongest adhesion to a silicon substrate. Additionally, electrostatic interactions also contributed to the adsorption of amino acid residues to inorganic substrates. A change in the pH or ionic strength values of the buffer altered the strength of interactions among the amino acids and the substrate. We concluded that the interplay between the hydrophobic forces and electrostatic interactions will determine the strength of adsorption among the amino acids and the surface. Overall, these results contribute to our understanding of the interaction at the organic-inorganic interface. These results may have implications for our perception of the specificity of peptide binding to inorganic surfaces. Consequently, it would possibly lead to a better design of composite materials and devices.

  6. Mechanisms for the retention of inorganic N in acidic forest soils of southern China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Jin-Bo; Cai, Zu-cong; Zhu, Tong-bin; Yang, Wen-Yan; Müller, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying the retention of inorganic N in acidic forest soils in southern China are not well understood. Here, we simultaneously quantified the gross N transformation rates of various subtropical acidic forest soils located in southern China (southern soil) and those of temperate forest soils located in northern China (northern soil). We found that acidic southern soils had significantly higher gross rates of N mineralization and significantly higher turnover rates but a much ...

  7. Genetic variability for phytic acid and inorganic phosphorous in Indian Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) landraces

    OpenAIRE

    Ashok Badigannavar, G. Girish and T.R. Ganapathi

    2014-01-01

    Majority of the phosphorous in the seeds of higher plant is stored as phytic acid. Phytate ‘P’ interfere in the protein digestion and chelate nutritionally essential elements, such as Ca, Zn and Fe. Breeding for low phytic acid would help in improving the nutritional quality of sorghum. In the present study, genetic variability for phytic acid (PAP) and inorganic ‘P’(IP) was determined among 92 sorghum landraces and 20 varieties.. The ANOVA showed significant differences for grain yield, 100-...

  8. Joint effect of organic acids and inorganic salts on cloud droplet activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Frosch

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated CCN properties of internally mixed particles composed of one organic acid (oxalic acid dihydrate, succinic acid, adipic acid, citric acid, cis-pinonic acid, or Nordic reference fulvic acid and one inorganic salt (sodium chloride or ammonium sulphate. Surface tension and water activity of aqueous model solutions with concentrations relevant for CCN activation were measured using a tensiometer and osmometry, respectively. The measurements were used to calculate Köhler curves and critical supersaturations, which were compared to measured critical supersaturations of particles with the same chemical compositions, determined with a cloud condensation nucleus counter. Surfactant surface partitioning was not accounted for. For the aqueous solutions containing cis-pinonic acid and fulvic acid, a depression of surface tension was observed, but for the remaining solutions the effect on surface tension was negligible at concentrations relevant for cloud droplet activation. The surface tension depression of aqueous solutions containing both organic acid and inorganic salt was approximately the same as or smaller than that of aqueous solutions containing the same mass of the corresponding pure organic acids. Water activity was found to be highly dependent on the type and amount of inorganic salt. Sodium chloride was able to decrease water activity more than ammonium sulphate and both inorganic salts are predicted to have a smaller Raoult term than the studied organic acids. Increasing the mass ratio of the inorganic salt led to a decrease in water activity. Water activity measurements were compared to results from the E-AIM model and values estimated from both constant and variable van't Hoff factors. The correspondence between measurements and estimates was overall good, except for highly concentrated solutions. Critical supersaturations calculated with Köhler theory based on measured water activity and surface tension, but not

  9. Effects of Inorganic acid catalysts on liquefaction of wood In phenol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Qiuhui; Zhao Guangjie; Chen Jinpeng

    2006-01-01

    In order to obtain the effects of acid catalysts on wood liquefaction in phenol, we investigated the liquefaction of wood powder from Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) and poplar (Triploid Populus tomentosa Carr) in the presence of phenol with the following weak inorganic acids as catalysts: phosphoric acid (85%),sulfuric acid (36%),hydrochloric acid (37%)and oxalic acid (99.5%).Results show that phosphoric acid (85%) and sulfuric acid (36%) are better than the other catalysts.It was found that lower residue ratios can be obtained under defined reaction conditions: phenol/wood ratio is 4,a 10% catalyst based on the weight of phenol,a temperature of 150℃ for 2 h and phosphoric or sulfuric acid.The residue ratios are 3.2% and 4.0%,respectively.

  10. Photochemical alkylation of inorganic selenium in the presence of low molecular weight organic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xuming; Sturgeon, Ralph E; Mester, Zoltán; Gardner, Graeme J

    2003-12-15

    Using a flow-through photochemical reactor and a low pressure mercury lamp as a UV source, alkyl selenium species are formed from inorganic selenium(IV) in the presence of low molecular weight organic acids (LMW acids). The volatile alkyl Se species were cryogenically trapped and identified by GC-MS and GC-ICP-MS. In the presence of formic, acetic, propionic and malonic acids, inorganic selenium(IV) is converted by UV irradiation to volatile selenium hydride and carbonyl, dimethylselenide and diethylselenide, respectively. Se(IV) was successfully removed from contaminated agricultural drainage waters (California, U.S.A.) using a batch photoreactor system Se. Photochemical alkylation may thus offer a promising means of converting toxic selenium salts, present in contaminated water, to less toxic dimethylselenide. The LMW acids and photochemical alkylation process may also be key to understanding the source of atmospheric selenium and are likely involved in its mobility in the natural anaerobic environment.

  11. Joint effect of organic acids and inorganic salts on cloud droplet activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Frosch

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated CCN properties of internally mixed particles composed of one organic acid (oxalic acid, succinic acid, adipic acid, citric acid, cis-pinonic acid, or nordic reference fulvic acid and one inorganic salt (sodium chloride or ammonium sulphate. Surface tension and water activity of aqueous model solutions with concentrations relevant for CCN activation were measured using a tensiometer and osmometry, respectively. The measurements were used to calculate Köhler curves, which were compared to measured critical supersaturations of particles with the same chemical compositions, determined with a cloud condensation nucleus counter. Surfactant surface partitioning was not accounted for. For the mixtures containing cis-pinonic acid or fulvic acid, a depression of surface tension was observed, but for the remaining mixtures the effect on surface tension was negligle at concentrations relevant for cloud droplet activation, and water activity was the more significant term in the Köhler equation. The surface tension depression of aqueous solutions containing both organic acid and inorganic salt was approximately the same as or smaller than that of aqueous solutions containing the same mass of the corresponding pure organic acids. Water activity was found to be highly dependent on the type and amount of inorganic salt. Sodium chloride was able to decrease water activity more than ammonium sulphate and both inorganic compounds had a higher effect on water activity than the studied organic acids, and increasing the mass ratio of the inorganic compound led to a decrease in water activity. Water activity measurements were compared to results from the E-AIM model and values estimated from both constant and variable van't Hoff factors to evaluate the performance of these approaches. The correspondence between measuments and estimates was overall good, except for highly concentrated solutions. Critical supersaturations calculated with K

  12. Effect of dietary phytic acid and inorganic iron on the quality of chilled pork.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renilda Terezinha Monteiro

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of supplementing inorganic iron and phytic acid to the diet for finishing pigs on meat quality after 24 hours and 7 days of refrigeration. Forty castrated male finishing pigs of a commercial genotype, with an initial mean weight of 64.34 ± 6.64 kg and age of 108 days, were used. The animals were weighed and housed individually in brick pens with an area of three m2 and compact floor, receiving water and ration ad libitum for 30 days. A randomized block design in a 2 x 2 factorial scheme was used, corresponding to diets supplemented or not with inorganic iron and with two levels of phytic acid, high (4.85% and low (2.98%. The animals were slaughtered when they had reached a mean weight of 100.76 ± 6.54 kg and longissimus dorsi muscle samples were collected for the analysis of meat quality. The following parameters were analyzed in the samples: pH, color, marbling, water loss through pressure, shear force, iron composition, and lipid oxidation. No differences in the variables analyzed were observed between factors, except for muscle iron concentration, which was higher for the diet with inclusion of inorganic iron. Lipid oxidation was not influenced by the presence or absence of phytic acid and inorganic iron. The results show that diets with elevated phytic acid levels supplemented or not with inorganic iron can be used for finishing pigs without compromising meat quality during the refrigeration phase.

  13. Elevational Variation in Soil Amino Acid and Inorganic Nitrogen Concentrations in Taibai Mountain, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaochuang Cao

    Full Text Available Amino acids are important sources of soil organic nitrogen (N, which is essential for plant nutrition, but detailed information about which amino acids predominant and whether amino acid composition varies with elevation is lacking. In this study, we hypothesized that the concentrations of amino acids in soil would increase and their composition would vary along the elevational gradient of Taibai Mountain, as plant-derived organic matter accumulated and N mineralization and microbial immobilization of amino acids slowed with reduced soil temperature. Results showed that the concentrations of soil extractable total N, extractable organic N and amino acids significantly increased with elevation due to the accumulation of soil organic matter and the greater N content. Soil extractable organic N concentration was significantly greater than that of the extractable inorganic N (NO3--N + NH4+-N. On average, soil adsorbed amino acid concentration was approximately 5-fold greater than that of the free amino acids, which indicates that adsorbed amino acids extracted with the strong salt solution likely represent a potential source for the replenishment of free amino acids. We found no appreciable evidence to suggest that amino acids with simple molecular structure were dominant at low elevations, whereas amino acids with high molecular weight and complex aromatic structure dominated the high elevations. Across the elevational gradient, the amino acid pool was dominated by alanine, aspartic acid, glycine, glutamic acid, histidine, serine and threonine. These seven amino acids accounted for approximately 68.9% of the total hydrolyzable amino acid pool. The proportions of isoleucine, tyrosine and methionine varied with elevation, while soil major amino acid composition (including alanine, arginine, aspartic acid, glycine, histidine, leucine, phenylalanine, serine, threonine and valine did not vary appreciably with elevation (p>0.10. The compositional

  14. Interactions between uptake of amino acids and inorganic nitrogen in wheat plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Gioseffi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Soil-borne amino acids may constitute a source of nitrogen (N for plants in various terrestrial ecosystems but their importance for total N nutrition is unclear, particularly in nutrient-rich arable soils. One reason for this uncertainty is lack of information on how the absorption of amino acids by plant roots is affected by the simultaneous presence of inorganic N forms. The objective of the present study was to study absorption of glycine (Gly and glutamine (Gln by wheat roots and their interactions with nitrate (NO3 and ammonium (NH4+ during uptake. The underlying hypothesis was that amino acids, when present in nutrient solution together with inorganic N, may lead to down-regulation of the inorganic N uptake, thereby resulting in similar total N uptake rates. Amino acids were enriched with double-labelled 15N and 13C, while NO3 and NH4+ acquisition was determined by their rate of removal from the nutrient solution surrounding the roots. The uptake rates of NO3 and NH4+ did not differ from each other and were generally about twice as high as the uptake rate of organic N when the different N forms were supplied separately in concentrations of 2 mM. Nevertheless, replacement of 50% of the inorganic N with organic N was able to restore the N uptake to the same level as that in the presence of only inorganic N. Co-provision of NO3 did not affect glycine uptake, while the presence of glycine down-regulated NO3 uptake. The ratio between 13C and 15N were lower in shoots than in roots and also lower than the theoretical values, reflecting higher C losses via respiratory processes compared to N losses. It is concluded that organic N can constitute a significant N-source for wheat plants and that there is an interaction

  15. Inorganic-Organic hybrid materials for uranium extraction from phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phosphate rocks are industrially processed in large quantities to produce phosphoric acid and fertilisers. These rocks contain significant concentration of uranium (50 to 300 ppm) which could be interesting for nuclear industry. This work deals with the valorisation of uranium as a by-product from fertiliser industry. The aim of this study is to develop a hybrid material, constituted of an inorganic solid support grafted with an extractant (complexing molecule), which can extract selectively uranium from phosphoric acid medium. The first step of our approach was to identify an inorganic support which is stable under these particular conditions (strong acidity and complexing medium). The chemical and mechanical stability of different meso-porous materials, such as silica, glass and carbon was studied. In a second phase, we focused on the identification and the optimisation of complexing molecules, specific of uranium in phosphoric acid. These ligands were then grafted on the most stable solids. Finally, the efficiency of these hybrid systems was evaluated through different tests of extraction, selectivity and de-extraction. (author)

  16. Safety Assessment of Citric Acid, Inorganic Citrate Salts, and Alkyl Citrate Esters as Used in Cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiume, Monice M; Heldreth, Bart A; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2014-05-26

    The CIR Expert Panel (Panel) assessed the safety of citric acid, 12 inorganic citrate salts, and 20 alkyl citrate esters as used in cosmetics, concluding that these ingredients are safe in the present practices of use and concentration. Citric acid is reported to function as a pH adjuster, chelating agent, or fragrance ingredient. Some of the salts are also reported to function as chelating agents, and a number of the citrates are reported to function as skin-conditioning agents but other functions are also reported. The Panel reviewed available animal and clinical data, but because citric acid, calcium citrate, ferric citrate, manganese citrate, potassium citrate, sodium citrate, diammonium citrate, isopropyl citrate, stearyl citrate, and triethyl citrate are generally recognized as safe direct food additives, dermal exposure was the focus for these ingredients in this cosmetic ingredient safety assessment.

  17. Influence of inorganic acid pickling on the corrosion resistance of magnesium alloy AZ31 sheet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nwaogu, Ugochukwu Chibuzoh; Blawert, C.; Scharnagl, N.;

    2009-01-01

    of micro-galvanic couples and can therefore increase corrosion attack on these alloys. Due to this influence they should be removed to obtain good corrosion resistance. In this study, the effect of inorganic acid pickling on the corrosion behaviour of a commercial AZ31 magnesium alloy sheet...... was investigated. Sulphuric, nitric and phosphoric acids of different concentrations were used to clean the alloy for various pickling times. The surface morphology, composition and phases were elucidated using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray fluorescence analysis, spark discharge-optical emission spectroscopy......, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and infrared spectroscopy. The effect of surface cleaning on the corrosion properties was studied using salt spray test and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The experimental results show that acid pickling reduces the surface impurities and therefore enhances...

  18. Organic acids and inorganic anions in Bayer liquors by ion chromatography after solid-phase extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG Fu-jin; CHEN Xiao-qing; ZHANG Shu-chao; LI Yue-ping

    2007-01-01

    A method for the simultaneous separation and determination of organic acids and inorganic anions in Bayer liquors was developed by gradient ion chromatography with suppressed conductivity detection. Formate, acetate, propionate, oxalate, succinate,glutarate, fluoride, chloride and sulfate were separated and determined in 33 min. The samples were pretreated with solid-phase extraction, which has high selectivity for removing a large number of metallic ions in the Bayer liquors, and filtered with a 0.45 μm filter membrane before being injected into the ion chromatographic system. The separation of six organic acids and three inorganic anions was achieved on an IonPac AS11-HC column with KOH as the eluent, and the detection was performed by a conductivity detection mode. No interference is found in the presence of fluorate, chlorate and sulphate when organic acids are determined. The calibration graphs of peak area for all the analytes are linear over a wide range. The relative standard derivation of the peak area of analytes is less than 2.14%. Under optimum conditions the detection ranges from 0.2 to 100.0 mg/L. The average recoveries of the added standards are between 94.3% and 102.8%.

  19. Effect of dietary phytic acid and inorganic iron on the quality of chilled pork.

    OpenAIRE

    Renilda Terezinha Monteiro; Caio Abercio Silva; Ana Maria Bridi; Alexandre Obra; Arturo Pardo Lozano; Louise Manha Peres; Aliny Ketilim Novais; Eduardo Raele Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of supplementing inorganic iron and phytic acid to the diet for finishing pigs on meat quality after 24 hours and 7 days of refrigeration. Forty castrated male finishing pigs of a commercial genotype, with an initial mean weight of 64.34 ± 6.64 kg and age of 108 days, were used. The animals were weighed and housed individually in brick pens with an area of three m2 and compact floor, receiving water and ration ad libitum for 30 days. A ra...

  20. Proton conductivity of phosphoric acid doped polybenzimidazole and its composites with inorganic protontic conductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Qingfeng

    2003-01-01

    Polymer electrolytes have received considerable attention, especially for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) operating at temperatures above 100°C. phosphoric acid doped polybenzimidazole (PBI) and PBI composite membranes have been prepared in the present work. The PBI composites...... contain inorganic protonic conductors including zirconium phosphate (ZrP), (Zr(HPO4)2. nH2O); phosphotungstic acid (PWA), (H3PW12O40. nH2O); and silicotungstic acid (SiWA), (H4SiW12O40 . nH2O). The conductivity of phosphoric acid doped PBI and PBI composite membranes was found to be dependent on the acid...... doping level, relative humidity (RH) and temperature. A conductivity of 6.8 × 10-2 S cm-1 was observed for PBI membranes with a H3PO4 doping level of 5.6 (mole number of H3PO4 per repeat unit of PBI) at 200°C and 5% RH. A higher conductivity of 9.6 × 10-2 S cm-1 was obtained by blending 15 wt.% of Zr...

  1. Proton conductivity of phosphoric acid doped polybenzimidazole and its composites with inorganic proton conductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Ronghuan; Qingfeng, Li; Gang, Xiao;

    2003-01-01

    Phosphoric acid doped polybenzimidazole (PBI) and PBI composite membranes have been prepared in the present work. The PBI composites contain inorganic proton conductors including zirconium phosphate (ZrP), (Zr(HPO4)2·nH2O), phosphotungstic acid (PWA), (H3PW12O40·nH2O) and silicotungstic acid (Si......WA), (H4SiW12O40·nH2O). The conductivity of phosphoric acid doped PBI and PBI composite membranes was found to be dependent on the acid doping level, relative humidity (RH) and temperature. A conductivity of 6.8×10−2 S cm−1 was observed for PBI membranes with a H3PO4 doping level of 5.6 (mole number of H3......PO4 per repeat unit of PBI) at 200 ◦C and 5% RH. A higher conductivity of 9.6×10−2 S cm−1 was obtained by composite of 15 wt.% of ZrP in a PBI membrane under the same conditions. Homogeneous membranes with good mechanical strength were prepared by introducing PWA (20–30 wt.%) and SiWA (20–30 wt...

  2. [Determination of organic acids and inorganic anions by gradient ion chromatography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z; Liu, K; Shen, D; Song, Q; Mou, S; Feng, Y

    1997-07-01

    The chromatographic conditions for separation and detection of organic acids and inorganic anions by gradient ion chromatography with suppressed conductivity detection were studied. The optimized gradient programs were established. Ion chromatography were performed with a DX-100 chromatograph (DIONEX). The separation column is IonPac-AS11. Compared with NaHCO3/Na2CO3 and Na2B4O7, NaOH was the optimal eluent. The effect of organic modifier was also studied. Among methanol, 2-propanol and acetonitrile, methanol can make ion pairs such as malate and succinate, malonate and tartrate gaining baseline resolution. By using ion exchange separation, Cl-, NO3-, malate, succinate, malonate, tartrate, SO4(2-), oxalate were eluted between 5 mmol/L NaOH-16% CH3OH and 10 mmol/L NaOH-16% CH3OH in 25 min. A mobile phase composed of 30 mmol/L NaOH, 50% CH3OH and D.I. water was chosen to elute two groups of organic acids and inorganic anions: (1) quinate, formate, Cl-, malate, malonate, oxalate, citrate, isocitrate, aconitate; (2) lactate, Cl-, SO4(2-), tartrate, PO4(3-), citrate, isocitrate, aconitate. The detection limits (S/N = 3) were 0.1625 (quinate), 0.0691 (formate), 0.0115 (Cl-), 0.0886 (malate), 0.0591 (malonate), 0.0263 (oxalate), 0.1147 (citrate), 0.2017 (isocitrate), 0.3656 (cis-aconitate), 0.1045 (trans-aconitate), 0.1950 (lactate), 0.0729 (tartrate), 0.0224 (SO4(2-)) and 0.0692 (PO4(3-)) mg/L. The relative standard deviations were lower than 11.9% (n = 7) and the correlation coefficients ranged from 0.9212 for Cl- to 0.9999 for formate. The method was applied to determine the organic acids and inorganic anions of beverages and citric acids fermenting-medium. The results were satisfactory.

  3. SYNTHESIS OF MESOPOROUS TiO2 MATERIALS WITH HIGH SPECIFIC AREA USING INORGANIC ACIDS AS CATALYSTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dan Huang; Guangsheng Luo; Liming Yang; Yujun Wang

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a synthesis process for preparing mesoporous titanium dioxide materials in the absence of any templates and using inorganic acids as catalysts. Tetrabutyl titanate was used as the precursor at ambient temperature, and four different inorganic acids, i.e., hydrochloric, nitric, sulfuric and phosphoric, were used as catalysts.The as-prepared mesoporous TiO2 materials were characterized by SEM, XRD and nitrogen adsorption/desorption measurements. The influences of different inorganic acids on the properties of TiO2 were discussed and compared in details. Experiments showed that the inorganic acids have significant effects on the surface area, pore volume, pore size,and pore size distribution of the products. The mesoporous TiO2 materials catalyzed by phosphoric acid exhibited the largest specific surface area and largest pore volume with narrow pore size distribution. Vacuum and infrared drying methods tested in the process were found to have subtle impact on the structure of the TiO2 materials prepared.

  4. Brief report on screening maize mutants with high inorganic phosphorus and low phytic acid content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four and two mutants with high inorganic phosphorus (IP) and low phytic acid (LP) content were identified from 'Huang C' and 'X178', the parents of the leading commercial hybrid maize cultivar 'Nongda 108', when the dry seeds were irradiated by 200 Gy Cobalt-60 gamma rays. The mutation frequencies for 'Huang C' and 'X178' in panical basis were 8.04 x 10-4 and 10.48 x 10-4, respectively. Compared to the wild type, the contents of total phosphorus (TP) were basically unchanged, phytic acid phosphorus (PAP) were detected with 79.09%, 66.06%, 47.58%, 43.94%, 70.00%, 48.28% decreases, and IP with 11.22, 9.91, 7.04, 6.43, 6.43, 4.33 times increases in six mutants, H-lpa1, H-lpa2, H-lpa3, H-lpa4, X-lpa1, X-lpa2, respectively. (authors)

  5. Analysis of trace inorganic anions in weak acid salts by single pump cycling-column-switching ion chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhongping; Ni, Chengzhu; Zhu, Zhuyi; Pan, Zaifa; Wang, Lili; Zhu, Yan

    2015-05-01

    The application of ion chromatography with the single pump cycling-column-switching technique was described for the analysis of trace inorganic anions in weak acid salts within a single run. Due to the hydrogen ions provided by an anion suppressor electrolyzing water, weak acid anions could be transformed into weak acids, existing as molecules, after passing through the suppressor. Therefore, an anion suppressor and ion-exclusion column were adopted to achieve on-line matrix elimination of weak acid anions with high concentration for the analysis of trace inorganic anions in weak acid salts. A series of standard solutions consisting of target anions of various concentrations from 0.005 to 10 mg/L were analyzed, with correlation coefficients r ≥ 0.9990. The limits of detection were in the range of 0.67 to 1.51 μg/L, based on the signal-to-noise ratio of 3 and a 25 μL injection volume. Relative standard deviations for retention time, peak area, and peak height were all less than 2.01%. A spiking study was performed with satisfactory recoveries between 90.3 and 104.4% for all anions. The chromatographic system was successfully applied to the analysis of trace inorganic anions in five weak acid salts.

  6. Photochemical production of dissolved inorganic carbon from suwannee river humic acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xuejun; LOU Tao; XIE Huixiang

    2009-01-01

    The photochemical mineralization of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) to dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) is a key process in carbon cycling. Using a Suntest CPS solar simulator, Suwannee River humic acid (SRHA) was photooxidated to examine the effects of O2 levels, the wavelength of incident light, and the concentration of Fe on the photoproduction of DIC. Increasing the O2 abundance enhanced photodegradation of SRHA. The rate of DIC photoproduction under air saturation in the first 24 h (4.40 μmol/(L h)) was increased by a factor of 1.56 under O2 saturation, but fell by only 36% under N2 saturation. To evaluate the relative importance of UV-B, UV-A, and visible radiation in the photodegradation, we examined the above process using Mylar-d films and UF-3 and UF-4 plexiglass filters. The results indicated that the UV-B, UV-A and visible wavelengths accounted for 31.8%, 32.6% and 25.6%, respectively, of DIC production with simulated sunlight irradiation. The above results also indicated that photoproduction of DIC could take place in natural water at depths greater than those that UV light can reach. When 20 μmol/L desferrioxamine mesylate (DFOM, a strong Fe complexing ligand) was added, the rate of DIC photoproduction fell to 55.6% that of the original SRHA samples with 5.46 μmol/L Fe.

  7. Effects of Inorganic Fillers on the Thermal and Mechanical Properties of Poly(lactic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingxun Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Addition of filler to polylactic acid (PLA may affect its crystallization behavior and mechanical properties. The effects of talc and hydroxyapatite (HA on the thermal and mechanical properties of two types of PLA (one amorphous and one semicrystalline have been investigated. The composites were prepared by melt blending followed by injection molding. The molecular weight, morphology, mechanical properties, and thermal properties have been characterized by gel permeation chromatography (GPC, scanning electron microscope (SEM, instron tensile tester, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA. It was found that the melting blending led to homogeneous distribution of the inorganic filler within the PLA matrix but decreased the molecular weight of PLA. Regarding the filler, addition of talc increased the crystallinity of PLA, but HA decreased the crystallinity of PLA. The tensile strength of the composites depended on the crystallinity of PLA and the interfacial properties between PLA and the filler, but both talc and HA filler increased the toughness of PLA.

  8. Docosahexaenoic acid counteracts attenuation of CD95-induced cell death by inorganic mercury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the United States the principal environmental exposure to mercury is through dietary consumption of sea food. Although the mechanism by which low levels of mercury affect the nervous system is not well established, epidemiological studies suggest that low level exposure of pregnant women to dietary mercury can adversely impact cognitive development in their children, but that Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), the most prominent n-polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-PUFA) present in fish may counteract negative effects of mercury on the nervous system. Aside from effects on the nervous system, epidemiological and animal studies have also suggested that low level mercury exposure may be a risk factor for autoimmune disease. However unlike the nervous system where a mechanism linking mercury to impaired cognitive development remains elusive, we have previously suggested a potential mechanism linking low level mercury exposures to immune system dysfunction and autoimmunity. In the immune system it is well established that disruption of CD95 mediated apoptosis leads to autoimmune disease. We have previously shown in vitro as well as in vivo that in lymphocytes burdened with low levels of mercury, CD95 mediated cell death is impaired. In this report we now show that DHA counteracts the negative effect of mercury on CD95 signaling in T lymphocytes. T cells which have been pre-exposed to DHA are able to cleave pro-caspase 3 and efficiently signal programmed cell death through the CD95 signaling pathway, whether or not they are burdened with low levels of mercury. Thus DHA may lower the risk of autoimmune disease after low level mercury exposures. - Highlights: • Inorganic mercury (Hg2+) interferes with CD95 mediated cell death in Jurkat T cells • DHA restores the ability of CD95 to signal cell death in Hg2+ intoxicated T cells • The restoration of CD95 mediated cell death by DHA is correlated with increased activation of Caspase 3

  9. Docosahexaenoic acid counteracts attenuation of CD95-induced cell death by inorganic mercury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gill, Randall [Department of Immunology and Microbiology, Wayne State University, Detroit MI (United States); Lanni, Lydia; Jen, K.-L. Catherine [Department of Nutrition and Food Science, Wayne State University, Detroit MI (United States); McCabe, Michael J. [Department of Environmental Medicine, University of Rochester, Rochester NY (United States); Rosenspire, Allen, E-mail: arosenspire@wayne.edu [Department of Immunology and Microbiology, Wayne State University, Detroit MI (United States)

    2015-01-01

    In the United States the principal environmental exposure to mercury is through dietary consumption of sea food. Although the mechanism by which low levels of mercury affect the nervous system is not well established, epidemiological studies suggest that low level exposure of pregnant women to dietary mercury can adversely impact cognitive development in their children, but that Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), the most prominent n-polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-PUFA) present in fish may counteract negative effects of mercury on the nervous system. Aside from effects on the nervous system, epidemiological and animal studies have also suggested that low level mercury exposure may be a risk factor for autoimmune disease. However unlike the nervous system where a mechanism linking mercury to impaired cognitive development remains elusive, we have previously suggested a potential mechanism linking low level mercury exposures to immune system dysfunction and autoimmunity. In the immune system it is well established that disruption of CD95 mediated apoptosis leads to autoimmune disease. We have previously shown in vitro as well as in vivo that in lymphocytes burdened with low levels of mercury, CD95 mediated cell death is impaired. In this report we now show that DHA counteracts the negative effect of mercury on CD95 signaling in T lymphocytes. T cells which have been pre-exposed to DHA are able to cleave pro-caspase 3 and efficiently signal programmed cell death through the CD95 signaling pathway, whether or not they are burdened with low levels of mercury. Thus DHA may lower the risk of autoimmune disease after low level mercury exposures. - Highlights: • Inorganic mercury (Hg{sup 2+}) interferes with CD95 mediated cell death in Jurkat T cells • DHA restores the ability of CD95 to signal cell death in Hg{sup 2+} intoxicated T cells • The restoration of CD95 mediated cell death by DHA is correlated with increased activation of Caspase 3.

  10. Correlations between the contents of phytic acid and inorganic phosphorous and downy mildew resistance of corn inbred lines

    OpenAIRE

    Pantipa Na Chiangmai*; Phrutiya Nilprapruck; Warapon Bunkoed; Phakatip Yodmingkhwan; Chokechai Aekatasanawan; Mana Kanjanamaneesathian

    2015-01-01

    Seeds of corn inbred lines collected at the National Corn and Sorghum Research Center (NCSRC), Kasetsart University, were analyzed to determine the contents of phytic acid (PA) and inorganic phosphorous (InP). These 28 and 29 inbred lines were cultivated at the NCSRC (in the 2008 late rainy season and 2009 early rainy season) to evaluate their resistance to corn downy mildew caused by Peronosclerospora sorghi. Results showed that the values of the PA, InP contents and downy mildew...

  11. 3D Polyaniline Architecture by Concurrent Inorganic and Organic Acid Doping for Superior and Robust High Rate Supercapacitor Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawli, Yogesh; Banerjee, Abhik; Dhakras, Dipti; Deo, Meenal; Bulani, Dinesh; Wadgaonkar, Prakash; Shelke, Manjusha; Ogale, Satishchandra

    2016-02-01

    A good high rate supercapacitor performance requires a fine control of morphological (surface area and pore size distribution) and electrical properties of the electrode materials. Polyaniline (PANI) is an interesting material in supercapacitor context because it stores energy Faradaically. However in conventional inorganic (e.g. HCl) acid doping, the conductivity is high but the morphological features are undesirable. On the other hand, in weak organic acid (e.g. phytic acid) doping, interesting and desirable 3D connected morphological features are attained but the conductivity is poorer. Here the synergy of the positive quality factors of these two acid doping approaches is realized by concurrent and optimized strong-inorganic (HCl) and weak-organic (phytic) acid doping, resulting in a molecular composite material that renders impressive and robust supercapacitor performance. Thus, a nearly constant high specific capacitance of 350 F g-1 is realized for the optimised case of binary doping over the entire range of 1 A g-1 to 40 A g-1 with stability of 500 cycles at 40 A g-1. Frequency dependant conductivity measurements show that the optimized co-doped case is more metallic than separately doped materials. This transport property emanates from the unique 3D single molecular character of such system.

  12. Validation study of a rapid colorimetric method for the determination of phytic acid and inorganic phosphorus from seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragičević Vesna D.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytate, as an important mineral storage compound in seeds, is vital for seed/grain development; it is often considered to be an antinutritional substance. The objective of this study was to develop a rapid and inexpensive colorimetric method of measuring phytate and inorganic P (Pi concentrations from maize, soybean and sunflower seed/grain extracts, by combining adequate precision and simplicity, ideal for breeders interested in improving simultaneously Pi and phytate levels. The investigated extraction mediums: double distilled (DD H2O, 2.4 % HCl and 5 % trichloracetic acid (TCA were proved to be suitable for the analysis of phytic acid and inorganic phosphorus in seed extracts. The advantages of 5 % TCA over to DD H2O and 2.4 % HCl were reflected through the low limit of detection for both phytic acid and Pi and good recovery with low bias. A low detection limit for Pi is important for samples with naturally low Pi concentrations, such as soybean seeds.

  13. Synthesis, crystal structure and properties of inorganic-organic hybrid polymers based on 8-hydroxylquinoline-5-sulfonic acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ying; XUE Ming; XU JiaNing; ZHU GuangShan; QIU ShiLun

    2009-01-01

    Two new inorganic-organic hybrid polymers, Mn(QS)(H_2O) (1) and Co(QS)(H_2O)2 (2) (H2QS=8-hydroxylquinoline-5-sulfonic acid), based on 8-hydroxylquinoline-5-sulfonate ligand, have been synthesized under solvothermal conditions and their structures were solved by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Compound 1 is a three-dimensional open framework with rutile topology structure, and compound 2 is a three-dimensional supramolecular structure. These compounds were characterized by powder XRD, infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, fluorescence properties and magnetism properties.

  14. Synthesis,crystal structure and properties of inorganic-organic hybrid polymers based on 8-hydroxylquinoline-5-sulfonic acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Two new inorganic-organic hybrid polymers, Mn(QS)(H2O) (1) and Co(QS)(H2O)2 (2) (H2QS=8-hydroxyl-quinoline-5-sulfonic acid), based on 8-hydroxylquinoline-5-sulfonate ligand, have been synthesized under solvothermal conditions and their structures were solved by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Compound 1 is a three-dimensional open framework with rutile topology structure, and compound 2 is a three-dimensional supramolecular structure. These compounds were characterized by powder XRD, infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, fluorescence properties and magnetism properties.

  15. Slow recovery from severe inorganic arsenic poisoning despite treatment with DMSA (2.3-dimercaptosuccinic acid).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenehjem, Aud-E; Vahter, Marie; Nermell, Barbro; Aasen, Jorulf; Lierhagen, Syverin; Mørland, Jørg; Jacobsen, Dag

    2007-05-01

    A 39-year-old woman was hospitalized for nausea, diarrhea, vomiting, and weakness of unknown etiology. Her condition progressively deteriorated and she developed multiple organ failure and tetraplegia. The diagnosis of inorganic arsenic poisoning was established by measurements of arsenic in urine and serum, showing 2,000 microg/L (normal treatment probably had no significant effect on the total body clearance in our patient. The source of the poisoning was never detected, nor the motivation behind it. Criminal intent was suspected, but no verdict was given.

  16. Measurement of inorganic arsenic species in rice after nitric acid extraction by HPLC-ICPMS: verification using XANES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, W; Foster, S; Krikowa, F; Donner, E; Lombi, E

    2013-06-01

    The measurement of As species in rice is normally accomplished by extraction followed by HPLC-ICPMS analysis. This method, however, has not been comprehensively validated by comparing these speciation results with XANES, which does not require sample extraction, due to the challenge of conducting XANES analysis at very low As concentrations. In this study As speciation data using nitric acid extraction/HPLC-ICPMS and XANES are compared to verify the efficacy of using 2% v/v nitric acid extraction and HPLC-ICPMS to measure inorganic As, DMA, and MA in reference rice materials and common rice varieties obtainable in Australia. Total As and As species (As(III), As(V), DMA, and MA) concentrations measured in 8 reference materials were in agreement with published values. XANES analysis was performed on 5 samples having total As concentrations ranging from 0.198 to 0.335 μg g(-1). XANES results gave similar proportions of total As(III), As(V), and DMA to HPLC-ICPMS. XANES was able to distinguish two forms of As(III): As(III) and As(III)GSH. Total As concentrations in rice samples varied from 0.006 to 0.45 μg g(-1) As (n = 47) with a mean ± std of 0.127 ± 0.112 μg g(-1) As with most As present as inorganic species (63 ± 26%). DMA was found in nearly all the rice samples with the majority of samples containing concentrations below 0.05 μg g(-1) As while MA concentrations were negligible (<0.003 μg g(-1) As). Six rice varieties produced in Australia, China, and Spain all had elevated DMA concentrations (0.170-0.399 μg g(-1) As) that were correlated with total As concentrations (r(2) = 0.7518). In conclusion, comparison of As speciation by HPLC-ICPMS and XANES showed that similar As species were detected indicating the appropriateness of using 2% v/v nitric acid for extraction of rice prior to speciation. Common rice varieties obtainable in Australia generally have low As concentrations with most As present as inorganic As.

  17. Screening of soybean germplasm for high inorganic phosphorus and low phytic acid

    OpenAIRE

    S. Abirami, A. Kalamani and T. Kalaimagal

    2014-01-01

    Phytic acid, is the major storage form of phosphorus in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] which comprises 75% of total seed phosphorus. It decreases the availability of some essential elements via bonding between the negatively charged phytic acid and the positively charged elements. Thus, diets high in phytate may lead to nutrient deficiencies. So, identification of lines with low phytic acid is of paramount importance. A germplasm survey was conducted among 250 soybean accessions to identify...

  18. Correlations between the contents of phytic acid and inorganic phosphorous and downy mildew resistance of corn inbred lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantipa Na Chiangmai

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Seeds of corn inbred lines collected at the National Corn and Sorghum Research Center (NCSRC, Kasetsart University, were analyzed to determine the contents of phytic acid (PA and inorganic phosphorous (InP. These 28 and 29 inbred lines were cultivated at the NCSRC (in the 2008 late rainy season and 2009 early rainy season to evaluate their resistance to corn downy mildew caused by Peronosclerospora sorghi. Results showed that the values of the PA, InP contents and downy mildew infection were statistically different among these inbred lines in both seasons. However, there were no correlations between the contents of either PA or InP and downy mildew infection.

  19. Effect of organic/inorganic compounds on the enzymes in soil under acid rain stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Guang-shen; XU Dong-mei; WANG Li-ming; LI Ke-bin; LIU Wei-ping

    2004-01-01

    The main effects of pollutions including acid rain, Cu2+, atrazine and their combined products on theactivities of urease, invertin, acid phosphatase and catalase were studied by means of orthogonal test. The resultsshowed that H + and Cu2+ had significant influence on the activities of four enzymes and the ability of their inhibitingfollowed the order: H+ > Cu2+ . Al3+ and atrazine only had litter effects on the activity of urease and phosphatase,respectively. Furthermore, interaction analysis revealed that Cu2+ -H+ affected on the activity of acid phosphatasesignificantly and antagonism on invertin and urease, Cu2+ -atrazine only exhibited the synergism on the activity ofacid phosphatase. But atrazine-H+ had non-interaction within the investigated concentration range. Among fourenzymes, acid phosphatase was the most sensitive one to the contaminations.

  20. Effects of pH, organic acids, and inorganic ions on lead desorption from soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The desorption characteristics of lead in two variable charge soils (one developed from Arenaceous rock (RAR) and the other derived from Quaternary red earths (REQ)) were studied, and the effects of pH value, organic acid, and competitive ions were examined. Desorption of Pb2+ decreased from nearly 100.0 to 20.0% within pH 1.0-4.0 in both soils, and then the decrease diminished at pH > 4.0. Organic ligands at relatively low concentrations (≤10-3 mol L-1) slightly inhibited Pb2+ desorption, but enhanced Pb2+ desorption at higher concentrations. In this study, citric acid or acetic acid at higher concentrations (>10-3 mol L-1) had the greatest improvement of Pb2+ desorption, followed by malic acid; and the smallest was oxalic acid. Desorption of the adsorbed Pb2+ increased greatly with increasing concentrations of added Cu2+ or Zn2+. Applied Cu2+ increased Pb2+ desorption more than Zn2+ at the same loading. - The adsorption-desorption process is a basic and important reaction in soils controlling Pb2+ mobility and bioavailability

  1. Effect of dissolved inorganic carbon on β-carotene and fatty acid production in Dunaliella sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Ramachandran; Kumar, Velayutham Arumuga; Kumar, Dileep; Ramesh, Nachimuthu; Babu, Subramanian; Gothandam, Kodiveri Muthukalianan

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to explore the effect of sodium bicarbonate (0-200 mM) on the production of β-carotene and lipid content in Dunaliella salina and Dunaliella bardawil. Total carotenoid and chlorophyll content were determined at regular intervals by a UV-VIS spectrophotometer. The β-carotene and lipid contents were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The HPLC results revealed a twofold increase of β-carotene in D. salina and D. bardawil cultures grown with sodium bicarbonate. Moreover, total fatty acid profiles from GC-MS indicated a maximum relative percentage of saturated fatty acids (tetradecanoic acid, 10,13-diethyl, methyl ester and methyl 16-methyl-heptadecanoate) compared to polyunsaturated fatty acids in both algae. Our results indicate that the optimum concentration of bicarbonate (100 to 150 mM) was required to stimulate a positive effect on β-carotene production as well as the lipid profile in Dunaliella sp. PMID:25575588

  2. Fatty Acid Profiles of Supraspinatus, Longissimus lumborum and Semitendinosus Muscles and Serum in Kacang Goats Supplemented with Inorganic Selenium and Iodine

    OpenAIRE

    Aghwan, Z. A.; Alimon, A. R.; Goh, Y. M.; Nakyinsige, K.; Sazili, A. Q.

    2014-01-01

    Fat and fatty acids in muscle and adipose tissues are among the major factors influencing meat quality particularly nutritional value and palatability. The present study was carried out to examine the effects of supplementing inorganic selenium (Se), iodine (I) and a combination of both on fatty acid compositions in serum, and supraspinatus (SS), longissimus lumborum (LL), and semitendinosus (ST) muscles in goats. Twenty-four, 7 to 8 months old, Kacang male goats with a mean live weight of 22...

  3. Inorganic polymers from laterite using activation with phosphoric acid and alkaline sodium silicate solution: Mechanical and microstructural properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lassinantti Gualtieri, Magdalena, E-mail: magdalena.gualtieri@unimore.it [Dipartimento di Ingegneria " Enzo Ferrari" , Università degli studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Via Vignolese 905/a, I-41125 Modena (Italy); Romagnoli, Marcello [Dipartimento di Ingegneria " Enzo Ferrari" , Università degli studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Via Vignolese 905/a, I-41125 Modena (Italy); Pollastri, Simone; Gualtieri, Alessandro F. [Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche e Geologiche, Università degli studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Via S. Eufemia 19I, I-41121 Modena (Italy)

    2015-01-15

    Geopolymers from laterite, an iron-rich soil available in developing countries, have great potential as building materials. In this work, laterite from Togo (Africa) was used to prepare geopolymers using both phosphoric acid and alkaline sodium silicate solution. Microstructural properties were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction and mercury porosimetry, whereas thermal properties were evaluated by thermal analyses. The local environment of iron was studied by X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XANES region). The mechanical properties were determined. Modulus of Rupture and Young's modulus fell in the ranges 3.3–4.5 MPa and 12–33 GPa, respectively, rendering the materials good candidates for construction purposes. Heating above 900 °C results in weight-gain, presumably due to iron redox reactions. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy data evidence changes in the chemical and structural environments of iron following thermal treatment of geopolymers. These changes indicate interaction between the geopolymer structure and iron during heating, possibly leading to redox properties. -- Highlights: •Geopolymerization of laterite is promising for fabrication of building materials. •Both phosphoric acid and alkaline sodium silicate solution can be used for activation. •Thermally activated redox properties of the inorganic polymers were observed.

  4. Dicarboxylic acids, ω-oxocarboxylic acids, α-dicarbonyls, WSOC, OC, EC, and inorganic ions in wintertime size-segregated aerosols from central India: Sources and formation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh, Dhananjay K; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Deb, Manas K

    2016-10-01

    The size distributions of aerosols can provide evidences for their sources and formation processes in the atmosphere. Size-segregated aerosols (9-sizes) were collected in urban site (Raipur: 21.2°N and 82.3°E) in central India during winter of 2012-2013. The samples were analyzed for dicarboxylic acids (C2-C12), ω-oxocarboxylic acids (ωC2-ωC9), pyruvic acid and α-dicarbonyls (C2-C3) as well as elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC), water-soluble OC (WSOC) and inorganic ions. Diacids showed a predominance of oxalic acid (C2) followed by succinic and azelaic acid whereas ω-oxoacids exhibited a predominance of glyoxylic acid and glyoxal was more abundant than methylglyoxal in all the sizes. Diacids, ω-oxoacids and α-dicarbonyls showed bimodal size distribution with peaks in fine and coarse modes. High correlations of fine mode diacids and related compounds with potassium and levoglucosan suggest that they were presumably due to a substantial contribution of primary emission from biomass burning and secondary production from biomass burning derived precursors. High correlations of C2 with higher carbon number diacids (C3-C9) suggest that they have similar sources and C2 may be produced via the decay of its higher homologous diacids in fine mode. Considerable portions of diacids and related compounds in coarse mode suggest that they were associated with mineral dust particles by their adsorption and photooxidation of anthropogenic and biogenic precursors via heterogeneous reaction on dust surface. This study demonstrates that biomass burning and dust particles are two major factors to control the size distribution of diacids and related compounds in the urban aerosols from central India. PMID:27414241

  5. Size-controlled synthesis and formation mechanism of manganese oxide OMS-2 nanowires under reflux conditions with KMnO4 and inorganic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qin; Cheng, Xiaodi; Qiu, Guohong; Liu, Fan; Feng, Xionghan

    2016-05-01

    This study presents a simplified approach for size-controlled synthesis of manganese oxide octahedral molecular sieve (OMS-2) nanowires using potassium permanganate (KMnO4) and different inorganic acids (HCl, HNO3, and H2SO4) under reflux conditions. The morphology and nanostructure of the synthesized products are characterized by X-ray diffraction, Ar adsorption, and electron microscopy analysis, in order to elucidate the controlling effects of acid concentration and type as well as the formation mechanism of OMS-2 nanowires. The concentration of inorganic acid is a crucial factor controlling the phase of the synthesized products. OMS-2 nanowires are obtained with HCl at the concentration ≥0.96 mol/L or with HNO3 and H2SO4 at the concentrations ≥0.72 mol/L. Differently, the type of inorganic acid effectively determines the particle size of OMS-2 nanowires. When the acid is changed from HCl to HNO3 and H2SO4 in the reflux system, the average length of OMS-2 declines significantly by 60-70% (1104-442 and 339 nm), with minor decreased in the average width (43-39 and 34 nm). The formation of OMS-2 nanowires under reflux conditions with KMnO4 and inorganic acids involves a two-step process, i.e., the initial formation of layered manganese oxides, and subsequent transformation to OMS-2 via a dissolution-recrystallization process under acidic conditions. The proposed reflux route provides an alternative approach for synthesizing OMS-2 nanowires as well as other porous nano-crystalline OMS materials.

  6. Sea salt aerosols as a reactive surface for inorganic and organic acidic gases in the arctic troposphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. W. Chi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Sea salt aerosols (SSA are dominant particles in the arctic atmosphere and determine the polar radiative balance. SSA react with acidic pollutants that lead to changes of physical and chemical properties of their surface, which in turn alter their hygroscopic and optical properties. Transmission electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry was used to analyze morphology, composition, size, and mixing state of individual SSA at Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard in summertime. Individual fresh SSA contained cubic NaCl coated by certain amounts of MgCl2 and CaSO4. Individual partially aged SSA contained irregular NaCl coated by a mixture of NaNO3, Na2SO4, Mg(NO32, and MgSO4. The comparison suggests the hydrophilic MgCl2 coating in fresh SSA likely intrigued the heterogeneous reactions at the beginning of SSA and acidic gases. Individual fully aged SSA normally had Na2SO4 cores and an amorphous coating of NaNO3. Elemental mappings of individual SSA particles revealed that as the particles ageing Cl gradually decreased but the C, N, O, and S content increased. 12C14N− mapping from nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry indicates that organic matter increased in the aged SSA compared with the fresh SSA. 12C14N− line scans further show that organic matter was mainly concentrated on the aged SSA surface. These new findings indicate that this mixture of organic matter and NaNO3 on particle surfaces determines their hygroscopic and optical properties. These abundant SSA, whose reactive surfaces absorb inorganic and organic acidic gases in the arctic troposphere, need to be incorporated into atmospheric chemical models.

  7. A lipidomic approach to understanding free fatty acid lipogenesis derived from dissolved inorganic carbon within cnidarian-dinoflagellate symbiosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon R Dunn

    Full Text Available The cnidarian-dinoflagellate symbiosis is arguably one of the most important within the marine environment in that it is integral to the formation of coral reefs. However, the regulatory processes that perpetuate this symbiosis remain unresolved. It is essential to understand these processes, if we are to elucidate the mechanisms that support growth and resource accumulation by coral host, and conversely, recently observed reduction and/or mortality of corals in response to rapid environmental change. This study specifically focused on one area of metabolic activity within the symbiosis, that of free fatty acid synthesis within both the dinoflagellate symbionts and cnidarian host. The main model system used was Aiptasia pulchella and Symbiodinium sp. in combination with aposymbiotic A. pulchella, the symbiotic coral Acropora millepora system and dinoflagellate culture. Fatty acids (FAs were selected because of their multiple essential roles inclusive of energy storage (resource accumulation, membrane structure fluidity and cell signaling. The study addressed free FA lipogenesis by using a new method of enriched stable isotopic ((13C incorporation from dissolved inorganic carbon (DI(13C combined with HPLC-MS. FAs derived from DI(13C aligned with a mixture of known lipogenesis pathways with the addition of some unusual FAs. After 120 hr, (13C-enriched FA synthesis rates were attributed to only a complex integration of both n-3 and n-6 lipogenesis pathways within the dinoflagellate symbionts. Furthermore, there was no detectible evidence of symbiont derived enriched isotope fatty acids, catabolized (13C derivatives or DI(13C being directly utilized, in host late n-6 pathway long-chain FA lipogenesis. These findings do not align with a popular mutualistic translocation model with respect to the use of translocated symbiont photoassimilates in host long-chain FA lipogenesis, which has important connotations for linking nutrient sources with

  8. Monomethylarsonous acid, but not inorganic arsenic, is a mitochondria-specific toxicant in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, Clare; Banerjee, Tania Das; Welch, Barrett; Khalili, Roxana; Dagda, Ruben K; Angermann, Jeff

    2016-09-01

    Arsenic exposure has been implicated as a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, metabolic disorders, and cancer, yet the role mitochondrial dysfunction plays in the cellular mechanisms of pathology is largely unknown. To investigate arsenic-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), we exposed rat aortic smooth muscle cells (A7r5) to inorganic arsenic (iAs(III)) and its metabolite monomethylarsonous acid (MMA(III)) and compared their effects on mitochondrial function and oxidative stress. Our results indicate that MMA(III) is significantly more toxic to mitochondria than iAs(III). Exposure of VSMCs to MMA(III), but not iAs(III), significantly decreased basal and maximal oxygen consumption rates and concomitantly increased compensatory extracellular acidification rates, a proxy for glycolysis. Treatment with MMA(III) significantly increased hydrogen peroxide and superoxide levels compared to iAs(III). Exposure to MMA(III) resulted in significant decreases in mitochondrial ATP, aberrant perinuclear clustering of mitochondria, and decreased mitochondrial content. Mechanistically, we observed that mitochondrial superoxide and hydrogen peroxide contribute to mitochondrial toxicity, as treatment of cells with MnTBAP (a mitochondrial superoxide dismutase mimetic) and catalase significantly reduced mitochondrial respiration deficits and cell death induced by both arsenic compounds. Overall, our data demonstrates that MMA(III) is a mitochondria-specific toxicant that elevates mitochondrial and non-mitochondrial sources of ROS. PMID:27327130

  9. DNA-strand breaks induced by dimethylarsinic acid, a metabolite of inorganic arsenics, are strongly enhanced by superoxide anion radicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rin, K; Kawaguchi, K; Yamanaka, K; Tezuka, M; Oku, N; Okada, S

    1995-01-01

    We previously reported that dimethylarsinic acid (DMAA), a major metabolite of inorganic arsenics, induced DNA single-strand breaks (ssb) both in vivo and in cultured alveolar type II (L-132) cells in vitro, possibly via the production of dimethylarsenic peroxyl radicals. Here, the interaction of superoxide anion radicals (O2-) in the induction of ssb in L-132 cells was investigated using paraquat, an O2(-)-producing agent. A significant enhancement of ssb formation was observed in the DMAA-exposed cells when coexposed to paraquat. This enhancement occurred even when post-exposed to DMAA after washing, suggesting that the DMAA exposure caused some modification of DNA such as DNA-adducts, which was recognized by active oxygens to form ssb. An experiment with UV-irradiation, which was likely to induce ssb at the modified region, supported the possibility of DNA modification by DMAA exposure. An ESR study indicated that O2- produced by paraquat in DMAA-exposed cells was more consumed than in non-exposed cells, assumingly through the reaction with the dimethylarsenic-modified region of DNA. The species of active oxygens were estimated by using diethyldithiocarbamate, aminotriazole, diethylmaleate, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), gamma-irradiation and ethanol. O2- but neither H2O2 nor hydroxyl radicals was very likely to contribute to the ssb-enhancing action of paraquat. PMID:7735248

  10. Monomethylarsonous acid, but not inorganic arsenic, is a mitochondria-specific toxicant in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, Clare; Banerjee, Tania Das; Welch, Barrett; Khalili, Roxana; Dagda, Ruben K; Angermann, Jeff

    2016-09-01

    Arsenic exposure has been implicated as a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, metabolic disorders, and cancer, yet the role mitochondrial dysfunction plays in the cellular mechanisms of pathology is largely unknown. To investigate arsenic-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), we exposed rat aortic smooth muscle cells (A7r5) to inorganic arsenic (iAs(III)) and its metabolite monomethylarsonous acid (MMA(III)) and compared their effects on mitochondrial function and oxidative stress. Our results indicate that MMA(III) is significantly more toxic to mitochondria than iAs(III). Exposure of VSMCs to MMA(III), but not iAs(III), significantly decreased basal and maximal oxygen consumption rates and concomitantly increased compensatory extracellular acidification rates, a proxy for glycolysis. Treatment with MMA(III) significantly increased hydrogen peroxide and superoxide levels compared to iAs(III). Exposure to MMA(III) resulted in significant decreases in mitochondrial ATP, aberrant perinuclear clustering of mitochondria, and decreased mitochondrial content. Mechanistically, we observed that mitochondrial superoxide and hydrogen peroxide contribute to mitochondrial toxicity, as treatment of cells with MnTBAP (a mitochondrial superoxide dismutase mimetic) and catalase significantly reduced mitochondrial respiration deficits and cell death induced by both arsenic compounds. Overall, our data demonstrates that MMA(III) is a mitochondria-specific toxicant that elevates mitochondrial and non-mitochondrial sources of ROS.

  11. Genotypic variation for phytic acid, inorganic phosphate and mineral contents in advanced breeding lines of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. Shitre, D.A. Gadekar1, V. Ramachandran, Vikas, S. Bakshi, V. Kumar, G. Vishwakarma and B.K. Das

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Wheat is a staple food of Indian population. Its nutritional and quality parameters have gained considerable importance over past few decades. In the present study, genotypic variation was studied in 100 advanced breeding lines developed for Indian peninsular zone by measuring phytic acid (PA, inorganic phosphate (IP, iron and zinc content in seeds and hundred kernel weight (HKW. Advanced breeding lines under investigation exhibited wide variation for the characters studied. The PA content ranged from 4.97 mg/g to 15.02 mg/g (mean of 9.58 mg/g. Iron and zinc content was in the range of 0.042 to 0.098 mg/g and 0.017 mg/g to 0.029 mg/g respectively. HKW ranged from 2.99 to 5.42 g. There was significant negative correlation between PA and HKW. Iron content showed very high genotypic coefficient of variation and heritability (h2bs as compared to zinc content and other traits. Low heritability of IP content indicated the environmental influence on the trait.

  12. Use of stirred tanks for studying matrix effects caused by inorganic acids, easily ionized elements and organic solvents in inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paredes, Eduardo [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia, University of Alicante, 03080 Alicante (Spain); Maestre, Salvador E. [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia, University of Alicante, 03080 Alicante (Spain); Todoli, Jose L. [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia, University of Alicante, 03080 Alicante (Spain)]. E-mail: jose.todoli@ua.es

    2006-03-15

    A stirred tank was used for the first time to elucidate the mechanism responsible for inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) matrix effects caused by inorganic, acids and easily ionized elements (EIEs), as well as organic, ethanol and acetic acid, compounds. In order to gradually increase the matrix concentration, a matrix solution was introduced inside a stirred container (tank) initially filled with an aqueous multielement standard. PolyTetraFluoroEthylene (PTFE) tubing was used to deliver the resulting solution to the liquid sample introduction system. Matrix concentration ranged from 0 to 2 mol l{sup -1} in the case of inorganic acids (i.e., nitric, sulfuric, hydrochloric and a mixture of them), from 0 to about 2500 mg l{sup -1} for EIEs (i.e., sodium, calcium and mixtures of both) and from 0% to 15%, w/w for organic compounds. Up to 40-50 different solutions were prepared and measured in a period of time shorter than 6-7 min. This investigation was carried out in terms of emission intensity and tertiary aerosols characteristics. The experimental setup used in the present work allowed to thoroughly study the effect of matrix concentration on analytical signal. Generally speaking, the experiments concerning tertiary aerosol characterization revealed that, in the case of inorganic acids and EIEs, the mechanism responsible for changes in aerosol characteristics was the droplet fission. In contrast, for organic matrices it was found that the interference was caused by a change in both aerosol transport and plasma thermal characteristics. The extent of the interferences caused by organic as well as inorganic compounds was compared for a set of 14 emission lines through a wide range of matrix concentrations. With a stirred tank, it is possible to choose an efficient internal standard for any given matrix composition. The time required to complete this procedure was shorter than 7 min.

  13. Effects of Organic and Inorganic Nitrogen on the Growth and Production of Domoic Acid by Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries and P. australis (Bacillariophyceae) in Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Véronique Martin-Jézéquel; Guillaume Calu; Leo Candela; Zouher Amzil; Thierry Jauffrais; Véronique Séchet; Pierre Weigel

    2015-01-01

    Over the last century, human activities have altered the global nitrogen cycle, and anthropogenic inputs of both inorganic and organic nitrogen species have increased around the world, causing significant changes to the functioning of aquatic ecosystems. The increasing frequency of Pseudo-nitzschia spp. in estuarine and coastal waters reinforces the need to understand better the environmental control of its growth and domoic acid (DA) production. Here, we document Pseudo-nitzschia spp. growth...

  14. Effects of Organic and Inorganic Nitrogen on the Growth and Production of Domoic Acid by Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries and P. australis (Bacillariophyceae) in Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Jézéquel, Véronique; Calu, Guillaume; Candela, Leo; Amzil, Zouher; Jauffrais, Thierry; Séchet, Véronique; Weigel, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Over the last century, human activities have altered the global nitrogen cycle, and anthropogenic inputs of both inorganic and organic nitrogen species have increased around the world, causing significant changes to the functioning of aquatic ecosystems. The increasing frequency of Pseudo-nitzschia spp. in estuarine and coastal waters reinforces the need to understand better the environmental control of its growth and domoic acid (DA) production. Here, we document Pseudo-nitzschia spp. growth and toxicity on a large set of inorganic and organic nitrogen (nitrate, ammonium, urea, glutamate, glutamine, arginine and taurine). Our study focused on two species isolated from European coastal waters: P. multiseries CCL70 and P. australis PNC1. The nitrogen sources induced broad differences between the two species with respect to growth rate, biomass and cellular DA, but no specific variation could be attributed to any of the inorganic or organic nitrogen substrates. Enrichment with ammonium resulted in an enhanced growth rate and cell yield, whereas glutamate did not support the growth of P. multiseries. Arginine, glutamine and taurine enabled good growth of P. australis, but without toxin production. The highest DA content was produced when P. multiseries grew with urea and P. australis grew with glutamate. For both species, growth rate was not correlated with DA content but more toxin was produced when the nitrogen source could not sustain a high biomass. A significant negative correlation was found between cell biomass and DA content in P. australis. This study shows that Pseudo-nitzschia can readily utilize organic nitrogen in the form of amino acids, and confirms that both inorganic and organic nitrogen affect growth and DA production. Our results contribute to our understanding of the ecophysiology of Pseudo-nitzschia spp. and may help to predict toxic events in the natural environment. PMID:26703627

  15. Effects of Organic and Inorganic Nitrogen on the Growth and Production of Domoic Acid by Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries and P. australis (Bacillariophyceae) in Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Jézéquel, Véronique; Calu, Guillaume; Candela, Leo; Amzil, Zouher; Jauffrais, Thierry; Séchet, Véronique; Weigel, Pierre

    2015-12-01

    Over the last century, human activities have altered the global nitrogen cycle, and anthropogenic inputs of both inorganic and organic nitrogen species have increased around the world, causing significant changes to the functioning of aquatic ecosystems. The increasing frequency of Pseudo-nitzschia spp. in estuarine and coastal waters reinforces the need to understand better the environmental control of its growth and domoic acid (DA) production. Here, we document Pseudo-nitzschia spp. growth and toxicity on a large set of inorganic and organic nitrogen (nitrate, ammonium, urea, glutamate, glutamine, arginine and taurine). Our study focused on two species isolated from European coastal waters: P. multiseries CCL70 and P. australis PNC1. The nitrogen sources induced broad differences between the two species with respect to growth rate, biomass and cellular DA, but no specific variation could be attributed to any of the inorganic or organic nitrogen substrates. Enrichment with ammonium resulted in an enhanced growth rate and cell yield, whereas glutamate did not support the growth of P. multiseries. Arginine, glutamine and taurine enabled good growth of P. australis, but without toxin production. The highest DA content was produced when P. multiseries grew with urea and P. australis grew with glutamate. For both species, growth rate was not correlated with DA content but more toxin was produced when the nitrogen source could not sustain a high biomass. A significant negative correlation was found between cell biomass and DA content in P. australis. This study shows that Pseudo-nitzschia can readily utilize organic nitrogen in the form of amino acids, and confirms that both inorganic and organic nitrogen affect growth and DA production. Our results contribute to our understanding of the ecophysiology of Pseudo-nitzschia spp. and may help to predict toxic events in the natural environment. PMID:26703627

  16. Effects of Organic and Inorganic Nitrogen on the Growth and Production of Domoic Acid by Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries and P. australis (Bacillariophyceae in Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Véronique Martin-Jézéquel

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Over the last century, human activities have altered the global nitrogen cycle, and anthropogenic inputs of both inorganic and organic nitrogen species have increased around the world, causing significant changes to the functioning of aquatic ecosystems. The increasing frequency of Pseudo-nitzschia spp. in estuarine and coastal waters reinforces the need to understand better the environmental control of its growth and domoic acid (DA production. Here, we document Pseudo-nitzschia spp. growth and toxicity on a large set of inorganic and organic nitrogen (nitrate, ammonium, urea, glutamate, glutamine, arginine and taurine. Our study focused on two species isolated from European coastal waters: P. multiseries CCL70 and P. australis PNC1. The nitrogen sources induced broad differences between the two species with respect to growth rate, biomass and cellular DA, but no specific variation could be attributed to any of the inorganic or organic nitrogen substrates. Enrichment with ammonium resulted in an enhanced growth rate and cell yield, whereas glutamate did not support the growth of P. multiseries. Arginine, glutamine and taurine enabled good growth of P. australis, but without toxin production. The highest DA content was produced when P. multiseries grew with urea and P. australis grew with glutamate. For both species, growth rate was not correlated with DA content but more toxin was produced when the nitrogen source could not sustain a high biomass. A significant negative correlation was found between cell biomass and DA content in P. australis. This study shows that Pseudo-nitzschia can readily utilize organic nitrogen in the form of amino acids, and confirms that both inorganic and organic nitrogen affect growth and DA production. Our results contribute to our understanding of the ecophysiology of Pseudo-nitzschia spp. and may help to predict toxic events in the natural environment.

  17. Metabolic responses, performance, and reticuloruminal pH of early-lactating cows fed concentrates treated with lactic acid, with or without inorganic phosphorus supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khol-Parisini, A; Humer, E; Harder, H; Mickdam, E; Zebeli, Q

    2016-08-01

    Recent data indicate beneficial effects of treating grains with lactic acid (LA) in alleviating the need for inorganic phosphorus supplementation during ruminal fermentation in vitro. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of feeding concentrates treated with LA with or without inorganic phosphorus supplementation on feed intake, performance, blood variables, and reticuloruminal pH in dairy cows. A total of 16 early-lactating cows (12 Simmental and 4 Brown Swiss) were included in this study from d 1 until d 37 postpartum. Cows were fed 3 total mixed rations differing in supplementation of inorganic phosphorus and treatment of concentrates. The control (CON) and LA (+P) diets included a concentrate mixture containing 0.8% monocalcium phosphate, and the LA (-P) diet contained no inorganic phosphorus source. The concentrates of the LA (+P) and LA (-P) diets were treated with 5% LA for 24h before feeding, and the concentrate of the CON diet was not treated. Dry matter intake and milk yield were recorded daily, and milk composition and blood variables were determined on several occasions during the trial. Reticuloruminal pH was measured using indwelling sensors that allowed for continuous measurement during the experimental period. Data showed depressed dry matter intake in cows receiving LA-treated concentrates, but milk yield, body weight, and body weight changes remained similar among treatment groups. Cows receiving the LA-treated diets had lower concentrations of serum nonesterified fatty acids, cholesterol, and insulin, and they tended to have higher serum phosphorus levels. On the other hand, reticuloruminal pH was lower and duration of the pH being metabolism, insulin sensitivity, and liver variables, as well as the tendency for greater systemic phosphorus circulation, suggest that diets including concentrates treated with 5% LA may allow for savings of inorganic phosphorus supplementation in dairy cows. Treatment with 5% LA enhanced cows' risk of

  18. Effects of inorganic and organic amendments on the uptake of lead and trace elements by Brassica chinensis grown in an acidic red soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xianjin; Li, Xia; Liu, Xingmei; Hashmi, Muhammad Z; Xu, Jianming; Brookes, Philip C

    2015-01-01

    A greenhouse study was conducted to investigate the effects of inorganic (phosphate rock, single superphosphate and calcium magnesium phosphate) and organic amendments (peat, straw manure and pig manure) on the uptake of lead (Pb) and trace elements by Chinese Cabbage (Brassica chinensis) grown in an acidic red soil. The application of all organic amendments increased the soil pH while inorganic amendments such as single superphosphate did not. Both inorganic and organic amendments decreased the availability and uptake of Pb while the organic amendments were superior to the inorganic (phosphate) amendments in reducing the availability of the more labile (soluble and exchangeable Pb) forms of soil Pb. More Pb was taken up by roots than shoots with all soil amendments. Among the organic amendments, straw manure and pig manure caused the largest decrease in Pb availability at 456.5 and 457.3 mg kg(-1), respectively, when a high level of 30 g organic amendments kg(-1) was applied. The organic amendments greatly increased the fraction D targeted to Fe-Mn oxides bound Pb, and decreased the fraction A (water-soluble), B (exchangeable), and C (carbonate-bound), thereby decreasing the solubility and mobility of Pb in soil. The organic amendments also significantly improved the concentrations of Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn in the soil and shoots (except Fe in shoots and/or roots), which are essential for plant nutrition. The organic amendments of straw and pig manure lowered the availability and uptake of Pb but not that of other trace metals. Thus, these amendments have the potential to remediate Pb-contaminated soils in situ. PMID:24992219

  19. Chemical characterization of the inorganic fraction of aerosols and mechanisms of the neutralization of atmospheric acidity in Athens, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. T. Karageorgos

    2007-06-01

    + and Cl, while SO42−, Ca2+ and NH4+ were the major ionic components of the fine fraction. In the fine particles, a low molar ratio of NH4+/SO42− indicated an ammonium-poor ambient air, and together with inter-ionic correlations suggested that atmospheric ammonia is the major neutralizing agent of sulfate, while being insufficient to neutralize it to full extend. The formation of NH4NO3 is therefore not favored and additional contribution to the neutralization of acidity has been shown to be provided by Ca2+ and Mg2+. In the coarse particle fraction, the predominantly abundant Ca2+ has been found to correlate well with NO3 and SO42−, indicating its role as important neutralizing agent in this particle size range. The proximity of the location under study to the sea explains the important concentrations of salts with marine origin like NaCl and MgCl2 that were found in the coarse fraction, while chloride depletion in the gaseous phase was found to be limited to the fine particulate fraction. Total analyzed inorganic mass (elemental+ionic was found to be ranging between approximately 25–33% of the total coarse particle mass and 35–42% of the total fine particle mass.

  20. Response surface methodology to optimize gradient ion chromatographic separation of inorganic anions and organic acids in tobacco leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rui Qi Wang; Na Ni Wang; Jia Jie Zhang; Yan Zhu

    2011-01-01

    The separation optimization of nine organic and inorganic anions in tobacco leaves using gradient ion chromatography by response surface methodology was investigated. In order to achieve this goal the usefulness of the chromatographic response function (CRF) for the evaluation of the two different chromatographic performance goals (resolution and analysis time) was tested. The experiments were performed according to a Box-Behnken design response surface experimental design.

  1. Validation study of a rapid colorimetric method for the determination of phytic acid and inorganic phosphorus from seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Dragičević Vesna D.; Sredojević Slobodanka D.; Perić Vesna A.; Nišavić Anika R.; Srebrić Mirjana B.

    2011-01-01

    Phytate, as an important mineral storage compound in seeds, is vital for seed/grain development; it is often considered to be an antinutritional substance. The objective of this study was to develop a rapid and inexpensive colorimetric method of measuring phytate and inorganic P (Pi) concentrations from maize, soybean and sunflower seed/grain extracts, by combining adequate precision and simplicity, ideal for breeders interested in improving simultaneously Pi and phytate levels. The inv...

  2. Polycarboxylic acids as network modifiers for water durability improvement of inorganic-organic hybrid tin-silico-phosphate low-melting glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated the water durability of the inorganic-organic hybrid tin-silico-phosphate glasses Me2SiO-SnO-P2O5 (Me designs the organic methyl group) doped with organic acids (salicylic acid (SA), tartaric acid (TA), citric acid (Canada) and butane tetracarboxylic acid (BTCA)) containing one or more of carboxylic groups per molecule. The structure, thermal properties and durability of the final glasses obtained via a non-aqueous acid-base reaction were discussed owing to the nature and the concentration of the acid added. 29Si magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR and 31P MAS NMR spectra, respectively, showed clearly a modification of the network in the host glass matrix of the Me2SiO-SnO-P2O5 system. The polycondensation enhancement to form -P-O-Si-O-P- linkages (PSP) and the increase of the Q 2 unit (two bridging oxygens per phosphorus atom) over the Q 3 unit (three bridging oxygens per phosphorus atom) as a function of the acid in the order SA2SiO-SnO-P2O5 matrix. In addition, this structural change is accompanied by a decrease of the coefficient of thermal expansion and an increase of the water durability of the glasses with the acids containing a large number of carboxylic groups per molecule. The presence of carboxylic groups of the acid acting as network modifier may retard the movement of water molecules through the glasses due to the steric hindrance strengthening the PSP connections in a chain-like structure

  3. Research Progress of Surface Modification of Inorganic Powder Modified by Stearic Acid in China%国内硬脂酸对无机粉体表面改性的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊斌斌

    2011-01-01

    介绍了硬脂酸改性无机粉体的机理,综述了近年来硬脂酸在无机粉体改性中的研究进展,最后展望了硬脂酸在无机粉体改性中的发展前景。%The stearic acid and the mechanism of stearic acid modified inorganic powder materials was introduced. Researches of stearic acid on the surface modification of inorganic powder were reviewed, and the development trend of surface modification was put forward.

  4. Speciation of selenoamino acids, selenonium ions and inorganic selenium by ion exchange HPLC with mass spectrometric detection and its application to yeast and algae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Huusfeldt; Hansen, M.; Fan, T.;

    2001-01-01

    Cation and anion exchange HPLC were used to separate a mixture of 12 selenium species comprising selenoamino acids, selenonium ions and inorganic selenium. The cationic species were separated from each other and from the co-injected anions using a cation exchange column with gradient elution...... by aqueous pyridinium formate at pH similar to 3 as the mobile phase. The anionic species were separated using an anion exchange column with isocratic elution by an aqueous salicylate-TRIS mobile phase at pH 8.5. The separated selenium species were detected as Se-80 by ICP-dynamic reaction cell (DRC...... acid extract of Chlorella algae contained dimethylselenonium propionate (DMSeP), which was verified by HPLC-ES-MS. Se-allylselenocysteine and selenoethionine was detected at the low ng g(-1) concentration level based on co-chromatography with the standard substances spiked to the algal extract....

  5. Influence of mineral dust and sea spray supermicron particle concentrations and acidity on inorganic NO3− aerosol during the 2013 Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. M. Allen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The inorganic aerosol composition was measured in the southeastern United States, a region that exhibits high aerosol mass loading during the summer, as part of the 1 June to 15 July 2013 Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS campaign. Measurements using a Monitor for AeRosols and GAses (MARGA, an ion chromatograph coupled with a wet rotating denuder and a steam-jet aerosol collector for monitoring of ambient inorganic gas and aerosol species, revealed two periods of high aerosol nitrate (NO3− concentrations during the campaign. These periods of high nitrate were correlated with increased concentrations of coarse mode mineral or sea spray aerosol species, particularly Na+ and Ca2+, and with a shift towards aerosol with larger (1 to 2.5 μm diameters. We suggest this nitrate aerosol forms by multiphase reactions of HNO3 and particles, reactions that are facilitated by transport of mineral dust and sea spray aerosol from a source within the United States. The observed high aerosol acidity prevents the formation of NH4NO3, the inorganic nitrogen species often dominant in fine-mode aerosol at higher pH. Calculation of the rate of the heterogeneous uptake of HNO3 on mineral aerosol supports the conclusion that aerosol NO3− is produced primarily by this process, and is likely limited by the availability of mineral dust surface area. Modeling of NO3− and HNO3 by thermodynamic equilibrium models (ISORROPIA II and E-AIM reveals the importance of including mineral cations in the southeastern United States to accurately balance ion species and predict gas/aerosol phase partitioning.

  6. Surfactant mediated synthesis of poly(acrylic acid) grafted xanthan gum and its efficient role in adsorption of soluble inorganic mercury from water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Abhijit; Majumder, Kunal; Bandyopadhyay, Abhijit

    2016-11-01

    Noble copolymers from xanthan gum (XG) and poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) were synthesised through surfactant mediated graft copolymerization. The copolymers were applied as a biosorbent for inorganic Hg(II) at higher concentration level (300ppm). The copolymers were characterized using different analytical techniques which showed, the grafting principally occurred across the amorphous region of XG. Measurement of zeta potential and hydrodynamic size indicated, the copolymers were strong polyanion and possessed greater hydrodynamic size (almost in all cases) than XG, despite a strong molecular degradation that took place simultaneously during grafting. In the dispersed form, all grades of the copolymer displayed higher adsorption capability than XG, however, the grade with maximum grafting produced the highest efficiency (68.03%). Manipulation produced further improvement in efficiency to 72.17% with the same copolymer after 75min at a pH of 5.0. The allowable biosorbent dose, however, was 1000ppm as determined from the experimental evidences. PMID:27516248

  7. Real-time measurements of ammonia, acidic trace gases and water-soluble inorganic aerosol species at a rural site in the Amazon Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Trebs

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We measured the mixing ratios of ammonia (NH3, nitric acid (HNO3, nitrous acid (HONO, hydrochloric acid (HCl, sulfur dioxide (SO2 and the corresponding water-soluble inorganic aerosol species, ammonium (NH4+, nitrate (NO3-, nitrite (NO2-, chloride (Cl- and sulfate (SO42-, and their diel and seasonal variations at a pasture site in the Amazon Basin (Rondônia, Brazil. This study was conducted within the framework of LBA-SMOCC (Large Scale Biosphere Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia - Smoke Aerosols, Clouds, Rainfall and Climate: Aerosols from Biomass Burning Perturb Global and Regional Climate. Sampling was performed from 12 September to 14 November 2002, extending from the dry season (extensive biomass burning activity, through the transition period to the wet season (background conditions. Measurements were made continuously using a wet-annular denuder (WAD in combination with a Steam-Jet Aerosol Collector (SJAC followed by suitable on-line analysis. A detailed description and verification of the inlet system for simultaneous sampling of soluble gases and aerosol compounds is presented. Overall measurement uncertainties of the ambient mixing ratios usually remained below 15%. The limit of detection (LOD was determined for each single data point measured during the field experiment. Median LOD values (3σ-definition were ≤0.015ppb for acidic trace gases and aerosol anions and ≤0.118ppb for NH3 and aerosol NH4+. Mixing ratios of acidic trace gases remained below 1ppb throughout the measurement period, while NH3 levels were an order of magnitude higher. Accordingly, mixing ratios of NH4+ exceeded those of other inorganic aerosol contributors by a factor of 4 to 10. During the wet season, mixing ratios decreased by nearly a factor of 3 for all compounds compared to those observed when intensive biomass burning took place. Additionally, N-containing gas and aerosol species featured pronounced diel variations. This is attributed to strong

  8. Real-time measurements of ammonia, acidic trace gases and water-soluble inorganic aerosol species at a rural site in the Amazon Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Trebs

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available We measured the mixing ratios of ammonia (NH3, nitric acid (HNO3, nitrous acid (HONO, hydrochloric acid (HCl, sulfur dioxide (SO2 and the corresponding water-soluble inorganic aerosol species, ammonium (NH4+, nitrate (NO3, nitrite (NO2, chloride (Cl and sulfate (SO42−, and their diel and seasonal variations at a pasture site in the Amazon Basin (Rondônia, Brazil. This study was conducted within the framework of LBA-SMOCC (Large Scale Biosphere Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia Smoke Aerosols, Clouds, Rainfall and Climate. Sampling was performed from 12 September to 14 November 2002, extending from the dry season (extensive biomass burning activity, through the transition period to the wet season (background conditions. Measurements were made continuously using a wet-annular denuder in combination with a Steam-Jet Aerosol Collector (SJAC followed by suitable on-line analysis. A detailed description and verification of the inlet system for simultaneous sampling of soluble gases and aerosol compounds is presented. Overall measurement uncertainties of the ambient mixing ratios usually remained below 15%. The limit of detection (LOD was determined for each single data point measured during the field experiment. Median LOD values (3σ-definition were ≤0.015 ppb for acidic trace gases and aerosol anions and ≤0.118 ppb for NH3 and aerosol NH4+. Mixing ratios of acidic trace gases remained below 1ppb throughout the measurement period, while NH3 levels were an order of magnitude higher. Accordingly, mixing ratios of NH4+ exceeded those of other inorganic aerosol contributors by a factor of 4 to 10. During the wet season, mixing ratios decreased by nearly a factor of 3 for all compounds compared to those observed when intensive biomass burning

  9. Combining pH and electrical conductivity measurements to improve titrimetric methods to determine ammonia nitrogen, volatile fatty acids and inorganic carbon concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charnier, C; Latrille, E; Lardon, L; Miroux, J; Steyer, J P

    2016-05-15

    Volatile fatty acids (VFA), inorganic carbon (IC) and total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) are key variables in the current context of anaerobic digestion (AD). Accurate measurements like gas chromatography and infrared spectrometry have been developed to follow the concentration of these compounds but none of these methods are affordable for small AD units. Only titration methods answer the need for small plant monitoring. The existing methods accuracy was assessed in this study and reveals a lack of accuracy and robustness to control AD plants. To solve these issues, a new titrimetric device to estimate the VFA, IC and TAN concentrations with an improved accuracy was developed. This device named SNAC (System of titration for total ammonia Nitrogen, volatile fatty Acids and inorganic Carbon) has been developed combining the measurement of electrical conductivity and pH. SNAC were tested on 24 different plant samples in a range of 0-0.16 mol.L(-1) TAN, 0.01-0.21 mol.L(-1) IC and 0-0.04 mol.L(-1) VFA. The standard error was about 0.012 mol.L(-1) TAN, 0.015 mol.L(-1) IC and 0.003 mol.L(-1) VFA. The coefficient of determination R(2) between the estimated and reference data was 0.95, 0.94 and 0.95 for TAN, IC and VFA respectively. Using the same data, current methods based on key pH points lead to standard error more than 14.5 times higher on VFA and more than 1.2 times higher on IC. These results show that SNAC is an accurate tool to improve the management of AD plant.

  10. Nitric acid-based partial-digestion method for selective determination of inorganic arsenic in hijiki and application to soaked hijiki.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamano-Nagaoka, Megumi; Hanaoka, Ken'ichi; Usui, Masakatsu; Nishimura, Tsutomu; Maitani, Tamio

    2008-04-01

    Because there is a great difference between the toxicity of inorganic arsenic (As) and organic As in food, the JECFA has set a PTWI value for inorganic As (iAs) rather than for total As. The difference in As toxicity makes it necessary to extract iAs completely from food samples for toxicological analysis, but complete extraction of As from most foods including seaweed has not been achieved to date. We developed a partial-digestion method that uses nitric acid as a solvent in order to extract almost all arsenicals from the solid matrix of hijiki (Hizikia fusiforme, a brown alga) samples. In this method, organic As species were not converted into iAs. HPLC/ICP-MS was then used to determine the concentration of iAs. Total As was measured by hydride generation-atomic absorption spectrometry. The adopted conditions for 0.1 g of ground fine powder sample were: 2 mL of 0.3 mol/L nitric acid; heating, 80 degrees C for 1 hr. Intra-laboratory validation of the method showed good precision and accuracy. The repeatability and intermediate precision for iAs were 1.5% and 1.5%, respectively. The LOD and LOQ for iAs were 0.14 and 0.46 mg/kg dry weight, respectively. Recovery studies performed by spiking 0.5 mg/kg dry weight as the LOQ level and by spiking 3 mg/kg dry weight as the iAs concentration of an un-spiked hijiki sample showed good accuracy. The method was applied to hijiki samples after a water soaking process and a water soaking and simmering process. The results suggested that the As concentration in hijiki after both processes was lower than that before the treatments and that the water soaking and simmering process reduced the iAs concentration much more effectively than the water soaking process. PMID:18503244

  11. Chemical composition and acidity of size-fractionated inorganic aerosols of 2013-14 winter haze in Shanghai and associated health risk of toxic elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behera, Sailesh N.; Cheng, Jinping; Huang, Xian; Zhu, Qiongyu; Liu, Ping; Balasubramanian, Rajasekhar

    2015-12-01

    The severe winter haze episode that occurred in Shanghai from December 2013 to January 2014, characterized by elevated levels of particulate matter (PM), received considerable international attention because of its impacts on public health and disruption of day-to-day activities. To examine the characteristics of PM during this haze episode and to assess the chemistry behind formation of secondary inorganic aerosols (SIA) and associated health impacts due to exposure of toxic elements, we characterized eight water soluble inorganic (WSI) ions and twenty four trace elements in twelve size-fractionated PM (10 nm-9.9 μm). The average mass concentrations of coarse (1.8 μm < Dp < 9.9 μm), fine (Dp < 2.5 μm), ultrafine (0.01 μm < Dp < 0.10 μm) and nano (0.01 μm < Dp < 0.056 μm) particles during hazy days were 2.8, 5.2, 5.3 and 5.1 times higher than those during non-hazy days, respectively. The in-situ pH (pHIS), as predicted by the Aerosol Inorganic Model (AIM-IV) in all sizes of PM, was observed to be lower during hazy days (average of -0.64) than that during non-hazy days (average of -0.29); there was an increased acidity in haze aerosols. Based on the measured concentrations of particulate-bound toxic elements, health risk assessment was conducted, which revealed that the excess lifetime carcinogenic risk to individuals exposed to fine particles under haze events increased significantly (P < 0.05) to 69 ± 18 × 10-6 compared to non-hazy days (34 ± 10 × 10-6). The qualitative source attribution analysis suggested that the occurrence of haze could be due to a combination of increased emissions of PM from multiple anthropogenic sources followed by its accumulation under unfavourable meteorological conditions with lower mixing heights and less wind speeds and the formation of secondary aerosols.

  12. Phytochemical and Morphological Attributes of St. John’s Wort (Hypericum perforatum Affected by Organic and Inorganic Fertilizers; Humic Acid and Potassium Sulphate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helaleh Sadat KABOLI FARSHCHI

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was designed to evaluate the effects of organic (liquid humic acid and inorganic (potassium sulphate on phytochemical and morphological attributes of St. John’s Wort (Hypericum perforatum. Thus, a research was conducted in a factorial experiment (3×3 based on completely randomized design with three replications. Treatments consisted of potassium sulphate (Kx at three concentrations (0, 60 and 100 Kg/h which were treated before flowering and humic acid (Hx at three concentrations (0, 20 and 40 L/h which were fertigated four times of 15-days intervals. Results showed that the plant stem height, number of flowering stems and number of flowers were significantly affected by simple effect of each fertilizers (p<0.01, while their interaction effect was not significant for the plants height. The highest contents of fresh and dry weight were achieved under the highest amounts of fertilizers (K100 and H40. The highest stem height, number of flowers and number of flowering stems also belonged to these treatments. Increment of applied fertilizers led to increase of obtained essential oils, so that application of these fertilizers simultaneously increased the essential oil content up to 6-fold. Regarding the antioxidant activity, applied fertilizers at their high levels showed significant effects on decrease of EC50, which means the increment of antioxidant activity of H. perforatum.

  13. Influence of wastewater sludge treatment using combined peroxyacetic acid oxidation and inorganic coagulants re-flocculation on characteristics of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weijun; Cao, Bingdi; Wang, Dongsheng; Ma, Teng; Xia, Hua; Yu, Dehong

    2016-01-01

    Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) are highly hydrated biopolymers and play important roles in bioflocculation, floc stability, and solid-water separation processes. Destroying EPS structure will result in sludge reduction and release of trapped water. In this study, the effects of combined process of peracetic acid (PAA) pre-oxidation and chemical re-flocculation on morphological properties and distribution and composition of EPS of the resultant sludge flocs were investigated in detail to gain insights into the mechanism involved in sludge treatment. It was found that sludge particles were effectively solubilized and protein-like substances were degraded into small molecules after PAA oxidation. A higher degradation of protein-like substances was observed at acid environments under PAA oxidation. Microscopic analysis revealed that no integral sludge floc was observed after oxidation with PAA at high doses. The floc was reconstructed with addition of inorganic coagulants (polyaluminium chloride (PACl) and ferric chloride (FeCl3)) and PACl performed better in flocculation due to its higher charge neutralization and bridging ability. Combined oxidative lysis and chemical re-flocculation provide a novel solution for sludge treatment. PMID:26584344

  14. Mechanical properties of PET composites using multi-walled carbon nanotubes functionalized by inorganic and itaconic acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. May-Pat

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs were oxidized by two different acid treatments and further functionalized with itaconic acid (IA. The functionalized MWCNTs were used to fabricate Poly(ethylene terephthalate (PET composites by melt mixing. The presence of functional groups on the surface of the treated MWCNTs was confirmed by infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. The MWCNTs oxidized with a concentrated mixture of HNO3 and H2SO4 exhibited more oxygen containing functional groups (OH, COOH but also suffer larger structural degradation than those oxidized by a mild treatment based on diluted HNO3 followed by H2O2. PET composites were fabricated using the oxidized-only and oxidized followed by functionalization with IA MWCNTs. PET composites fabricated with MWCNT oxidized by mild conditions showed improved tensile strength and failure strain, while harsh MWCNT oxidation render them overly brittle.

  15. An investigation of proton conductivity of binary matrices sulfonated polysulfone/polyvinyltriazole after doping with inorganic acids

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Serkan Sevinç; Sevim Ünügür Çelik; Ayhan Bozkurt

    2015-04-01

    As anhydrous proton conductive membranes, sulfonated polysulfone (SPSU) and polyvinyl triazole were studied as binary matrices. The sulfonation of polysulfone was performed with trimethylsilylchlorosulfonate and high degree of sulfonation (140%) was obtained. Ion exchange capacity of SPSU was determined as 3.05 mmol−1/g. The polymer electrolyte membranes were prepared by blending of sulfonated polysulfone with polyvinyl triazole and phosphoric acid. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirmed the sulfonation of the polysulfone and the ionic interaction between sulfonic acid and triazole units. Thermogravimetric analysis showed that the polymer electrolyte membranes are thermally stable up to at least 150° C. Scanning electron microscopy analysis indicated the homogeneity of the ternary composites. The maximum proton conductivity has been measured as 3.63 × 10−4S cm−1 at 150° C.

  16. Inorganic Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Černý, Radovan

    The separation of compounds by inorganic/organic boundary is of less importance for the structure determination by diffraction methods. More important for the diffraction is how the atoms build up larger building units and the crystal itself. A molecular/non-molecular boundary is therefore relevant for the choice of a structure determination method. Non-molecular compounds - also called extended solids - are constructed by bonds that extend "infinitely" in three dimensions through a crystal. These non-molecular crystals usually crystallize with higher symmetries, and atoms often occupy special Wyckoff positions. A review of actual methodology is given first, and then highlights and pitfalls of structure determination from powder diffraction, its problems and their solutions are shown and discussed using selected examples.

  17. Methods development for separation of inorganic anions, organic acids and bases, and neutral organic compounds by ion chromatography and capillary electrophoresis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, J.

    1999-04-01

    A novel anion-exchange resin containing three amine groups was prepared by reaction of a chloromethylated polystyrene-divinylbenzene (PS-DVB) resin with diethylenetriamine. After being protonated by contact with an aqueous acid, this resin can be used for ion chromatographic separation of anions. The charge on the resins can be varied from +1 to +3 by changing the mobile phase pH. The selectivity of the new ion exchangers for various inorganic anions was quite different from that of conventional anion exchangers. The performance of this new anion exchanger was studied by changing the pH and the concentration of the eluent, and several different eluents were used with some common anions as testing analytes. Conductivity detection and UV-visible detection were applied to detect the anions after separation. The new resin can also be used for HPLC separation of neutral organic compounds. Alkylphenols and alkylbenzenes were separated with this new polymeric resin, and excellent separations were obtained under simple conditions. This report contains Chapter 1: General introduction and Chapter 6: General conclusions.

  18. Science Update: Inorganic Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawls, Rebecca

    1981-01-01

    Describes areas of inorganic chemistry which have changed dramatically in the past year or two, including photochemistry, electrochemistry, organometallic complexes, inorganic reaction theory, and solid state chemistry. (DS)

  19. Inorganic ions in ambient fine particles over a National Park in central India: Seasonality, dependencies between SO42-, NO3-, and NH4+, and neutralization of aerosol acidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Samresh; Sunder Raman, Ramya

    2016-10-01

    Twelve hour integrated ambient fine particles (PM2.5) were collected over an Van Vihar National Park (VVNP), in Bhopal, Central India. Samples were collected on filter substrates every-other-day for two years (2012 and 2013). In addition to PM2.5 mass concentration, water soluble inorganic ions (WSIIs) were also measured. Further, on-site meteorological parameters including temperature, wind speed, wind direction, relative humidity, rainfall and atmospheric pressure were recorded. During 2012, the average PM2.5 concentration was 40 ± 31 μgm-3 while during 2013 it was 48 ± 50 μgm-3. Further, in about 20% of the samples the 12 h integrated fine PM mass exceeded the daily (24 h) average standards (60 μgm-3). This observation suggests that the PM2.5 mass concentration at the study site is likely to be in violation of the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS), India. During the study period the sum of three major ions (SO42-, NO3-, and NH4+) accounted for 19.4% of PM2.5 mass on average. Air parcel back trajectory ensembles revealed that emissions from thermal power plants were likely to be the main regional source of particulate SO42- and NO3- measured over VVNP. Further, local traffic activities appeared to have no significant impact on the concentrations of PM2.5 and its WSIIs constituents, as revealed by a day-of-the-week analysis. PM2.5 mass, SO42-, NO3-, and NH4+ showed a pronounced seasonal trend with winter (Jan, Feb) and post-monsoon (Oct, Nov, Dec) highs and pre-monsoon (Mar, Apr, May) and monsoon (Jun, Jul, Aug, Sep) lows, during both 2012 and 2013. Further, when the sum of SO42- and NO3- constituted greater than 90% of water soluble inorganic anions by mass, they were linearly dependent on one another and moderately anti-correlated (r2 = 0.60). The molar ratios of NH4+ and non-sea salt SO42- were examined to understand the aerosol neutralization mechanisms and particulate NO3- formation. An assessment of these ratios and subsequent analyses

  20. Noninvasive tagging of proteins with an inorganic chromophore. Selectivity of chloro(terpyridine)platinum(II) toward amino acids, peptides, and cytochromes c

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brothers, H.M. II; Kostic, N.M.

    1988-05-18

    The complex (Pt(trpy)Cl)/sup +/ exhibits unexpected selectivity toward amino acid side chains in cytochromes c from Candida krusei and bakers' yeast. Although kinetic studies with amino acids and peptides as entering ligands prove this complex to be completely selective toward thiol over imidazole, His-33 and His-39 residues (in both proteins) are labeled with greater yields than the Cys-102 residue (in the bakers' yeast protein). The binding sites are determined by peptide mapping and other methods. The Pt(trpy)/sup 2+/ tags are stable, and the protein derivatives are separated by cation-exchange chromatography. The (Pt(trpy)His)/sup 2+/ and (Pt(trpy)Cys)/sup +/ chromophores are easily detected and quantitated owing to their characteristic and strong UV-vis bands. Spectroscopic and electrochemical measurements show that labeling with the new reagent does not alter the structural and redox properties of the cytochromes c. The unexpected outcome of the protein labeling indicates that, contrary to the common assumption, Cys-102 is not exposed at the protein surface. Modification of this residue with various organic reagents and dimerization of the protein must be accompanied by a perturbation of the conformation, which makes Cys-102 accessible to the reagent or to another molecule of the protein. These predictions from the labeling study are confirmed subsequently by the crystallographic study of the iso-1 cytochrome c from bakers' yeast. The inorganic complex (Pt(trpy)Cl)/sup +/ differs from the other reagents for protein modification by its noninvasiveness, a property that may well render it useful as a probe of the protein surface. 59 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. A field-deployable, chemical ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer: application to the measurement of gas-phase organic and inorganic acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. H. Bertram

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available We report a new field-deployable chemical ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer (CI-TOFMS for the direct measurement of trace gases in the atmosphere. We apply the technique to the measurement of gas-phase inorganic and organic acids via negative-ion proton transfer, using acetate as the reagent ion. A novel high pressure interface, incorporating two RF-only quadrupoles is used to efficiently focus ions through four stages of differential pumping before analysis with a compact TOFMS. The high ion-duty cycle (>20% of the TOFMS, coupled to efficient production and transmission of ions in the high pressure interface results in a highly sensitive (>300 ions s−1 pptv−1 instrument capable of the fast measurement of atmospheric gases at trace levels. We demonstrate the efficient transfer and detection of both bare ions and ion-molecule clusters, and characterize the instrument during field measurements aboard the R/V Atlantis as part of the CalNex campaign during the spring of 2010. The in-field short-term precision is better than 5% at 1 pptv (pL/L, for 1-second averages. The detection limit (3σ, 1-second averages of the current version of the CI-TOFMS, as applied to the in situ detection of gas-phase acids, is limited by the magnitude and variability in the background determination and was determined to be 4 pptv.

  2. 玉蜀黍叶中氨基酸及无机元素的含量测定%Determination of Amino Acids and Inorganic Elements in the leaves of Zea mays L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘银燕; 杨晓虹; 陈滴; 王文娜; 孙琦; 杨锦竹

    2012-01-01

    对玉蜀黍叶中氨基酸和无机元素进行研究.采用日立835-50型氨基酸分析仪和ICP - AES法对玉蜀黍叶中氨基酸和无机元素进行了研究.结果表明,玉蜀黍叶中含有17种氨基酸和12种人体必需的无机元素.本研究为玉蜀黍叶的药用开发提供了参考依据.%To determine amino acids and inorganic elements in the leaves of zea mays L., amino acids in leaves of zea mays L. Were determined by the amino acid analyzer, and inorganic elements in leaves of zea mays L. Were determined by ICP-AES. The result showed thai there were 17 amino acids and 12 kind of inorganic elements in leaves of zea mays L., and it provide a basis for the medical exploitation oi the leaves of zea mays L..

  3. Effect of Organic and Inorganic Fertilizers on Nitrogen and Potassium Uptake and Yield of Sweet Corn Grown on an Acid Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd. T. M. Yusuff

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A field study was carried with the following objectives: (i To investigate the effect of compost, N, and K fertilizers on selected chemical properties of Bekenu series (Tipik Tualemkuts, and (ii To investigate the effect of compost, N and K fertilizers on N and K uptake and yield of Masmadu variety cultivated on Bekenu series. Treatments evaluated were: (i No fertilization (T1, (ii Hundred percent inorganic fertilizer application (T2, (iii Eighty percent of N fertilizer plus twenty percent of N from compost application (T3, (iv Sixty percent of N fertilizer plus forty percent of N from compost (T4, and (v Application of hundred percent compost (T5. The experiment was conducted at the share farm of Universiti Putra Malaysia Bintulu Campus, Sarawak, Malaysia. The experimental design was a randomized complete block design (RCBD with 4 replications. Nitrogen and K were applied in the forms of urea (46 % N and muriate of potash (60 % K2O in split i.e., at 15 days after planting (DAP and 36 DAP, respectively. At 73 DAP, plants were harvested. The fresh weight of cobs excluding guard rows was recorded. Dry weight (stem and leaves, N, K, Ca, and Mg concentrations were determined by standard procedures. Soil sampling was done before and after fertilization. Soil total N was determined using the Kjeldahl method while exchangeable K, Ca, and Mg were extracted using the double acid method and their concentrations determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Dry ashing method was used for the determination of K, Ca, and Mg concentrations in plant tissues while the Kjeldahl method was used to determine total N in plant tissues. The concentrations multiplied by the oven dried weight of roots and stem provided N, K, Ca and Mg uptake in these plant parts. T2, T3, T4 and T5 affected soil bulk density, CEC, pH, total N, exchangeable K, Ca and Mg. The dry weight of Masmadu leaf was not affected by fertilization and so was N and K uptake in this plant part

  4. Separate vaporisation of boric acid and inorganic boron from tungsten sample cuvette-tungsten boat furnace followed by the detection of boron species by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-MS and ICP-AES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, Hiroko; Okamoto, Yasuaki; Tsukahara, Satoshi; Fujiwara, Terufumi; Ito, Kazuaki

    2008-03-10

    Utilising extremely different vaporisation properties of boron compounds, the determination procedures of volatile boric acid and total boron using tungsten boat furnace (TBF) ICP-MS and TBF-ICP-AES have been investigated. For the determination of volatile boric acid by TBF-ICP-MS, tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH, Me(4)NOH) was used as a chemical modifier to retain it during drying and ashing stages. As for the total boron, not only non-volatile inorganic boron such as boron nitride (BN), boron carbide (B(4)C), etc. but also boric acid (B(OH)(3)) was decomposed by a furnace-fusion digestion with NaOH to produce sodium salt of boron, a suitable species for the electrothermal vaporisation (ETV) procedure. The proposed method was applied to the analysis of various standard reference materials. The analytical results for various biological and steel samples are described.

  5. Influence of crustal dust and sea spray supermicron particle concentrations and acidity on inorganic NO3− aerosol during the 2013 Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study

    OpenAIRE

    H. M. Allen; D. C. Draper; B. R. Ayres; A. Ault; A. Bondy; Takahama, S; Modini, R. L.; K. Baumann; Edgerton, E.; Knote, C.; Laskin, A.; Wang, B; Fry, J. L

    2015-01-01

    Inorganic aerosol composition was measured in the southeastern United States, a region that exhibits high aerosol mass loading during the summer, as part of the 2013 Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS) campaign. Measurements using a Monitor for AeRosols and GAses (MARGA) revealed two periods of high aerosol nitrate (NO3−) concentrations during the campaign. These periods of high nitrate were correlated with increased concentrations of supermicron crustal and sea ...

  6. Artificial cytoskeletal structures within enzymatically active bio-inorganic protocells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ravinash Krishna; Li, Mei; Olof, Sam N; Patil, Avinash J; Mann, Stephen

    2013-02-11

    The fabrication of enzymatically active, semi-permeable bio-inorganic protocells capable of self-assembling a cytoskeletal-like interior and undergoing small-molecule dephosphorylation reactions is described. Reversible disassembly of an amino acid-derived supramolecular hydrogel within the internalized reaction space is used to tune the enzymatic activity of the nanoparticle-bounded inorganic compartments. PMID:23027575

  7. Inorganic Coatings Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The inorganic Coatings Lab provides expertise to Navy and Joint Service platforms acquisition IPTs to aid in materials and processing choices which balance up-front...

  8. Spatial and seasonal variability of PM2.5 acidity at two Chinese megacities: insights into the formation of secondary inorganic aerosols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Shi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Aerosol acidity is one of the most important parameters influencing atmospheric chemistry and physics. Based on continuous field observations from January 2005 to May 2006 and thermodynamic modeling, we investigated the spatial and seasonal variations in PM2.5 acidity in two megacities in China, Beijing and Chongqing. Spatially, PM2.5 was generally more acidic in Chongqing than in Beijing, but a reverse spatial pattern was found within the two cities, with more acidic PM2.5 at the urban site in Beijing whereas the rural site in Chongqing. Ionic compositions of PM2.5 revealed that it was the higher concentrations of NO3− at the urban site in Beijing and the lower concentrations of Ca2+ within the rural site in Chongqing that made their PM2.5 more acidic. Temporally, PM2.5 was more acidic in summer and fall than in winter, while in the spring of 2006, the acidity of PM2.5 was higher in Beijing but lower in Chongqing than that in 2005. These were attributed to the more efficient formation of nitrate relative to sulfate as a result of the influence of Asian desert dust in 2006 in Beijing and the greater wet deposition of ammonium compared to sulfate and nitrate in 2005 in Chongqing. Furthermore, simultaneous increase of PM2.5 acidity was observed from spring to early summer of 2005 in both cities. This synoptic-scale evolution of PM2.5 acidity was accompanied by the changes in air masses origins, which were influenced by the movements of a subtropical high over the northwestern Pacific in early summer. Finally, the correlations between [NO3−]/[SO42−] and [NH4+]/[SO42−] suggests that under conditions of high aerosol acidity, heterogeneous reactions became one of the major pathways for the formation of nitrate at both cities. These findings provided new insights in our understanding of the spatial and temporal variations in aerosol acidity in Beijing and Chongqing, as well as those reported in other cities in China.

  9. Comparing the effects of inorganic nitrate and allopurinol in renovascular complications of metabolic syndrome in rats: role of nitric oxide and uric acid

    OpenAIRE

    Essawy, Soha S.; Abdel-Sater, Khaled A.; Elbaz, Amani A.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The epidemic of metabolic syndrome is increasing worldwide and correlates with elevation in serum uric acid and marked increase in total fructose intake. Fructose raises uric acid and the latter inhibits nitric oxide bioavailability. We hypothesized that fructose-induced hyperuricemia may have a pathogenic role in metabolic syndrome and treatment of hyperuricemia or increased nitric oxide may improve it. Material and methods Two experiments were performed. Male Sprague-Dawley rat...

  10. Technical Study on Manufacturing Organic-inorganic Compound Fertilizer by Activating Humic Acid%活化腐植酸制备有机-无机复混肥的工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王家盛; 张伟; 石学勇; 苏州; 程颖

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: There are much humic acid in weathered coal and brown coal, but most of them are solidified by Ca2+ and Mg2+ in the nature, only be quite little water-soluble humic acid which can be directly absorbed by plants. Thus, it is necessary to make an activation to the hurnic acid. This paper study on how to use sodium bicarbonate and ammonia activate humic acid in order to receive a high biologic-active humic ammonia, which could as the organic material to blend with abio nutrient and producing granular organic-inorganic compound fertilizer. It is proved that the activate fer- tilizer sample obviously excelled than the unactivate one in chemical and phical parameters.%风化煤、褐煤等物质中含有大量的腐植酸,但在自然界中多数被钙、镁离子固定,能被作物直接吸收利用的水溶性腐植酸普遍含量甚微。因此,生产腐植酸肥料时,有必要进行腐植酸活化处理。本文研究了碳铵与氨水联合对褐煤进行活化处理,得到了生物活性较高的腐植酸铵,并以腐植酸铵作为有机原料与无机养分复混造粒制备了25-5-10有机-无机复混肥样品,经过性能指标和外观效果等方面的评价,明显优于未经活化的褐煤制得的样品。

  11. 工业级己二酸无机杂质元素的光谱研究%Study on Determination of Inorganic Impurity Elements in Industrial Grade Adipic Acid by Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马宁; 谢华林; 欧竞; 符靓

    2014-01-01

    An analytical method for determination of Na, Mg, Al, K, Ca, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn and Pb in industrial grade adipic acid by using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) was established. The adipic acid was dissolved with HNO3, then the above 12 inorganic impurity elements in the solution were analyzed directly by ICP-OES. The working parameters of the instrument were optimized. Appropriate analysis line of various elements was selected. Y as internal standard element was used to compensate matrix effect and signal drift. Under the optimal conditions, the detection limits was 0.56~18.20µg/L, the recoveries of standard addition was in the range of 92.96%~107.90%and the RSD was 0.8%~3.3%. This method was simple, sensitive and precise, and was suitable for the determination of inorganic impurity elements in industrial grade adipic acid.%建立工业级己二酸中多个无机杂质元素的快速光谱分析方法。己二酸样品经硝酸溶解后直接用电感耦合等离子体发射光谱(ICP-OES)法测定其中的Na、Mg、Al、K、Ca、V、Cr、Mn、Fe、Cu、Zn、Pb等12种无机杂质元素。通过优化仪器工作参数,选择最佳的分析波长,并以Y为内标元素消除了测定过程中的光谱干扰和基体效应。在优化的实验条件下,方法的检出限为0.56~18.20µg·L-1,各元素的加标回收率为92.96%~107.90%,RSD为0.8%~3.3%。方法可实现工业级己二酸中无机杂质元素的快速准确测定。

  12. Inorganic UV filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloísa Berbel Manaia

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, concern over skin cancer has been growing more and more, especially in tropical countries where the incidence of UVA/B radiation is higher. The correct use of sunscreen is the most efficient way to prevent the development of this disease. The ingredients of sunscreen can be organic and/or inorganic sun filters. Inorganic filters present some advantages over organic filters, such as photostability, non-irritability and broad spectrum protection. Nevertheless, inorganic filters have a whitening effect in sunscreen formulations owing to the high refractive index, decreasing their esthetic appeal. Many techniques have been developed to overcome this problem and among them, the use of nanotechnology stands out. The estimated amount of nanomaterial in use must increase from 2000 tons in 2004 to a projected 58000 tons in 2020. In this context, this article aims to analyze critically both the different features of the production of inorganic filters (synthesis routes proposed in recent years and the permeability, the safety and other characteristics of the new generation of inorganic filters.

  13. The effectiveness of organic PCM based on lauric acid from coconut oil and inorganic PCM based on salt hydrate CaCl2.6H2o as latent heat energy storage system in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    U, Sri Rahayu A.; Putri, Widya A.; Sutjahja, I. M.; Kurnia, D.; Wonorahardjo, S.

    2016-08-01

    A latent heat energy storage system utilizing phase change materials (PCM) is an alternative strategy to reduce the use of Air Conditioning (AC) system in big cities in Indonesia in order for energy conservation in the future. In this research we used two kinds of materials, namely organic PCM based on lauric acid from coconut oil (CO) and inorganic PCM based on salt hydrate CaCl2.6H2O, because they have thermophysical parameters suitable for human's thermal comfort application in the building. The CO which contained more than 50% lauric acid has the melting temperature (Tm ) of about 26 °C and heat entalphy (ΔH) around 103 kJ/kg, while CaCl2.6H2O has the melting point of 29 °C and heat entalphy of 190 kJ/kg. In this paper we report the effectiveness of those two kinds of PCM in reducing the air temperature as one of some criteria for human's thermal comfort. The experiments were performed in a close and adiabatic room and the time-temperature measurements were done automatically using Arduino microcontroller and LM35 temperature sensor connected to the PC.

  14. Intercalation compounds involving inorganic layered structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CONSTANTINO VERA R. L.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Two-dimensional inorganic networks can shown intracrystalline reactivity, i.e., simple ions, large species as Keggin ions, organic species, coordination compounds or organometallics can be incorporated in the interlayer region. The host-guest interaction usually causes changes in their chemical, catalytic, electronic and optical properties. The isolation of materials with interesting properties and making use of soft chemistry routes have given rise the possibility of industrial and technological applications of these compounds. We have been using several synthetic approaches to intercalate porphyrins and phthalocyanines into inorganic materials: smectite clays, layered double hydroxides and layered niobates. The isolated materials have been characterized by elemental and thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction, surface area measurements, scanning electronic microscopy, electronic and resonance Raman spectroscopies and EPR. The degree of layer stacking and the charge density of the matrices as well their acid-base nature were considered in our studies on the interaction between the macrocycles and inorganic hosts.

  15. Inorganic contaminants attenuation in acid mine drainage by fly ash and fly ash-ordinary Portland cement (OPC) blends : column experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gitari, W.M. [Venda Univ., Thohoyandou (South Africa). Dept. of Ecology and Resources Management, School of Environmental Studies; Petrik, L.F.; Etchebers, O. [Western Cape Univ., Bellville (South Africa). Environmental and Nanosciences Group, Dept. of Chemistry; Key, D.L. [Western Cape Univ., Bellville (South Africa). Dept. of Chemistry; Okujeni, C. [Western Cape Univ., Bellville (South Africa). Dept. of Earth Sciences

    2010-07-01

    The infiltration of acid mine drainage (AMD) material into mine voids is one of the environmental impacts of underground coal mining. In this study, the mitigation of AMD in a mine void was simulated in laboratory conditions. Various mixtures of fly ash, solid residues, and Portland cement were added to packed columns over a 6-month period. The fly ash additions generated near-neutral to alkaline pH levels, which in turn induced precipitation, co-precipitation, and adsorption contaminant attenuation mechanisms. A modelling study demonstrated that the precipitation of ferrihydrite, Al-hydroxides, Al-oxyhydroxysulphates, gypsum, ettringite, manganite, and rhodochrosite lowered contaminant levels. Results of the study indicated that the pH regime and acidity level of the AMD strongly influenced both the leaching of the toxic trace elements as well as the attenuation of the AMD. 3 refs., 2 figs.

  16. Geological and Inorganic Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, L. L.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Presents a review focusing on techniques and their application to the analysis of geological and inorganic materials that offer significant changes to research and routine work. Covers geostandards, spectroscopy, plasmas, microbeam techniques, synchrotron X-ray methods, nuclear activation methods, chromatography, and electroanalytical methods.…

  17. First Principles Calculations of Aqueous pKa Values for Organic and Inorganic Acids Using COSMO-RS Reveal an Inconsistency in the Slope of the pKa Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klamt, Andreas; Eckert, Frank; Diedenhofen, Michael; Beck, Michael E

    2003-11-01

    The COSMO-RS method, a combination of the quantum chemical dielectric continuum solvation model COSMO with a statistical thermodynamics treatment for more realistic solvation (RS) simulations, has been used for the direct prediction of pKa constants of a large variety of 64 organic and inorganic acids. A highly significant correlation of r(2) = 0.984 with a standard deviation of only 0.49 between the calculated values of the free energies of dissociation and the experimental pKa values was found, without any special adjustment of the method. Thus, we have a theoretical a priori prediction method for pKa, which has the regression constant and the slope as only adjusted parameters. Such a method can be of great value in many areas of physical chemistry, especially in pharmaceutical and agrochemical industry. To our surprise, the slope of pKa vs ΔGdiss is only 58% of the theoretically expected value of 1/RTln(10). A careful analysis with respect to different contributions as well as a comparison with the work of other authors excludes the possibility that the discrepancy is due to weaknesses of the calculation method. Hence, we must conclude that the experimental pKa scale depends differently on the free energy of dissociation than generally assumed. PMID:26313337

  18. Inorganic Constituents in Coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rađenović A.

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Coal contains not only organic matter but also small amounts of inorganic constituents. More thanone hundred different minerals and virtually every element in the periodic table have been foundin coal. Commonly found group minerals in coal are: major (quartz, pyrite, clays and carbonates,minor, and trace minerals. Coal includes a lot of elements of low mass fraction of the orderof w=0.01 or 0.001 %. They are trace elements connected with organic matter or minerals comprisedin coal. The fractions of trace elements usually decrease when the rank of coal increases.Fractions of the inorganic elements are different, depending on the coal bed and basin. A varietyof analytical methods and techniques can be used to determine the mass fractions, mode ofoccurrence, and distribution of organic constituents in coal. There are many different instrumentalmethods for analysis of coal and coal products but atomic absorption spectroscopy – AAS is theone most commonly used. Fraction and mode of occurrence are one of the main factors that haveinfluence on transformation and separation of inorganic constituents during coal conversion.Coal, as an important world energy source and component for non-fuels usage, will be continuouslyand widely used in the future due to its relatively abundant reserves. However, there is aconflict between the requirements for increased use of coal on the one hand and less pollution onthe other. It’s known that the environmental impacts, due to either coal mining or coal usage, canbe: air, water and land pollution. Although, minor components, inorganic constituents can exert asignificant influence on the economic value, utilization, and environmental impact of the coal.

  19. Inorganic Analytical Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Rolf W.

    The book is a treatise on inorganic analytical reactions in aqueous solution. It covers about half of the elements in the periodic table, i.e. the most important ones : H, Li, B, C, N, O, Na, Mg, Al, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Br, Sr, Mo, Ag, Cd, Sn, Sb, I, Ba, W,...

  20. Inorganic Constituents in Coal

    OpenAIRE

    Rađenović A.

    2006-01-01

    Coal contains not only organic matter but also small amounts of inorganic constituents. More thanone hundred different minerals and virtually every element in the periodic table have been foundin coal. Commonly found group minerals in coal are: major (quartz, pyrite, clays and carbonates),minor, and trace minerals. Coal includes a lot of elements of low mass fraction of the orderof w=0.01 or 0.001 %. They are trace elements connected with organic matter or minerals comprisedin coal. The fract...

  1. Ionic Transfer in Hybrid Inorganic/Organic Membranes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A.B.Yaroslavtsev; I.A.Stenina; A.S.Shalimov

    2007-01-01

    1 Results In last years increasing interest has been devoted to the development and research of transport properties of hybrid organic/inorganic membranes. Traditionally, these membranes are used as electrolyte in fuel cells. However a number of their properties allow considering them as perspective materials for water treatment and substance purification. In this work transport properties of some ion exchange membranes modified by inorganic nanoparticles (hydrated oxides or solid acids) are discussed. ...

  2. 无机金属盐对微波辅助酸预处理毛竹酶解的影响%Effect of Inorganic Salts on Enzymatic Saccharification of Moso Bamboo Pretreated by Microwave-Dilute Acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李志强; 费本华; 江泽慧

    2014-01-01

    采用加入无机金属盐的稀酸溶液预处理毛竹,分析预处理后底物的化学组成、预处理后的废液组成、糖降解发酵抑制物的生成量等。结果表明:稀酸预处理主要以脱除半纤维素为主,而对木质素的脱除没有明显效果。当硫酸用量为2%( w/w)、预处理温度为180℃时,竹材中绝大部分半纤维素已被脱除,底物纤维素转化为葡萄糖的收率可达52.72%。加入硫酸铁催化后的稀酸预处理能提高底物的酶水解性能,可使纤维素转化为葡萄糖的收率提高到72.15%。硫酸钠、硫酸亚铁、硫酸铜和硼砂等催化后的稀酸预处理底物的酶水解性能均有不同程度的下降,其中以硫酸铜催化预处理底物的酶水解性能最差。铜离子在预处理中可以被竹材底物吸附,并且在酶水解过程中可以脱附进入水解液中。%Global warming and energy shortage are the main challenges and puzzles that government and the public around the world are facing. It is believed that one of the solutions is to use biomass as a potential renewable energy resource for producing liquid fuels such as bioethanol and biodiesel. Bamboo,with cellulose and hemicellulose as its main components,is a kind of fast growth and cheap renewable resource for bioethanol production. In the study,inorganic salts were studied as promoter in the dilute acid pretreatment of moso bamboo for the enzymatic saccharification. The chemical composition of the substrates and spent liquors,the enzymatic hydrolyability of substrates were analyzed. The results showed that dilute acid pretreatment ( DA) enhances the digestibility of lignocellulose mainly by dissolving hemicellulose and partially prehydrolyzing cellulose. DA has no delignified. The cellulose-to-glucose conversion yield of 2% sulfuric acid( w/w) pretreated substrate was 52. 72%. Sulfuric acid with Fe2 ( SO4 ) 3 pretreated substrate had the higher cellulose-to-glucose conversion yield

  3. Inorganic Crystal Structure Database (ICSD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 84 FIZ/NIST Inorganic Crystal Structure Database (ICSD) (PC database for purchase)   The Inorganic Crystal Structure Database (ICSD) is produced cooperatively by the Fachinformationszentrum Karlsruhe(FIZ) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The ICSD is a comprehensive collection of crystal structure data of inorganic compounds containing more than 140,000 entries and covering the literature from 1915 to the present.

  4. Size distributions of dicarboxylic acids, ketoacids, α-dicarbonyls, sugars, WSOC, OC, EC and inorganic ions in atmospheric particles over Northern Japan: implication for long-range transport of Siberian biomass burning and East Asian polluted aerosols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Agarwal

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available To better understand the size-segregated chemical composition of aged organic aerosols in the western North Pacific rim, day- and night-time aerosol samples were collected in Sapporo, Japan during summer 2005 using an Andersen impactor sampler with 5 size bins: Dp<1.1, 1.1–2.0, 2.0–3.3, 3.3–7.0, >7.0 μm. Samples were analyzed for the molecular composition of dicarboxylic acids, ketoacids, α-dicarbonyls, and sugars, together with water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC, organic carbon (OC, elemental carbon (EC and inorganic ions. Based on the analyses of backward trajectories and chemical tracers, we found that during the campaign, air masses arrived from Siberia (a biomass burning source region on 8–9 August, from China (an anthropogenic source region on 9–10 August, and from the East China Sea/Sea of Japan (a mixed source receptor region on 10–11 August. Most of the diacids, ketoacids, dicarbonyls, levoglucosan, WSOC, and inorganic ions (i.e., SO42−, NH4+ and K+ were enriched in fine particles (PM1.1 whereas Ca2+, Mg2+ and Cl peaked in coarse sizes (>1.1 μm. Interestingly, OC, most sugar compounds and NO3 showed bimodal distributions in fine and coarse modes. In PM1.1, diacids in biomass burning-influenced aerosols transported from Siberia (mean: 252 ng m−3 were more abundant than those in the aerosols originating from China (209 ng m−3 and ocean (142 ng m−3, whereas SO42− concentrations were highest in the aerosols from China (mean: 3970 ng m−3 followed by marine- (2950 ng m−3 and biomass burning-influenced (1980 ng m−3 aerosols. Higher loadings of WSOC (2430 ng m−3 and OC (4360 ng m−3 were found in the fine mode, where biomass-burning products such as

  5. Selective inorganic thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, M.L.F.; Weisenbach, L.A.; Anderson, M.T. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [and others

    1995-05-01

    This project is developing inorganic thin films as membranes for gas separation applications, and as discriminating coatings for liquid-phase chemical sensors. Our goal is to synthesize these coatings with tailored porosity and surface chemistry on porous substrates and on acoustic and optical sensors. Molecular sieve films offer the possibility of performing separations involving hydrogen, air, and natural gas constituents at elevated temperatures with very high separation factors. We are focusing on improving permeability and molecular sieve properties of crystalline zeolitic membranes made by hydrothermally reacting layered multicomponent sol-gel films deposited on mesoporous substrates. We also used acoustic plate mode (APM) oscillator and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor elements as substrates for sol-gel films, and have both used these modified sensors to determine physical properties of the films and have determined the sensitivity and selectivity of these sensors to aqueous chemical species.

  6. Structural crystallography of inorganic oxysalts

    CERN Document Server

    Krivovichev, Sergey V

    2009-01-01

    Inorganic oxysalts are chemical compounds that contain oxygen - the most abundant element in the Earth's core. This book is the first systematic survey of structures of inorganic oxysalts considered from the viewpoint of modern scientific methods of description and visualisation of complex atomic arrangements.

  7. Inorganic Fullerene-Like Nanoparticles and Inorganic Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reshef Tenne

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Fullerene-like nanoparticles (inorganic fullerenes; IF and nanotubes of inorganic layered compounds (inorganic nanotubes; INT combine low dimensionality and nanosize, enhancing the performance of corresponding bulk counterparts in their already known applications, as well as opening new fields of their own [1]. This issue gathers articles from the diverse area of materials science and is devoted to fullerene-like nanoparticles and nanotubes of layered sulfides and boron nitride and collects the most current results obtained at the interface between fundamental research and engineering.[...

  8. Ion-Conducting Organic/Inorganic Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinder, James D.; Meador, Mary Ann B.

    2007-01-01

    Ion-conducting polymers that are hybrids of organic and inorganic moieties and that are suitable for forming into solid-electrolyte membranes have been invented in an effort to improve upon the polymeric materials that have been used previously for such membranes. Examples of the prior materials include perfluorosulfonic acid-based formulations, polybenzimidazoles, sulfonated polyetherketone, sulfonated naphthalenic polyimides, and polyethylene oxide (PEO)-based formulations. Relative to the prior materials, the polymers of the present invention offer greater dimensional stability, greater ease of formation into mechanically resilient films, and acceptably high ionic conductivities over wider temperature ranges. Devices in which films made of these ion-conducting organic/inorganic polymers could be used include fuel cells, lithium batteries, chemical sensors, electrochemical capacitors, electrochromic windows and display devices, and analog memory devices. The synthesis of a polymer of this type (see Figure 1) starts with a reaction between an epoxide-functionalized alkoxysilane and a diamine. The product of this reaction is polymerized by hydrolysis and condensation of the alkoxysilane group, producing a molecular network that contains both organic and inorganic (silica) links. The silica in the network contributes to the ionic conductivity and to the desired thermal and mechanical properties. Examples of other diamines that have been used in the reaction sequence of Figure 1 are shown in Figure 2. One can use any of these diamines or any combination of them in proportions chosen to impart desired properties to the finished product. Alternatively or in addition, one could similarly vary the functionality of the alkoxysilane to obtain desired properties. The variety of available alkoxysilanes and diamines thus affords flexibility to optimize the organic/inorganic polymer for a given application.

  9. Selective inorganic thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, M.L.F.; Pohl, P.I.; Brinker, C.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-04-01

    Separating light gases using membranes is a technology area for which there exists opportunities for significant energy savings. Examples of industrial needs for gas separation include hydrogen recovery, natural gas purification, and dehydration. A membrane capable of separating H{sub 2} from other gases at high temperatures could recover hydrogen from refinery waste streams, and facilitate catalytic dehydrogenation and the water gas shift (CO + H{sub 2}O {yields} H{sub 2} + CO{sub 2}) reaction. Natural gas purification requires separating CH{sub 4} from mixtures with CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}S, H{sub 2}O, and higher alkanes. A dehydrating membrane would remove water vapor from gas streams in which water is a byproduct or a contaminant, such as refrigeration systems. Molecular sieve films offer the possibility of performing separations involving hydrogen, natural gas constituents, and water vapor at elevated temperatures with very high separation factors. It is in applications such as these that the authors expect inorganic molecular sieve membranes to compete most effectively with current gas separation technologies. Cryogenic separations are very energy intensive. Polymer membranes do not have the thermal stability appropriate for high temperature hydrogen recovery, and tend to swell in the presence of hydrocarbon natural gas constituents. The authors goal is to develop a family of microporous oxide films that offer permeability and selectivity exceeding those of polymer membranes, allowing gas membranes to compete with cryogenic and adsorption technologies for large-scale gas separation applications.

  10. Quest for new materials: Inorganic chemistry plays a crucial role

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J Gopalakrishnan; Rohini Mani

    2009-05-01

    There is an endless quest for new materials to meet the demands of advancing technology. Thus, we need new magnetic and metallic/semiconducting materials for spintronics, new low-loss dielectrics for telecommunication, new multi-ferroic materials that combine both ferroelectricity and ferromagnetism for memory devices, new piezoelectrics that do not contain lead, new lithium containing solids for application as cathode/anode/electrolyte in lithium batteries, hydrogen storage materials for mobile/transport applications and catalyst materials that can convert, for example, methane to higher hydrocarbons, and the list is endless! Fortunately for us, chemistry - inorganic chemistry in particular - plays a crucial role in this quest. Most of the functional materials mentioned above are inorganic non-molecular solids, while much of the conventional inorganic chemistry deals with isolated molecules or molecular solids. Even so, the basic concepts that we learn in inorganic chemistry, for example, acidity/basicity, oxidation/reduction (potentials), crystal field theory, low spin-high spin/inner sphere-outer sphere complexes, role of -electrons in transition metal chemistry, electron-transfer reactions, coordination geometries around metal atoms, Jahn-Teller distortion, metal-metal bonds, cation-anion (metal-nonmetal) redox competition in the stabilization of oxidation states - all find crucial application in the design and synthesis of inorganic solids possessing technologically important properties. An attempt has been made here to illustrate the role of inorganic chemistry in this endeavour, drawing examples from the literature as well as from the research work of my group.

  11. CYCLIC VOLTAMMETRY OF ORGANIC AND INORGANIC N-CHLORAMINES IN AQUEOUS SOLUTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aqueous solutions or organic and inorganic N-chloramines as well as hypochlorite were examined by cyclic voltammetry at DH 8 and in strong acid (pH<2) with platinum and glassy carbon electrodes. The inorganic N-chloramines were characterized in 1 M HC104. NHC12 is reduced at abou...

  12. Inorganic ion composition in Tardigrada

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halberg, Kenneth Agerlin; Larsen, Kristine Wulff; Jørgensen, Aslak;

    2013-01-01

    Many species of tardigrades are known to tolerate extreme environmental stress, yet detailed knowledge of the mechanisms underlying the remarkable adaptations of tardigrades is still lacking, as are answers to many questions regarding their basic biology. Here, we present data on the inorganic ion...... indicates that Na(+) and Cl(-) are the principle inorganic ions in tardigrade fluids, albeit other ions, i.e. K(+), NH(4)(+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+), F(-), SO(4)(2-) and PO(4)(3-) were also detected. In limno-terrestrial tardigrades, the respective ions are concentrated by a large factor compared....... Concentrations of most inorganic ions are largely identical between active and dehydrated groups of R. coronifer, suggesting that this tardigrade does not lose large quantities of inorganic ions during dehydration. The large osmotic and ionic gradients maintained by both limno-terrestrial and marine species...

  13. Essentials of inorganic materials synthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, C N R

    2015-01-01

    This compact handbook describes all the important methods of synthesis employed today for synthesizing inorganic materials. Some features: Focuses on modern inorganic materials with applications in nanotechnology, energy materials, and sustainability Synthesis is a crucial component of materials science and technology; this book provides a simple introduction as well as an updated description of methods Written in a very simple style, providing references to the literature to get details of the methods of preparation when required

  14. Organic/inorganic hybrid coatings for anticorrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhouying

    Compared to organic coatings, organic-inorganic hybrid coatings can potentially improve the anticorrosion performance. The organic phase provides the excellent mechaincal and barrier properties while the inorganic phase acts as an adhesion promoter and corrosion inhibitor. Despite that many studies on alkoxylsilane-based hybrid coatings have been developed and studied, their weatherability and anticorrosion performance has been rarely evaluated. On the other hand, organic-inorganic hybrid coatings based on mixed sol-gel precursors have received much less attention compared to alkoxylsilane-based hybrid coatings. In the first part, polyurethane hybrid coatings with a unique hybrid crosslinked structure as an improved unicoat were successfully prepared. The effect of polyesters on physical properties of the hybrid coatings was studied. Polyurethane coatings derived from cycloaliphatic polyester show comparable properties than those derived from the commercially viable aromatic polyester. Introducing the polysiloxane part into the polyurethane coatings enhanced the crosslinking density, Tg, mechanical properties, and general coating properties. The increased adhesion between the hybrid coating and the substrate make the hybrid coating a good candidate for anticorrosion application, which is shown by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The degradation mechanism of the polyurethane/polysiloxane hybrid coatings under various weathering conditions was shown to be the scission of the urethane and ester groups in the organic phase along with reorganizing and rearranging of the inorganic phase. The anticorrosion performance of the cycloaliphatic hybrid was much better than that of aromatic based hybrid under outdoor weathering based on visual observation and EIS analysis. Acid undercutting is an issue for TEOS based hybrid coating. In the second part, design of experiments (DOEs) was used to statistically investigate on the effect of sol-gel precursors. The

  15. Exposure to inorganic arsenic in pregnancy and metabolism-nutrition interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Li

    2006-01-01

    Inorganic arsenic is metabolized by most mammals, including humans, via alternating reduction and oxidative methylation with S-adenosylmethionine as main methyl donor. Thus, it seems likely that it is influenced by the availability of methyl groups. The main arsenic metabolites excreted in human urine are monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), besides un-methylated inorganic arsenic (arsenate [As(V)] and arsenite [As(III)]). The aim of the present study wa...

  16. Semiconducting organic-inorganic nanocomposites by intimately tethering conjugated polymers to inorganic tetrapods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jaehan; Yoon, Young Jun; Lin, Zhiqun

    2016-04-01

    Semiconducting organic-inorganic nanocomposites were judiciously crafted by placing conjugated polymers in intimate contact with inorganic tetrapods via click reaction. CdSe tetrapods were first synthesized by inducing elongated arms from CdSe zincblende seeds through seed-mediated growth. The subsequent effective inorganic ligand treatment, followed by reacting with short bifunctional ligands, yielded azide-functionalized CdSe tetrapods (i.e., CdSe-N3). Finally, the ethynyl-terminated conjugated polymer poly(3-hexylthiophene) (i.e., P3HT-&z.tbd;) was tethered to CdSe-N3 tetrapods via a catalyst-free alkyne-azide cycloaddition, forming intimate semiconducting P3HT-CdSe tetrapod nanocomposites. Intriguingly, the intimate contact between P3HT and CdSe tetrapod was found to not only render the effective dispersion of CdSe tetrapods in the P3HT matrix, but also facilitate the efficient electronic interaction between these two semiconducting constituents. The successful anchoring of P3HT chains onto CdSe tetrapods was substantiated through Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy measurements. Moreover, the absorption and photoluminescence studies further corroborated the intimate tethering between P3HT and CdSe tetrapods. The effect of the type of bifunctional ligands (i.e., aryl vs. aliphatic ligands) and the size of tetrapods on the device performance of hybrid organic-inorganic solar cells was also scrutinized. Interestingly, P3HT-CdSe tetrapod nanocomposites produced via the use of an aryl bifunctional ligand (i.e., 4-azidobenzoic acid) exhibited an improved photovoltaic performance compared to that synthesized with their aliphatic ligand counterpart (i.e., 5-bromovaleric acid). Clearly, the optimal size of CdSe tetrapods ensuring the effective charge transport in conjunction with the good dispersion of CdSe tetrapods rendered an improved device performance. We envision that the click-reaction strategy enabled by

  17. Evaluation of inorganic sorbent treatment for LWR coolant process streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents results of a survey of the literature and of experience at selected nuclear installations to provide information on the feasibility of replacing organic ion exchangers with inorganic sorbents at light-water-cooled nuclear power plants. Radioactive contents of the various streams in boiling water reactors and pressurized water reactors were examined. In addition, the methods and performances of current methods used for controlling water quality at these plants were evaluated. The study also includes a brief review of the physical and chemical properties of selected inorganic sorbents. Some attributes of inorganic sorbents would be useful in processing light water reactor (LWR) streams. The inorganic resins are highly resistant to damage from ionizing radiation, and their exchange capacities are generally equivalent to those of organic ion exchangers. However, they are more limited in application, and there are problems with physical integrity, especially in acidic solutions. Research is also needed in the areas of selectivity and anion removal before inorganic sorbents can be considered as replacements for the synthetic organic resins presently used in LWRs. 11 figures, 14 tables

  18. Inorganic Fullerenes, Onions, and Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, Andrew P. E.

    2004-01-01

    Buckminsterfullerene, which is in the shape of a soccer-ball was first discovered in 1985, has many applications as a good lubricant, or as a new superconductor. The synthesis of these inorganic fullerenes involves a great deal of interdisciplinary research between physicists, material scientists, engineers and chemists from various fields.

  19. Carbon dioxide removal with inorganic membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judkins, R.R.; Fain, D.E. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases, particularly carbon dioxide, in the atmosphere has sparked a great deal of interest in the removal of CO{sub 2} from flue gases of fossil fueled plants. Presently, several techniques for the removal of CO{sub 2} are considered to have potential, but are lacking in practicality. For example, amine scrubbing of flue gas streams is potential, but are lacking in practically. For example, amine scrubbing of flue gas streams is effective in removing CO{sub 2}, but costs are high; efficiency suffers; and other acid gases must be removed prior to amine stripping. Membrane systems for CO{sub 2} removal are held in high regard, and inorganic, particularly ceramic, membranes offer the potential for high temperature, thus energy saving, removal.

  20. Organic/inorganic nanocomposite polymer electrolyte

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Qi; Shao Jun Dong

    2007-01-01

    The organic/inorganic nanocomposites polymer electrolytes were designed and synthesized. The organic/inorganic nanocom posites membrane materials and their lithium salt complexes have been found thermally stable below 200 ℃. The conductivity of the organic/inorganic nanocomposites polymer electrolytes prepared at room temperature was at magnitude range of 10-6 S/cm.

  1. 29 CFR 1910.1018 - Inorganic arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... container in the change-room which prevents dispersion of inorganic arsenic outside the container. (vi) The... readily through the skin. Because inorganic arsenic is a poison, you should wash your hands thoroughly... 29 Labor 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inorganic arsenic. 1910.1018 Section 1910.1018...

  2. Problems in structural inorganic chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Wai-Kee; Mak, Thomas Chung Wai; Mak, Kendrew Kin Wah

    2013-01-01

    This book consists of over 300 problems (and their solutions) in structural inorganic chemistry at the senior undergraduate and beginning graduate level. The topics covered comprise Atomic and Molecular Electronic States, Atomic Orbitals, Hybrid Orbitals, Molecular Symmetry, Molecular Geometry and Bonding, Crystal Field Theory, Molecular Orbital Theory, Vibrational Spectroscopy, and Crystal Structure. The central theme running through these topics is symmetry, molecular or crystalline. The problems collected in this volume originate in examination papers and take-home assignments that have been part of the teaching of the book's two senior authors' at The Chinese University of Hong Kong over the past four decades. The authors' courses include Chemical Bonding, Elementary Quantum Chemistry, Advanced Inorganic Chemistry, X-Ray Crystallography, etc. The problems have been tested by generations of students taking these courses.

  3. Inorganic ion composition in Tardigrada

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halberg, Kenneth Agerlin; Larsen, Kristine Wulff; Jørgensen, Aslak;

    2013-01-01

    Many species of tardigrades are known to tolerate extreme environmental stress, yet detailed knowledge of the mechanisms underlying the remarkable adaptations of tardigrades is still lacking, as are answers to many questions regarding their basic biology. Here, we present data on the inorganic ion...... indicates that Na(+) and Cl(-) are the principle inorganic ions in tardigrade fluids, albeit other ions, i.e. K(+), NH(4)(+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+), F(-), SO(4)(2-) and PO(4)(3-) were also detected. In limno-terrestrial tardigrades, the respective ions are concentrated by a large factor compared......+) and F(-) are only slightly concentrated (×2-10). An anion deficit of ~120 mEq 1(-1) in M. tardigradum and H. crispae indicates the presence of unidentified ionic components in these species. Body fluid osmolality ranges from 361±49 mOsm kg(-1) in R. coronifer to 961±43 mOsm kg(-1) in H. crispae...

  4. Arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase and the inorganic arsenic methylation phenotype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inorganic arsenic is enzymatically methylated; hence, its ingestion results in exposure to the parent compound and various methylated arsenicals. Both experimental and epidemiological evidences suggest that some of the adverse health effects associated with chronic exposure to inorganic arsenic may be mediated by these methylated metabolites. If i As methylation is an activation process, then the phenotype for inorganic arsenic methylation may determine risk associated with exposure to this metalloid. We examined inorganic arsenic methylation phenotypes and arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase genotypes in four species: three that methylate inorganic arsenic (human (Homo sapiens), rat (Rattus norwegicus), and mouse (Mus musculus)) and one that does not methylate inorganic arsenic (chimpanzee, Pan troglodytes). The predicted protein products from arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase are similar in size for rat (369 amino acid residues), mouse (376 residues), and human (375 residues). By comparison, a 275-nucleotide deletion beginning at nucleotide 612 in the chimpanzee gene sequence causes a frameshift that leads to a nonsense mutation for a premature stop codon after amino acid 205. The null phenotype for inorganic arsenic methylation in the chimpanzee is likely due to the deletion in the gene for arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase that yields an inactive truncated protein. This lineage-specific loss of function caused by the deletion event must have occurred in the Pan lineage after Homo-Pan divergence about 5 million years ago

  5. Inorganic Nanoparticle Nucleation on Polymer Matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosteleski, Adrian John

    The introduction of inorganic nanoparticles into organic materials enhances both the mechanical and chemical properties of the material. Metallic nanoparticles, like silver and gold, have been introduced into polymers for use as antimicrobial coatings or dielectric materials, respectively. The challenge in creating these materials currently is the difficulty to homogeneously disperse the particles throughout the polymer matrix. The uneven dispersion of nanoparticles can lead to less than optimal quality and undesired properties. By creating a polymer nanocomposite material with well-controlled size inorganic materials that are evenly dispersed throughout the polymer matrix; we can improve the materials performance and properties. The objective for this research is to use polymer networks for the in situ mineralization of silver and other metallic materials to create intricate inorganic structures. The work performed here studied the ability to nucleate silver nanoparticles using poly (acrylic acid) (PAA) as the templating agent. Ionic silver was chemically reduced by sodium borohydride (NaBH4) in the presence of PAA. The effect of varying reactant concentrations of silver, NaBH 4, and PAA on particle size was studied. Reaction conditions in terms of varying temperature and pH levels of the reaction solution were monitored to observe the effect of silver nanoparticle size, shape, and concentration. By monitoring the UV spectra over time the reaction mechanism of the silver reduction process was determined to be an autocatalytic process: a period of slow, continuous nucleation followed by rapid, autocatalytic growth. The reaction kinetics for this autocatalytic process is also reported. PAA was crosslinked both chemically and physically to 3 biopolymers; ELP, an elastin like peptide, cotton fabrics, and calcium alginate hydrogels. Various compositions of PAA were physically crosslinked with calcium alginate gels to design an antimicrobial hydrogel for use in wound

  6. Survey of total and inorganic arsenic content in blue mussels (Mytilus edulis L.) from Norwegian fiords: Revelation of unusual high levels of inorganic arsenic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, Jens Jørgen; Julshamn, Kåre

    2008-01-01

    The present study reports the findings of unusual high levels of inorganic arsenic in samples of blue mussels (Mytilus edulis L.). A total of 175 pooled samples of blue mussels from various locations along the Norwegian coastline were analyzed for their content of total arsenic and inorganic...... arsenic. Total arsenic was determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) following microwave-assisted acidic digestion of the samples. Inorganic arsenic was determined using an anion-exchange HPLC-ICPMS method following microwave-assisted alkaline solubilization of the samples....... For the majority of the samples (78%) the concentration of total arsenic was below 3 mg kg(-1) wet weight (ww) and inorganic arsenic constituted...

  7. Evaluating secondary inorganic aerosols in three dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezuman, Keren; Bauer, Susanne E.; Tsigaridis, Kostas

    2016-08-01

    The spatial distribution of aerosols and their chemical composition dictates whether aerosols have a cooling or a warming effect on the climate system. Hence, properly modeling the three-dimensional distribution of aerosols is a crucial step for coherent climate simulations. Since surface measurement networks only give 2-D data, and most satellites supply integrated column information, it is thus important to integrate aircraft measurements in climate model evaluations. In this study, the vertical distribution of secondary inorganic aerosol (i.e., sulfate, ammonium, and nitrate) is evaluated against a collection of 14 AMS flight campaigns and surface measurements from 2000 to 2010 in the USA and Europe. GISS ModelE2 is used with multiple aerosol microphysics (MATRIX, OMA) and thermodynamic (ISORROPIA II, EQSAM) configurations. Our results show that the MATRIX microphysical scheme improves the model performance for sulfate, but that there is a systematic underestimation of ammonium and nitrate over the USA and Europe in all model configurations. In terms of gaseous precursors, nitric acid concentrations are largely underestimated at the surface while overestimated in the higher levels of the model. Heterogeneous reactions on dust surfaces are an important sink for nitric acid, even high in the troposphere. At high altitudes, nitrate formation is calculated to be ammonia limited. The underestimation of ammonium and nitrate in polluted regions is most likely caused by a too simplified treatment of the NH3 / NH4+ partitioning which affects the HNO3 / NO3- partitioning.

  8. The essential activated carboxyl group of inorganic pyrophosphatase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avaeva, S M; Bakuleva, N P; Baratova, L A; Nazarova, T I; Fink, N Y

    1977-05-12

    1. A carboxyl group of high reactivity has been found in inorganic pyrophosphatase (pyrophosphate phosphohydrolase, EC 3.6.1.1) from yeast. This group interacts with agents which react neither with carboxyl groups of low molecular weight compounds nor with other carboxyl groups of the protein. 2. The reaction of this activated carboxyl group with inorganic phosphate, hydroxylamine, N-methyl- and O-methylhydroxylamines, and glycine methyl ester has been studied. 3. Homoserine and homoserine lactone were found in the hydrolyzate of phosphorylated and NaBH4-reduced pyrophosphatase, indicating that an aspartyl residue is phosphorylated. 4. Hydroxylamine and other nucleophilic agents cause inactivation of pyrophosphatase as a result of interaction with a carboxyl group. Both diaminobutyric and diaminopropionic acids were seen in the acid hydrolyzate of the protein treated with hydroxylamine and subjected to rearrangement in the presence of carbodiimide. 5. The ways in which the activation of a carboxyl group in the enzyme is achieved and the presumed mechanism of action of inorganic pyrophosphatase are discussed. PMID:16652

  9. Inorganic Phosphor Materials for Lighting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuan-Chih; Karlsson, Maths; Bettinelli, Marco

    2016-04-01

    This chapter addresses the development of inorganic phosphor materials capable of converting the near UV or blue radiation emitted by a light emitting diode to visible radiation that can be suitably combined to yield white light. These materials are at the core of the new generation of solid-state lighting devices that are emerging as a crucial clean and energy saving technology. The chapter introduces the problem of white light generation using inorganic phosphors and the structure-property relationships in the broad class of phosphor materials, normally containing lanthanide or transition metal ions as dopants. Radiative and non-radiative relaxation mechanisms are briefly described. Phosphors emitting light of different colors (yellow, blue, green, and red) are described and reviewed, classifying them in different chemical families of the host (silicates, phosphates, aluminates, borates, and non-oxide hosts). This research field has grown rapidly and is still growing, but the discovery of new phosphor materials with optimized properties (in terms of emission efficiency, chemical and thermal stability, color, purity, and cost of fabrication) would still be of the utmost importance. PMID:27573146

  10. Heterogeneous Catalysis of Polyoxometalate Based Organic–Inorganic Hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanhang Ren

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Organic–inorganic hybrid polyoxometalate (POM compounds are a subset of materials with unique structures and physical/chemical properties. The combination of metal-organic coordination complexes with classical POMs not only provides a powerful way to gain multifarious new compounds but also affords a new method to modify and functionalize POMs. In parallel with the many reports on the synthesis and structure of new hybrid POM compounds, the application of these compounds for heterogeneous catalysis has also attracted considerable attention. The hybrid POM compounds show noteworthy catalytic performance in acid, oxidation, and even in asymmetric catalytic reactions. This review summarizes the design and synthesis of organic–inorganic hybrid POM compounds and particularly highlights their recent progress in heterogeneous catalysis.

  11. Influence of inorganic acids on the dehydration of fructose to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural over AlCl3 catalyst%无机酸对 AlCl3催化果糖脱水制备5-羟甲基糠醛的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李振斌; 顾运江; 王维; 魏作君; 刘迎新

    2014-01-01

    The dehydration of fructose to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural is the research hotspot of the compre-hensive utilization of biomass resources. Using AlCl3 as the catalyst,the influence of reaction conditions on the dehydration of fructose to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural,especially the addition of different inorganic acids on the catalytic performance of AlCl3 was investigated. Using inorganic acid and AlCl3 as the co-catalyst, the effects of different solvents(1,4-dioxane,N,N-dimethylformamide,2-dimethyl sulfoxide),reaction temperature and the mass ratio of sulphuric acid to phosphoric acid(1: 2、2: 3、3: 2、2: 1)were tested. The results showed that 5-hydroxymethylfurfural yield of 92. 1% was attained under the condition as follows:N,N-dimethylformamide as the solvent,AlCl3 dosage 7. 5 mmol,sulphuric acid concentration 20 mmol·L -1 , phosphoric acid concentration 30 mmol·L - 1 and reaction temperature 120 ℃.%果糖脱水降解为5-羟甲基糠醛是生物质资源综合利用的研究热点。以 AlCl3为催化剂,考察反应条件对果糖脱水制备5-羟甲基糠醛的影响,重点研究不同无机酸对 AlCl3催化果糖降解生成5-羟甲基糠醛反应的影响。以 AlCl3和无机酸为共催化剂,考察在不同溶剂(1,4-二氧六环、N,N -二甲基甲酰胺、2-甲基亚砜)、反应温度和硫酸与磷酸质量比(1:2、2:3、3:2、2:1)条件下对果糖脱水降解制5-羟甲基糠醛的影响。结果表明,以温和的 N,N -二甲基甲酰胺为溶剂,在反应温度120℃、AlCl3用量为7.5 mmol、硫酸为20 mmol·L -1和磷酸为30 mmol·L -1共催化剂条件下,5-羟甲基糠醛收率达92.1%。

  12. 酒石酸为催化剂合成无机高分子材料硅气凝胶%Synthesis of Inorganic Polymer Material Silica Aerogels Using Tartaric Acid as Catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘祖武; 李群林; 张平; 黄舸

    2001-01-01

    Silica aerogels of crackfree and low density were synthesized by differential-drying method with tartaric acid as catalyst in normal condition. The adulterating experiments were also proceeded with Ni2+, Cu2+ etc.%以洒石酸为催化剂,采用微分干燥法,在通常条件下合成了无裂纹、低密度的无机高分子材料硅气凝胶,并进行了Ni2+、Cu2+等的掺杂试验,使气凝胶的电阻明显降低.

  13. Inorganic ion exchangers for nuclear waste remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clearfield, A.; Bortun, A.; Bortun, L.; Behrens, E. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    1997-10-01

    The objective of this work is to provide a broad spectrum of inorganic ion exchangers that can be used for a range of applications and separations involving remediation of groundwater and tank wastes. The authors intend to scale-up the most promising exchangers, through partnership with AlliedSignal Inc., to provide samples for testing at various DOE sites. While much of the focus is on exchangers for removal of Cs{sup +} and Sr{sup 2+} from highly alkaline tank wastes, especially at Hanford, the authors have also synthesized exchangers for acid wastes, alkaline wastes, groundwater, and mercury, cobalt, and chromium removal. These exchangers are now available for use at DOE sites. Many of the ion exchangers described here are new, and others are improved versions of previously known exchangers. They are generally one of three types: (1) layered compounds, (2) framework or tunnel compounds, and (3) amorphous exchangers in which a gel exchanger is used to bind a fine powder into a bead for column use. Most of these exchangers can be regenerated and used again.

  14. 29 CFR 1915.1018 - Inorganic arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inorganic arsenic. 1915.1018 Section 1915.1018 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... § 1915.1018 Inorganic arsenic. Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard employment under...

  15. 29 CFR 1926.1118 - Inorganic arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inorganic arsenic. 1926.1118 Section 1926.1118 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... Inorganic arsenic. Note: The requirements applicable to construction work under this section are...

  16. Inorganic materials synthesis in ionic liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Janiak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The field of "inorganic materials from ionic liquids" (ILs is a young and dynamically growing research area for less than 10 years. The ionothermal synthesis in ILs is often connected with the preparation of nanomaterials, the use of microwave heating and in part also ultrasound. Inorganic material synthesis in ILs allows obtaining phases which are not accessible in conventional organic or aqueous solvents or with standard methods of solid-state chemistry or under such mild conditions. Cases at hand include "ligand-free" metal nanoparticles without added stabilizing capping ligands, inorganic or inorganic-organic hybrid solid-state compounds, large polyhedral clusters and exfoliated graphene from low-temperature synthesis. There are great expectations that ILs open routes towards new, possibly unknown, inorganic materials with advantageous properties that cannot (or only with great difficulty be made via conventional processes.

  17. N-butyl p-hydroxybenzoate of Sodium Bisulfate and a Inorganic Solid Acid Catalyst Erterification%复合催化剂催化合成对羟基苯甲酸正丁酯

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯一佳; 熊双喜

    2011-01-01

    研究了在一水硫酸氢钠复合催化剂存在的条件下,由正丁醇和对羟基苯甲酸高收率合成对羟基苯甲酸正丁酯.探讨了一水硫酸氢钠复合催化剂用量、正丁醇用量和反应时间,带水剂的选择等因素对催化合成对羟基苯甲酸正丁酯收率的影响.实验结果表明,当对羟基苯甲酸、正丁醇和硫酸氢钠的摩尔比为1:2:0.072,助催化剂在0.1 g、带水剂5 mL时,回流分水4 h,酯收率达92.0%,为最佳条件.%N-butyl p-hydroxybenzoate was synthesized with high yield by esterification of n-butyl alcohol with phydroxybenzoic acid in the presence of sodium bisulfate monohydrate and A . The effects of amount of sodium bisulfate monohydrate and A, amount of n-butyl alcohol , amount of water-carring agent and reaction time on the yield of n-butiyl p-hydroxybenzoate were investigated. Ester field of 92. 0% was obtained under the following condition : molar ratio of p-hydroxybenzoic acid, n-butyl alcohol and sodium bisulface 1 ∶2 ∶0.072, in the presence of the amount of A was 0. 1 g and the amount of water-carring agent was 5 mL,refux for separating water for 4 h.

  18. Welcome to Inorganics: A New Open Access, Inclusive Forum for Inorganic Chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duncan H. Gregory

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the beauties of inorganic chemistry is its sheer diversity. Just as chemistry sits at the centre of the sciences, inorganic chemistry sits at the centre of chemistry itself. Inorganic chemists are fortunate in having the entire periodic table at their disposal, providing a palette for the creation of a multitude of rich and diverse compounds and materials from the simplest salts to the most complex of molecular species. It follows that the language of inorganic chemistry can thus be a demanding one, accommodating sub-disciplines with very different perspectives and frames of reference. One could argue that it is the unequivocal breadth of inorganic chemistry that empowers inorganic chemists to work at the interfaces, not just between the traditional Inorganic-Organic-Physical boundaries of the discipline, but in the regions where chemistry borders the other physical and life sciences, engineering and socio-economics. [...

  19. Hybrid organic-inorganic heterojunctions for photovoltaic applications

    OpenAIRE

    Dietmüller, Roland

    2012-01-01

    Hybrid organic-inorganic bulk heterojunction solar cells based on silicon nanocrystals (Si-nc) have been realized and investigated. A photo-induced charge transfer could be demonstrated in composites made of silicon nanocrystals and poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) or [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) via light-induced electron spin resonance measurements. With bulk heterojunction solar cells made of P3HT/Si-nc composites in a sandwich structure, open-circuit voltages of up to 0....

  20. Matrices for Sensors from Inorganic, Organic, and Biological Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia Pechkova

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Matrices and sensors resulting from inorganic, organic and biological nanocomposites are presented in this overview. The term nanocomposite designates a solid combination of a matrix and of nanodimensional phases differing in properties from the matrix due to dissimilarities in structure and chemistry. The nanoocomposites chosen for a wide variety of health and environment sensors consist of Anodic Porous Allumina and P450scc, Carbon nanotubes and Conductive Polymers, Langmuir Blodgett Films of Lipases, Laccases, Cytochromes and Rhodopsins, Three-dimensional Nanoporous Materials and Nucleic Acid Programmable Protein Arrays.

  1. Synthesis and characterization of nanoscale magnetic drug-inorganic composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Hui; ZHANG Hui; David G. Evans; DUAN Xue

    2005-01-01

    The synthesis by direct coprecipitation and characterization of captopril (Cpl) and 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) intercalated ZnAl layered double hydroxides coated on MgFe2O4 magnetic core particles are reported. Powder XRD analysis shows the well-defined crystallite structure of the composites. TEM and XPS results reveal that a core-shell structure involving a drug-LDHs layer coated on MgFe2O4 particles is formed through Zn-O-Mg and/or Al-O-Mg linkages. VSM measurements demonstrate that the novel magnetic drug-inorganic composites possess considerable magnetization.

  2. Single and multi-component adsorptive removal of bisphenol A and 2,4-dichlorophenol from aqueous solutions with transition metal modified inorganic-organic pillared clay composites: Effect of pH and presence of humic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Martínez, Krisiam; Reddy, Pratap; Cabrera-Lafaurie, Wilman A; Román, Félix R; Hernández-Maldonado, Arturo J

    2016-07-15

    Pillared clay based composites containing transition metals and a surfactant, namely MAlOr-NaBt (Bt=bentonite; Or=surfactant; M=Ni(2+), Cu(2+)or Co(2+)), were prepared to study selectivity and capacity toward single and multiple-component adsorption of bisphenol A (BPA) and 2,4-diclorophenol (DCP) from water. Tests were also performed to account for the presence of natural organic matter in the form of humic acid (HA). Equilibrium adsorption capacities for single components increased as follows: NaBtmetal brought an increase of nearly two-fold in adsorption capacity over the materials modified only with surfactant. The MAlOr-NaBt adsorbents displayed remarkable selectivity for BPA. Multi-component fixed-bed tests, however, revealed competition between the adsorbates, with the exception of the CuAlOr-NaBt beds. Inclusion of HA, surprisingly, enhanced the phenols adsorption capacity. Preliminary regeneration tests suggested that the adsorbent capacity can be recovered via thermal treatment or by washing with alkaline solutions. The former strategy, however, requires surfactant replenishment. More complex schemes would be needed to deal with absorbed HA. PMID:27037481

  3. Shape control of inorganic nanoparticles from solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhaohui; Yang, Shuanglei; Wu, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Inorganic materials with controllable shapes have been an intensely studied subject in nanoscience over the past decades. Control over novel and anisotropic shapes of inorganic nanomaterials differing from those of bulk materials leads to unique and tunable properties for widespread applications such as biomedicine, catalysis, fuels or solar cells and magnetic data storage. This review presents a comprehensive overview of shape-controlled inorganic nanomaterials via nucleation and growth theory and the control of experimental conditions (including supersaturation, temperature, surfactants and secondary nucleation), providing a brief account of the shape control of inorganic nanoparticles during wet-chemistry synthetic processes. Subsequently, typical mechanisms for shape-controlled inorganic nanoparticles and the general shape of the nanoparticles formed by each mechanism are also expounded. Furthermore, the differences between similar mechanisms for the shape control of inorganic nanoparticles are also clearly described. The authors envision that this review will provide valuable guidance on experimental conditions and process control for the synthesis of inorganic nanoparticles with tunable shapes in the solution state.

  4. Inorganic elements in sugar samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salles, Paulo M.B. de; Campos, Tarcisio P.R. de, E-mail: pauladesalles@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: tprcampos@pq.cnpq.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (DEN/UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear; Menezes, Maria Angela de B.C., E-mail: menezes@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Sugar is considered a safe food ingredient; however, it can be contaminated by organic elements since its planting until its production process. Thus, this study aims at checking the presence of inorganic elements in samples of crystal, refined and brown sugar available for consumption in Brazil. The applied technique was neutron activation analysis, the k{sub 0} method, using the TRIGA MARK - IPR-R1 reactor located at CDTN/CNEN, in Belo Horizonte. It was identified the presence of elements such as, Au, Br, Co, Cr, Hf, K, Na, Sb, Sc and Zn in the samples of crystal/refined sugar and the presence of As, Au, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, Hf, K, Na, Sb, Sc, Sm, Sr, Th and Zn in the brown sugar samples. The applied technique was appropriate to this study because it was not necessary to put the samples in solution, essential condition in order to apply other techniques, avoiding contaminations and sample losses, besides allowing a multi elementary detection in different sugar samples. (author)

  5. Inorganic chemically active adsorbents (ICAAs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ally, M.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Tavlarides, L.

    1997-10-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) researchers are developing a technology that combines metal chelation extraction technology and synthesis chemistry. They begin with a ceramic substrate such as alumina, titanium oxide or silica gel because they provide high surface area, high mechanical strength, and radiolytic stability. One preparation method involves silylation to hydrophobize the surface, followed by chemisorption of a suitable chelation agent using vapor deposition. Another route attaches newly designed chelating agents through covalent bonding by the use of coupling agents. These approaches provide stable and selective, inorganic chemically active adsorbents (ICAAs) tailored for removal of metals. The technology has the following advantages over ion exchange: (1) higher mechanical strength, (2) higher resistance to radiation fields, (3) higher selectivity for the desired metal ion, (4) no cation exchange, (5) reduced or no interference from accompanying anions, (6) faster kinetics, and (7) easy and selective regeneration. Target waste streams include metal-containing groundwater/process wastewater at ORNL`s Y-12 Plant (multiple metals), Savannah River Site (SRS), Rocky Flats (multiple metals), and Hanford; aqueous mixed wastes at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL); and scrubber water generated at SRS and INEL. Focus Areas that will benefit from this research include Mixed Waste, and Subsurface Contaminants.

  6. The quest for inorganic fullerenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pietsch, Susanne; Dollinger, Andreas; Strobel, Christoph H.; Ganteför, Gerd, E-mail: gerd.gantefoer@uni-konstanz.de, E-mail: ydkim91@skku.edu [Department of Physics, University of Konstanz, D-78457 Konstanz (Germany); Park, Eun Ji; Kim, Young Dok, E-mail: gerd.gantefoer@uni-konstanz.de, E-mail: ydkim91@skku.edu [Department of Chemistry, Sungkyunkwan University, 440-746 Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Hyun Ook [Center for Free-Electron Laser Science/DESY, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Idrobo, Juan-Carlos [Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Pennycook, Stephen J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117575 (Singapore)

    2015-10-07

    Experimental results of the search for inorganic fullerenes are presented. Mo{sub n}S{sub m}{sup −} and W{sub n}S{sub m}{sup −} clusters are generated with a pulsed arc cluster ion source equipped with an annealing stage. This is known to enhance fullerene formation in the case of carbon. Analogous to carbon, the mass spectra of the metal chalcogenide clusters produced in this way exhibit a bimodal structure. The species in the first maximum at low mass are known to be platelets. Here, the structure of the species in the second maximum is studied by anion photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning transmission electron microscopy, and scanning tunneling microcopy. All experimental results indicate a two-dimensional structure of these species and disagree with a three-dimensional fullerene-like geometry. A possible explanation for this preference of two-dimensional structures is the ability of a two-element material to saturate the dangling bonds at the edges of a platelet by excess atoms of one element. A platelet consisting of a single element only cannot do this. Accordingly, graphite and boron might be the only materials forming nano-spheres because they are the only single element materials assuming two-dimensional structures.

  7. Inorganic Nanoparticles Conjugated with Biofunctional Molecules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.H.Choy

    2007-01-01

    1 Results We have attempted to conjugate inorganic nanoparticles with biofunctional molecules.Recently we were quite successful in demonstrating that a two-dimensional inorganic compound like layered double hydroxide (LDH),and natural and synthetic clays can be used as gene or drug delivery carriers1-4.To the best of our knowledge,such inorganic vectors are completely new and different from conventionally developed ones such as viruses and cationic liposomes,those which are limited in certain cases of ap...

  8. Nanocomposites Derived from Polymers and Inorganic Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In-Yup Jeon

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Polymers are considered to be good hosting matrices for composite materials because they can easily be tailored to yield a variety of bulk physical properties. Moreover, organic polymers generally have long-term stability and good processability. Inorganic nanoparticles possess outstanding optical, catalytic, electronic and magnetic properties, which are significantly different their bulk states. By combining the attractive functionalities of both components, nanocomposites derived from organic polymers and inorganic nanoparticles are expected to display synergistically improved properties. The potential applications of the resultant nanocomposites are various, e.g. automotive, aerospace, opto-electronics, etc. Here, we review recent progress in polymer-based inorganic nanoparticle composites.

  9. Inorganic biomaterials structure, properties and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Xiang C

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a practical guide to the use and applications of inorganic biomaterials. It begins by introducing the concept of inorganic biomaterials, which includes bioceramics and bioglass. This concept is further extended to hybrid biomaterials consisting of inorganic and organic materials to mimic natural biomaterials. The book goes on to provide the reader with information on biocompatibility, bioactivity and bioresorbability. The concept of the latter is important because of the increasing role resorbable biomaterials are playing in implant applications. The book also introduces a n

  10. 均匀设计法应用于NaZSM-5分子筛无机酸交换条件的优化%Optimization of inorganic acid exchange conditions of NaZSM-5 zeolite by uniform design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李光河; 叶晓雪; 刘杨青; 魏会娟; 苏慧; 王向宇

    2016-01-01

    采用无胺法水热合成NaZSM-5分子筛,分别用盐酸和硝酸将NaZSM-5分子筛交换为HZSM-5,考察酸浓度、交换时间及温度、液固比(V(交换液)∶m(催化剂))等对其催化环己烯水合制环己醇性能的影响。采用XRD、XRF、NH3-TPD、SEM和N2吸附-脱附等技术对试样进行表征。运用均匀设计法对分子筛无机酸交换条件进行优化。实验结果表明,无机酸交换方法较传统铵盐交换方法简便、节能和高效。最优盐酸交换条件为:盐酸浓度1.2 mol/L、交换温度80℃、交换时间3 h、液固比11 mL/g,环己醇理论收率为9.29%,实际收率为8.71%。最优硝酸交换条件为:硝酸浓度1.2 mol/L、交换温度63℃、交换时间3 h、液固比为11 mL/g,环己醇理论收率为8.92%,实际收率为8.90%。理论收率与实际收率较吻合,说明均匀设计法在分子筛无机酸交换条件优化上具有较高的实用价值。%NaZSM-5 zeolite was synthesized in an amine-free system by hydrothermal method, and HZSM-5 catalysts were prepared through the inorganic acid exchange of the NaZSM-5 zeolite with HCl and HNO3 separately. The effects of acid concentration,exchange time,exchange temperature and exchange liquid volume on the performances of the HZSM-5 catalysts in the hydration of cyclohexene to cyclohexanol were studied. The HZSM-5 catalysts were characterized by means of XRD,XRF,NH3-TPD,SEM and N2adsorption-desorption. The exchange conditions were optimized by means of uniform design. The results showed that the inorganic acid exchange method was simple,energy saving and high efficient compared with the traditional ammonium salt exchange method. Under the optimal HCl exchange conditions of HCl concentration of 1.2 mol/L,exchange temperature of 80℃,exchange time of 3 h and exchange liquid volume of 11 mL/g,the theoretical and actual yields of cyclohexanol were 9.29% and 8.71%,respectively. Under the optimal HNO3 exchange

  11. Sol-gel Process in Preparation of Organic-inorganic Hybrid Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macan, J

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Organic-inorganic hybrid materials are a sort of nanostructured material in which the organic and inorganic phases are mixed at molecular level. The inorganic phase in hybrid materials is formed by the sol-gel process, which consists of reactions of hydrolysis and condensation of metal (usually silicon alkoxides. Flexibility of sol-gel process enables creation of hybrid materials with varying organic and inorganic phases in different ratios, and consequently fine-tuning of their properties. In order to obtain true hybrid materials, contact between the phases should be at molecular level, so phase separation between thermodynamically incompatible organic and inorganic phases has to be prevented. Phase interaction can be improved by formation of hydrogen or covalent bonds between them during preparation of hybrid materials. Covalent bond can be introduced by organically modified silicon alkoxides containing a reactive organic group (substituent capable of reacting with the organic phase. In order to obtain hybrid materials with desired structures, a detailed knowledge of hydrolysis and condensation mechanism is necessary. The choice of catalyst, whether acid or base, has the most significant influence on the structure of the inorganic phase. Other important parameters are alkoxide concentration, water: alkoxide ratio, type of alkoxide groups, solvent used, temperature, purity of chemicals used, etc. Hydrolysis and condensation of organically modified silicon alkoxides are additionally influenced by nature and size of the organic supstituent.

  12. Inorganic arsenic poisoning in pastured feeder lambs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, H.A.; Crane, M.R.; Tomson, K.

    1971-01-01

    Clinical signs and necropsy findings in a group of feeder lambs were suggestive of inorganic arsenic poisoning. Source of exposure was established and toxic concentrations of arsenic were detected in the tissues. 13 references, 1 table.

  13. Inorganic protocells: Gated access to microreactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Christine D.

    2013-06-01

    A pH-responsive inorganic membrane has been devised that acts as a gatekeeper for the transport of charged solutes into and out of its interior volume. This behaviour was further used to regulate an enzymatic reaction.

  14. Inorganic sorbents for concentration of hydrogen sulfide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Present work is devoted to application of inorganic sorbents for concentration of hydrogen sulfide. The elaboration of method is conducted under controlled concentrations of hydrogen sulphide from 1.00 til 0.01 mg/l.

  15. Structure and properties of layered inorganic materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue Duan

    2010-01-01

    @@ Inorganic layered materials are a class of advanced functional materials that have attracted considerable attention by virtue of their practical applications in a wide variety of fields. Sys-tematic studies of structure, design, synthesis, and fabrication processing may extend the range of practical utility of inor-ganic layered functional materials, in areas such as food industry,chemical industry, energy engineering, environmental engineer-ing, drug and gene delivery, electronics technology, and materials protection.

  16. Determination of total arsenic, inorganic and organic arsenic species in wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herce-Pagliai, C; Moreno, I; González, G; Repetto, M; Cameán, A M

    2002-06-01

    Forty-five wine samples from the south of Spain of different alcoholic strength were analysed for total arsenic and its inorganic [As(III), As(V)] and organic (monomethylarsonic acid [MMAA], dimethylarsinic acid [DMAA]) species. The As levels of the wine samples ranged from 2.1 to 14.6 microg l(-1). The possible effect of the alcoholic fermentation process on the levels of the total arsenic and arsenical species was studied. The average total arsenic levels for the different samples were very similar, without significant differences between all types of wines. In table wines and sherry, the percentages of total inorganic arsenic were 18.6 and 15.6%, with DMAA or MMAA being the predominant species, respectively. In most samples, DMAA was the most abundant species, but the total inorganic aresenic fraction was considerable, representing 25.4% of the total concentration of the element. The estimated daily intakes of total arsenic and total inorganic arsenic for average Spanish consumers were 0.78 and 0.15 microg/person day(-1), respectively. The results suggest that the consumption of these types of wines makes no significant contribution to the total and inorganic arsenic intake for normal drinkers. However, wine consumption contributes a higher arsenic intake than through consumption of beers and sherry brandies.

  17. Inorganic nanolayers: structure, preparation, and biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saifullah, Bullo; Hussein, Mohd Zobir B

    2015-01-01

    Hydrotalcite-like compounds are two-dimensional inorganic nanolayers also known as clay minerals or anionic clays or layered double hydroxides/layered hydroxy salts, and have emerged as a single type of material with numerous biomedical applications, such as drug delivery, gene delivery, cosmetics, and biosensing. Inorganic nanolayers are promising materials due to their fascinating properties, such as ease of preparation, ability to intercalate different type of anions (inorganic, organic, biomolecules, and even genes), high thermal stability, delivery of intercalated anions in a sustained manner, high biocompatibility, and easy biodegradation. Inorganic nanolayers have been the focus for researchers over the last decade, resulting in widening application horizons, especially in the field of biomedical science. These nanolayers have been widely applied in drug and gene delivery. They have also been applied in biosensing technology, and most recently in bioimaging science. The suitability of inorganic nanolayers for application in drug delivery, gene delivery, biosensing technology, and bioimaging science makes them ideal materials to be applied for theranostic purposes. In this paper, we review the structure, methods of preparation, and latest advances made by inorganic nanolayers in such biomedical applications as drug delivery, gene delivery, biosensing, and bioimaging. PMID:26366081

  18. Utility of inorganic oxidants for the spectrophotometric determination of ganciclovir in dosage forms

    OpenAIRE

    Ayman A. Gouda; Amin, Alaa S.

    2011-01-01

    Eight direct spectrophotometric methods for determination of ganciclovir has been developed and validated. These methods were based on the oxidation of the drug by different inorganic oxidants: ceric ammonium sulphate, potassium permanganate, ammonium molybdate, ammonium metavanadate, chromium trioxide, potassium dichromate, potassium iodate and potassium periodate. The oxidation reaction were performed in perchloric acid medium for ceric ammonium sulphate and in sulfuric acid medium for the ...

  19. Foundation Coursework in Undergraduate Inorganic Chemistry: Results from a National Survey of Inorganic Chemistry Faculty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raker, Jeffrey R.; Reisner, Barbara A.; Smith, Sheila R.; Stewart, Joanne L.; Crane, Johanna L.; Pesterfield, Les; Sobel, Sabrina G.

    2015-01-01

    A national survey of inorganic chemists explored the self-reported topics covered in foundation-level courses in inorganic chemistry at the postsecondary level; the American Chemical Society's Committee on Professional Training defines a foundation course as one at the conclusion of which, "a student should have mastered the vocabulary,…

  20. The ACS Inorganic Exam and Its Influence (?) on the Inorganic Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sienko, M. J.

    1980-01-01

    Summarizes results of a questionnaire asking if the ASC standarized test influences what is taught in inorganic chemistry courses. Chief controlling factors are indicated to be: (1) instructor's preference and (2) textbook content. Suggestions are given to enhance amount of inorganic chemistry in undergraduate curricula. (Author/JN)

  1. Inorganic Janus particles for biomedical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Schick

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on recent developments regarding the synthesis and design of Janus nanoparticles, they have attracted increased scientific interest due to their outstanding properties. There are several combinations of multicomponent hetero-nanostructures including either purely organic or inorganic, as well as composite organic–inorganic compounds. Janus particles are interconnected by solid state interfaces and, therefore, are distinguished by two physically or chemically distinct surfaces. They may be, for instance, hydrophilic on one side and hydrophobic on the other, thus, creating giant amphiphiles revealing the endeavor of self-assembly. Novel optical, electronic, magnetic, and superficial properties emerge in inorganic Janus particles from their dimensions and unique morphology at the nanoscale. As a result, inorganic Janus nanoparticles are highly versatile nanomaterials with great potential in different scientific and technological fields. In this paper, we highlight some advances in the synthesis of inorganic Janus nanoparticles, focusing on the heterogeneous nucleation technique and characteristics of the resulting high quality nanoparticles. The properties emphasized in this review range from the monodispersity and size-tunability and, therefore, precise control over size-dependent features, to the biomedical application as theranostic agents. Hence, we show their optical properties based on plasmonic resonance, the two-photon activity, the magnetic properties, as well as their biocompatibility and interaction with human blood serum.

  2. RIVERINE INORGANIC CARBON DYNAMICS: OVERVIEW AND PERSPECTIVE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Guan-rong; GAO Quan-zhou

    2006-01-01

    Inorganic carbon, the great part of the riverine carbon exported to the ocean, plays an important role in the global carbon cycle and ultimately impacts the coupled carbon-climate system. An overview was made on both methods and results of the riverine inorganic carbon researches. In addition to routine in situ survey, measurement and calculation,the direct precipitation method and the gas evolution technique were commonly used to analyze dissolved inorganic carbon in natural water samples. Soil CO2, carbonate minerals and atmospheric CO2 incorporated into riverine inorganic carbon pool via different means, with bicarbonate ion being the dominant component. The concentration of inorganic carbon, the composition of carbon isotopes (δ13C and △14C), and their temporal or spatial variations in the streams were controlled by carbon input, output and changes of carbon biogeochemistry within the riverine system. More accurate flux estimation, better understanding of different influential processes, and quantitative determination of various inputs or outputs need to be well researched in future.

  3. Leaching of DOC, DN, and inorganic constituents from scrap tires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selbes, Meric; Yilmaz, Ozge; Khan, Abdul A; Karanfil, Tanju

    2015-11-01

    One concern for recycle and reuse of scrap tires is the leaching of tire constituents (organic and inorganic) with time, and their subsequent potential harmful impacts in environment. The main objective of this study was to examine the leaching of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), dissolved nitrogen (DN), and selected inorganic constituents from scrap tires. Different sizes of tire chips and crumb rubber were exposed to leaching solutions with pH's ranging from 3.0 to 10.0 for 28days. The leaching of DOC and DN were found to be higher for smaller size tire chips; however, the leaching of inorganic constituents was independent of the size. In general, basic pH conditions increased the leaching of DOC and DN, whereas acidic pH conditions led to elevated concentrations of metals. Leaching was minimal around the neutral pH values for all the monitored parameters. Analysis of the leaching rates showed that components associated with the rubbery portion of the tires (DOC, DN, zinc, calcium, magnesium, etc.) exhibited an initial rapid followed by a slow release. On the other hand, a constant rate of leaching was observed for iron and manganese, which are attributed to the metal wires present inside the tires. Although the total amounts that leached varied, the observed leaching rates were similar for all tire chip sizes and leaching solutions. Operation under neutral pH conditions, use of larger size tire chips, prewashing of tires, and removal of metal wires prior to application will reduce the impact of tire recycle and reuse.

  4. Leaching of DOC, DN, and inorganic constituents from scrap tires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selbes, Meric; Yilmaz, Ozge; Khan, Abdul A; Karanfil, Tanju

    2015-11-01

    One concern for recycle and reuse of scrap tires is the leaching of tire constituents (organic and inorganic) with time, and their subsequent potential harmful impacts in environment. The main objective of this study was to examine the leaching of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), dissolved nitrogen (DN), and selected inorganic constituents from scrap tires. Different sizes of tire chips and crumb rubber were exposed to leaching solutions with pH's ranging from 3.0 to 10.0 for 28days. The leaching of DOC and DN were found to be higher for smaller size tire chips; however, the leaching of inorganic constituents was independent of the size. In general, basic pH conditions increased the leaching of DOC and DN, whereas acidic pH conditions led to elevated concentrations of metals. Leaching was minimal around the neutral pH values for all the monitored parameters. Analysis of the leaching rates showed that components associated with the rubbery portion of the tires (DOC, DN, zinc, calcium, magnesium, etc.) exhibited an initial rapid followed by a slow release. On the other hand, a constant rate of leaching was observed for iron and manganese, which are attributed to the metal wires present inside the tires. Although the total amounts that leached varied, the observed leaching rates were similar for all tire chip sizes and leaching solutions. Operation under neutral pH conditions, use of larger size tire chips, prewashing of tires, and removal of metal wires prior to application will reduce the impact of tire recycle and reuse. PMID:25712610

  5. Inorganic nanocarriers for platinum drug delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping’an Ma

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays platinum drugs take up almost 50% of all the clinically used anticancer drugs. Besides cisplatin, novel platinum agents including sterically hindered platinum (II drugs, chemically reductive platinum (IV drugs, photosensitive platinum (IV drugs, and multinuclear platinum drugs have been developed recently, with a few entering clinic trials. Rapid development of nanobiotechnology makes targeted delivery of anticancer platinum agents to the tumor site possible, while simultaneously minimizing toxicity and maximizing the drug efficacy. Being versatile drug carriers to deliver platinum drugs, inorganic nanovehicles such as gold nanoparticles, iron oxide nanomaterials, carbon nanotubes, mesoporous nanosilica, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs, have been extensively studied over the past decades. In contrast to conventional polymeric and lipid nanoparticles, inorganic nanoparticles based drug carriers are peculiar as they have shown excellent theranostic effects, revealing themselves an indispensable part of future nanomedicine. Here, we will elaborate recent research advances on fabrication of inorganic nanoparticles for platinum drug delivery.

  6. Engineered inorganic core/shell nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mélinon, Patrice, E-mail: patrice.melinon@univ-lyon1.fr [Institut Lumière matière Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1 et CNRS et OMNT, Domaine Scientifique de la Doua, Bâtiment Léon Brillouin, 43 Boulevard du 11 Novembre 1918, F 69622 Villeurbanne (France); Begin-Colin, Sylvie [IPCMS et OMNT, 23 rue du Loess BP 43, 67034 STRASBOURG Cedex 2 (France); Duvail, Jean Luc [IMN UMR 6502 et OMNT Campus Sciences : 2 rue de la Houssinire, BP32229, 44322 Nantes Cedex3 (France); Gauffre, Fabienne [SPM et OMNT : Institut des sciences chimiques de Rennes - UMR 6226, 263 Avenue du General Leclerc, CS 74205, 35042 RENNES Cedex (France); Boime, Nathalie Herlin [IRAMIS-NIMBE, Laboratoire Francis Perrin (CEA CNRS URA 2453) et OMNT, Bat 522, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France); Ledoux, Gilles [Institut Lumière Matière Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1 et CNRS et OMNT, Domaine Scientifique de la Doua, Bâtiment Alfred Kastler 43 Boulevard du 11 Novembre 1918 F 69622 Villeurbanne (France); Plain, Jérôme [Universit de technologie de Troyes LNIO-ICD, CNRS et OMNT 12 rue Marie Curie - CS 42060 - 10004 Troyes cedex (France); Reiss, Peter [CEA Grenoble, INAC-SPrAM, UMR 5819 CEA-CNRS-UJF et OMNT, Grenoble cedex 9 (France); Silly, Fabien [CEA, IRAMIS, SPEC, TITANS, CNRS 2464 et OMNT, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Warot-Fonrose, Bénédicte [CEMES-CNRS, Université de Toulouse et OMNT, 29 rue Jeanne Marvig F 31055 Toulouse (France)

    2014-10-20

    It has been for a long time recognized that nanoparticles are of great scientific interest as they are effectively a bridge between bulk materials and atomic structures. At first, size effects occurring in single elements have been studied. More recently, progress in chemical and physical synthesis routes permitted the preparation of more complex structures. Such structures take advantages of new adjustable parameters including stoichiometry, chemical ordering, shape and segregation opening new fields with tailored materials for biology, mechanics, optics magnetism, chemistry catalysis, solar cells and microelectronics. Among them, core/shell structures are a particular class of nanoparticles made with an inorganic core and one or several inorganic shell layer(s). In earlier work, the shell was merely used as a protective coating for the core. More recently, it has been shown that it is possible to tune the physical properties in a larger range than that of each material taken separately. The goal of the present review is to discuss the basic properties of the different types of core/shell nanoparticles including a large variety of heterostructures. We restrict ourselves on all inorganic (on inorganic/inorganic) core/shell structures. In the light of recent developments, the applications of inorganic core/shell particles are found in many fields including biology, chemistry, physics and engineering. In addition to a representative overview of the properties, general concepts based on solid state physics are considered for material selection and for identifying criteria linking the core/shell structure and its resulting properties. Chemical and physical routes for the synthesis and specific methods for the study of core/shell nanoparticle are briefly discussed.

  7. Inorganic caesium lead iodide perovskite solar cells

    OpenAIRE

    Eperon, GE; Paterno', GM; Sutton, RJ; Zampetti, A.; Haghighirad, A; Cacialli, F.; Snaith, H.

    2015-01-01

    The vast majority of perovskite solar cell research has focused on organic-inorganic lead trihalide perovskites. Herein, we present working inorganic CsPbI3 perovskite solar cells for the first time. CsPbI3 normally resides in a yellow non-perovskite phase at room temperature, but by careful processing control and development of a low-temperature phase transition route we have stabilised the material in the black perovskite phase at room temperature. As such, we have fabricated solar cell dev...

  8. Inorganic-organic separators for alkaline batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheibley, D. W. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A flexible separator is reported for use between the electrodes of Ni-Cd and Ni-Zn batteries using alkaline electrolytes. The separator was made by coating a porous substrate with a battery separator composition. The coating material included a rubber-based resin copolymer, a plasticizer and inorganic and organic fillers which comprised 55% by volume or less of the coating as finally dried. One or more of the filler materials, whether organic or inorganic, is preferably active with the alkaline electrolyte to produce pores in the separator coating. The plasticizer was an organic material which is hydrolyzed by the alkaline electrolyte to improve conductivity of the separator coating.

  9. Biotransformation of inorganic arsenic in a marine herbivorous fish Siganus fuscescens after dietborne exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Chen, Lizhao; Zhou, Yanyan; Wu, Yun; Zhang, Li

    2016-03-01

    Arsenic (As) is well known to be biodiminished along marine food chains. The marine herbivorous fish at a lower trophic level are expected to accumulate more As. However, little is known about how marine herbivorous fish biotransform the potential high As bioaccumulation. Therefore, the present study quantified the biotransformation of two inorganic As species (As(III) and As(V)) in a marine herbivorous fish Siganus fuscescens following dietborne exposure. The fish were fed on As contaminated artificial diets at nominal concentrations of 400 and 1500 μg As(III) or As(V) g(-1) (dry weight) for 21 d and 42 d. After exposure, As concentrations in intestine, liver, and muscle tissues of rabbitfish increased significantly and were proportional to the inorganic As exposure concentrations. The present study demonstrated that both inorganic As(III) and As(V) in the dietborne phases were able to be biotransformed to the less toxic arsenobetaine (AsB) (63.3-91.3% in liver; 79.0%-95.2% in muscle). The processes of As biotransformation in rabbitfish could include oxidation of As(III) to As(V), reduction of As(V) to As(III), methylation to monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), and subsequent conversion to AsB. These results also demonstrated that AsB synthesis processes were diverse facing different inorganic As species in different tissues. In summary, the present study elucidated that marine herbivorous fish had high ability to biotransform inorganic As to the organic forms (mainly AsB), resulting in high As bioaccumulation. Therefore, marine herbivorous fish could detoxify inorganic As in the natural environment. PMID:26766368

  10. Biotransformation of inorganic arsenic in a marine herbivorous fish Siganus fuscescens after dietborne exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Chen, Lizhao; Zhou, Yanyan; Wu, Yun; Zhang, Li

    2016-03-01

    Arsenic (As) is well known to be biodiminished along marine food chains. The marine herbivorous fish at a lower trophic level are expected to accumulate more As. However, little is known about how marine herbivorous fish biotransform the potential high As bioaccumulation. Therefore, the present study quantified the biotransformation of two inorganic As species (As(III) and As(V)) in a marine herbivorous fish Siganus fuscescens following dietborne exposure. The fish were fed on As contaminated artificial diets at nominal concentrations of 400 and 1500 μg As(III) or As(V) g(-1) (dry weight) for 21 d and 42 d. After exposure, As concentrations in intestine, liver, and muscle tissues of rabbitfish increased significantly and were proportional to the inorganic As exposure concentrations. The present study demonstrated that both inorganic As(III) and As(V) in the dietborne phases were able to be biotransformed to the less toxic arsenobetaine (AsB) (63.3-91.3% in liver; 79.0%-95.2% in muscle). The processes of As biotransformation in rabbitfish could include oxidation of As(III) to As(V), reduction of As(V) to As(III), methylation to monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), and subsequent conversion to AsB. These results also demonstrated that AsB synthesis processes were diverse facing different inorganic As species in different tissues. In summary, the present study elucidated that marine herbivorous fish had high ability to biotransform inorganic As to the organic forms (mainly AsB), resulting in high As bioaccumulation. Therefore, marine herbivorous fish could detoxify inorganic As in the natural environment.

  11. Plant uptake of dual-labeled organic N biased by inorganic C uptake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jim; Sauheitl, Leopold; Eriksen, Jørgen;

    2010-01-01

    glycine or CO2-3 , but found no differences in uptake rates between these C-sources. The uptake of inorganic C to the shoot tissue was higher for maize grown in full light compared to shading, which indicates a passive uptake of inorganic C with water. We conclude that uptake of inorganic C produced......Direct plant uptake of organic nitrogen (N) is often studied using the dual-labeling approach (15N + 13C or 15N + 14C). However, the method might be hampered by uptake of labeled inorganic carbon (C) produced by mineralization of labeled organic compounds. Here we report the results from a triple...... labeling experiment (15N + 13C + 14C) investigating whether root uptake of labeled inorganic C can bias the results obtained in studies of organic N uptake using dual-labeled amino acids (15N, 13C). In a rhizosphere tube experiment we investigated 13C and 14C uptake by maize either supplied with labeled...

  12. Modelling iodide – iodate speciation in atmospheric aerosol: Contributions of inorganic and organic iodine chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pechtl

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The speciation of iodine in atmospheric aerosol is currently poorly understood. Models predict negligible iodide concentrations but accumulation of iodate in aerosol, both of which is not confirmed by recent measurements. We present an updated aqueous phase iodine chemistry scheme for use in atmospheric chemistry models and discuss sensitivity studies with the marine boundary layer model MISTRA. These studies show that iodate can be reduced in acidic aerosol by inorganic reactions, i.e., iodate does not necessarily accumulate in particles. Furthermore, the transformation of particulate iodide to volatile iodine species likely has been overestimated in previous model studies due to negligence of collision-induced upper limits for the reaction rates. However, inorganic reaction cycles still do not seem to be sufficient to reproduce the observed range of iodide – iodate speciation in atmospheric aerosol. Therefore, we also investigate the effects of the recently suggested reaction of HOI with dissolved organic matter to produce iodide. If this reaction is fast enough to compete with the inorganic mechanism, it would not only directly lead to enhanced iodide concentrations but, indirectly via speed-up of the inorganic iodate reduction cycles, also to a decrease in iodate concentrations. Hence, according to our model studies, organic iodine chemistry, combined with inorganic reaction cycles, is able to reproduce observations. The presented chemistry cycles are highly dependent on pH and thus offer an explanation for the large observed variability of the iodide – iodate speciation in atmospheric aerosol.

  13. Interconnection of nanoparticles within 2D superlattices of PbS/oleic acid thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Paul; Bahrig, Lydia; Baburin, Igor A; Formanek, Petr; Röder, Falk; Sickmann, Jan; Hickey, Stephen G; Eychmüller, Alexander; Lichte, Hannes; Kniep, Rüdiger; Rosseeva, Elena

    2014-05-21

    Make it connected! 2D close-packed layers of inorganic nanoparticles are interconnected by organic fibrils of oleic acid as clearly visualized by electron holography. These fibrils can be mineralised by PbS to transform an organic-inorganic framework to a completely interconnected inorganic semiconducting 2D array.

  14. Microbiological disproportionation of inorganic sulfur compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finster, Kai

    2008-01-01

    and sulfate. Thus the overall process is comparable to the fermentation of organic compounds such as glucose and is consequently often described as 'inorganic fermentation'. The process is primarily carried out by microorganisms with phylogenetic affiliation to the so called sulfate-reducing bacteria within...

  15. Thermoplastic Polymer Nanocomposites Based on Inorganic Fullerene-like Nanoparticles and Inorganic Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Naffakh

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Using inorganic fullerene-like (IF nanoparticles and inorganic nanotubes (INT in organic-inorganic hybrid composite, materials provide the potential for improving thermal, mechanical, and tribological properties of conventional composites. The processing of such high-performance hybrid thermoplastic polymer nanocomposites is achieved via melt-blending without the aid of any modifier or compatibilizing agent. The incorporation of small quantities (0.1–4 wt.% of IF/INTs (tungsten disulfide, IF-WS2 or molybdenum disulfide, MoS2 generates notable performance enhancements through reinforcement effects and excellent lubricating ability in comparison with promising carbon nanotubes or other inorganic nanoscale fillers. It was shown that these IF/INT nanocomposites can provide an effective balance between performance, cost effectiveness, and processability, which is of significant importance for extending the practical applications of diverse hierarchical thermoplastic-based composites.

  16. Reactivity Network: Secondary Sources for Inorganic Reactivity Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellon, E. K.

    1989-01-01

    Provides an eclectic annotated bibliography of secondary sources for inorganic reactivity information of interest to reactivity network review authors and to anyone seeking information about simple inorganic reactions in order to develop experiments and demonstrations. Gives 119 sources. (MVL)

  17. Inorganic Nitrogen Wet Deposition for the Conterminous United States, 1961

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Annual inorganic nitrogen wet deposition were estimated for the conterminous United States for 1961. The estimates were derived from inorganic nitrogen...

  18. Inorganic Nitrogen Wet Deposition for the Conterminous United States, 1962

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Annual inorganic nitrogen wet deposition were estimated for the conterminous United States for 1962. The estimates were derived from inorganic nitrogen...

  19. Inorganic Nitrogen Wet Deposition for the Conterminous United States, 1964

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Annual inorganic nitrogen wet deposition were estimated for the conterminous United States for 1964. The estimates were derived from inorganic nitrogen...

  20. Striking a Balance: Experiment and Concept in Undergraduate Inorganic Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, John E.

    1990-01-01

    Described is an inorganic chemistry course based on the premise that a balanced understanding of inorganic chemistry requires knowledge of the experimental, theoretical, and technological aspects of the subject. A detailed description of lectures and laboratories is included. (KR)

  1. Inorganic Nitrogen Wet Deposition for the Conterminous United States, 1982

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Annual inorganic nitrogen wet deposition were estimated for the conterminous United States for 1982. The estimates were derived from inorganic nitrogen...

  2. Inorganic Nitrogen Wet Deposition for the Conterminous United States, 1981

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Annual inorganic nitrogen wet deposition were estimated for the conterminous United States for 1981. The estimates were derived from inorganic nitrogen...

  3. Inorganic Nitrogen Wet Deposition for the Conterminous United States, 1984

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Annual inorganic nitrogen wet deposition were estimated for the conterminous United States for 1984. The estimates were derived from inorganic nitrogen...

  4. Inorganic Nitrogen Wet Deposition for the Conterminous United States, 1965

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Annual inorganic nitrogen wet deposition were estimated for the conterminous United States for 1965. The estimates were derived from inorganic nitrogen...

  5. Inorganic Nitrogen Wet Deposition for the Conterminous United States, 1983

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Annual inorganic nitrogen wet deposition were estimated for the conterminous United States for 1983. The estimates were derived from inorganic nitrogen...

  6. Inorganic Nitrogen Wet Deposition for the Conterminous United States, 1963

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Annual inorganic nitrogen wet deposition were estimated for the conterminous United States for 1963. The estimates were derived from inorganic nitrogen...

  7. Preparation, Properties and Application of Polymeric Organic-Inorganic Nanocomposites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任杰; 刘艳; 唐小真

    2003-01-01

    Six preparation methods for polymeric organic-inorganic nanocomposites and their respective mechanisms and features are reviewed. The extraordinary properties of polymeric organic-inorganic nanocomposites are discussed,and their potential applications are evaluated.

  8. A study on major inorganic ion composition of atmospheric aerosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salve, P R; Krupadam, R J; Wate, S R

    2007-04-01

    Atmospheric aerosol samples were collected from Akola and Buldana region covering around 40 sqkm area during October-November 2002 and were analyzed for ten major inorganic ions namely F-, Cl-, NO3-, SO4(2-), PO4(2-), Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+ and NH4+ using ion chromatographic technique. The average mass of aerosols was found to be 225.81 microg/m3 with standard deviation of 31.29 and average total water soluble load of total cations and anions was found to be 4.32 microg/m3. The concentration of ions in samples showed a general pattern as SO4(2-) > NO3- > Cl- > PO4(2-) > F- for anions and Na+ > Ca2+ > NH4+ > Mg2+ > K+ for cations. The overall composition of the aerosols was taken into account to identify the sources. The trend showed higher concentration of sodium followed by calcium, sulfate, nitrate, phosphate and ammoinum and found to be influenced by terrestrial sources. The presence of SO4(2-) and NO3- in aerosols may be due to re-suspension of soil particles. Ca2+, Mg2+ and Cl- are to be derived from soil materials. The presence of NH4+ may be attributed to the reaction of NH3 vapors with acidic gases may react or condense on an acidic particle surface of anthropogenic origin. The atmospheric aerosol is slightly acidic due to neutralization of basicity by SO2 and NO(x).

  9. A combined particle trap/HTDMA hygroscopicity study of mixed inorganic/organic aerosol particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Zardini

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric aerosols are often mixtures of inorganic and organic material. Organics can represent a large fraction of the total aerosol mass and are comprised of water-soluble and insoluble compounds. Increasing attention was paid in the last decade to the capability of mixed inorganic/organic aerosol particles to take up water (hygroscopicity. We performed hygroscopicity measurements of internally mixed particles containing ammonium sulfate and carboxylic acids (citric, glutaric, adipic acid in parallel with an electrodynamic balance (EDB and a hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer (HTDMA. The organic compounds were chosen to represent three distinct physical states. During hygroscopicity cycles covering hydration and dehydration measured by the EDB and the HTDMA, pure citric acid remained always liquid, adipic acid remained always solid, while glutaric acid could be either. We show that the hygroscopicity of mixtures of the above compounds is well described by the Zdanovskii-Stokes-Robinson (ZSR relationship as long as the two-component particle is completely liquid in the ammonium sulfate/citric acid and in the ammonium sulfate/glutaric acid cases. However, we observe significant discrepancies compared to what is expected from bulk thermodynamics when a solid component is present. We explain this in terms of a complex morphology resulting from the crystallization process leading to veins, pores, and grain boundaries which allow for water sorption in excess of bulk thermodynamic predictions caused by the inverse Kelvin effect on concave surfaces.

  10. UV-C photolysis of endocrine disruptors. The influence of inorganic peroxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norfloxacin, doxycycline and mefenamic acid have been photolysed with UV-C radiation (254 nm) in the presence and absence of inorganic peroxides (hydrogen peroxide or sodium monopersulfate). Quantum yields in the range (1.1-4.5) x 10-3 mol Einstein-1 indicate the low photo-reactivity of these pharmaceuticals. Inorganic peroxides considerably enhanced the contaminants conversion, although no appreciable mineralization could be obtained. A simplistic reaction mechanism for the hydrogen peroxide promoted experiments allowed for a rough estimation of the rate constant between hydroxyl radicals and norfloxacin (k > 1 x 109 M-1 s-1), doxycycline (k > 1.5 x 109 M-1 s-1) and mefenamic acid (k > 11.0 x 109 M-1 s-1).

  11. UV-C photolysis of endocrine disruptors. The influence of inorganic peroxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivas, Javier, E-mail: fjrivas@unex.es [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Quimica Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Avenida de Elvas S/N, 06071 Badajoz (Spain); Gimeno, Olga; Borralho, Teresa; Carbajo, Maria [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Quimica Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Avenida de Elvas S/N, 06071 Badajoz (Spain)

    2010-02-15

    Norfloxacin, doxycycline and mefenamic acid have been photolysed with UV-C radiation (254 nm) in the presence and absence of inorganic peroxides (hydrogen peroxide or sodium monopersulfate). Quantum yields in the range (1.1-4.5) x 10{sup -3} mol Einstein{sup -1} indicate the low photo-reactivity of these pharmaceuticals. Inorganic peroxides considerably enhanced the contaminants conversion, although no appreciable mineralization could be obtained. A simplistic reaction mechanism for the hydrogen peroxide promoted experiments allowed for a rough estimation of the rate constant between hydroxyl radicals and norfloxacin (k > 1 x 10{sup 9} M{sup -1} s{sup -1}), doxycycline (k > 1.5 x 10{sup 9} M{sup -1} s{sup -1}) and mefenamic acid (k > 11.0 x 10{sup 9} M{sup -1} s{sup -1}).

  12. Blue laser dye spectroscopic properties in solgel inorganic-organic hybrid films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraidarov, Tsiala; Reisfeld, Renata; Kazes, Miri; Banin, Uri

    2006-02-01

    A blue solid-state laser material based on 4,4‧ dibenzyl carbamido stilbene-2,2‧ disulfonic acid incorporated into solgel zirconia and inorganic-organic hybrid matrices is presented. The absorption maxima of the dye in various matrices are around 339-361 nm, and the broad fluorescence peaks are at 411-413 nm. Optical gain measurements using the variable stripe method show amplified spontaneous emission peaking at 437 nm.

  13. Inorganic molecular sieves: Preparation, modification and industrial application in catalytic processes

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Sánchez, Mª Cristina; Corma Canós, Avelino

    2011-01-01

    The increasing environmental concern and promotion of “green processes” are forcing the substitution of traditional acid and base homogeneous catalysts by solid ones. Among these heterogeneous catalysts, zeolites and zeotypes can be considered as real “green” catalysts, due to their benign nature from an environmental point of view. The importance of these inorganic molecular sieves within the field of heterogeneous catalysis relies not only on their microporous structure and the related shap...

  14. The application of inorganic ion exchangers to the decontamination of radioactive liquid effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A generic programme of work at Harwell has been investigating the potential application of inorganic exchangers in effluent treatment. Hydrous titanium oxide, manganese dioxide titanium and zirconium phosphates, polyantimonic acid and copper hexacyanoferrate were selected for experimental investigation. An extensive experimental programme has examined the performance of these six materials for the removal of a variety of radionuclides from a wide range of different simulated waste effluents. (author)

  15. Tuning the Mechanical Properties of Tapioca Starch by Plasticizers, Inorganic Fillers and Agrowaste-Based Fillers

    OpenAIRE

    Edwin Azwar; Minna Hakkarainen

    2012-01-01

    Mechanical properties of tapioca starch-based films were tuned by different additives and additive combinations. The additives included plasticizers (glycerol, sorbitol, and citric acid), inorganic fillers (halloysite and kaolin), and agrowaste-based fillers (milled wood flour and rice bran). In addition, new biobased additives were prepared from wood flour and rice bran through liquefaction reaction. Through different additive combinations, starch-based materials with significant differences...

  16. The variation of phytic and inorganic phosphorus in leaves and grain in maize populations

    OpenAIRE

    Dragićević Vesna; Kovačević Dragan; Sredojević Slobodanka; Dumanović Zoran; Mladenović-Drinić Snežana

    2010-01-01

    The phytate function in plants is still not completely understood: it is the primary storage P form in seeds that is utilized during germination and early seedling development. Approaches to resolve problem of the bad nutritive quality of grain phytate include engineering of crops with reduced levels of seed phytic acid. The objective of this study was to investigate genetic variability and correlation of phytic (Pphy) and inorganic phosphorus (Pi) and solu...

  17. Synthesis and optical features of an europium organic-inorganic silicate hybrid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franville, A.C.; Zambon, D.; Mahiou, R.; Chou, S.; Cousseins, J.C. [Universite Blaise Pascal, Aubiere (France). Lab. des Materiaux Inorganiques; Troin, Y. [Laboratoire de Chimie des Heterocycles et des Glucides, EA 987, Universite Blaise-Pascal and ENSCCF, F-63177 Aubiere Cedex (France)

    1998-07-24

    A europium organic-inorganic silicate hybrid was synthesized by grafting a coordinative group (dipicolinic acid) to a silicate network precursor (3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane) via a covalent bonding. Sol-gel process and complexation were performed using different experimental conditions. The hybrid materials, in particular the Eu{sup 3+} coordination mode, were characterized by infrared and luminescence spectroscopies. Morphology of the materials and TG analysis showed that grafted silica enhanced thermal and mechanical resistances of the organic part. (orig.) 7 refs.

  18. Electrostatically gated membrane permeability in inorganic protocells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mei; Harbron, Rachel L.; Weaver, Jonathan V. M.; Binks, Bernard P.; Mann, Stephen

    2013-06-01

    Although several strategies are now available to produce functional microcompartments analogous to primitive cell-like structures, little progress has been made in generating protocell constructs with self-controlled membrane permeability. Here we describe the preparation of water-dispersible colloidosomes based on silica nanoparticles and delineated by a continuous semipermeable inorganic membrane capable of self-activated, electrostatically gated permeability. We use crosslinking and covalent grafting of a pH-responsive copolymer to generate an ultrathin elastic membrane that exhibits selective release and uptake of small molecules. This behaviour, which depends on the charge of the copolymer coronal layer, serves to trigger enzymatic dephosphorylation reactions specifically within the protocell aqueous interior. This system represents a step towards the design and construction of alternative types of artificial chemical cells and protocell models based on spontaneous processes of inorganic self-organization.

  19. Biodegradation of leather tanned with inorganic salts

    OpenAIRE

    Bacardit Dalmases, Anna; Jorba, Montse; Font Vallès, Joaquim; Shendrik, Alexander; Ollé Otero, Lluís

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to evaluate the physical, chemical and biological processes associated with the deterioration of leather tanned with inorganic salts. The samples of leather were exposed during eight months to outdoor weathering, and then their properties were evaluated. The results indicate that biodegration starts with dehydration, a partial scission of the protein chain of the collagen, detanning and a loss of oils due to volatilization and/or decomposition.

  20. Electrostatically gated membrane permeability in inorganic protocells

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Mei; Harbron, Rachel; Weaver, Jonathan; Binks, Bernard; Mann, Stephen.

    2013-01-01

    Although several strategies are now available to produce functional microcompartments analogous to primitive cell-like structures, little progress has been made in generating protocell constructs with self-controlled membrane permeability. Here we describe the preparation of water-dispersible colloidosomes based on silica nanoparticles and delineated by a continuous semipermeable inorganic membrane capable of self-activated, electrostatically gated permeability. We use crosslinking and covale...

  1. Molten salt battery having inorganic paper separator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Jr., Robert D.

    1977-01-01

    A high temperature secondary battery comprises an anode containing lithium, a cathode containing a chalcogen or chalcogenide, a molten salt electrolyte containing lithium ions, and a separator comprising a porous sheet comprising a homogenous mixture of 2-20 wt.% chrysotile asbestos fibers and the remainder inorganic material non-reactive with the battery components. The non-reactive material is present as fibers, powder, or a fiber-powder mixture.

  2. Application of inorganic scintillator for neutron detector

    CERN Document Server

    Niki, N; Nakayama, S; Fushimi, K

    2003-01-01

    In a nuclear reactor institution, the neutron monitoring is indispensable in order to find an unusual neutron event which may be the signal of an accident or damage of a reactor. In this work, the possibility of a neutron monitor by means of an inorganic scintillator was researched. The detection efficiency and the intrinsic background of GSO scintillator and its sensitivity for neutrons have been studied.

  3. Nanocomposites Derived from Polymers and Inorganic Nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    In-Yup Jeon; Jong-Beom Baek

    2010-01-01

    Polymers are considered to be good hosting matrices for composite materials because they can easily be tailored to yield a variety of bulk physical properties. Moreover, organic polymers generally have long-term stability and good processability. Inorganic nanoparticles possess outstanding optical, catalytic, electronic and magnetic properties, which are significantly different their bulk states. By combining the attractive functionalities of both components, nanocomposites derived from organ...

  4. Hygroscopic properties of organic and inorganic aerosols[Dissertation 17260

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjoegren, N.O.Staffan

    2007-07-01

    The atmosphere contains gases and particulate matter (aerosol). Organic material is present both in the gas phase and in the aerosol phase. Biogenic sources such as vegetation and anthropogenic sources such as biomass burning, fossil fuel use and various industries contribute to their emissions. The study of organic compounds in aerosol particles is of importance because they affect the water uptake (hygroscopicity) of inorganic aerosol, and hence the radiation budget of the Earth through the direct and indirect aerosol effects. The hygroscopicity of mixed organic/inorganic aerosol particles produced in the laboratory was characterized. This work reports on the following substances, and mixtures of them with ammonium sulfate (AS): adipic acid (AA), citric acid (CA), glutaric acid (GA) and humic acid sodium salt (NaHA). The AA and NaHA mixtures with AS were found to require up to tens of seconds for equilibrium water content to be reached. Therefore, measurements carried out on timescales shorter than a few seconds underestimate the hygroscopic growth factor (GF) with up to 10%, for samples containing a solid phase. Conversely, the GA and CA mixtures with AS were found to take up water readily and were well described by the Zdanovskii-Stokes-Robinson (ZSR) mixing rule. The distinct deliquescence and efflorescence points of AS could be seen to gradually disappear as the CA content was increased. Furthermore mineral dust (standard Arizona test dust) was investigated, as well as the influence of nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}) uptake thereon. Mineral dust is hydrophobic, but after processing with HNO{sub 3} turns slightly hygroscopic. Large amounts of dust are injected to the atmosphere (largely from the Sahara and the Gobi deserts, but also from human land-use). Mineral dust is important as ice nuclei, and due to its larger sizes it can also contribute as cloud condensation nuclei. Mineral dust also offers surface for heterogeneous chemistry, and can play an important role

  5. Net transformation of phosphorus forms applied as inorganic and organic amendments to a calcareous soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audette, Yuki; O'Halloran, Ivan; Voroney, Paul

    2016-04-01

    The forms of phosphorus (P) in animal manure composts are different from that of synthetic P fertilizers, and this could affect how soil P chemistry will be altered when they are used as P amendments. The objective of this study was to analyze the net changes in the nature and dynamics of plant available P forms applied either as inorganic P (KH2PO4) or turkey litter compost (TLC) in calcareous soil with and without plant growth. Forms of TLC-P were characterized by x-ray diffraction and solution 31P NMR spectroscopy techniques. The amounts of various P forms in soils were measured by a sequential fractionation method after 4, 8, 12 and 16 weeks incubation. Brushite (Ca-P) and newberyite (Mg-P) were the major forms of inorganic P, and phosphate monoester was the major form of organic P present in TLC. The addition of inorganic P fertilizer increased the labile/moderately labile P, whereas the compost increased the moderately labile P extractable with weak acid (pH 4.2). Even though the amount of the labile P fraction in the compost-treated soil was smaller than that in the fertilizer-treated soils, ryegrass growth and plant P uptake were greater. The net transformation of the labile/moderately labile P was slower in the compost-treated soil without plant growth, however it was faster with plant growth. This study showed that P applied either as an inorganic or an organic amendment was recovered in different P fractions in a calcareous soil, and therefore it is expected that the P source would affect soil P chemistry. A weak acid extractable inorganic P fraction should be considered as plant available P especially in the compost-treated soil, that is converted into plant available P through direct and/or indirect root-induced acidification in the rhizosphere.

  6. Inorganic particle analysis of dental impression elastomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlo, Hugo Lemes; Fonseca, Rodrigo Borges; Soares, Carlos José; Correr, Américo Bortolazzo; Correr-Sobrinho, Lourenço; Sinhoreti, Mário Alexandre Coelho

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine quantitatively and qualitatively the inorganic particle fraction of commercially available dental elastomers. The inorganic volumetric fraction of two addition silicones (Reprosil Putty/Fluid and Flexitime Easy Putty/Fluid), three condensation silicones (Clonage Putty/Fluid, Optosil Confort/Xantopren VL and Silon APS Putty/Fluid), one polyether (Impregum Soft Light Body) and one polysulfide (Permlastic Light Body) was accessed by weighing a previously determined mass of each material in water before and after burning samples at 600 ºC, during 3 h. Unsettled material samples were soaked in acetone and chloroform for removal of the organic portion. The remaining filler particles were sputter-coated with gold evaluation of their morphology and size, under scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Flexitime Easy Putty was the material with the highest results for volumetric particle fraction, while Impregum Soft had the lowest values. Silon 2 APS Fluid presented the lowest mean filler size values, while Clonage Putty had the highest values. SEM micrographs of the inorganic particles showed several morphologies - lathe-cut, spherical, spherical-like, sticks, and sticks mixed to lathe-cut powder. The results of this study revealed differences in particle characteristics among the elastometic materials that could lead to different results when testing mechanical properties. PMID:21271042

  7. Flexible Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Perovskite Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Chungwan; Lee, Jang-Sik

    2016-05-24

    Active research has been done on hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite materials for application to solar cells with high power conversion efficiency. However, this material often shows hysteresis, which is undesirable, shift in the current-voltage curve. The hysteresis may come from formation of defects and their movement in perovskite materials. Here, we utilize the defects in perovskite materials to be used in memory operations. We demonstrate flexible nonvolatile memory devices based on hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite as the resistive switching layer on a plastic substrate. A uniform perovskite layer is formed on a transparent electrode-coated plastic substrate by solvent engineering. Flexible nonvolatile memory based on the perovskite layer shows reproducible and reliable memory characteristics in terms of program/erase operations, data retention, and endurance properties. The memory devices also show good mechanical flexibility. It is suggested that resistive switching is done by migration of vacancy defects and formation of conducting filaments under the electric field in the perovskite layer. It is believed that organic-inorganic perovskite materials have great potential to be used in high-performance, flexible memory devices. PMID:27093096

  8. Inorganic particle analysis of dental impression elastomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlo, Hugo Lemes; Fonseca, Rodrigo Borges; Soares, Carlos José; Correr, Américo Bortolazzo; Correr-Sobrinho, Lourenço; Sinhoreti, Mário Alexandre Coelho

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine quantitatively and qualitatively the inorganic particle fraction of commercially available dental elastomers. The inorganic volumetric fraction of two addition silicones (Reprosil Putty/Fluid and Flexitime Easy Putty/Fluid), three condensation silicones (Clonage Putty/Fluid, Optosil Confort/Xantopren VL and Silon APS Putty/Fluid), one polyether (Impregum Soft Light Body) and one polysulfide (Permlastic Light Body) was accessed by weighing a previously determined mass of each material in water before and after burning samples at 600 ºC, during 3 h. Unsettled material samples were soaked in acetone and chloroform for removal of the organic portion. The remaining filler particles were sputter-coated with gold evaluation of their morphology and size, under scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Flexitime Easy Putty was the material with the highest results for volumetric particle fraction, while Impregum Soft had the lowest values. Silon 2 APS Fluid presented the lowest mean filler size values, while Clonage Putty had the highest values. SEM micrographs of the inorganic particles showed several morphologies - lathe-cut, spherical, spherical-like, sticks, and sticks mixed to lathe-cut powder. The results of this study revealed differences in particle characteristics among the elastometic materials that could lead to different results when testing mechanical properties.

  9. Common inorganic ions are efficient catalysts for organic reactions in atmospheric aerosols and other natural environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozière, B.; Dziedzic, P.; Córdova, A.

    2009-01-01

    In this work, inorganic ammonium ions, NH4+, and carbonate ions, CO32-, are reported for the first time as catalysts for organic reactions in atmospheric aerosols and other natural environments at the Earth's surface. These reactions include the formation of C-C and C-O bonds by aldol condensation and acetal formation, and reveal a new aspect of the interactions between organic and inorganic materials in natural environments. The catalytic properties of inorganic ammonium ions, in particular, were not previously known in chemistry. The reactions were found to be as fast in tropospheric ammonium sulfate composition as in concentrated sulfuric acid. The ubiquitous presence and large concentrations of ammonium ions in tropospheric aerosols would make of ammonium catalysis a main consumption pathway for organic compounds in these aerosols, while acid catalysis would have a minor contribution. In particular, ammonium catalysis would account quantitatively for the aging of carbonyl compounds into secondary ''fulvic'' compounds in tropospheric aerosols, a transformation affecting the optical properties of these aerosols. In general, ammonium catalysis is likely to be responsible for many observations previously attributed to acid catalysis in the troposphere.

  10. Common inorganic ions are efficient catalysts for organic reactions in atmospheric aerosols and other natural environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Nozière

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, inorganic ammonium ions, NH4+, and carbonate ions, CO32−, are reported for the first time as catalysts for organic reactions in atmospheric aerosols and other natural environments at the Earth's surface. These reactions include the formation of C–C and C–O bonds by aldol condensation and acetal formation, and reveal a new aspect of the interactions between organic and inorganic materials in natural environments. The catalytic properties of inorganic ammonium ions, in particular, were not previously known in chemistry. The reactions were found to be as fast in tropospheric ammonium sulfate composition as in concentrated sulfuric acid. The ubiquitous presence and large concentrations of ammonium ions in tropospheric aerosols would make of ammonium catalysis a main consumption pathway for organic compounds in these aerosols, while acid catalysis would have a minor contribution. In particular, ammonium catalysis would account quantitatively for the aging of carbonyl compounds into secondary ''fulvic'' compounds in tropospheric aerosols, a transformation affecting the optical properties of these aerosols. In general, ammonium catalysis is likely to be responsible for many observations previously attributed to acid catalysis in the troposphere.

  11. Fabricating porous materials using interpenetrating inorganic-organic composite gels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Dong-Kyun; Volosin, Alex

    2016-06-14

    Porous materials are fabricated using interpenetrating inorganic-organic composite gels. A mixture or precursor solution including an inorganic gel precursor, an organic polymer gel precursor, and a solvent is treated to form an inorganic wet gel including the organic polymer gel precursor and the solvent. The inorganic wet gel is then treated to form a composite wet gel including an organic polymer network in the body of the inorganic wet gel, producing an interpenetrating inorganic-organic composite gel. The composite wet gel is dried to form a composite material including the organic polymer network and an inorganic network component. The composite material can be treated further to form a porous composite material, a porous polymer or polymer composite, a porous metal oxide, and other porous materials.

  12. Bioefficacy comparison of organic manganese with inorganic manganese for eggshell quality in Hy-Line Brown laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, J F; Wu, S G; Zhang, H J; Yue, H Y; Wang, J; Ji, F; Qi, G H

    2015-08-01

    This study was aimed at investigating the bioefficacy of organic compared with inorganic manganese (Mn) for eggshell quality. An amino acid-Mn complex or Mn sulfate monohydrate was used as the organic or inorganic Mn source. A total of six hundred forty-eight 50-wk-old layers (Hy-Line Brown) were divided into 9 groups; each group consisted of 6 replicates with 12 layers each. The feeding trial lasted 12 wk. During the first 4 wk of the feeding trial, the groups were fed a basal diet, which met the nutrient requirements of the layers, except for Mn. During the following 8 wk, 9 levels of Mn (inorganic Mn: 0, 25, 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg; organic Mn: 25, 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg) were used to supplement, respectively, in the basal diet on an equimolar basis. An exponential regression model was applied to calculate the bioefficacy of organic Mn compared with the inorganic Mn. Dietary supplementation with either organic or inorganic Mn did not influence egg production and feed efficiency of (P > 0.05), and eggshell quality did not exhibit a significant response to dietary supplementation with Mn sources at 56 and 58 wk (P > 0.05). Dietary supplementation with either organic Mn or inorganic Mn significantly enhanced the thickness, breaking strength, and elastic modulus of the eggshells compared with the control group at the end of 62 wk (P organic Mn was 357% (shell thickness), 406% (breaking strength), 458% (elastic modulus), and 470% (eggshell Mn), as efficacious as inorganic Mn at equimolar levels. This study suggests that organic Mn enhances eggshell quality in aged laying hens compared with inorganic Mn. PMID:26047673

  13. Conjunctive and mineralization impact of municipal solid waste compost and inorganic fertilizer on lysimeter and pot studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalid, Iqbal; Nadeem, Amana; Ahmed, Rauf; Husnain, Anwer

    2014-01-01

    Objectives of the present study were to investigate the physico-chemical properties of municipal solid waste (MSW)-enriched compost and its effect on nutrient mineralization and subsequent plant growth. The enrichment of MSW compost by inorganic salts enhanced the humification rate and reduced the carbon nitrogen (C/N) ratio in less time than control compost. The chemical properties of compost, C/N ratio, humic acid, fulvic acid, degree of polymerization and humification index revealed the significant correlation amid properties. A laboratory-scale experiment evaluated the conjunctive effect of MSW compost and inorganic fertilizer on tomato plants in a pot experiment. In the pot experiment five treatments, Inorganic fertilizer (T1), enriched compost (T2), enriched compost 80% + 20% inorganic fertilizer (T3), enriched compost 60% + 40% inorganic fertilizer (T4) were defined including control (Ts), applied at the rate of 110 kg-N/ha and results revealed that all treatments significantly enhanced horticultural production of tomato plant; however T4 was most effectual as compared with control, T1, T2 and T3. Augmentation in organic matter and available phosphorus (P) potassium (K) and nitrogen (N) were also observed in compost treatments. The leachability and phytoavailability of phosphorus (P), potassium (K) and nitrogen (N) from sandy soil, amended with enriched, control compost and inorganic fertilizer at rates of 200, 400 and 600 kg-N/ha were evaluated in a lysimeter study. Results illustrated that concentration of mineral nitrogen was elevated in the leachate of inorganic fertilizer than enriched and control composts; therefore compost fortifies soil with utmost nutrients for plants' growth. PMID:24600889

  14. Influence of additives (inorganic/organic on the clouding behavior of amphiphilic drug solutions: Some thermodynamic studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malik Abdul Rub

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Herein we provide a detailed result about the effect of various additives, viz. inorganic salts, quaternary ammonium bromides (QABs and amino acids on clouding behavior of amphiphilic drug amitriptyline hydrochloride (AMT. The continuous increase in the cloud point (CP of drug by increase in inorganic salt concentration and the magnitude of increases rely upon the position of the salts in Hofmeister series and hydrated radii. The QABs also influence continuous increase in the CP, which is illustrated in terms of the alkyl chain length of peculiar QAB. The effect of amino acids on CP of the drug solution is dependent upon the characteristics (acidic, basic, polar or nonpolar of particular amino acids. The overall behavior of additives has been analyzed and discussed on the basis of electrostatic repulsion or interaction, micellar growth, and mixed micelle formation between the ingredients. In addition to this, thermodynamic parameters are also evaluated.

  15. Fouling of inorganic membrane and flux enhancement in membrane-coupled anaerobic bioreactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, S.H.; Kang, I.J.; Lee, C.H. [Seoul National Univ. (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Chemical Technology

    1999-03-01

    The fouling mechanism of an inorganic membrane was studied during the operation of a membrane-coupled anaerobic bioreactor (MCAB) when alcohol distillery wastewater was used as a digester feed. It was observed that the fouling mechanism of an inorganic membrane was significantly different from that of conventional membrane filtration processes. The main foulant was identified to be an inorganic precipitate, struvite (MgNH{sub 4}PO{sub 4}{center_dot}6H{sub 2}O), rather than anaerobic microbial flocs. Struvite appears to be precipitated not only on the membrane surface but also inside the membrane pores. The amount of struvite generated during the bioreaction was estimated to be about 2 g/L alcohol distillery wastewater. The inorganic foulant was not easily removed by general physical cleaning such as depressurization, lumen flushing, and backflushing. Based on these findings, the membrane fouling was alleviated and thus flux was enhanced by adopting a backfeeding mode which has dual purpose of feeding and backflushing with particle-free acidic wastewater used as the feed for anaerobic digestion.

  16. Interfacial Templating of Inorganic Nanostructures Using Rationally Designed Peptide Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon Gibbons, Lorraine

    In nature, biological molecules form interfaces that assemble patterns of chemical functionality with exceptional precision. The role of dynamics during the assembly of biological molecules appears to be important for mineralization processes. The work presented in this dissertation applies model sheet-forming peptides at interfaces to explore the dynamics of assembly in order to template mineral growth. The peptide molecules are rationally designed to have amphiphilic properties and a propensity for sheet-like secondary structure. These designed peptides are deposited at the air/water interface to explore the dynamics of their self-assembly and investigate their 2D order. To characterize the phase behavior, techniques such as Langmuir Blodgett and Brewster Angle Microscopy are used. In addition, we verify the hypothesized sheet-forming propensity using both Circular Dichroism and Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, while the characterization of the inorganic phase is done using Transmission Electron Microscopy, Electron Diffraction, and Atomic Force Microscopy. Thermodynamic analysis of structure formation with increasing pressure allows us to understand the nature of self-assembly with iterative changes in the peptide sequence. Additionally, we look at the dynamics of the self-assembled state, where the organic phase switches between short- and long-range order as a function of surface pressure. We use this model system to explore the influence of electrostatic interactions on self-assembly, and additionally, the influence of short- and long-range order on the nucleation and growth of inorganic material. This is in contrast to a system that starts with a well-ordered preformed template that defines the epitaxial growth of the mineral phase. Two versions of our model peptides are constructed by substituting histidine for glutamic acid in order to nucleate Au nanocrystals in both the short and long range ordered organic matrix, to

  17. Multifunctional slow-release organic-inorganic compound fertilizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Boli; Liu, Mingzhu; Lü, Shaoyu; Xie, Lihua; Wang, Yanfang

    2010-12-01

    Multifunctional slow-release organic-inorganic compound fertilizer (MSOF) has been investigated to improve fertilizer use efficiency and reduce environmental pollution derived from fertilizer overdosage. The special fertilizer is based on natural attapulgite (APT) clay used as a matrix, sodium alginate used as an inner coating and sodium alginate-g-poly(acrylic acid-co-acrylamide)/humic acid (SA-g-P(AA-co-AM)/HA) superabsorbent polymer used as an outer coating. The coated multielement compound fertilizer granules were produced in a pan granulator, and the diameter of the prills was in the range of 2.5-3.5 mm. The structural and chemical characteristics of the product, as well as its efficiency in slowing the nutrients release, were examined. In addition, a mathematical model for nutrient release from the fertilizer was applied to calculate the diffusion coefficient D of nutrients in MSOF. The degradation of the SA-g-P(AA-co-AM)/HA coating was assessed by examining the weight loss with incubation time in soil. It is demonstrated that the product prepared by a simple route with good slow-release property may be expected to have wide potential applications in modern agriculture and horticulture. PMID:21058723

  18. Multifunctional slow-release organic-inorganic compound fertilizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Boli; Liu, Mingzhu; Lü, Shaoyu; Xie, Lihua; Wang, Yanfang

    2010-12-01

    Multifunctional slow-release organic-inorganic compound fertilizer (MSOF) has been investigated to improve fertilizer use efficiency and reduce environmental pollution derived from fertilizer overdosage. The special fertilizer is based on natural attapulgite (APT) clay used as a matrix, sodium alginate used as an inner coating and sodium alginate-g-poly(acrylic acid-co-acrylamide)/humic acid (SA-g-P(AA-co-AM)/HA) superabsorbent polymer used as an outer coating. The coated multielement compound fertilizer granules were produced in a pan granulator, and the diameter of the prills was in the range of 2.5-3.5 mm. The structural and chemical characteristics of the product, as well as its efficiency in slowing the nutrients release, were examined. In addition, a mathematical model for nutrient release from the fertilizer was applied to calculate the diffusion coefficient D of nutrients in MSOF. The degradation of the SA-g-P(AA-co-AM)/HA coating was assessed by examining the weight loss with incubation time in soil. It is demonstrated that the product prepared by a simple route with good slow-release property may be expected to have wide potential applications in modern agriculture and horticulture.

  19. Fractionation of inorganic arsenic by adjusting hydrogen ion concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Andrea; Gonzalez, Mario Henrique; Queiroz, Helena Müller; Cadore, Solange

    2016-12-15

    The inorganic fraction of arsenic species, iAs=∑[As(III)+As(V)] present in fish samples can be quantified in the presence of other arsenic species also found in fishes, such as: monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) and arsenobetaine (AsB). The toxic arsenic fraction was selected taking into account the dissociation constants of these arsenic species in different hydrogen ions concentration leading to the arsine formation from iAs compounds detected as As(III) by HG AAS. For thus, a microwave assisted extraction was carried out using HCl 1molL(-1) in order to maintain the integrity of the arsenic species in this mild extraction media. Recovery experiments were done for iAs fraction, in the presence of other arsenic species. The recovery values obtained for iAs fraction added were quantitative about 87-107% (for N=3, RSD⩽3%). The limit of detection (LOD), and the limit of quantification (LOQ), were 5μgkg(-1) and 16μgkg(-1) respectively. PMID:27451157

  20. NUTRITIONAL AND BAKING QUALITY OF LOW PHYTIC ACID WHEAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytic acid is the major storage form of phosphorus in wheat grain. Non-ruminant animals cannot utilize phytic acid phosphorus, and phytic acid reduces the nutritional availability of important minerals. We have identified a wheat mutant (Lpa1-1) with reduced phytic acid P and increased inorganic ...

  1. EFFECT OF CASEIN-BASED SEMISYNTHETIC FOOD ON RENAL ACID EXCRETION AND ACID-BASE STATE OF BLOOD IN DOGS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ZIJLSTRA, WG; LANGBROEK, AJM; KRAAN, J; RISPENS, P; NIJMEIJER, A

    1995-01-01

    Urinary acid excretion and blood acid-base stare were determined in dogs fed a casein-based semi-synthetic food (SSF), to which different amounts of salts had been added, in comparison with feeding normal dog food. Net acid excretion (NAE) and inorganic acid excretion (IAE) increased during SSF feed

  2. Magnetic field processing of inorganic polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunerth, D.C.; Peterson, E.S. [Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1995-05-01

    The purpose of this project is to investigate, understand, and demonstrate the use of magnetic field processing (MFP) to modify the properties of inorganic-based polymers and to develop the basic technical knowledge required for industrial implementation. Polyphosphazene membranes for chemical separation applications are being emphasized by this project. Previous work demonstrated that magnetic fields, appropriately applied during processing, can be used to beneficially modify membrane morphology. MFP membranes have significantly increased flux capabilities while maintaining the same chemical selectivity as the unprocessed membranes.

  3. Inorganic pyrophosphatases: structural diversity serving the function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samygina, V. R.

    2016-05-01

    The review is devoted to ubiquitous enzymes, inorganic pyrophosphatases, which are essential in all living organisms. Despite the long history of investigations, these enzymes continue to attract interest. The review focuses on the three-dimensional structures of various representatives of this class of proteins. The structural diversity, the relationship between the structure and some properties of pyrophosphatases and various mechanisms of enzyme action related to the structural diversity of these enzymes are discussed. Interactions of pyrophosphatase with other proteins and possible practical applications are considered. The bibliography includes 56 references.

  4. Oxidation of inorganic sulfur compounds in acidophilic prokaryotes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohwerder, T.; Sand, W. [Universitaet Duisburg-Essen, Biofilm Centre, Aquatic Biotechnology, Duisburg (Germany)

    2007-07-15

    The oxidation of reduced inorganic sulfur compounds to sulfuric acid is of great importance for biohydrometallurgical technologies as well as the formation of acidic (below pH 3) and often heavy metal-contaminated environments. The use of elemental sulfur as an electron donor is the predominant energy-yielding process in acidic natural sulfur-rich biotopes but also at mining sites containing sulfidic ores. Contrary to its significant role in the global sulfur cycle and its biotechnological importance, the microbial fundamentals of acidophilic sulfur oxidation are only incompletely understood. Besides giving an overview of sulfur-oxidizing acidophiles, this review describes the so far known enzymatic reactions related to elemental sulfur oxidation in acidophilic bacteria and archaea. Although generally similar reactions are employed in both prokaryotic groups, the stoichiometry of the key enzymes is different. Bacteria oxidize elemental sulfur by a sulfur dioxygenase to sulfite whereas in archaea, a sulfur oxygenase reductase is used forming equal amounts of sulfide and sulfite. In both cases, the activation mechanism of elemental sulfur is not known but highly reactive linear sulfur forms are assumed to be the actual substrate. Inhibition as well as promotion of these biochemical steps is highly relevant in bioleaching operations. An efficient oxidation can prevent the formation of passivating sulfur layers. In other cases, a specific inhibition of sulfur biooxidation may be beneficial for reducing cooling and neutralization costs. In conclusion, the demand for a better knowledge of the biochemistry of sulfur-oxidizing acidophiles is underlined. (Abstract Copyright [2007], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  5. Inorganic-organic composites by sol-gel techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Helmut K.

    1990-01-01

    The sol-gel process opens the possibility of combining inorganic and organic units to new hybrid polymers. Organic units can be used for structural modification of the inorganic backbone, for creating new functions within an inorganic network and for building up organic polymeric chains. The materials show interesting perspectives with respect to structural (surface hardness, strength) and functional properties (e.g. diffusion, photocuring, incorporation of dyes, optical properties). A review...

  6. Human Exposure and Health Effects of Inorganic and Elemental Mercury

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Jung-Duck; Zheng, Wei

    2012-01-01

    Mercury is a toxic and non-essential metal in the human body. Mercury is ubiquitously distributed in the environment, present in natural products, and exists extensively in items encountered in daily life. There are three forms of mercury, i.e., elemental (or metallic) mercury, inorganic mercury compounds, and organic mercury compounds. This review examines the toxicity of elemental mercury and inorganic mercury compounds. Inorganic mercury compounds are water soluble with a bioavailability o...

  7. From stretchable to reconfigurable inorganic electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Nassar, Joanna M.

    2016-05-06

    Today’s state-of-the-art electronics are high performing, energy efficient, multi-functional and cost effective. However, they are also typically rigid and brittle. With the emergence of the Internet of Everything, electronic applications are expanding into previously unexplored areas, like healthcare, smart wearable artifacts, and robotics. One major challenge is the physical asymmetry of target application surfaces, which often cause mechanical stretching, contracting, twisting and other deformations to the application. In this review paper, we explore materials, processes, mechanics and devices that enable physically stretchable and reconfigurable electronics. While the concept of stretchable electronics is commonly used in practice, the notion of physically reconfigurable electronics is still in its infancy. Because organic materials are commonly naturally stretchable and physically deformable, we predominantly focus on electronics made from inorganic materials that have the capacity for physical stretching and reconfiguration while retaining their intended attributes. We emphasize how applications of electronics dictate theory to integration strategy for stretchable and reconfigurable inorganic electronics.

  8. Applications of Raman Spectroscopy to Inorganic Chemistry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RobinJHClarkFRS

    1995-01-01

    The renaissance in Raman spectroscopy some 25-30 years ago had particular and immediate impact on Inorganic Chemistry,viz in areas such as the study of deeply coloued compounds,structural changes on change of state,equilibria,vapour phase band contour analysis,Raman band intensities and the nature of the chemical bond,metal-metal bonding,species in melts,identification of species in solution and of radicals by time-resolved techniques,in bioinorganic chemistry,and of linear-chain semiconductors.More recently,much attention has been directed at the quantitative level at the evaluation of geometric changes in molecules on excitation by resonance Raman spectroscopy.At the qualitative level Raman microscopy is now recognised to be the most effective technique for the identification of pigments-particularly the inorganic ones-on medieval manuscripts and especially of the components(down to grain sizes of -1 um)of pigment mixtures,It is thus a very important technique at the Arts/Science borderling in conservation science.

  9. Part 6: The Literature of Inorganic Chemistry, Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douville, Judith A.

    2002-01-01

    Presents a list of resources on inorganic chemistry that includes general surveys, nomenclature, dictionaries, handbooks, compilations, and treatises. Selected for use by academic and student chemists. (DDR)

  10. Competitive sorption between glyphosphate and inorganic phosphate on clay minerals and low organic matter soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inorganic phosphate may influence the adsorption of glyphosate to soil surface sites. It has been postulated that glyphosphate sorption is dominated by the phosphoric acid moiety, therefore, inorganic phosphate could compete with glyphosate for surface sorption sites. Sorption of glyphosate is examined in low organic carbon systems where clay minerals dominate the available adsorption sites using 32P-labeled phosphate and 14C-labeled glyphosate to track sorption. Glyphosate sorption was found to be strongly dependent on phosphate additions. Isotherms were generally of the L type, which is consistent with a limited number of surface sites. Most sorption on whole soils could be accounted for by sorption observed on model clays of the same mineral type as found in the soils. (author)

  11. One-Dimensional Organic-Inorganic Nanocomposite Synthesized with Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Templates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Li

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study reports on single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT as templates for the preparation of 1D porous organic-inorganic hybrid composites. The in situ deposited SWCNT were sputter coated with Sn metal and thermally oxidized in air to form a SnO2/SWCNT nanowire framework on SiO2/Si substrate. Poly(acrylic acid (PAA was coated onto this scaffold through UV light-induced radical polymerization, which resulted in the final formation of hybrid composites. The structures of hybrid composites were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, infrared spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. The results show that PAA was successfully coated and the structural advantage of nanowire was fairly maintained, which indicates that this framework is very stable for organic functionalization in solution. The simplicity of this method for the formation of porous organic-inorganic hybrid composites provides a potential application for nanoelectronic devices.

  12. Inorganic arsenic - SPE HG-AAS method for RICE tested in-house and collaboratively

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Rie Romme; Qian, Yiting; Sloth, Jens Jørgen

    Arsenic (As) is a trace element present in the environment and consequently in various food items, e.g. rice, which may contain relatively high concentration of arsenic compared to other foodstuffs of plant origin. Rice contains most often three forms of arsenic; inorganic arsenic (i...... and is one of the major contributors to the iAs exposure in many countries. The work presented here describes the development, validation and application of a simple and inexpensive method for inorganic arsenic (iAs) determination in rice samples. The separation of iAs from organoarsenic compounds (MA...... and DMA) was done by off-line solidphase extraction (SPE) followed by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (HG-AAS) detection. Water bath heating (90 °C, 60 min) of samples with dilute nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide solubilised and oxidized all iAs to arsenate (AsV). Loading of buffered...

  13. The pitcher plant Sarracenia purpurea can directly acquire organic nitrogen and short-circuit the inorganic nitrogen cycle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim D Karagatzides

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite the large stocks of organic nitrogen in soil, nitrogen availability limits plant growth in many terrestrial ecosystems because most plants take up only inorganic nitrogen, not organic nitrogen. Although some vascular plants can assimilate organic nitrogen directly, only recently has organic nitrogen been found to contribute significantly to the nutrient budget of any plant. Carnivorous plants grow in extremely nutrient-poor environments and carnivory has evolved in these plants as an alternative pathway for obtaining nutrients. We tested if the carnivorous pitcher plant Sarracenia purpurea could directly take up intact amino acids in the field and compared uptake of organic and inorganic forms of nitrogen across a gradient of nitrogen deposition. We hypothesized that the contribution of organic nitrogen to the nitrogen budget of the pitcher plant would decline with increasing nitrogen deposition. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: At sites in Canada (low nitrogen deposition and the United States (high nitrogen deposition, individual pitchers were fed two amino acids, glycine and phenylalanine, and inorganic nitrogen (as ammonium nitrate, individually and in mixture. Plants took up intact amino acids. Acquisition of each form of nitrogen provided in isolation exceeded uptake of the same form in mixture. At the high deposition site, uptake of organic nitrogen was higher than uptake of inorganic nitrogen. At the low deposition site, uptake of all three forms of nitrogen was similar. Completeness of the associated detritus-based food web that inhabits pitcher-plant leaves and breaks down captured prey had no effect on nitrogen uptake. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: By taking up intact amino acids, Sarracenia purpurea can short-circuit the inorganic nitrogen cycle, thus minimizing potential bottlenecks in nitrogen availability that result from the plant's reliance for nitrogen mineralization on a seasonally reconstructed food web

  14. Effect of lime, organic and inorganic fertilizer on nodulation and yield of soybean (Glycine max varieties in Ultisol soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suryantini

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The study was aimed to determine the effect of soil ameliorant and inorganic fertilizers on nodulation and yield of some soybean varieties. Study was conducted under greenhouse condition in acid soils. Results revealed that all the tested varieties were compatible with native rhizobium at both study areas and showing the formation of nodules. A positive correlation was reported between the number of nodules and soybean grain yield. The number of nodules and final yield production was higher in the area where soybean cultivated regularly as compare to the new area of soybean production. Inorganic fertilizers increased nodulation and grain yield but the highest yields were generally obtained in the treatment of inorganic fertilizer combined with lime or manure. Soybean variety Kaba and Sinabung showed the highest nodulation and grain yield and it was followed by Panderman and Anjasmoro

  15. Water soluble inorganic trace gases and related aerosol compounds in the tropical boundary layer. An analysis based on real time measurements at a pasture site in the Amazon Basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trebs, I.

    2005-01-01

    This dissertation investigates the behavior of water-soluble inorganic trace gases and related aerosol species in the tropical boundary layer. Mixing ratios of ammonia (NH3), nitric acid (HNO3), nitrous acid (HONO), hydrochloric acid (HCl), sulfur dioxide (SO;,) and the corresponding water-soluble a

  16. Organic-inorganic random copolymers from methacrylate-terminated poly(ethylene oxide) with 3-methacryloxypropylheptaphenyl polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane: synthesis via RAFT polymerization and self-assembly behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Kun; Li, Lei; Zheng, Sixun; Wang, Ge; Liang, Qi

    2014-01-14

    In this contribution, we report the synthesis of organic-inorganic random polymers from methacrylate-terminated poly(ethylene oxide) (MAPEO) (Mn = 950) and 3-methacryloxypropylheptaphenyl polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (MAPOSS) macromers via reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization with 4-cyano-4-(thiobenzoylthio) valeric acid (CTBTVA) as the chain transfer agent. The organic-inorganic random copolymers were characterized by means of (1)H NMR spectroscopy, gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The results of GPC indicate that the polymerizations were carried out in a controlled fashion. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed that the organic-inorganic random copolymers in bulk were microphase-separated and the POSS microdomains were formed via POSS-POSS interactions. In aqueous solutions the organic-inorganic random copolymers were capable of self-assembling into spherical nanoobjects as evidenced by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and dynamic laser scattering (DLS). The self-assembly behavior of the organic-inorganic random copolymers was also found to occur in the mixtures with the precursors of epoxy. The nanostructures were further fixed via subsequent curing reaction and thus the organic-inorganic nanocomposites were obtained. The formation of nanophases in epoxy thermosets was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA). The organic-inorganic nanocomposites displayed the enhanced surface hydrophobicity as evidenced by surface contact angle measurements.

  17. Common Inorganic Salts Catalyze the Transformations of Organic Compounds in Atmospheric Aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noziere, B.; Dziedzic, P.; Cordova, A.

    2008-12-01

    This presentation reports the discovery that inorganic salts that are ubiquitous in atmospheric aerosols are efficient catalysts for the transformations of organic compounds in these aerosols, by reactions such as aldol condensation or acetal formation.1 For some of these salts, these catalytic properties were not even known in chemistry.2 Kinetic and product studies of these reactions will be presented for carbonyl compounds such as acetaldehyde, acetone, and glyoxal,1,3 and compared with previously known catalysts such as the recently discovered amino acids.4,5 These studies show that these salts make the reactions as fast in typical tropospheric aerosols as in concentrated sulfuric acid. These reactions produce secondary "fulvic" compounds that absorb light in the near UV and visible and would affect the optical properties of aerosols.1,5 They would also account for the depletion of glyoxal recently reported in Mexico city.3 Thus, while acid catalysis is several orders of magnitudes too slow to be significant in tropospheric aerosols, this work identifies new processes that should be ubiquitous in these aerosols and important for atmospheric chemistry. Refs. 1Noziere, B., Dziedzic, P., Cordova, A., Common inorganic ions catalyze chemical reactions of organic compounds in atmospheric aerosols, Submitted, 2008. 2 Noziere, B., Cordova, A., A novel catalyst for aldol condensation reaction, patent pending 02/10/2007. 3Noziere, B., Dziedzic, P., Cordova, A., Products and kinetics of the liquid-phase reaction of glyoxal catalyzed by inorganic ions, Submitted to J. Phys. Chem. A, 2008. 4Noziere, B., and Cordova, A., A Kinetic and Mechanistic Study of the Amino Acid-Catalyzed Aldol Condensation of Acetaldehyde in Aqueous and Salt Solutions, J. Phys. Chem. A, 112, 2827, 2008. 5Noziere, B., Dziedzic, P., and Cordova, A., The Formation of Secondary Light-Absorbing "fulvic-like" Oligomers: A Common Process in Aqueous and Ionic Atmospheric Particles?, Geophys. Res. Lett., 34

  18. Survey of organic acid eluents for anion chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Book, D.E.

    1981-10-01

    Of all the potential eluents surveyed (including aromatic, sulfonic, phosphonic, among other acids), only the carboxylic acids and the nitrophenols are recommended as eluents for anion chromatography. The concentration of the eluent should be in the range 5 x 10/sup -5/ to 1 x 10/sup -3/ M. The eluent should have the same charge as inorganic anions, a higher charge than organic acid samples. Choice of eluents for separation of halides, chloride and sulfate, multivalent inorganic anions, small alkyl acids, and aromatic acids is discussed. (DLC)

  19. Applications of inorganic nanoparticles as therapeutic agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Taeho; Hyeon, Taeghwan

    2014-01-01

    During the last decade, various functional nanostructured materials with interesting optical, magnetic, mechanical and chemical properties have been extensively applied to biomedical areas including imaging, diagnosis and therapy. In therapeutics, most research has focused on the application of nanoparticles as potential delivery vehicles for drugs and genes, because nanoparticles in the size range of 2-100 nm can interact with biological systems at the molecular level, and allow targeted delivery and passage through biological barriers. Recent investigations have even revealed that several kinds of nanomaterials are intrinsically therapeutic. Not only can they passively interact with cells, but they can also actively mediate molecular processes to regulate cell functions. This can be seen in the treatment of cancer via anti-angiogenic mechanisms as well as the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases by effectively controlling oxidative stress. This review will present recent applications of inorganic nanoparticles as therapeutic agents in the treatment of disease.

  20. Inorganic nanoparticles engineered to attack bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kristen P; Wang, Lei; Benicewicz, Brian C; Decho, Alan W

    2015-11-01

    Antibiotics were once the golden bullet to constrain infectious bacteria. However, the rapid and continuing emergence of antibiotic resistance (AR) among infectious microbial pathogens has questioned the future utility of antibiotics. This dilemma has recently fueled the marriage of the disparate fields of nanochemistry and antibiotics. Nanoparticles and other types of nanomaterials have been extensively developed for drug delivery to eukaryotic cells. However, bacteria have very different cellular architectures than eukaryotic cells. This review addresses the chemistry of nanoparticle-based antibiotic carriers, and how their technical capabilities are now being re-engineered to attack, kill, but also non-lethally manipulate the physiologies of bacteria. This review also discusses the surface functionalization of inorganic nanoparticles with small ligand molecules, polymers, and charged moieties to achieve drug loading and controllable release.

  1. Mechanisms of inorganic and organometallic reactions

    CERN Document Server

    The purpose of this series is to provide a continuing critical review of the literature concerned with mechanistic aspects of inorganic and organo­ metallic reactions in solution, with coverage being complete in each volume. The papers discussed are selected on the basis of relevance to the elucidation of reaction mechanisms and many include results of a nonkinetic nature when useful mechanistic information can be deduced. The period of literature covered by this volume is July 1982 through December 1983, and in some instances papers not available for inclusion in the previous volume are also included. Numerical results are usually reported in the units used by the original authors, except where data from different papers are com­ pared and conversion to common units is necessary. As in previous volumes material included covers the major areas of redox processes, reactions of the nonmetallic elements, reaction of inert and labile metal complexes and the reactions of organometallic compounds. While m...

  2. Ion conducting organic/inorganic hybrid polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meador, Maryann B. (Inventor); Kinder, James D. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    This invention relates to a series of organic/inorganic hybrid polymers that are easy to fabricate into dimensionally stable films with good ion-conductivity over a wide range of temperatures for use in a variety of applications. The polymers are prepared by the reaction of amines, preferably diamines and mixtures thereof with monoamines with epoxy-functionalized alkoxysilanes. The products of the reaction are polymerized by hydrolysis of the alkoxysilane groups to produce an organic-containing silica network. Suitable functionality introduced into the amine and alkoxysilane groups produce solid polymeric membranes which conduct ions for use in fuel cells, high-performance solid state batteries, chemical sensors, electrochemical capacitors, electro-chromic windows or displays, analog memory devices and the like.

  3. Scintillation response of organic and inorganic scintillators

    CERN Document Server

    Papadopoulos, L M

    1999-01-01

    A method to evaluate the scintillation response of organic and inorganic scintillators to different heavy ionizing particles is suggested. A function describing the rate of the energy consumed as fluorescence emission is derived, i.e., the differential response with respect to time. This function is then integrated for each ion and scintillator (anthracene, stilbene and CsI(Tl)) to determine scintillation response. The resulting scintillation responses are compared to the previously reported measured responses. Agreement to within 2.5% is observed when these data are normalized to each other. In addition, conclusions regarding the quenching parameter kB dependence on the type of the particle and the computed values of kB for certain ions are included. (author)

  4. Practical approaches to biological inorganic chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Louro, Ricardo O

    2012-01-01

    The book reviews the use of spectroscopic and related methods to investigate the complex structures and mechanisms of biological inorganic systems that contain metals. Each chapter presents an overview of the technique including relevant theory, clearly explains what it is and how it works and then presents how the technique is actually used to evaluate biological structures. Practical examples and problems are included to illustrate each technique and to aid understanding. Designed for students and researchers who want to learn both the basics, and more advanced aspects of bioinorganic chemistry. It includes many colour illustrations enable easier visualization of molecular mechanisms and structures. It provides worked examples and problems that are included to illustrate and test the reader's understanding of each technique. It is written by a multi-author team who use and teach the most important techniques used today to analyse complex biological structures.

  5. Inorganic nanoparticles in porous coordination polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Cho Rong; Uemura, Takashi; Kitagawa, Susumu

    2016-07-21

    Porous coordination polymers (PCPs) have been recently highlighted because of their high synthetic designability in structure and functions. Because of their ordered nanoporous structures with a large surface area and tunable pore surface functionality, PCPs have emerged as a significant class of nanoporous materials with potential applications in gas storage, separation, catalysis, and chemical sensing. Recent research has shown the utility of PCPs as host materials for the confinement of nanoparticles of inorganic polymers (IPs), such as metals, metal oxides, and metal chalcogenides. The fabrication of IP nanoparticles in PCPs (PCP⊃IP) has been studied for manifesting specific nanosized-dependent properties and host-guest synergistic functions. In this review, we describe the recent progress in the accommodation of IPs in the nanochannels of PCPs and the remarkable functions of the composite materials. PMID:27051891

  6. Modeling of cooperative properties of inorganic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When modeling cooperative phenomena, the approach based on the study of certain diamagnetodiluted compounds with increasing concentration of magnetic complexes has been realized sequentially. It has been shown that in the systems with a strong electron-phonon interaction the study of properties of isolated and interacting complexes permits a correct prediction of the structure and magnetic properties of the concentrated compounds. Examples of the study of CuL6 complexes Jahn-Teller effect in various classes of inorganic compounds by the ESR method are considered. The detection and study of the dynamic Jahn-Teller complexes in solid solutions La2-ySryAl1-xCuxO4 permitted suggesting a model dynamic structure of CuO2 basic layer in high-Tc materials

  7. In situ spectrophotometric measurement of dissolved inorganic carbon in seawater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuewu; Byrne, Robert H; Adornato, Lori; Yates, Kimberly K; Kaltenbacher, Eric; Ding, Xiaoling; Yang, Bo

    2013-10-01

    Autonomous in situ sensors are needed to document the effects of today's rapid ocean uptake of atmospheric carbon dioxide (e.g., ocean acidification). General environmental conditions (e.g., biofouling, turbidity) and carbon-specific conditions (e.g., wide diel variations) present significant challenges to acquiring long-term measurements of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) with satisfactory accuracy and resolution. SEAS-DIC is a new in situ instrument designed to provide calibrated, high-frequency, long-term measurements of DIC in marine and fresh waters. Sample water is first acidified to convert all DIC to carbon dioxide (CO2). The sample and a known reagent solution are then equilibrated across a gas-permeable membrane. Spectrophotometric measurement of reagent pH can thereby determine the sample DIC over a wide dynamic range, with inherent calibration provided by the pH indicator's molecular characteristics. Field trials indicate that SEAS-DIC performs well in biofouling and turbid waters, with a DIC accuracy and precision of ∼2 μmol kg(-1) and a measurement rate of approximately once per minute. The acidic reagent protects the sensor cell from biofouling, and the gas-permeable membrane excludes particulates from the optical path. This instrument, the first spectrophotometric system capable of automated in situ DIC measurements, positions DIC to become a key parameter for in situ CO2-system characterizations.

  8. AC electrophoretic deposition of organic-inorganic composite coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshioka, T; Chávez-Valdez, A; Roether, J A; Schubert, D W; Boccaccini, A R

    2013-02-15

    Alternating current electrophoretic deposition (AC-EPD) of polyacrylic acid (PAA)-titanium oxide (TiO(2)) nanoparticle composites on stainless steel electrodes was investigated in basic aqueous solution. AC square wave with duty cycle of 80% was applied at a frequency of 1 kHz. FTIR-ATR spectra showed that both AC and direct current (DC) EPD successfully deposited PAA-TiO(2) composites. The deposition rate using AC-EPD was lower than that obtained in direct current DC-EPD. However, the microstructure and surface morphology of the deposited composite coatings were different depending on the type of electric field applied. AC-EPD applied for not more than 5 min led to smooth films without bubble formation, while DC-EPD for 1 min or more showed deposits with microstructural defects possibly as result of water electrolysis. AC-EPD was thus for the first time demonstrated to be a suitable technique to deposit organic-inorganic composite coatings from aqueous suspensions, showing that applying a square wave and frequency of 1 kHz leads to uniform PAA-TiO(2) composite coatings on conductive materials.

  9. Measurement of inorganic pyrophosphate levels in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, N.; Cooperman, B.S.

    1987-05-01

    Inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi) in microorganisms has been shown to reach quite high levels, with profound implications for many aspects of cellular metabolism. They have modified the method of Heinonen et al., developed for studies on E. coli and based on selective precipitation of PPi by added Ca/sup 2 +/ and F/sup -/, to measure PPi levels in S. cerevisiae. Cells were lysed in acidic medium containing known amounts of added /sup 32/PPi by vortexing with glass beads. Yields of isolated PPi were calculated on the basis of recovered radioactivity. Measurement of the protein content of the lysate allowed a correction to be made for variability in the efficiency of cell lysis. The results show a remarkable variation in PPi levels along the growth curve. For cells grown with aeration on 2% glucose, the peak value, corresponding to an internal concentration of at least 5mM, is attained in mid- to late-log phase. Concentrations of PPi in early-log phase are at least 10-fold lower.

  10. Organobentonites as multifunctional adsorbents of organic and inorganic water pollutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jović-Jovičić Natаša

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to find a low cost, easy to synthesize and efficient adsorbent for the simultaneous adsorption of both organic and inorganic pollutants (including textile dyes, toxic metals etc.. The starting material, domestic bentonite clay from Bogovina was modified with amounts of hexadecyltrimethylammonium cations corresponding to 0.5 and 1.0 times of the value of the cation exchange capacity value. The organobentonites were tested as adsorbents in a three-dye-containing solution, a three-component solution of Pb2+, Cd2+ and Ni2+ and a hexa- component solution containing all investigated dyes and toxic metal cations. The used adsorbents showed the highest affinity toward Acid Yellow 99 and Ni2+ ions. Dye adsorption was enhanced in the presence of toxic metal cations, while the adsorption of all toxic cations from the hexa-component solution was lower than from the three-component solution containing only toxic cations. The synthesized hexadecyltrimethylammonium bentonite could be regarded as an efficient multifunctional adsorbent for the investigated type of water pollutants.

  11. In situ spectrophotometric measurement of dissolved inorganic carbon in seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liua, Xuewu; Byrne, Robert H.; Adornato, Lori; Yates, Kimberly K.; Kaltenbacher, Eric; Ding, Xiaoling; Yang, Bo

    2013-01-01

    Autonomous in situ sensors are needed to document the effects of today’s rapid ocean uptake of atmospheric carbon dioxide (e.g., ocean acidification). General environmental conditions (e.g., biofouling, turbidity) and carbon-specific conditions (e.g., wide diel variations) present significant challenges to acquiring long-term measurements of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) with satisfactory accuracy and resolution. SEAS-DIC is a new in situ instrument designed to provide calibrated, high-frequency, long-term measurements of DIC in marine and fresh waters. Sample water is first acidified to convert all DIC to carbon dioxide (CO2). The sample and a known reagent solution are then equilibrated across a gas-permeable membrane. Spectrophotometric measurement of reagent pH can thereby determine the sample DIC over a wide dynamic range, with inherent calibration provided by the pH indicator’s molecular characteristics. Field trials indicate that SEAS-DIC performs well in biofouling and turbid waters, with a DIC accuracy and precision of ∼2 μmol kg–1 and a measurement rate of approximately once per minute. The acidic reagent protects the sensor cell from biofouling, and the gas-permeable membrane excludes particulates from the optical path. This instrument, the first spectrophotometric system capable of automated in situ DIC measurements, positions DIC to become a key parameter for in situ CO2-system characterizations.

  12. A combined particle trap/HTDMA hygroscopicity study of mixed inorganic/organic aerosol particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zardini, A. A.; Sjogren, S.; Marcolli, C.; Krieger, U. K.; Gysel, M.; Weingartner, E.; Baltensperger, U.; Peter, T.

    2008-09-01

    Atmospheric aerosols are often mixtures of inorganic and organic material. Organics can represent a large fraction of the total aerosol mass and are comprised of water-soluble and insoluble compounds. Increasing attention was paid in the last decade to the capability of mixed inorganic/organic aerosol particles to take up water (hygroscopicity). We performed hygroscopicity measurements of internally mixed particles containing ammonium sulfate and carboxylic acids (citric, glutaric, adipic acid) in parallel with an electrodynamic balance (EDB) and a hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer (HTDMA). The organic compounds were chosen to represent three distinct physical states. During hygroscopicity cycles covering hydration and dehydration measured by the EDB and the HTDMA, pure citric acid remained always liquid, adipic acid remained always solid, while glutaric acid could be either. We show that the hygroscopicity of mixtures of the above compounds is well described by the Zdanovskii-Stokes-Robinson (ZSR) relationship as long as the two-component particle is completely liquid in the ammonium sulfate/glutaric acid system; deviations up to 10% in mass growth factor (corresponding to deviations up to 3.5% in size growth factor) are observed for the ammonium sulfate/citric acid 1:1 mixture at 80% RH. We observe even more significant discrepancies compared to what is expected from bulk thermodynamics when a solid component is present. We explain this in terms of a complex morphology resulting from the crystallization process leading to veins, pores, and grain boundaries which allow for water sorption in excess of bulk thermodynamic predictions caused by the inverse Kelvin effect on concave surfaces.

  13. A combined particle trap/HTDMA hygroscopicity study of mixed inorganic/organic aerosol particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Zardini

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric aerosols are often mixtures of inorganic and organic material. Organics can represent a large fraction of the total aerosol mass and are comprised of water-soluble and insoluble compounds. Increasing attention was paid in the last decade to the capability of mixed inorganic/organic aerosol particles to take up water (hygroscopicity. We performed hygroscopicity measurements of internally mixed particles containing ammonium sulfate and carboxylic acids (citric, glutaric, adipic acid in parallel with an electrodynamic balance (EDB and a hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer (HTDMA. The organic compounds were chosen to represent three distinct physical states. During hygroscopicity cycles covering hydration and dehydration measured by the EDB and the HTDMA, pure citric acid remained always liquid, adipic acid remained always solid, while glutaric acid could be either. We show that the hygroscopicity of mixtures of the above compounds is well described by the Zdanovskii-Stokes-Robinson (ZSR relationship as long as the two-component particle is completely liquid in the ammonium sulfate/glutaric acid system; deviations up to 10% in mass growth factor (corresponding to deviations up to 3.5% in size growth factor are observed for the ammonium sulfate/citric acid 1:1 mixture at 80% RH. We observe even more significant discrepancies compared to what is expected from bulk thermodynamics when a solid component is present. We explain this in terms of a complex morphology resulting from the crystallization process leading to veins, pores, and grain boundaries which allow for water sorption in excess of bulk thermodynamic predictions caused by the inverse Kelvin effect on concave surfaces.

  14. Optical Waveguides from Organic/Inorganic Hybrid Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Organic/inorganic material has attracted great attentions because its importance as photonic materials. We report on our recent results on organic/inorganic hybrid sol-gel materials and optical waveguides like splitter, thermo-optic switch and micro-cavity laser.

  15. Computer information resources of inorganic chemistry and materials science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiselyova, N N; Dudarev, V A; Zemskov, V S [A.A.Baikov Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2010-02-28

    Information systems used in inorganic chemistry and materials science are considered. The following basic trends in the development of modern information systems in these areas are highlighted: access to information via the Internet, merging of documental and factual databases, involvement of experts in the evaluation of the data reliability, supplementing databases with information analysis tools on the properties of inorganic substances and materials.

  16. Organometallic-inorganic hybrid electrodes for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Qian; Lemmon, John P.; Choi, Daiwon; Cosimbescu, Lelia

    2016-09-13

    Disclosed are embodiments of active materials for organometallic and organometallic-inorganic hybrid electrodes and particularly active materials for organometallic and organometallic-inorganic hybrid cathodes for lithium-ion batteries. In certain embodiments the organometallic material comprises a ferrocene polymer.

  17. Species and distribution of inorganic selenium in the Bohai Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    For studying geochemical behavior of selenium, a marine investigation was conducted in September 1998 cruise in the Bohai Sea. Horizontal and vertical distributions of inorganic selenium and selenite were studied. The inorganic selenium varied from 0.73 to 2.41 nmol/L, with an average of 1.31 nmol/L; while selenite varied from 0.18 to 0.72 nmol/L with an average of 0.47 nmol/L. The average ratio of selenite to selenate was 0.68, and selenate was the predominant species of inorganic selenium in the most study area. Concentrations of inorganic selenium and selenite decreased with distance from the coast. No apparent variations of the concentration between surface and bottom was shown. There were two water masses in the area, one from the Huanghe (Yellow) River and other from the Yellow Sea. Of the two,Huanghe River was the major source of inorganic selenium.

  18. Zeta potential control in decontamination with inorganic membranes and inorganic adsorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of some advanced separation processes such as microfiltration and ultrafiltration, electroosmosis and electrodialysis for treating nuclear waste from different aqueous streams is under examination at the Chilean Commission for Nuclear Energy. The application of these techniques can be extended to regular industrial wastes when economically advisable. This report deals mainly with electrodialysis, electroosmosis and adsorption with inorganic materials. Special attention is paid to zeta potential control as a driving factor to electroosmosis. For radioactive contaminants that are present in the form of cations, anions, non-ionic solutions, colloids and suspended matter, appropriate combination of the processes may considerably increase the efficiency of processes used. As an example, colloids and suspended particles may be retained in porous ceramic membranes by nanofiltration, ultrafiltration or microfiltration depending on the particle size of the particles. The control of zeta potential by acting in the solid phase or else on the liquid phase has been studied; a mathematical model to predict electrodialysis data has been developed, and finally, the use of a home-made inorganic adsorbent illustrated. The effect of gamma irradiation on the membranes has also been studied. Properties such as salt retention, water flux and pore size diameter determined on both organic and inorganic membranes before and after irradiation indicate deterioration of the organic membrane. (author). 13 refs, 15 figs, 2 tabs

  19. In-Depth Coursework in Undergraduate Inorganic Chemistry: Results from a National Survey of Inorganic Chemistry Faculty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raker, Jeffrey R.; Reisner, Barbara A.; Smith, Sheila R.; Stewart, Joanne L.; Crane, Johanna L.; Pesterfield, Les; Sobel, Sabrina G.

    2015-01-01

    A national survey of inorganic chemists explored the self-reported topics covered in in-depth inorganic chemistry courses at the postsecondary level; an in-depth course is defined by the American Chemical Society's Committee on Professional Training as a course that integrates and covers topics that were introduced in introductory and foundation…

  20. Preparation of new hybrid organic/inorganic polymeric chiral stationary phases for ligand-exchange chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Three new hybrid organic/inorganic polymeric ligand-exchange chiral stationary phases were developed by radical chain transfer reaction and surface grafting on silica gel, and successfully used for the enantioseparations of DL-amino acids and DL-hydroxyl acids. The resolutions were achieved by using water containing 2.0 × 10-4 mol/L of CuAc2 as a mobile phase, column temperature of 40 ℃, flow rate of 1.0 mL/min and detection at UV 254 mn. The elution order of D-isomer before L-isomer was observed for all DL-amino acids resolved except DL-Pro.

  1. Luminescence of novel terbium complex/inorganic/polymeric hybrid materials based on sol–gel technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► A new kind of ternary rare earth/inorganic/organic polymeric hybrid materials with covalent bonds was prepared. ► Polyvinyl alcohol was introduced into the hybrids through the polycondensation reactions. ► The rare-earth complex and polymer were connected by the Si-O bonds. ► It is possible to provide an excellent route to obtain optical functional hybrid materials. - Abstract: In this paper, a new terbium complex/inorganic/polymeric molecular hybrid material was prepared and its optical properties were studied. At first, 4-nitrobenzoic acid was modified by (3-aminopropyl) trimethoxysilane to form a precursor and coordinated with terbium ion. Then it was polymerized with inorganic host tetraethoxysilane or polymer host polyvinyl alcohol and formed hybrid material. 1H NMR Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), scanning electron microscope and TGA were applied to characterize the structure of the precursor. UV–vis spectrophotometer and fluorescence spectra were applied to characterize the photophysical properties of the obtained hybrid material. The strong luminescence of Tb3+ substantiates optimum energy couple and effective intramolecular energy transfer between the triplet state energy of modified ligand bridge and emissive energy level of Tb3+.

  2. Water uptake of multicomponent organic mixtures and their influence on hygroscopicity of inorganic salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuanyuan; Jing, Bo; Guo, Yucong; Li, Junling; Tong, Shengrui; Zhang, Yunhong; Ge, Maofa

    2016-07-01

    The hygroscopic behaviors of atmospherically relevant multicomponent water soluble organic compounds (WSOCs) and their effects on ammonium sulfate (AS) and sodium chloride were investigated using a hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer (HTDMA) in the relative humidity (RH) range of 5%-90%. The measured hygroscopic growth was compared with predictions from the Extended-Aerosol Inorganics Model (E-AIM) and Zdanovskii-Stokes-Robinson (ZSR) method. The equal mass multicomponent WSOCs mixture containing levoglucosan, succinic acid, phthalic acid and humic acid showed gradual water uptake without obvious phase change over the whole RH range. It was found that the organic content played an important role in the water uptake of mixed particles. When organic content was dominant in the mixture (75%), the measured hygroscopic growth was higher than predictions from the E-AIM or ZSR relation, especially under high RH conditions. For mass fractions of organics not larger than 50%, the hygroscopic growth of mixtures was in good agreement with model predictions. The influence of interactions between inorganic and organic components on the hygroscopicity of mixed particles was related to the salt type and organic content. These results could contribute to understanding of the hygroscopic behaviors of multicomponent aerosol particles. PMID:27372129

  3. Inorganic nanolayers: structure, preparation, and biomedical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saifullah B

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Bullo Saifullah, Mohd Zobir B HusseinMaterials Synthesis and Characterization Laboratory, Institute of Advanced Technology (ITMA, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, MalaysiaAbstract: Hydrotalcite-like compounds are two-dimensional inorganic nanolayers also known as clay minerals or anionic clays or layered double hydroxides/layered hydroxy salts, and have emerged as a single type of material with numerous biomedical applications, such as drug delivery, gene delivery, cosmetics, and biosensing. Inorganic nanolayers are promising materials due to their fascinating properties, such as ease of preparation, ability to intercalate different type of anions (inorganic, organic, biomolecules, and even genes, high thermal stability, delivery of intercalated anions in a sustained manner, high biocompatibility, and easy biodegradation. Inorganic nanolayers have been the focus for researchers over the last decade, resulting in widening application horizons, especially in the field of biomedical science. These nanolayers have been widely applied in drug and gene delivery. They have also been applied in biosensing technology, and most recently in bioimaging science. The suitability of inorganic nanolayers for application in drug delivery, gene delivery, biosensing technology, and bioimaging science makes them ideal materials to be applied for theranostic purposes. In this paper, we review the structure, methods of preparation, and latest advances made by inorganic nanolayers in such biomedical applications as drug delivery, gene delivery, biosensing, and bioimaging.Keywords: inorganic nanolayers, layered double hydroxides, layered hydroxy salts, drug delivery, biosensors, bioimaging

  4. Inorganic arsenic levels in baby rice are of concern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inorganic arsenic is a chronic exposure carcinogen. Analysis of UK baby rice revealed a median inorganic arsenic content (n = 17) of 0.11 mg/kg. By plotting inorganic arsenic against total arsenic, it was found that inorganic concentrations increased linearly up to 0.25 mg/kg total arsenic, then plateaued at 0.16 mg/kg at higher total arsenic concentrations. Inorganic arsenic intake by babies (4-12 months) was considered with respect to current dietary ingestion regulations. It was found that 35% of the baby rice samples analysed would be illegal for sale in China which has regulatory limit of 0.15 mg/kg inorganic arsenic. EU and US food regulations on arsenic are non-existent. When baby inorganic arsenic intake from rice was considered, median consumption (expressed as μg/kg/d) was higher than drinking water maximum exposures predicted for adults in these regions when water intake was expressed on a bodyweight basis. - Median consumption of organic arsenic levels for UK babies from baby rice is above threshold considered safe

  5. Inorganic arsenic levels in baby rice are of concern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meharg, Andrew A. [School of Biological Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Cruickshank Building, St. Machar Drive, Aberdeen AB24 3UU (United Kingdom)], E-mail: a.meharg@abdn.ac.uk; Sun, Guoxin [Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China); Williams, Paul N. [School of Biological Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Cruickshank Building, St. Machar Drive, Aberdeen AB24 3UU (United Kingdom); Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China); Adomako, Eureka; Deacon, Claire [School of Biological Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Cruickshank Building, St. Machar Drive, Aberdeen AB24 3UU (United Kingdom); Zhu, Yong-Guan [Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China); Feldmann, Joerg; Raab, Andrea [Department of Chemistry, University of Aberdeen, Meston Building, Meston Walk, Aberdeen AB24 3UE (United Kingdom)

    2008-04-15

    Inorganic arsenic is a chronic exposure carcinogen. Analysis of UK baby rice revealed a median inorganic arsenic content (n = 17) of 0.11 mg/kg. By plotting inorganic arsenic against total arsenic, it was found that inorganic concentrations increased linearly up to 0.25 mg/kg total arsenic, then plateaued at 0.16 mg/kg at higher total arsenic concentrations. Inorganic arsenic intake by babies (4-12 months) was considered with respect to current dietary ingestion regulations. It was found that 35% of the baby rice samples analysed would be illegal for sale in China which has regulatory limit of 0.15 mg/kg inorganic arsenic. EU and US food regulations on arsenic are non-existent. When baby inorganic arsenic intake from rice was considered, median consumption (expressed as {mu}g/kg/d) was higher than drinking water maximum exposures predicted for adults in these regions when water intake was expressed on a bodyweight basis. - Median consumption of organic arsenic levels for UK babies from baby rice is above threshold considered safe.

  6. First implementation of secondary inorganic aerosols in the MOCAGE version R2.15.0 chemistry transport model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guth, J.; Josse, B.; Marécal, V.; Joly, M.; Hamer, P.

    2016-01-01

    In this study we develop a secondary inorganic aerosol (SIA) module for the MOCAGE chemistry transport model developed at CNRM. The aim is to have a module suitable for running at different model resolutions and for operational applications with reasonable computing times. Based on the ISORROPIA II thermodynamic equilibrium module, the new version of the model is presented and evaluated at both the global and regional scales. The results show high concentrations of secondary inorganic aerosols in the most polluted regions: Europe, Asia and the eastern part of North America. Asia shows higher sulfate concentrations than other regions thanks to emission reductions in Europe and North America. Using two simulations, one with and the other without secondary inorganic aerosol formation, the global model outputs are compared to previous studies, to MODIS AOD retrievals, and also to in situ measurements from the HTAP database. The model shows a better agreement with MODIS AOD retrievals in all geographical regions after introducing the new SIA scheme. It also provides a good statistical agreement with in situ measurements of secondary inorganic aerosol composition: sulfate, nitrate and ammonium. In addition, the simulation with SIA generally gives a better agreement with observations for secondary inorganic aerosol precursors (nitric acid, sulfur dioxide, ammonia), in particular with a reduction of the modified normalized mean bias (MNMB). At the regional scale, over Europe, the model simulation with SIA is compared to the in situ measurements from the EMEP database and shows a good agreement with secondary inorganic aerosol composition. The results at the regional scale are consistent with those obtained from the global simulations. The AIRBASE database was used to compare the model to regulated air quality pollutants: particulate matter, ozone and nitrogen dioxide concentrations. Introduction of the SIA in MOCAGE provides a reduction in the PM2.5 MNMB of 0.44 on a

  7. Totally inorganic protective coatings for magnesium alloys based on nanoparticles and sol-gel sealant; Rein anorganische Schutzschichten fuer Magnesiumlegierungen bestehend aus Nanopartikeln und Sol-Gel-Versiegelungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feil, Florian; Fuerbeth, Wolfram [Dechema e.V., Frankfurt am Main (Germany). Karl-Winnacker-Instiut

    2011-07-15

    Starting out with aqueous, commercially available silica nanoparticle dispersions and additives, totally inorganic thin protective coatings were formed on magnesium alloys AZ31 and AZ91. By repeating the coating process several times followed by thermal sealing at moderate temperatures, coatings of up to 1.5{mu}m thickness could be formed. Using various test electrolyte solutions, these coatings provided localised corrosion protection for several days, although a significant underlying wide area corrosion was observed. As a result of residual porosity, electrolytes were able to diffuse through the coating and form corrosion products. Coatings based on acid-catalysed or acid-stabilised polymer solutions are in general less porous than coatings formed from particulate containing solutions. Sealing of dispersion coatings with purely inorganic polymer liquors provides a superior protective action for a given coating thickness. Long-term stability is improved by the use of inorganic corrosion inhibitors. (orig.)

  8. Solid-state NMR of inorganic semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yesinowski, James P

    2012-01-01

    Studies of inorganic semiconductors by solid-state NMR vary widely in terms of the nature of the samples investigated, the techniques employed to observe the NMR signal, and the types of information obtained. Compared with the NMR of diamagnetic non-semiconducting substances, important differences often result from the presence of electron or hole carriers that are the hallmark of semiconductors, and whose theoretical interpretation can be involved. This review aims to provide a broad perspective on the topic for the non-expert by providing: (1) a basic introduction to semiconductor physical concepts relevant to NMR, including common crystal structures and the various methods of making samples; (2) discussions of the NMR spin Hamiltonian, details of some of the NMR techniques and strategies used to make measurements and theoretically predict NMR parameters, and examples of how each of the terms in the Hamiltonian has provided useful information in bulk semiconductors; (3) a discussion of the additional considerations needed to interpret the NMR of nanoscale semiconductors, with selected examples. The area of semiconductor NMR is being revitalized by this interest in nanoscale semiconductors, the great improvements in NMR detection sensitivity and resolution that have occurred, and the current interest in optical pumping and spintronics-related studies. Promising directions for future research will be noted throughout. PMID:21898208

  9. Liquid effluent treatment using inorganic absorbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of inorganic absorbers for the removal of a number of specified elements from aqueous waste streams has been studied. A worldwide review of the literature on the subject has been carried out and a number of processes identified at various stages of development, from the experimental to the fully developed industrial scale. The processes have been reduced to two major types; precipitation techniques, both seeded and unseeded and ion exchange. The chemical aspects of the use of such materials have been examined with regard to the processes and the nuclides in question. A comparative costing exercise has been carried out on typical processes examining plant, process and disposal costs, and has shown that one of the over-riding factors in deciding the economics of precipitation processes is the subsequent dewatering stage; because of the relatively low amounts of waste produced ion-exchange processes involving the use of columns have been found to have the lowest overall costs. Finally, a number of gaps in the present state of knowledge in this field have been identified and a number of recommendations are made. (author)

  10. Nanoscale Organic−Inorganic Hybrid Lubricants

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Daniel

    2011-03-15

    Silica (SiO2) nanoparticles densely grafted with amphiphilic organic chains are used to create a family of organic-inorganic hybrid lubricants. Short sulfonate-functionalized alkylaryl chains covalently tethered to the particles form a dense corona brush that stabilizes them against aggregation. When these hybrid particles are dispersed in poly-α-olefin (PAO) oligomers, they form homogeneous nanocomposite fluids at both low and high particle loadings. By varying the volume fraction of the SiO2 nanostructures in the PAO nanocomposites, we show that exceptionally stable hybrid lubricants can be created and that their mechanical properties can be tuned to span the spectrum from simple liquids to complex gels. We further show that these hybrid lubricants simultaneously exhibit lower interfacial friction coefficients, enhanced wear and mechanical properties, and superior thermal stability in comparison with either PAO or its nanocomposites created at low nanoparticle loadings. Profilometry and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopic analysis of the wear track show that the enhanced wear characteristics in PAO-SiO2 composite lubricants originate from two sources: localization of the SiO2 particles into the wear track and extension of the elastohydrodynamic lubrication regime to Sommerfeld numbers more than an order of magnitude larger than for PAO. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  11. Simulation of perovskite solar cells with inorganic hole transporting materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yan; Xia, Zhonggao; Liu, Yiming;

    2015-01-01

    improvement in power conversion efficiency (PCE). Here, we investigated the effect of band offset between inorganic HTM/absorber layers. The solar cell simulation program adopted in this work is named wxAMPS, an updated version of the AMPS tool (Analysis of Microelectronic and Photonic Structure).......Device modeling organolead halide perovskite solar cells with planar architecture based on inorganic hole transporting materials (HTMs) were performed. A thorough understanding of the role of the inorganic HTMs and the effect of band offset between HTM/absorber layers is indispensable for further...

  12. Infrared and Raman spectra of inorganic and coordination compounds theory and applications in inorganic chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Nakamoto, Kazuo

    2008-01-01

    The Sixth Edition of this classic work comprises the most comprehensive and current guide to infrared and Raman spectra of inorganic, organometallic, bioinorganic, and coordination compounds. From fundamental theories of vibrational spectroscopy to applications in a variety of compound types, this has been extensively updated. New topics include the theoretical calculations of vibrational frequencies (DFT method), chemical synthesis by matrix co-condensation reactions, time-resolved Raman spectroscopy, and more. This volume is a core reference for chemists and medical professionals working with infrared or Raman spectroscopies and an excellent textbook for graduate courses.

  13. DNA-inorganic hybrid nanovaccine for cancer immunotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Guizhi; Liu, Yijing; Yang, Xiangyu; Kim, Young-Hwa; Zhang, Huimin; Jia, Rui; Liao, Hsien-Shun; Jin, Albert; Lin, Jing; Aronova, Maria; Leapman, Richard; Nie, Zhihong; Niu, Gang; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2016-03-01

    Cancer evolves to evade or compromise the surveillance of the immune system, and cancer immunotherapy aims to harness the immune system in order to inhibit cancer development. Unmethylated CpG dinucleotide-containing oligonucleotides (CpG), a class of potent adjuvants that activate the toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) located in the endolysosome of many antigen-presenting cells (APCs), are promising for cancer immunotherapy. However, clinical application of synthetic CpG confronts many challenges such as suboptimal delivery into APCs, unfavorable pharmacokinetics caused by limited biostability and short in vivo half-life, and side effects associated with leaking of CpG into the systemic circulation. Here we present DNA-inorganic hybrid nanovaccines (hNVs) for efficient uptake into APCs, prolonged tumor retention, and potent immunostimulation and cancer immunotherapy. hNVs were self-assembled from concatemer CpG analogs and magnesium pyrophosphate (Mg2PPi). Mg2PPi renders hNVs resistant to nuclease degradation and thermal denaturation, both of which are demanding characteristics for effective vaccination and the storage and transportation of vaccines. Fluorophore-labeled hNVs were tracked to be efficiently internalized into the endolysosomes of APCs, where Mg2PPi was dissolved in an acidic environment and thus CpG analogs were exposed to hNVs. Internalized hNVs in APCs led to (1) elevated secretion of proinflammatory factors, and (2) elevated expression of co-stimulatory factors. Compared with molecular CpG, hNVs dramatically prolonged the tissue retention of CpG analogs and reduced splenomegaly, a common side effect of CpG. In a melanoma mouse model, two injections of hNVs significantly inhibited the tumor growth and outperformed the molecular CpG. These results suggest hNVs are promising for cancer immunotherapy.Cancer evolves to evade or compromise the surveillance of the immune system, and cancer immunotherapy aims to harness the immune system in order to inhibit

  14. Inorganic Nanostructured High-Temperature Magnet Wires Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project will develop a high-temperature tolerant electrically-insulating coating for magnet wires. The Phase I program will result in a flexible, inorganic...

  15. Renal clearable inorganic nanoparticles: a new frontier of bionanotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinbin Liu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available While inorganic nanoparticles (NPs with tunable and diverse material properties open up unprecedented opportunities for novel biomedical technologies, translating these NPs into clinical practices has been severely hampered by the toxicity induced by their nonspecific accumulation in healthy tissues/organs. In the past few years, the emergence of renal clearable inorganic NPs has made it possible to address this long-term challenge. This review summarizes size, shape, surface chemistry and biodegradation considerations in the design of renal clearable inorganic NPs and their strengths over conventional non-renal clearable NPs and small-molecule contrast agents in tumor targeting. Finally, some materials chemistry challenges in the development of renal clearable inorganic NPs and their biomedical implications beyond tumor targeting are discussed.

  16. Effects of organic and inorganic amendments on soil erodibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nutullah Özdemir

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present investigation is to find out the effect of incorporating of various organic and inorganic matter sources such as lime (L, zeolit (Z, polyacrylamide (PAM and biosolid (BS on the instability index. A bulk surface (0–20 cm depth soil sample was taken from Samsun, in northern part of Turkey. Some soil properties were determined as follows; fine in texture, modarete in organic matter content, low in pH and free of alkaline problem. The soil samples were treated with the inorganic and organic materials at four different levels including the control treatments in a randomized factorial block design. The soil samples were incubated for ten weeks. After the incubation period, corn was grown in all pots. The results can be summarized as organic and inorganic matter treatments increased structure stability and decreased soil erodibility. Effectiveness of the treatments varied depending on the types and levels of organic and inorganic materials.

  17. Quantification of the release of inorganic elements from biofuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Flemming; van Lith, Simone Cornelia; Korbee, Rob;

    2007-01-01

    , the results from the lab-scale fixed-bed release tests were compared to pilot-scale mass balance tests. While large differences were seen between the lab-scale release data and the release information obtained by the fuel characterization techniques, a good correlation was found between the lab......-scale and pilot-scale fixed-bed release data. In conclusion, it is recommended to perform the described lab-scale tests in order to obtain reliable quantitative data on the release of inorganic elements under grate-firing or suspension-firing conditions. Advanced fuel characterization by use of chemical...... fractionation and simultaneous thermal analysis, and global equilibrium analysis of thermal fuel conversion systems, provide valuable information on the association of inorganic elements in the fuel, the transformations and release of inorganic species upon heating, and the possible forms in which the inorganic...

  18. Some Reactions of Recoil Atoms in Solid Inorganic Phosphorus Compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In connection with our interest in the recoil chemistry of radiophosphorus it was considered worthwhile to investigate systems in which tritium recoils can be produced and subsequently react with inorganic anions of phosphorus. One purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the possibility for tritium recoils to replace (''displace'') either an oxygen or a hydrogen atom bound to phosphorus. For instance, oxygen replacement in an orthophosphate ion (PO4)-3 could lead to a (TPO3)-2 ion (phosphite), hydrogen replacement in hypophosphite could lead to (HTPO2). A number of lithium salts of orthophosphoric, phosphorous and hypophosphorous acid were irradiated with neutrons, the nuclear reaction Li6 (n, α)H3 serving as the source for the energetic tritium atoms. Through a step-wise oxidation procedure tritium bound to phosphorus was converted into HTO and radio-assayed by means of liquid scintillation counting. The results indicate that replacement of oxygen by tritium in orthophosphates is highly unlikely. When phosphites and hypophosphites are the target material, an appreciable percentage of the tritium recoils end up bound to phosphorus. The second purpose of this investigation was to determine to what extent the labelling of the tripolyphosphate - P32 anion, formed by recoiling P32 particles in a number of crystalline phosphates, deviates from a uniform distribution. A number of phosphates were irradiated with neutrons. The tripolyphosphate - P32 formed was separated by precipitation as the tris (ethylenediamine) cobalt (III) salt. By means of a step-wise degradation into orthophosphate the distribution of the P32 among the two possible positions in the anion was measured. One result of this study is that when anhydrous orthophosphates are the target material, there is as predicted, a strong preference for the tripolyphosphate - P32 formed to be labelled at the centre. These and other results are discussed in the light of current concepts of ''hot

  19. Inorganic carbon acquisition in red tide dinoflagellates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rost, Björn; Richter, Klaus-Uwe; Riebesell, Ulf; Hansen, Per Juel

    2006-05-01

    Carbon acquisition was investigated in three marine bloom-forming dinollagellates-Prorocentrum minimum, Heterocapsa triquetra and Ceratium lineatum. In vivo activities of extracellular and intracellular carbonic anhydrase (CA), photosynthetic O2 evolution, CO2 and HCO3- uptake rates were measured by membrane inlet mass spectrometry (MIMS) in cells acclimated to low pH (8.0) and high pH (8.5 or 9.1). A second approach used short-term 14C-disequilibrium incubations to estimate the carbon source utilized by the cells. All three species showed negligible extracellular CA (eCA) activity in cells acclimated to low pH and only slightly higher activity when acclimated to high pH. Intracellular CA (iCA) activity was present in all three species, but it increased only in P. minimum with increasing pH. Half-saturation concentrations (K1/2) for photosynthetic O2 evolution were low compared to ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) kinetics. Moreover, apparent affinities for inorganic carbon (Ci) increased with increasing pH in the acclimation, indicating the operation of an efficient CO2 concentration mechanism (CCM) in these dinoflagellates. Rates of CO2 uptake were comparably low and could not support the observed rates of photosynthesis. Consequently, rates of HCO3- uptake were high in the investigated species, contributing more than 80% of the photosynthetic carbon fixation. The affinity for HCO3- and maximum uptake rates increased under higher pH. The strong preference for HCO3- was also confirmed by the 14C-disequilibrium technique. Modes of carbon acquisition were consistent with the 13C-fractionation pattern observed and indicated a strong species-specific difference in leakage. These results suggest that photosynthesis in marine dinoflagellates is not limited by Ci even at high pH, which may occur during red tides in coastal waters. PMID:17087465

  20. Autonomous Sensing of Particulate Inorganic Carbon Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, G. A.; Bishop, J. K.; Strubhar, W. D.; Wood, T.

    2011-12-01

    Particulate inorganic carbon (PIC) is produced by coccolithophore phytoplankton and shelled foraminifera and pterpod microzooplankton. These calcite and aragonite particles contribute to excess density of aggregate particles enabling carbon export from surface waters; they are sensitive to the effects of ocean acidification. Concentrations in surface waters range from below 100 nM in oligotrophic waters to 40 uM in the North Atlantic. Very limited ship observations in the Oyashio and subarctic NE Pacific show short term PIC variability of more than one order of magitude over 10 days and 3 months, respectively. At depth concentrations can drop to near zero in waters deeper than the carbonate saturation horizon. Seasonal variations of a factor of two or more at 1000 m depth have been observed. Near surface variability is impossible to follow from ships. We are working on the development of a robust PIC sensor capable of deployment on platforms ranging from CTD's to floats and thus address the gap in observations. The sensor, which uses cross polarized optics, detects the photons that have interacted with birefringent minerals (of which calcite dominates) in the water column. The detection of this very weak signal - which can be 10-6 of the primary beam energy is a daunting task. Here we report results from incomparison deployments of a 'next gen' and prototype sensor during recent expeditions to California coastal and offshore waters (NE Pacific Gyre, Santa Barbara Basin (June 2009); Santa Catalina Basin (October 2010), Santa Cruz Basin (May 2011), California Current and Coastal Waters (July 2011; September 2011). In addition we report calibrations the sensors based on particulate samples filtered from 1L samples and analyzed by HR-ICP-MS.

  1. High temperature inorganic membranes for separating hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fain, D.E.; Roettger, G.E. [Oak Ridge K-25 Site, TN (United States)

    1995-08-01

    Effort has continued to accumulate data on the transport of gases over the temperature range from room temperature to 275{degrees}C with inorganic membranes having a range of pore radii from approximately 0.25 nm to 3 mn. An experimental alumina membrane having an estimated mean pore radius of 0.25 nm has been fabricated and tested. Extensive testing of this membrane indicated that the separation factor for helium and carbon tetrafluoride at 250{degrees}C was 59 and the extrapolated high temperature separation factor was 1,193. For safety reasons, earlier flow measurements concentrated on helium, carbon dioxide, and carbon tetrafluoride. New data have been acquired with hydrogen to verify the agreement with the other gases. During the measurements with hydrogen, it was noted that a considerable amount of moisture was present in the test gas. The source of this moisture and its effect on permeance was examined. Improvements were implemented to the flow test system to minimize the water content of the hydrogen test gas, and subsequent flow measurements have shown excellent results with hydrogen. The extrapolation of separation factors as a function of temperature continues to show promise as a means of using the hard sphere model to determine the pore size of membranes. The temperature dependence of helium transport through membranes appears to be considerably greater than other gases for the smallest pore sizes. The effort to extend temperature dependence to the hard sphere model continues to be delayed, primarily because of a lack of adequate adsorption data.

  2. Accuracy of a method based on atomic absorption spectrometry to determine inorganic arsenic in food: Outcome of the collaborative trial IMEP-41

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiamegkos, I.; Cordeiro, F.; Robouch, P.;

    2016-01-01

    A collaborative trial was conducted to determine the performance characteristics of an analytical method for the quantification of inorganic arsenic (iAs) in food. The method is based on (i) solubilisation of the protein matrix with concentrated hydrochloric acid to denature proteins and allow...

  3. Feasibility studies on the decontamination of caesium-137 in purex process streams by use of inorganic ion exchanger ammonium molybdo phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the purex process condensate streams it is essential to bring down the gamma activity due to 137Cs to an acceptable limit prior to its discharge. Application of the inorganic ion exchanger micro cystal salt of heteropoly acid ammonium molybdo phosphate has been investigated. (author). 7 refs

  4. Inorganic carbon acquisition in potentially toxic and non-toxic diatoms: the effect of pH-induced changes in the seawater carbonate chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trimborn, S; Lundholm, Nina; Thoms, S;

    2008-01-01

    The effects of pH-induced changes in seawater carbonate chemistry on inorganic carbon (C-i) acquisition and domoic acid (DA) production were studied in two potentially toxic diatom species, Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries and Nitzschia navis-varingica, and the non-toxic Stellarima stellaris. In vivo...

  5. Annual reports in inorganic and general syntheses 1974

    CERN Document Server

    Niedenzu, Kurt

    1975-01-01

    Annual Reports in Inorganic and General Syntheses-1974 presents an organized annual summary of synthetic developments in inorganic chemistry and its related areas. The book discusses the chemistry of simple and complex metal hydrides of main groups I, II, and III, boron, aluminium, gallium, indium, thallium, silicon, germanium, tin, lead, phosphorus, arsenic, antimony, bismuth, chalcogens, halogens, and pseudohalogens. The text also describes the chemistry of scandium, yttrium, lanthanides, actinides, titanium, zirconium, hafnium, vanadium, niobium, tantalum, chromium, molybdenum, tungsten, ma

  6. Controlled structuration and functionalization of organic-inorganic hybrid materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Organic-inorganic hybrid materials obtained by sol-gel process are very interesting materials. Indeed, these materials have both the properties of the organic phase and those of the inorganic matrix. Two functionalization and structuration ways are presented here: 1)the meso-porous hybrid materials formed in presence of structuring surfactant and the lamellar hybrid materials obtained by auto-assembling. (O.M.)

  7. Inorganic Chemistry: A Prestigious History and a Bright Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yam, Vivian Wing-Wah

    2015-07-13

    "…︁Inorganic chemistry has evolved from fundamental studies to the forefronts of interdisciplinary research. What was considered to be impossible or elusive has now become feasible. While we still keep our identity as inorganic chemists, the sharp demarcation between the divisions of different subject disciplines or subdisciplines is no longer relevant …︁" Read more in the Editorial by Vivian W.-W. Yam.

  8. Determination of some inorganic and organic pollutants in water

    OpenAIRE

    Gabrijel Cotič, Barbka

    2012-01-01

    The main topic of this diploma thesis is to determine the quality of the surface waters. Extensive use of the fertilisers (artificial and natural) and pesticides, all this in the main goal of higher yield, can pollute surface waters and environment in general and therefore affects the quality of life. In this diploma thesis, I determined inorganic pollutants in selected samples of surface waters and compare them with the maximum values legally allowed. The presence of selected inorganic i...

  9. Annual reports in inorganic and general syntheses 1972

    CERN Document Server

    Niedenzu, Kurt

    1973-01-01

    Annual Reports in Inorganic and General Syntheses-1972 presents an organized annual summary of synthetic developments in inorganic chemistry and its related areas. The book discusses alkali and alkaline earth elements, alloys, silver, gold, zinc, cadmium, mercury, boron, aluminum, gallium, indium, thallium, yttrium, scandium, lanthanides, actinides, titanium, zirconium, hafnium, Group V and VI transition elements, manganese, technetium, rhenium, iron, cobalt, nickel, ruthenium, osmium, rhodium, and iridium. The text also describes the chemistry of palladium, platinum, silicon, germanium, tin,

  10. Annual reports in inorganic and general syntheses 1973

    CERN Document Server

    Niedenzu, Kurt

    1974-01-01

    Annual Reports in Inorganic and General Syntheses-1973 presents an organized annual summary of synthetic developments in inorganic chemistry and its related areas. The book covers the synthetic aspects and structural or mechanistic features of elements, including the main group hydrides, alkali and alkaline earth elements, boron, aluminium, gallium, indium, thallium, silicon, germanium, tin, and lead, nitrogen, phosphorus, arsenic, antimony, bismuth, chalcogens, halogens and pseudohalogens, and noble gases. The text also discusses the synthetic aspects and structural or mechanistic features of

  11. Near-infrared sensitive organic-inorganic photorefractive device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinova, Vera; Liu, Ren-Chung; Lin, Shiuan-Huei; Chen, Ming-Syuan; Lin, Yi-Hsin; Hsu, Ken-Yuh

    2016-07-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid structure, assembled by Rh-doped Bi12TiO20 crystal and liquid crystal (LC) layer, operating at near-infrared range is proposed and demonstrated. Due to the photorefractive properties of inorganic substrate, light illumination caused a space charge field which acts as a driving force for LC molecules re-alignment and subsequent refractive index modulation. All optically controlled phase retardation ability has been demonstrated supporting possibilities for further infrared applications.

  12. Casting fine grained, fully dense, strong inorganic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Sam W.; Spencer, Larry S.; Phillips, Michael R.

    2015-11-24

    Methods and apparatuses for casting inorganic materials are provided. The inorganic materials include metals, metal alloys, metal hydrides and other materials. Thermal control zones may be established to control the propagation of a freeze front through the casting. Agitation from a mechanical blade or ultrasonic energy may be used to reduce porosity and shrinkage in the casting. After solidification of the casting, the casting apparatus may be used to anneal the cast part.

  13. Inorganic-whisker-reinforced polymer composites synthesis, properties and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Qiuju

    2015-01-01

    Inorganic-Whisker-Reinforced Polymer Composites: Synthesis, Properties and Applications gives a comprehensive presentation of inorganic microcrystalline fibers, or whiskers, a polymer composite filler. It covers whisker synthesis, surface modification, applications for reinforcing polymer-matrix composites, and analysis of resulting filled polymer composites. It focuses on calcium carbonate whiskers as a primary case study, introducing surface treatment methods for calcium carbonate whiskers and factors that influence them.Along with calcium carbonate, the book discusses potassium titanate and

  14. Organic and inorganic nitrogen uptake in lichens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlman, Lena; Persson, Jörgen; Palmqvist, Kristin; Näsholm, Torgny

    2004-07-01

    In order to learn more about nitrogen (N) acquisition in lichens, and to see whether different lichens differ in their affinity to various N sources, N uptake was measured in 14 various lichen associations ("species"). These species represented various morphologies (fruticose or foliose), contrasting microhabitat preferences (epiphytic or terricolous), and had green algal, cyanobacterial or both forms of photobionts. N was supplied under non-limiting conditions as an amino acid mixture, ammonium, or nitrate, using 15N to quantify uptake. Carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP) was used to separate active and passive uptake. Thallus N, amino acids, soluble polyol concentrations, and the biont-specific markers chlorophyll a and ergosterol were quantified, aiming to test if these metabolites or markers were correlated with N uptake capacity. Ammonium uptake was significantly greater and to a higher extent passive, relative to the other two N sources. Nitrate uptake differed among lichen photobiont groups, cyanobacterial lichens having a lower uptake rate. All lichens had the capacity to assimilate amino acids, in many species at rates equal to nitrate uptake or even higher, suggesting that organic N compounds could potentially have an important role in the N nutrition of these organisms. There were no clear correlations between N uptake rates and any of the measured metabolites or markers. The relative uptake rates of ammonium, nitrate and amino acids were not related to morphology or microhabitat. PMID:15060826

  15. Test Research for Basic Mechanics Performance of Inorganic Polymer Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huihong Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study is to evaluate the basic mechanics properties (compressive strength, modulus of elasticity, Poisson’s ratio and splitting tensile strength of inorganic polymer concrete whose mix proportion is ripe recipe and try to provide an experimental and theoretical foundation for application of inorganic polymer concrete in the practical engineering. In this study, the basic mechanics properties of inorganic polymer concrete have been studied by test. At the same time, the same tests researches are made for the common Portland cement concrete for comparison. Through the comparison research, it can be found that the compressive bearing capacity of inorganic polymer concrete is stronger and the modulus of elasticity and Poisson’s ratio is slightly bigger than those of common concrete and that the splitting tensile strength is as poor as those of ordinary Portland cement concrete. In order to investigate its long-term performance, the shrinkage and creep tests of inorganic polymer concrete have been studied as well. The change rules of shrinkage and creep in inorganic polymer concrete with time are obtained. It is that initial deformation is bigger and late deformation gradually becomes small and stable. These rules are basic similar as common Portland cement concrete.

  16. Isolation of living Algae growing in the shells of Molluscs and Barnacles with EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prud’homme van Reine, W.F.; Hoek, van den C.

    1966-01-01

    Several decalcifying mixtures or aqueous solutions of inorganic or organic acids are generally used for releasing algae growing in the shells of molluscs and barnacles, for instance dilute hydrochloric, nitric, citric, or acetic acid (4), a mixture of nitric acid, chromic acid and alcolhol (1), nitr

  17. Modeling the surface tension of complex, reactive organic-inorganic mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Schwier

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric aerosols can contain thousands of organic compounds which impact aerosol surface tension, affecting aerosol properties such as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN ability. We present new experimental data for the surface tension of complex, reactive organic-inorganic aqueous mixtures mimicking tropospheric aerosols. Each solution contained 2–6 organic compounds, including methylglyoxal, glyoxal, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, oxalic acid, succinic acid, leucine, alanine, glycine, and serine, with and without ammonium sulfate. We test two surface tension models and find that most reactive, complex, aqueous organic mixtures which do not contain salt are well-described by a weighted Szyszkowski–Langmuir (S–L model which was first presented by Henning et al. (2005. Two approaches for modeling the effects of salt were tested: (1 the Tuckermann approach (an extension of the Henning model with an additional explicit salt term, and (2 a new implicit method proposed here which employs experimental surface tension data obtained for each organic species in the presence of salt used with the Henning model. We recommend the use of method (2 for surface tension modeling because the Henning model (using data obtained from organic-inorganic systems and Tuckermann approach provide similar modeling fits and goodness of fit (χ2 values, yet the Henning model is a simpler and more physical approach to modeling the effects of salt, requiring less empirically determined parameters.

  18. On line pre-concentration for simultaneous determination of low molecular weight organic acids and inorganic anions in Amazonian river water samples employing ion chromatography with conductivity detection Pré-concentração em linha para a determinação simultânea de ácidos carboxílicos de baixo peso molecular e ânions inorgânicos em amostras de rios da Amazônia empregando cromatografia de íons com detecção por condutividade elétrica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Azevedo Tumang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available An ion chromatography procedure, employing an IonPac AC15 concentrator column was used to investigate on line preconcentration for the simultaneous determination of inorganic anions and organic acids in river water. Twelve organic acids and nine inorganic anions were separated without any interference from other compounds and carry-over problems between samples. The injection loop was replaced by a Dionex AC15 concentrator column. The proposed procedure employed an auto-sampler that injected 1.5 ml of sample into a KOH mobile phase, generated by an Eluent Generator, at 1.5 mL min-1, which carried the sample to the chromatographic columns (one guard column, model AG-15, and one analytical column, model AS15, with 250 x 4mm i.d.. The gradient elution concentrations consisted of a 10.0 mmol l-1 KOH solution from 0 to 6.5 min, gradually increased to 45.0 mmol l-1 KOH at 21 min., and immediatelly returned and maintained at the initial concentrations until 24 min. of total run. The compounds were eluted and transported to an electro-conductivity detection cell that was attached to an electrochemical detector. The advantage of using concentrator column was the capability of performing routine simultaneous determinations for ions from 0.01 to 1.0 mg l-1 organic acids (acetate, propionic acid, formic acid, butyric acid, glycolic acid, pyruvate, tartaric acid, phthalic acid, methanesulfonic acid, valeric acid, maleic acid, oxalic acid, chlorate and citric acid and 0.01 to 5.0 mg l-1 inorganic anions (fluoride, chloride, nitrite, nitrate, bromide, sulfate and phosphate, without extensive sample pretreatment and with an analysis time of only 24 minutes.A metodologia analítica foi desenvolvida empregando coluna pré-concentradora AC15 em linha na cromatografia iônica na determinação simultânea de ânions orgânicos e inorgânicos, com uso de coluna de guarda AG15 e analítica AS15, 250 x 4 mm i.d. (Dionex Corp.. O gradiente de concentração do eluente

  19. Implementation of a Markov Chain Monte Carlo method to inorganic aerosol modeling of observations from the MCMA-2003 campaign ? Part II: Model application to the CENICA, Pedregal and Santa Ana sites

    OpenAIRE

    San Martini, F. M.; E. J. Dunlea; R. Volkamer; Onasch, T. B.; J. T. Jayne; Canagaratna, M. R.; Worsnop, D. R.; C. E. Kolb; J. H. Shorter; S. C. Herndon; M. S. Zahniser; D. Salcedo; Dzepina, K.; Jimenez, J. L; Ortega, J. M.

    2006-01-01

    A Markov Chain Monte Carlo model for integrating the observations of inorganic species with a thermodynamic equilibrium model was presented in Part I of this series. Using observations taken at three ground sites, i.e. a residential, industrial and rural site, during the MCMA-2003 campaign in Mexico City, the model is used to analyze the inorganic particle and ammonia data and to predict gas phase concentrations of nitric and hydrochloric acid. In general, the model is able to accurately pred...

  20. Implementation of a Markov Chain Monte Carlo method to inorganic aerosol modeling of observations from the MCMA-2003 campaign – Part II: Model application to the CENICA, Pedregal and Santa Ana sites

    OpenAIRE

    San Martini, F. M.; Dunlea, E. J.; R. Volkamer; Onasch, T. B.; Jayne, J. T.; Canagaratna, M. R.; Worsnop, D. R.; Kolb, C. E.; Shorter, J. H.; Herndon, S. C.; Zahniser, M. S.; D. Salcedo; Dzepina, K.; Jimenez, J. L.; Ortega, J. M.

    2006-01-01

    A Markov Chain Monte Carlo model for integrating the observations of inorganic species with a thermodynamic equilibrium model was presented in Part I of this series. Using observations taken at three ground sites, i.e. a residential, industrial and rural site, during the MCMA-2003 campaign in Mexico City, the model is used to analyze the inorganic particle and ammonia data and to predict gas phase concentrations of nitric and hydrochloric acid. In general, the mode...

  1. Proton Conduction in Sulfonated Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Monoliths with Hierarchical Pore Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von der Lehr, Martin; Seidler, Christopher F; Taffa, Dereje H; Wark, Michael; Smarsly, Bernd M; Marschall, Roland

    2016-09-28

    Porous organic-inorganic hybrid monoliths with hierarchical porosity exhibiting macro- and mesopores are prepared via sol-gel process under variation of the mesopore size. Organic moieties in the pore walls are incorporated by substituting up to 10% of the silicon precursor tetramethylorthosilicate with bisilylated benzene molecules. After functionalization with sulfonic acid groups, the resulting sulfonated hybrid monoliths featuring a bimodal pore structure are investigated regarding proton conduction depending on temperature and relative humidity. The hierarchical pore system and controlled mesopore design turn out to be crucial for sulfonation and proton conduction. These sulfonated hybrid hierarchical monoliths containing only 10% organic precursor exhibit higher proton conduction at different relative humidities than sulfonated periodic mesoporous organosilica made of 100% bisilylated precursors exhibiting solely mesopores, even with a lower concentration of sulfonic acid groups.

  2. Inorganic-ligand exchanging time effect in PbS quantum dot solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byung-Sung; Hong, John; Hou, Bo; Cho, Yuljae; Sohn, Jung Inn; Cha, SeungNam; Kim, Jong Min

    2016-08-01

    We investigate time-dependent inorganic ligand exchanging effect and photovoltaic performance of lead sulfide (PbS) nanocrystal films. With optimal processing time, volume shrinkage induced by residual oleic acid of the PbS colloidal quantum dot (CQD) was minimized and a crack-free film was obtained with improved flatness. Furthermore, sufficient surface passivation significantly increased the packing density by replacing from long oleic acid to a short iodide molecule. It thus facilities exciton dissociation via enhanced charge carrier transport in PbS CQD films, resulting in the improved power conversion efficiency from 3.39% to 6.62%. We also found that excess iodine ions on the PbS surface rather hinder high photovoltaic performance of the CQD solar cell.

  3. Simulating the SOA formation of isoprene from partitioning and aerosol phase reactions in the presence of inorganics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beardsley, Ross L.; Jang, Myoseon

    2016-05-01

    The secondary organic aerosol (SOA) produced by the photooxidation of isoprene with and without inorganic seed is simulated using the Unified Partitioning Aerosol Phase Reaction (UNIPAR) model. Recent work has found the SOA formation of isoprene to be sensitive to both aerosol acidity ([H+], mol L-1) and aerosol liquid water content (LWC) with the presence of either leading to significant aerosol phase organic mass generation and large growth in SOA yields (YSOA). Classical partitioning models alone are insufficient to predict isoprene SOA formation due to the high volatility of photooxidation products and sensitivity of their mass yields to variations in inorganic aerosol composition. UNIPAR utilizes the chemical structures provided by a near-explicit chemical mechanism to estimate the thermodynamic properties of the gas phase products, which are lumped based on their calculated vapor pressure (eight groups) and aerosol phase reactivity (six groups). UNIPAR then determines the SOA formation of each lumping group from both partitioning and aerosol phase reactions (oligomerization, acid-catalyzed reactions and organosulfate formation) assuming a single homogeneously mixed organic-inorganic phase as a function of inorganic composition and VOC / NOx (VOC - volatile organic compound). The model is validated using isoprene photooxidation experiments performed in the dual, outdoor University of Florida Atmospheric PHotochemical Outdoor Reactor (UF APHOR) chambers. UNIPAR is able to predict the experimental SOA formation of isoprene without seed, with H2SO4 seed gradually titrated by ammonia, and with the acidic seed generated by SO2 oxidation. Oligomeric mass is predicted to account for more than 65 % of the total organic mass formed in all cases and over 85 % in the presence of strongly acidic seed. The model is run to determine the sensitivity of YSOA to [H+], LWC and VOC / NOx, and it is determined that the SOA formation of isoprene is most strongly related to [H

  4. Hierarchical Inorganic Assemblies for Artificial Photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Wooyul; Edri, Eran; Frei, Heinz

    2016-09-20

    Artificial photosynthesis is an attractive approach for renewable fuel generation because it offers the prospect of a technology suitable for deployment on highly abundant, non-arable land. Recent leaps forward in the development of efficient and durable light absorbers and catalysts for oxygen evolution and the growing attention to catalysts for carbon dioxide activation brings into focus the tasks of hierarchically integrating the components into assemblies for closing of the photosynthetic cycle. A particular challenge is the efficient coupling of the multi-electron processes of CO2 reduction and H2O oxidation. Among the most important requirements for a complete integrated system are catalytic rates that match the solar flux, efficient charge transport between the various components, and scalability of the photosynthetic assembly on the unprecedented scale of terawatts in order to have impact on fuel consumption. To address these challenges, we have developed a heterogeneous inorganic materials approach with molecularly precise control of light absorption and charge transport pathways. Oxo-bridged heterobinuclear units with metal-to-metal charge-transfer transitions absorbing deep in the visible act as single photon, single charge transfer pumps for driving multi-electron catalysts. A photodeposition method has been introduced for the spatially directed assembly of nanoparticle catalysts for selective coupling to the donor or acceptor metal of the light absorber. For CO2 reduction, a Cu oxide cluster is coupled to the Zr center of a ZrOCo light absorber, while coupling of an Ir nanoparticle catalyst for water oxidation to the Co donor affords closing of the photosynthetic cycle of CO2 conversion by H2O to CO and O2. Optical, vibrational, and X-ray spectroscopy provide detailed structural knowledge of the polynuclear assemblies. Time resolved visible and rapid-scan FT-IR studies reveal charge transfer mechanisms and transient surface intermediates under

  5. [Characterization of inorganic nano-alundum composite film of polyimide].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hao-Ran; Zhao, De-Ming; Liu, Xin-Gang; Lin, Fei; Fan, Yong

    2008-03-01

    The key to the study on the regularity about the mechanical, thermology and electricities property of the inorganic nano-mingled organic composition thin film is to understand the incorporated quantity, the particle size and distribution of nano-inorganic matter in the membrane quickly and accurately. In the present paper, the chemical structure, surface morphology and the actual content of nano-Al2O3 of the nano Al2O3-composite film of polyimide were characterized by X-ray atomic fluorescent spectroscopy (XRF), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic forced microscope (AFM). The results are that the organic phase of PI and the inorganic phase of Al2O3 formed a complex composite hybrid system of bond-to-bond pattern, the nano-Al2O3 particles in the film of PI are dispersed homogeneously, and the diameter of the particle is smaller than 50 nm; the weight content of Al2O3 is 7.9% by XRF. The approach we used is an effective way of analyzing the inorganic component of the organic composite film materials doped with the inorganic nano-phase materials with the merits of no pretreatment, no fed charge (for analysis of insulation materials), no-contagion, no destruction, high speed and high accuracy, etc. PMID:18536449

  6. Self-assembled hierarchically structured organic-inorganic composite systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tritschler, Ulrich; Cölfen, Helmut

    2016-06-01

    Designing bio-inspired, multifunctional organic-inorganic composite materials is one of the most popular current research objectives. Due to the high complexity of biocomposite structures found in nacre and bone, for example, a one-pot scalable and versatile synthesis approach addressing structural key features of biominerals and affording bio-inspired, multifunctional organic-inorganic composites with advanced physical properties is highly challenging. This article reviews recent progress in synthesizing organic-inorganic composite materials via various self-assembly techniques and in this context highlights a recently developed bio-inspired synthesis concept for the fabrication of hierarchically structured, organic-inorganic composite materials. This one-step self-organization concept based on simultaneous liquid crystal formation of anisotropic inorganic nanoparticles and a functional liquid crystalline polymer turned out to be simple, fast, scalable and versatile, leading to various (multi-)functional composite materials, which exhibit hierarchical structuring over several length scales. Consequently, this synthesis approach is relevant for further progress and scientific breakthrough in the research field of bio-inspired and biomimetic materials. PMID:27175790

  7. Acid rain effects on aluminum mobilization clarified by inclusion of strong organic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, G.B.; Sutherland, J.W.; Boylen, C.W.; Nierzwicki-Bauer, S. W.; Momen, B.; Baldigo, Barry P.; Simonin, H.A.

    2007-01-01

    Assessments of acidic deposition effects on aquatic ecosystems have often been hindered by complications from naturally occurring organic acidity. Measurements of pH and ANCG, the most commonly used indicators of chemical effects, can be substantially influenced by the presence of organic acids. Relationships between pH and inorganic Al, which is toxic to many forms of aquatic biota, are also altered by organic acids. However, when inorganic Al concentrations are plotted against ANC (the sum of Ca2+, Mg 2+, Na+, and K+, minus SO42-, NO3-, and Cl-), a distinct threshold for Al mobilization becomes apparent. If the concentration of strong organic anions is included as a negative component of ANC, the threshold occurs at an ANC value of approximately zero, the value expected from theoretical charge balance constraints. This adjusted ANC is termed the base-cation surplus. The threshold relationship between the base-cation surplus and Al was shown with data from approximately 200 streams in the Adirondack region of New York, during periods with low and high dissolved organic carbon concentrations, and for an additional stream from the Catskill region of New York. These results indicate that (1) strong organic anions can contribute to the mobilization of inorganic Al in combination with SO42- and NO 3-, and (2) the presence of inorganic Al in surface waters is an unambiguous indication of acidic deposition effects. ?? 2007 American Chemical Society.

  8. Effects of Long-Term Application of Inorganic Fertilizers on Biochemical Properties of a Rice-Planting Red Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG Wen-Hui; CAI Zu-Cong; ZHANG He

    2007-01-01

    A long-term experiment was set up in Yingtan of Jiangxi Province to investigate the effects of long-term application of inorganic fertilizers on the biochemical properties of a rice-planting soil derived from Quaternary red earth. Noncultivated soils are extremely eroded and characterized by a low pH and deficiencies in available nutrients, in particular P and N. After 13 years of inorganic fertilization in cultivation for double-cropped rice, the biochemical properties of the soil were changed. The nitrification potential and urease activity were higher in the treatments with N application than those without N application. Acid phosphatase activity and dehydrogenase activity were also higher in the treatments with P application than in those without P application. The dehydrogenase activity correlated well with the concentrations of both total P and hydrolysable N and with rice crop yield, suggesting that dehydrogenase activity might be a suitable indicator for improvement in soil fertility.

  9. Inorganic arsenic contents in rice-based infant foods from Spain, UK, China and USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spanish gluten-free rice, cereals with gluten, and pureed baby foods were analysed for total (t-As) and inorganic As (i-As) using ICP-MS and HPLC–ICP-MS, respectively. Besides, pure infant rice from China, USA, UK and Spain were also analysed. The i-As contents were significantly higher in gluten-free rice than in cereals mixtures with gluten, placing infants with celiac disease at high risk. All rice-based products displayed a high i-As content, with values being above 60% of the t-As content and the remainder being dimethylarsinic acid (DMA). Approximately 77% of the pure infant rice samples showed contents below 150 μg kg−1 (Chinese limit). When daily intake of i-As by infants (4–12 months) was estimated and expressed on a bodyweight basis (μg d−1 kg−1), it was higher in all infants aged 8–12 months than drinking water maximum exposures predicted for adults (assuming 1 L consumption per day for a 10 μg L−1 standard). Highlights: ► Inorganic As was higher in rice-based foods than in items based on other cereals. ► Total As was very high in fish-based foods but As was present as non-toxic species. ► The maximum daily intake of i-As was found between 8 and 12 months of age. ► Pure infant rice samples from Spain presented relatively low i-As contents. ► Infants with the celiac disease are exposed to elevated levels of i-As. - Infants with the celiac disease are exposed to high levels of inorganic arsenic because of their high consumption of rice-based foods.

  10. Apparent Disequilibrium of Inorganic and Organic Carbon Compounds in Serpentinizing Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, K.; Shock, E.

    2014-12-01

    During serpentinization of ultramafic rocks, ferrous iron in silicates is oxidized to ferric minerals and H2O is reduced to H2. This process is accompanied by the reduction of inorganic carbon, as observed in experiments and natural systems. To test the extent to which stable and metastable equilibria are reached among aqueous organic compounds during serpentinization, we sampled water and dissolved gases from circumneutral surface pools and hyperalkaline seeps in the Samail ophiolite in the Sultanate of Oman and analyzed for various carbon constituents, including dissolved inorganic carbon, dissolved organic carbon, methane, carbon monoxide, formate, acetate, and other small organic acid anions. Measurements of temperature, pH, dissolved H2, O2, major cations, major anions, and major and trace elements were also made. The aqueous composition of the analyzed samples was speciated based on ionic equilibrium interactions in order to obtain activities for inorganic carbon species, reduced carbon species, H2, and O2. The redox disequilibria among carbon species was then assessed using data and parameters for the revised HKF equations of state. This analysis demonstrates that the carbon species in this system are out of equilibrium with respect to one another in ways that cannot be compensated by altering the abundance of the other constituents within analytical uncertainties. Specifically, there is too much formate and too little methane relative to stable and metastable equilibria. This result implies the following: 1) Methane and formate equilibrated in separate parts of the system, given that no reasonable temperature, pressure, or composition changes satisfy equilibrium with their measured abundances. 2) Methane production is kinetically inhibited, as seen in experiments. 3) Microbial methane oxidation altered the abundance of methane and formate; methane oxidation to formate or carbonate is calculated to be extremely thermodynamically favorable in these fluids.

  11. Improved performance of polymer solar cells by using inorganic, organic, and doped cathode buffer layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taohong, Wang; Changbo, Chen; Kunping, Guo; Guo, Chen; Tao, Xu; Bin, Wei

    2016-03-01

    The interface between the active layer and the electrode is one of the most critical factors that could affect the device performance of polymer solar cells. In this work, based on the typical poly(3-hexylthiophene):[6,6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT:PCBM) polymer solar cell, we studied the effect of the cathode buffer layer (CBL) between the top metal electrode and the active layer on the device performance. Several inorganic and organic materials commonly used as the electron injection layer in an organic light-emitting diode (OLED) were employed as the CBL in the P3HT:PCBM polymer solar cells. Our results demonstrate that the inorganic and organic materials like Cs2CO3, bathophenanthroline (Bphen), and 8-hydroxyquinolatolithium (Liq) can be used as CBL to efficiently improve the device performance of the P3HT:PCBM polymer solar cells. The P3HT:PCBM devices employed various CBLs possess power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of 3.0%-3.3%, which are ca. 50% improved compared to that of the device without CBL. Furthermore, by using the doped organic materials Bphen:Cs2CO3 and Bphen:Liq as the CBL, the PCE of the P3HT:PCBM device will be further improved to 3.5%, which is ca. 70% higher than that of the device without a CBL and ca. 10% increased compared with that of the devices with a neat inorganic or organic CBL. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61204014), the “Chenguang” Project (13CG42) supported by Shanghai Municipal Education Commission and Shanghai Education Development Foundation, China, and the Shanghai University Young Teacher Training Program of Shanghai Municipality, China.

  12. An experimental study of organic-inorganic interactions during vitrinite maturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seewald, Jeffrey S.; Eglinton, Lorraine B.; Ong, Yea-Ling

    2000-05-01

    Vitrinite reflectance is a parameter widely used to determine the extent of thermal maturation in sedimentary basins. Laboratory heating experiments were conducted to examine the role of aqueous fluid and sediment composition, temperature, and time on the development of vitrinite reflectance at elevated temperatures and pressures. Samples of organic-lean Middle Valley sediment containing dispersed vitrinite and Wyodak Coal composed almost entirely of vitrinite were heated in the presence of compositionally variable aqueous fluids at 225° to 375°C and 350 bars. Inorganic fluid composition was monitored as a function of time, and vitrinite reflectance was measured at the termination of each experiment. The rate of vitrinite maturation was influenced by inorganic fluid and vitrinite composition, in addition to time and temperature during the experiments. In particular, the rate at which vitrinite reflectance increased for a given temperature correlated positively with in situ H + activity. This observation suggests that acid catalyzed ionic reaction mechanisms and/or catalytically active transition metals and sulfur species play an important role in organic transformations responsible for increased vitrinite reflectance. The activity of other inorganic ionic species such as Mg ++, Ca ++, Na +, K +, and SO 4=, and the redox state of the fluid did not influence the rate of vitrinite maturation during these experiments. Results of this study demonstrate that the geochemical environment surrounding vitrinite influences the rate of maturation. The presence of water may facilitate reaction pathways that are not readily available in dry systems. Vitrinite maturation profiles that deviate from what are considered to be "normal" trends may reflect subsurface variations in the composition of pore fluids or the presence or absence of an aqueous phase in contact with vitrinite particles. Accordingly, kinetic models that consider organic reactions responsible for increased

  13. Preparation and Characterization of Organic/Inorganic Hybrid Nanofibers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Ning; WEI Qu-fu; LI Qi; XU Wen-zheng

    2006-01-01

    A new class of nanocomposites based on organic and inorganic species integrated at a nanoscale has obtained more attention these years. Organic-inorganic hybrids have both the advantages of organic materials, such as light weight, flexibility and good moldability, and inorganic materials, such as high strength, heat stability and chemical resistance. In this work, PVAc/TiO2 organicinorganic hybrid was prepared by sol-gel process. Electrospinning technique was used to fabricate PVAc/TiO2hybrid nanofibers. The structures and properties of the hybrid nanofibers were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Atomic Force Microscope (AFM),Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC) and Fouriertransform infrared (FTIR) spectra. SEM and AFM were employed to study the topography of the hybrid nanofibers.The chemical structure of the hybrid nanofibers were examined by FTIR. The DSC scansrevealed the second order transition temperature of the hybrid materials were higher than PVAc.

  14. One-pot biosynthesis of polymer-inorganic nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geng Jiaqing [Tianjin University, Key Laboratory for Green Technology, School of Chemical Engineering and Technology (China); Yang Dong [Tianjin University, Department of Biochemical Engineering and Key Laboratory of Systems Bioengineering of Ministry of Education, School of Chemical Engineering and Technology (China); Zhu Yong; Cao Lichao; Jiang Zhongyi, E-mail: zhyjiang@tju.edu.cn [Tianjin University, Key Laboratory for Green Technology, School of Chemical Engineering and Technology (China); Sun Yan [Tianjin University, Department of Biochemical Engineering and Key Laboratory of Systems Bioengineering of Ministry of Education, School of Chemical Engineering and Technology (China)

    2011-06-15

    A biological method is demonstrated to fabricate the polymer-inorganic nanocomposites (PINCs) utilizing bacterium as an efficient and versatile biofactory. Gluconacetobacter xylinum that can produce bacterial cellulose is incubated in the culture medium containing titanium or silica precursor. The PINCs can be acquired under the elaborate control of the culturing condition of G. xylinum, in which the formation of inorganic nanoparticles about several tens of nanometers in size synchronizes the fabrication of reticulated bacterial cellulose membrane composed of dense and finely branched nanofibers about 60-120 nm in diameter. The composition and chemical states, morphology, thermal stability of the inorganic nanoparticles, and nanocomposites were extensively characterized. A tentative mechanism for the formation of PINCs is proposed. It is hoped that this study may establish a generic platform toward facile and green synthesis of nanocomposite materials.

  15. Heterostructures based on inorganic and organic van der Waals systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwan-Hyoung Lee

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The two-dimensional limit of layered materials has recently been realized through the use of van der Waals (vdW heterostructures composed of weakly interacting layers. In this paper, we describe two different classes of vdW heterostructures: inorganic vdW heterostructures prepared by co-lamination and restacking; and organic-inorganic hetero-epitaxy created by physical vapor deposition of organic molecule crystals on an inorganic vdW substrate. Both types of heterostructures exhibit atomically clean vdW interfaces. Employing such vdW heterostructures, we have demonstrated various novel devices, including graphene/hexagonal boron nitride (hBN and MoS2 heterostructures for memory devices; graphene/MoS2/WSe2/graphene vertical p-n junctions for photovoltaic devices, and organic crystals on hBN with graphene electrodes for high-performance transistors.

  16. Synchrotron radiation studies of inorganic-organic semiconductor interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, D A; Vearey-Roberts, A R; Bushell, A; Cabailh, G; O'Brien, S; Wells, J W; McGovern, I T; Dhanak, V R; Kampen, T U; Zahn, D R T; Batchelor, D

    2003-01-01

    Organic semiconductors (polymers and small molecules) are widely used in electronic and optoelectronic technologies. Many devices are based on multilayer structures where interfaces play a central role in device performance and where inorganic semiconductor models are inadequate. Synchrotron radiation techniques such as photoelectron spectroscopy (PES), near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) and X-ray standing wave spectroscopy (XSW) provide a powerful means of probing the structural, electronic and chemical properties of these interfaces. The surface-specificity of these techniques allows key properties to be monitored as the heterostructure is fabricated. This methodology has been directed at the growth of hybrid organic-inorganic semiconductor interfaces involving copper phthalocyanine as the model organic material and InSb and GaAs as the model inorganic semiconductor substrates. Core level PES has revealed that these interfaces are abrupt and chemically inert due to the weak bonding between t...

  17. Bulk synthesis of polymer-inorganic colloidal clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perro, Adeline; Manoharan, Vinothan N

    2010-12-21

    We describe a procedure to synthesize colloidal clusters with polyhedral morphologies in high yield (liter quantities at up to 70% purity) using a combination of emulsion polymerization and inorganic surface chemistry. We show that the synthesis initially used for silica-polystyrene hybrid clusters can be generalized to create clusters from other inorganic and polymer particles. We also show that high yields of particular morphologies can be obtained by precise control of the inorganic seed particle size, a finding that can be explained using a hard-sphere packing model. These clusters can be further chemically modified for a variety of applications. Introducing a cross-linker leads to colloidal clusters that can be index matched in an appropriate solvent, allowing them to be used for particle tracking or optical studies of colloidal self-assembly. Also, depositing a thin silica layer on these colloids allows the surface properties to be controlled using silane chemistry. PMID:21080658

  18. One-pot biosynthesis of polymer–inorganic nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A biological method is demonstrated to fabricate the polymer–inorganic nanocomposites (PINCs) utilizing bacterium as an efficient and versatile biofactory. Gluconacetobacter xylinum that can produce bacterial cellulose is incubated in the culture medium containing titanium or silica precursor. The PINCs can be acquired under the elaborate control of the culturing condition of G. xylinum, in which the formation of inorganic nanoparticles about several tens of nanometers in size synchronizes the fabrication of reticulated bacterial cellulose membrane composed of dense and finely branched nanofibers about 60–120 nm in diameter. The composition and chemical states, morphology, thermal stability of the inorganic nanoparticles, and nanocomposites were extensively characterized. A tentative mechanism for the formation of PINCs is proposed. It is hoped that this study may establish a generic platform toward facile and green synthesis of nanocomposite materials.

  19. Transparent bulk-size nanocomposites with high inorganic loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Shi [CREOL, College of Optics and Photonics, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida 32816 (United States); Gaume, Romain, E-mail: gaume@ucf.edu [CREOL, College of Optics and Photonics, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida 32816 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida 32816 (United States); NanoScience Technology Center, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida 32816 (United States)

    2015-12-14

    With relatively high nanoparticle loading in polymer matrices, hybrid nanocomposites made by colloidal dispersion routes suffer from severe inhomogeneous agglomeration, a phenomenon that deteriorates light transmission even when the refractive indices of the inorganic and organic phases are closely matched. The dispersion of particles in a matrix is of paramount importance to obtain composites of high optical quality. Here, we describe an innovative, yet straightforward method to fabricate monolithic transparent hybrid nanocomposites with very high particle loading and high refractive index mismatch tolerance between the inorganic and organic constituents. We demonstrate 77% transmission at 800 nm in a 2 mm-thick acrylate polymer nanocomposite containing 61 vol. % CaF{sub 2} nanoparticles. Modeling shows that similar performance could easily be obtained with various inorganic phases relevant to a number of photonic applications.

  20. Recent developments in 2D layered inorganic nanomaterials for sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, Padmanathan Karthick; Late, Dattatray J.; Morgan, Hywel; Rout, Chandra Sekhar

    2015-08-01

    Two dimensional layered inorganic nanomaterials (2D-LINs) have recently attracted huge interest because of their unique thickness dependent physical and chemical properties and potential technological applications. The properties of these layered materials can be tuned via both physical and chemical processes. Some 2D layered inorganic nanomaterials like MoS2, WS2 and SnS2 have been recently developed and employed in various applications, including new sensors because of their layer-dependent electrical properties. This article presents a comprehensive overview of recent developments in the application of 2D layered inorganic nanomaterials as sensors. Some of the salient features of 2D materials for different sensing applications are discussed, including gas sensing, electrochemical sensing, SERS and biosensing, SERS sensing and photodetection. The working principles of the sensors are also discussed together with examples.

  1. Distribution of inorganic and organic substances in the hydrocyclone separated Slovak sub-bituminous coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anton Zubrik; Slavomir Hredzak; Ludmila Turcaniova; Michal Lovas; Ingo Bergmann; Klaus Dieter Becker; Maria Lukcova; Vladimir Sepelak [Slovak Academy of Sciences, Kosice (Slovakia). Institute of Geotechnics

    2010-08-15

    A low-rank Slovak sub-bituminous coal from the Handlova deposit was physically treated by washing in a water-only cyclone with the goal to find the separation effect for inorganic (mainly Fe-bearing minerals) and organic substances (humic acids, diterpanes). A high-quality coal product with the ash content in the dry matter of 9.02% and carbon content of C{sup d} = 68.12% at a mass yield of 29.51% was obtained using the water-only cyclone processing. At first, the physically treated coal samples were detailed characterized by XRD, {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy, FT-IR and HR-TEM. In addition to non-crystalline organic coal components, inorganic compounds belonging to silicate minerals (kaolinite, muscovite and quartz) as well as to Fe-bearing sulphide minerals (pyrite) were identified in the sub-bituminous coal by XRD. {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy detected the presence of iron carbonate (siderite), iron-containing clay mineral and two sulphur-containing minerals (pyrite, jarosite) in the untreated coal. On the other hand, only one Fe-bearing mineral, (pyrite) was found in the washed coal. Effect of the physical separation is also demonstrated in FT-IR spectra, where the peak at 1040 cm{sup -1} representing the silicate component in the untreated sample is not detectable in the washed coal sample. Presence of extractive organic substances, i.e. humic acids and tetracyclic diterpane (16a(H)-phyllocladane), in the hydrocyclone products is also evidenced. It was confirmed that the isolated diterpenoic compound is attendant in the washed product with the lowest ash content and it is assimilated with the organic part of coal. Surprisingly, humic acids were found in the highest concentration in the slurry that has the highest content of ash (63.14%). 54 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

  2. Exposure to inorganic arsenic in soil increases urinary inorganic arsenic concentrations of residents living in old mining areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinwood, Andrea L; Sim, Malcolm R; Jolley, Damien; de Klerk, Nick; Bastone, Elisa B; Gerostamoulos, Jim; Drummer, Olaf H

    2004-03-01

    The short term human exposure studies conducted on populations exposed to high concentrations of inorganic arsenic in soil have been inconsistent in demonstrating a relationship between environmental concentrations and exposure measures. In Australia there are many areas with very high arsenic concentrations in residential soil most typically associated with gold mining activities in rural areas. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between environmental arsenic and urinary inorganic arsenic concentrations in a population living in a gold mining area (soil arsenic concentrations between 9 and 9900 mg kg(-1)), and a control population with low arsenic levels in soil (between 1 and 80 mg kg(-1)). Risk factors for increased urinary arsenic concentrations were also explored. There was a weak but significant relationship between soil arsenic concentrations and inorganic urinary arsenic concentration with a Spearman correlation coefficient of 0.39. When participants with greater than 100 mg kg(-1) arsenic in residential soil were selected, the coefficient increased to 0.64. The geometric mean urinary inorganic arsenic concentration for the exposed group was 1.64 microg L(-1) (risk factors. These results show that high concentrations of arsenic in soil can make a contribution to urinary inorganic arsenic concentrations.

  3. Production of mutants with high inorganic phosphorus content in seeds by germplasm reselection and mutation technique in wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phytic acid or phytate is commonly regarded as the major anti-nutritional component in cereal and legume grains. Development of low phytic acid or high inorganic phosphorus (HIP) crops has recently been considered as a potential way to increase nutritional quality of crop products. 399 genotypes of winter wheat germplasm including the currently cultivated varieties were colorimetric assayed for inorganic phosphorus content using Chen's reagent. The results showed significant difference in inorganic phosphorus content among different genotypes, and fifteen genotypes (accounting for 3.8%) with high inorganic phosphorus content varying from 0.93μg/mg to 1.39μg/m were selected. Two winter wheat genotypes Zhongyou9507 and Zhongyuan9 were also used to induce HIP mutations by mixed particle field with high energy, 60Co γ- rays and 7Li ion beams. Dry seeds were irradiated by mixed particle field and 60Co γ-rays with doses of 195Gy and 284Gy, and 7Li ion beams with the doses of 50Gy, 100Gy and 150Gy, respectively. The results showed that the frequencies of HIP mutations and homozygous HIP mutations induced by 195Gy 60Co γ-rays and 284Gy mixed particle field were similar between the two genotypes, while the frequencies of HIP and homozygous HIP mutation in Zhongyou9507 were higher than that in Zhongyuan9 in all the other treatments, revealing the more high radiation sensitivity of Zhongyou9507 than that of Zhongyuan9. Three homozygous HIP mutants from Zhongyou9507 and one from Zhongyuan9 were identified. Characterization of the homozygous HIP mutants in respect of agronomic, biochemical and molecular levels were also conducted. (author)

  4. Hybrid Organic/Inorganic Nanocomposites for Photovoltaic Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchuan Liu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Inorganic/organic hybrid solar cells have attracted a lot of interest due to their potential in combining the advantages of both components. To understand the key issues in association with photoinduced charge separation/transportation processes and to improve overall power conversion efficiency, various combinations with nanostructures of hybrid systems have been investigated. Here, we briefly review the structures of hybrid nanocomposites studied so far, and attempt to associate the power conversion efficiency with these nanostructures. Subsequently, we are then able to summarize the factors for optimizing the performance of inorganic/organic hybrid solar cells.

  5. Complexes of polyvinyl alcohol with insoluble inorganic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosanov, I. Yu.; Bulina, N. V.; Gerasimov, K. B.

    2013-10-01

    Hybrid materials of polyvinyl alcohol-hydroxides/oxides of Be, Mg, Zn, Cd, B, Al, Cr, and Fe have been obtained. The studies have been carried out by the methods of optical spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and synchronous thermal analysis. Interpretation of experimental data is presented, presuming that, in systems with zinc, boron, aluminum, chromium, and iron hydroxides/oxides, interpolymeric complexes of polyvinyl alcohol with corresponding polymeric inorganic compounds are formed. They belong to a new class of materials with unusual structure containing chains of inorganic polymers isolated in the organic matrix.

  6. Organic and inorganic osmolytes at lipid membrane interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westh, P.; Peters, Günther H.j.

    2008-01-01

    This chapter discusses the interactions of organic osmolytes and membranous interfaces, and the effects of these interactions on the properties of the membrane. It also includes a treatment of inorganic ions at the membrane interface since osmolyte effects involve a balance between organic...... and inorganic components. Before turning to the physicochemical discussion of interfacial interactions, the chapter outlines some central parts of the biology and biotechnology of organic osmolytes. It reviews the central relationships in preferential interaction theory, which we use in subsequent paragraphs...

  7. Corrosion inhibition of a hygroscopic inorganic dust-depressor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Longzhe Jin; Lu Wang; Dongke Chen

    2006-01-01

    Metallic corrosion is a serious problem in the application of a hygroscopic inorganic dust-depressor. The basic characteristics of a hygroscopic inorganic dust-depressor and its corrosivity, corrosion mechanism, as well as the principle of corrosion inhibition were analyzed. The static mass-loss test was carried out to investigate the corrosion behavior and the effect of the dustdepressor. The static corrosion rates of steel specimens were measured in six different corrosion inhibitor solutions of the dustdepressor, and the suitable corrosion inhibitors for the dust-depressor to reduce the corrosivity were found out.

  8. Binary systems solubilities of inorganic and organic compounds

    CERN Document Server

    Stephen, H

    1963-01-01

    Solubilities of Inorganic and Organic Compounds, Volume 1: Binary Systems, Part 1 is part of an approximately 5,500-page manual containing a selection from the International Chemical Literature on the Solubilities of Elements, Inorganic Compounds, Metallo-organic and Organic Compounds in Binary, Ternary and Multi-component Systems. A careful survey of the literature in all languages by a panel of scientists specially appointed for the task by the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences, Moscow, has made the compilation of this work possible. The complete English edition in five separately bound volumes w

  9. Inorganic electret with enhanced charge stability for energy harvesting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Fei; Hansen, Ole

    2013-01-01

    We report a new surface treatment of inorganic electret materials which enhances the charge stability. Coating the surfaces with 1H, 1H, 2H, 2H - perfluorodecyltrichlorosilane (FDTS) makes the electret surface more hydrophobic which improves the surface charge stability under high humidity...... conditions. Thermal tests show that the thermal stability of charge in the inorganic electrets is also much better than that of polymer materials such as CYTOP. A demonstrator device with SiO2 electrets shows promising results for energy harvesting applications....

  10. Development of Inorganic Solar Cells by Nano-technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yafei Zhang; HueyLiang Hwang; Huijuan Geng; Zhihua Zhou; Jiang Wu; Zhiming Wang; Yaozhong Zhang; Zhongli Li; Liying Zhang; Zhi Yang

    2012-01-01

    Inorganic solar cells, as durable photovoltaic devices for harvesting electric energy from sun light, have received tremendous attention due to the fear of exhausting the earth’s energy resources and damaging the living environment due to greenhouse gases. Some recent developments in nanotechnology have opened up new avenues for more relevant inorganic solar cells produced by new photovoltaic conversion concepts and effective solar energy harvesting nanostructures. In this review, the multiple exciton generation effect solar cells, hot carrier solar cells, one dimensional material constructed asymmetrical schottky barrier arrays, noble nanoparticle induced plasmonic enhancement, and light trapping nanostructured semiconductor solar cells are highlighted.

  11. Metal extraction by amides of carboxylic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extraction ability of various amides was studied. Data on extraction of rare earths, vanadium, molybdenum, rhenium, uranium, niobium, tantalum by N,N-dibutyl-amides of acetic, nonanic acids and fatly synthetic acids of C7-C9 fractions are presented. Effect of salting-out agents, inorganic acid concentrations on extraction process was studied. Potential ability of using amides of carboxylic acids for extractional concentration of rare earths as well as for recovery and separation of iron, rhenium, vanadium, molybdenum, uranium, niobium, and tantalum was shown

  12. Study of matrix effects produced by inorganic species in inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry with several spray chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present work, the influence of the spray chamber design on the matrix effects was investigated in Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES). The study was carried out in terms of aerosol drop size distribution and emission signal. Solutions of two inorganic acids and salts were employed to characterize the extent of the matrix effects throughout this work. Several spray chambers. a double-pass (Scott - type), a conventional cyclonic, and two low-volume cyclonic - type spray chambers (i.e., Cinnabar, and Genie) were used in order to evaluate the matrix effects produced by nitric and sulphuric acid solutions. A glass concentric pneumatic micro nebulizer (Atom Mist) was used in conjunction with all four chambers. When nitric or sulphuric acid solutions were nebulized, the double pass spray chamber registered noticeable changes in the drop size distribution. The low-volume spray chambers, in turn, afforded changes in the aerosol drop size distributions similar to the conventional cyclonic one. The matrix effects on the signal were reduced with all three cyclonic spray chambers with respect to the double pass one. Concerning the effect of inorganic salts, the results obtained with a High Efficiency Nebulizer (HEN) coupled to a double pass spray chamber and to a cyclonic type one revealed several issues: (i) the matrix effects were more severe at low liquid and gas flow rates; (ii) as for inorganic acids, the use of a cyclonic spray chamber led to a mitigation of the matrix effects with respect to a double pass spray chamber. (author)

  13. Supramolecular organization in organic-inorganic heterogeneous hybrid catalysts formed from polyoxometalate and poly(ampholyte) polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Gijo; Swalus, Colas; Guillet, Alain; Devillers, Michel; Nysten, Bernard; Gaigneaux, Eric M

    2013-04-01

    Hybridization of polyoxometalates (POMs) via the formation of an organic-inorganic association constitutes a new route to develop a heterogeneous POM catalyst with tunable functionality imparted through supramolecular assembly. Herein, we report on strategies to obtain tunable well-defined supramolecular architectures of an organic-inorganic heterogeneous hybrid catalyst formed by the association of a hydrophobically substituted polyampholyte copolymer (poly N, N-diallyl-N-hexylamine-alt-maleic acid) and phosphotungstic acid (H3PW12O40) POMs. The self-assembling property of the initial polyampholyte copolymer matrix is modulated by controlling the pH of the hybridization solution. When deposited on a mica surface, isolated, long and extended polymer chains are formed under basic conditions (pH 7.9), while globular or coiled structures are formed under acidic conditions (pH 2). The supramolecular assembly of the POM-polymer hybrid is found to be directed by the type and quantities of charges present on the polyampholyte copolymer, which themselves depend on the pH conditions. The hypothesis is that the Keggin type [PW12O40](3-) anions, which have a size of ~1 nm, electrostatically bind to the positive charge sites of the polymer backbone. The hybrid material stabilized at pH 5.3 consists of POM-decorated polymer chains. Statistical analysis of distances between pairs of POM entities show narrow density distributions, suggesting that POM entities are attached to the polymer chains with a high level of order. Conversely, under acidic conditions (pH 2), the hybrid shows the formation of a core-shell type of structure. The strategies reported here, to tune the supramolecular assembly of organic-inorganic hybrid materials, are highly valuable for the design and a more rational utilization of POM heterogeneous catalysts in several chemical transformations.

  14. Chemical Species of Aluminum Lons in Acid Soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XURENKOU; JIGUOLIANG

    1998-01-01

    Soil samples collected from several acid soils in Guangdong,Fujian,Zhejiang and Anhui provinces of the southern China were employded to characterize the chemical species of aluminum ions in the soils.The proportion or monoeric inorganic Al to total Al in soil solution was in the range of 19% to 70%,that of monomeric organlic Al (Al-OM) to total Al ranged from 7.7% to 69%,and that of the acid-soluble Al to total Al was generally smaller and was lower than 20% in most of the acid soils studied ,The Al-OM concentration in soil solution was postively correlated with the content of dissolved organic carbon(DOC) and aslo affected by the concentration of Al3+,The complexes of aluminum with fluoride(Al-F) were the predominant forms of inorganic Al,and the proportion of Al-F compexes to total inorganic Al increased with pH.Under strongly acid ondition,Al3+ was also a mjaor form of inorganic Al,and the proportio of Al3+ to total inorganic Al decreased with increasing pH.The,proportions of Al-OH and Al-SO4 complexes to total inorganic Al were small and were not larger than 10% in the most acid soils.The concentration of inorganic Al in solution depended largely on pH and the concentration of total F in soil solution,The concentrations of Al-OM,Al3+,Al-F and Al-OH complexes in topsoil were higher than those in subsoil and decreased with the increase in soil depth,The chemical species of aluminum ions were influenced by pH,The concentrations of Al-OM, Al3+,Al-F complexes and Al-OH complexes decreased with the increase in pH.

  15. The formation of organic (propolis films)/inorganic (layered crystals) interfaces for optoelectronic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drapak, S. I.; Bakhtinov, A. P.; Gavrylyuk, S. V.; Kovalyuk, Z. D.; Lytvyn, O. S.

    2008-10-01

    Propolis (honeybee glue) organic films were prepared from an alcoholic solution on the surfaces of inorganic layered semiconductors (indium, gallium and bismuth selenides). Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) are used to characterize structural properties of an organic/inorganic interfaces. It is shown that nanodimensional linear defects and nanodimensional cavities of various shapes are formed on the van der Waals (VDW) surfaces of layered crystals as a result of chemical interaction between the components of propolis (flavonoids, aminoacids and phenolic acids) and the VDW surfaces as well as deformation interaction between the VDW surfaces and propolis films during their polymerization. The nanocavities are formed as a result of the rupture of strong covalent bonds in the upper layers of layered crystals and have the shape of hexagons or triangles in the (0001) plane. The shape, lateral size and distribution of nanodimensional defects on the VDW surfaces depends on the type of crystals, the magnitude and distribution of surface stresses. We have obtained self-organized nanofold structures of propolis/InSe interface. It is established that such heterostructures have photosensitivity in the infrared range hν<1.2 eV (the values of energy gap are 1.2 eV for InSe and 3.07 eV for propolis films at room temperature).

  16. Preliminary Tests Concerning Zero-Valent Iron Efficiency in Inorganic Pollutants Remediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Fiore

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: This study was aimed to a preliminary evaluation of the applicability of granular Zero-Valent Iron (ZVI to the on site remediation of groundwater polluted by inorganic contaminants by means of a Permeable Reactive Barrier (PRB. A particular interest was devoted to groundwater impacted by Acid Mine Drainage (AMD that was caused by the oxidation of metal sulphide minerals contained in mine wastes, especially iron disulphide pyrite. Although AMD consequences were particularly evident in surface waters, the percolation through mine wastes may heavily alter the groundwater quality, therefore is particularly important the development of a restrained cost remediation technique for groundwater polluted by AMDs. Approach: In this study the degradation efficiency of Brown size 8/50 ZVI (Peerless Powders and Abrasive Inc., Detroit, US was evaluated performing a leaching column test and analyzing the Oxidation Reduction Potential (ORP, metals, nitrates, chlorides and sulphates profiles along the column. Results: This test allowed simulating the solid-liquid contact characteristic of a real PRB behavior that proved to be a possible solution for the remediation of inorganic pollutants in groundwater. Conclusion: The considered material showed efficiency above 99% in metals removal, although further tests, involving biotic processes and more reducing conditions, are necessary to improve the degradation of sulphates and nitrates.

  17. Reduced inorganic sulfur in the sediments of the Yellow Sea and East China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KANG Xuming; LIU Sumei; ZHANG Guoling

    2014-01-01

    Cold diffusion methods are used to separate and quantify the three reduced inorganic sulfur species into acid volatile sulfide (AVS), pyrite-S and element sulfur (ES) in the sediments of the Yellow and East China Seas. The results show that up to 25.02μmol/g of AVS, 113.1μmol/g of pyrite-S and 44.4μmol/g of ES are observed in the sediments of the Yellow Sea and East China Sea. Pyrite-S is the predominant sulfide mineral in the sediments, while the concentration of AVS is quite low at most stations in the study area. The amounts and reactivity of organic matter are the primary limited factor for the sulfide formation, while an iron limi-tation and a sulfate limitation are not observed in the sediments of the Yellow Sea and East China Sea. The irregular profiles of the three reduced inorganic sulfur species also reflected the comprehensive influence of sediment composition and sedimentation rates.

  18. Controlled Microstructure and Photochromism of Inorganic-organic Thin Films by Ultrasound

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A series of inorganic-organic thin films based on uniformly dispersed nanoparticles of polyoxometalates (POM)entrapped in polyacrylamide (PAM) matrix were prepared by ultrasonic method with different irradiation time.The microstructure, photochromic behavior and mechanism of the films were studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), ultraviolet-visible spectra (UV-VIS) and Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR).The microstructure and photochromic properties of the hybrid thin films could be controlled by ultrasound.TEM image revealed that the average size of phosphotungstic acid (PWA) nanoparticles decreased from 20 to 10 nm with the ultrasound irradiation time from 30 to 60 min. After irradiated with ultraviolet light,the transparent films changed from colorless to blue and showed reversible photochromism. The hybrid film, with ultrasound irradiation for 60 min had higher photochromic efficiency and faster bleaching reaction than the one with ultrasound irradiation for 30 min. FT-IR spectra showed that the Keggin geometry of heteropolyoxometalate was still preserved inside the composites, and the interactions between polyanions and polymer matrix increased as the ultrasound time prolonged. It is suggested that the mechanism of the different photochromic properties for the inorganic-organic thin films is the variation of the microstructure and interfacial interactions induced by ultrasound.

  19. Electrochromic conductive polymer fuses for hybrid organic/inorganic semiconductor memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, Sven; Forrest, Stephen R.; Perlov, Craig; Jackson, Warren; Taussig, Carl

    2003-12-01

    We demonstrate a nonvolatile, write-once-read-many-times (WORM) memory device employing a hybrid organic/inorganic semiconductor architecture consisting of thin film p-i-n silicon diode on a stainless steel substrate integrated in series with a conductive polymer fuse. The nonlinearity of the silicon diodes enables a passive matrix memory architecture, while the conductive polyethylenedioxythiophene:polystyrene sulfonic acid polymer serves as a reliable switch with fuse-like behavior for data storage. The polymer can be switched at ˜2 μs, resulting in a permanent decrease of conductivity of the memory pixel by up to a factor of 103. The switching mechanism is primarily due to a current and thermally dependent redox reaction in the polymer, limited by the double injection of both holes and electrons. The switched device performance does not degrade after many thousand read cycles in ambient at room temperature. Our results suggest that low cost, organic/inorganic WORM memories are feasible for light weight, high density, robust, and fast archival storage applications.

  20. Fabrication and Characterisation of Polyaniline/Laponite based Semiconducting Organic/Inorganic Hybrid Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walt V.K. Wheelwright

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Novel organic-inorganic semiconducting hybrid material is developed by chemically grafting polyaniline (PANI onto an inorganic template, Laponite. The surface active silanol groups of the Laponite sheets were silylated with an aniline functionalised 3-phenylaminopropyltrimethoxysilane (PAPTMOS coupling agent followed by deposition of PANI onto the silylated surface. The method includes the reaction of Laponite with PAPTMOS dissolved in a very small amount of methanol at 110 °C for 44 h in a vacuum oven, interaction of the silylated product with PANI via in situ polymerisation of aniline and one-step isolation process by means of the removal of the non-connected PANI with N-methylpyrrolidinone-diethylamine binary solvent. After isolation and re-doping with methane sulfonic acid the Laponite-PAPTMOS-PANI hybrid becomes electrically conductive. The chemical attachment of PANI with silylated Laponite in the hybrids were characterised by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, elemental analysis, and scanning electron microscopy.Defence Science Journal, Vol. 64, No. 3, May 2014, pp. 193-197, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.64.7185

  1. Water soluble inorganic trace gases and related aerosol compounds in the tropical boundary layer. An analysis based on real time measurements at a pasture site in the Amazon Basin

    OpenAIRE

    I. Trebs

    2005-01-01

    This dissertation investigates the behavior of water-soluble inorganic trace gases and related aerosol species in the tropical boundary layer. Mixing ratios of ammonia (NH3), nitric acid (HNO3), nitrous acid (HONO), hydrochloric acid (HCl), sulfur dioxide (SO;,) and the corresponding water-soluble aerosol species, ammonium (NH,,1), nitrate (NO3 ), nitrite (NO,), chloride (CI) and sulfate (SO,") were measured at a pasture site in the Amazon Basin (Rondónia, Brazil). Sampling was performed from...

  2. Tile adhesive production by Inorganic materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fasil Alemayehu Hayilu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In modern construction, ceramic tile and mosaic which are used for finishing and decoration are attached to the surface by using tile adhesives. It was a long way for tiling technology to arrive at the current cement based modified adhesive. The development in additives and modifier are the paramount factor to improve workability, higher flexibility, and better adhesion. In this document tile adhesive has been produced for economical and high performance formulation. These products have been produced by considering the effect of aggregate. These two products with different size of aggregate have been compared and tested. The test made was slip, bending, and compression test. Economical formulation consists of components like cement, quartz sand, cellulose ether and tartaric acid. But high performance consists of limestone and cellulose fiber in addition to these components. The modifier added has enhanced the final product resistance to sliding, bending and compression strength. In terms of compression strength test about 17.27% high performance is stronger than economical formulation. And in addition high performance is stronger than economical formulation by about 16.89% in terms of bending strength. The other thing is the effect of grain size, the component that has low grain size have shown great strength and resistant to slide.

  3. Advanced inorganic separators for alkaline batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheibley, D. W. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A flexible, porous battery separator comprising a coating applied to a porous, flexible substrate is described. The coating comprises: (1) a thermoplastic rubber-based resin which is insoluble and unreactive in the alkaline electrolyte; (2) a polar organic plasticizer which is reactive with the alkaline electrolyte to produce a reaction product which contains a hydroxyl group and/or a carboxylic acid group; and (3) a mixture of polar particulate filler materials which are unreactive with the electrolyte, the mixture comprising at least one first filler material having a surface area of greater than 25 meters sq/gram, at least one second filler material having a surface area of 10 to 25 sq meters/gram, wherein the volume of the mixture of filler materials is less than 45% of the total volume of the fillers and the binder, the filler surface area per gram of binder is about 20 to 60 sq meters/gram, and the amount of plasticizer is sufficient to coat each filler particle. A method of forming the battery separator is also described.

  4. Review of inorganic nitrogen transformations and effect of global climate change on inorganic nitrogen cycling in ocean ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Haryun

    2016-03-01

    Inorganic N transformations (nitrification, anaerobic ammonium oxidation, denitrification, and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium) are regulated by various biogeochemical factors linked either by the supply of electron acceptors and donors or by competition for electron acceptors. This review considers both the microbial community related to each process and the technical methods used to measure each process rate. With this background knowledge, this article summarizes how global climate change through increased pCO2, ocean acidification, deoxygenation and anthropogenic N deposition will alter oceanic N cycling, and finally emphasizes the need for comprehensive research on inorganic N transformation in marine ecosystems.

  5. Total and inorganic arsenic in fish samples from Norwegian waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Julshamn, K.; Nilsen, B. M.; Frantzen, S.;

    2012-01-01

    The contents of total arsenic and inorganic arsenic were determined in fillet samples of Northeast Arctic cod, herring, mackerel, Greenland halibut, tusk, saithe and Atlantic halibut. In total, 923 individual fish samples were analysed. The fish were mostly caught in the open sea off the coast of...

  6. Modern applications of polarography and voltammetry to inorganic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarized developments in polarography and voltametry up to 1982. Modern electronic equipment and scanning waveforms are explained briefly. Extensive tables of recent inorganic applications, mainly in the geochemical and metallurgical fields, are included, and show results based on the new approaches

  7. Aromaticity in Polyacene Analogues of Inorganic Ring Compounds

    CERN Document Server

    Chattaraj, P K; Chattaraj, Pratim Kumar; Roy, Debesh Ranjan

    2006-01-01

    The aromaticity in the polyacene analogues of several inorganic ring compounds (BN-acenes, CN-acenes, BO-acenes and Na6-acenes) is reported here for the first time. Conceptual density functional theory based reactivity descriptors and the nucleus independent chemical shift (NICS) values are used in this analysis.

  8. Diversity and Periodicity: An Inorganic Chemistry Module. Teacher's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huheey, James; Sandoval, Amado

    This teacher's guide is designed to provide science teachers with the necessary guidance and suggestions for teaching inorganic chemistry. The material in this book can be integrated with the other modules in a sequence that helps students to see that chemistry is a unified science. Contents include: (1) "Periodicity: A Chemical Calendar"; (2)…

  9. Rapid inorganic ion analysis using quantitative microchip capillary electrophoresis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrouwe, Elwin X.; Lüttge, Regina; Olthuis, Wouter; Berg, van den Albert

    2006-01-01

    Rapid quantitative microchip capillary electrophoresis (CE) for online monitoring of drinking water enabling inorganic ion separation in less than 15s is presented. Comparing cationic and anionic standards at different concentrations the analysis of cationic species resulted in non-linear calibratio

  10. Material Properties of Inorganic Bovine Cancellous Bovine: Nukbone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piña, Cristina; Palma, Benito; Munguía, Nadia

    2006-09-01

    In this work, inorganic cancellous bovine bone implants prepared in the Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales — UNAM were characterized. Elementary chemical analysis was made, toxic elements concentration were measured and the content of organic matter also. These implants fulfill all the requirements of the ASTM standards, and therefore it is possible their use in medical applications.

  11. Safe recycling of materials containing persistent inorganic and carbon nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Reijnders

    2014-01-01

    For persistent inorganic and carbon nanomaterials, considerable scope exists for a form of recycling called ‘resource cascading’. Resource cascading is aimed at the maximum exploitation of quality and service time of natural resources. Options for resource cascading include engineered nanomaterials

  12. Hybrid materials from organic polymers and inorganic salts

    OpenAIRE

    Köberle, Peter; Laschewsky, André

    2008-01-01

    The prepaparation of amorphous, homogeneous blends of zwitterionic polymers and transition metal salts was investigated. Homogeneous miscibility was achieved in many cases up to equimolar amounts of salt, depending on the anion and cation chosen. Various analytical techniques point to a solid state solution of the inorganic ions in the polymer matrix.

  13. Inorganic porous hollow fiber membranes : with tunable small radial dimensions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luiten-Olieman, M.W.J.

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this thesis are twofold. The first aim is to develop of robust coating procedures for thin supported films onto porous ceramic supports. The second aim is the development of a preparation methodology for high quality porous inorganic membranes, with large membrane surface area. A r

  14. Nanoscale in Wood, Nanowood and Wood-Inorganic Nanocomposites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Guangjie; Lu Wenhua

    2003-01-01

    In order to introduce nano science and technology (NST) into the research field of wood science and technology, andpromote the research of wood science and wood-inorganic composites to nanoscale, some new concepts, such as the nano space inwood, nano structure units of wood and nanowood are put forward in this paper based on the layer structure of wood cell wall and thepile-up model of its main components. Furthermore, the process of preparing nanowood is discussed, and wood-inorganic nanocom-posites may be operated in three ways with wood (matrix) and inorganic filler phase in 0-2, 0-3 or 2-3 dimensions respectively. Thefollowing results are obtained: (1) The nanoscale voids in wood indicate that wood has inherent space to accommodate nanosizedmaterials, such as nanoparticles, nanotubes and nanosticks; (2) According to the size from top down, the nano structure units in woodcan be classified as: nanolayers, nano CMF (cellulose microfibril) and matrix, nano crystallite units and cellulose chain clusters, andthese can theoretically form nanowood; (3) The preparation of wood-inorganic nanocomposites can be operated on 0-2, 0-3 or 2-3dimensions.

  15. Development of taste sensing system using inorganic membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Yohichiro; Hasegawa, Yuki

    2011-09-01

    We developed a novel taste sensor for liquid and verified its effectiveness using coffee. We fabricated an inorganic metal oxide membrane liquid sensor using the laser ablation method. The sensor shows a sufficient sensitivity for electrolyte solutions, while it shows a relatively low response for non-electrolyte solutions. We differentiated and identified five brands of commercially available coffee using the sensor.

  16. Multifunctional Inorganic Nanoparticles: Recent Progress in Thermal Therapy and Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kondareddy Cherukula

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology has enabled the development of many alternative anti-cancer approaches, such as thermal therapies, which cause minimal damage to healthy cells. Current challenges in cancer treatment are the identification of the diseased area and its efficient treatment without generating many side effects. Image-guided therapies can be a useful tool to diagnose and treat the diseased tissue and they offer therapy and imaging using a single nanostructure. The present review mainly focuses on recent advances in the field of thermal therapy and imaging integrated with multifunctional inorganic nanoparticles. The main heating sources for heat-induced therapies are the surface plasmon resonance (SPR in the near infrared region and alternating magnetic fields (AMFs. The different families of inorganic nanoparticles employed for SPR- and AMF-based thermal therapies and imaging are described. Furthermore, inorganic nanomaterials developed for multimodal therapies with different and multi-imaging modalities are presented in detail. Finally, relevant clinical perspectives and the future scope of inorganic nanoparticles in image-guided therapies are discussed.

  17. Coupling Cover Crops and Manure Injection: Soil Inorganic N Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Integration of a rye/oat cover crop with liquid swine manure application may enhance retention of manure nitrogen (N) in corn-soybean cropping systems. The objective of this study was to evaluate changes in soil inorganic N following injection of liquid swine manure to plots seeded with a rye/oat co...

  18. Applications of Inorganic Chemistry in Biology: An Interdisciplinary Graduate Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Nicholas; Ross, Paul; Roat, Rosette M.

    1998-06-01

    Inorganic chemistry faculty at Virginia Commonwealth University (VCU) are offering an advanced, interdisciplinary, graduate course entitled "Applications of Inorganic Chemistry in Biology". The course utilizes examples from bioinorganic chemistry to introduce advanced topics in synthesis, structural analysis, and analytical methods that are practiced by inorganic chemists. Emphasis is placed on the structure and function of trace and ultratrace transition metals in biological systems and on the use of metals for medicinal purposes. Instrumental techniques such as electron paramagnetic resonance, Mössbauer spectroscopy, and X-ray crystallography are explained in the detail necessary to familiarize students with their use for analysis of bioinorganic systems and their models. Students have take-home examinations during the term and write a term paper describing a metalloprotein whose X-ray structure data is listed in Brookhaven protein data base. The paper follows the same course pattern of classroom discussion of a bioinorganic system, concentrating on the coordination geometry and nearest neighbor contacts of the metal-binding site in the protein, substrate binding site, and relevance to the metalloprotein or enzyme function, mechanism of action of the enzyme or protein, spectroscopic studies on the metal-binding site, and model studies for the protein's metal-binding site. The instructors conclude that their basic goals for the course - introduction to advanced inorganic chemistry topics using bioinorganic examples with emphasis on primary literature sources and computer-assisted displays - are being accomplished.

  19. DEVELOPMENT OF INORGANIC ION EXCHANGERS FOR NUCLEAR WASTE REMEDIATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    This research is concerned with the development of highly selective inorganic ion exchangers for the removal of primarily Cs+ and Sr2+ from nuclear tank waste and from groundwater. In this study, we will probe the, origins of selectivity through detailed structural studies and th...

  20. Springtime variations of organic and inorganic constituents in submicron aerosols (PM1.0) from Cape Hedo, Okinawa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunwar, Bhagawati; Torii, K.; Zhu, Chunmao; Fu, Pingqing; Kawamura, Kimitaka

    2016-04-01

    During the spring season with enhanced Asian outflow, we collected submicron aerosol (PM1.0) samples at Cape Hedo, Okinawa Island in the western North Pacific Rim. We analyzed the filter samples for diacids, oxoacids, pyruvic acid, α-dicarbonyls and fatty acids to better understand the sources and atmospheric processes in the outflow regions of Asian pollutants. Molecular distributions of diacids show a predominance of oxalic acid (C2) followed by malonic (C3) and succinic (C4) acids. Total diacids strongly correlated with secondary source tracers such as SO42- (r = 0.87), NH4+ (0.90) and methanesulfonate (MSA-) (0.84), suggesting that diacids are secondarily formed from their precursor compounds. We also found good correlations among C2, organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) in the Okinawa aerosols, suggesting that diacids are mainly derived from anthropogenic sources. However, a weak correlation of diacids with levoglucosan, a biomass burning tracer, suggests that biomass buring is not the main source of diacids, rather diacids are secondarily formed by photochemical oxidation of organic precursors derived from fossil fuel combustion. We found a strong correlation (r = 0.98) between inorganic nitrogen (NO3-N + NH4-N) and total nitrogen (TN), to which organic nitrogen (ON) contributed 23%. Fatty acids were characterized by even carbon number predominance, suggesting that they are derived from biogenic sources. The higher abundances of short chain fatty acids (acids (>C20) further suggest that fatty acids are largely derived from marine phytoplankton during spring bloom.

  1. Biomolecular Modification of Inorganic Crystal Growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Yoreo, J J

    2007-04-27

    The fascinating shapes and hierarchical designs of biomineralized structures are an inspiration to materials scientists because of the potential they suggest for biomolecular control over materials synthesis. Conversely, the failure to prevent or limit tissue mineralization in the vascular, skeletal, and urinary systems is a common source of disease. Understanding the mechanisms by which organisms direct or limit crystallization has long been a central challenge to the biomineralization community. One prevailing view is that mineral-associated macromolecules are responsible for either inhibiting crystallization or initiating and stabilizing non-equilibrium crystal polymorphs and morphologies through interactions between anionic moieties and cations in solution or at mineralizing surfaces. In particular, biomolecules that present carboxyl groups to the growing crystal have been implicated as primary modulators of growth. Here we review the results from a combination of in situ atomic force microscopy (AFM) and molecular modeling (MM) studies to investigate the effect of specific interactions between carboxylate-rich biomolecules and atomic steps on crystal surfaces during the growth of carbonates, oxalates and phosphates of calcium. Specifically, we how the growth kinetics and morphology depend on the concentration of additives that include citrate, simple amino acids, synthetic Asp-rich polypeptides, and naturally occurring Asp-rich proteins found in both functional and pathological mineral tissues. The results reveal a consistent picture of shape modification in which stereochemical matching of modifiers to specific atomic steps drives shape modification. Inhibition and other changes in growth kinetics are shown to be due to a range of mechanisms that depend on chemistry and molecular size. Some effects are well described by classic crystal growth theories, but others, such as step acceleration due to peptide charge and hydrophylicity, were previously unrealized

  2. Nanostructured organic/inorganic semicondutor photovoltaics: Investigation on morphology and optoelectronics performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanninayake, Aruna Pushpa Kumara

    Organic solar cell is a promising technology because of the versatility of organic materials in terms of tunability of their electrical and optical properties. In addition, their relative insensitivity to film imperfections potentially allows for very low-cost high-throughput roll-to-roll processing. However, the power conversion efficiency of organic solar cell is still limited and needs to be improved in order to be competitive with grid parity. This work is focused on the design and characterization of a new organic/inorganic hybrid device to enhance the efficiency factors of bilayer organic solar cells such as: light absorption, exciton diffusion, exciton dissociation, charge transportation and charge collection at the electrodes. In a hybrid solar cell operation, external quantum efficiency is determined by these five factors. The external quantum efficiency has linear relationship to the power conversation efficiency via short circuit current density. Bulk heterojunction (BHJ) PSCs benefit from a homogeneous donor-acceptor (D-A) contact interface compared to their inorganic counterpart. A homogenous D-A interface offers a longer free path for charge carriers, resulting in a longer diffusional pathway and a larger coulomb interaction between electrons and holes. This is triggered by the low dielectric constant of organic semiconductors. Among various conventional donor-acceptor structures, poly(3-hexylthiophene)/[6,6]-phenyl-C70-butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT/PCBM) mixture is the most promising and ideal donor-acceptor pair due to their unique properties. In order to take benefits from both organic and inorganic materials, inorganic nanoparticles are incorporated in this donor-acceptor polymer structure. Light trapping enhances light absorption and increases efficiencies with thinner device structure. In this study, copper oxide nanoparticles are used in the P3HT/PC70BM active layer to optimize the optical absorption properties in the blend. In addition, zinc

  3. Identification of novel rice low phytic acid mutations via TILLING by sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytic acid (myo-inositol-1,2,3,4,5,6-hexakisphosphate or InsP6) accounts for 75-85% of the total phosphorus in seeds. Low phytic acid (lpa) mutants exhibit decreases in seed InsP6 with corresponding increases in inorganic P which, unlike phytic acid P, is readily utilized by humans and monogastric ...

  4. Dissolution of the inorganic phase of bone leading to release of calcium regulates osteoclast survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus H; Karsdal, Morten A; Sørensen, Mette G;

    2007-01-01

    Osteoclasts are the sole cells possessing the ability to resorb calcified bone matrix. This occurs via secretion of hydrochloric acid mediated by the V-ATPase and the chloride channel ClC-7. Loss of acidification leads to osteopetrosis characterized by ablation of bone resorption and increased...... osteoclast numbers, indicating increased life span of the osteoclasts. To investigate the role of the inorganic phase of bone with respect to osteoclast life span, we used the V-ATPase inhibitor bafilomycin and the calcium uptake antagonist ryanodine on human osteoclasts cultured on calcified and decalcified...... bone slices. Bafilomycin inhibited bone resorption and increased osteoclast survival on calcified but not decalcified bones. Ryanodine attenuated calcium uptake and thereby augmented osteoclast survival on calcified bones. In summary, we found that acidification leading to calcium release from bone...

  5. Evaluation of inorganic matrixes as supports for immobilization of microbial lipase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castro H.F.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Candida rugosa was immobilized by physical adsorption on several inorganic supports using hexane as coupling medium. The enzymatic activities of the different derivatives were determined by both hydrolysis of olive oil and esterification of n-butanol with butyric acid. The results were compared to previous data obtained by using a controlled porous silica matrix. The goal was to contribute in searching inexpensive supports for optimum lipase performance. All supports examined exhibited good properties for binding the enzyme lipase. Zirconium phosphate was the best support, giving the highest percentage of protein fixation (86% and the highest retention of lipase activity after immobilization (34%. The operational stability performance for niobium oxide derivative was improved by previously activated the support with silane and glutaraldehyde. Thermal stabilities were also examined by thermal gravimetric analysis (TG.

  6. Comparison of histological and ultrastructural changes in mice organs after supplementation with inorganic and organic selenium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tos-Luty, Sabina; Obuchowska-Przebirowska, Daniela; Latuszynska, Jadwiga; Musik, Irena; Tokarska-Rodak, Malgorzata

    2003-01-01

    Two organic compounds of selenium, 4-o-totyl-selenosemicarbazide p-chlorobenzoic acid (chain compound) produced at the Chemistry Department of the University Medical School in Lublin, and one inorganic compound of sodium IV selenite (Na(2)SeO(3)) were used. The preparations were used per os in doses of 1 mg/kg body weight and 0.5 mg/kg body weight. The studies were conducted on female Swiss mice, covering seven groups of animals, i.e. 6 experimental and 1 control. Histopathologic changes were observed in liver, kidney, lung and heart. Ultrastructural changes were observed in liver and kidney. Our studies indicate a dose-dependent effect of selenium on histopathologic and ultrastructural changes. It is possible therefore, that the extent of excess of selenium exerts a greater influence on a cell than the form of supplemented selenium.

  7. Mössbauer study of the inorganic sulfur removal from coals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes Caballero, F.; Martínez Ovalle, S. A.

    2014-01-01

    Mössbauer Spectroscopy (MS) was applied to study the occurrence and behavior of the iron-sulfur-containing minerals in coal and coal fractions obtained by different separation methods: hydrocyclonic, flotation and chemical removal process. Samples of one high sulfur coal from Guachinte mine (Valle, Colombia) and three low sulfur coals from the El Salitre zone (Paipa-Boyacá, Colombia) were analyzed. MS evidenced only the presence of pyrite in Esmeralda and Las Casitas coals, while it identified pyrite and siderite on Cerezo coal. MS and SEM- EDX confirm the inorganic sulfur removal on Guachinte coal submitted to hydrocyclonic removal process. MS of the precipitated coal fraction from Las Casitas mine obtained by flotation in water showed the presence of ferrous sulfate because of coal-weathering process. Treatment with hot diluted HNO3 equal to 27 acid on raw coal sample from Las Casitas mine showed that almost all of the pyrite in raw coal was removed.

  8. Preparation and Performance Analysis of Inorganic Polymer Flocculant PZFSiC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAN Li; MENG Zhao-ping; Pan Jie-nan

    2004-01-01

    A new inorganic polymer flocculant-PZFSiC (zinc-iron-silicate polymer composite) is prepared by adding acid into a high modulus solution of water glass and introducing appropriate metallic ions(M) including Zn and Fe. The influence on flocculability of factors such as the mole ratios of M to SiO2,stirring time and pH are discussed .And the optimal preparing technical parameters are obtained by orthogonal tests. The optimum technical conditions of flocculation are determined. The result shows that when less PZFSiC is added into troubled water or waste water, turbidity removal can hit 98%, COD removal can exceed 93%. The water sample treated is clear and of good quality. These results also indicate that PZFSiC is a highly effective, nontoxic and benign to the enviroment.

  9. Inorganic-Organic Hybrid 18-Molybdodiphosphate Nanoparticles Bulk-modified Carbon Paste Electrode and Its Electrocatalysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG,Xiu-Li(王秀丽); KANG,Zhen-Hui(康振辉); WANG,En-Bo(王恩波); HU,Chang-Wen(胡长文)

    2002-01-01

    A kind of inorganic- organic hybrid 18-molybdodiphosphate nanoparticles ([(C4H9)4N]6P2Mo18O62 @4H2O) was firstly used as a bulk-modifier to fabricate a three-dimensional chemically modified carbon paste electrode (CPE) by direct mixing. The electrochemical behavior of the solid nanoparticles dispersed in the CPE in acidic aqueous solution was characterized by cyclic and square-wave voltammetry. The hybrid 18-molybdodiphosphate nanoparticles bulk-modified CPE (MNP-CPE) displayed a high electrocatalytic activity towards the reduction of nitrite,bromate and hydrogen peroxide. The remarkable advantages of the MNP-CPE over the traditional polyoxometalates-modified electrodes are their excellent reproducibility of surface-renewal and high stability owing to the insolubility of the hybrid 18-molybdodiphosphate nanoparticles.

  10. Enzyme Mechanism and Slow-Onset Inhibition of Plasmodium falciparum Enoyl-Acyl Carrier Protein Reductase by an Inorganic Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Soares de Maria de Medeiros

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaria continues to be a major cause of children's morbidity and mortality worldwide, causing nearly one million deaths annually. The human malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, synthesizes fatty acids employing the Type II fatty acid biosynthesis system (FAS II, unlike humans that rely on the Type I (FAS I pathway. The FAS II system elongates acyl fatty acid precursors of the cell membrane in Plasmodium. Enoyl reductase (ENR enzyme is a member of the FAS II system. Here we present steady-state kinetics, pre-steady-state kinetics, and equilibrium fluorescence spectroscopy data that allowed proposal of P. falciparum ENR (PfENR enzyme mechanism. Moreover, building on previous results, the present study also evaluates the PfENR inhibition by the pentacyano(isoniazidferrateII compound. This inorganic complex represents a new class of lead compounds for the development of antimalarial agents focused on the inhibition of PfENR.

  11. Soft templating strategies for the synthesis of mesoporous materials: inorganic, organic-inorganic hybrid and purely organic solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Nabanita; Bhaumik, Asim

    2013-03-01

    With the discovery of MCM-41 by Mobil researchers in 1992 the journey of the research on mesoporous materials started and in the 21st century this area of scientific investigation have extended into numerous branches, many of which contribute significantly in emerging areas like catalysis, energy, environment and biomedical research. As a consequence thousands of publications came out in large varieties of national and international journals. In this review, we have tried to summarize the published works on various synthetic pathways and formation mechanisms of different mesoporous materials viz. inorganic, organic-inorganic hybrid and purely organic solids via soft templating pathways. Generation of nanoscale porosity in a solid material usually requires participation of organic template (more specifically surfactants and their supramolecular assemblies) called structure-directing agent (SDA) in the bottom-up chemical reaction process. Different techniques employed for the syntheses of inorganic mesoporous solids, like silicas, metal doped silicas, transition and non-transition metal oxides, mixed oxides, metallophosphates, organic-inorganic hybrids as well as purely organic mesoporous materials like carbons, polymers etc. using surfactants are depicted schematically and elaborately in this paper. Moreover, some of the frontline applications of these mesoporous solids, which are directly related to their functionality, composition and surface properties are discussed at the appropriate places.

  12. Organic-inorganic hybrid proton exchange membrane based on polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes and sulfonated polyimides containing benzimidazole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Haiyan; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Pu, Hongting; Chang, Zhihong

    2014-10-01

    A new series of organic-inorganic hybrid proton exchange membranes (PEMs) were prepared using sulfonated polyimides containing benzimidazole (SPIBIs) and glycidyl ether of polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes (G-POSS). SPIBIs were synthesized using 1,4,5,8-naphthalenetetracarboxylic dianhydride (NTDA), 5-amino-2-(4-aminophenyl) benzimidazole (APBIA) and 4,4‧-diaminodiphenyl ether-2,2‧-disulfonic acid (ODADS). The organic-inorganic cross-linked membranes can be prepared by SPIBIs with G-POSS by a thermal treatment process. The cross-linking density of the membranes was evaluated by gel fractions. The water uptake, swelling ratio, mechanical property, thermal behavior, proton conductivity, oxidative and hydrolytic stability of the cross-linked organic-inorganic membranes were intensively investigated. All the cross-linked membranes exhibit high cross-linking density for the gel fraction higher than 70%. Compared to pristine membranes (SPIBIs) and membranes without benzimidazole groups (SPI), the anti-free-radical oxidative and hydrolytic stabilities of cross-linked membranes are significantly higher. The anti-free-oxidative stability of SPIBI-100-P (cross-linked SPIBI membrane with 100% degree of sulfonation) is nearly four-fold higher than that of SPIBI-100. The proton conductivity of the cross-linked membranes ranges from 10-3 S cm-1 to 10-2 S cm-1 depending both on the degree of sulfonation (DS) of the SPIBI and temperature.

  13. Fertilization and pH effects on processes and mechanisms controlling dissolved inorganic phosphorus in soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devau, Nicolas; Hinsinger, Philippe; Le Cadre, Edith; Colomb, Bruno; Gérard, Frédéric

    2011-05-01

    We used of a set of mechanistic adsorption models (1-pK TPM, ion exchange and Nica-Donnan) within the framework of the component additive (CA) approach in an attempt to determine the effect of repeated massive application of inorganic P fertilizer on the processes and mechanisms controlling the concentration of dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP) in soils. We studied the surface layer of a Luvisol with markedly different total concentrations of inorganic P as the result of different P fertilizer history (i.e. massive or no application for 40 years). Soil pH was made to vary from acid to alkaline. Soil solutions were extracted with water and CaCl 2 (0.01 M). The occurrence of montmorillonite led us to determine the binding properties of P and Ca ions for this clay mineral. Satisfactory results were obtained using generic values for model parameters and soil-specific ones, which were either determined directly by measurements or estimated from the literature. We showed that adsorption largely controlled the variations of DIP concentration and that, because of kinetic constrains, only little Ca-phosphates may be precipitated under alkaline conditions, particularly in the P fertilized treatment. The mineral-P pool initially present in both P treatments did not dissolve significantly during the course of the experiments. The adsorption of Ca ions onto soil minerals also promoted adsorption of P ions through electrostatic interactions. The intensity of the mechanism was high under neutral to alkaline conditions. Changes in DIP concentration as a function of these environmental variables can be related to changes in the contribution of the various soil minerals to P adsorption. The extra P adsorbed in the fertilized treatment compared with the control treatment was mainly adsorbed onto illite. This clay mineral was the major P-fixing constituent from neutral to alkaline pH conditions, because the repulsion interactions between deprotonated hydroxyl surface sites and P

  14. A highly thermal stable solid phase microextraction fiber prepared by an inorganic binder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongmei; Ran, Fanpeng; Tao, Caihong; Zhao, Mengmeng; Jia, Yulong; Guo, Yong

    2016-04-28

    An easy method to prepare solid phase microextraction fibers by introducing an inorganic binder was demonstrated in this study, where MoS2 was selected as the extraction phase material because of its graphite-like layered structure with large specific adsorption area and good stability, and was then adhered to a stainless steel wire by acid aluminum phosphate binder with the spraying method. The as-prepared solid phase microextraction fiber coupled with gas chromatography was then used to extract some polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons target analytes including the low-volatile benzo(a)pyrene etc. from a standard sample. Comparing with the MoS2-epoxy resin and commercial polyacrylate fibers, the MoS2-acid aluminum phosphate fiber has a higher thermal stability because of highly thermal stable acid aluminum phosphate, which is durable for a long service life at a high temperature (320 °C), and has the advantage in the extraction of low-volatility analytes. After the optimization of adsorption and desorption factors (ionic strength, adsorption time and temperature, and desorption temperature), method detection limits of service life, which is useful for the detection of low-volatility target analytes in practical applications. PMID:27046208

  15. Development and validation of an SPE HG-AAS method for determination of inorganic arsenic in samples of marine origin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Rie Romme; Hedegaard, Rikke Susanne Vingborg; Larsen, Erik Huusfeldt;

    2012-01-01

    The present paper describes a novel method for the quantitative determination of inorganic arsenic (iAs) in food and feed of marine origin. The samples were subjected to microwave-assisted extraction using diluted hydrochloric acid and hydrogen peroxide, which solubilised the analytes and oxidised......), and the repeatability (RSD(r)) and intra-laboratory reproducibility (RSD(IR)) were less than 8% and 13%, respectively, for samples containing 0.2 to 1.5 mg kg(-1) iAs. The trueness of the SPE HG-AAS method was verified by confirming results obtained by parallel analysis using high-performance liquid chromatography...

  16. 75 FR 29534 - Inorganic Nitrates-Nitrite, Carbon and Carbon Dioxide, and Sulfur Registration Review; Draft...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-26

    ... AGENCY Inorganic Nitrates-Nitrite, Carbon and Carbon Dioxide, and Sulfur Registration Review; Draft... draft ecological risk assessment for the registration review of inorganic nitrates - nitrites, carbon... occur for all inorganic nitrates- nitrites, carbon and carbon dioxide uses, as well as gas...

  17. L-缬氨酸产生菌JVHK597的选育及无机盐对其产酸量的影响%Breeding of of L-valine Producing Strain JVHK597 and Influence of Inorganic Salt on Its Acid Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘焕民; 葛向阳; 张伟国

    2011-01-01

    [目的]筛选L-缬氨酸高产菌株并研究其发酵条件.[方法]以黄色短杆菌(Brebvibacterium flavum)突变株ZGH61.28为出发菌株,采用紫外线(UV)、硫酸二乙酯(DES)和亚硝基胍(NTG)3种诱变剂进行诱变处理,通过摇瓶培养筛选出L-缬氨酸高产突变菌株.[结果]经过UV、DES和NTG3种诱变剂处理菌株ZGH6128,逐步获得菌株JVHK597,并具有Leu营养缺陷、Ile营养缺陷、Met营养缺陷、α-AB抗性、2-TA抗性5种遗传标记.在未优化的条件下,菌株JVHK597摇瓶发酵72 h的产酸量达41.2 g/L.8次传代试验结果表明,菌株JVHK597的产酸能力稳定,经鉴定,菌株JVHK597的基因型为(Leu-,Ile-,Met-,α-ABr,2 -TAr),遗传标记具有稳定性.发酵培养基中硫酸镁( MgSO4·7H2O)和磷酸二氢钾的含量分别为0.6和1.4 g/L时,最有利于菌株生产L-缬氨酸.[结论]试验筛选出了L-缬氨酸高产菌株JVHK597,并为其发酵培养提供了指导.%[Objective]The aim was to screen superior strain of L-valine and study its fermentation condition. [ Method] With the mutant strain ZGH6128 of Brebvibacterium flavum as initial strain, 3 kinds of mutagens of ultraviolet (UV), diethyl sulfate (DES) and nitrosoguani-dine (NTG) were used in its mutagene treatments, its superior mutant strain of L-valine was screened out through shaking culture. [ Result] The strain ZGH6128 was treated with 3 kinds of mutagens of UV, DES and NTG and the mutant strain JVHK597 was obtained progressively. This mutant strain possessed 5 genetic marks of Leu auxotroph, Ile auxotroph, Met auxotroph, a-AB resistance and 2-TA resistance. Under non-optimized condition, the production of acid from the strain JVHK597 reached 41.2 g/L after fermentation for 72 h. The experimental results of 8 passages showed that the acid producing ability of the strain JVHK597 was stable and its genotype was identified to be (Leu-, Ile-, Met-, α-AB', 2-TA') and its genetic marks had stability. When the contents of bitter salt (Mg

  18. Preparation and Thermal Properties of Fatty Acid/Inorganic Nano-particle Form-Stable Phase Change Material%脂肪酸/无机纳米颗粒基定形相变材料的制备与热性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟多; 王立久

    2013-01-01

    以工业水玻璃为纳米SiO2前驱物,以癸酸(CA)和月桂酸(LA)二元低共熔酸为相变芯材,在表面活性剂的参与下,采用溶胶-凝胶法一步制备出纳米级复合定形相变蓄热材料.利用透射电子显微镜,扫描电子显微镜,傅里叶红外光谱仪,方差扫描量热法和热重分析等测试技术对此定形相变蓄热材料的结构和性能进行分析,并采用瞬态热线法测量了其导热系数.结果表明:相变芯材在吸热熔化后不会产生流动和渗漏;复合相变材料中脂肪酸含量(质量分数)为46%,具有良好的相变蓄热性能(相变温度19.57℃,相变潜热71.28 J/g)和热稳定性;复合相变材料导热系数为0.178 W/(m·K),可作为一种良好的隔热、保温建筑材料.%A kind of form-stable phase change material (PCM) based on capric-lauric acid eutectic acting as the heat-absorbing material and nano silicon dioxide serving as the supportive material was prepared by sol-gel method. The morphology, chemical characteristics and thermal properties of the composite PCM were investigated by transmission electron microscopy(TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR), differential scanning calorimetry(DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The results indicate that fatty acid eutectic can be immobilized in the three-dimensional network structure when the composite PCM is heated to above the phase change temperature. The proportion of the CA-LA eutectic in the composite PCM is 46%(by mass). The phase change temperature and latent heat of the composite PCM were determined as 19. 57 °C and 71. 28 J/g, respectively. Mean-while, thermal conductivity of the composite was measured to be 0. 178 W/(m · K) by using the transient hot-wire method. Thus it can be applied for energy conservation as the thermal insulation material.

  19. Springtime variations of organic and inorganic constituents in submicron aerosols (PM1.0) from Cape Hedo, Okinawa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunwar, Bhagawati; Torii, K.; Zhu, Chunmao; Fu, Pingqing; Kawamura, Kimitaka

    2016-04-01

    During the spring season with enhanced Asian outflow, we collected submicron aerosol (PM1.0) samples at Cape Hedo, Okinawa Island in the western North Pacific Rim. We analyzed the filter samples for diacids, oxoacids, pyruvic acid, α-dicarbonyls and fatty acids to better understand the sources and atmospheric processes in the outflow regions of Asian pollutants. Molecular distributions of diacids show a predominance of oxalic acid (C2) followed by malonic (C3) and succinic (C4) acids. Total diacids strongly correlated with secondary source tracers such as SO42- (r = 0.87), NH4+ (0.90) and methanesulfonate (MSA-) (0.84), suggesting that diacids are secondarily formed from their precursor compounds. We also found good correlations among C2, organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) in the Okinawa aerosols, suggesting that diacids are mainly derived from anthropogenic sources. However, a weak correlation of diacids with levoglucosan, a biomass burning tracer, suggests that biomass buring is not the main source of diacids, rather diacids are secondarily formed by photochemical oxidation of organic precursors derived from fossil fuel combustion. We found a strong correlation (r = 0.98) between inorganic nitrogen (NO3-N + NH4-N) and total nitrogen (TN), to which organic nitrogen (ON) contributed 23%. Fatty acids were characterized by even carbon number predominance, suggesting that they are derived from biogenic sources. The higher abundances of short chain fatty acids (C20) further suggest that fatty acids are largely derived from marine phytoplankton during spring bloom.

  20. New inorganic membranes for pervaporation. Preparation and first results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Veen, H.M.; Vente, J.F.; Wolfs, D.P.; Kreiter, R.; Pex, P.P.A.C. [ECN Energy Efficiency in the Industry, Petten (Netherlands)

    2006-08-15

    The expected high chemical and thermal stability of inorganic membranes compared to polymer membranes has resulted in a growing research activity with the aim of replacing polymer membranes with inorganic ones. The superior separation performance, i.e. selectivity and flux, of silica-based membranes in the dehydration of alcohols and solvents at elevated temperatures has raised the interest even further. High flux performance is required especially to overcome the higher unit cost price of the inorganic membranes. It is proven that the required water flux of at least 3 kg/m{sup 2}.h, for the dehydration of 5wt.% water in butanol as a representative standard application, can be achieved easily. The profitable application of inorganic membranes depends also on a reliable, stable long-term behaviour. Unfortunately, information on this topic is still very limited. Dehydration experiments at temperatures below 100C indicate a fast decrease of the water flux through silica membranes during the first few days of operation. The origin of this decline has not been determined yet, but we believe that sorption processes on the membrane surface play an important role. In an attempt to overcome this fast decline, we have prepared methylated silica (Me-SiO2) membranes. By incorporating methyl groups in the silica structure, the water flux decline during the first weeks is only in the order of 20% and is stable hereafter. Dehydration experiments performed up to 165C using these Me-SiO2 membranes showed membrane failure after 4 to 40 days due to reorganisation of the silica structure. In all cases we observe a strong increase in the organic flux, indicating that the pore size increases over time. As a consequence, we conclude that the application window of state-of-the-art Me-SiO2 membranes for use in dehydration processes is limited to 95C. Microporous titania, zirconia and organic/inorganic hybrid silica materials are expected to have a much higher hydrothermal stability than

  1. Improving phosphorus availability in an acid soil using organic amendments produced from agroindustrial wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ch'ng, Huck Ywih; Ahmed, Osumanu Haruna; Majid, Nik Muhamad Ab

    2014-01-01

    In acid soils, soluble inorganic phosphorus is fixed by aluminium and iron. To overcome this problem, acid soils are limed to fix aluminium and iron but this practice is not economical. The practice is also not environmentally friendly. This study was conducted to improve phosphorus availability using organic amendments (biochar and compost produced from chicken litter and pineapple leaves, resp.) to fix aluminium and iron instead of phosphorus. Amending soil with biochar or compost or a mixture of biochar and compost increased total phosphorus, available phosphorus, inorganic phosphorus fractions (soluble inorganic phosphorus, aluminium bound inorganic phosphorus, iron bound inorganic phosphorus, redundant soluble inorganic phosphorus, and calcium bound phosphorus), and organic phosphorus. This was possible because the organic amendments increased soil pH and reduced exchangeable acidity, exchangeable aluminium, and exchangeable iron. The findings suggest that the organic amendments altered soil chemical properties in a way that enhanced the availability of phosphorus in this study. The amendments effectively fixed aluminium and iron instead of phosphorus, thus rendering phosphorus available by keeping the inorganic phosphorus in a bioavailable labile phosphorus pool for a longer period compared with application of Triple Superphosphate without organic amendments. PMID:25032229

  2. Improving phosphorus availability in an acid soil using organic amendments produced from agroindustrial wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ch'ng, Huck Ywih; Ahmed, Osumanu Haruna; Majid, Nik Muhamad Ab

    2014-01-01

    In acid soils, soluble inorganic phosphorus is fixed by aluminium and iron. To overcome this problem, acid soils are limed to fix aluminium and iron but this practice is not economical. The practice is also not environmentally friendly. This study was conducted to improve phosphorus availability using organic amendments (biochar and compost produced from chicken litter and pineapple leaves, resp.) to fix aluminium and iron instead of phosphorus. Amending soil with biochar or compost or a mixture of biochar and compost increased total phosphorus, available phosphorus, inorganic phosphorus fractions (soluble inorganic phosphorus, aluminium bound inorganic phosphorus, iron bound inorganic phosphorus, redundant soluble inorganic phosphorus, and calcium bound phosphorus), and organic phosphorus. This was possible because the organic amendments increased soil pH and reduced exchangeable acidity, exchangeable aluminium, and exchangeable iron. The findings suggest that the organic amendments altered soil chemical properties in a way that enhanced the availability of phosphorus in this study. The amendments effectively fixed aluminium and iron instead of phosphorus, thus rendering phosphorus available by keeping the inorganic phosphorus in a bioavailable labile phosphorus pool for a longer period compared with application of Triple Superphosphate without organic amendments.

  3. Improving Phosphorus Availability in an Acid Soil Using Organic Amendments Produced from Agroindustrial Wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huck Ywih Ch’ng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In acid soils, soluble inorganic phosphorus is fixed by aluminium and iron. To overcome this problem, acid soils are limed to fix aluminium and iron but this practice is not economical. The practice is also not environmentally friendly. This study was conducted to improve phosphorus availability using organic amendments (biochar and compost produced from chicken litter and pineapple leaves, resp. to fix aluminium and iron instead of phosphorus. Amending soil with biochar or compost or a mixture of biochar and compost increased total phosphorus, available phosphorus, inorganic phosphorus fractions (soluble inorganic phosphorus, aluminium bound inorganic phosphorus, iron bound inorganic phosphorus, redundant soluble inorganic phosphorus, and calcium bound phosphorus, and organic phosphorus. This was possible because the organic amendments increased soil pH and reduced exchangeable acidity, exchangeable aluminium, and exchangeable iron. The findings suggest that the organic amendments altered soil chemical properties in a way that enhanced the availability of phosphorus in this study. The amendments effectively fixed aluminium and iron instead of phosphorus, thus rendering phosphorus available by keeping the inorganic phosphorus in a bioavailable labile phosphorus pool for a longer period compared with application of Triple Superphosphate without organic amendments.

  4. Study of the behaviour of inorganic ion exchangers in the treatment of medium active effluents. Part 1. Preliminary experimental work on absorber preparation and performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A programme of work is in progress to examine the use of inorganic ion exchangers for the treatment of medium active waste streams. This report presents the results obtained so far from studies of absorption kinetics for individual actinides (Pu, Am and Np) and for mixtures of actinides and fission products over a range of experimental conditions. The preparation of various forms of titanium phosphate and polyantimonic acid is described and the exchange performance of the different forms is compared. (author)

  5. Mixtures of organic and inorganic substrates, particle size and proportion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Raymundo Morales-Maldonado

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper was to review the mixtures of organic and inorganic materials used in the preparation of a new material, particle size, proportion, and their response in plant. In Mexico, agricultural waste is considered as a pollutant reservoir; however, from another perspective, this represents an industry with great potential. The nutrients ingested by animals represent nutriments available for plants when properly recycled. An option that minimizes the risk of contamination and improves its quality is the production of compost and vermicompost. Both processes are an alternative to organic production. A material by itself does not meet the optimum conditions. Reducing the volume of an organic material increases compaction and compression of roots, affecting the efficiency of irrigation and fertilization, so it is necessary to make mixtures with inorganic materials, that is used in the development of a new material for better growing conditions of the plant.

  6. Inorganic Photovoltaics Materials and Devices: Past, Present, and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepp, Aloysius F.; Bailey, Sheila G.; Rafaelle, Ryne P.

    2005-01-01

    This report describes recent aspects of advanced inorganic materials for photovoltaics or solar cell applications. Specific materials examined will be high-efficiency silicon, gallium arsenide and related materials, and thin-film materials, particularly amorphous silicon and (polycrystalline) copper indium selenide. Some of the advanced concepts discussed include multi-junction III-V (and thin-film) devices, utilization of nanotechnology, specifically quantum dots, low-temperature chemical processing, polymer substrates for lightweight and low-cost solar arrays, concentrator cells, and integrated power devices. While many of these technologies will eventually be used for utility and consumer applications, their genesis can be traced back to challenging problems related to power generation for aerospace and defense. Because this overview of inorganic materials is included in a monogram focused on organic photovoltaics, fundamental issues and metrics common to all solar cell devices (and arrays) will be addressed.

  7. Thermoluminescent characteristics of inorganic dust from black pepper spice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furetta, C.; Cruz Z, E. [ICN-UNAM, A.P. 70-543, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Favalli, A. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for the Protection and Security of Citizen, TP800, Via E. Fermi 21020, Ispra VA (Italy)

    2007-07-01

    Full text: The irradiation of spices is normally used for its sterilization, allowing this procedure to extend the storage time ir different needs, i.e. transportation over large distances from the production places to distribution points for commercialization. The irradiated food allows studying the behaviour and the characteristics of its inorganic content, i.e. minerals. The aim of this work is to study the main thermoluminescent (TL) characteristics of the inorganic dust extracted from Black pepper spice. TL responses as a function of the delivered gamma dose, fading at room temperature, effect of W irradiation are reported. The thermoluminescent kinetic parameters of the glow curves have been accurately analysed using the Computerized Glow Curve Deconvolution (CGCD) method and results are discussed. (Author)

  8. Mixture interlayer for high performance organic-inorganic perovskite photodetectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Feng; Chen, Qi; Chen, Lei; Ye, Fengye; Cai, Jinhua; Chen, Liwei

    2016-09-01

    Organic-inorganic perovskites are promising light absorbing active materials for photodetectors; however, the performance of current organic-inorganic perovskite-based photodetectors are limited by the high dark current due to hole injection at the cathode interlayer typically composed of fullerene derivatives. We have developed a mixture interlayer by simply blending polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) with [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acidmethyl ester (PCBM). Scanning Kelvin probe microscopy imaging reveals that the presence of PMMA reduced the work function of the PCBM:PMMA interlayer, which leads to increased energy barrier for hole injection and better hole-blocking property. Optimized perovskite photodetector with PCBM:PMMA hole-blocking interlayer exhibits a high detectivity of 1.1 × 1013 Jones, a broad linear dynamic range of 112 dB, and a fast response time of 2.2 μs.

  9. Biopolymer colloids for controlling and templating inorganic synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura C. Preiss

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Biopolymers and biopolymer colloids can act as controlling agents and templates not only in many processes in nature, but also in a wide range of synthetic approaches. Inorganic materials can be either synthesized ex situ and later incorporated into a biopolymer structuring matrix or grown in situ in the presence of biopolymers. In this review, we focus mainly on the latter case and distinguish between the following possibilities: (i biopolymers as controlling agents of nucleation and growth of inorganic materials; (ii biopolymers as supports, either as molecular supports or as carrier particles acting as cores of core–shell structures; and (iii so-called “soft templates”, which include on one hand stabilized droplets, micelles, and vesicles, and on the other hand continuous scaffolds generated by gelling biopolymers.

  10. Gas Permeation Characteristics across Nano-Porous Inorganic Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R Othman, H. Mukhtar

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available An overview of parameters affecting gas permeation in inorganic membranes is presented. These factors include membrane physical characteristics, operational parameters and gas molecular characteristics. The membrane physical characteristics include membrane materials and surface area, porosity, pore size and pore size distribution and membrane morphology. The operational parameters include feed flow rate and concentration, stage cut, temperature and pressure. The gas molecular characteristics include gas molecular weight, diameter, critical temperature, critical pressure, Lennard-Jones parameters and diffusion volumes. The current techniques of material characterization may require complementary method in describing microscopic heterogeneity of the porous ceramic media. The method to be incorporated in the future will be to apply a stochastic model and/or fractal dimension. Keywords: Inorganic membrane, surface adsorption, Knudsen diffusion, Micro-porous membrane, permeation, gas separation.

  11. Survey of electrochemical production of inorganic compounds. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-10-01

    The electrochemical generation of inorganic compounds, excluding chlorine/caustic, has been critically reviewed. About 60 x 10/sup 12/ Btu/y fossil fuel equivalent will be used in the year 2000 for the electrosynthesis of inorganic compounds. Significant energy savings in chlorate production can result from the development of suitable electrocatalysts for lowering the cathodic overpotential. Perchlorates, electrolytic hypochlorite, electrolytic manganese dioxide, fluorine and other miscellaneous compounds use relatively small amounts of electrical energy. Implementation of caustic scrubber technology for stack gas cleanup would result in appreciable amounts of sodium sulfate which could be electrolyzed to regenerate caustic. Hydrogen peroxide, now produced by the alkyl anthraquinone process, could be made electrolytically by a new process coupling anodic oxidation of sulfate with cathodic reduction of oxygen in alkaline solution. Ozone is currently manufactured using energy-inefficient silent discharge equipment. A novel energy-efficient approach which uses an oxygen-enhanced anodic reaction is examined.

  12. Purificantion and characterization of inorganic pyrophosphatase from Thiobacillus thiooxidans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tominaga, N; Mori, T

    1977-02-01

    An inorganic pyrophosphatase [EC 3.6.1.1] was isolated from Thiobacillus thiooxidans and purified 975-fold to a state of apparent homogeneity. The enzyme catalyzed the hydrolysis of inorganic pyrophosphate and no activity was found with a variety of other phosphate esters. The cation Mg2+ was required for maximum activity; Co2+ and Mn2+ supported 25 per cent and 10.6 per cent of the activity with Mg2+, respectively. The pH optimum was 8.8. The molecular weight was estimated to be 88,000 by gel filtration and SDS gel electrophoresis, and the enzyme consisted of four identical subunits. The isoelectric point was found to be 5.05. The enzyme was exceptionally heat-stable in the presence of 0.01 M Mg2+.

  13. Determination of inorganic phosphate by electroanalytical methods: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berchmans, Sheela; Issa, Touma B; Singh, Pritam

    2012-06-01

    Determination of inorganic phosphate is of very high importance in environmental and health care applications. Hence knowledge of suitable analytical techniques available for phosphate sensing for different applications becomes essential. Electrochemical methods for determining inorganic phosphate have several advantages over other common techniques, including detection selectivity, stability and relative environmental insensitivity of electroactive labels. The different electrochemical sensing strategies adopted for the determination of phosphate using selective ionophores are discussed in this review. The various sensing strategies are classified based on the electrochemical detection techniques used viz., potentiometry, voltammetry, amperometry, unconventional electrochemical methods etc., The enzymatic sensing of phosphate coupled with electrochemical detection is also included. Various electroanalytical methods available in the literature are assessed for their merits in terms of selectivity, simplicity, miniaturisation, adaptability and suitability for field measurements.

  14. Guidelines for determining inputs of inorganic contaminants into estuaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication describes sampling and sample preparation procedures suitable to obtain unpolluted samples for the purpose of determining river inputs of inorganic pollutants into estuaries. Emphasis is placed on heavy metal pollutants but procedures are suitable, with appropriate modifications for other inorganic pollutants. For example, the collection of samples for mercury may require modifications of handling procedures. River water samples are collected at the most down-river point where no estuarine influences effect results. Samples are collected using a peristaltic pump and separated into aqueous and particulate phases for pollutant analysis. As is the case of all trace pollutant analyses, meticulous care is required to prevent pollution of the sample and in addition to the precautions described in this method, great personal attention is required to minimize sample handling, pollution by smoke, hands, hair, dust, talc from gloves, etc., and to avoid all contact of the samples and reagents with skin and metallic objects. 1 ref., 3 figs, 1 tab

  15. Heterogeneous Catalysis of Polyoxometalate Based Organic–Inorganic Hybrids

    OpenAIRE

    Yuanhang Ren; Meiyin Wang; Xueying Chen; Bin Yue; Heyong He

    2015-01-01

    Organic–inorganic hybrid polyoxometalate (POM) compounds are a subset of materials with unique structures and physical/chemical properties. The combination of metal-organic coordination complexes with classical POMs not only provides a powerful way to gain multifarious new compounds but also affords a new method to modify and functionalize POMs. In parallel with the many reports on the synthesis and structure of new hybrid POM compounds, the application of these compounds for heterogeneous c...

  16. CONFINING CONDUCTING POLYANILINE IN A STABLE INORGANIC NETWORK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-ju Wang; Nian-jiang Liu; Jin-long Lu; Jian Liu; Ji Li; Xia-bin Jing; Fo-song Wang; Xian-hong Wang

    2003-01-01

    Water soluble conducting polyaniline with electrical conductivity of 10-1-10-2 S/cm was prepared employing dopant induced water solubility technology. The water resistance of the conducting film was significantly improved employing sol-gel hybrids method, especially when the conductive polyaniline loading was below 30 wt%. The reason for the improvement is that the conducting polyaniline chains are confined in a stable inorganic network.

  17. Gas Permeation Properties of Organic-inorganic Ultrathin Membranes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H. Kawakami

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1Introduction Recently, a great interest has been noted in the synthesis of inorganic membranes for gas separation. One of the candidates is a carbon molecular sieve (CMS) membrane, which is synthesized by the pyrolysis of a polymer. However, CMS membranes are very brittle and fragile. Additionally, it requires more careful handling and it is very difficult to prepare a thin CMS membrane because of its poor mechanical property. Therefore, the gas permeances of CMS membranes were not very high.

  18. Inorganic nanostructured materials for high performance electrochemical supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sheng; Sun, Shouheng; You, Xiao-Zeng

    2014-02-21

    Electrochemical supercapacitors (ES) are a well-known energy storage system that has high power density, long life-cycle and fast charge-discharge kinetics. Nanostructured materials are a new generation of electrode materials with large surface area and short transport/diffusion path for ions and electrons to achieve high specific capacitance in ES. This mini review highlights recent developments of inorganic nanostructure materials, including carbon nanomaterials, metal oxide nanoparticles, and metal oxide nanowires/nanotubes, for high performance ES applications.

  19. Inorganic anion exchangers for the treatment of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inorganic anion exchangers are evaluated for Tc, I and S isotope removal from aqueous nuclear waste streams. Chemical, thermal, and radiation stabilities were examined. Selected exchangers were examined in detail for their selectivities, kinetics and mechanism of the sorption process (especially in NO3-, OH- and BO3- environments). Cement encapsulation and leaching experiments were made on the exchangers showing most promise for 'radwaste' treatment. (author)

  20. Planar organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite solar cell by electrospray

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Wenjun

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the organic-inorganic perovskite solar cell has attracted great attention due to the easy processing and rapid developed power conversion efficiency. The tri-halide perovskite CH3NH3PbI3-xClx possessing excellent optical and electronic properties, such as absorption hands span the visible region, long charge carrier diffusion lengths, and appropriate direct band gap, makes them ideal active layer material for photovoltaic devices. In this thesis, electrohydrodynamic spraying is used...

  1. In vivo evaluation of chemical biopersistence of nonfibrous inorganic particles.

    OpenAIRE

    Kreyling, W; Brain, Joseph David; Godleski, John Joseph

    1994-01-01

    The lung's response to deposited particles may depend upon the physical-chemical properties of the particles, the amount initially deposited, and the persistence of the particles. Clearance involves mucociliary transport as well as the action of phagocytic cells in nonciliated regions of the lung. Depending on the animal species studied, particle type, and particle load, inorganic materials are ingested by macrophages on alveolar surfaces with half-times of 0.6 to 7 hr. Particle-lade...

  2. Phosphorescent columnar hybrid materials containing polyionic inorganic nanoclusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, S K; Amela-Cortes, M; Neidhardt, M M; Beardsworth, S; Kirres, J; Mansueto, M; Cordier, S; Laschat, S; Molard, Y

    2016-02-21

    The ternary polyionic inorganic compound Cs2Mo6Br14 and 18-crown-6 ethers bearing two o-terphenyl units have been combined to design phosphorescent columnar liquid crystalline hybrid materials. The obtained host-guest complexes are very stable even at high temperatures. Depending on their surrounding atmosphere, these hybrids switch reversibly from a high-to-low luminescence state and show a very stable emission intensity up to 140 °C. PMID:26806469

  3. Removal of inorganic and trace organic contaminants by electrodialysis

    OpenAIRE

    Banasiak, Laura Joan

    2010-01-01

    With the continual concern over the presence of naturally occurring and anthropogenic inorganic and trace organic contaminants in the aquatic environment there is a growing need for the implementation of innovative treatment processes for the elimination of these contaminants from natural waters and wastewater effluents. While conventional treatment methods are ineffective in the removal of emerging contaminants such as steroidal hormones and pesticides, membrane technology, ...

  4. Inorganic nanostructured materials for high performance electrochemical supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sheng; Sun, Shouheng; You, Xiao-Zeng

    2014-01-01

    Electrochemical supercapacitors (ES) are a well-known energy storage system that has high power density, long life-cycle and fast charge-discharge kinetics. Nanostructured materials are a new generation of electrode materials with large surface area and short transport/diffusion path for ions and electrons to achieve high specific capacitance in ES. This mini review highlights recent developments of inorganic nanostructure materials, including carbon nanomaterials, metal oxide nanoparticles, and metal oxide nanowires/nanotubes, for high performance ES applications.

  5. Enzyme molecular choreography : studies on soluble inorganic pyrophosphatases

    OpenAIRE

    Oksanen, Esko

    2009-01-01

    Inorganic pyrophosphatases (PPases, EC 3.6.1.1) hydrolyse pyrophosphate in a reaction that provides the thermodynamic 'push' for many reactions in the cell, including DNA and protein synthesis. Soluble PPases can be classified into two families that differ completely in both sequence and structure. While Family I PPases are found in all kingdoms, family II PPases occur only in certain prokaryotes. The enzyme from baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) is very well characterised both ki...

  6. Biocompatible inorganic nanocrystals for fluorescence and CT imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Hezinger, Anna

    2010-01-01

    The enhancement of existing and development of new nanoparticular probes is a promising field of research, emanating from the increasing demand on nanoparticular contrast agents for luminescence and CT imaging. The first developed system is an ultra small inorganic semiconductor based nanoparticle with unique optical properties, ranging from size tunable emission to very high photostability. The second investigated nanoparticulate system is a lot less prominent on the field of molecular imagi...

  7. Does the determination of inorganic arsenic in rice depend on the method?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de la Calle, Maria Beatriz; Emteborg, Håkan; Linsinger, Thomas P.J.;

    2011-01-01

    , on the determination of total and inorganic arsenic (As) in rice. The main aim of this PT was to judge the state of the art of analytical capability for the determination of total and inorganic As in rice. For this reason, participation in this exercise was open to laboratories from all over the world. Some 98...... laboratories reported results for total As and 32 for inorganic As. The main conclusions of IMEP-107 were that the concentration of inorganic As determined in rice does not depend on the analytical method applied and that introduction of a maximum level for inorganic As in rice should not be postponed because...

  8. Inorganic arsenic exposure and type 2 diabetes mellitus in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronado-González, José Antonio; Del Razo, Luz María; García-Vargas, Gonzalo; Sanmiguel-Salazar, Francisca; Escobedo-de la Peña, Jorge

    2007-07-01

    Inorganic arsenic exposure in drinking water has been recently related to diabetes mellitus. To evaluate this relationship the authors conducted in 2003, a case-control study in an arseniasis-endemic region from Coahuila, a northern state of Mexico with a high incidence of diabetes. The present analysis includes 200 cases and 200 controls. Cases were obtained from a previous cross-sectional study conducted in that region. Diagnosis of diabetes was established following the American Diabetes Association criteria, with two fasting glucose values > or = 126 mg/100 ml (> or = 7.0 mmol/l) or a history of diabetes treated with insulin or oral hypoglycemic agents. The next subject studied, subsequent to the identification of a case in the cross-sectional study was taken as control. Inorganic arsenic exposure was measured through total arsenic concentrations in urine, measured by hydride-generation atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Subjects with intermediate total arsenic concentration in urine (63.5-104 microg/g creatinine) had two-fold higher risk of having diabetes (odds ratio=2.16; 95% confidence interval: 1.23, 3.79), but the risk was almost three times greater in subjects with higher concentrations of total arsenic in urine (odds ratio=2.84; 95% confidence interval: 1.64, 4.92). This data provides additional evidence that inorganic arsenic exposure may be diabetogenic.

  9. Evaluation of Reclamability of Molding Sands with New Inorganic Binders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Izdebska-Szanda

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the purposes of the application of chemically modified inorganic binders is to improve knocking out properties and the related reclamability with previously used in foundry inorganic binder (water glass, which allowing the use of ecological binders for casting non- ferrous metals. Good knocking out properties of the sands is directly related to the waste sands reclamability, which is a necessary condition of effective waste management. Reclamation of moulding and core sands is a fundamental and effective way to manage waste on site at the foundry, in accordance with the Environmental Guidelines. Therefore, studies of reclamation of waste moulding and core sands with new types of inorganic binders (developed within the framework of the project were carried out. These studies allowed to determine the degree of recovery of useful, material, what the reclaimed sand is, and the degree of its use in the production process. The article presents these results of investigation. They are a part of broader research programme executed under the project POIG.01.01.02-00- 015/09 "Advanced materials and technologies".

  10. Contrasting modes of inorganic carbon acquisition amongst Symbiodinium (Dinophyceae) phylotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brading, Patrick; Warner, Mark E; Smith, David J; Suggett, David J

    2013-10-01

    Growing concerns over ocean acidification have highlighted the need to critically understand inorganic carbon acquisition and utilization in marine microalgae. Here, we contrast these characteristics for the first time between two genetically distinct dinoflagellate species of the genus Symbiodinium (phylotypes A13 and A20) that live in symbiosis with reef-forming corals. Both phylotypes were grown in continuous cultures under identical environmental conditions. Rubisco was measured using quantitative Western blots, and radioisotopic (14) C uptake was used to characterize light- and total carbon dioxide (TCO2 )-dependent carbon fixation, as well as inorganic carbon species preference and external carbonic anhydrase activity. A13 and A20 exhibited similar rates of carbon fixation despite cellular concentrations of Rubisco being approximately four-fold greater in A13. The uptake of CO2 over HCO3 - was found to support the majority of carbon fixation in both phylotypes. However, A20 was also able to indirectly utilize HCO3 - by first converting it to CO2 via external carbonic anhydrase. These results show that adaptive differences in inorganic carbon acquisition have evolved within the Symbiodinium genus, which thus carries fundamental implications as to how this functionally key genus will respond to ocean acidification, but could also represent a key trait factor that influences their productivity when in hospite of their coral hosts.

  11. Spontaneous Aerosol Ejection: Origin of Inorganic Particles in Biomass Pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Andrew R; Gantt, Rachel; Joseph, Kristeen E; Maduskar, Saurabh; Paulsen, Alex D; Krumm, Christoph; Zhu, Cheng; Dauenhauer, Paul J

    2016-06-01

    At high thermal flux and temperatures of approximately 500 °C, lignocellulosic biomass transforms to a reactive liquid intermediate before evaporating to condensable bio-oil for downstream upgrading to renewable fuels and chemicals. However, the existence of a fraction of nonvolatile compounds in condensed bio-oil diminishes the product quality and, in the case of inorganic materials, catalyzes undesirable aging reactions within bio-oil. In this study, ablative pyrolysis of crystalline cellulose was evaluated, with and without doped calcium, for the generation of inorganic-transporting aerosols by reactive boiling ejection from liquid intermediate cellulose. Aerosols were characterized by laser diffraction light scattering, inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy, and high-speed photography. Pyrolysis product fractionation revealed that approximately 3 % of the initial feed (both organic and inorganic) was transported to the gas phase as aerosols. Large bubble-to-aerosol size ratios and visualization of significant late-time ejections in the pyrolyzing cellulose suggest the formation of film bubbles in addition to the previously discovered jet formation mechanism. PMID:27125341

  12. Thermal and chemical degradation of inorganic membrane materials. Topical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnan, G.N.; Sanjurjo, A.; Wood, B.J.; Lau, K.H.

    1994-04-01

    This report describes the results of a literature review to evaluate the long-term thermal and chemical degradation of inorganic membranes that are being developed to separate gaseous products produced by the gasification or combustion of coal in fixed-, fluidized-, and entrained-bed gasifiers, direct coal-fired turbines, and pressurized-fluidized-bed combustors. Several impurities, such as H{sub 2}S, NH{sub 3}, SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, and trace metal compounds are generated during coal conversion, and they must be removed from the coal gas or the combustor flue gas to meet environmental standards. The use of membranes to separate these noxious gases is an attractive alternative to their removal by sorbents such as zinc titanate or calcium oxide. Inorganic membranes that have a high separation efficiency and exhibit both thermal and chemical stability would improve the economics of power generation from coal. The U.S. Department of Energy is supporting investigations to develop inorganic membranes for separating hydrogen from coal gas streams and noxious impurities from hot coal- and flue-gas streams. Membrane materials that have been investigated in the past include glass (silica), alumina, zirconia, carbon, and metals (Pd and Pt).

  13. Relation of organic and inorganic substances in formation of urolyths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Poliyenko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Macro- and microscopic structural features of human urolyths have been studied to reveal the relation between organic and inorganic components and the role of the latter in the process of urolyth formation and growth. The combined study of the shape, color, surface, mineral and organic composition, and internal structure and zoning of 788 urolyths has been performed. Crystallomorphological, polarization-optical, X-ray-diffraction, electron-microscopic, chemical, neutron-activation, and computer technologies of study of the urolyth structure have been used. It has been found that macroscopic characteristics of uroluths (color, shape, surface, and size did not reflect the chemical composition of urolyths. In the structure of abundance of urolyths in Tomskand the Tomsk Region, oxalates (58% and urolyths of complex mineral composition (29%  prevail. It has been found that an urolyth is an organomineral aggregate having the internal structure formed by a rhythm of alternation of organic and inorganic layers and the character of arrangement of individual mineral crystals, and the internal structure is independent of the chemical composition of the urolyth and  uniform in urolyths of different chemical composition. The most part of urolyths has a mixed (44% or druzy (35% type of crystal arrangement and the  combined (45% or grainy (31% rhythm of alternation of organic and inorganic components.

  14. In vivo degeneration and the fate of inorganic nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feliu, Neus; Docter, Dominic; Heine, Markus; Del Pino, Pablo; Ashraf, Sumaira; Kolosnjaj-Tabi, Jelena; Macchiarini, Paolo; Nielsen, Peter; Alloyeau, Damien; Gazeau, Florence; Stauber, Roland H; Parak, Wolfgang J

    2016-05-01

    What happens to inorganic nanoparticles (NPs), such as plasmonic gold or silver, superparamagnetic iron oxide, or fluorescent quantum dot NPs after they have been administrated to a living being? This review discusses the integrity, biodistribution, and fate of NPs after in vivo administration. The hybrid nature of the NPs is described, conceptually divided into the inorganic core, the engineered surface coating comprising of the ligand shell and optionally also bio-conjugates, and the corona of adsorbed biological molecules. Empirical evidence shows that all of these three compounds may degrade individually in vivo and can drastically modify the life cycle and biodistribution of the whole heterostructure. Thus, the NPs may be decomposed into different parts, whose biodistribution and fate would need to be analyzed individually. Multiple labeling and quantification strategies for such a purpose will be discussed. All reviewed data indicate that NPs in vivo should no longer be considered as homogeneous entities, but should be seen as inorganic/organic/biological nano-hybrids with complex and intricately linked distribution and degradation pathways. PMID:26862602

  15. Day–Night Changes of Energy-rich Compounds in Crassulacean Acid Metabolism (CAM) Species Utilizing Hexose and Starch

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Li-Song; NOSE, Akihiro

    2004-01-01

    • Background and Aims Plants with crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) can be divided into two groups according to the major carbohydrates used for malic acid synthesis, either polysaccharide (starch) or monosaccharide (hexose). This is related to the mechanism and affects energy metabolism in the two groups. In Kalanchoë pinnata and K. daigremontiana, which utilize starch, ATP-dependent phosphofructokinase (tonoplast inorganic pyrophosphatase) activity is greater than inorganic pyrophosphate-d...

  16. Synthesis, Processing, and Characterization of Inorganic-Organic Hybrid Cross-Linked Silica, Organic Polyimide, and Inorganic Aluminosilicate Aerogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Baochau N.; Guo, Haiquan N.; McCorkle, Linda S.

    2014-01-01

    As aerospace applications become ever more demanding, novel insulation materials with lower thermal conductivity, lighter weight and higher use temperature are required to fit the aerospace application needs. Having nanopores and high porosity, aerogels are superior thermal insulators, among other things. The use of silica aerogels in general is quite restricted due to their inherent fragility, hygroscopic nature, and poor mechanical properties, especially in extereme aerospace environments. Our research goal is to develop aerogels with better mechanical and environmental stability for a variety of aeronautic and space applications including space suit insulation for planetary surface missions, insulation for inflatable structures for habitats, inflatable aerodynamic decelerators for entry, descent and landing (EDL) operations, and cryotank insulation for advance space propulsion systems. Different type of aerogels including organic-inorganic polymer reinforced (hybrid) silica-based aerogels, polyimide aerogels and inorganic aluminosilicate aerogels have been developed and examined.

  17. Inorganic bromine in the marine boundary layer: a critical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sander

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The cycling of inorganic bromine in the marine boundary layer (mbl has received increased attention in recent years. Bromide, a constituent of sea water, is injected into the atmosphere in association with sea-salt aerosol by breaking waves on the ocean surface. Measurements reveal that supermicrometer sea-salt aerosol is depleted in bromine by about 50% relative to conservative tracers, whereas marine submicrometer aerosol is often enriched in bromine. Model calculations, laboratory studies, and field observations strongly suggest that these depletions reflect the chemical transformation of particulate bromide to reactive inorganic gases that influence the processing of ozone and other important constituents of marine air. However, currently available techniques cannot reliably quantify many chem{Br}-containing compounds at ambient concentrations and, consequently, our understanding of inorganic Br cycling over the oceans and its global significance are uncertain. To provide a more coherent framework for future research, we have reviewed measurements in marine aerosol, the gas phase, and in rain. We also summarize sources and sinks, as well as model and laboratory studies of chemical transformations. The focus is on inorganic bromine over the open oceans, excluding the polar regions. The generation of sea-salt aerosol at the ocean surface is the major tropospheric source producing about 6.2 Tg/a of bromide. The transport of  Br from continents (as mineral aerosol, and as products from biomass-burning and fossil-fuel combustion can be of local importance. Transport of degradation products of long-lived Br-containing compounds from the stratosphere and other sources contribute lesser amounts. Available evidence suggests that, following aerosol acidification, sea-salt bromide reacts to form Br2 and BrCl that volatilize to the gas phase and photolyze in daylight to produce atomic Br and Cl. Subsequent transformations can destroy

  18. Aluminum corrosion mitigation in alkaline electrolytes containing hybrid inorganic/organic inhibitor system for power sources applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelman, Danny; Lasman, Itay; Elfimchev, Sergey; Starosvetsky, David; Ein-Eli, Yair

    2015-07-01

    The severe corrosion accompanied with hydrogen evolution process is the main obstacle preventing the implementation of Al as an anode in alkaline batteries. It impairs the functionality of alkaline battery, due to a drastic capacity loss and a short shelf life. The possibility to reduce Al corrosion rate in alkaline solution with the use of hybrid organic∖inorganic inhibitor based on poly (ethylene glycol) di-acid (PEG di-acid) and zinc oxide (ZnO) was examined in this work. A correlation between an Al corrosion rates and the concentrations of both PEG di-acid and ZnO in alkaline is shown. Selecting 5000 ppm PEG di-acid and 16 gr/l ZnO provides substantial corrosion protection of Al, reducing the corrosion rate in a strong alkaline solution by more than one order of magnitude. Moreover, utilizing the same formulation results in increase in Al-air battery discharge capacity, from 44.5 (for a battery utilizing only KOH in the electrolyte) to 70 mhA/cm2 (for a battery utilizing ZnO/PEG di-acid hybrid inhibitor in the electrolyte). The morphology and composition of the Al electrode surface (studied by SEM, EDS, and XRD) depend on PEG di-acid and ZnO concentrations.

  19. Comparison of selenium distribution in mice organs after the supplementation with inorganic and organic selenium compound selenosemicarbazide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musik, Irena; Kozioł-Montewka, Maria; Toś-Luty, Sabina; Donica, Helena; Pasternak, Kazimierz; Wawrzycki, Sławomir

    2002-01-01

    Studies on selenium organ content and its function in living organisms just like studies on other elements provide interesting results although their interpretation is not always clear. The aim of our study was to determine the concentration and distribution of selenium in several organs and tissues in mice after supplementation with our newly synthesized organic compound of selenium selenosemicarbazide (4-o-tolyl-selenosemicarbazide of o-chlorobenzoic acid) as compared to the effects of the supplementation with inorganic compounds. SWISS mice were fed with both types of compounds at the dose of 10(-3) g Se per kg for the period of 10 days. The concentrations of selenium in brains of mice treated with selenocarbazide and sodium selenite were higher than in controls (38.04 micrograms g-1 and 32.00 micrograms g-1 vs. 26.18 micrograms g-1). There was a statistically significant increase in the selenium contents in lungs after supplementation with selenosemicarbazide and sodium selenite (11.81 micrograms g-1 and 6.79 micrograms g-1 vs. 1.75 micrograms g-1 in controls). We found a statistically insignificant increase in selenium contents in intercostal muscles after supplementation with inorganic selenium compounds and a statistically significant increase after the supplementation with selenosemicarbazide (10.13 micrograms g-1; 14.21 micrograms g-1 and 28.84 micrograms g-1, respectively). Our investigations lead to a conclusion that 4-o-tolyl-seleno-semicarbazide of o-chlorobenzoic acid, an organic selenium compound may be more easily absorbed than inorganic sodium IV selenite.

  20. Quantum confinement and dielectric profiles of colloidal nanoplatelets of halide inorganic and hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapori, Daniel; Kepenekian, Mikaël; Pedesseau, Laurent; Katan, Claudine; Even, Jacky

    2016-03-28

    Quantum confinement as well as high frequency ε∞ and static εs dielectric profiles are described for nanoplatelets of halide inorganic perovskites CsPbX3 (X = I, Br, Cl) and hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites (HOP) in two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) structures. 3D HOP are currently being sought for their impressive photovoltaic ability. Prior to this sudden popularity, 2D HOP materials were driving intense activity in the field of optoelectronics. Such developments have been enriched by the recent ability to synthesize colloidal nanostructures of controlled sizes of 2D and 3D HOP. This raises the need to achieve a thorough description of the electronic structure and dielectric properties of these systems. In this work, we go beyond the abrupt dielectric interface model and reach the atomic scale description. We examine the influence of the nature of the halogen and of the cation on the band structure and dielectric constants. Similarly, we survey the effect of dimensionality and shape of the perovskite. In agreement with recent experimental results, we show an increase of the band gap and a decrease of ε∞ when the size of a nanoplatelet reduces. By inspecting 2D HOP, we find that it cannot be described as a simple superposition of independent inorganic and organic layers. Finally, the dramatic impact of ionic contributions on the dielectric constant εs is analysed. PMID:26705549

  1. Recycle of Inorganic Nutrients for Hydroponic Crop Production Following Incineration of Inedible Biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubenheim, David L.; Wignarajah, Kanapathipillai; Kliss, Mark H. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    Recovery of resources from waste streams is essential for future implementation and reliance on a regenerative life support system. The major waste streams of concern are from human activities and plant wastes. Carbon, water and inorganics are the primary desired raw materials of interest. The goal of resource recovery is maintenance of product quality to insure support of reliable and predictable levels of life support function performance by the crop plant component. Further, these systems must be maintained over extended periods of time, requiring maintenance of nutrient solutions to avoid toxicity and deficiencies. Today, reagent grade nutrients are used to make nutrient solutions for hydroponic culture and these solutions are frequently changed during the life cycle or sometimes managed for only one crop life cycle. The focus of this study was to determine the suitability of the ash product following incineration of inedible biomass as a source of inorganic nutrients for hydroponic crop production. Inedible wheat biomass was incinerated and ash quality characterized. The incinerator ash was dissolved in adequate nitric acid to establish a consistent nitrogen concentration in all nutrient solution treatments. Four experimental nutrient treatments were included: control, ash only, ash supplemented to match control, and ash only quality formulated with reagent grade chemicals. When nutrient solutions are formulated using only ash following-incineration of inedible biomass, a balance in solution is established representing elemental retention following incineration and nutrient proportions present in the original biomass. The resulting solution is not identical to the control. This imbalance resulted in suppression of crop growth. When the ash is supplemented with nutrients to establish the same balance as in the control, growth is identical to the control. The ash appears to carry no phytotoxic materials. Growth in solution formulated with reagent grade chemicals

  2. Dimethylarsinic acid in drinking water changed the morphology but not the expression of DNA repair genes of bladder transitional epithelium in F344 rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inorganic arsenic increases urinary bladder transitional cell carcinoma in humans. In laboratory animals, it is dimethylarsinic acid [DMA(V)], a major arsenic metabolite in the urine of inorganic arsenic-exposed people, that increases transitional cell carcinoma, namely in F344 r...

  3. Inorganic Water Repellent Coatings for Thermal Protection Insulation on an Aerospace Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuerstenau, D. W.; Huang, P.; Ravikumar, R.

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this research was two-fold: first, to identify and test inorganic water-repellent materials that would be hydrophobic even after thermal cycling to temperatures above 600 C and, second, to develop a model that would link hydrophobicity of a material to the chemical properties of its constituent atoms. Four different materials were selected for detailed experimental study, namely, boron nitride, talc, molybdenite, and pyrophyllite, all of which have a layered structure made up of ionic/covalent bonds within the layers but with van der Waals bonds between the layers. The materials tested could be considered hydrophobic for a nonporous surface but none of the observed contact angles exceeded the necessary 90 degrees required for water repellency of porous materials. Boron nitride and talc were observed to retain their water-repellency when heated in air to temperatures that did not exceed 800 C, and molybdenite was found to be retain its hydrophobicity when heated to temperatures up to 600 C. For these three materials, oxidation and decomposition were identified to be the main cause for the breakdown of water repellency after repeated thermal cycling. Pyrophyllite shows the maximum promise as a potential water-repellent inorganic material, which, when treated initially at 900 C, retained its shape and remained hydrophobic for two thermal cycles where the maximum retreatment temperature is 900 C. A model was developed for predicting materials that might exhibit hydrophobicity by linking two chemical properties, namely, that the constituent ions of the compound belong to the soft acid-base category and that the fractional ionic character of the bonds be less than about 20 percent.

  4. Recycling of inorganic nutrients for hydroponic crop production following incineration of inedible biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubenheim, D. L.; Wignarajah, K.

    1997-01-01

    The goal of resource recovery in a regenerative life support system is maintenance of product quality to insure support of reliable and predictable levels of life support function performance by the crop plant component. Further, these systems must be maintained over extended periods of time, requiring maintenance of nutrient solutions to avoid toxicity and deficiencies. The focus of this study was to determine the suitability of the ash product following incineration of inedible biomass as a source of inorganic nutrients for hydroponic crop production. Inedible wheat biomass was incinerated and ash quality characterized. The incinerator ash was dissolved in adequate nitric acid to establish a consistent nitrogen concentration is all nutrient solution treatments. Four experimental nutrient treatments were included: control, ash only, ash supplemented to match the control treatment, and ash only quality formulated with reagent grade chemicals. When nutrient solutions were formulated using only ash following incineration of inedible biomass, a balance in solution is established representing elemental retention following incineration and nutrient proportions present in the original biomass. The resulting solution is not identical to the control. This imbalance resulted in a suppression of crop growth. When the ash is supplemented with reagent grade chemicals to establish the same balance as in the control - growth is identical to the control. The ash appears to carry no phytotoxic materials. Growth in solution formulated with reagent grade chemicals but matching the quality of the ash only treatment resulted in similar growth to that of the ash only treatment. The ash product resulting from incineration of inedible biomass appears to be a suitable form for recycle of inorganic nutrients to crop production.

  5. Identification of inorganic improvised explosive devices using sequential injection capillary electrophoresis and contactless conductivity detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Gustavo A; Nai, Yi H; Hilder, Emily F; Shellie, Robert A; Dicinoski, Greg W; Haddad, Paul R; Breadmore, Michael C

    2011-12-01

    A simple sequential injection capillary electrophoresis (SI-CE) instrument with capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection (C(4)D) has been developed for the rapid separation of anions relevant to the identification of inorganic improvised explosive devices (IEDs). Four of the most common explosive tracer ions, nitrate, perchlorate, chlorate, and azide, and the most common background ions, chloride, sulfate, thiocyanate, fluoride, phosphate, and carbonate, were chosen for investigation. Using a separation electrolyte comprising 50 mM tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane, 50 mM cyclohexyl-2-aminoethanesulfonic acid, pH 8.9 and 0.05% poly(ethyleneimine) (PEI) in a hexadimethrine bromide (HDMB)-coated capillary it was possible to partially separate all 10 ions within 90 s. The combination of two cationic polymer additives (PEI and HDMB) was necessary to achieve adequate selectivity with a sufficiently stable electroosmotic flow (EOF), which was not possible with only one polymer. Careful optimization of variables affecting the speed of separation and injection timing allowed a further reduction of separation time to 55 s while maintaining adequate efficiency and resolution. Software control makes high sample throughput possible (60 samples/h), with very high repeatability of migration times [0.63-2.07% relative standard deviation (RSD) for 240 injections]. The separation speed does not compromise sensitivity, with limits of detection ranging from 23 to 50 μg·L(-1) for all the explosive residues considered, which is 10× lower than those achieved by indirect absorbance detection and 2× lower than those achieved by C(4)D using portable benchtop instrumentation. The combination of automation, high sample throughput, high confidence of peak identification, and low limits of detection makes this methodology ideal for the rapid identification of inorganic IED residues.

  6. Organic and inorganic composition and microbiology of produced waters from Pennsylvania shale gas wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akob, Denise M.; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.; Dunlap, Darren S.; Rowan, Elisabeth L.; Lorah, Michelle M.

    2015-01-01

    Hydraulically fractured shales are becoming an increasingly important source of natural gas production in the United States. This process has been known to create up to 420 gallons of produced water (PW) per day, but the volume varies depending on the formation, and the characteristics of individual hydraulic fracture. PW from hydraulic fracturing of shales are comprised of injected fracturing fluids and natural formation waters in proportions that change over time. Across the state of Pennsylvania, shale gas production is booming; therefore, it is important to assess the variability in PW chemistry and microbiology across this geographical span. We quantified the inorganic and organic chemical composition and microbial communities in PW samples from 13 shale gas wells in north central Pennsylvania. Microbial abundance was generally low (66–9400 cells/mL). Non-volatile dissolved organic carbon (NVDOC) was high (7–31 mg/L) relative to typical shallow groundwater, and the presence of organic acid anions (e.g., acetate, formate, and pyruvate) indicated microbial activity. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were detected in four samples (∼1 to 11.7 μg/L): benzene and toluene in the Burket sample, toluene in two Marcellus samples, and tetrachloroethylene (PCE) in one Marcellus sample. VOCs can be either naturally occurring or from industrial activity, making the source of VOCs unclear. Despite the addition of biocides during hydraulic fracturing, H2S-producing, fermenting, and methanogenic bacteria were cultured from PW samples. The presence of culturable bacteria was not associated with salinity or location; although organic compound concentrations and time in production were correlated with microbial activity. Interestingly, we found that unlike the inorganic chemistry, PW organic chemistry and microbial viability were highly variable across the 13 wells sampled, which can have important implications for the reuse and handling of these fluids

  7. Organic-inorganic hybrid nanostructures for solar cell applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbdulAlmohsin, Samir M.

    The enticing electro-optical properties of nanostructured materials such as carbon nanotubes, graphene, CdS nanocrystals and ZnO nanowrie bring new vigor into the innovation of photovoltaics. The main purpose of this dissertation is to develop novel nano-structured materials for low cost solar cell applications. Fabrication, characterization, and solar cell application of organic-inorganic hybrid structures are the main focus of this research. Polyaniline (PANI)/multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWNT) composite films were synthesized by an electrochemical polymerization of aniline with airbrushed MWNTs on ITO substrates. It was found that the incorporation of MWNTs in PANI effectively increase the film conductivity with a percolation threshold of 5% of nanotubes in the composite. The solar cell performance strongly depends on the conductivity of the composite films, which can be tuned by adjusting nanotube concentration. A higher conductivity resulted in a better cell performance, resulting from an efficient charge collection. This study indicates that PANI/MWNT composite films with optimized conductivity are potentially useful for low-cost hybrid solar cell applications. CdS nanocrystal-sensitized solar cells (NCSSCs) were investigated by using polyaniline (PANI) as a replacement for conventional platinum counter electrode. The growth time of the nanocrystals significantly affects the solar cell performance. At an optimum growth, the NCSSCs exhibit 0.83% of the conversion efficiency in comparison to 0.13% for the identical cells without CdS nanocrystals. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy showed that the charge transfer in the solar cells with CdS nanocrystals was improved. The enhanced overall energy conversion efficiency by nanocrystals is attributed to improved light absorption and suppressed recombination rate of interfacial charges at the injection, resulting in significantly improved charge transfer and electron lifetime. In addition, the PANI electrodes

  8. Study on the behaviour of inorganic ion exchangers in the treatment of medium active effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarises some of the results from an ongoing experimental programme of work for the Department of the Environment on the potential use of inorganic ion exchangers for the treatment of medium active waste streams. The effect of irradiation up to a total dose of 10 M Gy on the absorption of fission products and actinides over a range of experimental conditions by selected ion exchangers is described. The ion exchangers tested were polyantimonic acid, hydrous titanium oxide, manganese dioxide, potassium copper hexacyanoferrate II, titanium phosphate and zirconium phosphate. Manganese dioxide and potassium copper hexacyanoferrate II were unaffected by irradiation. Polyantimonic acid showed a decreasing performance with increasing total dose. Zirconium phosphate, titanium phosphate and oxide showed a decreasing performance up to a total dose of 2.19 M Gy with an apparent recovery in performance on increasing the total dose to 10 M Gy. The effect of conditioning time on some of the irradiated absorbers could have influenced the uptake data above 1.25 M Gy. (author)

  9. Study of fouling and scaling in capacitive deionisation by using dissolved organic and inorganic salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossad, Mohamed; Zou, Linda

    2013-01-15

    In this work, fouling, scaling and cleaning of the capacitive deionisation (CDI) with activated carbon electrodes were systematically investigated for the first time. Electrode fouling caused by dissolved organic matter using sodium salt of humic acid as a model foulant (measured by total organic carbon concentration, TOC) and inorganic salt (NaCl, MgCl(2), CaCl(2) and FeCl(3)) in the CDI feed solutions was investigated in a series of controlled fouling experiments. After each CDI experiment, a series of cleaning steps was performed to understand the reversibility of fouling accumulated on the electrode surface by analysing the cleaning solutions. The higher the TOC concentration in the CDI feed solution, the more the reduction of salt removal efficiency, declination in the production rate and energy consumption. Dissolved organic matter is the main cause of electrode fouling, as it blocks the activated carbon pores and reduces their electrosorption capacitance. Ca and Mg have no noticeable effect on the CDI treatment performance. However, Fe seemed to have a greater effect on CDI electrode fouling. Alkaline and acid cleaning solutions were able to restore the recovery of the CDI performance from fouling. Pre-treatment to reduce the dissolved organic matter levels is recommended to achieve sustainable treatment performance. PMID:23274796

  10. Thermochemical study of some inorganic and organic salts of cobalt, nickel and copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Differential enthalpy analysis has been carried out on a certain number of inorganic (halides, halide oxy-acid salts, nitrates and sulfates) and organic (alkanoates, and dicarboxylates) of cobalt, nickel and copper using a Tian-Calvet high-temperature microcalorimeter. Other investigational methods such as thermo-crystallography, thermogravimetry, spectroscopy and gas-phase chromatography have been used to complete this work. An intrinsic study of the microcalorimeter covering thermal leakage, the sensitivity and the aging of the batteries, the deviation of the experimental zero, has been carried out. A satisfactory experimental device has been developed which corresponds to optimum conditions of analysis. We have shown which are the most important factors affecting differential thermal analysis and have detected certain phenomena; we have also demonstrated that intermediate hydrates exist and shown the possibilities of thermal recrystallization. Various enthalpies of transformation have been evaluated. The various possible reaction mechanisms are discussed. The normal formation enthalpies of several series of alkanoates and dicarboxylates have been measured. A graphical method has been devised for evaluating the kinetic parameters of heterogeneous dissociations from the thermograms obtained. Finally, we have developed a simple method for estimating the normal formation enthalpies of carboxylates and oxy-acid salts, both anhydrous and hydrated. The agreement with available experimental data is satisfactory. (author)

  11. Phenolic Acids in Plant-Soil-Microbe System: A Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Phenolic acids are very common compounds in pedosphere. The objective of this review was to summarize the current knowledge of the behaviors of phenolic acids in plant-soil-microbe system. When phenolic acids originated from leaching, decomposition and exudation of living and dead plant tissues enter soils, they can react physicochemically with soil particle surfaces and/or incorporate into humic matter. Phenolic acids desorbed from soil particle surfaces and remained in solution phase can be utilized by microbe as carbon sources and absorbed by plants. The degradation products of phenolic acids by microbe include some organic and/or inorganic compounds such as new phenolic acids. In addition, phenolic acids in soils can stimulate population and activity of microbe. Phenolic acids can inhibit plants growth by affecting ion leakage, phytohormone activity, membrane permeability, hydraulic conductivity, net nutrient uptake, and enzyme activity. Behaviors of phenolic acids in soils are influenced by other organic compounds (phenolic acids, methionine, glucose, etc.) and/or inorganic ions. The role of phenolic acids as allelopathic agents should not be neglected only based on their low specific concentrations in natural soils, because numbers and interactions of phenolic acids will increase their allelopathic activities.

  12. Performance of different tomato cultivars under organic and inorganic regimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To study the performance of different tomato cultivars under organic and inorganic regimes an experiment was conducted at New Developmental Farm, The University of Agriculture, Peshawar, Pakistan during the summer 2013-14. The experiment was laid out in RCBD with split plot arrangement having four replications. Organic regimes (FYM, poultry manure and mushroom compost) and inorganic (NPK) regimes were allotted to main plot, while cultivars (Roma VF, Roma, Super Classic, Bambino and Rio Grande) were subjected to sub plots. Organic and Inorganic regimes significantly (P ≤ 0.01) influenced all the studied attributes of tomato cultivars. Among different cultivars, Roma gave maximum plant survival (93.8 percentage), number of leaves plant (84.1), number of flower inflorescence (5.4), number of fruits inflorescence (4.3), number of fruit plant (25.4), fruit size (63.9 cm) fruit weight plant (9.1 kg) and total yield (22.9 t ha). However, it was closely followed by cultivar Rio Grande for number of leaves plant (79.6), number of flower inflorescence (5.1), number of fruits inflorescence (4.0) and number of fruits plant (24.9). Cultivar Super Classic produced minimum number of leaves plant (67.7), flower inflorescence (4.8), fruit size (60.6 cm), fruit weight plant (8.6 kg) and total yield (21.7 t ha). Similarly, highest plant survival (90.0 percentage), number of flower inflorescence (5.1), number of fruits inflorescence (4.0), number of fruit plant (25.4), fruit size (62.4 ml), fruit weight plant (8.90 kg) and total yield (22.9 t ha) were recorded in plants provided with organic conditions Roma cultivar performed better than other cultivars under the agro climatic condition of Peshawar followed by cultivar Rio Grande. Therefore, organic tomato production, and these two cultivars are recommended to be grown in Peshawar area. (author)

  13. 2010 INORGANIC CHEMISTRY GORDON RESEARCH CONFERENCE JUNE 20 - 25, 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JOHN LOCKEMEYER

    2010-06-25

    The Inorganic Chemistry GRC is one of the longest-standing of the GRCs, originating in 1951. Over the years, this conference has played a role in spawning many other GRCs in specialized fields, due to the involvement of elements from most of the periodic table. These include coordination, organometallic, main group, f-element, and solid state chemistries; materials science, catalysis, computational chemistry, nanotechnology, bioinorganic, environmental, and biomedical sciences just to name a few. The 2010 Inorganic Chemistry GRC will continue this tradition, where scientists at all levels from academic, industrial, and national laboratories meet to define the important problems in the field and to highlight emerging opportunities through exchange of ideas and discussion of unpublished results. Invited speakers will present on a wide variety of topics, giving attendees a look at areas both inside and outside of their specialized areas of interest. In addition to invited speakers, the poster sessions at GRCs are a key feature of the conference. All conferees at the Inorganic Chemistry GRC are invited to present a poster on their work, and here the informal setting promotes the free exchange of ideas and fosters new relationships. As in previous years, we will offer poster presenters the opportunity to compete for one of several program spots in which they can give an oral presentation based on the subject matter of their poster. This is a great way to get your work noticed by the scientists attending the meeting, especially for those early in their career path such as junior faculty members, postdoctoral fellows, and those at comparable ranks. Anyone interested in participating in the poster competition should bring an electronic slide presentation and a small hard copy of their poster to submit to the committee.

  14. Optical Properties of Photovoltaic Organic-Inorganic Lead Halide Perovskites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Martin A; Jiang, Yajie; Soufiani, Arman Mahboubi; Ho-Baillie, Anita

    2015-12-01

    Over the last several years, organic-inorganic lead halide perovskites have rapidly emerged as a new photovoltaic contender. Although energy conversion efficiency above 20% has now been certified, improved understanding of the material properties contributing to these high performance levels may allow the progression to even higher efficiency, stable cells. The optical properties of these new materials are important not only to device design but also because of the insight they provide into less directly accessible properties, including energy-band structures, binding energies, and likely impact of excitons, as well as into absorption and inverse radiative recombination processes.

  15. The Use of Inorganic Packing Materials during Methane Biofiltration

    OpenAIRE

    Josiane Nikiema; Michèle Heitz

    2010-01-01

    The objective behind this study is to select a suitable inorganic packing material for methane biofiltration. Three packing materials are to be compared: two rock materials (average particles' sizes: 2 and 5 mm) and one porous clay particles (average particle size of 7 mm). The main parameter used to assess the efficiency of the packing material is the methane elimination capacity. The study reveals that the rock material having an average particle size around 2 mm is to be preferred. This re...

  16. Engineering the Interface Between Inorganic Materials and Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaffer, David

    2014-05-31

    To further optimize cell function in hybrid “living materials”, it would be advantageous to render mammalian cells responsive to novel “orthogonal” cues, i.e. signals they would not ordinarily respond to but that can be engineered to feed into defined intracellular signaling pathways. We recently developed an optogenetic method, based on A. thaliana Cry2, for rapid and reversible protein oligomerization in response to blue light. We also demonstrated the ability to use this method to channel the light input into several defined signaling pathways, work that will enhance communication between inorganic devices and living systems.

  17. Organic/inorganic hybrid materials: challenges for ab initio methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draxl, Claudia; Nabok, Dmitrii; Hannewald, Karsten

    2014-11-18

    CONSPECTUS: Organic/inorganic hybrid structures are most exciting since one can expect new properties that are absent in either of their building blocks. They open new perspectives toward the design and tailoring of materials with desired features and functions. Prerequisite for real progress is, however, the in-depth understanding of what happens on the atomic and electronic scale. In this respect, hybrid materials pose a challenge for electronic-structure theory. Methods that proved useful for describing one side may not be applicable for the other one, and they are likely to fail for the interfaces. In this Account, we address the question to what extent we can quantitatively describe hybrid materials and where we even miss a qualitative description. We note that we are dealing with extended systems and thus adopt a solid-state approach. Therefore, density-functional theory (DFT) and many-body perturbation theory (MBPT), the GW approach for charged and the Bethe-Salpeter equation for neutral excitations, are our methods of choice. We give a brief summary of the used methodology, focusing on those aspects where problems can be expected when materials of different character meet at an interface. These issues are then taken up when discussing hybrid materials. We argue when and why, for example, standard DFT may fall short when it comes to the electronic structure of organic/metal interfaces or where the framework of MBPT can or must take over. Selected examples of organic/inorganic interfaces, structural properties, electronic bands, optical excitation spectra, and charge-transport properties as obtained from DFT and MBPT highlight which properties can be reliably computed for such materials. The crucial role of van der Waals forces is shown for sexiphenyl films, where the subtle interplay between intermolecular and molecule-substrate interactions is decisive for growth and morphologies. With a PTCDA monolayer on metal surfaces we discuss the performance of DFT in

  18. Multi length-scale characterisation inorganic materials series

    CERN Document Server

    Bruce, Duncan W; Walton, Richard I

    2013-01-01

    Whereas the first five volumes in the Inorganic Materials Series focused on particular classes of materials (synthesis, structures, chemistry, and properties), it is now very timely to provide complementary volumes that introduce and review state-of-the-art techniques for materials characterization. This is an important way of emphasizing the interplay of chemical synthesis and physical characterization. The methods reviewed include spectroscopic, diffraction, and surface techniques that examine the structure of materials on all length scales, from local atomic structure to long-range crystall

  19. Modified inorganic surfaces as a model for hydroxyapatite growth

    CERN Document Server

    Pramatarova, Lilyana

    2006-01-01

    The process by which organisms in Nature create minerals is known as biomineralization - a process that involves complex interactions between inorganic ions, crystals and organic molecules; resulting in a controlled nucleation and growth of minerals from aqueous solutions. During the last few decades, biomineralization has been intensively studied, due to its involvement in a wide range of biological events; starting with the formation of bones, teeth, cartilage, shells, coral (so-called physiological mineralization) and encompassing pathological mineralization, i.e. the formation of kidney st

  20. Annual reports in inorganic and general syntheses 1976

    CERN Document Server

    Zimmer, Hans

    2013-01-01

    Annual Reports in Inorganic and General Syntheses-1976 presents an annual review of synthetically useful information that would prove beneficial to nearly all organic chemists, both specialist and nonspecialist in synthesis. It should help relieve some of the information storage burden of the specialist and should aid the nonspecialist who is seeking help with a specific problem to become rapidly aware of recent synthetic advances.This is the fifth volume of ARIGS and is organized along the lines developed for the preceding volumes. The authors were encouraged to use synthetic aspects as their

  1. Influence of inorganic salt on aerobic biodegradability of dyestuffs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    this paper, the influence of inorganic salt on aerobic biodegradability of dyestuffs was studied by means of semicontinuous activated sludge method. It was found that: biodegradability of dyestuffs would decrease with the increase of the concentration of NaCl; however, biodegradability in the condition of NaCl = 30 g/L was better than that in the condition of NaCl =15 g/L; in the three NaCl conditions, biodegradability of tasted dyestuffs followed the following order: NaCl= 0 g/L > NaCl= 30g/L>NaCl= 15 g/L.

  2. Dimethylmercury Formation Mediated by Inorganic and Organic Reduced Sulfur Surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Sofi Jonsson; Nashaat M. Mazrui; Mason, Robert P.

    2016-01-01

    Underlying formation pathways of dimethylmercury ((CH3)2Hg) in the ocean are unknown. Early work proposed reactions of inorganic Hg (HgII) with methyl cobalamin or of dissolved monomethylmercury (CH3Hg) with hydrogen sulfide as possible bacterial mediated or abiotic pathways. A significant fraction (up to 90%) of CH3Hg in natural waters is however adsorbed to reduced sulfur groups on mineral or organic surfaces. We show that binding of CH3Hg to such reactive sites facilitates the formation of...

  3. The impact of wafering on organic and inorganic surface contaminations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, S.; Wahl, S.; Timmel, S.; Köpge, R.; Jang, B.-Y.

    2016-08-01

    Beside the silicon feedstock material, the crystallization process and the cell processing itself, the wafer sawing process can strongly determine the final solar cell quality. Especially surface contamination is introduced in this process step because impurities from sawing meet with a virgin silicon surface which is highly reactive until the oxide layer is formed. In this paper we quantitatively analysed both, the organic and inorganic contamination on wafer surfaces and show that changes of process parameters during wafering may cause dramatic changes in surface purity. We present powerful techniques for the monitoring of wafer surface quality which is essential for the production of high efficiency and high quality solar cells.

  4. Removal of inorganic contaminants from soils by electrokinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The need to remove contaminants from soil and groundwater, the high cost of current remediation techniques ($50 to $1,500 per cubic yard of soil) and limited resources lead to an everlasting strive to find new, innovative and cost-effective in situ techniques for removal/separation of contaminants from soils. This paper reports on the electrokinetic phenomena in soils, envisioned to be used for removal/separation of organic and inorganic contaminants and radionuclides, barriers and leak detection systems in clay liners, diversion schemes for waste plumes, and for injection of grouts, microorganisms and nutrients into subsoil strata and in situ generation of hydrogen peroxide for remediation

  5. Rational design of inorganic dielectric materials with expected permittivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Congwei; Oganov, Artem R.; Dong, Dong; Liu, Ning; Li, Duan; Debela, Tekalign Terfa

    2015-11-01

    Techniques for rapid design of dielectric materials with appropriate permittivity for many important technological applications are urgently needed. It is found that functional structure blocks (FSBs) are helpful in rational design of inorganic dielectrics with expected permittivity. To achieve this, coordination polyhedra are parameterized as FSBs and a simple empirical model to evaluate permittivity based on these FSB parameters is proposed. Using this model, a wide range of examples including ferroelectric, high/low permittivity materials are discussed, resulting in several candidate materials for experimental follow-up.

  6. Inorganic Chemistry in Hydrogen Storage and Biomass Catalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thorn, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-13

    Making or breaking C-H, B-H, C-C bonds has been at the core of catalysis for many years. Making or breaking these bonds to store or recover energy presents us with fresh challenges, including how to catalyze these transformations in molecular systems that are 'tuned' to minimize energy loss and in molecular and material systems present in biomass. This talk will discuss some challenging transformations in chemical hydrogen storage, and some aspects of the inorganic chemistry we are studying in the development of catalysts for biomass utilization.

  7. Air stable organic-inorganic nanoparticles hybrid solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Lei; Yang, Jihua; Xue, Jiangeng; Holloway, Paul H.

    2015-09-29

    A solar cell includes a low work function cathode, an active layer of an organic-inorganic nanoparticle composite, a ZnO nanoparticle layer situated between and physically contacting the cathode and active layers; and a transparent high work function anode that is a bilayer electrode. The inclusion of the ZnO nanoparticle layer results in a solar cell displaying a conversion efficiency increase and reduces the device degradation rate. Embodiments of the invention are directed to novel ZnO nanoparticles that are advantageous for use as the ZnO nanoparticle layers of the novel solar cells and a method to prepare the ZnO nanoparticles.

  8. Tetraalkylphosphonium polyoxometalate ionic liquids : novel, organic-inorganic hybrid materials.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rickert, P. G.; Antonio, M. P.; Firestone, M. A.; Kubatko, K.-A.; Szreder, T.; Wishart, J. F.; Dietz, M. L.; Chemistry; Univ. of Notre Dame; BNL

    2007-01-01

    Pairing of a Keggin or Lindqvist polyoxometalate (POM) anion with an appropriate tetraalkylphosphonium cation is shown to yield the first members of a new family of ionic liquids (ILs). Detailed characterization of one of them, an ambient-temperature 'liquid POM' comprising the Lindqvist salt of the trihexyl(tetradecyl) phosphonium cation, by voltammetry, viscometry, conductimetry, and thermal analysis indicates that it exhibits conductivity and viscosity comparable to those of the one previously described inorganic-organic POM-IL hybrid but with substantially improved thermal stability.

  9. Standard Electrode Potentials Involving Radicals in Aqueous Solution: Inorganic Radicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, David A.; Huie, Robert E.; Koppenol, Willem H.; Lymar, Sergei V.; Merenyi, Gabor; Neta, Pedatsur; Ruscic, Branko; Stanbury, David M.; Steenken, Steen; Wardman, Peter

    2015-12-01

    Recommendations are made for standard potentials involving select inorganic radicals in aqueous solution at 25 °C. These recommendations are based on a critical and thorough literature review and also by performing derivations from various literature reports. The recommended data are summarized in tables of standard potentials, Gibbs energies of formation, radical pKa’s, and hemicolligation equilibrium constants. In all cases, current best estimates of the uncertainties are provided. An extensive set of Data Sheets is appended that provide original literature references, summarize the experimental results, and describe the decisions and procedures leading to each of the recommendations

  10. Synthesis, Properties and Mineralogy of Important Inorganic Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Warner, Terence E

    2010-01-01

    Intended as a textbook for courses involving preparative solid-state chemistry, this book offers clear and detailed descriptions on how to prepare a selection of inorganic materials that exhibit important optical, magnetic and electrical properties, on a laboratory scale. The text covers a wide range of preparative methods and can be read as separate, independent chapters or as a unified coherent body of work. Discussions of various chemical systems reveal how the properties of a material can often be influenced by modifications to the preparative procedure, and vice versa. References to miner

  11. Inorganic salt mixtures as electrolyte media in fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angell, Charles Austen (Inventor); Belieres, Jean-Philippe (Inventor); Francis-Gervasio, Dominic (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Fuel cell designs and techniques for converting chemical energy into electrical energy uses a fuel cell are disclosed. The designs and techniques include an anode to receive fuel, a cathode to receive oxygen, and an electrolyte chamber in the fuel cell, including an electrolyte medium, where the electrolyte medium includes an inorganic salt mixture in the fuel cell. The salt mixture includes pre-determined quantities of at least two salts chosen from a group consisting of ammonium trifluoromethanesulfonate, ammonium trifluoroacetate, and ammonium nitrate, to conduct charge from the anode to the cathode. The fuel cell includes an electrical circuit operatively coupled to the fuel cell to transport electrons from the cathode.

  12. Optical Properties of Photovoltaic Organic-Inorganic Lead Halide Perovskites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Martin A; Jiang, Yajie; Soufiani, Arman Mahboubi; Ho-Baillie, Anita

    2015-12-01

    Over the last several years, organic-inorganic lead halide perovskites have rapidly emerged as a new photovoltaic contender. Although energy conversion efficiency above 20% has now been certified, improved understanding of the material properties contributing to these high performance levels may allow the progression to even higher efficiency, stable cells. The optical properties of these new materials are important not only to device design but also because of the insight they provide into less directly accessible properties, including energy-band structures, binding energies, and likely impact of excitons, as well as into absorption and inverse radiative recombination processes. PMID:26560862

  13. Simultaneous determination of inorganic and organic anions by ion chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Yang Soon; Joe, Ki Soo; Han, Sun Ho; Park, Soon Dal; Choi, Kwang Soon

    1999-06-01

    Four methods were investigated for the simultaneous determination of several inorganic and organic anions in aqueous solution by ion chromatography. The first is two columns coupled system. The second is the gradient elution system with an anion exchange column. The third is the system with a mixed-mode stationary phase. The fourth is the system with an anion exchange column and the eluant of low conductivity without ion suppressor. The advantages and disadvantages of individual systems were discussed. The suitable methods were proposed for the application to the samples of the nuclear power industry and the environment. (author)

  14. Organic/inorganic hybrid materials: challenges for ab initio methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draxl, Claudia; Nabok, Dmitrii; Hannewald, Karsten

    2014-11-18

    CONSPECTUS: Organic/inorganic hybrid structures are most exciting since one can expect new properties that are absent in either of their building blocks. They open new perspectives toward the design and tailoring of materials with desired features and functions. Prerequisite for real progress is, however, the in-depth understanding of what happens on the atomic and electronic scale. In this respect, hybrid materials pose a challenge for electronic-structure theory. Methods that proved useful for describing one side may not be applicable for the other one, and they are likely to fail for the interfaces. In this Account, we address the question to what extent we can quantitatively describe hybrid materials and where we even miss a qualitative description. We note that we are dealing with extended systems and thus adopt a solid-state approach. Therefore, density-functional theory (DFT) and many-body perturbation theory (MBPT), the GW approach for charged and the Bethe-Salpeter equation for neutral excitations, are our methods of choice. We give a brief summary of the used methodology, focusing on those aspects where problems can be expected when materials of different character meet at an interface. These issues are then taken up when discussing hybrid materials. We argue when and why, for example, standard DFT may fall short when it comes to the electronic structure of organic/metal interfaces or where the framework of MBPT can or must take over. Selected examples of organic/inorganic interfaces, structural properties, electronic bands, optical excitation spectra, and charge-transport properties as obtained from DFT and MBPT highlight which properties can be reliably computed for such materials. The crucial role of van der Waals forces is shown for sexiphenyl films, where the subtle interplay between intermolecular and molecule-substrate interactions is decisive for growth and morphologies. With a PTCDA monolayer on metal surfaces we discuss the performance of DFT in

  15. Inorganic arsenic impairs differentiation and functions of human dendritic cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macoch, Mélinda; Morzadec, Claudie [UMR INSERM U1085, Institut de Recherche sur la Santé, l' Environnement et le Travail (IRSET), Université de Rennes 1, 2 avenue du Professeur Léon Bernard, 35043 Rennes (France); Fardel, Olivier [UMR INSERM U1085, Institut de Recherche sur la Santé, l' Environnement et le Travail (IRSET), Université de Rennes 1, 2 avenue du Professeur Léon Bernard, 35043 Rennes (France); Pôle Biologie, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire (CHU) Rennes, 2 rue Henri Le Guilloux, 35033 Rennes (France); Vernhet, Laurent, E-mail: laurent.vernhet@univ-rennes1.fr [UMR INSERM U1085, Institut de Recherche sur la Santé, l' Environnement et le Travail (IRSET), Université de Rennes 1, 2 avenue du Professeur Léon Bernard, 35043 Rennes (France)

    2013-01-15

    Experimental studies have demonstrated that the antileukemic trivalent inorganic arsenic prevents the development of severe pro-inflammatory diseases mediated by excessive Th1 and Th17 cell responses. Differentiation of Th1 and Th17 subsets is mainly regulated by interleukins (ILs) secreted from dendritic cells (DCs) and the ability of inorganic arsenic to impair interferon-γ and IL-17 secretion by interfering with the physiology of DCs is unknown. In the present study, we demonstrate that high concentrations of sodium arsenite (As(III), 1–2 μM) clinically achievable in plasma of arsenic-treated patients, block differentiation of human peripheral blood monocytes into immature DCs (iDCs) by inducing their necrosis. Differentiation of monocytes in the presence of non-cytotoxic concentrations of As(III) (0.1 to 0.5 μM) only slightly impacts endocytotic activity of iDCs or expression of co-stimulatory molecules in cells activated with lipopolysaccharide. However, this differentiation in the presence of As(III) strongly represses secretion of IL-12p70 and IL-23, two major regulators of Th1 and Th17 activities, from iDCs stimulated with different toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists in metalloid-free medium. Such As(III)-exposed DCs also exhibit reduced mRNA levels of IL12A and/or IL12B genes when activated with TLR agonists. Finally, differentiation of monocytes with non-cytotoxic concentrations of As(III) subsequently reduces the ability of activated DCs to stimulate the release of interferon-γ and IL-17 from Th cells. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that clinically relevant concentrations of inorganic arsenic markedly impair in vitro differentiation and functions of DCs, which may contribute to the putative beneficial effects of the metalloid towards inflammatory autoimmune diseases. Highlights: ► Inorganic arsenic impairs differentiation and functions of human dendritic cells (DCs) ► Arsenite (> 1 μM) blocks differentiation of dendritic cells by

  16. Tetraalkylphosphonium polyoxometalate ionic liquids: novel, organic-inorganic hybrid materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickert, Paul G; Antonio, Mark R; Firestone, Millicent A; Kubatko, Karrie-Ann; Szreder, Tomasz; Wishart, James F; Dietz, Mark L

    2007-05-10

    Pairing of a Keggin or Lindqvist polyoxometalate (POM) anion with an appropriate tetraalkylphosphonium cation is shown to yield the first members of a new family of ionic liquids (ILs). Detailed characterization of one of them, an ambient-temperature "liquid POM" comprising the Lindqvist salt of the trihexyl(tetradecyl) phosphonium cation, by voltammetry, viscometry, conductimetry, and thermal analysis indicates that it exhibits conductivity and viscosity comparable to those of the one previously described inorganic-organic POM-IL hybrid but with substantially improved thermal stability.

  17. Folic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folic acid is a B vitamin. It helps the body make healthy new cells. Everyone needs folic acid. For women who may get pregnant, it is really important. Getting enough folic acid before and during pregnancy can prevent major birth ...

  18. An Experimental Method to Quantify Extractable Amino Acids in Soils from Southeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xian-you; WU Liang-huan; CAO Xiao-chuang; Sarkar Animesh; ZHU Yuan-hong

    2013-01-01

    The extraction and comparison of soil amino acids using different extractants (deionized water, K2SO4, Na2SO4, NaCl, KCl) were reported. Results showed that 0.5 mol L-1 K2SO4 with a 5 times extraction was a better method to assess the concentration of extractable amino acids in soils. The total amino acids extracted from soil planted for tea were similar to the total inorganic nitrogen. While they extracted from vegetable soil and paddy soil were much lower than the total inorganic nitrogen.

  19. Physicochemical investigations on the extraction mechanism of some elements and inorganic acids by quaternary ammonium salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The extraction of rare earth and transplutonium elements, Tl, Pb, Bi, and Po, and also of HNO3 and HCl, with chloroform solutions of cetylpyridinium salts solutions showed that the salts aggregate in chloroform solutions, forming micelles above a concentration of about 10-2M. Surface tension and surface potential measurements proved that cetylpyridinium nitrate is not transferred to HNO3 solutions in the extraction system, while cetylpyridinium chloride is transferred to ECl solutions. (author)

  20. Amino acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... amino acids are: histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan , and valine. Nonessential amino acids "Nonessential" means that our bodies produce an amino ...

  1. The use of chemistry for the synthesis of inorganic-organic hybrid materials

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Helmut K.

    1989-01-01

    The combination between inorganic and organic polymeric materials on nanometer scale depends strongly on methods for synthesizing inorganic polymeric networks suitable to the thermal stability of organic materials. The sol-gel process as a "soft-chemistry" method has been proved to be a proper tool for building up inorganic network with incorporated organic components. Examples for chemical synthesis and material applications are given.

  2. Inorganic and Hazardous Solid Waste Management: Current Status and Challenges for Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Aprilia, A.; Tezuka, T; Spaargaren, G.

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on household waste management in Indonesia, with particular emphasis on inorganic and hazardous waste. It seeks to identify the current situation and also aims to provide a review of the existing policies that are particularly related to inorganic and hazardous waste management. Kitchen waste is the highest fraction of household waste, followed by recyclable inorganic wastes such as plastic, paper and card board. The results suggest that the majority of householders dispo...

  3. Microvolumetric determination of inorganic and organic sulphur in airborne particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moehnle, K.; Krivan, V.; Grallath, E.

    1984-02-01

    A reductive procedure for the determination of sulphur was modified and applied to the analysis of airborne particles. It is based on the reduction of the given sulphur forms with the mixture HI/HCOOH/H/sub 3/PO/sub 2//Sb/sub 2/O/sub 3/ to hydrogen sulphide, which is transferred into a NaOH solution and determined by microtitration with Cd/sup 2 +/ using dithizone as indicator. Examination of the behaviour of the different sulphur forms in the reduction mixture showed that the inorganic sulphur was converted to H/sub 2/S whereas the organic remained in the reaction flask. This makes possible the differentiation between inorganic and organic sulphur when one part of the sample is directly reacted with the mixture and the other one is oxidatively decomposed (Schoeniger), and then the total sulphur determined with the same procedure. The method was used for the analysis of a number of airborne particle samples of different origin, and the results were compared with those of some instrumental techniques.

  4. Photophysics of Carbon Nanotubes Interfaced with Organic and Inorganic Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Levitsky, Igor A; Karachevtsev, Victor A

    2012-01-01

    Photophysics of Carbon Nanotubes Interfaced with Organic and Inorganic Materials describes physical, optical and spectroscopic properties of the emerging class of nanocomposites formed from carbon nanotubes (CNTs)  interfacing with organic and inorganic materials. The three main chapters detail novel trends in  photophysics related to the interaction of  light with various carbon nanotube composites from relatively simple CNT/small molecule assemblies to complex hybrids such as CNT/Si and CNT/DNA nanostructures.   The latest experimental results are followed up with detailed discussions and scientific and technological perspectives to provide a through coverage of major topics including: ·   Light harvesting, energy conversion, photoinduced charge separation  and transport  in CNT based nanohybrids · CNT/polymer composites exhibiting photoactuation; and ·         Optical  spectroscopy  and structure of CNT/DNA complexes. Including original data and a short review of recent research, Phot...

  5. Proceedings from the Workshop on Phytoremediation of Inorganic Contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Metals and Radionuclides Product Line of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area (SCFA) is responsible for the development of technologies and systems that reduce the risk and cost of remediation of radionuclide and hazardous metal contamination in soils and groundwater. The rapid and efficient remediation of these sites and the areas surrounding them represents a technological challenge. Phytoremediation, the use of living plants to cleanup contaminated soils, sediments, surface water and groundwater, is an emerging technology that may be applicable to the problem. The use of phytoremediation to cleanup organic contamination is widely accepted and is being implemented at numerous sites. This workshop was held to initiate a discussion in the scientific community about whether phytoremediation is applicable to inorganic contaminants, such as metals and radionuclides, across the DOE complex. The Workshop on Phytoremediation of Inorganic Contaminants was held at Argonne National Laboratory from November 30 through December 2, 1999. The purpose of the workshop was to provide SCFA and the DOE Environmental Restoration Program with an understanding of the status of phytoremediation as a potential remediation technology for DOE sites. The workshop was expected to identify data gaps, technologies ready for demonstration and deployment, and to provide a set of recommendations for the further development of these technologies

  6. Mean age distribution of inorganic soil-nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Dong K.; Kumar, Praveen

    2016-07-01

    Excess reactive nitrogen in soils of intensively managed landscapes causes adverse environmental impact, and continues to remain a global concern. Many novel strategies have been developed to provide better management practices and, yet, the problem remains unresolved. The objective of this study is to develop a model to characterize the "age" of inorganic soil-nitrogen (nitrate, and ammonia/ammonium). We use the general theory of age, which provides an assessment of the time elapsed since inorganic nitrogen has been introduced into the soil system. We analyze a corn-corn-soybean rotation, common in the Midwest United States, as an example application. We observe two counter-intuitive results: (1) the mean nitrogen age in the topsoil layer is relatively high; and (2) mean nitrogen age is lower under soybean cultivation compared to corn although no fertilizer is applied for soybean cultivation. The first result can be explained by cation-exchange of ammonium that retards the leaching of nitrogen, resulting in an increase in the mean nitrogen age near the soil surface. The second result arises because the soybean utilizes the nitrogen fertilizer left from the previous year, thereby removing the older nitrogen and reducing mean nitrogen age. Estimating the mean nitrogen age can thus serve as an important tool to disentangle complex nitrogen dynamics by providing a nuanced characterization of the time scales of soil-nitrogen transformation and transport processes.

  7. Cationic Organic/Inorganic Hybrids and Their Swelling Properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    E. S. Dragan; L. Ghimici; M. Cazacu

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1Introduction Specific properties of poly(dimethylsiloxanes), such as low glass transition temperature, low surface energy, good insulating properties, biological and chemical inertness, high diffusion coefficient of gases, make them very attractive for practical applications in the daily life. However, there is a great interest last time in the preparation of ionic organic/inorganic materials with new properties for new applications. Quaternary ammonium salt(QAS) groups included in siloxane copolymers could induce new interesting properties such as:permanent fungicidal and bactericidal properties, which make them very attractive as materials for sanitary applications, improved selectivity coefficients of the gas-separation membranes, ion-exchange properties and so forth. So far, QAS groups have been located in the side chain[1,2]. Our interest was focused on the preparation of some novel cationic polysiloxane copolymers containing QAS groups of both integral type and pendent type[3,4]. Our objectives for the present study concern the synthesis of some cationic organic/siloxane hybrid materials with swelling properties controlled by both the nature of cationic organic component and the ratio between the organic and inorganic counterparts. Such cationic hybrid materials could be of interest for the preparation of new stimuli-responsive hydrogels[5,6].

  8. MANOVA statistical analysis of inorganic compounds in groundwater Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanty, Heruna, E-mail: herunatanty@yahoo.com [Department of Mathematics, Bina Nusantara University, Jl. K.H. Syahdan No. 9 Palmerah, Jakarta Barat (Indonesia); Bekti, Rokhana Dwi, E-mail: groo-jgroo@yahoo.com [Department of Statistics, Bina Nusantara University, Jl. K.H. Syahdan No. 9 Palmerah, Jakarta Barat (Indonesia); Herlina, Tati, E-mail: tatat-04her@yahoo.com, E-mail: nurlelasari@unpad.ac.id; Nurlelasari, E-mail: tatat-04her@yahoo.com, E-mail: nurlelasari@unpad.ac.id [Department of Chemistry, University of Padjajaran, Jl. Raya Jatinangor-Sumedang km 21, Jatinangor 45363, Jawa Barat (Indonesia)

    2014-10-24

    The present study was carried out to determine levels of inorganic compounds contained in the ground water and Reverse Osmosis (RO) water filtration result. The data in groundwater samples was collected from Bekasi, Tangerang and Jakarta in Indonesia. A total of 30 samples were collected and analyzed for the determine Cadmium (Cd), Chromium (Cr), Manganese (Mn), Cyanide (CN) and Lead (Pb). The results of the study revealed that in groundwater, the average of Cd 0.0058 mg / l, Mn 1.5233 mg / l, Cr 0.0127 mg/l, Pb 0.0060 mg / l, and CN 0.0040 mg / l. The level of RO result were: Cd 0.0027 mg / l, Mn 0.1767 mg / l, Cr 0.0024 mg / l, Pb 0.0021 mg / l, and CN 0.0023 mg / l . This means that Cd and Mn in ground water were higher than the values recommended by PAK-EPA and WHO or the standard of Indonesian Ministry of Health. But after filtration Reverse Osmosis (RO) Mn and Cd levels decreased to levels below the standardized value. By comparing of mean in MANOVA and nonparametric MANOVA in α=5%, there are differences in average levels of inorganic substances Mn, Cr, Cd, Pb, and CN between before and after RO filtration.

  9. Proceedings from the Workshop on Phytoremediation of Inorganic Contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. T. Brown; G. Matthern; A. Glenn (INEEL); J. Kauffman (EnviroIssues); S. Rock (USEPA); M. Kuperberg (Florida State U); C. Ainsworth (PNNL); J. Waugh (Roy F. Weston Assoc.)

    2000-02-01

    The Metals and Radionuclides Product Line of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area (SCFA) is responsible for the development of technologies and systems that reduce the risk and cost of remediation of radionuclide and hazardous metal contamination in soils and groundwater. The rapid and efficient remediation of these sites and the areas surrounding them represents a technological challenge. Phytoremediation, the use of living plants to cleanup contaminated soils, sediments, surface water and groundwater, is an emerging technology that may be applicable to the problem. The use of phytoremediation to cleanup organic contamination is widely accepted and is being implemented at numerous sites. This workshop was held to initiate a discussion in the scientific community about whether phytoremediation is applicable to inorganic contaminants, such as metals and radionuclides, across the DOE complex. The Workshop on Phytoremediation of Inorganic Contaminants was held at Argonne National Laboratory from November 30 through December 2, 1999. The purpose of the workshop was to provide SCFA and the DOE Environmental Restoration Program with an understanding of the status of phytoremediation as a potential remediation technology for DOE sites. The workshop was expected to identify data gaps, technologies ready for demonstration and deployment, and to provide a set of recommendations for the further development of these technologies.

  10. Characterization of Nanoreinforcement Dispersion in Inorganic Nanocomposites: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nouari Saheb

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Metal and ceramic matrix composites have been developed to enhance the stiffness and strength of metals and alloys, and improve the toughness of monolithic ceramics, respectively. It is possible to further improve their properties by using nanoreinforcement, which led to the development of metal and ceramic matrix nanocomposites, in which case, the dimension of the reinforcement is on the order of nanometer, typically less than 100 nm. However, in many cases, the properties measured experimentally remain far from those estimated theoretically. This is mainly due to the fact that the properties of nanocomposites depend not only on the properties of the individual constituents, i.e., the matrix and reinforcement as well as the interface between them, but also on the extent of nanoreinforcement dispersion. Therefore, obtaining a uniform dispersion of the nanoreinforcement in the matrix remains a key issue in the development of nanocomposites with the desired properties. The issue of nanoreinforcement dispersion was not fully addressed in review papers dedicated to processing, characterization, and properties of inorganic nanocomposites. In addition, characterization of nanoparticles dispersion, reported in literature, remains largely qualitative. The objective of this review is to provide a comprehensive description of characterization techniques used to evaluate the extent of nanoreinforcement dispersion in inorganic nanocomposites and critically review published work. Moreover, methodologies and techniques used to characterize reinforcement dispersion in conventional composites, which may be used for quantitative characterization of nanoreinforcement dispersion in nanocomposites, is also presented.

  11. Attenuation contrast between biomolecular and inorganic materials at terahertz frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, T. L. J.; Bjarnason, J. E.; Lee, A. W. M.; Celis, M. A.; Brown, E. R.

    2004-09-01

    Wideband photomixing spectroscopy is used in the present work to contrast the transmission spectra of macromolecules commonly found in biomaterials such as potato starch, wheat flour and cornstarch, and proteins (Cytoplex™), and micromolecules such as sucrose, and inorganic materials such as sodium bicarbonate, and calcium sulfate. Powdered samples were measured at 0.1-0.5THz frequencies. A significant difference in attenuation is found between these samples. At 300GHz starch shows an absorption coefficient of ˜6cm-1 whereas Cytoplex shows 1-3cm-1, while inorganic micromolecules have ˜1cm-1. The absorption in starch increases rapidly with frequency tending to follow a power law α =fn with n typically between 1.5 and 2.0. In contrast, protein materials display a slower dependence on frequency with n between 1.0 and 1.5, and simple molecules show the least n among all three categories. The difference between these ubiquitous macromolecular and micromolecular materials is explained in terms of water content and molecular structure.

  12. Lithium-ion transport in inorganic solid state electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Gao; Yu-Sheng, Zhao; Si-Qi, Shi; Hong, Li

    2016-01-01

    An overview of ion transport in lithium-ion inorganic solid state electrolytes is presented, aimed at exploring and designing better electrolyte materials. Ionic conductivity is one of the most important indices of the performance of inorganic solid state electrolytes. The general definition of solid state electrolytes is presented in terms of their role in a working cell (to convey ions while isolate electrons), and the history of solid electrolyte development is briefly summarized. Ways of using the available theoretical models and experimental methods to characterize lithium-ion transport in solid state electrolytes are systematically introduced. Then the various factors that affect ionic conductivity are itemized, including mainly structural disorder, composite materials and interface effects between a solid electrolyte and an electrode. Finally, strategies for future material systems, for synthesis and characterization methods, and for theory and calculation are proposed, aiming to help accelerate the design and development of new solid electrolytes. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51372228), the Shanghai Pujiang Program, China (Grant No. 14PJ1403900), and the Shanghai Institute of Materials Genome from the Shanghai Municipal Science and Technology Commission, China (Grant No. 14DZ2261200).

  13. Behaviour of inorganic matter during heating of Bulgarian coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vassileva, Christina G.; Vassilev, Stanislav V. [Central Laboratory of Mineralogy and Crystallography, Acad. G. Bonchev Str., Bl. 107, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia 1113 (Bulgaria)

    2006-12-15

    Bulgarian subbituminous (Pernik, Bobov Dol) and bituminous (Balkan) coals were gradually heated under air from 100 {sup o}C to their fluid ash-fusion temperatures (1400-1600 {sup o}C) via 100 {sup o}C intervals and the behaviour of their inorganic matter (IM) was studied. The original minerals and newly formed inorganic phases in the oxidation and combustion products (OCPs) of these coals were identified and the behaviour of 33 minerals and phases was described. The coals studied reveal high detrital abundance and low authigenic mineralization with sulphide-sulphate, carbonate or mixed sulphide-sulphate and carbonate tendencies. The IM of coals is composed mainly of quartz, kaolinite, illite+muscovite, feldspars, pyrite, and calcite, while the other minerals identified have subordinate occurrence. The IM of OCPs includes various pre-existing minerals and newly formed phases. The latter phases are glass, quartz-cristobalite-tridymite, mullite, amorphous clay material, hematite-magnetite, anhydrite, and others originating from the heating of these coals or storage of their OCPs. The physico-chemical processes and temperatures that result in the formation of new phases in OCPs are described. The relationships between the ash-fusion behaviour and chemical and mineral composition of the coals are also discussed. A systematization of the physico-chemical transformations and some comparative characterizations, as well as prediction of certain technological and environmental problems related to the behaviour of IM during heating of Bulgarian lignites, subbituminous and bituminous coals are also described and summarized. (author)

  14. Laser Crystallization of Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Taewoo; Jin, Hyeong Min; Lee, Seung Hyun; Lee, Ju Min; Park, Hyung Il; Kim, Mi Kyung; Lee, Keon Jae; Shin, Byungha; Kim, Sang Ouk

    2016-08-23

    Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites attract enormous research interest for next generation solar energy harvest. Synergistic crystalline structures comprising organic and inorganic components enable solution processing of perovskite films. A reliable crystallization method for perovskites, compatible with fast continuous process over large-area flexible substrates, is crucial for high performance solar cell production. Here, we present laser crystallization of hybrid perovskite solar cells using near-infrared (NIR) laser (λ = 1064 nm). Crystalline morphology of CH3NH3PbI3 (MAPbI3) perovskite films are widely controllable with laser irradiation condition while maintaining film uniformity. Photothermal heating effectively assisted by interfacial photoconversion layers is critical for phase transformation without beam damage of multilayered device structures. Notably, laser crystallization attains higher device performances than conventional thermal annealing. Fast laser crystallization with manufacture level scan rate (1 m min(-1)) demonstrates inverted-type perovskite solar cells with 11.3 and 8.0% efficiencies on typical glass and flexible polymer substrates, respectively, without rigorous device optimization. PMID:27377145

  15. Spatial and temporal variability of inorganic chlorine in Northwestern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommariva, R.; Hollis, L. D. J.; Baker, A. R.; Ball, S. M.; Bell, T. G.; Cordell, R. L.; Fleming, Z.; Gaget, M.; Yang, M. X.; Monks, P. S.

    2015-12-01

    Chlorine is well known to be a strong oxidant in the atmosphere;chlorine reactivity impacts the formation of tropospheric ozone, theoxidation of methane and non-methane hydrocarbons, and the cycling ofnitrogen, sulphur and mercury. An accurate assessment of the roleplayed by chlorine in tropospheric chemical processes is complicatedby the scarce knowledge of its sources, sinks and distribution.We report observations of inorganic chlorine species (Cl2, ClNO2,particulate chloride) taken over the period 2014-2015 at threedifferent locations in Britain: an urban site a hundred kilometersfrom the ocean (Leicester), a coastal site mostly affected by shiptraffic (Penlee Point, Cornwall) and a coastal site experiencingeither clean air from the North Sea or polluted air from inland(Weybourne, Norfolk).This dataset provides a first look into the geographical distributionand seasonal variability of chlorine in Northwestern Europe: theresults suggest that, during the night, ClNO2 is ubiquitous withconcentrations in the range of hundreds to thousands of pptV at alllocations, whereas Cl2 can be observed only at coastal sites, withconcentrations of a few tens of pptV. The implications of thewidespread presence of these forms of inorganic chlorine for ozoneproduction and, in general, for the oxidative processes in the loweratmosphere are discussed with the help of a wide range of supportingmeasurements.

  16. A Humidity Sensing Organic-Inorganic Composite for Environmental Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khasan S. Karimov

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present the effect of varying humidity levels on the electrical parameters and the multi frequency response of the electrical parameters of an organic-inorganic composite (PEPC+NiPc+Cu2O-based humidity sensor. Silver thin films (thickness ~200 nm were primarily deposited on plasma cleaned glass substrates by the physical vapor deposition (PVD technique. A pair of rectangular silver electrodes was formed by patterning silver film through standard optical lithography technique. An active layer of organic-inorganic composite for humidity sensing was later spun coated to cover the separation between the silver electrodes. The electrical characterization of the sensor was performed as a function of relative humidity levels and frequency of the AC input signal. The sensor showed reversible changes in its capacitance with variations in humidity level. The maximum sensitivity ~31.6 pF/%RH at 100 Hz in capacitive mode of operation has been attained. The aim of this study was to increase the sensitivity of the previously reported humidity sensors using PEPC and NiPc, which has been successfully achieved.

  17. Inorganic treatments for the consolidation and protection of stone artefacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Matteini

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Consolidation and protection are two of the principal kinds of treatments through which the decay of old statues, stone facades, plasters and mural paintings caused by both natural atmospheric agents and, above all in the last five decades, by atmospheric pollution, is faced. The most traditional approach has been and is mainly based on the use of organic polymeric materials. They offer the advantage of easy application procedures and the possibility to obtain, at short times, very satisfying results. Different is their behaviour at long times. Some drawbacks come out over time both under the esthetical point of view as well as to the durability, compatibility and efficacy. Particularly critical is the situation when porous materials and soluble salts - gypsum above all - are simultaneously present. In such a situation inorganic treatments demonstrate to be much more appropriate. They assure durable and compatible results. In the present paper two of the most efficient and appropriate inorganic methods are reviewed in detail: the barium hydroxide method, both as desulfating and consolidating agent, and the ammonium oxalate method as passivating agent, consolidant and as a treatment capable of improving the natural colour contrast of the stone, when it is lost due to decay processes.

  18. Laser Crystallization of Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Taewoo; Jin, Hyeong Min; Lee, Seung Hyun; Lee, Ju Min; Park, Hyung Il; Kim, Mi Kyung; Lee, Keon Jae; Shin, Byungha; Kim, Sang Ouk

    2016-08-23

    Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites attract enormous research interest for next generation solar energy harvest. Synergistic crystalline structures comprising organic and inorganic components enable solution processing of perovskite films. A reliable crystallization method for perovskites, compatible with fast continuous process over large-area flexible substrates, is crucial for high performance solar cell production. Here, we present laser crystallization of hybrid perovskite solar cells using near-infrared (NIR) laser (λ = 1064 nm). Crystalline morphology of CH3NH3PbI3 (MAPbI3) perovskite films are widely controllable with laser irradiation condition while maintaining film uniformity. Photothermal heating effectively assisted by interfacial photoconversion layers is critical for phase transformation without beam damage of multilayered device structures. Notably, laser crystallization attains higher device performances than conventional thermal annealing. Fast laser crystallization with manufacture level scan rate (1 m min(-1)) demonstrates inverted-type perovskite solar cells with 11.3 and 8.0% efficiencies on typical glass and flexible polymer substrates, respectively, without rigorous device optimization.

  19. Proceedings of the Alfred O. Nier symposium on inorganic mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over 100 inorganic mass spectroscopists, including representatives from 9 different countries, attended. This proceedings contains 12 papers, 11 abstracts, and 38 poster abstracts; an author index is included

  20. New polymer lithium secondary batteries based on ORMOCER (R) electrolytes-inorganic-organic polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Popall, M.; Buestrich, R.; Semrau, G.;

    2001-01-01

    Based on new plasticized inorganic-organic polymer electrolytes CM. Popall, M. Andrei, J. Kappel, J. Kron, K. Olma, B. Olsowski,'ORMOCERs as Inorganic-organic Electrolytes for New Solid State Lithium Batteries and Supercapacitors', Electrochim. Acta 43 (1998) 1155] new flexible foil-batteries in ......Based on new plasticized inorganic-organic polymer electrolytes CM. Popall, M. Andrei, J. Kappel, J. Kron, K. Olma, B. Olsowski,'ORMOCERs as Inorganic-organic Electrolytes for New Solid State Lithium Batteries and Supercapacitors', Electrochim. Acta 43 (1998) 1155] new flexible foil...

  1. Inorganic sulfur reduces the motility and invasion of MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jin Joo; Ha, Ae Wha; Kim, Hee Sun; Kim, Woo Kyoung

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of inorganic sulfur on metastasis in MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells. MDA-MB-231 cells were cultured in the absence or presence of various concentrations (12.5, 25, or 50 µmol/L) of inorganic sulfur. Cell motility, invasion, and the activity and mRNA expression of matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) were examined. Numbers of viable MDA-MB-231 cells did not differ by inorganic sulfur treatment from 0 to 50 µmol/L within 48 h. Inorganic sulfur significantly d...

  2. Organic-inorganic hybrid membranes in separation processes: a 10-year review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. C. Souza

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In relation to some inorganic membranes, polymeric membranes have relatively low separation performance. However, the processing flexibility and low cost of polymers still make them highly attractive for many industrial separation applications. Polymer-inorganic hybrid membranes constitute an emerging research field and have been recently developed to improve the separation properties of polymer membranes because they possess properties of both organic and inorganic membranes such as good hydrophilicity, selectivity, permeability, mechanical strength, and thermal and chemical stability. The structures and processing of polymer-inorganic nanocomposite hybrid membranes, as well as their use in the fields of ultrafiltration, nanofiltration, pervaporation, gas separation and separation mechanism are reviewed.

  3. Release of Inorganic Elements during Wood Combustion. Release to the Gas Phase of Inorganic Elements during: Wood Combustion. Part 1: Development and Evaluation of Quantification Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Lith, Simone Cornelia; Alonso-Ramírez, Violeta; Jensen, Peter Arendt;

    2006-01-01

    and particulate matter. The aim of this study is to obtain quantitative data on the release of inorganic elements during wood combustion, which will serve as input data for models aiming to address ash-related problems. Three quantification methods were developed. In all three methods, the release of inorganic...... elements was quantified by a mass balance based on the weights and inorganic compositions of the fuel and the ash residues obtained by high-temperature (500-1150 C) treatment in a laboratory-scale tube reactor. However, method A involved the pyrolysis and combustion of a small fuel sample (~30 g...

  4. Metal-free inorganic ligands for colloidal nanocrystals: S2-, HS-, Se2-, HSe-, Te2-, HTe-, TeS3(2-), OH-, and NH2- as surface ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nag, Angshuman; Kovalenko, Maksym V; Lee, Jong-Soo; Liu, Wenyong; Spokoyny, Boris; Talapin, Dmitri V

    2011-07-13

    All-inorganic colloidal nanocrystals were synthesized by replacing organic capping ligands on chemically synthesized nanocrystals with metal-free inorganic ions such as S(2-), HS(-), Se(2-), HSe(-), Te(2-), HTe(-), TeS(3)(2-), OH(-) and NH(2)(-). These simple ligands adhered to the NC surface and provided colloidal stability in polar solvents. The versatility of such ligand exchange has been demonstrated for various semiconductor and metal nanocrystals of different size and shape. We showed that the key aspects of Pearson's hard and soft acids and bases (HSAB) principle, originally developed for metal coordination compounds, can be applied to the bonding of molecular species to the nanocrystal surface. The use of small inorganic ligands instead of traditional ligands with long hydrocarbon tails facilitated the charge transport between individual nanocrystals and opened up interesting opportunities for device integration of colloidal nanostructures.

  5. Carbon uptake in low dissolved inorganic carbon environments: the effect of limited carbon availability on photosynthetic organisms in thermal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, K. D.; Omelon, C. R.; Bennett, P.

    2010-12-01

    Photosynthesis is the primary carbon fixation process in thermal waters below 70°C, but some hydrothermal waters have extremely low dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), potentially limiting the growth of inorganic carbon fixing organisms such as algae and cyanobacteria. To address the issue of how carbon is assimilated by phototrophs in these environments, we conducted experiments to compare inorganic carbon uptake mechanisms by two phylogenetically distinct organisms collected from geographically distinct carbon limited systems: the neutral pH geothermal waters of El Tatio, Chile, and the acidic geothermal waters of Tantalus Creek in Norris Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park. Discharge waters at El Tatio have low total DIC concentrations (2 to 6 ppm) found mainly as HCO3-; this is in contrast to even lower measured DIC values in Tantalus Creek (as low as 0.13 ppm) that, due to a measured pH of 2.5, exists primarily as CO2. Cyanobacteria and algae are innately physiologically plastic, and we are looking to explore the possibility that carbon limitation in these environments is extreme enough to challenge that plasticity and lead to a suite of carbon uptake adaptations. We hypothesize that these microorganisms utilize adaptive modes of Ci uptake that allow them to survive under these limiting conditions. Cyanobacteria (primarily Synechococcus spp.) isolated from El Tatio can utilize either passive CO2 uptake or active HCO3- uptake mechanisms, in contrast to the eukaryotic alga Cyanidium spp. from Tantalus Creek, which is restricted to an energy-dependent CO2 uptake mechanism. To test this hypothesis, we conducted pH drift experiments (Omelon et al., 2008) to examine changes in pH and [DIC] under a range of pH and [DIC] culture conditions. This work provides baseline information upon which we will begin to investigate the effects of low [DIC] on the growth of phototrophs collected from these and other less carbon limited systems.

  6. Sensitive determination of total particulate phosphorus and particulate inorganic phosphorus in seawater using liquid waveguide spectrophotometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehama, Makoto; Hashihama, Fuminori; Kinouchi, Shinko; Kanda, Jota; Saito, Hiroaki

    2016-06-01

    Determining the total particulate phosphorus (TPP) and particulate inorganic phosphorus (PIP) in oligotrophic oceanic water generally requires the filtration of a large amount of water sample. This paper describes methods that require small filtration volumes for determining the TPP and PIP concentrations. The methods were devised by validating or improving conventional sample processing and by applying highly sensitive liquid waveguide spectrophotometry to the measurements of oxidized or acid-extracted phosphate from TPP and PIP, respectively. The oxidation of TPP was performed by a chemical wet oxidation method using 3% potassium persulfate. The acid extraction of PIP was initially carried out based on the conventional extraction methodology, which requires 1M HCl, followed by the procedure for decreasing acidity. While the conventional procedure for acid removal requires a ten-fold dilution of the 1M HCl extract with purified water, the improved procedure proposed in this study uses 8M NaOH solution for neutralizing 1M HCl extract in order to reduce the dilution effect. An experiment for comparing the absorbances of the phosphate standard dissolved in 0.1M HCl and of that dissolved in a neutralized solution [1M HCl: 8M NaOH=8:1 (v:v)] exhibited a higher absorbance in the neutralized solution. This indicated that the improved procedure completely removed the acid effect, which reduces the sensitivity of the phosphate measurement. Application to an ultraoligotrophic water sample showed that the TPP concentration in a 1075mL-filtered sample was 8.4nM with a coefficient of variation (CV) of 4.3% and the PIP concentration in a 2300mL-filtered sample was 1.3nM with a CV of 6.1%. Based on the detection limit (3nM) of the sensitive phosphate measurement and the ambient TPP and PIP concentrations of the ultraoligotrophic water, the minimum filtration volumes required for the detection of TPP and PIP were estimated to be 15 and 52mL, respectively. PMID:27130091

  7. The Inorganic Illustrator: A 3-D Graphical Supplement for Inorganic and Bioinorganic Chemistry Courses Distributed on CD-ROM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs, Scott L.; Hagen, Karl S.

    1996-10-01

    The visualization of molecular and solid state chemical structures in three dimensions is a particularly difficult problem for students to overcome when the primary means of communication is the two-dimensional world of textbooks, blackboards, and overhead projector screens. Recent editions of popular textbooks in organic, inorganic, and biochemistry have included stereoviews of molecules to aid the student, and stereoviews of crystal structures have been used in inorganic chemistry publications for many years. These are powerful aids for visualizing complex molecules, but with the exception of the biochemistry text mentioned above, they are limited to single, static images generally in black and white. Molecular model kits are routinely used very effectively in organic chemistry but their utility in inorganic chemistry is limited to all but the most simple molecules encountered. Now that personal computers are generally accessible and multimedia tools are starting to make an appearance in chemistry lecture halls (1), we can make our inorganic and bioinorganic chemistry and crystallography lectures come alive with the aid of the computer-based resources, which are the essence of this project. As part of this project we are accumulating a database of representative crystal structures of main group molecules, coordination complexes, organometallic compounds, small metalloproteins, bioinorganic model complexes, clusters, and solid state materials in Chem3D Plus format to be viewed with Chem3D Viewer, which is free software from Cambridge Scientific Computing. We are also generating a library of high-quality graphic images of these same molecules and structures using Cerius2 package from Molecular Simulations. These include polyhedral representations of clusters and solid state structures (see Fig. 1). Figure 1. Representation of the user interface: the title page and an example of polyhedral and ball-and-stick representation of an octanuclear iron-oxo cluster. The

  8. Lack of Control in Inorganic Phosphate Uptake by Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don Cells (Cytoplasmic Inorganic Phosphate Homeostasis Depends on the Tonoplast Inorganic Phosphate Transport System?).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakano, K.; Yazaki, Y.; Okihara, K.; Mimura, T.; Kiyota, S.

    1995-01-01

    Inorganic phosphate (Pi) uptake by Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don cells was studied in relation to its apparent uncontrolled uptake using 31P-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Kinetics of Pi uptake by the cells indicated that apparent Km and Vm were about 7 [mu]M and 20 [mu]mol g-1 fresh weight h-1, respectively. Pi uptake in Murashige-Skoog medium under different Pi concentrations and different initial cell densities followed basically the same kinetics. When supplied with abundant Pi, cells absorbed Pi at a constant rate (Vm) for the first hours and accumulated it in the vacuole. As the endogenous pool expanded, the rate of Pi uptake gradually decreased to nil. Maximum Pi accumulation was 100 to 120 [mu]mol g-1 fresh weight if cell swelling during Pi uptake (about 2-fold in cell volume) was not considered. Results indicated that (a) the rate of Pi uptake by Catharanthus cells was independent of initial cell density and was constant over a wide range of Pi concentrations (2 mM to about 10 [mu]M) unless the cells were preloaded with excess Pi, and (b) there was no apparent feedback control over the Pi uptake process in the plasma membrane to avoid Pi toxicity. The importance of the tonoplast Pi transport system in cytoplasmic Pi homeostasis is discussed. PMID:12228474

  9. Biomolecule mediating synthesis of inorganic nanoparticles and their applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zengyan

    Project 1. The conventional phage display technique focuses on screening peptide sequences that can bind on target substrates, however the selected peptides are not necessary to nucleate and mediate the growth of the target inorganic crystals, and in many cases they only show moderate affinity to the targets. Here we report a novel phage display approach that can directly screen peptides catalytically growing inorganic nanoparticles in aqueous solution at room temperature. In this study, the phage library is incubated with zinc precursor at room temperature. Among random peptide sequences displayed on phages, those phages that can grow zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles are selected with centrifugation. After several rounds of selection, the peptide sequences displayed on the phage viruses are analyzed by DNA sequencing. Our screening protocol provide a simple and convenient route for the discovery of catalytic peptides that can grow inorganic nanoparticles at room temperature. This novel screening protocol can extend the method on finding a wide range of new catalysts. Project 2. Genetically engineered collagen peptides are assembled into freestanding films when quantum dots (QDs) are co-assembled as joints between collagen domains. These peptide-based films show excellent mechanical properties with Young's modulus of 20 GPa, much larger than most of the multi-composite polymer films and previously reported freestanding nanoparticle-assembled sheets, and it is even close to that reported for the bone tissue in nature. These films show little permanent deformation under small indentation while the mechanical hysteresis becomes remarkable when the load approaches near and beyond the rupture point, which is also characteristic of the bone tissue. Project 3. The shape-controlled synthesis of nanoparticles have been established in single-phase solutions by controlling growth directions of crystalline facets on seed nanocrystals kinetically; however, it is difficult to

  10. Probing the tropical tropopause layer for organic and inorganic bromine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Bodo; Pfeilsticker, Klaus; Atlas, Elliot; Cheung, Ross; Chipperfield, Martyn; Colosimo, Fedele; Deutschmann, Tim; Elkins, Jim; Fahey, David; Feng, Wu; Festa, James; Gao, Ru-Shan; Hossaini, Ryan; Navarro, Maria; Raecke, Rasmus; Scalone, Lisa; Spolaor, Max; Thornberry, Troy; Tsai, Catalina; Stutz, Jochen

    2016-04-01

    Bromine chemistry impacts the levels of ozone in the upper troposphere and the stratosphere. An accurate quantitative understanding of the sources, sinks, and chemical transformation of bromine species is thus important to understand the photochemistry and budget of bromine in the tropical upper troposphere, tropopause layer and lowermost stratosphere (UT/TTL/LS). These regions are also known to serve as a gateway for delivery of ozone depleting gases to the stratosphere. CH3Br, halons, short-lived organic bromine precursors (VSLS), such as CHBr3, CH2Br2, and possibly inorganic product gases have been identified as the main bromine gases delivered to the stratosphere. However, many important details of the transport and delivery of VSLS and inorganic bromine compounds through the TTL are still uncertain. Moreover, a number of chemical processes, including the transformation of the source gases and cycling of inorganic bromine species at low ambient temperature and on ice particles are also poorly understood. The presentation reports measurements of CH4, O3, NO2, and BrO performed by different instruments and techniques during the 2013 NASA-ATTREX flights in the TTL and LS. The interpretation of our measurements is supported by chemical transport model (SLIMCAT) simulations. SLIMCAT results, in conjunction with extensive radiative transfer calculations using the Monte Carlo model McArtim, also are used to improve retrieval of O3, NO2, and BrO concentrations from limb scattered sunlight measurements made with the Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) technique during ATTREX. The chemical transport model also allows us to attribute observed concentration variations to transport and to photochemical processes. When properly accounting for the transport-related concentration variations in methane and ozone, we find that measured BrO mostly agrees with model simulations. An exception are regions where the contribution of the short-lived CH2Br2 or the

  11. Bony fish and their contribution to marine inorganic carbon cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salter, Michael; Perry, Chris; Wilson, Rod; Harborne, Alistair

    2016-04-01

    Conventional understanding of the marine inorganic carbon cycle holds that CaCO3 (mostly as low Mg-calcite and aragonite) precipitates in the upper reaches of the ocean and sinks to a point where it either dissolves or is deposited as sediment. Thus, it plays a key role controlling the distribution of DIC in the oceans and in regulating their capacity to absorb atmospheric CO2. However, several aspects of this cycle remain poorly understood and have long perplexed oceanographers, such as the positive alkalinity anomaly observed in the upper water column of many of the world's oceans, above the aragonite and calcite saturation horizons. This anomaly would be explained by extensive dissolution of a carbonate phase more soluble than low Mg-calcite or aragonite, but major sources for such phases remain elusive. Here we highlight marine bony fish as a potentially important primary source of this 'missing' high-solubility CaCO3. Precipitation of CaCO3 takes place within the intestines of all marine bony fish as part of their normal physiological functioning, and global production models suggest it could account for up to 45 % of total new marine CaCO3 production. Moreover, high Mg-calcite containing >25 % mol% MgCO3 - a more soluble phase than aragonite - is a major component of these precipitates. Thus, fish CaCO3 may at least partially explain the alkalinity anomaly in the upper water column. However, the issue is complicated by the fact that carbonate mineralogy actually varies among fish species, with high Mg-calcite (HMC), low Mg-calcite (LMC), aragonite, and amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) all being common products. Using data from 22 Caribbean fish species, we have generated a novel production model that resolves phase proportions. We evaluate the preservation/dissolution potential of these phases and consider potential implications for marine inorganic carbon cycling. In addition, we consider the dramatic changes in fish biomass structure that have resulted

  12. Seasonal and diurnal characteristics of water soluble inorganic compounds in the gas and aerosol phase in the Zurich area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Fisseha

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Gas and aerosol samples were taken using a wet effluent diffusion denuder/aerosol collector (WEDD/AC coupled to ion chromatography (IC in the city of Zurich, Switzerland from August to September 2002 and in March 2003. Major water soluble inorganic ions; nitrate, sulfate, and nitrite were analyzed online with a time resolution of two hours for the gas and aerosol phase. The fraction of water soluble inorganic anions in PM10 varied from 15% in August to about 38% in March. Seasonal and diurnal variations of nitrate in the gas and aerosol phase were observed with more than 50% of the total nitrate in the gas phase during August and more than 80% of nitrate in the aerosol phase during March exceeding the concentration of sulfate by a factor of 2. Aerosol sulfate, on the other hand, did not show significant variability with season. However, in the gas phase, the SO2 concentration was 6.5 times higher in winter than in summer. Nitrous acid (HONO also showed a diurnal variation in both the gas and aerosol phase with the lowest concentration (0.2–0.6 µg/m3 in the afternoon. The primary pollutants, NO, CO and SO2 mixing ratios were often at their highest between 04:00–10:00 local time due to the build up of fresh vehicle emission under a nocturnal inversion.

  13. Impact of organic and inorganic fertilizers application on the phytochemical and antioxidant activity of Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Benth).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mohd Hafiz; Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Karimi, Ehsan; Ghasemzadeh, Ali

    2013-09-05

    A study was conducted to compare secondary metabolites and antioxidant activity of Labisia pumila Benth (Kacip Fatimah) in response to two sources of fertilizer [i.e., organic (chicken dung; 10% N:10% P₂O₅:10% K₂O) and inorganic fertilizer (NPK green; 15% N, 15% P₂O₅, 15% K₂O)] under different N rates of 0, 90, 180 and 270 kg N/ha. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design replicated three times. At the end of 15 weeks, it was observed that the application of organic fertilizer enhanced the production of total phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, saponin and gluthathione content in L. pumila, compared to the use of inorganic fertilizer. The nitrate content was also reduced under organic fertilization. The application of nitrogen at 90 kg N/ha improved the production of secondary metabolites in Labisia pumila. Higher rates in excess of 90 kg N/ha reduced the level of secondary metabolites and antioxidant activity of this herb. The DPPH and FRAP activity was also highest at 90 kg N/ha. The results indicated that the use of chicken dung can enhance the production of secondary metabolites and improve antioxidant activity of this herb.

  14. Density-Functional Theory with Screened van der Waals Interactions for the Modeling of Hybrid Inorganic/Organic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Victor G.; Liu, Wei; Zojer, Egbert; Scheffler, Matthias; Tkatchenko, Alexandre

    2012-02-01

    The electronic properties and the function of hybrid inorganic/organic systems (HIOS) are intimately linked to their geometry, with van der Waals (vdW) interactions playing an essential role for the latter. Here we show that the inclusion of the many--body collective response of the substrate electrons inside the inorganic bulk enables us to reliably predict the HIOS geometries and energies. Specifically, dispersion-corrected density-functional theory (the DFT+vdW approach) [PRL 102, 073005 (2009)], is combined with the Lifshitz-Zaremba-Kohn theory [PRB 13, 2270 (1976)] for the non--local Coulomb screening within the bulk. Our method (DFT+vdW^surf ) includes both image-plane and interface polarization effects. We show that DFT+vdW^surf yields geometries in remarkable agreement ( 0.1 å) with normal incidence x-ray standing wave measurements for the 3,4,9,10--perylene--tetracarboxylic acid dianhydride (C24H8O6, PTCDA) molecule on Cu(111), Ag(111), and Au(111). Similarly accurate results are obtained for xenon and benzene adsorbed on metal surfaces.

  15. Density-Functional Theory with Screened van der Waals Interactions for the Modeling of Hybrid Inorganic-Organic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Victor G.; Liu, Wei; Zojer, Egbert; Scheffler, Matthias; Tkatchenko, Alexandre

    2012-04-01

    The electronic properties and the function of hybrid inorganic-organic systems (HIOS) are intimately linked to their interface geometry. Here we show that the inclusion of the many-body collective response of the substrate electrons inside the inorganic bulk enables us to reliably predict the HIOS geometries and energies. This is achieved by the combination of dispersion-corrected density-functional theory (the DFT+ van der Waals approach) [Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 073005 (2009)PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.102.073005], with the Lifshitz-Zaremba-Kohn theory for the nonlocal Coulomb screening within the bulk. Our method yields geometries in remarkable agreement (≈0.1Å) with normal incidence x-ray standing wave measurements for the 3, 4, 9, 10-perylene-tetracarboxylic acid dianhydride (C24O6H8, PTCDA) molecule on Cu(111), Ag(111), and Au(111) surfaces. Similarly accurate results are obtained for xenon and benzene adsorbed on metal surfaces.

  16. A novel method to detect unlabeled inorganic nanoparticles and submicron particles in tissue by sedimentation field-flow fractionation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yost Garold S

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A novel methodology to detect unlabeled inorganic nanoparticles was experimentally demonstrated using a mixture of nano-sized (70 nm and submicron (250 nm silicon dioxide particles added to mammalian tissue. The size and concentration of environmentally relevant inorganic particles in a tissue sample can be determined by a procedure consisting of matrix digestion, particle recovery by centrifugation, size separation by sedimentation field-flow fractionation (SdFFF, and detection by light scattering. Background Laboratory nanoparticles that have been labeled by fluorescence, radioactivity, or rare elements have provided important information regarding nanoparticle uptake and translocation, but most nanomaterials that are commercially produced for industrial and consumer applications do not contain a specific label. Methods Both nitric acid digestion and enzyme digestion were tested with liver and lung tissue as well as with cultured cells. Tissue processing with a mixture of protease enzymes is preferred because it is applicable to a wide range of particle compositions. Samples were visualized via fluorescence microscopy and transmission electron microscopy to validate the SdFFF results. We describe in detail the tissue preparation procedures and discuss method sensitivity compared to reported levels of nanoparticles in vivo. Conclusion Tissue digestion and SdFFF complement existing techniques by precisely identifying unlabeled metal oxide nanoparticles and unambiguously distinguishing nanoparticles (diameter

  17. Influence of inorganic anions and organic additives on photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange with supported polyoxometalates as photocatalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yajun; LU Kecheng; FENG Changgen

    2013-01-01

    A novel supported polyoxometalate (POM),phosphotungstic acid immobilized into yttrium-doped TiO2 (HPW-Y-TiO2)nano photocatalyst was prepared via sol-gel and impregnation method.The samples were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR),X-ray diffraction (XRD) and N2 absorption-desorption analysis.The results showed that the supported POM exhibited Keggin structure and anatase phase with large BET surface area.The influences of inorganic anions and organic additives on the photocatalytic degradation of azo dye methyl orange with HPW-Y-TiO2 as photocatalyst under UV light (λ≥365 um)were investigated.Results showed that inorganic anions Cl-,SO42-,CO32-and NO3-had inhibition effect on the degradation of methyl orange.A great enhancement of degradation rate was obtained while H2O2 and ethyl alcohol were applied.The degradation rates improved with the increase of H2O2 concentration.The optimum additive amount of ethyl alcohol was 0.5 mol/L.The possible mechanisms of the effects of additives on methyl orange degradation were discussed.

  18. Cultivation of freshwater microalga Scenedesmus sp. using a low-cost inorganic fertilizer for enhanced biomass and lipid yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Manoranjan; Thirunavoukkarasu, Manikkannan; Mohanty, Rama C

    2016-01-01

    The potential of an inorganic fertilizer as an alternative nutrient source for the cultivation of Scenedesmus sp. IMMTCC-6 was investigated. With a preliminary study at a shake-flask scale, the microalgae cultivation was scaled up in a photobioreactor containing an inorganic fertilizer medium. Microalgae cultured in a shake flask containing 0.1 g L(-1) of urea and 1.0 g L(-1) of NPK (Nitrogen: Phosphorus: Potassium) fertilizers showed a promising result in biomass productivity. During the scale-up study in a photobioreactor the specific growth rate (μ d(-1)), biomass yield (g L(-1)), and total biomass productivity (mg L(-1) d(-1)), was found to be 0.265, 1.19 and 66.1, respectively. The lipid yield (%) as per dry cell weight (DCW) and lipid productivity (mg L(-1) d(-1)) was found to be a maximum of 28.55 and 18.87, respectively, in a stationary phase of the microalgae growth. The fatty acids methyl ester profile was proven to be desirable for biodiesel production. PMID:26923125

  19. Impact of Organic and Inorganic Fertilizers Application on the Phytochemical and Antioxidant Activity of Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Benth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Karimi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to compare secondary metabolites and antioxidant activity of Labisia pumila Benth (Kacip Fatimah in response to two sources of fertilizer [i.e., organic (chicken dung; 10% N:10% P2O5:10% K2O and inorganic fertilizer (NPK green; 15% N, 15% P2O5, 15% K2O] under different N rates of 0, 90, 180 and 270 kg N/ha. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design replicated three times. At the end of 15 weeks, it was observed that the application of organic fertilizer enhanced the production of total phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, saponin and gluthathione content in L. pumila, compared to the use of inorganic fertilizer. The nitrate content was also reduced under organic fertilization. The application of nitrogen at 90 kg N/ha improved the production of secondary metabolites in Labisia pumila. Higher rates in excess of 90 kg N/ha reduced the level of secondary metabolites and antioxidant activity of this herb. The DPPH and FRAP activity was also highest at 90 kg N/ha. The results indicated that the use of chicken dung can enhance the production of secondary metabolites and improve antioxidant activity of this herb.

  20. Impact of organic and inorganic fertilizers application on the phytochemical and antioxidant activity of Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Benth).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mohd Hafiz; Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Karimi, Ehsan; Ghasemzadeh, Ali

    2013-01-01

    A study was conducted to compare secondary metabolites and antioxidant activity of Labisia pumila Benth (Kacip Fatimah) in response to two sources of fertilizer [i.e., organic (chicken dung; 10% N:10% P₂O₅:10% K₂O) and inorganic fertilizer (NPK green; 15% N, 15% P₂O₅, 15% K₂O)] under different N rates of 0, 90, 180 and 270 kg N/ha. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design replicated three times. At the end of 15 weeks, it was observed that the application of organic fertilizer enhanced the production of total phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, saponin and gluthathione content in L. pumila, compared to the use of inorganic fertilizer. The nitrate content was also reduced under organic fertilization. The application of nitrogen at 90 kg N/ha improved the production of secondary metabolites in Labisia pumila. Higher rates in excess of 90 kg N/ha reduced the level of secondary metabolites and antioxidant activity of this herb. The DPPH and FRAP activity was also highest at 90 kg N/ha. The results indicated that the use of chicken dung can enhance the production of secondary metabolites and improve antioxidant activity of this herb. PMID:24013410