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Sample records for acids improves lipid

  1. Chlorogenic acid from honeysuckle improves hepatic lipid dysregulation and modulates hepatic fatty acid composition in rats with chronic endotoxin infusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yan; Ruan, Zheng; Wen, Yanmei; Yang, Yuhui; Mi, Shumei; Zhou, Lili; Wu, Xin; Ding, Sheng; Deng, Zeyuan; Wu, Guoyao; Yin, Yulong

    2016-03-01

    Chlorogenic acid as a natural hydroxycinnamic acid has protective effect for liver. Endotoxin induced metabolic disorder, such as lipid dysregulation and hyperlipidemia. In this study, we investigated the effect of chlorogenic acid in rats with chronic endotoxin infusion. The Sprague-Dawley rats with lipid metabolic disorder (LD group) were intraperitoneally injected endotoxin. And the rats of chlorogenic acid-LD group were daily received chlorogenic acid by intragastric administration. In chlorogenic acid-LD group, the area of visceral adipocyte was decreased and liver injury was ameliorated, as compared to LD group. In chlorogenic acid-LD group, serum triglycerides, free fatty acids, hepatic triglycerides and cholesterol were decreased, the proportion of C20:1, C24:1 and C18:3n-6, Δ9-18 and Δ6-desaturase activity index in the liver were decreased, and the proportion of C18:3n-3 acid was increased, compared to the LD group. Moreover, levels of phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase, carnitine palmitoyltransferase-I, and fatty acid β-oxidation were increased in chlorogenic acid-LD group compared to LD rats, whereas levels of fatty acid synthase and acetyl-CoA carboxylase were decreased. These findings demonstrate that chlorogenic acid effectively improves hepatic lipid dysregulation in rats by regulating fatty acid metabolism enzymes, stimulating AMP-activated protein kinase activation, and modulating levels of hepatic fatty acids.

  2. Chlorogenic acid from honeysuckle improves hepatic lipid dysregulation and modulates hepatic fatty acid composition in rats with chronic endotoxin infusion

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Chlorogenic acid as a natural hydroxycinnamic acid has protective effect for liver. Endotoxin induced metabolic disorder, such as lipid dysregulation and hyperlipidemia. In this study, we investigated the effect of chlorogenic acid in rats with chronic endotoxin infusion. The Sprague-Dawley rats with lipid metabolic disorder (LD group) were intraperitoneally injected endotoxin. And the rats of chlorogenic acid-LD group were daily received chlorogenic acid by intragastric administration. In ch...

  3. Salicylic Acid and Calcium Treatments Improves Wheat Vigor, Lipids and Phenolics Under High Salinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yücel Candan, Nilgün; Heybet Elif, Haklı

    2016-12-01

    Seed vigor is a complex physiological trait required to ensure the rapid and uniform emergence of plants in the field under different environmental conditions. Therefore, salicylic acid (SA, 0.5 mM) and calcium (Ca2+, 50 mM) priming were used as exogenous growth enhancers to stimulate wheat (Triticum durum Desf. cv. Yelken) seed vigor under high salinity. The main aim was to address whether priming of wheat with SA, Ca2+ and SA+Ca (SA, 0.5 mM + Ca2+, 50 mM; their combination) could bring about supplementary agronomic benefits particularly under stressful environments such as salinity. Exogenous application of SA or Ca2+ alone improved plant behavior in the presence of salinity stress. Nevertheless, the best results in terms of growth, seed vigor and total phenolic - flavonoids, chlorophyll - carotenoids contents and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), ascorbic acide oxidase (AAO) activities and lipid peroxidation levels (LPO) were obtained in response to the combined SA+Ca treatment.

  4. Serum bile acids are higher in humans with prior gastric bypass: potential contribution to improved glucose and lipid metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patti, Mary-Elizabeth; Houten, Sander M; Bianco, Antonio C;

    2009-01-01

    .02) and peak glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) (r = 0.58, P lipid metabolism in patients......The multifactorial mechanisms promoting weight loss and improved metabolism following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (GB) surgery remain incompletely understood. Recent rodent studies suggest that bile acids can mediate energy homeostasis by activating the G-protein coupled receptor TGR5 and the type 2...... thyroid hormone deiodinase. Altered gastrointestinal anatomy following GB could affect enterohepatic recirculation of bile acids. We assessed whether circulating bile acid concentrations differ in patients who previously underwent GB, which might then contribute to improved metabolic homeostasis. We...

  5. Improved insulin loading in poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) nanoparticles upon self-assembly with lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Díaz, María; Foged, Camilla; Nielsen, Hanne Mørck

    2015-03-30

    Polymeric nanoparticles are widely investigated as drug delivery systems for oral administration. However, the hydrophobic nature of many polymers hampers effective loading of the particles with hydrophilic macromolecules such as insulin. Thus, the aim of this work was to improve the loading of insulin into poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) nanoparticles by pre-assembly with amphiphilic lipids. Insulin was complexed with soybean phosphatidylcholine or sodium caprate by self-assembly and subsequently loaded into PLGA nanoparticles by using the double emulsion-solvent evaporation technique. The nanoparticles were characterized in terms of size, zeta potential, insulin encapsulation efficiency and loading capacity. Upon pre-assembly with lipids, there was an increased distribution of insulin into the organic phase of the emulsion, eventually resulting in significantly enhanced encapsulation efficiencies (90% as compared to 24% in the absence of lipids). Importantly, the insulin loading capacity was increased up to 20% by using the lipid-insulin complexes. The results further showed that a main fraction of the lipid was incorporated into the nanoparticles and remained associated to the polymer during release studies in buffers, whereas insulin was released in a non-complexed form as a burst of approximately 80% of the loaded insulin. In conclusion, the protein load in PLGA nanoparticles can be significantly increased by employing self-assembled protein-lipid complexes.

  6. Minor amounts of plasma medium-chain fatty acids and no improved time trial performance after consuming lipids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vistisen, Bodil; Nybo, L.; Xu, Xuebing;

    2003-01-01

    % of maximum 02 uptake during which they ingested CHO or CHO plus specific structured triacylglycerols. Immediately after the constant-load cycling, the subjects performed a time trial of similar to50-min duration. Breath and blood samples were obtained regularly during the experiment. Fatty acid composition...... of plasma triacylglycerols, fatty acids, and phospholipids was determined. Performance was similar after administration of CHO plus specific structured triacylglycerol [medium-, long-, and medium-chain fatty acid (MLM)] compared with CHO (50.0 +/- 1.8 and 50.8 +/- 3.6 min, respectively). No plasma 8......:0 was detected in the plasma lipid classes, but the amount of phospholipid fatty acids was significantly higher after CHO+MLM compared with CHO intake. The lacking time trial improvement after intake of medium-chain fatty acids might be due to no available 8:0 in the systemic circulation. A higher level...

  7. Glycyrrhizic acid improved lipoprotein lipase expression, insulin sensitivity, serum lipid and lipid deposition in high-fat diet-induced obese rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eu Chia

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The metabolic syndrome, known also as the insulin resistance syndrome, refers to the clustering of several risk factors for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Dyslipidaemia is a hallmark of the syndrome and is associated with a whole body reduction in the activity of lipoprotein lipase (LPL, an enzyme under the regulation of the class of nuclear receptors known as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR. Glycyrrhizic acid (GA, a triterpenoid saponin, is the primary bioactive constituent of the roots of the shrub Glycyrrhiza glabra. Studies have indicated that triterpenoids could act as PPAR agonists and GA is therefore postulated to restore LPL expression in the insulin resistant state. Results Oral administration of 100 mg/kg of GA to high-fat diet-induced obese rats for 28 days led to significant reduction in blood glucose concentration and improvement in insulin sensitivity as indicated by the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR (p Conclusion In conclusion, GA may be a potential compound in improving dyslipidaemia by selectively inducing LPL expression in non-hepatic tissues. Such up-regulation was accompanied by a GA-mediated improvement in insulin sensitivity, which may be associated with a decrease in tissue lipid deposition. The HDL-raising effect of GA suggests the antiatherosclerotic properties of GA.

  8. Improved insulin loading in poly (lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) nanoparticles upon self-assembly with lipids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia Diaz, Maria; Foged, Camilla; Nielsen, Hanne Mørck

    2015-01-01

    of insulin into poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) nanoparticles by pre-assembly with amphiphilic lipids. Insulin was complexed with soybean phosphatidylcholine or sodium caprate by self-assembly and subsequently loaded into PLGA nanoparticles by using the double emulsion-solvent evaporation technique...... efficiencies (90% as compared to 24% in the absence of lipids). Importantly, the insulin loading capacity was increased up to 20% by using the lipid–insulin complexes. The results further showed that a main fraction of the lipid was incorporated into the nanoparticles and remained associated to the polymer...... during release studies in buffers, whereas insulin was released in a non-complexed form as a burst of approximately 80% of the loaded insulin. In conclusion, the protein load in PLGA nanoparticles can be significantly increased by employing self-assembled protein-lipid complexes....

  9. Improved cellular activity of antisense peptide nucleic acids by conjugation to a cationic peptide-lipid (CatLip) domain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koppelhus, Uffe; Shiraishi, Takehiko; Zachar, Vladimir;

    2008-01-01

    Conjugation to cationic cell penetrating peptides (such as Tat, Penetratin, or oligo arginines) efficiently improves the cellular uptake of large hydrophilic molecules such as oligonucleotides and peptide nucleic acids, but the cellular uptake is predominantly via an unproductive endosomal pathwa...

  10. Transglycosylated Starch Improves Insulin Response and Alters Lipid and Amino Acid Metabolome in a Growing Pig Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Monica A.; Zebeli, Qendrim; Eberspächer, Eva; Grüll, Dietmar; Molnar, Timea; Metzler-Zebeli, Barbara U.

    2017-01-01

    Due to the functional properties and physiological effects often associated with chemically modified starches, significant interest lies in their development for incorporation in processed foods. This study investigated the effect of transglycosylated cornstarch (TGS) on blood glucose, insulin, and serum metabolome in the pre- and postprandial phase in growing pigs. Eight jugular vein-catheterized barrows were fed two diets containing 72% purified starch (waxy cornstarch (CON) or TGS). A meal tolerance test (MTT) was performed with serial blood sampling for glucose, insulin, lipids, and metabolome profiling. TGS-fed pigs had reduced postprandial insulin (p pigs. The MTT showed increased (p pigs compared to CON, indicative of increased protein catabolism. Metabolome profiling showed reduced (p dietary treatment, alkyl-acyl-phosphatidylcholines and sphingomyelins were generally increased (p pigs compared to CON. In conclusion, TGS led to changes in postprandial insulin and glucose metabolism, which may have caused the alterations in serum amino acid and phospholipid metabolome profiles. PMID:28300770

  11. Introduction to fatty acids and lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdge, Graham C; Calder, Philip C

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the structure, function and metabolism of fatty acids and lipids that are of particular importance in the context of parenteral nutrition. Lipids are a heterogeneous group of molecules that share the common property of hydrophobicity. Lipids range in structure from simple short hydrocarbon chains to more complex molecules, including triacylglycerols, phospholipids and sterols and their esters. Lipids within each class may differ structurally. Fatty acids are common components of complex lipids, and these differ according to chain length and the presence, number and position of double bonds in the hydrocarbon chain. Structural variation among complex lipids and among fatty acids gives rise to functional differences that result in different impacts upon metabolism and upon cell and tissue responses. Fatty acids and complex lipids exhibit a variety of structural variations that influence their metabolism and their functional effects.

  12. Performance of structured lipids incorporating selected phenolic and ascorbic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruczynska, Eliza; Przybylski, Roman; Aladedunye, Felix

    2015-04-15

    Conditions applied during frying require antioxidant which is stable at these conditions and provides protection for frying oil and fried food. Novel structured lipids containing nutraceuticals and antioxidants were formed by enzymatic transesterification, exploring canola oil and naturally occurring antioxidants such as ascorbic and selected phenolic acids as substrates. Lipozyme RM IM lipase from Rhizomucor miehei was used as biocatalyst. Frying performance and oxidative stability of the final transesterification products were evaluated. The novel lipids showed significantly improved frying performance compared to canola oil. Oxidative stability assessment of the structured lipids showed significant improvement in resistance to oxidative deterioration compared to original canola oil. Interestingly, the presence of ascorbic acid in an acylglycerol structure protected α-tocopherol against thermal degradation, which was not observed for the phenolic acids. Developed structured lipids containing nutraceuticals and antioxidants may directly affect nutritional properties of lipids also offering nutraceutical ingredients for food formulation.

  13. Enhancement of energy production by black ginger extract containing polymethoxy flavonoids in myocytes through improving glucose, lactic acid and lipid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toda, Kazuya; Takeda, Shogo; Hitoe, Shoketsu; Nakamura, Seikou; Matsuda, Hisashi; Shimoda, Hiroshi

    2016-04-01

    Enhancement of muscular energy production is thought to improve locomotive functions and prevent metabolic syndromes including diabetes and lipidemia. Black ginger (Kaempferia parviflora) has been cultivated for traditional medicine in Thailand. Recent studies have shown that black ginger extract (KPE) activated brown adipocytes and lipolysis in white adipose tissue, which may cure obesity-related dysfunction of lipid metabolism. However, the effect of KPE on glucose and lipid utilization in muscle cells has not been examined yet. Hence, we evaluated the effect of KPE and its constituents on energy metabolism in pre-differentiated (p) and differentiated (d) C2C12 myoblasts. KPE (0.1-10 μg/ml) was added to pC2C12 cells in the differentiation process for a week or used to treat dC2C12 cells for 24 h. After culturing, parameters of glucose and lipid metabolism and mitochondrial biogenesis were assessed. In terms of the results, KPE enhanced the uptake of 2-deoxyglucose and lactic acid as well as the mRNA expression of glucose transporter (GLUT) 4 and monocarboxylate transporter (MCT) 1 in both types of cells. The expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator (PGC)-1α was enhanced in pC2C12 cells. In addition, KPE enhanced the production of ATP and mitochondrial biogenesis. Polymethoxy flavonoids in KPE including 5-hydroxy-7-methoxyflavone, 5-hydroxy-3,7,4'-trimethoxyflavone and 5,7-dimethoxyflavone enhanced the expression of GLUT4 and PGC-1α. Moreover, KPE and 5,7-dimethoxyflavone enhanced the phosphorylation of 5'AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). In conclusion, KPE and its polymethoxy flavonoids were found to enhance energy metabolism in myocytes. KPE may improve the dysfunction of muscle metabolism that leads to metabolic syndrome and locomotive dysfunction.

  14. Specially-Made Lipid-Based Assemblies for Improving Transmembrane Gene Delivery: Comparison of Basic Amino Acid Residue Rich Periphery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Qian; Yue, Dong; Nie, Yu; Xu, Xianghui; He, Yiyan; Zhang, Shiyong; Wagner, Ernst; Gu, Zhongwei

    2016-06-06

    Cationic lipid based assemblies provide a promising platform for effective gene condensation into nanosized particles, and the peripheral properties of the assemblies are vital for complexation and interaction with physical barriers. Here, we report three cationic twin head lipids, and each of them contains a dioleoyl-glutamate hydrophobic tail and a twin polar head of lysine, arginine, or histidine. Such lipids were proven to self-assemble in aqueous solution with well-defined nanostructures and residual amino-, guanidine-, or imidazole-rich periphery, showing strong buffering capacity and good liquidity. The assemblies with arginine (RL) or lysine (KL) periphery exhibited positive charges (∼+35 mV) and complete condensation of pDNA into nanosized complexes (∼120 nm). In contrast, assemblies composed of histidine-rich lipids (HL) showed relatively low cationic electric potential (∼+10 mV) and poor DNA binding ability. As expected, the designed RL assemblies with guanidine-rich periphery enhanced the in vitro gene transfection up to 190-fold as compared with the golden standard PEI25k and Lipofectamine 2000, especially in the presence of serum. Meanwhile, interaction with cell and endo/lysosome membrane also revealed the superiority of RL complexes, that the guanidine-rich surface efficiently promoted transmembrane process in cellular internalization and endosomal disruption. More importantly, RL complexes also succeeded beyond others in vivo with significantly (∼7-fold) enhanced expression in HepG2 tumor xenografts in mice, as well as stronger green fluorescence protein imaging in isolated tumors and tumor frozen sections.

  15. LipidFrag: Improving reliability of in silico fragmentation of lipids and application to the Caenorhabditis elegans lipidome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Steffen; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    Lipid identification is a major bottleneck in high-throughput lipidomics studies. However, tools for the analysis of lipid tandem MS spectra are rather limited. While the comparison against spectra in reference libraries is one of the preferred methods, these libraries are far from being complete. In order to improve identification rates, the in silico fragmentation tool MetFrag was combined with Lipid Maps and lipid-class specific classifiers which calculate probabilities for lipid class assignments. The resulting LipidFrag workflow was trained and evaluated on different commercially available lipid standard materials, measured with data dependent UPLC-Q-ToF-MS/MS acquisition. The automatic analysis was compared against manual MS/MS spectra interpretation. With the lipid class specific models, identification of the true positives was improved especially for cases where candidate lipids from different lipid classes had similar MetFrag scores by removing up to 56% of false positive results. This LipidFrag approach was then applied to MS/MS spectra of lipid extracts of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Fragments explained by LipidFrag match known fragmentation pathways, e.g., neutral losses of lipid headgroups and fatty acid side chain fragments. Based on prediction models trained on standard lipid materials, high probabilities for correct annotations were achieved, which makes LipidFrag a good choice for automated lipid data analysis and reliability testing of lipid identifications. PMID:28278196

  16. Binary lipids-based nanostructured lipid carriers for improved oral bioavailability of silymarin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shangguan, Mingzhu; Lu, Yi; Qi, Jianping; Han, Jin; Tian, Zhiqiang; Xie, Yunchang; Hu, Fuqiang; Yuan, Hailong; Wu, Wei

    2014-02-01

    The main purpose of this study was to prepare binary lipids-based nanostructured lipid carriers to improve the oral bioavailability of silymarin, a poorly water-soluble liver protectant. Silymarin-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers were prepared by the method of high-pressure homogenization with glycerol distearates (Precirol ATO-5) and oleic acid as the solid and liquid lipids, respectively, and lecithin (Lipoid E 100) and Tween-80 as the emulsifiers. The silymarin-nanostructured lipid carrier prepared under optimum conditions was spherical in shape with mean particle size of ∼78.87 nm, entrapment efficiency of 87.55%, loading capacity of 8.32%, and zeta potential of -65.3 mV, respectively. In vitro release of silymarin-nanostructured lipid carriers was very limited even after 12 h, while in vitro lipolysis showed fast digestion of nanostructured lipid carriers within 1 h. Relative oral bioavailability of silymarin-nanostructured lipid carriers in Beagle dogs was 2.54- and 3.10-fold that of marketed Legalon® and silymarin solid dispersion pellets, respectively. It was concluded that nanostructured lipid carriers were potential drug delivery systems to improve the bioavailability of silymarin. Other than improved dissolution, alternative mechanisms such as facilitated absorption as well as lymphatic transport may contribute to bioavailability enhancement.

  17. Lipid fatty acid profile analyses in liver and serum in rats with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis using improved gas chromatography-mass spectrometry methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatty acids (FA) are essential components of lipids and exhibit important biological functions. The analyses of FAs are routinely carried out by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, after multi-step sample preparation. In this study, several key experimental factors were carefully examined, validat...

  18. Improvement of Neutral Lipid and Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Biosynthesis by Overexpressing a Type 2 Diacylglycerol Acyltransferase in Marine Diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Fang Niu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae have been emerging as an important source for the production of bioactive compounds. Marine diatoms can store high amounts of lipid and grow quite quickly. However, the genetic and biochemical characteristics of fatty acid biosynthesis in diatoms remain unclear. Glycerophospholipids are integral as structural and functional components of cellular membranes, as well as precursors of various lipid mediators. In addition, diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT is a key enzyme that catalyzes the last step of triacylglyceride (TAG biosynthesis. However, a comprehensive sequence-structure and functional analysis of DGAT in diatoms is lacking. In this study, an isoform of diacylglycerol acyltransferase type 2 of the marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum was characterized. Surprisingly, DGAT2 overexpression in P. tricornutum stimulated more oil bodies, and the neutral lipid content increased by 35%. The fatty acid composition showed a significant increase in the proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids; in particular, EPA was increased by 76.2%. Moreover, the growth rate of transgenic microalgae remained similar, thereby maintaining a high biomass. Our results suggest that increased DGAT2 expression could alter fatty acid profile in the diatom, and the results thus represent a valuable strategy for polyunsaturated fatty acid production by genetic manipulation.

  19. Formation of ion pairing as an alternative to improve encapsulation and anticancer activity of all-trans retinoic acid loaded in solid lipid nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carneiro G

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Guilherme Carneiro,1 Elton Luiz Silva,1 Layssa Alves Pacheco,1 Elaine Maria de Souza-Fagundes,2 Natássia Caroline Resende Corrêa,3 Alfredo Miranda de Goes,3 Mônica Cristina de Oliveira,1 Lucas Antônio Miranda Ferreira11Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil; 2Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Institute of Biological Sciences, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil; 3Department of Biochemistry and Immunology, Institute of Biological Sciences, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, BrazilAbstract: This work aims to develop solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs loaded with retinoic acid (RA to evaluate the influence of two lipophilic amines, stearylamine (SA and benethamine (BA, and one hydrophilic, triethylamine (TA, on drug-encapsulation efficiency (EE and cytotoxicity in cancer cell lines. The SLNs were characterized for EE, size, and zeta potential. The mean particle size decreased from 155 ± 1 nm (SLNs without amine to 104 ± 4, 95 ± 1, and 96 ± 1 nm for SLNs prepared with SA, BA, and TA, respectively. SA-RA-loaded SLNs resulted in positively charged particles, whereas those with TA and BA were negatively charged. The EEs were significantly improved with the addition of the amines, and they increased from 36% ± 6% (without amine to 97% ± 2%, 90% ± 2%, and 100% ± 1% for SA, TA, and BA, respectively. However, stability studies showed higher EE for BA-RA-loaded SLNs than TA-RA-loaded SLNs after 30 days. The formulations containing SA loaded or unloaded (blank SLNs with RA were cytotoxic in normal and cancer cell lines. In contrast, the blank SLNs containing TA or BA did not show cytotoxicity in human breast adenocarcinoma cells (MCF-7, while RA-loaded SLNs with the respective amines were significantly more cytotoxic than free RA. Furthermore, the cytotoxicity of BA-RA-loaded SLNs was significantly higher than TA-RA-loaded SLNs. These

  20. Ascorbic acid improves the antioxidant activity of European grape juices by improving the juices' ability to inhibit lipid peroxidation of human LDL in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landbo, Anne-Katrine Regel; Meyer, Anne Boye Strunge

    2001-01-01

    .96, P ascorbic acid alone did not exert antioxidant activity towards LDL, but combinations of 5 muM ascorbic acid with 5 muM GAE juice phenols eliminated the prooxidant activity of white grape juice, and significantly...

  1. Design of foods with bioactive lipids for improved health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bingcan; McClements, David Julian; Decker, Eric Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies have found an association between the consumption of certain bioactive lipids and improved human health, e.g., the prevention, delay, or treatment of chronic and acute diseases, such as cancer, cardiovascular disease (CVD), osteoporosis, and immune disorders. In this review, we discuss food-based sources and potential beneficial attributes of major dietary bioactive lipids: polyunsaturated fatty acids; carotenoids; phytosterols and phytostanols; and fat-soluble vitamins. We summarize the various challenges associated with incorporating these bioactive lipids into foods and beverages, such as poor water solubility, high melting point, and low chemical stability. Finally, we propose several techniques that have been used to solve the challenges and integrate dietary bioactive lipids into foods for improved health.

  2. Perfluorooctanoic acid rigidifies a model lipid membrane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brüning, B.A.; Farago, B.

    2014-01-01

    We report a combined dynamic light scattering and neutron spin-echo (NSE) study on vesicles composed of the phospholipid 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine under the influence of varying amounts of perfluorooctanoic acid. We study local lipid bilayer undulations using NSE on time scale

  3. Phytic Acid Inhibits Lipid Peroxidation In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja Zajdel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytic acid (PA has been recognized as a potent antioxidant and inhibitor of iron-catalyzed hydroxyl radical formation under in vitro and in vivo conditions. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate, with the use of HPLC/MS/MS, whether PA is capable of inhibiting linoleic acid autoxidation and Fe(II/ascorbate-induced peroxidation, as well as Fe(II/ascorbate-induced lipid peroxidation in human colonic epithelial cells. PA at 100 μM and 500 μM effectively inhibited the decay of linoleic acid, both in the absence and presence of Fe(II/ascorbate. The observed inhibitory effect of PA on Fe(II/ascorbate-induced lipid peroxidation was lower (10–20% compared to that of autoxidation. PA did not change linoleic acid hydroperoxides concentration levels after 24 hours of Fe(II/ascorbate-induced peroxidation. In the absence of Fe(II/ascorbate, PA at 100 μM and 500 μM significantly suppressed decomposition of linoleic acid hydroperoxides. Moreover, PA at the tested nontoxic concentrations (100 μM and 500 μM significantly decreased 4-hydroxyalkenal levels in Caco-2 cells which structurally and functionally resemble the small intestinal epithelium. It is concluded that PA inhibits linoleic acid oxidation and reduces the formation of 4-hydroxyalkenals. Acting as an antioxidant it may help to prevent intestinal diseases induced by oxygen radicals and lipid peroxidation products.

  4. Phytic acid inhibits lipid peroxidation in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajdel, Alicja; Wilczok, Adam; Węglarz, Ludmiła; Dzierżewicz, Zofia

    2013-01-01

    Phytic acid (PA) has been recognized as a potent antioxidant and inhibitor of iron-catalyzed hydroxyl radical formation under in vitro and in vivo conditions. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate, with the use of HPLC/MS/MS, whether PA is capable of inhibiting linoleic acid autoxidation and Fe(II)/ascorbate-induced peroxidation, as well as Fe(II)/ascorbate-induced lipid peroxidation in human colonic epithelial cells. PA at 100 μM and 500 μM effectively inhibited the decay of linoleic acid, both in the absence and presence of Fe(II)/ascorbate. The observed inhibitory effect of PA on Fe(II)/ascorbate-induced lipid peroxidation was lower (10-20%) compared to that of autoxidation. PA did not change linoleic acid hydroperoxides concentration levels after 24 hours of Fe(II)/ascorbate-induced peroxidation. In the absence of Fe(II)/ascorbate, PA at 100 μM and 500 μM significantly suppressed decomposition of linoleic acid hydroperoxides. Moreover, PA at the tested nontoxic concentrations (100 μM and 500 μM) significantly decreased 4-hydroxyalkenal levels in Caco-2 cells which structurally and functionally resemble the small intestinal epithelium. It is concluded that PA inhibits linoleic acid oxidation and reduces the formation of 4-hydroxyalkenals. Acting as an antioxidant it may help to prevent intestinal diseases induced by oxygen radicals and lipid peroxidation products.

  5. Phytic Acid Inhibits Lipid Peroxidation In Vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Alicja Zajdel; Adam Wilczok; Ludmiła Węglarz; Zofia Dzierżewicz

    2013-01-01

    Phytic acid (PA) has been recognized as a potent antioxidant and inhibitor of iron-catalyzed hydroxyl radical formation under in vitro and in vivo conditions. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate, with the use of HPLC/MS/MS, whether PA is capable of inhibiting linoleic acid autoxidation and Fe(II)/ascorbate-induced peroxidation, as well as Fe(II)/ascorbate-induced lipid peroxidation in human colonic epithelial cells. PA at 100 μM and 500 μM effectively inhibited the deca...

  6. Manipulation of carbon flux into fatty acid biosynthesis pathway in Dunaliella salina using AccD and ME genes to enhance lipid content and to improve produced biodiesel quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Farhad Talebi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Advanced generations of biofuels basically revolve around non-agricultural energy crops. Among those, microalgae owing to its unique characteristics i.e. natural tolerance to waste and saline water, sustainable biomass production and high lipid content (LC, is regarded by many as the ultimate choice for the production of various biofuels such as biodiesel. In the present study, manipulation of carbon flux into fatty acid biosynthesis pathway in Dunaliella salina was achieved using pGH plasmid harboring AccD and ME genes to enhance lipid content and to improve produced biodiesel quality. The stability of transformation was confirmed by PCR after several passages. Southern hybridization of AccD probe with genomic DNA revealed stable integration of the cassette in the specific positions in the chloroplast genome with no read through transcription by indigenous promoters. Comparison of the LC and fatty acid profile of the transformed algal cell line and the control revealed the over-expression of the ME/AccD genes in the transformants leading to 12% increase in total LC and significant improvements in biodiesel properties especially by increasing algal oil oxidation stability. The whole process successfully implemented herein for transforming algal cells by genes involved in lipid production pathway could be helpful for large scale biodiesel production from microalgae.

  7. Marine lipids and the bioavailability of omega-3 fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mu, Huiling; Müllertz, Anette

    2015-01-01

    Marine lipids are enriched with omega-3 fatty acids, especially eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Omega-3 fatty acids are important membrane lipids and have many recognized health benefits, the bioavailability of these fatty acids can therefore be important for achieving...... of omega-3 fatty acids has been reported to be affected by several factors; among the important factors were the digestion and absorption processes of omega-3 containing lipids in the gastrointestinal tract. Both lipid structures and food structures can affect the bioavailability of omega-3 fatty acids....... Human studies have shown that the relative bioavailability of omega-3 fatty acids from fish oil (triglyceride formulation) was similar to that from fish, whereas lower relative bioavailability was observed from fatty acid ethyl ester (FAEE) formulation in comparison with other lipid formulations...

  8. Dietary Salba (Salvia hispanica L) seed rich in α-linolenic acid improves adipose tissue dysfunction and the altered skeletal muscle glucose and lipid metabolism in dyslipidemic insulin-resistant rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, M E; Ferreira, M R; Chicco, A; Lombardo, Y B

    2013-10-01

    This work reports the effect of dietary Salba (chia) seed rich in n-3 α-linolenic acid on the morphological and metabolic aspects involved in adipose tissue dysfunction and the mechanisms underlying the impaired glucose and lipid metabolism in the skeletal muscle of rats fed a sucrose-rich diet (SRD). Rats were fed a SRD for 3 months. Thereafter, half the rats continued with SRD while in the other half, corn oil (CO) was replaced by chia seed for 3 months (SRD+chia). In control group, corn starch replaced sucrose. The replacement of CO by chia seed in the SRD reduced adipocyte hypertrophy, cell volume and size distribution, improved lipogenic enzyme activities, lipolysis and the anti-lipolytic action of insulin. In the skeletal muscle lipid storage, glucose phosphorylation and oxidation were normalized. Chia seed reversed the impaired insulin stimulated glycogen synthase activity, glycogen, glucose-6-phosphate and GLUT-4 protein levels as well as insulin resistance and dyslipidemia.

  9. Mechanisms Involved in the Improvement of Lipotoxicity and Impaired Lipid Metabolism by Dietary α-Linolenic Acid Rich Salvia hispanica L (Salba Seed in the Heart of Dyslipemic Insulin-Resistant Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustina Creus

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the mechanisms underlying the altered lipid metabolism in the heart of dyslipemic insulin-resistant (IR rats fed a sucrose-rich diet (SRD and investigates if chia seeds (rich in α-linolenic acid 18:3, n-3 ALA improve/reverse cardiac lipotoxicity. Wistar rats received an SRD-diet for three months. Half of the animals continued with the SRD up to month 6. The other half was fed an SRD in which the fat source, corn oil (CO, was replaced by chia seeds from month 3 to 6 (SRD+chia. A reference group consumed a control diet (CD all the time. Triglyceride, long-chain acyl CoA (LC ACoA and diacylglycerol (DAG contents, pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHc and muscle-type carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (M-CPT1 activities and protein mass levels of M-CPT1, membrane fatty acid transporter (FAT/CD36, peroxisome proliferator activated receptor α (PPARα and uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2 were analyzed. Results show that: (a the hearts of SRD-fed rats display lipotoxicity suggesting impaired myocardial lipid utilization; (b Compared with the SRD group, dietary chia normalizes blood pressure; reverses/improves heart lipotoxicity, glucose oxidation, the increased protein mass level of FAT/CD36, and the impaired insulin stimulated FAT/CD36 translocation to the plasma membrane. The enhanced M-CPT1 activity is markedly reduced without similar changes in protein mass. PPARα slightly decreases, while the UCP2 protein level remains unchanged in all groups. Normalization of dyslipidemia and IR by chia reduces plasma fatty acids (FAs availability, suggesting that a different milieu prevents the robust translocation of FAT/CD36. This could reduce the influx of FAs, decreasing the elevated M-CPT1 activity and lipid storage and improving glucose oxidation in cardiac muscles of SRD-fed rats.

  10. Mechanisms Involved in the Improvement of Lipotoxicity and Impaired Lipid Metabolism by Dietary α-Linolenic Acid Rich Salvia hispanica L (Salba) Seed in the Heart of Dyslipemic Insulin-Resistant Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creus, Agustina; Ferreira, María R; Oliva, María E; Lombardo, Yolanda B

    2016-01-28

    This study explores the mechanisms underlying the altered lipid metabolism in the heart of dyslipemic insulin-resistant (IR) rats fed a sucrose-rich diet (SRD) and investigates if chia seeds (rich in α-linolenic acid 18:3, n-3 ALA) improve/reverse cardiac lipotoxicity. Wistar rats received an SRD-diet for three months. Half of the animals continued with the SRD up to month 6. The other half was fed an SRD in which the fat source, corn oil (CO), was replaced by chia seeds from month 3 to 6 (SRD+chia). A reference group consumed a control diet (CD) all the time. Triglyceride, long-chain acyl CoA (LC ACoA) and diacylglycerol (DAG) contents, pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHc) and muscle-type carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (M-CPT1) activities and protein mass levels of M-CPT1, membrane fatty acid transporter (FAT/CD36), peroxisome proliferator activated receptor α (PPARα) and uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) were analyzed. Results show that: (a) the hearts of SRD-fed rats display lipotoxicity suggesting impaired myocardial lipid utilization; (b) Compared with the SRD group, dietary chia normalizes blood pressure; reverses/improves heart lipotoxicity, glucose oxidation, the increased protein mass level of FAT/CD36, and the impaired insulin stimulated FAT/CD36 translocation to the plasma membrane. The enhanced M-CPT1 activity is markedly reduced without similar changes in protein mass. PPARα slightly decreases, while the UCP2 protein level remains unchanged in all groups. Normalization of dyslipidemia and IR by chia reduces plasma fatty acids (FAs) availability, suggesting that a different milieu prevents the robust translocation of FAT/CD36. This could reduce the influx of FAs, decreasing the elevated M-CPT1 activity and lipid storage and improving glucose oxidation in cardiac muscles of SRD-fed rats.

  11. Essential fatty acids and lipid mediators. Endocannabinoids

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    G. Caramia

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In 1929 Burr and Burr discovered the essential fatty acids omega-6 and omega-3. Since then, researchers have shown a growing interest in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA as precursors of “lipid mediator” molecules, often with opposing effects, prostaglandins, prostacyclins, thromboxanes, leukotrienes, lipossines, resolvines, protectines, maresins that regulate immunity, platelet aggregation, inflammation, etc. They showed that the balance between omega-3 and omega-6 acids has a profound influence on all the body’s inflammatory responses and a raised level of PUFA omega-3 in tissue correlate with a reduced incidence of degenerative cardiovascular disease, some mental illnesses such as depression, and neuro-degenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s. The CYP-catalyzed epoxidation and hydroxylation of arachidonic acid (AA were established recently as the so-called third branch of AGE cascade. Cytochrome P450 (CYP epoxygenases convert AA to four epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (EET regioisomers, that produce vascular relaxation anti-inflammatory effects on blood vessels and in the kidney, promote angiogenesis, and protect ischemic myocardium and brain. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA are accessible to CYP enzymes in the same way as AA. Metabolites derived from EPA include epoxyeicosatetraenoic acids (EETR and hydroxyeicosapentaenoic acids (19- and 20-HEPE, whereas DHA include epoxydocosapentaenoic acids (EDPs hydroxydocosahexaenoic acids (21- and 22-HDoHE. For many of the CYP isoforms, the n-3 PUFAs are the preferred substrates and the available data suggest that some of the vasculo- and cardioprotective effects attributed to dietary n-3 PUFAs may be mediated by CYP-dependent metabolites of EPA and DHA. From AA derives also endocannabinoids like anandamide (N-arachidonoylethanolamine and 2-arachidonoylglycerol, capable of mimicking the pharmacological actions of the active principle of Cannabis sativa preparations such as

  12. Effect of brown seaweed lipids on fatty acid composition and lipid hydroperoxide levels of mouse liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airanthi, M K Widjaja-Adhi; Sasaki, Naoya; Iwasaki, Sayaka; Baba, Nobuko; Abe, Masayuki; Hosokawa, Masashi; Miyashita, Kazuo

    2011-04-27

    Brown seaweed lipids from Undaria pinnatifida (Wakame), Sargassum horneri (Akamoku), and Cystoseira hakodatensis (Uganomoku) contained several bioactive compounds, namely, fucoxanthin, polyphenols, and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). Fucoxanthin and polyphenol contents of Akamoku and Uganomoku lipids were higher than those of Wakame lipids, while Wakame lipids showed higher total omega-3 PUFA content than Akamoku and Uganomoku lipids. The levels of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (AA) in liver lipids of KK-A(y) mouse significantly increased by Akamoku and Uganomoku lipid feeding as compared with the control, but not by Wakame lipid feeding. Fucoxanthin has been reported to accelerate the bioconversion of omega-3 PUFA and omega-6 PUFA to DHA and AA, respectively. The higher hepatic DHA and AA level of mice fed Akamoku and Uganomoku lipids would be attributed to the higher content of fucoxanthin of Akamoku and Uganomoku lipids. The lipid hydroperoxide levels of the liver of mice fed brown seaweed lipids were significantly lower than those of control mice, even though total PUFA content was higher in the liver of mice fed brown seaweed lipids. This would be, at least in part, due to the antioxidant activity of fucoxanthin metabolites in the liver.

  13. Quercetin improves insulin resistance and hepatic lipid accumulation in vitro in a NAFLD cell model

    OpenAIRE

    LI, XIULI; Wang, Rong; Zhou, Na; Wang, XiaoHui; Liu, Qingyan; Bai, Yuqin; BAI, YIN; Liu, Zhijie; YANG, HUIMING; ZOU, JIHONG; Wang, Hongxia; SHI, TIEWEI

    2012-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) encompasses a spectrum of liver diseases in the absence of significant alcohol consumption. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of quercetin on insulin resistance and lipid metabolic abnormalities in free fatty acid (FFA)- and insulin-induced HepG2 cell model of NAFLD, and to determine the possible underlying mechanism. Quercetin markedly improves hepatic lipid accumulation and decreases the levels of triglyceride (TG). The lipid-lower...

  14. Fatty acid profile of 25 alternative lipid feedstocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study reports the fatty acid profiles of 25 alternative lipid feedstocks for the production of bio-based fuels and chemicals. Lipids were extracted using hexane from oil-bearing seeds using a standard Soxhlet apparatus. Fatty acid profiles were measured using gas chromatography-flame ionization...

  15. Plasma lipid-bound sialic acid and carcinoembryonic antigen in cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dnistrian, A M; Schwartz, M K

    1981-10-01

    We evaluated lipid-bound sialic acid as a "marker" in cancer patients and assessed the individual and combined value of lipid-bound sialic acid and carcinoembryonic antigen determinations in these patients. Plasma was sampled from 62 normal subjects and 125 cancer patients. Lipid-bound sialic acid was determined by the resorcinol method after total lipid extraction and isolation of the sialolipid fraction from plasma. Neither marker was increased in many breast cancer patients. Carcinoembryonic antigen was increased more commonly and to a greater degree in colon cancer patients and seems to be the preferred marker. Both markers were increased in lung cancer patients and their combined evaluation improved the rate of detection. Lipid-bound sialic acid was increased in more patients with leukemias, lymphomas, Hodgkin's disease, and melanomas, suggesting that it may be a useful biochemical marker in these types of cancer.

  16. Acid phosphatase and lipid peroxidation in human cataractous lens epithelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasavada Abhay

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available The anterior lens epithelial cells undergo a variety of degenerative and proliferative changes during cataract formation. Acid phosphatase is primarily responsible for tissue regeneration and tissue repair. The lipid hydroperoxides that are obtained by lipid peroxidation of polysaturated or unsaturated fatty acids bring about deterioration of biological membranes at cellular and tissue levels. Acid phosphatase and lipid peroxidation activities were studied on the lens epithelial cells of nuclear cataract, posterior subcapsular cataract, mature cataract, and mixed cataract. Of these, mature cataractous lens epithelium showed maximum activity for acid phosphatase (516.83 moles of p-nitrophenol released/g lens epithelium and maximum levels of lipid peroxidation (86.29 O.D./min/g lens epithelium. In contrast, mixed cataractous lens epithelium showed minimum activity of acid phosphatase (222.61 moles of p-nitrophenol released/g lens epithelium and minimum levels of lipid peroxidation (54.23 O.D./min/g lens epithelium. From our study, we correlated the maximum activity of acid phosphatase in mature cataractous lens epithelium with the increased areas of superimposed cells associated with the formation of mature cataract. Likewise, the maximum levels of lipid peroxidation in mature cataractous lens epithelium was correlated with increased permeability of the plasma membrane. Conversely, the minimum levels of lipid peroxidation in mixed cataractous lens epithelium makes us presume that factors other than lipid peroxidation may also account for the formation of mixed type of cataract.

  17. Acid test: lipid antigens get into the groove.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronenberg, Mitchell; Sullivan, Barbara A

    2008-06-01

    How do CD1 molecules load lipid antigens? In this issue of Immunity, Relloso et al. (2008) uncover how lysosomal pH targets amino acids in CD1b, causing it to open and attain a conformation more receptive to lipid antigens.

  18. Tuning molecular interactions in lipid-oligonucleotides assemblies via locked nucleic acid (LNA)-based lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patwa, Amit; Salgado, Gilmar; Dole, François; Navailles, Laurence; Barthélémy, Philippe

    2013-11-07

    Hybrid nucleotide-lipids containing locked nucleic acid (LNA) show enhanced hybridization properties with complementary single strand RNAs compared to DNA lipid analogues. The LNA adenosine lipid features unique binding properties with a high binding affinity for poly-uridine and the entropically driven formation of a stable complex (K(d) ≈ 43 nM). Enhanced hybridization properties of LNA-based lipids should be applicable for the development of oligonucleotide (ON) delivery systems or as small molecule binders to RNA for novel therapeutic strategies.

  19. Nucleic acid-lipid membrane interactions studied by DSC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giatrellis, Sarantis; Nounesis, George

    2011-01-01

    The interactions of nucleic acids with lipid membranes are of great importance for biological mechanisms as well as for biotechnological applications in gene delivery and drug carriers. The optimization of liposomal vectors for clinical use is absolutely dependent upon the formation mechanisms, the morphology, and the molecular organization of the lipoplexes, that is, the complexes of lipid membranes with DNA. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) has emerged as an efficient and relatively easy-to-operate experimental technique that can straightforwardly provide data related to the thermodynamics and the kinetics of the DNA-lipid complexation and especially to the lipid organization and phase transitions within the membrane. In this review, we summarize DSC studies considering nucleic acid-membrane systems, accentuating DSC capabilities, and data analysis. Published work involving cationic, anionic, and zwitterionic lipids as well as lipid mixtures interacting with RNA and DNA of different sizes and conformations are included. It is shown that despite limitations, issues such as DNA- or RNA-induced phase separation and microdomain lipid segregation, liposomal aggregation and fusion, alterations of the lipid long-range molecular order, as well as membrane-induced structural changes of the nucleic acids can be efficiently treated by systematic high-sensitivity DSC studies.

  20. Fatty acid methyl ester profiles of bat wing surface lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannkuk, Evan L; Fuller, Nathan W; Moore, Patrick R; Gilmore, David F; Savary, Brett J; Risch, Thomas S

    2014-11-01

    Sebocytes are specialized epithelial cells that rupture to secrete sebaceous lipids (sebum) across the mammalian integument. Sebum protects the integument from UV radiation, and maintains host microbial communities among other functions. Native glandular sebum is composed primarily of triacylglycerides (TAG) and wax esters (WE). Upon secretion (mature sebum), these lipids combine with minor cellular membrane components comprising total surface lipids. TAG and WE are further cleaved to smaller molecules through oxidation or host enzymatic digestion, resulting in a complex mixture of glycerolipids (e.g., TAG), sterols, unesterified fatty acids (FFA), WE, cholesteryl esters, and squalene comprising surface lipid. We are interested if fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) profiling of bat surface lipid could predict species specificity to the cutaneous fungal disease, white nose syndrome (WNS). We collected sebaceous secretions from 13 bat spp. using Sebutape(®) and converted them to FAME with an acid catalyzed transesterification. We found that Sebutape(®) adhesive patches removed ~6× more total lipid than Sebutape(®) indicator strips. Juvenile eastern red bats (Lasiurus borealis) had significantly higher 18:1 than adults, but 14:0, 16:1, and 20:0 were higher in adults. FAME profiles among several bat species were similar. We concluded that bat surface lipid FAME profiling does not provide a robust model predicting species susceptibility to WNS. However, these results provide baseline data that can be used for lipid roles in future ecological studies, such as life history, diet, or migration.

  1. Effect of Ascorbic Acid on Lipid Peroxidation Induced by Ceftazidime

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    Devbhuti P*,1

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Lipid peroxidation is the oxidative deterioration of polyunsaturated lipids which is a free radical related process and responsible for thedevelopment of many diseases and disorders like diabetes mellitus, hypertension, cancer etc. End products of lipid peroxidation aremalondialdehyde (MDA, 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE, etc. which are the ultimate mediator of toxicity. Antioxidants have the capability toinhibit lipid peroxidation. Keeping in mind this fact, the present in vitro study was carried out to evaluate lipid peroxidation induction potential of ceftazidime, a cephalosporin antibiotic and its suppression with ascorbic acid considering some laboratory markers of lipid peroxidation like MDA, 4-HNE and reduced glutathione (GSH. Goat liver was used as the lipid source. After treatment of the liver homogenate with drug and/or antioxidant the levels of 4-HNE, MDA and GSH were estimated in different samples at different hours of incubation. The results showed that the drug ceftazidime could significantly induce lipid peroxidation and the antioxidant ascorbic acid has the capability to inhibit ceftazidime-inducedlipid peroxidation.

  2. Lipid characterization of an arachidonic acid-rich oil producing fungus Mortierella alpina

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenjia Wu; Jiacheng Yan; Xiaojun Ji; Xin Zhang; Jingsheng Shang; Lina Sun; Lujing Ren; He Huang

    2015-01-01

    Mortierel a alpina has been considered as the most effective producer of arachidonic acid (ARA)-rich oil. It was found that several methods could improve the percentage of ARA in total lipids successful y, as they activated the desaturation system on the endoplasmic reticulum. Additionally, in M. alpina the ARA exists in several forms, such as triacylglycerol (TAG), and diacylglycerol (DAG). These forms are caused by different acyltransferases and they determine the nutrient value of the microbial oil. However, few works revealed de-tailed fatty acid distribution among lipid classes, which to some extent impeded the accurate regulation in ARA accumulation. Herein, this paper gives information on the accumulation process of main lipid classes and the changes of fatty acid composition in these lipids during ARA accumulation period in M. alpina. The result dem-onstrates that TAG was the dominant component of the total lipids, and it is the main form for ARA storage. The ARA enrichment stage occurred during 168–192 h when the amount of total lipids maintained steady. Further analysis indicated that the newly formed ARA-TAG might come from the incorporation and modification of sat-urated and monounsaturated fatty acids in other lipid classes. This work could be helpful for further optimization of ARA-rich TAG production.

  3. Improved characterization of EV preparations based on protein to lipid ratio and lipid properties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xabier Osteikoetxea

    Full Text Available In recent years the study of extracellular vesicles has gathered much scientific and clinical interest. As the field is expanding, it is becoming clear that better methods for characterization and quantification of extracellular vesicles as well as better standards to compare studies are warranted. The goal of the present work was to find improved parameters to characterize extracellular vesicle preparations. Here we introduce a simple 96 well plate-based total lipid assay for determination of lipid content and protein to lipid ratios of extracellular vesicle preparations from various myeloid and lymphoid cell lines as well as blood plasma. These preparations included apoptotic bodies, microvesicles/microparticles, and exosomes isolated by size-based fractionation. We also investigated lipid bilayer order of extracellular vesicle subpopulations using Di-4-ANEPPDHQ lipid probe, and lipid composition using affinity reagents to clustered cholesterol (monoclonal anti-cholesterol antibody and ganglioside GM1 (cholera toxin subunit B. We have consistently found different protein to lipid ratios characteristic for the investigated extracellular vesicle subpopulations which were substantially altered in the case of vesicular damage or protein contamination. Spectral ratiometric imaging and flow cytometric analysis also revealed marked differences between the various vesicle populations in their lipid order and their clustered membrane cholesterol and GM1 content. Our study introduces for the first time a simple and readily available lipid assay to complement the widely used protein assays in order to better characterize extracellular vesicle preparations. Besides differentiating extracellular vesicle subpopulations, the novel parameters introduced in this work (protein to lipid ratio, lipid bilayer order, and lipid composition, may prove useful for quality control of extracellular vesicle related basic and clinical studies.

  4. Lipid and fatty acid analysis of the Plodia interpunctella granulosis virus (PiGV) envelope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shastri-Bhalla, K.; Funk, C. J.; Consigli, R. A.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    Virus envelope was isolated from Plodia interpunctella granulosis virus, produced in early fourth-instar larvae. Both polar and neutral lipids were analyzed by two-dimensional thin-layer chromatography. Fatty acid composition of various individual neutral and polar lipids was determined by gas-liquid chromatography. The major components of envelope neutral lipid were diacylglycerols. Palmitic acid and stearic acid were the major saturated fatty acids in both polar and neutral lipids. Whereas palmitoleic acid was the major unsaturated fatty acids in neutral lipids, oleic acid was the major unsaturated fatty acid in the polar lipids.

  5. Simultaneous hydrolysis-esterification of wet microalgal lipid using acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takisawa, Kenji; Kanemoto, Kazuyo; Kartikawati, Muliasari; Kitamura, Yutaka

    2013-12-01

    This research demonstrated hydrolysis of wet microalgal lipid and esterification of free fatty acid (FFA) using acid in one-step process. The investigation of simultaneous hydrolysis-esterification (SHE) of wet microalgal lipid was conducted by using L27 orthogonal design and the effects of water content, volume of sulphuric acid, volume of methanol, temperature and time on SHE were examined. As a result, water content was found to be the most effective factor. The effects of various parameters on fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) content and equilibrium relation between FAME and FFA were also examined under water content 80%. Equimolar amounts of sulphuric acid and hydrochloric acid showed similar results. This method has great potential in terms of biodiesel production from microalgae since no organic solvents are used.

  6. Total lipids and fatty acids of strains of Metarhizium anisopliae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pupin Antonio Marcos

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Two growth stages, conidia (C and mycelium (M, and two media, minimal medium (MM and complete medium (MC, were compared in 10 strains of M. anisopliae, and two strains of M. anisopliae var. majus were similar in percentages of total lipids. Tukey test for average of lipid content in conidia (C and mycelia (M cultured on minimal (MM and complete (MC media showed significant differences between means at the 5% level for mycelia and conidia, indicating variability in total lipid production and storage during growth. Strains 5 and 7, both variety majus, did not present sizable differences from variety anisopliae. For fatty acids, C18:1 and C18:2, oleic and linoleic, respectively, the differences were all highly significant (p= 1% with the highest means being obtained for conidia for fatty acid C18:1 and for myclelia for fatty acid C18:2.

  7. Stabilization of polymer lipid complexes prepared with lipids of lactic acid bacteria upon preservation and internalization into eukaryotic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, P; Hugo, A A; Szymanowski, F; Tymczyszyn, E E; Pérez, P F; Coelho, J F J; Simões, P N; Gómez-Zavaglia, A

    2014-11-01

    The physicochemical characterization of polymer liposome complexes (PLCs) prepared with lipids of lactic acid bacteria and poly(N,N-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate) covalently bound to cholesterol (CHO-PDMAEMA) was carried out in an integrated approach, including their stability upon preservation and incorporation into eukaryotic cells. PLCs were prepared with different polymer:lipid molar ratios (0, 0.05 and 0.10). Zeta potential, particle size distribution and polydispersity index were determined. The optimal polymer:lipid ratio and the stability of both bare liposomes and PLCs were evaluated at 37 °C and at different pHs, as well as after storage at 4 °C, -80 °C and freeze-drying in the presence or absence of trehalose 250 mM. Internalization of PLCs by eukaryotic cells was assessed to give a complete picture of the system. Incorporation of CHO-PDMAEMA onto bacterial lipids (ratio 0.05 and 0.10) led to stabilization at 37 °C and pH 7. A slight decrease of pH led to their strong destabilization. Bacteria PLCs showed to be more stable than lecithin (LEC) PLCs (used for comparison) upon preservation at 4 and -80 °C. The harmful nature of the preservation processes led to a strong decrease in the stability of PLCs, bacterial formulations being more stable than LEC PLCs. The addition of trehalose to the suspension of liposomes stabilized LEC PLC and did not have effect on bacterial PLCs. In vitro studies on Raw 264.7 and Caco-2/TC7 cells demonstrated an efficient incorporation of PLCs into the cells. Preparations with higher stability were the ones that showed a better cell-uptake. The nature of the lipid composition is determinant for the stability of PLCs. Lipids from lactic acid bacteria are composed of glycolipids and phospholipids like cardiolipin and phosphatidylglycerol. The presence of negatively charged lipids strongly improves the interaction with the positively charged CHO-PDMAEMA, thus stabilizing liposomes. In addition, glycolipids and

  8. Multiscale structures of lipids in foods as parameters affecting fatty acid bioavailability and lipid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalski, M C; Genot, C; Gayet, C; Lopez, C; Fine, F; Joffre, F; Vendeuvre, J L; Bouvier, J; Chardigny, J M; Raynal-Ljutovac, K

    2013-10-01

    On a nutritional standpoint, lipids are now being studied beyond their energy content and fatty acid (FA) profiles. Dietary FA are building blocks of a huge diversity of more complex molecules such as triacylglycerols (TAG) and phospholipids (PL), themselves organised in supramolecular structures presenting different thermal behaviours. They are generally embedded in complex food matrixes. Recent reports have revealed that molecular and supramolecular structures of lipids and their liquid or solid state at the body temperature influence both the digestibility and metabolism of dietary FA. The aim of the present review is to highlight recent knowledge on the impact on FA digestion, absorption and metabolism of: (i) the intramolecular structure of TAG; (ii) the nature of the lipid molecules carrying FA; (iii) the supramolecular organization and physical state of lipids in native and formulated food products and (iv) the food matrix. Further work should be accomplished now to obtain a more reliable body of evidence and integrate these data in future dietary recommendations. Additionally, innovative lipid formulations in which the health beneficial effects of either native or recomposed structures of lipids will be taken into account can be foreseen.

  9. Effect of lipid supplementation on milk fatty acid focus on rumenic acid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esperanza Prieto-Manrique

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to review the effect of the lipid supplementation on the concentration of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA-c9t11 or rumenic acid and other unsaturated fatty acids in bovine milk. The study addressed the concept and origin of the CLA-c9t11 in ruminants. There is an international trend to improve nutrition quality , which implies an increase in consumption of animal protein, including the healthy and rich in CLA-c9t11 dairy products. CLA-c9t11 has proved to have anticancer effects in animal models. CLA-c9t11 in the bovine milk results from the consumption of unsaturated fatty acids and from the extent of rumen biohydrogenation. Supplementation with unsaturated fatty acids of vegetable origin allows to increase the concentration of CLA-c9t11 and to decrease the proportion of saturated fatty acids in milk, but the response varies depending on the source of fat used, its level, and its interaction with basal diet

  10. Aerobic training improves exercise-induced lipolysis in SCAT and lipid utilization in overweight men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Glisezinski, I; Moro, C; Pillard, F; Marion-Latard, F; Harant, I; Meste, M; Berlan, M; Crampes, F; Rivière, D

    2003-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether endurance training improves lipid mobilization and oxidation in overweight subjects. Eleven young men (25.6 +/- 1.4 yr and body mass index 27.7 +/- 0.2) performed a 4-mo training program consisting of practicing aerobic exercise 5 days/wk. Before and after the training period, lipid oxidation was explored during a 60-min exercise at 50% of peak O2 consumption by use of indirect calorimetry. Lipid mobilization and antilipolytic alpha2-adrenoceptor effect were also studied using the microdialysis method in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SCAT). After training, plasma nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) levels, at rest and during exercise, were significantly lower than before (P < 0.001). Lipolysis in SCAT was significantly higher after than before training. An antilipolytic alpha2-adrenoceptor effect in SCAT was underlined during exercise before training and disappeared after. The respiratory exchange ratio was lower after training, i.e., the percentage of lipid oxidation was higher only at rest. The amount of lipid oxidized was higher after training, at rest, and during exercise. Although exercise power was higher after training, the relative intensity was equivalent, as suggested by a similar increase in plasma catecholamine concentrations before and after training. In conclusion, 4-mo training in overweight men improved lipid mobilization through a decrease of antilipolytic alpha2-adrenoceptor effect in SCAT and lipid oxidation during moderate exercise. Training induced a decrease of blood NEFA, predicting better prevention of obesity.

  11. Oleic acid disorders stratum corneum lipids in Langmuir monolayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Guangru; VanWyck, Dina; Xiao, Xin; Mack Correa, M Catherine; Gunn, Euen; Flach, Carol R; Mendelsohn, Richard; Walters, Russel M

    2013-04-16

    Oleic acid (OA) is well-known to affect the function of the skin barrier. In this study, the molecular interactions between OA and model stratum corneum (SC) lipids consisting of ceramide, cholesterol, and palmitic acid (PA) were investigated with Langmuir monolayer and associated techniques. Mixtures with different OA/SC lipid compositions were spread at the air/water interface, and the phase behavior was tracked with surface pressure-molecular area (π-A) isotherms. With increasing OA levels in the monolayer, the films became more fluid and more compressible. The thermodynamic parameters derived from π-A isotherms indicated that there are preferential interactions between OA and SC lipids and that films of their mixtures were thermodynamically stable. The domain structure and lipid conformational order of the monolayers were studied through Brewster angle microscopy (BAM) and infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (IRRAS), respectively. Results indicate that lower concentrations of OA preferentially mix with and disorder the ceramide-enriched domains, followed by perturbation of the PA-enriched domains and disruption of SC lipid domain separation at higher OA levels.

  12. Fatty acids, lipid mediators, and T-cell function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Anja J; Kloppenburg, Margreet; Toes, René E M; Ioan-Facsinay, Andreea

    2014-01-01

    Research toward the mechanisms underlying obesity-linked complications has intensified during the last years. As a consequence, it has become clear that metabolism and immunity are intimately linked. Free fatty acids and other lipids acquired in excess by current feeding patterns have been proposed to mediate this link due to their immune modulatory capacity. The functional differences between saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, in combination with their dietary intake are believed to modulate the outcome of immune responses. Moreover, unsaturated fatty acids can be oxidized in a tightly regulated and specific manner to generate either potent pro-inflammatory or pro-resolving lipid mediators. These oxidative derivatives of fatty acids have received detailed attention during the last years, as they have proven to have strong immune modulatory capacity, even in pM ranges. Both fatty acids and oxidized fatty acids have been studied especially in relation to macrophage and T-cells functions. In this review, we propose to focus on the effect of fatty acids and their oxidative derivatives on T-cells, as it is an active area of research during the past 5 years. The effect of fatty acids and their derivatives on activation and proliferation of T-cells, as well as the delicate balance between stimulation and lipotoxicity will be discussed. Moreover, the receptors involved in the interaction between free fatty acids and their derivatives with T-cells will be summarized. Finally, the mechanisms involved in modulation of T-cells by fatty acids will be addressed, including cellular signaling and metabolism of T-cells. The in vitro results will be placed in context of in vivo studies both in humans and mice. In this review, we summarize the latest findings on the immune modulatory function of lipids on T-cells and will point out novel directions for future research.

  13. Impact of citric acid and calcium ions on acid solubilization of mechanically separated turkey meat: effect on lipid and pigment content.

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    Hrynets, Y; Omana, D A; Xu, Y; Betti, M

    2011-02-01

    Increased demand for poultry products has resulted in an increased availability of by-products, such as the neck, back, and frame, that can be processed into mechanically separated poultry meat. The major problems with mechanically separated poultry meat are its high lipid content, color instability, and high susceptibility to lipid oxidation. The present work was undertaken to determine the effect of different concentrations of citric acid and calcium ions on protein yield, color characteristics, and lipid removal from protein isolates prepared using an acid-aided extraction process. Six levels of citric acid (0, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 mmol/L) and 2 levels of calcium chloride (0 and 8 mmol/L) were examined. The entire experiment was replicated 3 times, resulting in 36 extractions (3 × 6 × 2). The highest (P citric acid. In general, all the combinations removed an average of 90.8% of the total lipids from mechanically separated turkey meat, ranging from 86.2 to 94.7%. The lowest amount (1.14%) of total lipids obtained was for samples treated with 4 mmol/L of citric acid. Maximum removal of neutral lipids (96.5%) and polar lipids (96.4%) was attained with the addition of 6 and 2 mmol/L of citric acid, respectively. Polar lipid content was found to be significantly (P = 0.0045) affected by the presence of calcium chloride. The isolated proteins were less (P citric acid. Addition of calcium chloride had a negative effect on total pigment content. The study revealed that acid extractions with the addition of citric acid resulted in substantial removal of lipids and pigments from mechanically separated turkey meat, improved stability of the recovered proteins against lipid oxidation, and appreciable protein recovery yields.

  14. Ketogenic essential amino acids modulate lipid synthetic pathways and prevent hepatic steatosis in mice.

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    Yasushi Noguchi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although dietary ketogenic essential amino acid (KAA content modifies accumulation of hepatic lipids, the molecular interactions between KAAs and lipid metabolism are yet to be fully elucidated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We designed a diet with a high ratio (E/N of essential amino acids (EAAs to non-EAAs by partially replacing dietary protein with 5 major free KAAs (Leu, Ile, Val, Lys and Thr without altering carbohydrate and fat content. This high-KAA diet was assessed for its preventive effects on diet-induced hepatic steatosis and whole-animal insulin resistance. C57B6 mice were fed with a high-fat diet, and hyperinsulinemic ob/ob mice were fed with a high-fat or high-sucrose diet. The high-KAA diet improved hepatic steatosis with decreased de novo lipogenesis (DNL fluxes as well as reduced expressions of lipogenic genes. In C57B6 mice, the high-KAA diet lowered postprandial insulin secretion and improved glucose tolerance, in association with restored expression of muscle insulin signaling proteins repressed by the high-fat diet. Lipotoxic metabolites and their synthetic fluxes were also evaluated with reference to insulin resistance. The high-KAA diet lowered muscle and liver ceramides, both by reducing dietary lipid incorporation into muscular ceramides and preventing incorporation of DNL-derived fatty acids into hepatic ceramides. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that dietary KAA intake improves hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance by modulating lipid synthetic pathways.

  15. Camphor Tree Seed Kernel Oil Reduces Body Fat Deposition and Improves Blood Lipids in Rats.

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    Fu, Jing; Wang, Baogui; Gong, Deming; Zeng, Cheng; Jiang, Yihao; Zeng, Zheling

    2015-08-01

    The total and positional fatty acid composition in camphor tree (Cinnamomum camphora) seed kernel oil (CKO) were analyzed, and for the first time, the effect of CKO on body fat deposition and blood lipids in rats was studied. The major fatty acids in CKO were determined to be decanoic acid (C10:0, 51.49%) and dodecanoic acid (C12:0, 40.08%), and uniformly distributed at Sn-1, 3, and Sn-2 positions in triglyceride (TG). Rats were randomly divided into control, CKO, lard, and soybean oil groups. At the end of the experiment, levels of blood lipids and the fats of abdomen in the rats were measured. The main organ were weighted and used for the histological examination. The results showed that body weight and fat deposition in CKO group were significantly lower than the lard and soybean groups. Moderate consumption of CKO was found to improve the levels of blood TG and low density lipoprotein cholesterol.

  16. Lipoprotein lipase expression, serum lipid and tissue lipid deposition in orally-administered glycyrrhizic acid-treated rats

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    Ton So

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The metabolic syndrome (MetS is a cluster of metabolic abnormalities comprising visceral obesity, dyslipidaemia and insulin resistance (IR. With the onset of IR, the expression of lipoprotein lipase (LPL, a key regulator of lipoprotein metabolism, is reduced. Increased activation of glucocorticoid receptors results in MetS symptoms and is thus speculated to have a role in the pathophysiology of the MetS. Glycyrrhizic acid (GA, the bioactive constituent of licorice roots (Glycyrrhiza glabra inhibits 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 that catalyzes the activation of glucocorticoids. Thus, oral administration of GA is postulated to ameliorate the MetS. Results In this study, daily oral administration of 50 mg/kg of GA for one week led to significant increase in LPL expression in the quadriceps femoris (p p > 0.05 of the GA-treated rats compared to the control. Decrease in adipocyte size (p > 0.05 in both the visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue depots accompanies such selective induction of LPL expression. Consistent improvement in serum lipid parameters was also observed, with decrease in serum free fatty acid, triacylglycerol, total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol but elevated HDL-cholesterol (p > 0.05. Histological analysis using tissue lipid staining with Oil Red O showed significant decrease in lipid deposition in the abdominal muscle and quadriceps femoris (p p > 0.05. Conclusion Results from this study may imply that GA could counteract the development of visceral obesity and improve dyslipidaemia via selective induction of tissue LPL expression and a positive shift in serum lipid parameters respectively, and retard the development of IR associated with tissue steatosis.

  17. Omega-3 fatty acids, lipid rafts, and T cell signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Tim Y; McMurray, David N; Chapkin, Robert S

    2016-08-15

    n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) have been shown in many clinical studies to attenuate inflammatory responses. Although inflammatory responses are orchestrated by a wide spectrum of cells, CD4(+) T cells play an important role in the etiology of many chronic inflammatory diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease and obesity. In light of recent concerns over the safety profiles of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), alternatives such as bioactive nutraceuticals are becoming more attractive. In order for these agents to be accepted into mainstream medicine, however, the mechanisms by which nutraceuticals such as n-3 PUFA exert their anti-inflammatory effects must be fully elucidated. Lipid rafts are nanoscale, dynamic domains in the plasma membrane that are formed through favorable lipid-lipid (cholesterol, sphingolipids, and saturated fatty acids) and lipid-protein (membrane-actin cytoskeleton) interactions. These domains optimize the clustering of signaling proteins at the membrane to facilitate efficient cell signaling which is required for CD4(+) T cell activation and differentiation. This review summarizes novel emerging data documenting the ability of n-3 PUFA to perturb membrane-cytoskeletal structure and function in CD4(+) T cells. An understanding of these underlying mechanisms will provide a rationale for the use of n-3 PUFA in the treatment of chronic inflammation.

  18. N-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids, Lipid Microclusters, and Vitamin E.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Saame Raza; Wassall, Stephen R; Brown, David A; Kosaraju, Rasagna

    2015-01-01

    Increased consumption of long-chain marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) has potential health benefits for the general population and for select clinical populations. However, several key limitations remain in making adequate dietary recommendations on n-3 PUFAs in addition to translating the fatty acids into clinical trials for select diseases. One major constraint is an incomplete understanding of the underlying mechanisms of action of n-3 PUFAs. In this review, we highlight studies to show n-3 PUFA acyl chains reorganize the molecular architecture of plasma membrane sphingolipid-cholesterol-enriched lipid rafts and potentially sphingolipid-rich cholesterol-free domains and cardiolipin-protein scaffolds in the inner mitochondrial membrane. We also discuss the possibility that the effects of n-3 PUFAs on membrane organization could be regulated by the presence of vitamin E (α-tocopherol), which is necessary to protect highly unsaturated acyl chains from oxidation. Finally, we propose the integrated hypothesis, based predominately on studies in lymphocytes, cancer cells, and model membranes, that the mechanism by which n-3 PUFAs disrupt signaling microclusters is highly dependent on the type of lipid species that incorporate n-3 PUFA acyl chains. The current evidence suggests that n-3 PUFA acyl chains disrupt lipid raft formation by incorporating primarily into phosphatidylethanolamines but can also incorporate into other lipid species of the lipidome.

  19. Dietary phenolic acids and ascorbic acid: Influence on acid-catalyzed nitrosative chemistry in the presence and absence of lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combet, Emilie; El Mesmari, Aziza; Preston, Tom; Crozier, Alan; McColl, Kenneth E L

    2010-03-15

    Acid-catalyzed nitrosation and production of potentially carcinogenic nitrosative species is focused at the gastroesophageal junction, where salivary nitrite, derived from dietary nitrate, encounters the gastric juice. Ascorbic acid provides protection by converting nitrosative species to nitric oxide (NO). However, NO may diffuse into adjacent lipid, where it reacts with O(2) to re-form nitrosative species and N-nitrosocompounds (NOC). In this way, ascorbic acid promotes acid nitrosation. Using a novel benchtop model representing the gastroesophageal junction, this study aimed to clarify the action of a range of water-soluble antioxidants on the nitrosative mechanisms in the presence or absence of lipids. Caffeic, ferulic, gallic, or chlorogenic and ascorbic acids were added individually to simulated gastric juice containing secondary amines, with or without lipid. NO and O(2) levels were monitored by electrochemical detection. NOC were measured in both aqueous and lipid phases by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. In the absence of lipids, all antioxidants tested inhibited nitrosation, ranging from 35.9 + or - 7.4% with gallic acid to 93 + or - 0.6% with ferulic acid. In the presence of lipids, the impact of each antioxidant on nitrosation was inversely correlated with the levels of NO they generated (R(2) = 0.95, pascorbic acid promoted nitrosation, whereas ferulic and caffeic acids markedly inhibited nitrosation.

  20. The acid steatocrit: a much improved method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, M; Forget, P; Van den Neucker, A; Strik, J; van Kreel, B; Kuijten, R

    1994-10-01

    The steatocrit method has recently been introduced as a simple screening test for steatorrhea. As it seemed likely that separation of fecal homogenate by centrifugation into a lipid phase, a watery phase, and a solid phase would be pH-dependent, we evaluated the effect of fecal acidification on steatocrit results. We also compared classical and acid steatocrit results in healthy children and in patients with cystic fibrosis and studied the relationship between two steatocrit methods and fecal fat content as measured by a reference chemical method. Steatocrit results increased with the degree of fecal acidification, and maximal results were obtained at the lowest fecal pH values. Means and SEM for classical and acid steatocrit values were 1.1 +/- 0.4% (classical) versus 3.8 +/- 1% (acid) in controls (n = 6) and 5.4 +/- 1.9% (classical) versus 26.9 +/- 4.3% (acid) in cystic fibrosis patients (n = 9). The correlations between fecal fat content measured chemically and steatocrit results were 0.18 (p = 0.35) and 0.81 (p < 0.0001) for classical and acid steatocrit, respectively. We conclude that acidification of fecal homogenates leads to a marked improvement in the steatocrit method.

  1. A comparative study of the fatty acid composition of prochloron lipids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenrick, J. R.; Deane, E. M.; Bishop, D. G.

    1983-01-01

    The chemical analysis of lipids of Prochloron isolated from several hosts is discussed. The object was to determine whether differences in lipid composition could be used to characterize organisms from different sources. Major lipid components are given. An analysis of fatty acid composition of individual lipids slowed a distinctive disstribution of fatty acids. While present results do not justify the use of fatty acid content in the taxonomy of Prochlon, the variations found in the lipids of cells from the same host harvested from different areas, or at different times in the same area, suggest that a study of the effects of temperature and light intensity on lipid composition would be rewarding.

  2. Aldehydic lipid peroxidation products derived from linoleic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiteller, P; Kern, W; Reiner, J; Spiteller, G

    2001-04-30

    Lipid peroxidation (LPO) processes observed in diseases connected with inflammation involve mainly linoleic acid. Its primary LPO products, 9-hydroperoxy-10,12-octadecadienoic acid (9-HPODE) and 13-hydroperoxy-9,11-octadecadienoic acid (13-HPODE), decompose in multistep degradation reactions. These reactions were investigated in model studies: decomposition of either 9-HPODE or 13-HPODE by Fe(2+) catalyzed air oxidation generates (with the exception of corresponding hydroxy and oxo derivatives) identical products in often nearly equal amounts, pointing to a common intermediate. Pairs of carbonyl compounds were recognized by reacting the oxidation mixtures with pentafluorobenzylhydroxylamine. Even if a pure lipid hydroperoxide is subjected to decomposition a great variety of products is generated, since primary products suffer further transformations. Therefore pure primarily decomposition products of HPODEs were exposed to stirring in air with or without addition of iron ions. Thus we observed that primary products containing the structural element R-CH=CH-CH=CH-CH=O add water and then they are cleaved by retroaldol reactions. 2,4-Decadienal is degraded in the absence of iron ions to 2-butenal, hexanal and 5-oxodecanal. Small amounts of buten-1,4-dial were also detected. Addition of m-chloroperbenzoic acid transforms 2,4-decadienal to 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal. 4,5-Epoxy-2-decenal, synthetically available by treatment of 2,4-decadienal with dimethyldioxirane, is hydrolyzed to 4,5-dihydroxy-2-decenal.

  3. An improved high-throughput lipid extraction method for the analysis of human brain lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Sarah K; Jenner, Andrew M; Mitchell, Todd W; Brown, Simon H J; Halliday, Glenda M; Garner, Brett

    2013-03-01

    We have developed a protocol suitable for high-throughput lipidomic analysis of human brain samples. The traditional Folch extraction (using chloroform and glass-glass homogenization) was compared to a high-throughput method combining methyl-tert-butyl ether (MTBE) extraction with mechanical homogenization utilizing ceramic beads. This high-throughput method significantly reduced sample handling time and increased efficiency compared to glass-glass homogenizing. Furthermore, replacing chloroform with MTBE is safer (less carcinogenic/toxic), with lipids dissolving in the upper phase, allowing for easier pipetting and the potential for automation (i.e., robotics). Both methods were applied to the analysis of human occipital cortex. Lipid species (including ceramides, sphingomyelins, choline glycerophospholipids, ethanolamine glycerophospholipids and phosphatidylserines) were analyzed via electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and sterol species were analyzed using gas chromatography mass spectrometry. No differences in lipid species composition were evident when the lipid extraction protocols were compared, indicating that MTBE extraction with mechanical bead homogenization provides an improved method for the lipidomic profiling of human brain tissue.

  4. Fish Lipids as a Valuable Source of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merdzhanova, Albena; Ivanov, Ivaylo; Dobreva, Diana A.; Makedonski, Lyubomir

    2017-03-01

    This article presents information about omega-3 (h-3) and omega-6 (n-6) polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) contents in a broad range of commercially important fish species available on Bulgarian fish markets. The aim is to raise consumers' awareness and encourage them to eat fish. Fish species from the Black Sea coast have relatively high proportion of n-3 PUFAs, of which more than 80% is by EPf (eicosapentaenoic acid, C 20:5 n-3) and DHA (docosahexaenoic acid, C 22:6 n-3). Extensive epidemiological studies show that fish consumption is inversely associated with the incidence of cardiovascular diseases (CVD), stroke and the functioning of the brain. About 0.5 g of omega-3 (EPA+DHA) a day or two savings of oily fish a week are required to reduce the risk of death from CVD. PUFAs needs should be satisfied not only with food additives but with fish lipids containing food.

  5. Lean production of taste improved lipidic sodium benzoate formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckert, C; Pein, M; Breitkreutz, J

    2014-10-01

    Sodium benzoate is a highly soluble orphan drug with unpleasant taste and high daily dose. The aim of this study was to develop a child appropriate, individually dosable, and taste masked dosage form utilizing lipids in melt granulation process and tableting. A saliva resistant coated lipid granule produced by extrusion served as reference product. Low melting hard fat was found to be appropriate as lipid binder in high-shear granulation. The resulting granules were compressed to minitablets without addition of other excipients. Compression to 2mm minitablets decreased the dissolved API amount within the first 2 min of dissolution from 33% to 23%. The Euclidean distances, calculated from electronic tongue measurements, were reduced, indicating an improved taste. The reference product showed a lag time in dissolution, which is desirable for taste masking. Although a lag time was not achieved for the lipidic minitablets, drug release in various food materials was reduced to 2%, assuming a suitable taste masking for oral sodium benzoate administration.

  6. Retinoic acid treatment enhances lipid oxidation and inhibits lipid biosynthesis capacities in the liver of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amengual, Jaume; Ribot, Joan; Bonet, M Luisa; Palou, Andreu

    2010-01-01

    Vitamin A, mainly as retinoic acid (RA), is known to affect the development and function of adipose tissues. Treatment with RA reduces body weight and adiposity independent of changes in food intake in mice. Lipid metabolism in liver can have a major impact on whole body adiposity. The aim of this work was to investigate the effects of an in vivo treatment with RA on hepatic lipid metabolism in mice. Adult, standard diet-fed mice were treated with different doses of all-trans RA or vehicle (subcutaneous injection) for 4 days before sacrifice. Food intake and body weight changes during treatment were determined, as well as adiposity, liver composition, levels of circulating metabolites and lipoproteins and expression levels of key mRNA species in liver following sacrifice. RA treatment resulted in reduced body weight and adiposity, as expected. In the liver, RA treatment triggered an increase in the mRNA expression levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha, retinoid X receptor alpha, uncoupling protein 2, liver-type carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1, and carnitine/acylcarnitine carrier, and a reduction in the mRNA expression levels of sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c and fatty acid synthase. Consistent with the changes in gene expression, hepatic triacylglycerol content and circulating VLDL fraction were reduced and levels of circulating ketone bodies increased after RA treatment. These results point to a capacity of active vitamin A forms to shift liver lipid metabolism in vivo towards increased catabolism and reduced lipogenesis. These effects might contribute to the reduction of adiposity brought about by RA treatment.

  7. Solid Lipid Nanoparticles Loaded with Retinoic Acid and Lauric Acid as an Alternative for Topical Treatment of Acne Vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Elton Luiz; Carneiro, Guilherme; De Araújo, Lidiane Advíncula; Trindade, Mariana de Jesus Vaz; Yoshida, Maria Irene; Oréfice, Rodrigo Lambert; Farias, Luis de Macêdo; De Carvalho, Maria Auxiliadora Roque; Dos Santos, Simone Gonçalves; Goulart, Gisele Assis Castro; Alves, Ricardo José; Ferreira, Lucas Antônio Miranda

    2015-01-01

    Topical therapy is the first choice for the treatment of mild to moderate acne and all-trans retinoic acid is one of the most used drugs. The combination of retinoids and antimicrobials is an innovative approach for acne therapy. Recently, lauric acid, a saturated fatty acid, has shown strong antimicrobial activity against Propionibacterium acnes. However, topical application of retinoic acid is followed by high incidence of side-effects, including erythema and irritation. Solid lipid nanoparticles represent an alternative to overcome these side-effects. This work aims to develop solid lipid nanoparticles loaded with retinoic acid and lauric acid and evaluate their antibacterial activity. The influence of lipophilic stearylamine on the characteristics of solid lipid nanoparticles was investigated. Solid lipid nanoparticles were characterized for size, zeta potential, encapsulation efficiency, differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction. The in vitro inhibitory activity of retinoic acid-lauric acid-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles was evaluated against Propionibacterium acnes, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. High encapsulation efficiency was obtained at initial time (94 ± 7% and 100 ± 4% for retinoic acid and lauric acid, respectively) and it was demonstrated that lauric acid-loaded-solid lipid nanoparticles provided the incorporation of retinoic acid. However, the presence of stearylamine is necessary to ensure stability of encapsulation. Moreover, retinoic acid-lauric acid-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles showed growth inhibitory activity against Staphylococcus epidermidis, Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus aureus, representing an interesting alternative for the topical therapy of acne vulgaris.

  8. Co-culturing Chlorella minutissima with Escherichia coli can increase neutral lipid production and improve biodiesel quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Brendan T; Labavitch, John M; VanderGheynst, Jean S

    2015-09-01

    Lipid productivity and fatty acid composition are important metrics for the production of high quality biodiesel from algae. Our previous results showed that co-culturing the green alga Chlorella minutissima with Escherichia coli under high-substrate mixotrophic conditions enhanced both culture growth and crude lipid content. To investigate further, we analyzed neutral lipid content and fatty acid content and composition of axenic cultures and co-cultures produced under autotrophic and mixotrophic conditions. We found that co-culturing C. minutissima with E. coli under high substrate conditions (10 g/L) increased neutral lipid content 1.9- to 3.1-fold and fatty acid content 1.5- to 2.6-fold compared to equivalent axenic C. minutissima cultures. These same co-cultures also exhibited a significant fatty acid shift away from trienoic and toward monoenoic fatty acids thereby improving the quality of the synthesized fatty acids for biodiesel production. Further investigation suggested that E. coli facilitates substrate uptake by the algae and that the resulting growth enhancement induces a nitrogen-limited condition. Enhanced carbon uptake coupled with nitrogen limitation is the likely cause of the observed neutral lipid accumulation and fatty acid profile changes.

  9. Cholesterylbutyrate Solid Lipid Nanoparticles as a Butyric Acid Prodrug

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    Alessandro Mauro

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Cholesterylbutyrate (Chol-but was chosen as a prodrug of butyric acid.Butyrate is not often used in vivo because its half-life is very short and therefore too largeamounts of the drug would be necessary for its efficacy. In the last few years butyric acid'santi-inflammatory properties and its inhibitory activity towards histone deacetylases havebeen widely studied, mainly in vitro. Solid Lipid Nanoparticles (SLNs, whose lipid matrixis Chol-but, were prepared to evaluate the delivery system of Chol-but as a prodrug and totest its efficacy in vitro and in vivo. Chol-but SLNs were prepared using the microemulsionmethod; their average diameter is on the order of 100-150 nm and their shape is spherical.The antineoplastic effects of Chol-but SLNs were assessed in vitro on different cancer celllines and in vivo on a rat intracerebral glioma model. The anti-inflammatory activity wasevaluated on adhesion of polymorphonuclear cells to vascular endothelial cells. In thereview we will present data on Chol-but SLNs in vitro and in vivo experiments, discussingthe possible utilisation of nanoparticles for the delivery of prodrugs for neoplastic andchronic inflammatory diseases.

  10. Effect of salicylic acid treatment on cadmium toxicity and leaf lipid composition in sunflower

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    Moradkhani S.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The ameliorative effect of salicylic acid (SA on cadmium (Cd toxicity in sunflower plants was studied by investigating plant growth and fatty acid composition. Sunflower plants in two leaves stage were exposed to CdCl2 treatment (0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 µM and then were treated with salicylic acid (0, 250 and 500 µM as foliage spraying. One week after the last salicylic acid treatment,plants were harvested and growth parameters were measured . Oil of leaf was extracted in a Soxhlet system and fatty acid composition were measured by gas chromatography (GC. Statistical analyses showed excess Cd reduced growth parameters (fresh weight and length of stems and roots, fresh weight and number of leavesand SA increased them compared with the control. Maximum reduction in these parameters was at 200 µmol Cd and 0µmol of SA. Cd caused a shift in fatty acids composition, resulting in a lower degree of their unsaturation and an increase in saturated fatty acids in sunflower leaves,whereas SA improved them. SA, particularly increased the percentage of linolenic acid and lowered that of palmitic acid by the same proportion. These results sugg membrane integrity due to lipids est that SA could be used as a potential growth regulator and a stabilizer ofprotection of cadmium-induced oxidative stress to improve plant resistance to Cd stress

  11. Lipid recognition propensities of amino acids in membrane proteins from atomic resolution data

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    Morita Mizuki

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein-lipid interactions play essential roles in the conformational stability and biological functions of membrane proteins. However, few of the previous computational studies have taken into account the atomic details of protein-lipid interactions explicitly. Results To gain an insight into the molecular mechanisms of the recognition of lipid molecules by membrane proteins, we investigated amino acid propensities in membrane proteins for interacting with the head and tail groups of lipid molecules. We observed a common pattern of lipid tail-amino acid interactions in two different data sources, crystal structures and molecular dynamics simulations. These interactions are largely explained by general lipophilicity, whereas the preferences for lipid head groups vary among individual proteins. We also found that membrane and water-soluble proteins utilize essentially an identical set of amino acids for interacting with lipid head and tail groups. Conclusions We showed that the lipophilicity of amino acid residues determines the amino acid preferences for lipid tail groups in both membrane and water-soluble proteins, suggesting that tightly-bound lipid molecules and lipids in the annular shell interact with membrane proteins in a similar manner. In contrast, interactions between lipid head groups and amino acids showed a more variable pattern, apparently constrained by each protein's specific molecular function.

  12. A novel AMPK activator, WS070117, improves lipid metabolism discords in hamsters and HepG2 cells

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    Hao Linghua

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background WS070117 is a novel small molecule compound that significantly improves lipid metabolism disorders in high-fat-diet (HFD induced hyperlipidemia in hamsters. Methods and Results We evaluated liver/body weight ratio, liver histology, serum and hepatic lipid content in HFD-fed hamsters treated with WS070117 for 8 weeks. Comparing with HFD fed hamsters, WS070117 (2 mg/kg per day and above reduced serum triglyceride (TAG, total cholesterol (TC, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and hepatic cholesterol and triglyceride contents. Oil Red O staining of liver tissue also showed that WS070117 improved lipid accumulation. We then carried out an experiment in the oleic acid (OLA-induced steatosis model in HepG2 cell to investigate the lipid-lowering effect of WS070117. Oleic acid (0.25 mM markedly induced lipid accumulation in HepG2 cells, but WS070117 (10 μM inhibited cellular lipid accumulation. In OLA-treated HepG2 cells, WS070117 (above 1 μM treatment reduced lipid contents which synthesized from [1-14C] labeled acetic acid. Because WS070117 is an analog of adenosine, we evaluated the effect of WS070117 on AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK signaling. The results showed that the activation of AMPK in OLA-induced steatosis in HepG2 cells was up-regulated by treatment with 0.1, 1 and 10 μM WS070117. The hepatic cellular AMPK phosphorylation is also up regulated by WS070117 (6 and 18 mg/kg treatment in HFD fed hamsters. Conclusion These new findings identify WS070117 as a novel molecule that regulates lipid metabolism in the hyperlipidemia hamster model. In vitro and in vivo studies suggested that WS070117 may regulate lipid metabolism through stimulating the activation of AMPK and its downstream pathways.

  13. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA: effect modulation of body composition and lipid profile

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    A. Baddini Feitoza

    Full Text Available Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA refers to a family of polyunsaturated fatty acids, being represented by a group of isomers of linoleic acid called conjugated for having a double bound after a simple bound. Among its isomers, trans-10,cis-12 and cis-9, cis-12 CLA stand out. These isomers can lead to different effects on the body: anticarcinogenic, antidiabetogenic, antiatherogenesis and positive body composition alteration. The objective of this review is to describe their mechanisms of action, effects on body composition, on plasmatic lipoproteins and supplementation. Studies about CLA supplementation show its capacity of reducing fat percentage, body mass and of promoting an improvement in lipid metabolism. One of the adverse effects attributed to one of the isomers is insulin resistance by body fat redistribution. Limitations in the scientific models used in CLA researches make impossible to draw conclusions about the action of this fatty acid on human metabolism.

  14. Suppressive actions of eicosapentaenoic acid on lipid droplet formation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

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    Sinclair Andrew J

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lipid droplet (LD formation and size regulation reflects both lipid influx and efflux, and is central in the regulation of adipocyte metabolism, including adipokine secretion. The length and degree of dietary fatty acid (FA unsaturation is implicated in LD formation and regulation in adipocytes. The aims of this study were to establish the impact of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; C20:5n-3 in comparison to SFA (STA; stearic acid, C18:0 and MUFA (OLA; oleic acid, C18:1n-9 on 3T3-L1 adipocyte LD formation, regulation of genes central to LD function and adipokine responsiveness. Cells were supplemented with 100 μM FA during 7-day differentiation. Results EPA markedly reduced LD size and total lipid accumulation, suppressing PPARγ, Cidea and D9D/SCD1 genes, distinct from other treatments. These changes were independent of alterations of lipolytic genes, as both EPA and STA similarly elevated LPL and HSL gene expressions. In response to acute lipopolysaccharide exposure, EPA-differentiated adipocytes had distinct improvement in inflammatory response shown by reduction in monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and interleukin-6 and elevation in adiponectin and leptin gene expressions. Conclusions This study demonstrates that EPA differentially modulates adipogenesis and lipid accumulation to suppress LD formation and size. This may be due to suppressed gene expression of key proteins closely associated with LD function. Further analysis is required to determine if EPA exerts a similar influence on LD formation and regulation in-vivo.

  15. Solid lipid nanoparticles as nucleic acid delivery system: properties and molecular mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jesus, Marcelo B; Zuhorn, Inge S

    2015-03-10

    Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) have been proposed in the 1990s as appropriate drug delivery systems, and ever since they have been applied in a wide variety of cosmetic and pharmaceutical applications. In addition, SLNs are considered suitable alternatives as carriers in gene delivery. Although important advances have been made in this particular field, fundamental knowledge of the underlying mechanisms of SLN-mediated gene delivery is conspicuously lacking, an imperative requirement in efforts aimed at further improving their efficiency. Here, we address recent advances in the use of SLNs as platform for delivery of nucleic acids as therapeutic agents. In addition, we will discuss available technology for conveniently producing SLNs. In particular, we will focus on underlying molecular mechanisms by which SLNs and nucleic acids assemble into complexes and how the nucleic acid cargo may be released intracellularly. In discussing underlying mechanisms, we will, when appropriate, refer to analogous studies carried out with systems based on cationic lipids and polymers, that have proven useful in the assessment of structure-function relationships. Finally, we will give suggestions for improving SLN-based gene delivery systems, by pointing to alternative methods for SLNplex assembly, focusing on the realization of a sustained nucleic acid release.

  16. Lipogenesis and lipid peroxidation in rat testes after long-term treatment with sucrose and tannic acid in drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mašek, T; Starčević, K

    2016-06-30

    We studied the influence of long-term treatment with sucrose and tannic acid in drinking water on the fatty acid profile and lipid peroxidation in rat testes. Male Wistar rats were supplemented with sucrose (30% w/v) or with sucrose and tannic acid (sucrose 30% w/v, tannic acid 0.1% w/v) in drinking water. The treatment with sucrose elevated blood glucose levels in the plasma (p stress and hyperglycaemia, but it did not improve pathological changes in the fatty acid composition of the testis.

  17. Fatty acid content and lipid fractions in herbs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Majbritt Bonefeld; Søegaard, Karen; Jensen, Søren Krogh

    2012-01-01

    Experiments have shown a higher transfer efficiency of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids (FA) to milk when feeding herbs compared to feeding grass-clover. With the aim to gain more knowledge for this, the FA profile of ten single plant species and the incorporation of FA in lipid fractions were analysed...... (Trifolium repens) and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne). FA content in single species deviated considerably, although the main FA were C18:3n-3 and C18:2n-6, with chervil being the exception with C18:1n-9 as main FA. The majority of FA were found in the phospholipid and sterol fraction, with C18:3n-3...

  18. The effect of amino acids on lipid production and nutrient removal by Rhodotorula glutinis cultivation in starch wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Meng; Zhang, Xu; Tan, Tianwei

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, the components of amino acids in mixed starch wastewater (corn steep water/corn gluten water=1/3, v/v) were analyzed by GC-MS. Effects of amino acids on lipid production by Rhodotorula glutinis and COD removal were studied. The results showed that mixed starch wastewater contained 9 kinds of amino acids and these amino acids significantly improved the biomass (13.63g/L), lipid yield (2.48g/L) and COD removal compared to the basic medium (6.23g/L and 1.56g/L). In a 5L fermentor containing mixed starch wastewater as substrate to culture R. glutinis, the maximum biomass, lipid content and lipid yield reached 26.38g/L, 28.90% and 7.62g/L, with the associated removal rates of COD, TN and TP reaching 77.41%, 69.12% and 73.85%, respectively. The results revealed a promising approach for lipid production with using amino acids present in starch wastewater as an alternative nitrogen source.

  19. The effect of dietary fat and omega-3 fatty acids on whole body lipid oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipid peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids yields several electrophilic, reactive carbonyl metabolites. We hypothesized that an increased intake of omega-3 fatty acids (n-3) would lead to increased lipid peroxidation metabolites compared to a diet low in n-3. As part of a randomized crossov...

  20. LIPID CLASS DISTRIBUTION OF HIGHLY UNSATURATED LONG CHAIN FATTY ACIDS IN MARINE DINOFLAGELLATES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The very long chain highly unsaturated C28 fatty acids, octacosaheptaenoic [28:7(n-6)] and octacosaoctaenoic acid [28:8(n-3)], were found to be associated with phospholipids, obtained by fractionation of total lipid extracts into distinct lipid classes, in 4 and 6, respectively, ...

  1. Investigation of heat induced reactions between lipid oxidation products and amino acids in lipid rich model systems and hazelnuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karademir, Yeşim; Göncüoğlu, Neslihan; Gökmen, Vural

    2013-07-01

    This study aimed to investigate the contribution of lipid oxidation to non-enzymatic browning reactions in lipid rich model and actual food systems. Hazelnut oil and model reaction mixtures consisting of different amino acids were heated under certain conditions to determine possible lipid oxidation and non-enzymatic browning reaction products. In model systems, the Schiff base of 2,4-decadienal, its decarboxylated form, and reaction products formed after hydrolytic cleavage of the Schiff base or decarboxylated form were identified by high resolution mass spectrometry. No furosine was detected in hazelnuts after roasting at 160 °C while the concentration of free amino acids significantly decreased. 2,4-Decadienal reacted effectively with all amino acids studied through a Maillard type carbonyl-amine condensation pathway. (2E,4E)-Deca-2,4-dien-1-amine was identified as a typical reaction product in model systems and roasted hazelnuts. In lipid-rich foods like hazelnuts, lipid-derived carbonyls might be responsible for potential modifications of free and protein bound amino acids during heating.

  2. Improving oral absorption of Salmon calcitonin by trimyristin lipid nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, S; Silva, A C; Ferreira, D C; Souto, E B

    2009-02-01

    Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) composed of trimyristin (solid lipid) and poloxamer 407 (surfactant) were prepared by a w/o/w emulsion technique for the incorporation of Salmon calcitonin, and further explored as protein carriers for oral delivery. Trimyristin SLN showed a mean size diameter of 200 nm with an association efficiency for calcitonin of approx. 86%. The morphology of SLN was investigated by cryo-SEM and by AFM, revealing spheroid shape SLN with a smooth surface. The in vitro release of calcitonin occurred for a period of 8 h, under both gastric and intestinal simulated pH conditions, predicting suitable properties for oral administration. The pharmacological activity of the protein was evaluated following oral dosage of calcitonin-loaded SLN in rats. SLN lowered the basal blood calcium levels by up to 20% with 500 IU/kg dose sustaining hypocalcaemia over 8 h. The results indicate that incorporation of Salmon calcitonin into trimyristin SLN is a key factor for the improvement of the efficiency of such carriers for oral delivery of proteins.

  3. Effect of organic acids on the growth and lipid accumulation of oleaginous yeast Trichosporon fermentans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Chao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microbial lipids have drawn increasing attention in recent years as promising raw materials for biodiesel production, and the use of lignocellulosic hydrolysates as carbon sources seems to be a feasible strategy for cost-effective lipid fermentation with oleaginous microorganisms on a large scale. During the hydrolysis of lignocellulosic materials with dilute acid, however, various kinds of inhibitors, especially large amounts of organic acids, will be produced, which substantially decrease the fermentability of lignocellulosic hydrolysates. To overcome the inhibitory effects of organic acids, it is critical to understand their impact on the growth and lipid accumulation of oleaginous microorganisms. Results In our present work, we investigated for the first time the effect of ten representative organic acids in lignocellulosic hydrolysates on the growth and lipid accumulation of oleaginous yeast Trichosporon fermentans cells. In contrast to previous reports, we found that the toxicity of the organic acids to the cells was not directly related to their hydrophobicity. It is worth noting that most organic acids tested were less toxic than aldehydes to the cells, and some could even stimulate the growth and lipid accumulation at a low concentration. Unlike aldehydes, most binary combinations of organic acids exerted no synergistic inhibitory effects on lipid production. The presence of organic acids decelerated the consumption of glucose, whereas it influenced the utilization of xylose in a different and complicated way. In addition, all the organic acids tested, except furoic acid, inhibited the malic activity of T. fermentans. Furthermore, the inhibition of organic acids on cell growth was dependent more on inoculum size, temperature and initial pH than on lipid content. Conclusions This work provides some meaningful information about the effect of organic acid in lignocellulosic hydrolysates on the lipid production of

  4. Impact of Association Colloids on Lipid Oxidation in Triacylglycerols and Fatty Acid Ethyl Esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homma, Rika; Suzuki, Karin; Cui, Leqi; McClements, David Julian; Decker, Eric A

    2015-11-25

    The impact of association colloids on lipid oxidation in triacylglycerols and fatty acid ethyl esters was investigated. Association colloids did not affect lipid oxidation of high oleic safflower and high linoleic safflower triacylglycerols, but were prooxidative in fish triacylglycerols. Association colloids retarded aldehyde formation in stripped ethyl oleate, linoleate, and fish oil ethyl esters. Interfacial tension revealed that lipid hydroperoxides were surface active in the presence of the surfactants found in association colloids. The lipid hydroperoxides from ethyl esters were less surface active than triacylglycerol hydroperoxides. Stripping decreased iron and copper concentrations in all oils, but more so in fatty acid ethyl esters. The combination of lower hydroperoxide surface activity and low metal concentrations could explain why association colloids inhibited lipid oxidation in fatty acid ethyl esters. This research suggests that association colloids could be used as an antioxidant technology in fatty acid ethyl esters.

  5. Improved cytotoxicity of paclitaxel loaded in nanosized lipid carriers by intracellular delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Jing; Du, Yongzhong; Yuan, Hong; Zhang, Xingguo; Li, Qian; Rao, Yuefeng; Zhao, Mengdan; Hu, Fuqiang

    2015-01-01

    Nanosized lipid carriers (NLC) can improve the limited drug-loading (DL) capacity and drug expulsion during storage, and adjust the drug release profile of solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN). In this study, Paclitaxel (PTX)-loaded NLC were prepared by solvent diffusion method using monostearin as solid lipid and oleic acid (OA) as liquid lipid matrix. The blank NLC with different OA content (the size range was from 89.5 ± 7.4 to 160.2 ± 34.6 nm) showed smaller size than the blank SLN (the size was 272.7 ± 43.6 nm), while the PTX-loaded NLC (the size range was from 481.3 ± 29.8 to 561.7 ± 38.3 nm) showed little bigger size, higher DL capacity, and faster drug in vitro release rate comparing with SLN (the size was 437.3 ± 68.2 nm). The 50 % cellular growth inhibitions (IC50) of PTX-loaded NLC with 0, 5, 10, and 20 wt % OA were 0.92 ± 0.06, 0.69 ± 0.04, 0.25 ± 0.02, and 0.12 ± 0.02 µg mL-1, respectively, while the IC50 of TaxolTM was 1.72 ± 0.09 µg mL-1. For analyzing cellular drug effect, cellular uptakes of fluorescent NLC and intracellular drug concentration were investigated. As the incorporation of OA into solid lipid matrix could accelerate both the cellular uptake and the PTX delivery, loaded by NLC, the cytotoxicity of PTX could be enhanced, and further enhanced by increasing OA content in NLC.

  6. Plasma lipid-bound sialic acid alterations in neoplastic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, C; Dixit, M; Hardy, R E

    1990-01-15

    Plasma lipid-bound sialic acid (LSA) was assayed in normal volunteers, patients with non-malignant diseases, and a variety of cancer patients. Mean plasma LSA in 50 normal volunteers, 16 patients with non-malignant diseases, 54 breast cancer, 17 lung cancer, 15 colon cancer, 7 ovarian cancer, 5 prostate cancer, 4 leukemia, 4 gastrointestinal, 3 thyroid cancer, 3 pancreas cancer and 2 adrenal cancer patients were 17.7, 23.2, 58, 85, 56.7, 46.2, 56.7, 53.3, 31.1, 33.2 and 119.5 mg/dl, respectively. None of the normal volunteers had elevated plasma LSA values. Plasma LSA level was not significantly different in male and female volunteers. Two out of 114 different cancer patients had plasma LSA levels within normal range exhibiting 98.2% sensitivity of the assay. Plasma LSA, which is relatively simple to assay, may be used as a tumor marker in wide variety of neoplastic diseases.

  7. Effect of Growth on Fatty Acid Composition of Total Intramuscular Lipid and Phospholipids in Ira Rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Shan; He, Zhifei; Lu, Jingzhi; Tao, Xiaoqi; Zheng, Li; Xie, Yuejie; Xiao, Xia; Peng, Rong; Li, Hongjun

    2015-01-01

    The changes in fatty acid composition of total intramuscular lipid and phospholipids were investigated in the longissimus dorsi, left-hind leg muscle, and abdominal muscle of male Ira rabbits. Changes were monitored at 35, 45, 60, 75, and 90 d. Analysis using gas chromatography identified 21 types of fatty acids. Results showed that the intramuscular lipid increased and the intramuscular phospholipids (total intramuscular lipid %) decreased in all muscles with increasing age (pIra rabbits at different ages and muscles. Palmitic acid (C16:0), stearic acid (C18:0), oleic acid (C18:1), linoleic acid (C18:2), and arachidonic acid (C20:4) were the major fatty acids, which account to the dynamic changes of the n-6/n-3 value in Ira rabbit meat.

  8. Oleic and vaccenic acid levels in lipid clases of tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, R

    1976-07-01

    The isomeric octadecenoate composition of triglyceride, phosphatidyicholine, and phosphatidylethanolamine classes from a variety of rat and mouse tumors was examined. Phosphatidylethanolamine from the tumors contained a higher percentage of octadecenoate than reported for many normal tissues. The octadecenoate fractions of the three lipid classes from various tumors consisted of ca. 75% or greater oleate, with vaccenate making up the balance. These data indicate that the loss of lipid class specificity for isomeric octadecenoates reported in hepatomas (Lipids 10:746, 1975, and Lipids 9:987, 1974) also occurs in other tumors.

  9. Modification of fatty acids composition in erythrocytes lipids in arterial hypertension associated with dyslipidemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonyuk Marina V

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Modification of fatty acids (FA composition in erythrocytes lipids as an early indicator of the development of arterial hypertension (AH and lipid disorders. Methods We included 34 patients with arterial hypertension and 11 healthy individuals. Each patient was examined the lipid composition of serum. From erythrocytes by gas chromatography were identified fatty acids. The quantitative composition of the erythrocyte lipids FA in patients with AH presented with saturated and polyunsaturated monoenic acids with carbon chain lengths from C12 to C22. Results In all hypertensive patients is disturbed lipid FA composition of erythrocytes. The patients with a normal level of serum lipids revealed deficiency of polyunsaturated acids n6-linoleic (18:2 n6, arachidonic (20:4 n6, dokozatetraenic 14,4% (22:4 n6. The patients with dislipidemia installed more profound restructuring of the lipid matrix of the membrane of erythrocytes. A decrease in polyunsaturated fatty acids family n3: dokozapentaenovoy (22:5 n3, docosahexaenoic PUFA (22:6 n3, the total value of n3 PUFA in 1,3 times was revealed. Conclusion Thus, modification of erythrocyte FA are fairly subtle indicator of pathology of lipid metabolism, which manifest themselves much earlier than changes in the lipoprotein of blood plasma.

  10. Lipidic compounds associated with peat humic acids. Turpeen humushappoihin sitoutuneet lipidiyhdisteet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ketola, M.; Lehtonen, K. (Turku Univ. (Finland). Inst. of Chemistry and Biochemistry); Haenninen, K. (Joensuu Univ. (Finland). Inst. of Chemistry)

    1988-01-01

    Humic acids were extracted from a high-decomposed peat (H 6-7) and oxidized by CuO. The oxidation products, after methylation and silylation, were further analyzed for their lipid monomers by capillary gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The hydrophobic lipidic matter was found to account for 4 % of the oxidized humic acids soluble in ethyl acetate. The predominating constituents (90 %) were cyclic compounds, mainly hydroxy, oxo and carboxylic acid derivatives of triterpenoids with the lupane and friedelane skeletons. Triterpenoids are not previously reported in literature to be associated with humic acids. The minor part of identified lipids (10 %) consisted of aliphatics which mainly were fatty acids ranged from Cl4 to C30 with even-carbon predominance. Other lipidic compounds were {beta}-sitosterol and normal C24-alcohol. No n-alkanes were detected.

  11. Bioconversion of volatile fatty acids into lipids by the oleaginous yeast Yarrowia lipolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontanille, Pierre; Kumar, Vinod; Christophe, Gwendoline; Nouaille, Régis; Larroche, Christian

    2012-06-01

    The valorization of volatile fatty acids into microbial lipids by the oleaginous yeast Yarrowia lipolytica was investigated. Therefore, a two-stage fed-batch strategy was designed: the yeast was initially grown on glucose or glycerol as carbon source, then sequential additions of acetic acid under nitrogen limiting conditions were performed after glucose or glycerol exhaustion. The typical values obtained with an initial 40 g/L concentration of glucose were close to 31 g/L biomass, a lipid concentration of 12.4 g/L, which correspond to a lipid content of the biomass close to 40%. This cultivation strategy was also efficient with other volatile fatty acids (butyric and propionic acids) or with a mixture of these three VFAs. The lipids composition was found quite similar to that of vegetable oils. The study demonstrated the feasibility of simultaneous biovalorization of volatile fatty acids and glycerol, two cheap industrial by-products.

  12. Mechanisms of lipid malabsorption in Cystic Fibrosis: the impact of essential fatty acids deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peretti N

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Transport mechanisms, whereby alimentary lipids are digested and packaged into small emulsion particles that enter intestinal cells to be translocated to the plasma in the form of chylomicrons, are impaired in cystic fibrosis. The purpose of this paper is to focus on defects that are related to intraluminal and intracellular events in this life-limiting genetic disorder. Specific evidence is presented to highlight the relationship between fat malabsorption and essential fatty acid deficiency commonly found in patients with cystic fibrosis that are often related to the genotype. Given the interdependency of pulmonary disease, pancreatic insufficiency and nutritional status, greater attention should be paid to the optimal correction of fat malabsorption and essential fatty acid deficiency in order to improve the quality of life and extend the life span of patients with cystic fibrosis.

  13. Effect of O-acetylsalicylic acid on lipid synthesis by guinea pig gastric mucosa in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spohn, M.; McColl, I.

    1987-01-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the involvement of lipids as possible components of the gastric mucosal barrier by studying the synthesis and secretion of lipids by the epithelial cell lining of gastric mucosa and the effect of salicylate on these processes. O-Acetylsalicylic acid reversibly reduced in vitro incorporation of (U-/sup 14/C) and of DL-(2-/sup 14/C) mevalonic acid into lipids by isolated epithelial cells and by intact mucosa of guinea pig stomach, indicating reversible inhibition of lipid synthesis by the tissue in the presence of the drug. Inhibition of incorporation of both precursors into total lipids, into their fatty acid components, and into cholesterol is demonstrated. 19 refs.

  14. Effect of docosahexaenoic acid on interleukin-2 receptor signaling pathway in lipid rafts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) regulated the functions of membrane receptors in T cells and suppressed T cell -mediated immune responses. But the molecular mechanisms of immune regulation are not yet elucidated. Lipid rafts are plasma membrane microdomains, in which many receptors localized. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of DHA on IL-2R signaling pathway in lipid rafts. We isolated lipid rafts by discontinuous sucrose density gradient ultracentrifugation, and found that DHA could change the composition of lipid rafts and alter the distribution of key molecules of IL-2R signaling pathway, which transferred from lipid rafts to detergent-soluble membrane fractions. These results revealed that DHA treatment increased the proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids especially n(3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in lipid rafts and changed the lipid environment of membrane microdomains in T cells. Compared with controls, DHA changed the localization of IL-2R, STAT5a and STAT5b in lipid rafts and suppressed the expression of JAK1, JAK3 and tyrosine phosphotyrosine in soluble membrane fractions. Summarily, this study concluded the effects of DHA on IL-2R signaling pathway in lipid rafts and explained the regulation of PUFAs in T cell-mediated immune responses.

  15. Effect of acetic acid on lipid accumulation by glucose-fed activated sludge cultures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mondala, Andro; Hernandez, Rafael; French, Todd; McFarland, Linda; Sparks, Darrell; Holmes, William; Haque, Monica

    2012-01-01

    The effect of acetic acid, a lignocellulose hydrolysis by-product, on lipid accumulation by activated sludge cultures grown on glucose was investigated. This was done to assess the possible application of lignocellulose as low-cost and renewable fermentation substrates for biofuel feedstock production. Results: Biomass yield was reduced by around 54% at a 2 g L -1 acetic acid dosage but was increased by around 18% at 10 g L -1 acetic acid dosage relative to the control run. The final gravimetric lipid contents at 2 and 10 g L -1 acetic acid levels were 12.5 + 0.7% and 8.8 + 3.2% w/w, respectively, which were lower than the control (17.8 + 2.8% w/w). However, biodiesel yields from activated sludge grown with acetic acid (5.6 + 0.6% w/w for 2 g L -1 acetic acid and 4.2 + 3.0% w/w for 10 g L -1 acetic acid) were higher than in raw activated sludge (1-2% w/w). The fatty acid profiles of the accumulated lipids were similar with conventional plant oil biodiesel feedstocks. Conclusions: Acetic acid enhanced biomass production by activated sludge at high levels but reduced lipid production. Further studies are needed to enhance acetic acid utilization by activated sludge microorganisms for lipid biosynthesis.

  16. Effect of Alpha-lipoic Acid Supplementation on Serum Lipid Profile in Women with Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Mirtaheri

    2014-09-01

    Conclusions: In the present study, serum lipid profile was not significantly affected by ALA intervention. However, ALA supplementation aiming at prevention or treatment of dyslipidemia in RA patients should be further investigated. Keywords: Lipoic acid, Supplementation, Rheumatoid arthritis, Women, Lipid profile

  17. Analysis of epidermal lipids in normal and atopic dogs, before and after administration of an oral omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid feed supplement. A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popa, Iuliana; Pin, Didier; Remoué, Noëlle; Remoué, Nathalie; Osta, Bilal; Callejon, Sylvie; Videmont, Emilie; Gatto, Hugues; Portoukalian, Jacques; Haftek, Marek

    2011-12-01

    Alterations of the lipid expression in the skin of human and canine atopic subjects may be one of the key factors in the disease development. We have analyzed the ultrastructure of the clinically uninvolved skin of atopic dogs and compared it with the lipid composition of their tape-stripped stratum corneum (SC). The effect of a 2 month treatment of atopic dogs by food supplementation with a mixture of essential fatty acids was evaluated on skin samples taken before and after the treatment period. Electron microscopy revealed that the non-lesional skin of atopic dogs exhibited an abnormal and largely incomplete structure of the lamellar lipids with little cohesion between the corneocyte strata. The SC of atopic dogs was characterized by a significant decrease in the lipid content when compared to the healthy controls. Following oral supplementation with the mixture of essential fatty acids, the overall lipid content of the SC markedly increased. This feature was observed both with the free and, most importantly, with the protein-bound lipids (cholesterol, fatty acids and ceramides), the latter constituting the corneocyte-bound scaffold for ordinate organisation of the extracellular lipid bi-layers. Indeed, the semi-quantitative electron microscopy study revealed that the treatment resulted in a significantly improved organization of the lamellar lipids in the lower SC, comparable to that of the healthy dogs. Our results indicate the potential interest of long-term alimentary supplementation with omega-6 and omega-3 essential fatty acids in canine atopic dermatitis.

  18. LIPID CLASS DISTRIBUTION OF HIGHLY UNSATURATED LONG-CHAIN FATTY ACIDS IN MARINE DINOFLAGELLATES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Very-long-chain highly unsaturated C28 fatty acids (HUFAs), found in a number of dinoflagellates, are released as methyl esters from phospholipids obtained by fractionation of lipid extracts. By contrast, the highly unsaturated C18 fatty acid octadecapentaenoic acid (18:5n-3), co...

  19. How can lipid nanocarriers improve transdermal delivery of olanzapine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Nimra; Vitorino, Carla; Taylor, Kevin M G

    2016-11-23

    The development of a transdermal nanocarrier drug delivery system with potential for the treatment of psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, is described. Lipid nanocarriers (LN), encompassing various solid:liquid lipid compositions were formulated and assessed as potential nanosystems for transdermal delivery of olanzapine. A previously optimized method of hot high pressure homogenization (HPH) was adopted for the production of the LN, which comprised solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN), nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) and nanoemulsions (NE). Precirol( ®) was selected as the solid lipid for progression of studies. SLN exhibited the best performance for transdermal delivery of olanzapine, based on in vitro release and permeation studies, coupled with results from physicochemical characterization of several solid:liquid lipid formulations. Stability tests, performed to give an indication of long-term storage behavior of the formulations, were in good agreement with previous studies for the best choice of solid:liquid lipid ratio. Overall, these findings highlight the SLN-based formulation as promising for the further inclusion in and production of transdermal patches, representing an innovative therapeutic approach.

  20. Oxidative stability of structured lipids produced from sunflower oil and caprylic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timm Heinrich, Maike; Xu, Xuebing; Nielsen, Nina Skall;

    2003-01-01

    a commercial antioxidant blend Grindox 117 (propyl gallate/citric acid/ascorbyl palmitate) or gallic acid to the SL was investigated. The lipid type affected the oxidative stability: SL was less stable than SO and RL. The reduced stability was most likely caused by both the structure of the lipid......Traditional sunflower oil (SO), randomized lipid (RL) and specific structured lipid (SL), both produced from SO and tricaprylin/caprylic acid, respectively, were stored for up to 12 wk to compare their oxidative stabilities by chemical and sensory analyses. Furthermore, the effect of adding...... and differences in production/purification, which caused lower tocopherol content and higher initial levels of primary and secondary oxidation products in SL compared with RL and SO. Grindox 117 and gallic acid did not exert a distinct antioxidative effect in the SL oil samples during storage...

  1. Ascorbic acid protects lipids in human plasma and low-density lipoprotein against oxidative damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frei, B. (Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (Unites States))

    1991-12-01

    The authors exposed human blood plasma and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) to many different oxidative challenges and followed the temporal consumption of endogenous antioxidants in relation to the initiation of oxidative damage. Under all types of oxidizing conditions, ascorbic acid completely protects lipids in plasma and LDL against detectable peroxidative damage as assessed by a specific and highly sensitive assay for lipid peroxidation. Ascorbic acid proved to be superior to the other water-soluble plasma antioxidants bilirubin, uric acid, and protein thiols as well as to the lipoprotein-associated antioxidants alpha-tocopherol, ubiquinol-10, lycopene, and beta-carotene. Although these antioxidants can lower the rate of detectable lipid peroxidation, they are not able to prevent its initiation. Only ascorbic acid is reactive enough to effectively intercept oxidants in the aqueous phase before they can attack and cause detectable oxidative damage to lipids.

  2. Pinolenic Acid Downregulates Lipid Anabolic Pathway in HepG2 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ah Ron; Han, Sung Nim

    2016-07-01

    Pine nut oil (PNO) was reported to reduce lipid accumulation in the liver. However, the specific effect of pinolenic acid (18:3, all-cis-Δ5,9,12), a unique component of PNO, on lipid metabolism has not been studied. We hypothesized that pinolenic acid downregulates the lipid anabolic pathway in HepG2 cells. HepG2 cells were incubated in serum-free medium supplemented with 50 μM bovine serum albumin (BSA), palmitic acid, oleic acid, γ-linolenic acid, pinolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), or α-linolenic acid for 24 h. Lipid accumulation was determined by Oil Red O (ORO) staining. The mRNA levels of genes related to fatty acid biosynthesis (SREBP1c, FAS, SCD1, and ACC1), fatty acid oxidation (ACC2, PPARα, CPT1A, and ACADL), cholesterol synthesis (SREBP2 and HMGCR), and lipoprotein uptake (LDLr) and of genes that may be involved in the downregulation of the lipogenic pathway (ACSL3, ACSL4, and ACSL5) were determined by qPCR. LDLR protein levels were measured by Western blot analysis. The mRNA levels of SREBP1c, FAS, and SCD1 were significantly downregulated by pinolenic acid treatment compared to BSA control (53, 54, and 38 % lower, respectively). In addition, the mRNA levels of HMGCR, ACSL3, and LDLr were significantly lower (30, 30, and 43 % lower, respectively), and ACSL4 tended to be lower in the pinolenic acid group (20 % lower, P = 0.082) relative to the control group. In conclusion, pinolenic acid downregulated the lipid anabolic pathway in HepG2 cells by reducing expression of genes related to lipid synthesis, lipoprotein uptake, and the regulation of the lipogenic pathway.

  3. Lipid Classes and Fatty Acids in Ophryotrocha cyclops, a Dorvilleid from Newfoundland Aquaculture Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvo, Flora; Dufour, Suzanne C; Hamoutene, Dounia; Parrish, Christopher C

    2015-01-01

    A new opportunistic annelid (Ophryotrocha cyclops) discovered on benthic substrates underneath finfish aquaculture sites in Newfoundland (NL) may be involved in the remediation of organic wastes. At those aquaculture sites, bacterial mats and O. cyclops often coexist and are used as indicators of organic enrichment. Little is known on the trophic strategies used by these annelids, including whether they might consume bacteria or other aquaculture-derived wastes. We studied the lipid and fatty acid composition of the annelids and their potential food sources (degraded flocculent organic matter, fresh fish pellets and bacterial mats) to investigate feeding relationships in these habitats and compared the lipid and fatty acid composition of annelids before and after starvation. Fish pellets were rich in lipids, mainly terrestrially derived C18 fatty acids (18:1ω9, 18:2ω6, 18:3ω3), while bacterial samples were mainly composed of ω7 fatty acids, and flocculent matter appeared to be a mixture of fresh and degrading fish pellets, feces and bacteria. Ophryotrocha cyclops did not appear to store excessive amounts of lipids (13%) but showed a high concentration of ω3 and ω6 fatty acids, as well as a high proportion of the main fatty acids contained in fresh fish pellets and bacterial mats. The dorvilleids and all potential food sources differed significantly in their lipid and fatty acid composition. Interestingly, while all food sources contained low proportions of 20:5ω3 and 20:2ω6, the annelids showed high concentrations of these two fatty acids, along with 20:4ω6. A starvation period of 13 days did not result in a major decrease in total lipid content; however, microscopic observations revealed that very few visible lipid droplets remained in the gut epithelium after three months of starvation. Ophryotrocha cyclops appears well adapted to extreme environments and may rely on lipid-rich organic matter for survival and dispersal in cold environments.

  4. Metabolism of fatty acids and lipid hydroperoxides in human body monitoring with Fourier transform Infrared Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Qin-Zeng

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The metabolism of dietary fatty acids in human has been measured so far using human blood cells and stable-isotope labeled fatty acids, however, no direct data was available for human peripheral tissues and other major organs. To realize the role of dietary fatty acids in human health and diseases, it would be eager to develop convenient and suitable method to monitor fatty acid metabolism in human. Results We have developed the measurement system in situ for human lip surface lipids using the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR – attenuated total reflection (ATR detection system with special adaptor to monitor metabolic changes of lipids in human body. As human lip surface lipids may not be much affected by skin sebum constituents and may be affected directly by the lipid constituents of diet, we could detect changes of FTIR-ATR spectra, especially at 3005~3015 cm-1, of lip surface polyunsaturated fatty acids in a duration time-dependent manner after intake of the docosahexaenoic acid (DHA-containing triglyceride diet. The ingested DHA appeared on the lip surface and was detected by FTIR-ATR directly and non-invasively. It was found that the metabolic rates of DHA for male volunteer subjects with age 60s were much lower than those with age 20s. Lipid hydroperoxides were found in lip lipids which were extracted from the lip surface using a mixture of ethanol/ethylpropionate/iso-octane solvents, and were the highest in the content just before noon. The changes of lipid hydroperoxides were detected also in situ with FTIR-ATR at 968 cm-1. Conclusion The measurements of lip surface lipids with FTIR-ATR technique may advance the investigation of human lipid metabolism in situ non-invasively.

  5. Lipid oxidation stability of omega-3- and conjugated linoleic acid-enriched sous vide chicken meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narciso-Gaytán, C; Shin, D; Sams, A R; Keeton, J T; Miller, R K; Smith, S B; Sánchez-Plata, M X

    2011-02-01

    Lipid oxidation is known to occur rather rapidly in cooked chicken meat containing relatively high amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids. To assess the lipid oxidation stability of sous vide chicken meat enriched with n-3 and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) fatty acids, 624 Cobb × Ross broilers were raised during a 6-wk feeding period. The birds were fed diets containing CLA (50% cis-9, trans-11 and 50% trans-10, cis-12 isomers), flaxseed oil (FSO), or menhaden fish oil (MFO), each supplemented with 42 or 200 mg/kg of vitamin E (dl-α-tocopheryl acetate). Breast or thigh meat was vacuum-packed, cooked (74°C), cooled in ice water, and stored at 4.4°C for 0, 5, 10, 15, and 30 d. The lipid oxidation development of the meat was estimated by quantification of malonaldehyde (MDA) values, using the 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances analysis. Fatty acid, nonheme iron, moisture, and fat analyses were performed as well. Results showed that dietary CLA induced deposition of cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 CLA isomers, increased the proportion of saturated fatty acids, and decreased the proportions of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Flaxseed oil induced higher deposition of C18:1, C18:2, C18:3, and C20:4 fatty acids, whereas MFO induced higher deposition of n-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5), and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6; P 0.05) lipid oxidation development. In conclusion, dietary CLA, FSO, and MFO influenced the fatty acid composition of chicken muscle and the lipid oxidation stability of meat over the storage time. Supranutritional supplementation of vitamin E enhanced the lipid oxidation stability of sous vide chicken meat.

  6. Maternal omega-3 fatty acids and micronutrients modulate fetal lipid metabolism: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaire, Amrita A; Kale, Anvita A; Joshi, Sadhana R

    2015-07-01

    It is well established that alterations in the mother's diet or metabolism during pregnancy has long-term adverse effects on the lipid metabolism in the offspring. There is growing interest in the role of specific nutrients especially omega-3 fatty acids in the pathophysiology of lipid disorders. A series of studies carried out in humans and rodents in our department have consistently suggested a link between omega-3 fatty acids especially docosahexaenoic acid and micronutrients (vitamin B12 and folic acid) in the one carbon metabolic cycle and its effect on the fatty acid metabolism, hepatic transcription factors and DNA methylation patterns. However the association of maternal intake or metabolism of these nutrients with fetal lipid metabolism is relatively less explored. In this review, we provide insights into the role of maternal omega-3 fatty acids and vitamin B12 and their influence on fetal lipid metabolism through various mechanisms which influence phosphatidylethanolamine-N-methyltransferase activity, peroxisome proliferator activated receptor, adiponectin signaling pathway and epigenetic process like chromatin methylation. This will help understand the possible mechanisms involved in fetal lipid metabolism and may provide important clues for the prevention of lipid disorders in the offspring.

  7. Identification of furan fatty acids in the lipids of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chvalová, Daniela; Špička, Jiří

    2016-06-01

    Fatty acid (FA) composition was analyzed in muscle and gonad tissues of marketed common carp (Cyprinus carpio). The extracted lipids were separated into four fractions: polar lipids (PL), diacylglycerols, free fatty acids and triacylglycerols (TAG) using thin layer chromatography. FA content within the lipid fractions was determined by gas chromatography with flame ionization detector (GC/FID). The muscle lipids consisted primarily of TAG (96.9% of total FA), while PL were the major component of both male (67.6%) and female gonad (58.6%) lipids. Polyunsaturated fatty acids predominated in PL of all tissues (52.2-55.8% of total FA); monounsaturated fatty acids were the most abundant FA group in TAG of muscle (51.8%) and female gonads (47.8%) whereas high proportion of furan fatty acids (F-acids) (38.2%) was detected in TAG of male gonads. Eight F-acids were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) in male gonad samples, including less common 12,15-epoxy-13,14-dimethylnonadeca-12,14-dienoic acid with even-numbered alkyl moiety.

  8. Bioconversion of volatile fatty acids derived from waste activated sludge into lipids by Cryptococcus curvatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia; Liu, Jia-Nan; Yuan, Ming; Shen, Zi-Heng; Peng, Kai-Ming; Lu, Li-Jun; Huang, Xiang-Feng

    2016-07-01

    Pure volatile fatty acid (VFA) solution derived from waste activated sludge (WAS) was used to produce microbial lipids as culture medium in this study, which aimed to realize the resource recovery of WAS and provide low-cost feedstock for biodiesel production simultaneously. Cryptococcus curvatus was selected among three oleaginous yeast to produce lipids with VFAs derived from WAS. In batch cultivation, lipid contents increased from 10.2% to 16.8% when carbon to nitrogen ratio increased from about 3.5 to 165 after removal of ammonia nitrogen by struvite precipitation. The lipid content further increased to 39.6% and the biomass increased from 1.56g/L to 4.53g/L after cultivation for five cycles using sequencing batch culture (SBC) strategy. The lipids produced from WAS-derived VFA solution contained nearly 50% of monounsaturated fatty acids, including palmitic acid, heptadecanoic acid, ginkgolic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, and linoleic acid, which showed the adequacy of biodiesel production.

  9. Regulation of amino-acid metabolism controls flux to lipid accumulation in Yarrowia lipolytica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kerkhoven, Eduard J.; Pomraning, Kyle R.; Baker, Scott E.

    2016-01-01

    Yarrowia lipolytica is a promising microbial cell factory for the production of lipids to be used as fuels and chemicals, but there are few studies on regulation of its metabolism. Here we performed the first integrated data analysis of Y. lipolytica grown in carbon and nitrogen limited chemostat...... cultures. We first reconstructed a genome-scale metabolic model and used this for integrative analysis of multilevel omics data. Metabolite profiling and lipidomics was used to quantify the cellular physiology, while regulatory changes were measured using RNAseq. Analysis of the data showed that lipid...... accumulation in Y. lipolytica does not involve transcriptional regulation of lipid metabolism but is associated with regulation of amino-acid biosynthesis, resulting in redirection of carbon flux during nitrogen limitation from amino acids to lipids. Lipid accumulation in Y. lipolytica at nitrogen limitation...

  10. Oxidative stability of milk drinks containing structured lipids produced from sunflower oil and caprylic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timm Heinrich, Maike; Xu, Xuebing; Nielsen, Nina Skall;

    2003-01-01

    of adding potential antioxidants EDTA or gallic acid to the milk drink based on SL was investigated. The lipid type significantly affected the oxidative stability of the milk drinks: Milk drink based on SL oxidized faster than milk drink based on RL or SO. The reduced oxidative stability in the SL milk...... drink could not be ascribed was most likely influenced by the structure of the lipid and to a single factor, differences in the process applied to produce and purify the lipids. EDTA was a strong antioxidant, while gallic acid did not exert a distinct antioxidative effect in the milk drink based on SL....

  11. Lipoic acid entrains the hepatic circadian clock and lipid metabolic proteins that have been desynchronized with advanced age

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keith, Dove; Finlay, Liam; Butler, Judy [Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University (United States); Gómez, Luis; Smith, Eric [Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University (United States); Biochemistry Biophysics Department, Oregon State University (United States); Moreau, Régis [Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University (United States); Hagen, Tory, E-mail: Tory.Hagen@oregonstate.edu [Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University (United States); Biochemistry Biophysics Department, Oregon State University (United States)

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • 24 month old rats were supplemented with 0.2% lipoic acid in the diet for 2 weeks. • Lipoic acid shifts phase of core circadian clock proteins. • Lipoic acid corrects age-induced desynchronized lipid metabolism rhythms. - Abstract: It is well established that lipid metabolism is controlled, in part, by circadian clocks. However, circadian clocks lose temporal precision with age and correlates with elevated incidence in dyslipidemia and metabolic syndrome in older adults. Because our lab has shown that lipoic acid (LA) improves lipid homeostasis in aged animals, we hypothesized that LA affects the circadian clock to achieve these results. We fed 24 month old male F344 rats a diet supplemented with 0.2% (w/w) LA for 2 weeks prior to sacrifice and quantified hepatic circadian clock protein levels and clock-controlled lipid metabolic enzymes. LA treatment caused a significant phase-shift in the expression patterns of the circadian clock proteins Period (Per) 2, Brain and Muscle Arnt-Like1 (BMAL1), and Reverse Erythroblastosis virus (Rev-erb) β without altering the amplitude of protein levels during the light phase of the day. LA also significantly altered the oscillatory patterns of clock-controlled proteins associated with lipid metabolism. The level of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) α was significantly increased and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) and fatty acid synthase (FAS) were both significantly reduced, suggesting that the LA-supplemented aged animals are in a catabolic state. We conclude that LA remediates some of the dyslipidemic processes associated with advanced age, and this mechanism may be at least partially through entrainment of circadian clocks.

  12. Associations of human retinal very long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids with dietary lipid biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorusupudi, Aruna; Liu, Aihua; Hageman, Gregory S; Bernstein, Paul S

    2016-03-01

    The human retina is well-known to have unique lipid profiles enriched in long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) and very long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (VLC-PUFAs) that appear to promote normal retinal structure and function, but the influence of diet on retinal lipid profiles in health and disease remains controversial. In this study, we examined two independent cohorts of donor eyes and related their retinal lipid profiles with systemic biomarkers of lipid intake. We found that serum and red blood cell lipids, and to a lesser extent orbital fat, are indeed excellent biomarkers of retinal lipid content and n-3/n-6 ratios in both the LC-PUFA and VLC-PUFA series. Eyes from age-related macular degeneration (AMD) donors have significantly decreased levels of VLC-PUFAs and low n-3/n-6 ratios. These results are consistent with the protective role of dietary n-3 LC-PUFAs against AMD and emphasize the importance of monitoring systemic biomarkers of lipid intake when undertaking clinical trials of lipid supplements for prevention and treatment of retinal disease.

  13. A conditional mutant of the fatty acid synthase unveils unexpected cross talks in mycobacterial lipid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabruja, Matías; Mondino, Sonia; Tsai, Yi Ting; Lara, Julia; Gramajo, Hugo; Gago, Gabriela

    2017-02-01

    Unlike most bacteria, mycobacteria rely on the multi-domain enzyme eukaryote-like fatty acid synthase I (FAS I) to make fatty acids de novo. These metabolites are precursors of the biosynthesis of most of the lipids present both in the complex mycobacteria cell wall and in the storage lipids inside the cell. In order to study the role of the type I FAS system in Mycobacterium lipid metabolism in vivo, we constructed a conditional mutant in the fas-acpS operon of Mycobacterium smegmatis and analysed in detail the impact of reduced de novo fatty acid biosynthesis on the global architecture of the cell envelope. As expected, the mutant exhibited growth defect in the non-permissive condition that correlated well with the lower expression of fas-acpS and the concomitant reduction of FAS I, confirming that FAS I is essential for survival. The reduction observed in FAS I provoked an accumulation of its substrates, acetyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA, and a strong reduction of C12 to C18 acyl-CoAs, but not of long-chain acyl-CoAs (C19 to C24). The most intriguing result was the ability of the mutant to keep synthesizing mycolic acids when fatty acid biosynthesis was impaired. A detailed comparative lipidomic analysis showed that although reduced FAS I levels had a strong impact on fatty acid and phospholipid biosynthesis, mycolic acids were still being synthesized in the mutant, although with a different relative species distribution. However, when triacylglycerol degradation was inhibited, mycolic acid biosynthesis was significantly reduced, suggesting that storage lipids could be an intracellular reservoir of fatty acids for the biosynthesis of complex lipids in mycobacteria. Understanding the interaction between FAS I and the metabolic pathways that rely on FAS I products is a key step to better understand how lipid homeostasis is regulated in this microorganism and how this regulation could play a role during infection in pathogenic mycobacteria.

  14. Improved cytotoxicity of paclitaxel loaded in nanosized lipid carriers by intracellular delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miao, Jing, E-mail: joemj1005@163.com, E-mail: miaojing@zju.edu.cn [Zhejiang University, Department of Pharmacy, the First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine (China); Du, Yongzhong; Yuan, Hong [Zhejiang University, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences (China); Zhang, Xingguo; Li, Qian; Rao, Yuefeng [Zhejiang University, Department of Pharmacy, the First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine (China); Zhao, Mengdan [Zhejiang University, Women’s Hospital, College of Medicine (China); Hu, Fuqiang, E-mail: hufq@zju.edu.cn [Zhejiang University, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences (China)

    2015-01-15

    Nanosized lipid carriers (NLC) can improve the limited drug-loading (DL) capacity and drug expulsion during storage, and adjust the drug release profile of solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN). In this study, Paclitaxel (PTX)-loaded NLC were prepared by solvent diffusion method using monostearin as solid lipid and oleic acid (OA) as liquid lipid matrix. The blank NLC with different OA content (the size range was from 89.5 ± 7.4 to 160.2 ± 34.6 nm) showed smaller size than the blank SLN (the size was 272.7 ± 43.6 nm), while the PTX-loaded NLC (the size range was from 481.3 ± 29.8 to 561.7 ± 38.3 nm) showed little bigger size, higher DL capacity, and faster drug in vitro release rate comparing with SLN (the size was 437.3 ± 68.2 nm). The 50 % cellular growth inhibitions (IC{sub 50}) of PTX-loaded NLC with 0, 5, 10, and 20 wt % OA were 0.92 ± 0.06, 0.69 ± 0.04, 0.25 ± 0.02, and 0.12 ± 0.02 µg mL{sup −1}, respectively, while the IC{sub 50} of Taxol{sup TM} was 1.72 ± 0.09 µg mL{sup −1}. For analyzing cellular drug effect, cellular uptakes of fluorescent NLC and intracellular drug concentration were investigated. As the incorporation of OA into solid lipid matrix could accelerate both the cellular uptake and the PTX delivery, loaded by NLC, the cytotoxicity of PTX could be enhanced, and further enhanced by increasing OA content in NLC.

  15. Ether- and Ester-Bound iso-Diabolic Acid and Other Lipids in Members of

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Rijpstra, W.I.C.; Hopmans, E.C.; Foesel, B.U.; Wüst, P.K.; Overmann, J.; Tank, M.; Bryant, D.A.; Dunfield, P.F.; Houghton, K.; Stott, M.

    2014-01-01

    Recently, iso-diabolic acid (13,16-dimethyl octacosanedioic acid) has been identified as a major membrane-spanning lipid of subdivisions 1 and 3 of the Acidobacteria, a highly diverse phylum within the Bacteria. This finding pointed to the Acidobacteria as a potential source for the bacterial glycer

  16. Activity of caffeic acid in different fish lipid matrices: A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Medina, Isabel; Undeland, Ingrid; Larsson, Karin

    2012-01-01

    Caffeic acid, a hydroxycinnamic acid common in different vegetable sources, has been employed as a natural antioxidant for inhibiting oxidation of fish lipids present in different food matrices. The aim of this review is to discuss the mechanisms involved in the antioxidative and prooxidative...

  17. Preparation and In Vitro Evaluation of Glycyrrhetinic Acid-Modified Curcumin-Loaded Nanostructured Lipid Carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Chu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Curcumin, a phenolic antioxidant compound derived from the rhizome of the turmeric plant Curcuma longa, has proven to be a modulator of intracellular signaling pathways that control cancer cell growth, inflammation, invasion and apoptosis, revealing its anticancer potential. In this study, a Glycyrrhetinic Acid-Modified Curcumin-Loaded Nanostructured Lipid Carrier (Cur-GA-PEG-NLC was prepared by the film ultrasound method to improve the tumor-targeting ability. The drug content was detected by an UV spectrophotometry method. The encapsulation efficiency of curcumin in the nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs was determined using a mini-column centrifugation method. The encapsulation efficiency for various Cur-GA-PEG-NLC was within the range of 90.06%–95.31% and particle size was between 123.1 nm and 132.7 nm. An in vitro MTT assay showed that Cur-GA10%-PEG-NLC had significantly high cellular uptake and cytotoxicity against HepG2 cells compared with other groups.

  18. Baker's Yeast Deficient in Storage Lipid Synthesis Uses cis-Vaccenic Acid to Reduce Unsaturated Fatty Acid Toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sec, Peter; Garaiova, Martina; Gajdos, Peter; Certik, Milan; Griac, Peter; Hapala, Ivan; Holic, Roman

    2015-07-01

    The role of cis-vaccenic acid (18:1n-7) in the reduction of unsaturated fatty acids toxicity was investigated in baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The quadruple mutant (QM, dga1Δ lro1Δ are1Δ are2Δ) deficient in enzymes responsible for triacylglycerol and steryl ester synthesis has been previously shown to be highly sensitive to exogenous unsaturated fatty acids. We have found that cis-vaccenic acid accumulated during cultivation in the QM cells but not in the corresponding wild type strain. This accumulation was accompanied by a reduction in palmitoleic acid (16:1n-7) content in the QM cells that is consistent with the proposed formation of cis-vaccenic acid by elongation of palmitoleic acid. Fatty acid analysis of individual lipid classes from the QM strain revealed that cis-vaccenic acid was highly enriched in the free fatty acid pool. Furthermore, production of cis-vaccenic acid was arrested if the mechanism of fatty acids release to the medium was activated. We also showed that exogenous cis-vaccenic acid did not affect viability of the QM strain at concentrations toxic for palmitoleic or oleic acids. Moreover, addition of cis-vaccenic acid to the growth medium provided partial protection against the lipotoxic effects of exogenous oleic acid. Transformation of palmitoleic acid to cis-vaccenic acid is thus a rescue mechanism enabling S. cerevisiae cells to survive in the absence of triacylglycerol synthesis as the major mechanism for unsaturated fatty acid detoxification.

  19. Preparation and evaluation of ofloxacin-loaded palmitic acid solid lipid nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuyu Xie

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Shuyu Xie, Luyan Zhu, Zhao Dong, Yan Wang, Xiaofang Wang, WenZhong ZhouDepartment of Preventive Veterinary Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, China Agricultural University, Beijing, People’s Republic of ChinaAbstract: The purpose of this study was to use solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN to improve the pharmacological activity of ofloxacin. Ofloxacin-loaded SLN were prepared using palmitic acid as lipid matrix and poly vinyl alcohol (PVA as emulsifier by a hot homogenization and ultrasonication method. The physicochemical characteristics of SLN were investigated by optical microscope, scanning electron microscopy, and photon correlation spectroscopy. Pharmacokinetics was studied after oral administration in mice. In vitro antibacterial activity and in vivo antibacterial efficacy of the SLN were investigated using minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC and a mouse protection model. The results demonstrated that the encapsulation efficiency, loading capacity, diameter, polydispersivity index, and zeta potential of the nanoparticles were 41.36% ± 1.50%, 4.40% ± 0.16%, 156.33 ± 7.51 nm, 0.26 ± 0.04, and –22.70 ± 1.40 mv, respectively. The SLN showed sustained release and enhanced antibacterial activity in vitro. Pharmacokinetic results demonstrated that SLN increased the bioavailability of ofloxacin by 2.27-fold, and extended the mean residence time of the drug from 10.50 to 43.44 hours. Single oral administrations of ofloxacin-loaded nanoparticles at 3 drug doses, 5 mg/kg, 10 mg/kg, and 20 mg/kg, all produced higher survival rates of lethal infected mice compared with native ofloxacin. These results indicate that SLN might be a promising delivery system to enhance the pharmacological activity of ofloxacin.Keywords: ofloxacin, pharmacological activity, solid lipid nanoparticles, antibacterial activity

  20. Culture strategies for lipid production using acetic acid as sole carbon source by Rhodosporidium toruloides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiang-Feng; Liu, Jia-Nan; Lu, Li-Jun; Peng, Kai-Ming; Yang, Gao-Xiang; Liu, Jia

    2016-04-01

    Rhodosporidium toruloides AS 2.1389 was tested using different concentrations of acetic acid as a low-cost carbon source for the production of microbial lipids, which are good raw materials for biodiesel production. It grew and had higher lipid contents in media containing 4-20 g/L acetic acid as the sole carbon source, compared with that in glucose-containing media under the same culture conditions. At acetic acid concentrations as high as 20 g/L and the optimal carbon-to-nitrogen ratio (C/N) of 200 in a batch culture, the highest biomass production was 4.35 g/L, with a lipid content of 48.2%. At acetic acid concentrations as low as 4 g/L, a sequencing batch culture (SBC) with a C/N of 100 increased biomass production to 4.21 g/L, with a lipid content of 38.6%. These results provide usable culture strategies for lipid production by R. toruloides AS 2.1389 when using diverse waste-derived volatile fatty acids.

  1. Lipids and Fatty Acids of Nudibranch Mollusks: Potential Sources of Bioactive Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia V. Zhukova

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The molecular diversity of chemical compounds found in marine animals offers a good chance for the discovery of novel bioactive compounds of unique structures and diverse biological activities. Nudibranch mollusks, which are not protected by a shell and produce chemicals for various ecological uses, including defense against predators, have attracted great interest for their lipid composition. Lipid analysis of eight nudibranch species revealed dominant phospholipids, sterols and monoalkyldiacylglycerols. Among polar lipids, 1-alkenyl-2-acyl glycerophospholipids (plasmalogens and ceramide-aminoethyl phosphonates were found in the mollusks. The fatty acid compositions of the nudibranchs differed greatly from those of other marine gastropods and exhibited a wide diversity: very long chain fatty acids known as demospongic acids, a series of non-methylene-interrupted fatty acids, including unusual 21:2∆7,13, and an abundance of various odd and branched fatty acids typical of bacteria. Symbiotic bacteria revealed in some species of nudibranchs participate presumably in the production of some compounds serving as a chemical defense for the mollusks. The unique fatty acid composition of the nudibranchs is determined by food supply, inherent biosynthetic activities and intracellular symbiotic microorganisms. The potential of nudibranchs as a source of biologically active lipids and fatty acids is also discussed.

  2. Acidic composition of gilthead seabream fillets (Sparus aurata L. fed with different lipid sources: preliminary evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Balestri

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Dietary lipids play an important role in fish nutrition as a source provision of body energy and essential fatty acids (EFA (Sargent et al., 1999. The low availability and the high exspense of fish oil could suggest the use of an alternative lipid source in aquaculture (Turchini et al., 2000. Alternative sources of PUFA are represented by vegetable oils, but their composition is not satisfactory for the requirements of the different species of rearing fishes...

  3. Free fatty acid profiles of emulsified lipids during in vitro digestion with pancreatic lipase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xianqian; Ye, Aiqian; Verrier, Timothee; Singh, Harjinder

    2013-08-15

    Individual free fatty acids released from milk protein-stabilized emulsions prepared with milk fat, soya bean oil or tuna fish oil during in vitro digestion with pancreatic lipase were monitored using gas chromatography. The results showed that saturated fatty acids (C16:0 and C18:0) were released faster than unsaturated fatty acids (C18:1n9, C18:2n6 and C18:3n3) from soya bean oil emulsions; short chain fatty acids were released faster than long chain fatty acids from milk fat emulsions; long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, were released more slowly than other fatty acids from fish oil emulsions. The results confirm that the release behaviour of fatty acids from emulsions during digestion is related not only to the position of the fatty acids in the triglycerides in the fat/oil, but also to the length of the carbon chain of the fatty acid. The rates and the extents of the digestion of lipids consisting of short chain fatty acids are higher than those of lipids consisting of long chain fatty acids.

  4. Fatty Acid Characteristics of Isochrysis galbana Lipids Extracted Using a Microwave-Assisted Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherng-Yuan Lin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Lipids were extracted from Isochrysis galbana using a microwave-assisted method accompanied by various types of organic solvents. The effects of organic solvent type and microwave input energy on the fatty acid characteristics of the extracted lipids and their biodiesel product were investigated. Variations in the characteristics of the lipids extracted using a combination of n-hexane and iso-propanol solvents in both emulsion and direct mixtures were also compared. The experimental results showed that greater quantities of Isochrysis galbana lipids, and fatty acid methyl esters transesterified from those lipids, were extracted when using microwave irradiation with an organic solvent mixture of n-hexane and isopropanol in a 2:1 volumetric ratio than when using either n-hexane or isopropanol as the sole solvent. A greater quantity of Isochrysis galbana lipids was extracted when an emulsion of isopropanol solvent evenly dispersed in the continuous phase of n-hexane solvent was used than when a direct mixture of the two solvents was used. In addition, the quantity of lipids extracted from the dried Isochrysis galbana powder with the assistance of microwave irradiation was 9.08 wt% greater than when using traditional Soxhlet extraction without microwave irradiation.

  5. Vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids together regulate lipid metabolism in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaire, Amrita; Rathod, Richa; Kale, Anvita; Joshi, Sadhana

    2015-08-01

    Our recent study indicates that maternal vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acid status influence plasma and erythrocyte fatty acid profile in dams. The present study examines the effects of prenatal and postnatal vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acid status on lipid metabolism in the offspring. Pregnant dams were divided into five groups: Control; Vitamin B12 deficient (BD); Vitamin B12 supplemented (BS); Vitamin B12 deficient group supplemented with omega-3 fatty acids (BDO); Vitamin B12 supplemented group with omega-3 fatty acids (BSO). The offspring were continued on the same diets till 3 month of age. Vitamin B12 deficiency increased cholesterol levels (pomega-3 fatty acids together play a crucial role in regulating the genes involved in lipid metabolism in adult offspring.

  6. Lipid and fatty acid analysis of uninfected and granulosis virus-infected Plodia interpunctella larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shastri-Bhalla, K.; Consigli, R. A.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1994-01-01

    A comparative study on the lipid and fatty acid composition of the uninfected and GV-infected Plodia interpunctella larvae was performed. Higher levels of free fatty acids were found in GV-infected larvae compared to those of the uninfected larvae, while the latter had more triacylglycerol compared to the former. The known identified phospholipids were fewer in the GV-infected larvae compared to those in the uninfected larvae. However, an unidentified phospholipid was found to be approximately two times higher in GV-infected larvae. The total lipid of both larvae had palmitic, oleic, and linoleic as the major fatty acids. The fatty acid composition of the GV-infected larval phospholipid differed considerably compared to that of the uninfected larvae, in that the ratio of unsaturated fatty acid to saturated fatty acid was 3.5 times less in the GV-infected larvae.

  7. Lipid and Fatty Acid Compositions of Cod(Gadus morhua),Haddock(Melanogrammus aeglefinus)and Halibut(Hippogiossus hippoglossus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Duan; MAI Kangsen; AI Qinghui; Joyce E.Milley; Santosh P.Lall

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted to compare lipid and fatty acid composition of cod,haddock and halibut.Three groups of cod(276 g±61 g),haddock(538 g±83 g)and halibut(3704 g±221 g)were maintained with commercial feeds mainly based on fish meal and marine fish oil for 12 weeks prior to sampling.The fatty acid compositions of muscle and liver were determined by GC/FID after derivatization of extracted lipids into fatty acid methyl esters(FAME).Lipids were also fractionated into neutral and polar lipids using Waters silica Sep-Pak(R).The phospholipid fraction was further separated by high-performance thin-layer chromatography(HPTLC)and the FAME profile was obtained.Results of the present study showed that cod and haddock were lean fish and their total muscle lipid contents were 0.8% and 0.7%,respectively,with phospholipid constituting 83.6% and 87.5% of the total muscle lipid,respectively.Halibut was a medium-fat fish and its muscle lipid content was 8%,with 84% of the total muscle lipid being neutral lipid.Total liver lipid contents of cod,haddock and halibut were 36.9%,67.2% and 30.7%,respectively,of which the neutral lipids accounted for the major fraction(88.1%-97.1%).Polyunsaturated fatty acids were the most abundant in cod and haddock muscle neutral lipid.Monounsaturated fatty acid level was the highest in halibut muscle neutral lipid.Fatty acid compositions of phospholipid were relatively constant.In summary,the liver of cod and haddock as lean fish was the main lipid reserve organ,and structural phospholipid is the major lipid form in flesh.However,as a medium-fat fish,halibut stored lipid in both their liver and muscle.

  8. Enhancement of lipid production and fatty acid profiling in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, CC1010 for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpagam, R; Preeti, R; Ashokkumar, B; Varalakshmi, P

    2015-11-01

    Lipid from microalgae is one of the putative oil resources to facilitate the biodiesel production during this era of energy dissipation and environmental pollution. In this study, the key parameters such as biomass productivity, lipid productivity and lipid content were evaluated at the early stationary phase of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, CC1010 cultivated in nutrient starved (nitrogen, phosphorous), glucose (0.05%, 0.1%, 0.15% and 0.2%) and vitamin B12 supplementation (0.001%, 0.002% and 0.003%) in Tris-Acetate-Phosphate (TAP) medium. The lipid content in nitrogen starved media was 61% which is 2.34 folds higher than nutrient sufficient TAP medium. Glucose supplementation has lead to proportional increase in biomass productivity with the increasing concentration of glucose whereas vitamin B12 supplementations had not shown any influence in lipid and biomass production. Further, fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) profiling of C. reinhardtii, CC 1010 has revealed more than 80% of total SFA (saturated fatty acid) and MUFA (mono unsaturated fatty acid) content. Quality checking parameters of biodiesel like cetane number, saponification value, iodine number and degree of unsaturation were analyzed and the biodiesel fuel properties were found to be appropriate as per the international standards, EN 14214 and ASTM D6751. Conclusively, among all the treatments, nitrogen starvation with 0.1% glucose supplementation had yielded high lipid content in C. reinhardtii, CC 1010.

  9. The Relationship between Dietary Fatty Acids and Inflammatory Genes on the Obese Phenotype and Serum Lipids

    OpenAIRE

    Yael T. Joffe; Malcolm Collins; Goedecke, Julia H.

    2013-01-01

    Obesity, a chronic low-grade inflammatory condition is associated with the development of many comorbidities including dyslipidemia. This review examines interactions between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in the inflammatory genes tumor necrosis alpha (TNFA) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) and dietary fatty acids, and their relationship with obesity and serum lipid levels. In summary, dietary fatty acids, in particular saturated fatty acids and the omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty a...

  10. Tea Dietary Fiber Improves Serum and Hepatic Lipid Profiles in Mice Fed a High Cholesterol Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wenxin; Shu, Yang; Yang, Xiaoping

    2016-06-01

    Tea dietary fiber (TDF) was prepared from tea residues and modified to get cellulose-modified TDF (CTDF) by cellulase or micronized TDF (MTDF) by ultrafine grinding. The in vitro lipid-binding capacities of the three fibers and their effects on serum and hepatic lipid profiles in mice fed a high cholesterol diet were evaluated. The results showed that the three fibers had excellent lipid-binding capacities, and the cholesterol- and sodium cholate-binding capacities of CTDF and MTDF were significantly higher than those of TDF. Animal studies showed that, compared to model control, the three fibers significantly decreased mice average daily gain, gain: feed, and liver index, reduced total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride, and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol of serum and liver, increased serum and hepatic high density lipoprotein-cholesterol to TC ratio, and promoted the excretion of fecal lipids, and they also significantly increased the activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase of serum and liver, and decreased lipid peroxidation; moreover, the effects of CTDF and MTDF were better than that of TDF. It was concluded that the three fibers could improve serum and hepatic lipid profiles in mice fed a high cholesterol diet and the mechanism of action might be due to the promotion of fecal excretion of lipids through their lipid-binding ability and the inhibition of lipid peroxidation. These findings suggest that tea dietary fiber has the potential to be used as a functional ingredient to control cardiovascular disease.

  11. Erucic acid rapeseed: 1. Prospects of improvements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanyal Anushree

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In the current context of boosting production of high erucic acid rapeseed, because of the wide range of its industrial applications, this literature review is designed to provide a general overview of available varieties, current knowledge of plant improvement and paths of developing research to increase competitiveness of varieties with high erucic acid content. A limited market dominated by a few companies, cropping burdens of high erucic acid rapeseed varieties among the majority “00” varieties and the still low erucic acid content in rapeseed, explains the reduced and uncompetitive varietal offers. To improve this situation, new varieties could be developed, thanks to the classical methods of selection and biotechnology.

  12. Improvement and modeling of culture parameters to enhance biomass and lipid production by the oleaginous yeast Cryptococcus curvatus grown on acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béligon, Vanessa; Poughon, Laurent; Christophe, Gwendoline; Lebert, André; Larroche, Christian; Fontanille, Pierre

    2015-09-01

    The improvement of culture parameters for lipid production from acetate as carbon source was investigated using the oleaginous yeast Cryptococcus curvatus. A new pH regulation system dispensing acetate was developed for fed-batch culture and allowed obtaining nearly 80 g/L biomass within 60 h with a maximal growth rate of 0.28 h(-1). A biological model was developed from experimental data. The influence of three C/N ratios of 300, 500 and 900 were tested during a multi-phases process on lipid accumulation. The C/N ratio of 300 was reported to be the most suitable for lipid storage. No significant increase of lipids content was obtained with higher value. A maximal content of 60% DCW of lipid was obtained. The determination of fatty acids profiles of the microbial oils has confirmed that the valorization of acetate by microbial oils production was a promising perspective.

  13. The relationship between dietary fatty acids and inflammatory genes on the obese phenotype and serum lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joffe, Yael T; Collins, Malcolm; Goedecke, Julia H

    2013-05-21

    Obesity, a chronic low-grade inflammatory condition is associated with the development of many comorbidities including dyslipidemia. This review examines interactions between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in the inflammatory genes tumor necrosis alpha (TNFA) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) and dietary fatty acids, and their relationship with obesity and serum lipid levels. In summary, dietary fatty acids, in particular saturated fatty acids and the omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, impact the expression of the cytokine genes TNFA and IL-6, and alter TNFα and IL-6 production. In addition, sequence variants in these genes have also been shown to alter their gene expression and plasma levels, and are associated with obesity, measures of adiposity and serum lipid concentrations. When interactions between dietary fatty acids and TNFA and IL-6 SNPs on obesity and serum lipid were analyzed, both the quantity and quality of dietary fatty acids modulated the relationship between TNFA and IL-6 SNPs on obesity and serum lipid profiles, thereby impacting the association between phenotype and genotype. Researching these diet-gene interactions more extensively, and understanding the role of ethnicity as a confounder in these relationships, may contribute to a better understanding of the inter-individual variability in the obese phenotype.

  14. Improved cardiac management with a disease management program incorporating comprehensive lipid profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAna, John F; Goldfarb, Neil I; Couto, Joseph; Henry, Michelle A; Piefer, Gary; Rapier, George M

    2012-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the improved effectiveness of a disease management treatment protocol incorporating comprehensive lipid profiling and targeted lipid care based on lipid profile findings in patients with ischemic heart disease (IHD) or congestive heart failure (CHF) enrolled in a managed care plan. This retrospective cohort study, conducted over a 2-year period, compared outcomes between patients with a standard lipid profile to those evaluated with a comprehensive lipid profile. All adult members of the WellMed Medical Management, Inc. managed care health plan diagnosed with IHD or CHF, and continuously enrolled between July 1, 2006 and June 30, 2008, were included in the study. Cases were defined as those who had at least 1 comprehensive lipid test (the VAP [vertical auto profile] ultracentrifuge test) during this period (n=1767); they were compared to those who had no lipid testing or traditional standard lipid testing only (controls, n=289). Univariate statistics were analyzed to describe the groups, and bivariate t tests or chi-squares examined differences between the 2 cohorts. Multivariate regression analyses were performed to control for potential confounders. The results show that the case group had lower total costs ($4852.62 vs. $7413.18; P=0.0255), fewer inpatient stays (13.1% vs. 18.3% of controls; P=0.0175) and emergency department visits (11.9% vs. 15.6% of controls; P=0.0832). Prescription use and frequency of lipid measurement suggested improved control resulting from a targeted approach to managing specific dyslipidemias. A treatment protocol incorporating a comprehensive lipid profile appears to improve care and reduce utilization and costs in a disease management program for cardiac patients.

  15. Sugars, organic acids, minerals and lipids in jabuticaba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annete de Jesus Boari Lima

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to determine the sugar, organic acid and mineral compositions of the whole fruit and fractions (skin, pulp and seed of the Paulista (Plinia cauliflora and Sabará (Plinia jaboticaba jabuticaba tree genotypes, as well as the oil compositions of their skin and seeds. High levels of sugar, especially fructose, followed by glucose and sucrose, were encountered in the fruit. In the Paulista genotype, higher levels of total and reducing sugars were found in the pulp and skin, which was not observed when comparing the whole fruit of both genotypes. Five organic acids were found in the whole fruit and in the fractions of the two jabuticaba genotypes in quantitative order: citric acid > succinic acid > malic acid > oxalic acid > acetic acid. Potassium was the most abundant mineral found. This fruit was also shown to be rich in magnesium, phosphorus, calcium and copper. The seed oil had nearly the same constitution as the oil extracted from the skin in both genotypes and the major compounds were an unidentified phytosterol, palmitic, linoleic and oleic acids, and squalene.

  16. Studies in lipid histochemistry. XIII. The OPA (osmiumtetroxide-periodic acid-alpha-naphthylamine) method for the detection of apolar lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elleder, M

    1975-09-29

    A new procedure for the detection of apolar lipids is described. It is a modification of the OTAN method (Adams, 1959) using periodic acid which oxidatively removes lower osmium derivatives from polar sites only, leaving those in apolar lipids intact and demonstrable with alpha-naphthylamine. Control steps for the exclusion of the possible interference of some less polar complex lipids and of lipopigments are described. The described technic is superior to the conventionally used sudan dyes due partly to the fact that only aqueous solutions are employed thus excluding any extraction of lipids, partly to the more distinct coloration.

  17. Lipid production of microalga Chlorella sorokiniana CY1 is improved by light source arrangement, bioreactor operation mode and deep-sea water supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chun-Yen; Chang, Hsin-Yueh

    2016-03-01

    Microalgae-based biodiesel has been recognized as a sustainable and promising alternative to fossil diesel. High lipid productivity of microalgae is required for economic production of biodiesel from microalgae. This study was undertaken to enhance the growth and oil accumulation of an indigenous microalga Chlorella sorokiniana CY1 by applying engineering strategies using deep-sea water as the medium. First, the microalga was cultivated using LED as the immersed light source, and the results showed that the immersed LED could effectively enhance the oil/lipid content and final microalgal biomass concentration to 53.8% and 2.5 g/l, respectively. Next, the semi-batch photobioreactor operation with deep-sea water was shown to improve lipid content and microalgal growth over those from using batch and continuous cultures under similar operating conditions. The optimal replacement ratio was 50%, resulting in an oil/lipid content and final biomass concentration of 61.5% and 2.8 g/l, respectively. A long-term semi-batch culture utilizing 50%-replaced medium was carried out for four runs. The final biomass concentration and lipid productivity were 2.5 g/L and 112.2 mg/L/d, respectively. The fatty acid composition of the microalgal lipids was predominant by palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid and linoleic acid, and this lipid quality is suitable for biodiesel production. This demonstrates that optimizing light source arrangement, bioreactor operation and deep-sea water supplements could effectively promote the lipid production of C. sorokiniana CY1 for the applications in microalgae-based biodiesel industry.

  18. Enantioselective analysis of chiral anteiso fatty acids in the polar and neutral lipids of food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauff, Simone; Hottinger, Georg; Vetter, Walter

    2010-04-01

    Anteiso fatty acids (aFA) are substituted with a methyl group on the antepenultimate carbon of the straight acyl chain. This feature leads to a stereogenic center. The 12-methyltetradecanoic acid (a15:0) and the 14-methylhexadecanoic acid (a17:0) are the most common aFA found in food, although they occur only in very small quantities. In this study we used gas chromatography in combination with a chiral stationary phase to determine the enantiomeric distribution of both a15:0 and a17:0 in the neutral and polar lipids of aquatic food samples and cheese. The best suited column was selected out of four custom-made combinations of heptakis(6-O-tert-butyldimethylsilyl-2,3-di-O-methyl)-beta-cyclodextrin (beta-TBDM) with different amount and polarity of an achiral polysiloxane. After separation of polar and neutral lipids of the food samples by solid phase extraction, fatty acid methyl esters were prepared and the fatty acid methyl esters were fractionated by reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography. Measurements of fractions high in aFA by enantioselective GC/MS in the selected ion monitoring mode verified the dominance of the (S)-enantiomers of a15:0 and a17:0 in both lipid fractions. However (R)-enantiomers were detectable in all samples. The relative proportion of the (R)-enantiomers was up to fivefold higher in the polar lipids than in the neutral lipids. The higher proportions in the polar lipids indicate that microorganisms might be involved in the formation of (R)-aFA.

  19. Effects of perfluorinated fatty acids with different carbon chain length on fatty acid profiles of hepatic lipids in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudo, Naomi; Yamazaki, Tohru; Sakamoto, Takeshi; Sunaga, Katsuyoshi; Tsuda, Tadashi; Mitsumoto, Atsushi; Kawashima, Yoichi

    2011-01-01

    Alterations by perfluorinated fatty acids (PFCAs) with a chain length of 6-9 carbons in the fatty acid profile of hepatic lipids of mice were investigated. The characteristic changes caused by all the PFCAs examined were increases in the contents and proportions of oleic acid (18 : 1), palmitoleic acid (16 : 1) and 8,11,14-eicosatrienoic acid (20 : 3) in hepatic lipids. Hepatic contents of palmitic acid were also increased by the treatments with the PFCAs. These effects were almost dependent on the hepatic concentrations of PFCA molecules regardless of their carbon chain length. Perfluorooctanoic acid elevated the expressions of mRNA encoding acetyl-CoA carboxylase, fatty acid synthase, malic enzyme, stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) (SCD1 and 2), chain elongase (ELOVL5), Δ6 desaturase (Fads2), 1-acylglycerophosphocholine acyltransferase (LPCAT) (LPCAT3). The four PFCAs examined induced microsomal SCD and LPCAT in hepatic concentration-dependent manners regardless of carbon chain length. One linear regression line was confirmed between LPCAT activity and hepatic concentration of PFCA at wide range of the concentration, whereas the induction of SCD was saturable at relatively low concentration of PFCAs. These results suggest (i) that PFCAs with a chain length of 6-9 carbons change the fatty acid profile of hepatic lipids by increasing contents and proportions of 16 : 1, 18 : 1 and 20 : 3, (ii) that these alterations in fatty acid profile are caused by up-regulation of SCD, de novo fatty acid synthesis, chain elongase and Δ6 desaturase and (iii) that the mechanism underlying SCD induction is, in part, mediated through peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α.

  20. Specific markers of lipid peroxidation issued from n-3 and n-6 fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guichardant, M; Chantegrel, B; Deshayes, C; Doutheau, A; Moliere, P; Lagarde, M

    2004-02-01

    Several markers of lipid peroxidation are available with different degrees of specificity, from malondialdehyde as a global marker, to F(2)-isoprostane, which is specifically produced from arachidonic acid. Among these, 4-hydroxynonenal is recognized as a breakdown product of fatty acid hydroperoxides, such as 15-hydroperoxy-eicosatetraenoic acid and 13-hydroperoxy-octade cadienoic acid from the n -6 fatty acids. Furthermore, 4-hydroxyhexenal (4-HHE) derives from n -3 fatty acid hydroperoxides. We have recently described the occurrence of 4-hydroxydodecadienal (4-HDDE) from the 12-lipoxygenase product of arachidonic acid 12-hydroperoxy-eicosatetraenoic acid. These three hydroxy-alkenals may be measured in human plasma by GC-MS, but they may partly be generated in the course of sampling, and the relative volatility of 4-HHE makes its measurement quite unreliable. We have successfully characterized and measured the stable oxidized carboxylic acid products from the hydroxy-alkenals 4-HNA, 4-HHA and 4-HDDA in urine. The ratio between 4-HHA and 4-HNA found in the same urinary sample might provide useful information on the location of lipid peroxidation, accounting for the high enrichment of the cerebrovascular system with docosahexaenoic acid, the main n -3 fatty acid in humans.

  1. Improved Productivity of Neutral Lipids in Chlorella sp. A2 by Minimal Nitrogen Supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junying eZhu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen starvation is an efficient environmental pressure for increasing lipid accumulation in microalgae, but it could also significantly lower the biomass productivity, resulting in lower lipid productivity. In this study, green alga Chlorella sp. A2 was cultivated by using a minimal nitrogen supply strategy under both laboratory and outdoor cultivation conditions to evaluate biomass accumulation and lipid production. Results showed that minimal nitrogen supply could promote neutral lipid accumulation of Chlorella sp. A2 without a significant negative effect on cell growth. In laboratory cultivation mode, alga cells cultured with 18 mg L-1 d-1 urea addition could generate 74% and 416% (w/w more neutral lipid productivity than cells cultured with regular BG11 and nitrogen starvation media, respectively. In outdoor cultivation mode, lipid productivity of cells cultured with 18 mg L-1 d-1 urea addition is approximately 10% and 88% higher than the one with regular BG11 and nitrogen starvation media, respectively. Notably, the results of photosynthetic analysis clarified that minimal nitrogen supply reduced the loss of photosynthetic capacity to keep CO2 fixation during photosynthesis for biomass production. The minimal nitrogen supply strategy for microalgae cultivation could promote neutral lipid accumulation without a significant negative effect on cell growth, resulting in a significant improvement in the lipid productivity.

  2. Strategies for Lipid Production Improvement in Microalgae as a Biodiesel Feedstock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Z. H.; Hiltunen, E.

    2016-01-01

    In response to the energy crisis, global warming, and climate changes, microalgae have received a great deal of attention as a biofuel feedstock. Due to a high lipid content in microalgal cells, microalgae present as a promising alternative source for the production of biodiesel. Environmental and culturing condition variations can alter lipid production as well as chemical compositions of microalgae. Therefore, application of the strategies to activate lipid accumulation opens the door for lipid overproduction in microalgae. Until now, many original studies regarding the approaches for enhanced microalgal lipid production have been reported in an effort to push forward the production of microalgal biodiesel. However, the current literature demonstrates fragmented information available regarding the strategies for lipid production improvement. From the systematic point of view, the review highlights the main approaches for microalgal lipid accumulation induction to expedite the application of microalgal biodiesel as an alternative to fossil diesel for sustainable environment. Of the several strategies discussed, the one that is most commonly applied is the design of nutrient (e.g., nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur) starvation or limitation. Other viable approaches such as light intensity, temperature, carbon dioxide, salinity stress, and metal influence can also achieve enhanced microalgal lipid production. PMID:27725942

  3. Strategies for Lipid Production Improvement in Microalgae as a Biodiesel Feedstock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. D. Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In response to the energy crisis, global warming, and climate changes, microalgae have received a great deal of attention as a biofuel feedstock. Due to a high lipid content in microalgal cells, microalgae present as a promising alternative source for the production of biodiesel. Environmental and culturing condition variations can alter lipid production as well as chemical compositions of microalgae. Therefore, application of the strategies to activate lipid accumulation opens the door for lipid overproduction in microalgae. Until now, many original studies regarding the approaches for enhanced microalgal lipid production have been reported in an effort to push forward the production of microalgal biodiesel. However, the current literature demonstrates fragmented information available regarding the strategies for lipid production improvement. From the systematic point of view, the review highlights the main approaches for microalgal lipid accumulation induction to expedite the application of microalgal biodiesel as an alternative to fossil diesel for sustainable environment. Of the several strategies discussed, the one that is most commonly applied is the design of nutrient (e.g., nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur starvation or limitation. Other viable approaches such as light intensity, temperature, carbon dioxide, salinity stress, and metal influence can also achieve enhanced microalgal lipid production.

  4. Roles of Chlorogenic Acid on Regulating Glucose and Lipids Metabolism: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengxi Meng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Intracellular glucose and lipid metabolic homeostasis is vital for maintaining basic life activities of a cell or an organism. Glucose and lipid metabolic disorders are closely related with the occurrence and progression of diabetes, obesity, hepatic steatosis, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. Chlorogenic acid (CGA, one of the most abundant polyphenol compounds in the human diet, is a group of phenolic secondary metabolites produced by certain plant species and is an important component of coffee. Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that CGA exerts many biological properties, including antibacterial, antioxidant, and anticarcinogenic activities. Recently, the roles and applications of CGA, particularly in relation to glucose and lipid metabolism, have been highlighted. This review addresses current studies investigating the roles of CGA in glucose and lipid metabolism.

  5. Role of a liver fatty acid-binding protein gene in lipid metabolism in chicken hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, G L; Na, W; Wang, Y X; Zhang, H F; Li, H; Wang, Q G

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the role of the chicken liver fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP) gene in lipid metabolism in hepatocytes, and the regulatory relationships between L-FABP and genes related to lipid metabolism. The short hairpin RNA (shRNA) interference vector with L-FABP and an eukaryotic expression vector were used. Chicken hepatocytes were subjected to shRNA-mediated knockdown or L-FABP cDNA overexpression. Expression levels of lipid metabolism-related genes and biochemical parameters were detected 24, 36, 48, 60, and 72 h after transfection with the interference or overexpression plasmids for L-FABP, PPARα and L-BABP expression levels, and the total amount of cholesterol, were significantly affected by L-FABP expression. L-FABP may affect lipid metabolism by regulating PPARα and L-BABP in chicken hepatocytes.

  6. Lipids and fatty acids in Calanus sinicus during over-summering in the southern Yellow Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanqing; Li, Chaolun; Liu, Mengtan; Jin, Xin

    2016-09-01

    Over-summering is a crucial period for Calanus sinicus in the southern Yellow Sea, where it is a key member of the zooplankton community. Lipids play an important role in copepod diapause, which is part of their over-summering strategy. We investigated how different fatty acids and lipid classes, including wax esters, changed during over-summering of C. sinicus during three cruises in June and August 2011 and November 2010, corresponding to the pre-, during and post- diapause periods, respectively. Large amounts of lipids were accumulated, mainly wax esters as previously found in C. finmarchicus during its diapause, and most of the storage lipids were used during over-summering. Wax ester polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) showed the most variation of the fatty acids (FAs), while the percentage composition of FAs in polar lipids was relatively stable. Selective use of wax ester PUFAs has already been shown to play important roles in the winter diapause of Calanus species in other regions, and our FA results show that this is the case for the YSCBW population that diapauses in summer.

  7. Age-Specific Lipid and Fatty Acid Profiles of Atlantic Salmon Juveniles in the Varzuga River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana A. Murzina

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The age-specific lipid and fatty acid profiles of juvenile Atlantic salmon at different ages (0+, 1+, and 2+ years after hatching from nests located in the mainstream of a large Arctic River, the Varzuga River, and resettling to the favorable Sobachji shoal in autumn before overwinter are herein presented. The contemporary methods of the lipid analysis were used: thin layer chromatography and gas chromatography. The results show that the stability of the regulation of important functions in developing organisms is maintained through structural alterations in lipids. These alterations can be considered as a sequence of the modifications and changes in the ratios of certain lipid classes and fatty acids constituents. In general, changes in the lipids and fatty acids (FAs maintained the physiological limits and controls through the adaptive systems of the organism. The mechanisms of juvenile fish biochemical adaptation to the environmental conditions in the studied biotope include the modification of the energy metabolism and anabolism, and here belongs to the energy characteristics of metabolic processes.

  8. Stimuli responsive charge-switchable lipids: Capture and release of nucleic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hersey, Joseph S; LaManna, Caroline M; Lusic, Hrvoje; Grinstaff, Mark W

    2016-03-01

    Stimuli responsive lipids, which enable control over the formation, transformation, and disruption of supramolecular assemblies, are of interest for biosensing, diagnostics, drug delivery, and basic transmembrane protein studies. In particular, spatiotemporal control over a supramolecular structure can be achieved using light activated compounds to induce significant supramolecular rearrangements. As such, a family of cationic lipids are described which undergo a permanent switch in charge upon exposure to 365 nm ultraviolet (UV) light to enable the capture of negatively charged nucleic acids within the self-assembled supramolecular structure of the lipids and subsequent release of these macromolecules upon exposure to UV light and disruption of the assemblies. The lipids are composed of either two different tripeptide head groups, Lysine-Glycine-Glycine (KGG) and Glycine-Glycine-Glycine (GGG) and three different hydrocarbon chain lengths (C6, C10, or C14) terminated by a UV light responsive 1-(2-nitrophenyl)ethanol (NPE) protected carboxylic acid. The photolysis of the NPE protected lipid is measured as a function of time, and the resulting changes in net molecular charge are observed using zeta potential analysis for each head group and chain length combination. A proof of concept study for the capture and release of both linear DNA (calf thymus) and siRNA is presented using an ethidium bromide quenching assay where a balance between binding affinity and supramolecular stability are found to be the key to optimal nucleic acid capture and release.

  9. Effect of a high monounsaturated fatty acids diet and a Mediterranean diet on serum lipids and insulin sensitivity in adults with mild abdominal obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, M.B.; Vries, de J.H.M.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Dijk, van S.J.; Hoelen, D.; Siebelink, E.; Heijligenberg, R.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.

    2010-01-01

    Background and aims - Diets high in monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) such as a Mediterranean diet may reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases by improving insulin sensitivity and serum lipids. Besides being high in MUFA, a Mediterranean diet also contains abundant plant foods, moderate wine and

  10. The role of thyroid hormones in regulating of fatty acid spectrum of brain lipids: ontogenetic aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodynskiy A.G.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In experiments on rats of three age groups the role of thyroid hormones in the regulation of fatty acid spectrum of cortical and hippocampus lipids was studied. It was found that on the background of decreased thyroid status content of polyunsaturated fractions of free fatty acids, significantly changed depending on the age of the animals. In particular, in juvenile rats hypothyroidism was accompanied by a decrease almost twice the number of pentacodan acid decreased lipids viscosity in neurocortex. In old rats reduce of pentacodan acid in the cortex (38% was supplemented by significant (77% decrease in linoleic and linolenic acids. Unlike the two age groups deficiency of thyroid hormones in young animals caused accumulation of free polyunsatarated fatty acids (C18: 2.3 in the cerebral cortex by 74%, which may be associated with a decrease of this fraction in fatty acid spectrum of lipids and increase of viscosity properties of the membranes. These restruc­turing may be associated with modulation of synaptic transmission of specific neurotransmitter systems in the brain.

  11. Improvement of fluvastatin bioavailability by loading on nanostructured lipid carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Helw AR

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Abdel-Rahim M El-Helw, Usama A FahmyDepartment of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi ArabiaAbstract: The aim of this study is to prepare fluvastatin nanostructured lipid carriers (FLV-NLCs in order to find an innovative way to alleviate FLV-associated disadvantages. The limitations include poor solubility and extensive first-pass metabolism, resulting in low (30% bioavailability and short elimination half-life (1–3 hours. FLV-NLCs were prepared by hot emulsification–ultrasonication method. Ten runs were created by three-level factorial design (32 to optimize FLV-NLCs formulation process. In this study, two factors, four responses, and three-level factorial design were endorsed. The studied variables were lipid:oil ratio (X1 and sonication time (X2. However, the responses parameter determined the particle size (Y1, nm, entrapment efficiency percent (EE%, Y2, particles zeta potential (Y3, and 80% of the drug release after 24 hours (X4. Furthermore, stability and in vivo pharmacokinetics were studied in rats. The optimized consisted formula had an average particle size of 165 nm with 75.32% entrapment efficiency and 85.32% of drug released after 24 hours, demonstrating a sustaining drug release over 24 hours. An in vivo pharmacokinetic study revealed enhanced bioavailability by >2.64-fold, and the mean residence time was longer than that of FLV. We concluded that NLCs could be promising carriers for sustained/prolonged FLV release with enhanced oral bioavailability.Keywords: factorial design, nano-vesicles, hyperlipidemia, statins

  12. Selective fermentation of carbohydrate and protein fractions of Scenedesmus, and biohydrogenation of its lipid fraction for enhanced recovery of saturated fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, YenJung Sean; Parameswaran, Prathap; Li, Ang; Aguinaga, Alyssa; Rittmann, Bruce E

    2016-02-01

    Biofuels derived from microalgae have promise as carbon-neutral replacements for petroleum. However, difficulty extracting microalgae-derived lipids and the co-extraction of non-lipid components add major costs that detract from the benefits of microalgae-based biofuel. Selective fermentation could alleviate these problems by managing microbial degradation so that carbohydrates and proteins are hydrolyzed and fermented, but lipids remain intact. We evaluated selective fermentation of Scenedesmus biomass in batch experiments buffered at pH 5.5, 7, or 9. Carbohydrates were fermented up to 45% within the first 6 days, protein fermentation followed after about 20 days, and lipids (measured as fatty acid methyl esters, FAME) were conserved. Fermentation of the non-lipid components generated volatile fatty acids, with acetate, butyrate, and propionate being the dominant products. Selective fermentation of Scenedesmus biomass increased the amount of extractable FAME and the ratio of FAME to crude lipids. It also led to biohydrogenation of unsaturated FAME to more desirable saturated FAME (especially to C16:0 and C18:0), and the degree of saturation was inversely related to the accumulation of hydrogen gas after fermentation. Moreover, the microbial communities after selective fermentation were enriched in bacteria from families known to perform biohydrogenation, i.e., Porphyromonadaceae and Ruminococcaceae. Thus, this study provides proof-of-concept that selective fermentation can improve the quantity and quality of lipids that can be extracted from Scenedesmus.

  13. A potential synbiotic product improves the lipid profile of diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roselino Mariana N

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies showed that intake of yacon or some lactic acid bacteria was able to inhibit the development of diabetes mellitus, by reducing glucose and associated symptoms, for example, the lipid profile. Objective The purpose of this study was to assess the consumption influence of a potential symbiotic product of soybean and yacon extract and fermented Enterococcus faecium CRL 183 and Lactobacillus helveticus ssp jugurti 416 in reducing blood glucose and lipid levels in an animal model. Methods Diabetes mellitus was chemically induced by intraperitoneal administration of streptozotocin (50 mg/kg body weight. The rats were divided into four groups (n=10: GI – non-diabetic animals that received only a standard chow diet (negative control, GII – diabetic animals that received only chow diet (positive control, GIII – diabetic animals that received the chow diet + 1 mL/kg body weight/day of soybean and yacon unfermented product, GIV – diabetic rats that received the chow diet + 1 mL/kg body weight/day of soybean and yacon fermented product. There was a seven-week treatment period and the following parameters were evaluated: animal body weight, food and water intake, blood glucose, enzyme activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alanine aminotransferase (ALT, triglycerides levels, total cholesterol, HDL-C, non-HDL-C. Cell viability of the fermented product was checked weekly for a seven-week period. Results The product average viable population was 108-109 CFU/mL, by ensuring both the rods and cocci regular intake. No difference was observed between the water and feed intake and body weight of groups that received unfermented and fermented products and the untreated diabetic group. The same was observed for the blood glucose and AST and ALT activities, while some improvement was observed for a lipid profile, represented by reduction of triglycerides level by 15.07% and 33.50% in groups III and IV

  14. Mechanisms of formation and function of eosinophil lipid bodies: inducible intracellular sites involved in arachidonic acid metabolism

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    Bozza Patricia T

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Lipid bodies, inducible lipid-rich cytoplasmic inclusions, are characteristically abundant in cells associated with inflammation, including eosinophils. Here we reviewed the formation and function of lipid bodies in human eosinophils. We now have evidence that the formation of lipid bodies is not attributable to adverse mechanisms, but is centrally mediated by specific signal transduction pathways. Arachidonic acid and other cis fatty acids by an NSAID-inhibitable process, diglycerides, and PAF by a 5-lipoxygenase dependent pathway are potent stimulators of lipid body induction. Lipid body formation develops rapidly by processes that involve PKC, PLC, and de novo mRNA and protein synthesis. These structures clearly serve as repositoires of arachidonyl-phospholipids and are more than inert depots. Specific enzymes, including cytosolic phospholipase A2, MAP kinases, lipoxygenases and cyclooxygenases, associate with lipid bodies. Lipid bodies appear to be dynamic, organelle-like structures involved in intracellular pathways of lipid mobilization and metabolism. Indeed, increases in lipid body numbers correlated with enhanced production of both lipoxygenase- and cyclooxygenase-derived eicosanoids. We hypothesize that lipid bodies are distinct inducible sites for generating eicosanoids as paracrine mediators with varied activities in inflammation. The capacity of lipid body formation to be specifically and rapidly induced in leukocytes enhances eicosanoid mediator formation, and conversely pharmacologic inhibition of lipid body induction represents a potential novel and specific target for anti-inflammatory therapy.

  15. Relation of Plasma Uric Acid Levels and the Lipid Parameters in Han and Uygur Ethnicity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Yuping; Yao Hua; Yao Wenhai; Li Qing; You Lan; Wang Qiuyun; Jiang Yan

    2006-01-01

    Objectives Hyperuricemia is a common finding in hypertension and hyperlipidemia,they are all correlated to cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study was to find the relationship of uric acid and plasma lipid parameters of Han and Uygur ethnicity in Xinjiang. Methods This cross-sectional health examination survey was based on a population random sample from the Urumchi, It included 1166 subjects aged from 20 to 70 years. Serum biochemical testing by Automatic Analyzer (HITACHI 7600-010).Results The uric acid in Han was higher than in Uygur(P< 0.05), men were higher than women in two ethnicities; For lipid parameters men were higher than women, in TG and HDL women were higher than in men in two ethnicity (P < 0.05). Serum uric acid was strongly related to serum triglycerides in Han as well as Uygur ethnicity ( P < 0.001); Compared with the normal group, UA, TG, CHOL, VLDL had ascending trend and HDL had descending trend (P <0.05 ) among groups in Han and Uygur ethnicity,especially Hyperuricemia-hypertriglyceridemia group,uric acid and most some lipid parameters was higher than Hyperuricemia and hypertriglyceridemia group,The prevalence of different groups in Han and Urgur was significantly different (P < 0.05). Conclusions This study shows that the UA and some lipid parameters are different in Han and Uygur ethnicity and show sexual difference; serum uric acid is markedly related to serum triglycerides; Hyperuricemia and hypertriglyceridemia show cooperated effect in uric acid and most lipid parameters. Considering the growing incidence of the potential link between hyperuricemia/hypertriglyceridemia and cardiovascular diseases, more emphasis should be put on the evolving prevalence of hyperuricemia and hypertriglyceridemia in Xinjiang.

  16. The Role of Tetraether Lipid Composition in the Adaptation of Thermophilic Archaea to Acidity

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    Eric eBoyd

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Diether and tetraether lipids are fundamental components of the archaeal cell membrane. Archaea adjust the degree of tetraether lipid cyclization in order to maintain functional membranes and cellular homeostasis when confronted with pH and/or thermal stress. Thus, the ability to adjust tetraether lipid composition likely represents a critical phenotypic trait that enabled archaeal diversification into environments characterized by extremes in pH and/or temperature. Here we assess the relationship between geochemical variation, core- and polar-isoprenoid glycerol dibiphytanyl glycerol tetraether (C-iGDGT and P-iGDGT, respectively lipid composition, and archaeal 16S rRNA gene diversity and abundance in 27 geothermal springs in Yellowstone National Park (YNP, Wyoming. The composition and abundance of C-iGDGT and P-iGDGT lipids recovered from geothermal ecosystems were distinct from surrounding soils, indicating that they are synthesized endogenously. With the exception of GDGT-0 (no cyclopentyl rings, the abundances of individual C-iGDGT and P-iGDGT lipids were significantly correlated. The abundance of a number of individual tetraether lipids varied positively with the relative abundance of individual 16S rRNA gene sequences, most notably crenarchaeol in both the core and polar GDGT fraction and sequences closely affiliated with Candidatus Nitrosocaldus yellowstonii. This finding supports the proposal that crenarchaeol is a biomarker for nitrifying archaea. Variation in the degree of cyclization of C- and P-iGDGT lipids recovered from geothermal mats and sediments could best be explained by variation in spring pH, with lipids from acidic environments tending to have, on average, more internal cyclic rings than those from higher pH ecosystems. Likewise, variation in the phylogenetic composition of archaeal 16S rRNA genes could best be explained by spring pH. In turn, the phylogenetic similarity of archaeal 16S rRNA genes was significantly

  17. Effect of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on the lipidic profile of healthy Mexican volunteers

    OpenAIRE

    CARVAJAL OCTAVIO; ANGULO OFELIA

    1997-01-01

    Objective. The effect of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on the serum lipid profile in a Mexican population was evaluated. Material and methods. Three g of salmon oil was the daily intake during four weeks. Total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoproteins, high density lipoproteins and erythrocyte fatty acid composition were analyzed. Results. The hypertriglyceridemic group showed a statistically significant (p< 0.05) reduction of triglycerides and significant (p< 0.01) elevation of...

  18. Fatty acid composition of lipids in pot marigold (Calendula officinalis L. seed genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dulf Francisc V

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Calendula officinalis L. (pot marigold is an annual aromatic herb with yellow or golden-orange flowers, native to the Mediterranean climate areas. Their seeds contain significant amounts of oil (around 20%, of which about 60% is calendic acid. For these reasons, in Europe concentrated research efforts have been directed towards the development of pot marigold as an oilseed crop for industrial purposes. Results The oil content and fatty acid composition of major lipid fractions in seeds from eleven genotypes of pot marigold (Calendula officinalis L. were determined. The lipid content of seeds varied between 13.6 and 21.7 g oil/100 g seeds. The calendic and linoleic acids were the two dominant fatty acids in total lipid (51.4 to 57.6% and 28.5 to 31.9% and triacylglycerol (45.7 to 54.7% and 22.6 to 29.2% fractions. Polar lipids were also characterised by higher unsaturation ratios (with the PUFAs content between 60.4 and 66.4%, while saturates (consisted mainly of palmitic and very long-chain saturated fatty acids were found in higher amounts in sterol esters (ranging between 49.3 and 55.7% of total fatty acids. Conclusions All the pot marigold seed oils investigated contain high levels of calendic acid (more than 50% of total fatty acids, making them favorable for industrial use. The compositional differences between the genotypes should be considered when breeding and exploiting the pot marigold seeds for nutraceutical and pharmacological purposes.

  19. Acid sphingomyelinase activity is regulated by membrane lipids and facilitates cholesterol transfer by NPC2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oninla, Vincent O; Breiden, Bernadette; Babalola, Jonathan O; Sandhoff, Konrad

    2014-12-01

    During endocytosis, membrane components move to intraluminal vesicles of the endolysosomal compartment for digestion. At the late endosomes, cholesterol is sorted out mainly by two sterol-binding proteins, Niemann-Pick protein type C (NPC)1 and NPC2. To study the NPC2-mediated intervesicular cholesterol transfer, we developed a liposomal assay system. (Abdul-Hammed, M., B. Breiden, M. A. Adebayo, J. O. Babalola, G. Schwarzmann, and K. Sandhoff. 2010. Role of endosomal membrane lipids and NPC2 in cholesterol transfer and membrane fusion. J. Lipid Res. 51: 1747-1760.) Anionic lipids stimulate cholesterol transfer between liposomes while SM inhibits it, even in the presence of anionic bis(monoacylglycero)phosphate (BMP). Preincubation of vesicles containing SM with acid sphingomyelinase (ASM) (SM phosphodiesterase, EC 3.1.4.12) results in hydrolysis of SM to ceramide (Cer), which enhances cholesterol transfer. Besides SM, ASM also cleaves liposomal phosphatidylcholine. Anionic phospholipids derived from the plasma membrane (phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidic acid) stimulate SM and phosphatidylcholine hydrolysis by ASM more effectively than BMP, which is generated during endocytosis. ASM-mediated hydrolysis of liposomal SM was also stimulated by incorporation of diacylglycerol (DAG), Cer, and free fatty acids into the liposomal membranes. Conversely, phosphatidylcholine hydrolysis was inhibited by incorporation of cholesterol, Cer, DAG, monoacylglycerol, and fatty acids. Our data suggest that SM degradation by ASM is required for physiological secretion of cholesterol from the late endosomal compartment, and is a key regulator of endolysosomal lipid digestion.

  20. Solvent-extractable lipids in an acid andic forest soil; variations with dept and season

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naafs, Derck Ferdinand Werner; Bergen, P.F. van; Boogert, S.J.; Leeuw, J.W. de

    2004-01-01

    Total lipid extracts from an acid andic soil profile located on Madeira Island (Portugal) were analysed using gas chromatography (GC) and GC–mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The profile was covered mainly by grass. Bulk soil characteristics determined included soil pH (H2O) ranging from 4.5 to 4.0 and TOC

  1. Fatty acids and algal lipids as precursors of chlorination by-products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Liang; Yuen Shan Lui; Huachang Hong

    2012-01-01

    Six common algal fatty acids (FAs) with different numbers of double bonds,lipophilic fractions and proteins extracted from the diatom Navicula pelliculosa and algal cells were chlorinated to evaluate their potential in generating disinfection by-products (DBPs).The result showed that the more double bonds in the FAs,the higher the amounts of chloroform and dichloroacetic acid (DCAA) produced,but such a pattern was not observed for trichloroacetic acid (TCAA).Based on the previously reported composition of fatty acids in algal lipids,the DBP generation potentials of algal lipids were calculated.These predicted values were much lower than those measured in the chlorinated algal lipophilic fraction,suggesting unknown lipophilic fraction(s) served as potent DBPs precursors.Another calculation attempted to predict DBP production in algal cells based on algal lipid and protein composition,given quantified measured DBP production per unit algal lipid and proteins.The analysis showed that the observed DBP production was similar to that predicted (< 35% difference),suggesting that algal biochemical compositions may serve as a bioindicator for preliminary estimation of chloroform,DCAA and TCAA formation upon chlorinating algae.

  2. Lipids and lipoteichoic acid of autolysis-defective Streptococcus faecium strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shungu, D L; Cornett, J B; Shockman, G D

    1980-06-01

    Two of four previously isolated autolysis-defective mutants of Streptococcus faecium (Streptococcus faecalis ATCC 9790) incorporated substantially more [14C]glycerol into lipids and lipoteichoic acid than did the parent strain. Consistent with increased accumulation of lipids and lipoteichoic acid, significantly higher levels of phosphorus were found in the corresponding fractions of the two mutant strains than in the wild type. Although the autolysis-defective mutant strains contained the same assortment of lipids as the wild type, the relative amount of [14C]glycerol incorporated into diphosphatidylglycerol increased, accompanied by a decreased fraction of phosphatidylglycerol. These results suggested that increased cellular content of two types of substances, acylated lipoteichoic acid and lipids (notably diphosphatidylglycerol), which previously had been shown to be potent inhibitors of the N-acetylmuramoylhydrolase of this species, contributed to the autolysis-defective phenotype of these mutants. Consistent with this interpretation are observations that (i) cerulenin inhibition of fatty acid synthesis increased the rates of benzylpenicillin-induced cellular lysis and that (ii) Triton X-100 or Zwittergent 3-14 treatment could reveal the presence of otherwise cryptic but substantial levels of the active form of the autolysin in cells of three of four mutants and of the proteinase-activable latent form in all four mutants.

  3. Oxidation of intramyocellular lipids is dependent on mitochondrial function and the availability of extracellular fatty acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corpeleijn, Eva; Hessvik, Nina P.; Bakke, Siril S.; Levin, Klaus; Blaak, Ellen E.; Thoresen, G. Hege; Gaster, Michael; Rustan, Arild C.

    2010-01-01

    Corpeleijn E, Hessvik NP, Bakke SS, Levin K, Blaak EE, Thoresen GH, Gaster M, Rustan AC. Oxidation of intramyocellular lipids is dependent on mitochondrial function and the availability of extracellular fatty acids. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 299: E14-E22, 2010. First published May 4, 2010; doi:1

  4. Incorporation in polymeric nanocapsules improves the antioxidant effect of melatonin against lipid peroxidation in mice brain and liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffazick, Scheila R; Siqueira, Ionara R; Badejo, Alessandra S; Jornada, Denise S; Pohlmann, Adriana R; Netto, Carlos Alexandre; Guterres, Sílvia S

    2008-05-01

    It has been recently shown that the association of melatonin with polymeric nanoparticles causes a significant increase of the in vitro effect against lipid peroxidation. Hence, the aim of the present study was to compare the in vivo acute antioxidant effect of intraperitoneal administration of melatonin-loaded polysorbate 80-coated nanocapsules with that of melatonin aqueous solution in mice brain (frontal cortex and hippocampus) and liver. The lipid peroxidation through thiobarbituric acid reactive substance levels, the total antioxidant reactivity (luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence) and the free radical levels (formed dichlorofluorescein) has been carried out. Our results show that a single melatonin aqueous solution injection exerted no antioxidant activity in the evaluated range, while the administration of the melatonin-loaded polysorbate 80-coated nanocapsules caused a marked reduction on lipid peroxidation levels in all studied tissues. No differences on free radical content were found in the tissues. The melatonin-loaded nanocapsules also increased the total antioxidant reactivity in the hippocampus. These in vivo results are in accordance with our previous in vitro findings and confirm the hypothesis that polymeric nanocapsules improve the antioxidant effect of melatonin against lipid peroxidation.

  5. FadD is required for utilization of endogenous fatty acids released from membrane lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pech-Canul, Ángel; Nogales, Joaquina; Miranda-Molina, Alfonso; Álvarez, Laura; Geiger, Otto; Soto, María José; López-Lara, Isabel M

    2011-11-01

    FadD is an acyl coenzyme A (CoA) synthetase responsible for the activation of exogenous long-chain fatty acids (LCFA) into acyl-CoAs. Mutation of fadD in the symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti promotes swarming motility and leads to defects in nodulation of alfalfa plants. In this study, we found that S. meliloti fadD mutants accumulated a mixture of free fatty acids during the stationary phase of growth. The composition of the free fatty acid pool and the results obtained after specific labeling of esterified fatty acids with a Δ5-desaturase (Δ5-Des) were in agreement with membrane phospholipids being the origin of the released fatty acids. Escherichia coli fadD mutants also accumulated free fatty acids released from membrane lipids in the stationary phase. This phenomenon did not occur in a mutant of E. coli with a deficient FadL fatty acid transporter, suggesting that the accumulation of fatty acids in fadD mutants occurs inside the cell. Our results indicate that, besides the activation of exogenous LCFA, in bacteria FadD plays a major role in the activation of endogenous fatty acids released from membrane lipids. Furthermore, expression analysis performed with S. meliloti revealed that a functional FadD is required for the upregulation of genes involved in fatty acid degradation and suggested that in the wild-type strain, the fatty acids released from membrane lipids are degraded by β-oxidation in the stationary phase of growth.

  6. Phosphatidic acid: a multifunctional stress-signalling lipid in plants.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Testerink; T. Munnik

    2005-01-01

    Phosphatidic acid (PA) has only recently been identified as an important signaling molecule in both plants and animals. Nonetheless, it already promises to rival the importance of the classic second messengers Ca(2+) and cAMP. In plants, its formation is triggered in response to various biotic and a

  7. Enhanced fatty acid oxidation in adipocytes and macrophages reduces lipid-induced triglyceride accumulation and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malandrino, Maria Ida; Fucho, Raquel; Weber, Minéia; Calderon-Dominguez, María; Mir, Joan Francesc; Valcarcel, Lorea; Escoté, Xavier; Gómez-Serrano, María; Peral, Belén; Salvadó, Laia; Fernández-Veledo, Sonia; Casals, Núria; Vázquez-Carrera, Manuel; Villarroya, Francesc; Vendrell, Joan J; Serra, Dolors; Herrero, Laura

    2015-05-01

    Lipid overload in obesity and type 2 diabetes is associated with adipocyte dysfunction, inflammation, macrophage infiltration, and decreased fatty acid oxidation (FAO). Here, we report that the expression of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A (CPT1A), the rate-limiting enzyme in mitochondrial FAO, is higher in human adipose tissue macrophages than in adipocytes and that it is differentially expressed in visceral vs. subcutaneous adipose tissue in both an obese and a type 2 diabetes cohort. These observations led us to further investigate the potential role of CPT1A in adipocytes and macrophages. We expressed CPT1AM, a permanently active mutant form of CPT1A, in 3T3-L1 CARΔ1 adipocytes and RAW 264.7 macrophages through adenoviral infection. Enhanced FAO in palmitate-incubated adipocytes and macrophages reduced triglyceride content and inflammation, improved insulin sensitivity in adipocytes, and reduced endoplasmic reticulum stress and ROS damage in macrophages. We conclude that increasing FAO in adipocytes and macrophages improves palmitate-induced derangements. This indicates that enhancing FAO in metabolically relevant cells such as adipocytes and macrophages may be a promising strategy for the treatment of chronic inflammatory pathologies such as obesity and type 2 diabetes.

  8. Expression of fatty acid and lipid biosynthetic genes in developing endosperm of Jatropha curcas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gu Keyu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Temporal and spatial expression of fatty acid and lipid biosynthetic genes are associated with the accumulation of storage lipids in the seeds of oil plants. In jatropha (Jatropha curcas L., a potential biofuel plant, the storage lipids are mainly synthesized and accumulated in the endosperm of seeds. Although the fatty acid and lipid biosynthetic genes in jatropha have been identified, the expression of these genes at different developing stages of endosperm has not been systemically investigated. Results Transmission electron microscopy study revealed that the oil body formation in developing endosperm of jatropha seeds initially appeared at 28 days after fertilization (DAF, was actively developed at 42 DAF and reached to the maximum number and size at 56 DAF. Sixty-eight genes that encode enzymes, proteins or their subunits involved in fatty acid and lipid biosynthesis were identified from a normalized cDNA library of jatropha developing endosperm. Gene expression with quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis demonstrated that the 68 genes could be collectively grouped into five categories based on the patterns of relative expression of the genes during endosperm development. Category I has 47 genes and they displayed a bell-shaped expression pattern with the peak expression at 28 or 42 DAF, but low expression at 14 and 56 DAF. Category II contains 8 genes and expression of the 8 genes was constantly increased from 14 to 56 DAF. Category III comprises of 2 genes and both genes were constitutively expressed throughout endosperm development. Category IV has 9 genes and they showed a high expression at 14 and 28 DAF, but a decreased expression from 42 to 56 DAF. Category V consists of 2 genes and both genes showed a medium expression at 14 DAF, the lowest expression at 28 or 42 DAF, and the highest expression at 56 DAF. In addition, genes encoding enzymes or proteins with similar function were

  9. In vivo incorporation of labeled fatty acids in rat liver lipids after oral administration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leyton, J.; Drury, P.J.; Crawford, M.A.

    1987-08-01

    Striking differences were found in the compartmentalization of fatty acids into liver lipid fractions. The saturated fatty acids--lauric, myristic, palmitic and stearic--were incorporated into phosphoglycerides at faster rates with increasing chain lengths, while triglyceride incorporation was almost uniform. The degree of incorporation of the unsaturated fatty acids into phosphoglycerides (structural) compared to triglyceride (storage and energy) was the converse of their oxidation rates. The incorporation of oleic, linoleic and alpha-linolenic acids was mainly into triglyceride, whereas dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid and arachidonic acid were preferentially incorporated into phosphoglycerides. The data suggest that distribution of each fatty acid is different depending on its destination for structural or energy function.

  10. Effects of Essential Oils and Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids on Canine Skin Equivalents: Skin Lipid Assessment and Morphological Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Cerrato

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A canine skin equivalent model has been validated for the assessment of a topical formulation effects. Skin equivalents were developed from freshly isolated cutaneous canine fibroblasts and keratinocytes, after enzymatic digestion of skin samples (n=8 from different breeds. Fibroblasts were embedded into a collagen type I matrix, and keratinocytes were seeded onto its surface at air-liquid interface. Skin equivalents were supplemented with essential oils and polyunsaturated fatty acid formulation or with vehicle. Skin equivalents were histopathologically and ultrastructurally studied, and the three main lipid groups (free fatty acids, cholesterol, and ceramides were analyzed. Results showed that the culture method developed resulted in significant improvements in cell retrieval and confluence. Treated samples presented a thicker epidermis with increased number of viable cell layers, a denser and compact stratum corneum, and a more continuous basal membrane. Regarding lipid profile, treated skin equivalents showed a significant increase in ceramide content (51.7±1.3 when compared to untreated (41.6 ± 1.4 samples. Ultrastructural study evidenced a compact and well-organized stratum corneum in both treated and control skin equivalents. In conclusion, cell viability and ceramides increase, after lipid supplementation, are especially relevant for the treatment of skin barrier disruptions occurring in canine atopic dermatitis.

  11. Fatty acid pattern of lipids in normal and dystrophic human muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunze, D; Reichmann, G; Egger, E; Olthoff, D; Döhler, K

    1975-11-21

    The fatty acid distribution of the main lipid fractions: triglycerides (TG), phosphatidylcholine (PCh), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), and sphingomyelin (Sph) of muscle from 6 patients with progressive muscular dystrophy (p.m.d.), Duchenne, 8 to 12 years old was estimated and compared with normal controls of different age. In view of the results of several authors about varied fatty acid distribution in immature muscle a third group comprising samples of neonatal muscle was studied. 1. The fatty acid pattern of the lipid fractions TG, Sph, and PE from muscle of patients with p.m.d. shows no important variation in comparison to normal controls. In contrast to this the fatty acid distribution in PCh is extremely varied: the percentage of 18:2 is decreased and corrrespondingly the content of 18:1 is increased. In view of the high percentage (nearly 10%) in which linoleic acid is substituted by oleic acid in PCh, effects on the plasma membrane are to be expected. 2. The fatty acid pattern in neonatal muscle shows in narly all positions of the fractions TG, Sph, PE, and PCh a different distribution from normal or dystrophic muscle. In view of the most important variation in dystrophic muscle it must be stated that generally 18:2 is decreased. This deficit was replaced by an increase of all other fatty acids (not only at a substitution by 18:1 as given in p.m.d.). Therefore the diminished content of linoleic acid in PCh of neonatal and dystrophic muscle cannot be interpreted as expression of a corresponding or similar lipid metabolism in both tissues. The results were seen as signs of significant qualitative alterations especially of PCh in p.m.d. They were discussed as proof of our thesis that the basic defect in p.m.d. concerns the specific acylation of PCh with linoleic acid.

  12. Waste lipids to energy: how to optimize methane production from long-chain fatty acids (LCFA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, M Madalena; Pereira, M Alcina; Sousa, Diana Z; Cavaleiro, Ana J; Picavet, Merijn; Smidt, Hauke; Stams, Alfons J M

    2009-09-01

    The position of high-rate anaerobic technology (HR-AnWT) in the wastewater treatment and bioenergy market can be enhanced if the range of suitable substrates is expanded. Analyzing existing technologies, applications and problems, it is clear that, until now, wastewaters with high lipids content are not effectively treated by HR-AnWT. Nevertheless, waste lipids are ideal potential substrates for biogas production, since theoretically more methane can be produced, when compared with proteins or carbohydrates. In this minireview, the classical problems of lipids methanization in anaerobic processes are discussed and new concepts to enhance lipids degradation are presented. Reactors operation, feeding strategies and prospects of technological developments for wastewater treatment are discussed. Long-chain fatty acids (LCFA) degradation is accomplished by syntrophic communities of anaerobic bacteria and methanogenic archaea. For optimal performance these syntrophic communities need to be clustered in compact aggregates, which is often difficult to achieve with wastewaters that contain fats and lipids. Driving the methane production from lipids/LCFA at industrial scale without risk of overloading and inhibition is still a challenge that has the potential for filling a gap in the existing processes and technologies for biological methane production associated to waste and wastewater treatment.

  13. Waste lipids to energy: how to optimize methane production from long‐chain fatty acids (LCFA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, M. Madalena; Pereira, M. Alcina; Sousa, Diana Z.; Cavaleiro, Ana J.; Picavet, Merijn; Smidt, Hauke; Stams, Alfons J. M.

    2009-01-01

    Summary The position of high‐rate anaerobic technology (HR‐AnWT) in the wastewater treatment and bioenergy market can be enhanced if the range of suitable substrates is expanded. Analyzing existing technologies, applications and problems, it is clear that, until now, wastewaters with high lipids content are not effectively treated by HR‐AnWT. Nevertheless, waste lipids are ideal potential substrates for biogas production, since theoretically more methane can be produced, when compared with proteins or carbohydrates. In this minireview, the classical problems of lipids methanization in anaerobic processes are discussed and new concepts to enhance lipids degradation are presented. Reactors operation, feeding strategies and prospects of technological developments for wastewater treatment are discussed. Long‐chain fatty acids (LCFA) degradation is accomplished by syntrophic communities of anaerobic bacteria and methanogenic archaea. For optimal performance these syntrophic communities need to be clustered in compact aggregates, which is often difficult to achieve with wastewaters that contain fats and lipids. Driving the methane production from lipids/LCFA at industrial scale without risk of overloading and inhibition is still a challenge that has the potential for filling a gap in the existing processes and technologies for biological methane production associated to waste and wastewater treatment. PMID:21255287

  14. Assembling nanoparticle coatings to improve the drug delivery performance of lipid based colloids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simovic, Spomenka; Barnes, Timothy J.; Tan, Angel; Prestidge, Clive A.

    2012-02-01

    Lipid based colloids (e.g. emulsions and liposomes) are widely used as drug delivery systems, but often suffer from physical instabilities and non-ideal drug encapsulation and delivery performance. We review the application of engineered nanoparticle layers at the interface of lipid colloids to improve their performance as drug delivery systems. In addition we focus on the creation of novel hybrid nanomaterials from nanoparticle-lipid colloid assemblies and their drug delivery applications. Specifically, nanoparticle layers can be engineered to enhance the physical stability of submicron lipid emulsions and liposomes, satbilise encapsulated active ingredients against chemical degradation, control molecular transport and improve the dermal and oral delivery characteristics, i.e. increase absorption, bioavailability and facilitate targeted delivery. It is feasible that hybrid nanomaterials composed of nanoparticles and colloidal lipids are effective encapsulation and delivery systems for both poorly soluble drugs and biological drugs and may form the basis for the next generation of medicines. Additional pre-clinical research including specific animal model studies are required to advance the peptide/protein delivery systems, whereas the silica lipid hybrid systems have now entered human clinical trials for poorly soluble drugs.

  15. Improving cell growth and lipid accumulation in green microalgae Chlorella sp. via UV irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuyu; Zhao, Yueping; Liu, Li; Ao, Xiyong; Ma, Liyan; Wu, Minghong; Ma, Fang

    2015-04-01

    Microalgae with high biomass and high lipid content are the ideal feedstock for biodiesel production. To obtain such microalgae, ultraviolet (UV) irradiation was applied to Chlorella sp. to induce mutagenesis. The growth characteristics, total nitrogen (TN), and biochemical compositions of the control and UV mutation strains were analyzed. Compared to the control strain, the biomass for the UV mutation strain was 7.6 % higher and it presented a higher growth rate. The lipid content of the UV mutation strain showed different levels of increase and reached the maximum value of 28.1 % on day 15. Furthermore, the lipid productivity of the UV mutation strain showed a desired increase. The nitrogen consumption and Acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) activity contributed to the lipid production by UV. All these results indicate that UV mutagenesis is an efficient method to improve probability for using Chlorella sp. as the potential raw material for biodiesel production.

  16. Lipids and Fatty Acids in Algae: Extraction, Fractionation into Lipid Classes, and Analysis by Gas Chromatography Coupled with Flame Ionization Detector (GC-FID).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guihéneuf, Freddy; Schmid, Matthias; Stengel, Dagmar B

    2015-01-01

    Despite the number of biochemical studies exploring algal lipids and fatty acid biosynthesis pathways and profiles, analytical methods used by phycologists for this purpose are often diverse and incompletely described. Potential confusion and potential variability of the results between studies can therefore occur due to change of protocols for lipid extraction and fractionation, as well as fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) preparation before gas chromatography (GC) analyses. Here, we describe a step-by-step procedure for the profiling of neutral and polar lipids using techniques such as solid-liquid extraction (SLE), thin-layer chromatography (TLC), and gas chromatography coupled with flame ionization detector (GC-FID). As an example, in this protocol chapter, analyses of neutral and polar lipids from the marine microalga Pavlova lutheri (an EPA/DHA-rich haptophyte) will be outlined to describe the distribution of fatty acid residues within its major lipid classes. This method has been proven to be a reliable technique to assess changes in lipid and fatty acid profiles in several other microalgal species and seaweeds.

  17. Chlorogenic acid stabilized nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) of atorvastatin: formulation, design and in vivo evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Saba; Baboota, Sanjula; Ali, Javed; Narang, R S; Narang, Jasjeet K

    2016-01-01

    The present work was aimed at developing an optimized oral nanostructured lipid carrier (NLC) formulation of poorly soluble atorvastatin Ca (AT Ca) and assessing its in vitro release, oral bioavailability and pharmacodynamic activity. In this study, chlorogenic acid, a novel excipient having synergistic cholesterol lowering activity was utilized and explored in NLC formulation development. The drug-loaded NLC formulations were prepared using a high pressure homogenization technique and optimized by the Box-Behnken statistical design using the Design-Expert software. The optimized NLC formulation was composed of oleic acid and stearic acid as lipid phase (0.9% w/v), poloxamer 188 as surfactant (1% w/v) and chlorogenic acid (0.05% w/v). The mean particle size, polydispersity index (PDI) and % drug entrapment efficiency of optimized NLC were 203.56 ± 8.57 nm, 0.27 ± 0.028 and 83.66 ± 5.69, respectively. In vitro release studies showed that the release of drug from optimized NLC formulations were markedly enhanced as compared to solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) and drug suspension. The plasma concentration time profile of AT Ca in rats showed 3.08- and 4.89-fold increase in relative bioavailability of developed NLC with respect to marketed preparation (ATORVA® tablet) and drug suspension, respectively. Pharmacodynamic study suggested highly significant (**p chlorogenic acid integrated NLC.

  18. Equivalent Isopropanol Concentrations of Aromatic Amino Acids Interactions with Lipid Vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Merrell A; Ray, Bruce D; Wassall, Stephen R; Petrache, Horia I

    2015-08-01

    We show that the interaction of aromatic amino acids with lipid bilayers can be characterized by conventional 1D [Formula: see text]H NMR spectroscopy using reference spectra obtained in isopropanol-d8/D[Formula: see text]O solutions. We demonstrate the utility of this method with three different peptides containing tyrosine, tryptophan, or phenylalanine amino acids in the presence of 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine or 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoserine lipid membranes. In each case, we determine an equivalent isopropanol concentration (EIC) for each hydrogen site of aromatic groups, in essence constructing a map of the chemical environment. These EIC maps provide information on relative affinities of aromatic side chains for either PC or PS bilayers and also inform on amino acid orientation preference when bound to membranes.

  19. [Effect of phytic acid and its derivatives on blood lipid peroxidation state in vitro].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martusevich, A K; Sidorova, M V; Mel'nikova, N B; Solov'eva, A G; Peretiagin, S P

    2014-01-01

    We have studied specific features of lipid peroxidation in whole human blood under the action of aqueous solutions of xymedone (19.6 microM), phytic acid (117.9 microM) and its complex (237.6 microM) synthesized in distilled water and isotonic (0.9%) solution of sodium chloride. The estimated parameters included lipid peroxidation (LPO) rate, total antioxidant potential, superoxide dismutase (SOD) level, and malonic dialdehyde (MDA) level in blood plasma and erythrocytes. It was established that the effect of phytic acid on blood samples includes moderate stimulation of total antioxidant activity and SOD activity with predominant prooxidant effect. The phytic acid--xymedone complex synthesized in distilled water exhibits an antioxidant action, while its synthesis in saline solution yields a prooxidant.

  20. Effects of lipids and oleic acid on biomass development in anaerobic fixed-bed reactors. Part II: Oleic acid toxicity and biodegradability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, M M; Vieira, J A; Pereira, R M; Pereira, M A; Mota, M

    2001-01-01

    Oleic acid toxicity and biodegradability were followed during long-term operation of two similar anaerobic fixed-bed units. When treating an oleate based effluent, the sludge from the bioreactor that was acclimated with lipids during the first operation period, showed a higher tolerance to oleic acid toxicity (IC50 = 137 mg/l) compared with the sludge fed with a non-fat substrate (IC50 = 80 mg/l). This sludge showed also the highest biodegradation capacity of oleic acid, achieving maximum methane production rates between 33 and 46 mlCH4(STP)/gVS.day and maximum percentages of methanization between 85 and 98% for the range of concentrations between 500 and 900 mg oleate/l. When oleate was the sole carbon source fed to both digesters, the biomass became encapsulated with organic matter, possibly oleate or an intermediate of its degradation, e.g. stearate that was degraded at a maximum rate of 99 mlCH4(STP)/gVS.day. This suggests the possibility of using adsorption-degradation cycles for the treatment of LCFA based effluents. Both tolerance to toxicity and biodegradability of oleic acid were improved by acclimatization with lipids or oleate below a threshold concentration.

  1. Lipid class and fatty acid content of the leptocephalus larva of tropical eels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deibel, D; Parrish, C C; Grønkjær, P; Munk, P; Nielsen, T Gissel

    2012-06-01

    The leptocephalus larva of eels distinguishes the elopomorph fishes from all other bony fishes. The leptocephalus is long lived and increases in size primarily through the synthesis and deposition of glycosaminoglycans. Energy stored during the larval stage, in the form of glycosaminoglycan and lipids, is required to fuel migration, metamorphosis and metabolism of the subsequent glass eel stage. Despite the importance of energy storage by leptocephali for survival and recruitment, their diet, condition and lipid content and composition is essentially unknown. To gain further insight into energy storage and condition of leptocephali, we determined the lipid class and fatty acid concentration of larvae collected on a cross-shelf transect off Broome, northwestern Australia. The total lipid concentration of two families and four sub-families of leptocephali ranged from 2.7 to 7.0 mg g wet weight(-1), at the low end of the few published values. Phospholipid and triacylglycerol made up ca. 63 % of the total lipid pool. The triacylglycerol:sterol ratio, an index of nutritional condition, ranged from 0.9 to 3.7, indicating that the leptocephali were in good condition. The predominant fatty acids were 16:0 (23 mol%), 22:6n-3 (docosahexaenoic acid, DHA, 16 mol%), 18:0 (8.2 mol%), 20:5n-3 (eicosapentaenoic acid, EPA, 6.7 mol%), 18:1n-9 (6.4 mol%) and 16:1n-7 (6.3 mol%). The DHA:EPA ratio ranged from 2.4 to 2.9, sufficient for normal growth and development of fish larvae generally. The leptocephali had proportions of bacterial markers >4.4 %, consistent with the possibility that they consume appendicularian houses or other marine snow that is bacteria rich.

  2. The role of tetraether lipid composition in the adaptation of thermophilic archaea to acidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Eric S; Hamilton, Trinity L; Wang, Jinxiang; He, Liu; Zhang, Chuanlun L

    2013-01-01

    Diether and tetraether lipids are fundamental components of the archaeal cell membrane. Archaea adjust the degree of tetraether lipid cyclization in order to maintain functional membranes and cellular homeostasis when confronted with pH and/or thermal stress. Thus, the ability to adjust tetraether lipid composition likely represents a critical phenotypic trait that enabled archaeal diversification into environments characterized by extremes in pH and/or temperature. Here we assess the relationship between geochemical variation, core- and polar-isoprenoid glycerol dibiphytanyl glycerol tetraether (C-iGDGT and P-iGDGT, respectively) lipid composition, and archaeal 16S rRNA gene diversity and abundance in 27 geothermal springs in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming. The composition and abundance of C-iGDGT and P-iGDGT lipids recovered from geothermal ecosystems were distinct from surrounding soils, indicating that they are synthesized endogenously. With the exception of GDGT-0 (no cyclopentyl rings), the abundances of individual C-iGDGT and P-iGDGT lipids were significantly correlated. The abundance of a number of individual tetraether lipids varied positively with the relative abundance of individual 16S rRNA gene sequences, most notably crenarchaeol in both the core and polar GDGT fraction and sequences closely affiliated with Candidatus Nitrosocaldus yellowstonii. This finding supports the proposal that crenarchaeol is a biomarker for nitrifying archaea. Variation in the degree of cyclization of C- and P-iGDGT lipids recovered from geothermal mats and sediments could best be explained by variation in spring pH, with lipids from acidic environments tending to have, on average, more internal cyclic rings than those from higher pH ecosystems. Likewise, variation in the phylogenetic composition of archaeal 16S rRNA genes could best be explained by spring pH. In turn, the phylogenetic similarity of archaeal 16S rRNA genes was significantly correlated with the similarity

  3. α-Tocopherol succinate improves encapsulation and anticancer activity of doxorubicin loaded in solid lipid nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Mariana S; Mussi, Samuel V; Gomes, Dawidson A; Yoshida, Maria Irene; Frezard, Frederic; Carregal, Virgínia M; Ferreira, Lucas A M

    2016-04-01

    This work aimed to develop solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) co-loaded with doxorubicin and α-tocopheryl succinate (TS), a succinic acid ester of α-tocopherol that exhibits anticancer actions, evaluating the influence of TS on drug encapsulation efficiency. The SLN were characterized for size, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency (EE), and drug release. Studies of in vitro anticancer activity were also conducted. The EE was significantly improved from 30 ± 1% to 96 ± 2% for SLN without and with TS at 0.4%, respectively. In contrast, a reduction in particle size from 298 ± 1 to 79 ± 1 nm was observed for SLN without and with TS respectively. The doxorubicin release data show that SLN provide a controlled drug release. The in vitro studies showed higher cytotoxicity for doxorubicin-TS-loaded SLN than for free doxorubicin in breast cancer cells. These findings suggest that TS-doxorubicin-loaded SLN is a promising alternative for the treatment of cancer.

  4. Effects of ascorbic acid and antioxidants on color, lipid oxidation and volatiles of irradiated ground beef

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, D. U.; Nam, K. C.

    2004-09-01

    Beef loins with 3 different aging times after slaughter were ground, added with none, 0.1% ascorbic acid, 0.01% sesamol+0.01% α-tocopherol, or 0.1% ascorbic acid+0.01% sesamol+0.01% tocopherol. The meats were packaged in oxygen-permeable bags, irradiated at 2.5 kGy, and color, oxidation-reduction potential (ORP), lipid oxidation and volatile profiles were determined. Irradiation decreased the redness of ground beef, and visible color of beef changed from a bright red to a green/brown depending on the age of meat. Addition of ascorbic acid prevented color changes in irradiated beef, and the effect of ascorbic acid became greater as the age of meat or storage time after irradiation increased. The ground beef added with ascorbic acid had lower ORP than control, and the low ORP of meat helped maintaining the heme pigments in reduced form. During aerobic storage, S-volatiles disappeared while volatile aldehydes significantly increased in irradiated beef. Addition of ascorbic acid at 0.1% or sesamol+α-tocopherol at each 0.01% level to ground beef prior to irradiation were effective in reducing lipid oxidation and S-volatiles. As storage time increased, however, the antioxidant effect of sesamol+tocopherol in irradiated ground beef was superior to that of ascorbic acid.

  5. Effects of ascorbic acid and antioxidants on color, lipid oxidation and volatiles of irradiated ground beef

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, D.U. E-mail: duahn@iastate.edu; Nam, K.C

    2004-10-01

    Beef loins with 3 different aging times after slaughter were ground, added with none, 0.1% ascorbic acid, 0.01% sesamol+0.01% {alpha}-tocopherol, or 0.1% ascorbic acid+0.01% sesamol+0.01% tocopherol. The meats were packaged in oxygen-permeable bags, irradiated at 2.5 kGy, and color, oxidation-reduction potential (ORP), lipid oxidation and volatile profiles were determined. Irradiation decreased the redness of ground beef, and visible color of beef changed from a bright red to a green/brown depending on the age of meat. Addition of ascorbic acid prevented color changes in irradiated beef, and the effect of ascorbic acid became greater as the age of meat or storage time after irradiation increased. The ground beef added with ascorbic acid had lower ORP than control, and the low ORP of meat helped maintaining the heme pigments in reduced form. During aerobic storage, S-volatiles disappeared while volatile aldehydes significantly increased in irradiated beef. Addition of ascorbic acid at 0.1% or sesamol+{alpha}-tocopherol at each 0.01% level to ground beef prior to irradiation were effective in reducing lipid oxidation and S-volatiles. As storage time increased, however, the antioxidant effect of sesamol+tocopherol in irradiated ground beef was superior to that of ascorbic acid.

  6. The Immunosuppressant Mycophenolic Acid Alters Nucleotide and Lipid Metabolism in an Intestinal Cell Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heischmann, Svenja; Dzieciatkowska, Monika; Hansen, Kirk; Leibfritz, Dieter; Christians, Uwe

    2017-01-01

    The study objective was to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying the negative effects of mycophenolic acid (MPA) on human intestinal cells. Effects of MPA exposure and guanosine supplementation on nucleotide concentrations in LS180 cells were assessed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Proteomics analysis was carried out using stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture combined with gel-based liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and lipidome analysis using 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Despite supplementation, depletion of guanosine nucleotides (p < 0.001 at 24 and 72 h; 5, 100, and 250 μM MPA) and upregulation of uridine and cytidine nucleotides (p < 0.001 at 24 h; 5 μM MPA) occurred after exposure to MPA. MPA significantly altered 35 proteins mainly related to nucleotide-dependent processes and lipid metabolism. Cross-reference with previous studies of MPA-associated protein changes widely corroborated these results, but showed differences that may be model- and/or method-dependent. MPA exposure increased intracellular concentrations of fatty acids, cholesterol, and phosphatidylcholine (p < 0.01 at 72 h; 100 μM MPA) which corresponded to the changes in lipid-metabolizing proteins. MPA affected intracellular nucleotide levels, nucleotide-dependent processes, expression of structural proteins, fatty acid and lipid metabolism in LS180 cells. These changes may compromise intestinal membrane integrity and contribute to gastrointestinal toxicity. PMID:28327659

  7. Changes in lipid class and fatty acid composition during development in white seabream (Diplodus sargus) eggs and larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cejas, Juana Rosa; Almansa, Eduardo; Jérez, Salvador; Bolaños, Ana; Felipe, Beatriz; Lorenzo, Antonio

    2004-10-01

    To establish the changes which occur during embryogenesis and early larvae development, eggs, yolk-sac larvae (one day old larvae) and absorbed yolk-sac larvae (three day old larvae) of white sea bream were examined for lipid class and fatty acid composition. The development was characterized by a decrease in all lipid classes with the exception of phosphatidylserine (PS) and fatty free acids (FFA) which increased, and sphingomyelin (SM) which remained unchanged. The changes observed in lipid class content and the decrease in fatty acids in total lipid (TL) reflect the utilization and mobilization of lipids during both embryogenesis and early larvae development. Fluctuations in the relative composition of fatty acids in phosphatidylcholine (PC) during development suggest a selective bulk uptake and catabolism of fatty acids in this lipid class. Unlike PC, catabolism of triacylglycerol (TG) fatty acid appears to be non-selective. During development, the decrease in levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) eicosapentaenoic (20:5n-3, EPA) and docosahexaenoic (22:6n-3, DHA) in total lipid denotes their utilization as energy substrate by Diplodus sargus larvae.

  8. Lipid and citric acid production by wild yeasts grown in glycerol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Karla Silva Teixeira; Schwan, Rosane Freitas; Dias, Disney Ribeiro

    2014-04-01

    In this study, crude glycerol was used as a carbon source in the cultivation of wild yeasts, aiming for the production of microbial lipids and citric acid. Forty yeasts of different sources were tested concerning their growth in crude and commercial glycerol. Four yeasts (Lidnera saturnus UFLA CES-Y677, Yarrowia lipolytica UFLA CM-Y9.4, Rhodotorula glutinis NCYC 2439, and Cryptococcus curvatus NCYC 476) were then selected owing to their ability to grow in pure (OD600 2.133, 1.633, 2.055, and 2.049, respectively) and crude (OD600 2.354, 1.753, 2.316, and 2.281, respectively) glycerol (10%, 20%, and 30%). Y. lipolytica UFLA CM-Y9.4 was selected for its ability to maintain cell viability in concentrations of 30% of crude glycerol, and high glycerol intake (18.907 g/l). This yeast was submitted to lipid production in 30 g/l of crude glycerol, and therefore obtained 63.4% of microbial lipids. In the fatty acid profile, there was a predominance of stearic (C18:0) and palmitic (C16:0) acids in the concentrations of 87.64% and 74.67%, respectively. We also performed optimization of the parameters for the production of citric acid, which yielded a production of 0.19 g/l of citric acid in optimum conditions (38.4 g/l of crude glycerol, agitation of 184 rpm, and temperature of 30°C). Yarrowia lipolytica UFLA CM-Y9.4 presented good lipid production when in the concentration of 30 g/l of glycerol. These data may be used for production in large quantities for the application of industrial biodiesel.

  9. Benefits of Omega-3 Fatty Acids Supplementation on Serum Paraoxonase 1 Activity and Lipids Ratios in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elahe Mohammadi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is a common endocrine disorder associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. The purpose of this study was to investigate the ef-fects of omega-3 fatty acids on serum paraoxonase 1 activity and lipids ratios in polycystic ovary syndrome.Methods: This double-blind randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted on 64 PCOS pa-tients with 20-35 years old. Thirty two of the subjects had taken 4 g/day omega -3 fatty acids and 32 patients were given placebo for 8 weeks. Fasting blood samples, anthropometric measure-ments and dietary intakes were collected at the beginning and the end of the study. Serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, and HDL-C were measured using the enzymatic methods. LDL-C con-centration was calculated by the Friedewald formula and arylesterase activity of serum PON1 was measured. Data were analyzed using SPSS software.Results: Omega-3 fatty acids significantly decreased TC/HDL-C and LDL-C/HDL-C ratios (P = 0.009 for both and significantly increased serum PON1 activity (P = 0.048 compared with placebo. Changes in TG/HDL-C ratio were not statistically significant in omega-3 fatty acids group at the end of the study in comparison to placebo group. Reduction in TC/HDL-C, LDL-C/HDL-C and TG/HDL-C ratios and increase in serum PON1 activity were also significant in omega-3 fatty acids group at the end of the study compared with baseline values (P <0.001, P < 0.001, P = 0.004, and P = 0.001, respectively.Conclusion: Omega-3 fatty acids may decrease the risk for cardiovascular disease through the improvement in paraxonase-1 activity and reduction in some lipids ratio in PCOS women.

  10. Omega-3 enriched egg production: the effect of α -linolenic ω -3 fatty acid sources on laying hen performance and yolk lipid content and fatty acid composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antruejo, A; Azcona, J O; Garcia, P T; Gallinger, C; Rosmini, M; Ayerza, R; Coates, W; Perez, C D

    2011-12-01

    1. Diets high in total lipids, saturated fatty acids, trans fatty acids, and having high ω-6:ω-3 fatty acid ratios, have been shown to be related to increased instances of coronary heart disease, while diets high in ω-3 fatty acids have been shown to decrease the risk. 2. Feeding ω-3 fatty acid diets to laying hens has been shown to improve the quality of eggs produced in terms of saturation and ω-3 content. 3. A study was undertaken to determine if the ω-3 fatty acid source, when fed to hens, influences the amount transferred to eggs. 4. Flaxseed and flaxseed oil, along with chia seed and chia seed oil, were the two main sources of ω-3 fatty acid examined during the 84 d trial. 5. All α-linolenic enriched treatments yielded significantly higher ω-3 fatty acid contents per g of yolk and per yolk, than the non-α-linolenic enriched diets. Chia oil and chia seed yielded 54·5 and 63·5% more mg of ω-3 fatty acid per g of yolk for the 56 d test period, and 13·4 and 66·2% more for the 84 d test period, than flaxseed oil and flaxseed, respectively. 6. The differences in omega-3 content were significant, except for the chia oil compared with the flax oil, at the end of the trial. 7. This trial has shown that differences in conversion exist among ω-3 fatty acid sources, at least when fed to hens, and indicates that chia may hold a significant potential as a source of ω-3 fatty acid for enriching foods, thereby making these foods a healthier choice for consumers.

  11. Lipids rich in ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids from microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Sánchez, N F; Valadez-Blanco, R; Hernández-Carlos, B; Torres-Ariño, A; Guadarrama-Mendoza, P C; Salas-Coronado, R

    2016-10-01

    Despite microalgae recently receiving enormous attention as a potential source of biodiesel, their use is still not feasible as an alternative to fossil fuels. Recently, interest in microalgae has focused on the production of bioactive compounds such as polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), which provide microalgae a high added value. Several considerations need to be assessed for optimizing PUFA production from microalgae. Firstly, a microalgae species that produces high PUFA concentrations should be selected, such as Nannochloropsis gaditana, Isochrysis galbana, Phaeodactylum tricornutum, and Crypthecodinium cohnii, with marine species gaining more attention than do freshwater species. Closed cultivation processes, e.g., photobioreactors, are the most appropriate since temperature, pH, and nutrients can be controlled. An airlift column with LEDs or optical fibers to distribute photons into the culture media can be used at small scale to produce inoculum, while tubular and flat panels are used at commercial scale. Depending on the microalgae, a temperature range from 15 to 28 °C and a pH from 7 to 8 can be employed. Relevant conditions for PUFA production are medium light irradiances (50-300 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1)), air enriched with (0-1 % (v/v) CO2, as well as nitrogen and phosphorous limitation. For research purposes, the most appropriate medium for PUFA production is Bold's Basal, whereas mixotrophic cultivation using sucrose or glucose as the carbon source has been reported for industrial processes. For cell harvesting, the use of tangential flow membrane filtration or disk stack centrifugation is advisable at commercial scale. Current researches on PUFA extraction have focused on the use of organic solvents assisted with ultrasound or microwaves, supercritical fluids, and electroporation or are enzyme assisted. Commercial-scale extraction involves mainly physical methods such as bead mills and expeller presses. All these factors should be taken into

  12. Efficacy of boswellic acid on lysosomal acid hydrolases, lipid peroxidation and anti-oxidant status in gouty arthritic mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Evan Prince Sabina; Haridas Indu; Mahaboobkhan Rasool

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the efficacy of boswellic acid against monosodium urate crystal-induced inflammation in mice. Methods:The mice were divided into four experimental groups. Group I served as control;mice in group II were injected with monosodium urate crystal;group III consisted of monosodium urate crystal-induced mice who were treated with boswellic acid (30 mg/kg/b.w.);group IV comprised monosodium urate crystal-induced mice who were treated with indomethacin (3 mg/kg/b.w.). Paw volume and levels/activities of lysosomal enzymes, lipid peroxidation, anti-oxidant status and inflammatory mediator TNF-αwere determined in control and monosodium urate crystal-induced mice. In addition, the levels of β-glucuronidase and lactate dehydrogenase were also measured in monosodium urate crystal-incubated polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMNL) in vitro. Results:The activities of lysosomal enzymes, lipid peroxidation, and tumour necrosis factor-αlevels and paw volume were increased significantly in monosodium urate crystal-induced mice, whereas the activities of antioxidant status were in turn decreased. However, these changes were modulated to near normal levels upon boswellic acid administration. In vitro, boswellic acid reduced the level of β-glucuronidase and lactate dehydrogenase in monosodium urate crystal-incubated PMNL in concentration dependent manner when compared with control cells. Conclusions: The results obtained in this study further strengthen the anti-inflammatory/antiarthritic effect of boswellic acid, which was already well established by several investigators.

  13. EFFECT OF LIGHT INTENSITY ON THE TOTAL LIPID AND FATTY ACID COMPOSITION OF SIX STRAINS OF

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The effect of light intensity (1500 lx and 5000 lx) on the total lipid and fatty acid composition of six strains of marine diatoms Cylindrotheca fusiformis (B211), Phaeodactylum tricornutum (B114, B118 and B221) Nitzschia closterium (B222) and Chaetoceros gracilis (B13) was investigated. The total lipids of B13, B114, and B211 grown at 5000 lx were lower than those grown at 1500 lx. No evident changes were observed in B118, B221 and B222. Fatty acid composition changed considerably at different light intensity although no consistent correlation between the relative proportion of a single FA and light intensity. The major fatty acids of the 6 strains were 14:0, 16:0, 16:1(n-7) and 20:5(n-3). Cylindrotheca fusiformis had high percentage of 20:4n-6 (9.2-10.9%). The total polyunsaturated fatty acid in all 6 strains decreased with increasing light intensity. The percentage of the highly unsaturated fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) decreased with increasing light intensity in all strains except Chaetoceros gracilis.

  14. Pectin-lipid self-assembly: influence on the formation of polyhydroxy fatty acids nanoparticles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Guzman-Puyol

    Full Text Available Nanoparticles, named cutinsomes, have been prepared from aleuritic (9,10,16-trihidroxipalmitic acid and tomato fruit cutin monomers (a mixture of mainly 9(10,16-dihydroxypalmitic acid (85%, w/w and 16-hydroxyhexadecanoic acid (7.5%, w/w with pectin in aqueous solution. The process of formation of the nanoparticles of aleuritic acid plus pectin has been monitored by UV-Vis spectrophotometry, while their chemical and morphological characterization was analyzed by ATR-FTIR, TEM, and non-contact AFM. The structure of these nanoparticles can be described as a lipid core with a pectin shell. Pectin facilitated the formation of nanoparticles, by inducing their aggregation in branched chains and favoring the condensation between lipid monomers. Also, pectin determined the self-assembly of cutinsomes on highly ordered pyrolytic graphite (HOPG surfaces, causing their opening and forming interconnected structures. In the case of cutin monomers, the nanoparticles are fused, and the condensation of the hydroxy fatty acids is strongly affected by the presence of the polysaccharide. The interaction of pectin with polyhydroxylated fatty acids could be related to an initial step in the formation of the plant biopolyester cutin.

  15. Pectin-Lipid Self-Assembly: Influence on the Formation of Polyhydroxy Fatty Acids Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman-Puyol, Susana; Benítez, José Jesús; Domínguez, Eva; Bayer, Ilker Sefik; Cingolani, Roberto; Athanassiou, Athanassia; Heredia, Antonio; Heredia-Guerrero, José Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    Nanoparticles, named cutinsomes, have been prepared from aleuritic (9,10,16-trihidroxipalmitic) acid and tomato fruit cutin monomers (a mixture of mainly 9(10),16-dihydroxypalmitic acid (85%, w/w) and 16-hydroxyhexadecanoic acid (7.5%, w/w)) with pectin in aqueous solution. The process of formation of the nanoparticles of aleuritic acid plus pectin has been monitored by UV-Vis spectrophotometry, while their chemical and morphological characterization was analyzed by ATR-FTIR, TEM, and non-contact AFM. The structure of these nanoparticles can be described as a lipid core with a pectin shell. Pectin facilitated the formation of nanoparticles, by inducing their aggregation in branched chains and favoring the condensation between lipid monomers. Also, pectin determined the self-assembly of cutinsomes on highly ordered pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) surfaces, causing their opening and forming interconnected structures. In the case of cutin monomers, the nanoparticles are fused, and the condensation of the hydroxy fatty acids is strongly affected by the presence of the polysaccharide. The interaction of pectin with polyhydroxylated fatty acids could be related to an initial step in the formation of the plant biopolyester cutin. PMID:25915490

  16. Differential lipid and fatty acid profiles of photoautotrophic and heterotrophic Chlorella zofingiensis: assessment of algal oils for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jin; Huang, Junchao; Sun, Zheng; Zhong, Yujuan; Jiang, Yue; Chen, Feng

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to document and compare the lipid class and fatty acid composition of the green microalga Chlorella zofingiensis cultivated under photoautotrophic and heterotrophic conditions. Compared with photoautotrophic cells, a 900% increase in lipid yield was achieved in heterotrophic cells fed with 30 g L(-1) of glucose. Furthermore heterotrophic cells accumulated predominantly neutral lipids (NL) that accounted for 79.5% of total lipids with 88.7% being triacylglycerol (TAG); whereas photoautotrophic cells contained mainly the membrane lipids glycolipids (GL) and phospholipids (PL). Together with the much higher content of oleic acid (C18:1) (35.2% of total fatty acids), oils from heterotrophic C. zofingiensis appear to be more feasible for biodiesel production. Our study highlights the possibility of using heterotrophic algae for producing high quality biodiesel.

  17. Characterization of Lipids and Fatty Acid Methyl Ester Contents in Leaves and Roots of Crocus vallicola

    OpenAIRE

    YAYLI, Nurettin; KIRAN, Zerrin; SEYMEN, Hasan; GENÇ, Hasan

    2001-01-01

    The chemical composition of the fatty acids methyl esters (FAMEs) and other lipids in leaves and roots of Crocusvallicola were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry(GC-MS). In this work, twenty-eight compounds, including 22 FAMEs, 1 aldehyde, 3 hydrocarbons (substitute alkane and alkene), 2 alcohols in the leaves and twenty-one compounds (17 FAMEs, 1 anhydride, 1 substitute alcohol, 1 ketone, 1 substitute amide) in the roots were identified by GC-MS from C. vallicola. Th...

  18. Effects of Diet High in Palmitoleic Acid on Serum Lipid Levels and Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-07-01

    postprandial tipidLipoprotein metabolism . Funded by the Almond Boar’d of vitamin E supplement use, body mass index, exercise , and intakes of California...High in Palmitoleic Acid on Serum Lipid Levels and Metabolism , Phase 2 PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Jesse David Curb, M.D., MPH CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION... response , including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and

  19. Mangiferin supplementation improves serum lipid profiles in overweight patients with hyperlipidemia: a double-blind randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Lixin; Zhang, Qiao; Jiang, Shuo; Du, Shanshan; Zhang, Wei; Li, Ying; Sun, Changhao; Niu, Yucun

    2015-05-19

    Our previous studies have shown that mangiferin decreased serum triglycerides and free fatty acids (FFAs) by increasing FFAs oxidation in both animal and cell experiments. This study sought to evaluate the effects of mangiferin on serum lipid profiles in overweight patients with hyperlipidemia. Overweight patients with hyperlipidemia (serum triglyceride ≥ 1.70 mmol/L, and total cholesterol ≥ 5.2 mmol/L) were included in this double-blind randomized controlled trial. Participants were randomly allocated to groups, either receiving mangiferin (150 mg/day) or identical placebo for 12 weeks. The lipid profile and serum levels of mangiferin, glucose, L-carnitine, β-hydroxybutyrate, and acetoacetate were determined at baseline and 12 weeks. A total of 97 participants completed the trial. Compared with the placebo control, mangiferin supplementation significantly decreased the serum levels of triglycerides and FFAs, and insulin resistance index. Mangiferin supplementation also significantly increased the serum levels of mangiferin, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, L-carnitine, β-hydroxybutyrate, and acetoacetate, and increased lipoprotein lipase activity. However, there were no differences in the serum levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, serum glucose, and insulin between groups. Mangiferin supplementation could improve serum lipid profiles by reducing serum triglycerides and FFAs in overweight patients with hyperlipidemia, partly due to the promotion of FFAs oxidation.

  20. Brazil nuts intake improves lipid profile, oxidative stress and microvascular function in obese adolescents: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koury Josely C

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is a chronic disease associated to an inflammatory process resulting in oxidative stress that leads to morpho-functional microvascular damage that could be improved by some dietary interventions. In this study, the intake of Brazil nuts (Bertholletia excelsa, composed of bioactive substances like selenium, α- e γ- tocopherol, folate and polyunsaturated fatty acids, have been investigated on antioxidant capacity, lipid and metabolic profiles and nutritive skin microcirculation in obese adolescents. Methods Obese female adolescents (n = 17, 15.4 ± 2.0 years and BMI of 35.6 ± 3.3 kg/m2, were randomized 1:1 in two groups with the diet supplemented either with Brazil nuts [BNG, n = 08, 15-25 g/day (equivalent to 3 to 5 units/day] or placebo [PG (lactose, n = 09, one capsule/day] and followed for 16 weeks. Anthropometry, metabolic-lipid profiles, oxidative stress and morphological (capillary diameters and functional [functional capillary density, red blood cell velocity (RBCV at baseline and peak (RBCVmax and time (TRBCVmax to reach it during post-occlusive reactive hyperemia, after 1 min arterial occlusion] microvascular variables were assessed by nailfold videocapillaroscopy at baseline (T0 and after intervention (T1. Results T0 characteristics were similar between groups. At T1, BNG (intra-group variation had increased selenium levels (p = 0.02, RBCV (p = 0.03 and RBCVmax (p = 0.03 and reduced total (TC (p = 0.02 and LDL-cholesterol (p = 0.02. Compared to PG, Brazil nuts intake reduced TC (p = 0.003, triglycerides (p = 0.05 and LDL-ox (p = 0.02 and increased RBCV (p = 0.03. Conclusion Brazil nuts intake improved the lipid profile and microvascular function in obese adolescents, possibly due to its high level of unsaturated fatty acids and bioactive substances. Trial Registration Clinical Trials.gov NCT00937599

  1. Determination of Total Lipids as Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAME) by in situ Transesterification: Laboratory Analytical Procedure (LAP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Wychen, S.; Laurens, L. M. L.

    2013-12-01

    This procedure is based on a whole biomass transesterification of lipids to fatty acid methyl esters to represent an accurate reflection of the potential of microalgal biofuels. Lipids are present in many forms and play various roles within an algal cell, from cell membrane phospholipids to energy stored as triacylglycerols.

  2. Lipid-associated sialic acid levels in human breast cyst fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannello, F; Bocchiotti, G; Troccoli, R; Gazzanelli, G

    1992-01-01

    Benign mammary gross cystic disease is the most common breast lesion. Women with apocrine changes of epithelium lining the cysts are at higher risk for developing breast cancer than the normal female population. Sialic acid has drawn considerable interest because of carbohydrate aberrations in malignant cells. The current investigation determined the concentrations of lipid-associated sialic acid (LASA) in 62 breast cyst fluids and sera. Data analyses show a significant increase in the mean values of LASA in metabolically active apocrine cysts when compared to the cysts with Na+/K+ > 3 (flattened cysts) (p breast cancer.

  3. Association between the levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids and blood lipids in healthy individuals

    OpenAIRE

    WANG, SI-PING; Chen, Yan-Hong; Li, Hong

    2012-01-01

    The levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in blood is closely associated with the status of the health of individuals; in particular, the lack of ω-3 fatty acids may lead to the development of numerous diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the levels of PUFAs, and their correlation with triglycerides and other factors in blood. The levels of PUFAs and blood lipids were detected in 156 healthy individuals; the blood samples were tested by combined thin-layer and gas liquid...

  4. Improved extraction of saturated fatty acids but not omega-3 fatty acids from sheep red blood cells using a one-step extraction procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Edward H; Gulliver, Catherine E; Piltz, John W; Taylor, Robert D; Blake, Robert J; Meyer, Richard G

    2012-07-01

    Several methods are available to extract total lipid and methylate fatty acids from a range of samples including red blood cells (RBC). Fatty acid analysis of human RBC can be undertaken using a two-step extraction and methylation or a combined one-step extraction and methylation procedure. The lipid composition of sheep RBC differs significantly from that of humans and may affect their extraction. The purpose of the current study was to examine the efficiency of extraction of lipid and detection of fatty acids from sheep RBC using a one-step procedure. Fatty acids were analysed using a one-step extraction and methylation procedure using methanol:toluene and acetyl chloride in comparison with a two-step procedure involving extraction of lipid using chloroform:methanol and separate methylation. Concentrations of saturated fatty acids including C16:0 and C18:0 were significantly higher (42.6 and 33.9 % respectively) following extraction using the one-step procedure compared with the two-step procedure. However, concentrations of some polyunsaturated fatty acids, including C20:5n-3 and C22:6n-3 were not significantly different between either procedure. The improved detection of fatty acids may be related to the ability of different solvents to extract different lipid fractions. The differential extraction of lipids and detection of fatty acids from sheep RBC may have important implications in studies examining the effect of dietary treatment on the possible health benefits of fatty acids.

  5. Trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid decreases de novo lipid synthesis in human adipocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obsen, Thomas; Faergeman, Nils J; Chung, Soonkyu;

    2012-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) reduces adiposity in vivo. However, mechanisms mediating these changes are unclear. Therefore, we treated cultures of human adipocytes with trans-10, cis-12 (10,12) CLA, cis-9, trans-11 (9,11) CLA or other trans fatty acids (FA), and measured indices of lipid......]-oleic or [(14)C]-linoleic acids. When using [(14)C]-acetic acid and [(14)C]-pyruvic acid as substrates, 30 μM 10,12 CLA, but not 9,11 CLA, decreased de novo synthesis of triglyceride, free FA, diacylglycerol, cholesterol esters, cardiolipin, phospholipids and ceramides within 3-24 h. Treatment with 30 μM 10......,12 CLA, but not 9,11 CLA, decreased total cellular lipids within 3 days and the ratio of monounsaturated FA (MUFA) to saturated FA, and increased C18:0 acyl-CoA levels within 24 h. Consistent with these data, stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD)-1 mRNA and protein levels were down-regulated by 10,12 CLA within...

  6. Defects in muscle branched-chain amino acid oxidation contribute to impaired lipid metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerin, Carles; Goldfine, Allison B; Boes, Tanner;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Plasma levels of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) are consistently elevated in obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) and can also prospectively predict T2D. However, the role of BCAA in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and T2D remains unclear. METHODS: To identify pathways related t...... catabolism may contribute to the development of insulin resistance by perturbing both amino acid and fatty acid metabolism and suggest that targeting BCAA metabolism may hold promise for prevention or treatment of T2D....... methylmalonyl-CoA mutase (Mut) and assessed the effects of altered BCAA flux on lipid and glucose homeostasis. RESULTS: Our data demonstrate perturbed BCAA metabolism and fatty acid oxidation in muscle from insulin resistant humans. Experimental alterations in BCAA flux in cultured cells similarly modulate...... fatty acid oxidation. Mut heterozygosity in mice alters muscle lipid metabolism in vivo, resulting in increased muscle triglyceride accumulation, increased plasma glucose, hyperinsulinemia, and increased body weight after high-fat feeding. CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate that impaired muscle BCAA...

  7. Relationship between hepatic fatty acid desaturation and lipid secretion in the estrogenized chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermier, D; Catheline, D; Legrand, P

    1996-11-01

    Desaturation of fatty acids is thought to facilitate their incorporation into glyceride and their subsequent secretion as lipoproteins. However, in the laying hen, the dramatic increase in hepatic lipogenesis is often paralleled by a liver steatosis that may affect egg production and even result in death. The balance between lipid secretion and storage, in relation to the fatty acid desaturation process, was therefore investigated in young male estrogenized chicken. Estrogen stimulation resulted in a dramatic increase in VLDL concentration (40.4 mg/ml versus 0.158 mg/ml in control) and hepatic lipid content (8.61 g/liver versus 1.47 g/liver in control). In estrogenized chickens, VLDL, total liver, and microsomes contained relatively more monounsaturated and less saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids, whereas hepatic delta 9 desaturase activity was twofold higher. Moreover, in these birds, the proportion of monoenoic fatty acids was greater in VLDL (55%) than in the liver (50%), which was indicative of their preferential secretion. Therefore, under the influence of estrogen, fatty acid synthesis and desaturation are associated with and increased VLDL secretion, which limits the degree of hepatic accumulation of triglyceride and the risk of subsequent steatosis.

  8. Role of forage species and conservation method in ruminal lipid metabolism, mammary lipogenesis and milk fatty acid composition in lactating cows

    OpenAIRE

    Halmemies-Beauchet-Filleau, Anni

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the research described in this thesis was to develop forage-rich diets for dairy cows for altering milk fatty acid composition, with the potential to improve human health. Emphasis was placed on the potential to decrease milk fat medium chain saturated fatty acids (SFA; 12:0, 14:0 and 16:0) and increase cis-9 18:1 and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) concentrations, 18:3n-3 in particular. Experiments encompassed detailed investigations of ruminal and mammary lipid metabolis...

  9. Phytic acid and myo-inositol support adipocyte differentiation and improve insulin sensitivity in 3T3-L1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Nam; Han, Sung Nim; Kim, Hye-Kyeong

    2014-08-01

    Phytic acid, also known as myo-inositol hexaphosphate, has been shown to lower blood glucose levels and to improve insulin sensitivity in rodents. We investigated the effects of phytic acid and myo-inositol on differentiation, insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, and lipolysis of adipocytes to test the hypothesis that the antidiabetic properties of phytic acid and myo-inositol are mediated directly through adipocytes. 3T3-L1 cells were treated with 10, 50, or 200 μmol/L of phytic acid or myo-inositol. Oil Red O staining and an intracellular triacylglycerol assay were used to determine lipid accumulation during adipocyte differentiation. Immunoblotting and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were performed to evaluate expression of transcription factors, a target protein, and insulin signaling molecules. Phytic acid and myo-inositol exposures increased lipid accumulation in a dose-dependent manner (P acid synthase increased upon treatments with phytic acid and myo-inositol (P phytic acid and myo-inositol treatments (P phytic acid and myo-inositol treatments. In fully differentiated adipocytes, phytic acid and myo-inositol reduced basal lipolysis dose dependently (P phytic acid and myo-inositol increase insulin sensitivity in adipocytes by increasing lipid storage capacity, improving glucose uptake, and inhibiting lipolysis.

  10. Effects of rapeseed oil on fatty acid oxidation and lipid levels in rat heart and liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kienle, M G; Cighetti, G; Spagnuolo, C; Galli, C

    1976-09-01

    The comparative rates of oxidation of erucic and oleic acids and of their CoA esters were studied in heart and liver mitochondria of rats fed a standard diet or semisynthetic diets containing 25% of the calories as either rapeseed oil (46.6% erucic and 10.4% eicosenoic acid) or olive oil, for a period of 5 months. The long exposure to the diet containing 25% rapeseed oil did not alter the oxidative activity of mitochondria and did not induce morphological changes in the heart. It is confirmed that erucic acid is oxidized in mitochondria at lower rates than other long chain fatty acids and that its activation as CoA derivative may be one of the rate limiting steps of the overall oxidationprocess. Total lipids and triglycerides do not significantly change in the heart whereas they increase in the liver of rats fed the diet containing rapeseed oil.

  11. Dietary conjugated linoleic acid reciprocally modifies ketogenesis and lipid secretion by the rat liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakono, M; Miyanaga, F; Kawahara, S; Yamauchi, K; Fukuda, N; Watanabe, K; Iwata, T; Sugano, M

    1999-09-01

    The effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and linoleic acid (LA) on ketone body production and lipid secretion were compared in isolated perfused rat liver. After feeding the 1% CLA diet for 2 wk, the concentration of post-perfused liver cholesterol was significantly reduced by CLA feeding, whereas that of triacylglycerol remained unchanged. Livers from CLA-fed rats produced significantly more ketone bodies; and the ratio of beta-hydroxybutyrate to acetoacetate, an index of mitochondrial redox potential, tended to be consistently higher in the liver perfusate. Conversely, cumulative secretions of triacylglycerol and cholesterol were consistently lower in the livers of rats fed CLA, and the reduction in the latter was statistically significant. Thus dietary CLA appeared to exert its hypolipidemic effect at least in part through an enhanced beta-oxidation of fatty acids at the expense of esterification of fatty acid in the liver.

  12. Convenient synthesis and application of versatile nucleic acid lipid membrane anchors in the assembly and fusion of liposomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ries, Oliver; Löffler, Philipp M. G.; Vogel, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Hydrophobic moieties like lipid membrane anchors are highly demanded modifications for nucleic acid oligomers. Membrane-anchor modified oligonucleotides are applicable in biomedicine leading to new delivery strategies as well as in biophysical investigations towards assembly and fusion of liposom...

  13. Anthocyanins and phenolic acids from a wild blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium) powder counteract lipid accumulation in THP-1-derived macrophages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Del Bo', Cristian; Cao, Yi; Roursgaard, Martin;

    2016-01-01

    to counteract lipid accumulation in macrophages derived from monocytic THP-1 cells. In addition, we tested the capacity of pure ACNs and their metabolites to alter lipid accumulation. METHODS: THP-1-derived macrophages were incubated with fatty acids (500 μM oleic/palmitic acid, 2:1 ratio) and different......PURPOSE: Blueberries are a rich source of anthocyanins (ACNs) and phenolic acids (PA), which are hypothesized to protect against development of atherosclerosis. The present study examined the effect of an ACN- and PA-rich fractions, obtained from a wild blueberry powder, on the capacity...... concentrations (from 0.05 to 10 μg mL(-1)) of ACN- and PA-rich fractions, pure ACN standards (malvidin, delphinidin and cyanidin 3-glucoside), and metabolites (syringic, gallic and protocatechuic acids). Lipid accumulation was quantified with the fluorescent dye Nile red. RESULTS: Lipid accumulation was reduced...

  14. Short term exposure to perluoroalkyl acids causes increase of hepatic lipid and triglyceride in conjunction with liver hypertrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ABSTRACT BODY: Persistent presence of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in the environment is due to extensive use of industrial and consumer products. These chemicals activate peroxisome proliferatoractivated receptor-alpha (PPARa) in liver and after lipid metabolism. The current stu...

  15. Correlation between leptin level with lipid profile and free fatty acid in liver cirrhosis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Maryani

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Malnutrition is a common condition in liver cirrhotic patients. Leptin regulates body weightphysiologically by suppressing appetite and increasing energy expenditure. Leptin is higher in femalethan male. Studies have shown correlation between leptin with metabolic factors like body massindex (BMI and lipid profile in cirrhotic patients. This study was conducted to investigate thecorrelation between serum leptin levels with lipid profile and free fatty acid in male patients with livercirrhosis. This was a cross sectional study that conducted at Gastroentero-Hepatology Clinic andInternal Ward at Dr. Sardjito General Hospital, Yogyakarta. The inclusion criteria were patients withliver cirrhosis > 18 years old, male, with Child-Pugh classification B and C, and provided informedconsent. The exclusion criteria were liver cirrhotic patients with comorbidity chronic kidney disease,chronic heart failure, diabetic, cancer, infection/septic, pregnancy, breast feeding, and steroid use.Data collecting was performed by anamnesis, physical examination, abdominal ultrasonographyexamination, and blood chemistry test. Pearson test was used to evaluate the correlation betweenthe serum leptin level with the lipid profile and free fatty acid. The results showed that no significantnegative correlation was observed between the serum leptin level with the total cholesterol (r= -0.052; p=0.766, high-density lipoprotein/HDL (r= -0.078; p=0.658 and triglyceride (r= -0.170; p=0.328 in male patients with liver cirrhosis. Furthermore, no significant positive correlationwas observed between the serum leptin levels with the low-density lipoprotein/LDL (r= -0.013; p=0.942 and free fatty acid/FFA (r= 0.007; p=0.968. In conclusion, there was no correlationbetween serum leptin levels with lipid profile and FFA in male patients with liver cirrhosis.

  16. Total lipids and fatty acid profile in the liver of wild and farmed catla catla fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassan, M.; Shaihid chatha, S. A.; Tahira, I.; Hussain, B.

    2010-07-01

    This experimental work was aimed to study the moisture content, total lipids and fatty acid profile in the liver of wild and farmed freshwater major carp Catla catla of three different weight categories designated as W{sub 1} (601-900g), W{sub 2} (901- 1200)g and W{sub 3} (1201-1500g). Seven fish specimens of each of the three weight categories of wild and farmed Catla catla were obtained from Trimu Head, Jhang and Fish Hatchery, Satiana Road and Faisalabad, respectively. The fish were dissected to remove the liver and after weighing, liver samples were prepared and subjected to chemical analysis. Wild Catla catla liver had a significantly (p <0.05) higher moisture content as compared to the farmed species. Farmed Catla catla deposited significantly (p < 0.05) higher lipid contents in liver. Proportions of saturated fatty acids varied irregularly in the lipids of the liver from both wild and farmed Catla catla. Saturated fatty acids C12:0, C14:0, C16:0, C18:0, C20:0 and C22:0 were identified with considerable percentages in the liver of Catla catla from both habitats and monounsaturated fatty acid C18:1 was found in considerable amounts in the liver of both major carp. Polyunsaturated fatty acids such as C18:3 (n-6) and C20: 2 (n-6) were detected in the liver of the wild fish of W{sub 2} and W{sub 3} and was similar in the W{sub 3} weight category of the farmed species. (Author) 22 refs.

  17. Longitudinal Metabolomic Profiling of Amino Acids and Lipids across Healthy Pregnancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen L Lindsay

    Full Text Available Pregnancy is characterized by a complexity of metabolic processes that may impact fetal development and ultimately, infant health outcomes. However, our understanding of whole body maternal and fetal metabolism during this critical life stage remains incomplete. The objective of this study is to utilize metabolomics to profile longitudinal patterns of fasting maternal metabolites among a cohort of non-diabetic, healthy pregnant women in order to advance our understanding of changes in protein and lipid concentrations across gestation, the biochemical pathways by which they are metabolized and to describe variation in maternal metabolites between ethnic groups. Among 160 pregnant women, amino acids, tricarboxylic acid (TCA cycle intermediates, keto-bodies and non-esterified fatty acids were detected by liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry, while polar lipids were detected through flow-injected mass spectrometry. The maternal plasma concentration of several essential and non-essential amino acids, long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, free carnitine, acetylcarnitine, phosphatidylcholines and sphingomyelins significantly decreased across pregnancy. Concentrations of several TCA intermediates increase as pregnancy progresses, as well as the keto-body β-hydroxybutyrate. Ratios of specific acylcarnitines used as indicators of metabolic pathways suggest a decreased beta-oxidation rate and increased carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 enzyme activity with advancing gestation. Decreasing amino acid concentrations likely reflects placental uptake and tissue biosynthesis. The absence of any increase in plasma non-esterified fatty acids is unexpected in the catabolic phase of later pregnancy and may reflect enhanced placental fatty acid uptake and utilization for fetal tissue growth. While it appears that energy production through the TCA cycle increases as pregnancy progresses, decreasing patterns of free carnitine and acetylcarnitine as

  18. Self-assembled multicompartment liquid crystalline lipid carriers for protein, peptide, and nucleic acid drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelova, Angelina; Angelov, Borislav; Mutafchieva, Rada; Lesieur, Sylviane; Couvreur, Patrick

    2011-02-15

    Lipids and lipopolymers self-assembled into biocompatible nano- and mesostructured functional materials offer many potential applications in medicine and diagnostics. In this Account, we demonstrate how high-resolution structural investigations of bicontinuous cubic templates made from lyotropic thermosensitive liquid-crystalline (LC) materials have initiated the development of innovative lipidopolymeric self-assembled nanocarriers. Such structures have tunable nanochannel sizes, morphologies, and hierarchical inner organizations and provide potential vehicles for the predictable loading and release of therapeutic proteins, peptides, or nucleic acids. This Account shows that structural studies of swelling of bicontinuous cubic lipid/water phases are essential for overcoming the nanoscale constraints for encapsulation of large therapeutic molecules in multicompartment lipid carriers. For the systems described here, we have employed time-resolved small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and high-resolution freeze-fracture electronic microscopy (FF-EM) to study the morphology and the dynamic topological transitions of these nanostructured multicomponent amphiphilic assemblies. Quasi-elastic light scattering and circular dichroism spectroscopy can provide additional information at the nanoscale about the behavior of lipid/protein self-assemblies under conditions that approximate physiological hydration. We wanted to generalize these findings to control the stability and the hydration of the water nanochannels in liquid-crystalline lipid nanovehicles and confine therapeutic biomolecules within these structures. Therefore we analyzed the influence of amphiphilic and soluble additives (e.g. poly(ethylene glycol)monooleate (MO-PEG), octyl glucoside (OG), proteins) on the nanochannels' size in a diamond (D)-type bicontinuous cubic phase of the lipid glycerol monooleate (MO). At body temperature, we can stabilize long-living swollen states, corresponding to a diamond cubic phase

  19. Solid lipid nanoparticles for oral drug delivery: chitosan coating improves stability, controlled delivery, mucoadhesion and cellular uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yangchao; Teng, Zi; Li, Ying; Wang, Qin

    2015-05-20

    The poor stability of solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) under acidic condition resulted in large aggregation in gastric environment, limiting their application as oral delivery systems. In this study, a series of SLN was prepared to investigate the effects of surfactant/cosurfactant and chitosan coating on their physicochemical properties as well as cellular uptake. SLN was prepared from Compritol 888 ATO using a low-energy method combining the solvent-diffusion and hot homogenization technique. Poloxamer 188 and polyethylene glycol (PEG) were effective emulsifiers to produce SLN with better physicochemical properties than SLN control. Chitosan-coated SLN exhibited the best stability under acidic condition by forming a thick layer around the lipid core, as clearly observed by transmission electron microscope. The intermolecular interactions in different formulations were monitored by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Chitosan coating also significantly improved the mucoadhesive property of SLN as determined by Quartz Crystal Microbalance. In vitro drug delivery assays, cytotoxicity, and cellular uptake of SLN were studied by incorporating coumarin 6 as a fluorescence probe. Overall, chitosan-coated SLN was superior to other formulations and held promising features for its application as a potential oral drug delivery system for hydrophobic drugs.

  20. Chlorophyll-derived fatty acids regulate expression of lipid metabolizing enzymes in liver - a nutritional opportunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfrum Christian

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Nutritional values of fatty acid classes are normally discussed on the basis of their saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated structures with implicit understanding that they are straight-chain. Here we focus on chlorophyll-derived phytanic and pristanic acids that are minor isoprenoid branched-chain lipid constituents in food, but of unknown nutritional value. After describing the enzyme machinery that degrades these nutrient fatty acids in the peroxisome, we show by the criteria of a mouse model and of a human cell culture model that they induce with high potency expression of enzymes responsible for beta-oxidation of straight-chain fatty acids in the peroxisome. We summarize present mechanistic knowledge on fatty acid signaling to the nucleus, which involves protein/protein contacts between peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR and fatty acid binding protein (FABP. In this signaling event the branched-chain fatty acids are the most effective ones. Finally, on the basis of this nutrient-gene interaction we discuss nutritional opportunities and therapeutic aspects of the chlorophyll-derived fatty acids.

  1. Monthly Changes of Glycogen, Lipid and Free Amino Acid of Oyster

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhicui; XUE Changhu; GAO Xin; LI Zhaojie; WANG Qi

    2006-01-01

    Monthly difference of the chemical composition of oyster cultured along the eastern coast of Shandong Province was analyzed.The components analyzed included glycogen, fatty acid and free amino acid (FAA).The content of glycogen was high in January and March (2.89 and 2.82 g(100 g)- 1 on average, respectively) and low in October (2.07 g(100 g)- 1 on average).The low content of neutral lipids in October reflected a relatively poor nutritional value of oyster (1.42 g(100 g) -1 on average).The main fatty acids of oyster were palmitic acid(16:0),oleic acid(18:1),eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA,20:5w-3) and docosahexaenoic acid(DHA,22:6w-3).The major FAAs of oyster were Taurine,Glutamicacid,Glycin,Alanine, Arginine and Proline.Taurine was the most abundant FAA with its content ranging from 603 mg(100 g)- 1 to 1139 mg(100 g) -1.The high contents of glycogen, polyunsaturated fatty acid and FAA showed that oyster cultured along the eastern coast of Shandong Province was nutritionally good in January and March.

  2. Impact of dietary fatty acids on muscle composition, liver lipids, milt composition and sperm performance in European eel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butts, Ian; Baeza, R.; Støttrup, Josianne;

    2015-01-01

    of dietary regime on muscle composition, and liver lipids prior to induced maturation, and the resulting sperm composition and performance. To accomplish this fish were reared on three "enhanced" diets and one commercial diet, each with different levels of fatty acids, arachidonic acid (ARA......), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Neutral lipids from the muscle and liver incorporated the majority of the fatty acid profile, while phospholipids incorporated only certain fatty acids. Diet had an effect on the majority of sperm fatty acids, on the total volume of extractable milt...... induced medium milt volumes but had the highest sperm motility. EPA also seems important for sperm quality parameters since diets with higher EPA percentages had a higher volume of milt and higher sperm motility. In conclusion, dietary fatty acids had an influence on fatty acids in the tissues of male eel...

  3. Fatty acid rich effluent from acidogenic biohydrogen reactor as substrate for lipid accumulation in heterotrophic microalgae with simultaneous treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkata Mohan, S; Prathima Devi, M

    2012-11-01

    Acid-rich effluent generated from acidogenic biohydrogen production process was evaluated as substrate for lipid synthesis by integrating with heterotrophic cultivation of mixed microalgae. Experiments were performed both with synthetic volatile fatty acids (SVFA) and fermented fatty acids (FFA) from biohydrogen producing reactor. Fatty acid based platform evidenced significant influence on algal growth as well as lipid accumulation by the formation of triglycerides through fatty acid synthesis. Comparatively FFA documented higher biomass and lipid productivity (1.42mg/ml (wet weight); 26.4%) than SVFAs ((HAc+HBu+HPr), 0.60mg/ml; 23.1%). Lipid profiles varied with substrates and depicted 18 types of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids with wide fuel and food characteristics. The observed higher concentrations of Chl b over Chl a supports the biosynthesis of triacylglycerides. Microalgae diversity visualized the presence of lipid accumulating species viz., Scenedesmus sp. and Chlorella sp. Integration of microalgae cultivation with biohydrogen production showed lipid productivity for biodiesel production along with additional treatment.

  4. Roles of Fatty Acid Oversupply and Impaired Oxidation in Lipid Accumulation in Tissues of Obese Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas D. Oakes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To test the roles of lipid oversupply versus oxidation in causing tissue lipid accumulation associated with insulin resistance/obesity, we studied in vivo fatty acid (FA metabolism in obese (Obese and lean (Lean Zucker rats. Indices of local FA utilization and storage were calculated using the partially metabolizable [9,10-3H]-(R-2-bromopalmitate (3H-R-BrP and [U-14C]-palmitate (14C-P FA tracers, respectively. Whole-body FA appearance (Ra was estimated from plasma 14C-P kinetics. Whole-body FA oxidation rate (Rox was assessed using 3H2O production from 3H-palmitate infusion, and tissue FA oxidative capacity was evaluated ex vivo. In the basal fasting state Obese had markedly elevated FA levels and Ra, associated with elevated FA utilization and storage in most tissues. Estimated rates of muscle FA oxidation were not lower in obese rats and were similarly enhanced by contraction in both lean and obese groups. At comparable levels of FA availability, achieved by nicotinic acid, Rox was lower in Obese than Lean. In Obese rats, FA oxidative capacity was 35% higher than that in Lean in skeletal muscle, 67% lower in brown fat and comparable in other organs. In conclusion, lipid accumulation in non-adipose tissues of obese Zucker rats appears to result largely from systemic FA oversupply.

  5. Synergistic permeability enhancing effect of lysophospholipids and fatty acids on lipid membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Jesper; Mouritsen, O.G.; Jørgensen, K.

    2002-01-01

    The permeability-enhancing effects of the two surfactants, 1-paltnitoyl-2-lyso-sn-gycero-3-pllosplloclloline (lysoPPC) and palmitic acid (PA), on lipid membranes that at physiological temperatures are in the gel, fluid, and liquid-ordered phases were determined using the concentration-dependent s......The permeability-enhancing effects of the two surfactants, 1-paltnitoyl-2-lyso-sn-gycero-3-pllosplloclloline (lysoPPC) and palmitic acid (PA), on lipid membranes that at physiological temperatures are in the gel, fluid, and liquid-ordered phases were determined using the concentration......-dependent self-quenching properties of the hydrophilic marker, calcein. Adding lysoPPC to lipid membranes in the gel-phase induced a time-dependent calcein release curve that can be described by the sum of two exponentials, whereas RA induces a considerably more complex release curve. However, when lyso......PPC and PA were added simultaneously in equimolar concentrations, a dramatic synergistic permeability-enhancing effect was observed. In contrast, when both lysoPPC and PA are added to liposomal membranes that are in the fluid or liquid-ordered phases, no effect on the transmembrane permeation of calcein...

  6. EFFECTS OF HARVEST STAGE ON THE TOTAL LIPID AND FATTY ACID COMPOSITION OF FOUR CYLINDROTHECA STRAINS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁英; 麦康森; 孙世春

    2002-01-01

    Four strains of Cylindrotheca (B156, B164, B196, and B200) wereharvested at three phases in the growth curve and their total lipid and fatty acid composition were determined. Total lipid reached highest values in the late stationary phase in B156 (24.0%), B164 (26.6%) and B200 (17.3%), in the exponential phase in B196 (15.5%). Saturated fatty acids increased with the development of the culture in B156 and B196, and reached their highest values in the late stationary phase in B156 (41.7%) and B196 (45.1%), in the early stationary phase in B164 (45.4%) and B200 (37.6%). Monounsaturated fatty acids increased with the development of the culture in B196 and B200, and reached their highest values inthe late stationary phase in B196 (32.4%) and B200 (32.8%), in the early stationary phase in B164 (31.0%) and in the exponential phase in B156 (29.3%). Polyunsaturated fatty acids decreased in the later phases of the culture in B164, B196 and B200, and peaked in the exponential phase in B164 (29.5%), B196 (42.9%) and B200 (37.3%), and in the early stationary phase in B156 (32.0%). ``

  7. Polyunsaturated fatty acid-derived lipid mediators and T cell function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna eNicolaou

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acids are involved in T cell biology both as nutrients important for energy production as well as signalling molecules. In particular, polyunsaturated fatty acids are known to exhibit a range of immunomodulatory properties that progress through T cell mediated events, although the molecular mechanisms of these actions have not yet been fully elucidated. Some of these immune activities are linked to polyunsaturated fatty acid-induced alteration of the composition of cellular membranes and the consequent changes in signalling pathways linked to membrane raft associated proteins. However, significant aspects of the polyunsaturated fatty acid bioactivities are mediated through their transformation to specific lipid mediators, products of cyclooxygenase, lipoxygenase or cytochrome P450 enzymatic reactions. Resulting bioactive metabolites including prostaglandins, leukotrienes and endocannabinoids are produced by and/or act upon T leukocytes through cell surface receptors and have been shown to alter T cell activation and differentiation, proliferation, cytokine production, motility and homing events. Detailed appreciation of the mode of action of these lipids presents opportunities for the design and development of therapeutic strategies aimed at regulating T cell function.

  8. Pharmacokinetics study of arteether loaded solid lipid nanoparticles: an improved oral bioavailability in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Pankaj; Khatik, Renuka; Khandelwal, Kiran; Taneja, Isha; Raju, Kanumuri Siva Rama; Wahajuddin; Paliwal, Sarvesh Kumar; Dwivedi, Anil Kumar; Mishra, Prabhat Ranjan

    2014-05-15

    Arteether (ART), an artemisinin derivative, is a life saving drug for multiple drug resistant malaria. It has a deliverance effect in Falciparum malaria and cerebral malaria. We have prepared solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) by high pressure homogenization (HPH) technique. ART-loaded SLN (ART-SLN) has been produced reproducibly with homogeneous particle size. ART-SLN was characterized for their size measured by Zetasizer Nano-ZS, Malvern, UK and by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) and which was found to be 100 ± 11.2 nm. The maximum percentage entrapment efficiency (%EE) determined with the high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) has been found to be 69 ± 4.2% in ART-SLN-3. The release pattern from ART-SLN revealed that the release of ART is slow but time-dependent manner, which is desirable as it will help to protect the acid degradation of ART in stomach. The percentage cytotoxicity of blank SLN has been found within the acceptable range. The pharmacokinetics results indicated that ART-SLN-3 absorption has been significantly enhanced in comparison to ART in aqueous suspension and ART in ground nut oil (GNO) in rats. The % relative bioavailability (RB%) of ART-SLN to the ART in GNO and ART in aqueous suspension in rats was 169.99% and 7461%, respectively which was found to be significantly high in both the cases. From the results, it can be concluded that ART-SLN offers a new approach to improve the oral bioavailability of ART.

  9. Effect of lipid supplementation on milk odd- and branched-chain fatty acids in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, E; Chouinard, P Y; Lebeuf, Y; Rico, D E; Gervais, R

    2016-08-01

    Eight ruminally fistulated, multiparous Holstein cows were arranged in a double 4×4 Latin square with 14-d periods to investigate the effects of lipid supplementation on performance, rumen parameters, the milk odd- and branched-chain fatty acid (OBCFA) profile, and the relationships between milk OBCFA and rumen parameters. Lipid supplementation is known to inhibit microbial growth in the rumen, decrease de novo microbial fatty acid synthesis, and increase the uptake of circulating fatty acids by the mammary gland; treatments were selected to isolate these effects on the milk OBCFA profile. The 4 treatments were (1) a lipid-free emulsion medium infused in the rumen (CTL), (2) soybean oil as a source of polyunsaturated fatty acids infused in the rumen (RSO), (3) saturated fatty acids (38% 16:0, 40% 18:0) infused in the rumen (RSF), and (4) saturated fatty acids infused in the abomasum (ASF). Fat supplements were provided continuously as emulsions at a rate of 450g/d. Preplanned contrasts compared CTL to RSO, RSO to RSF, and RSF to ASF. Infusing RSO slightly decreased ruminal pH, but did not affect volatile fatty acids profile and milk fat concentration as compared with CTL. The yields of energy-corrected milk, fat, and protein were greater with RSF compared with RSO. The concentration of odd-chain fatty acids was decreased by RSO, whereas even-chain iso fatty acids were not affected. Milk fat concentration of 17:0 + cis-9 17:1 was higher for RSF than for RSO, due to the saturated fatty acids supplement containing 2% 17:0 + cis-9 17:1. Limited differences were observed in the milk OBCFA profile between RSF and ASF. A multiple regression analysis yielded the following equation for predicting rumen pH based on milk fatty acids: pH=6.24 - (0.56×4:0) + (1.67 × iso 14:0) + (4.22 × iso 15:0) + (9.41×22:0). Rumen propionate concentration was negatively correlated with milk fat concentration of iso 14:0 and positively correlated with milk 15:0, whereas the acetate

  10. Lipid and fatty acid content in wild white seabream (Diplodus sargus) broodstock at different stages of the reproductive cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, M J; Rodríguez, C; Cejas, J R; Martín, M V; Jerez, S; Lorenzo, A

    2007-02-01

    The lipid and fatty acid content of the gonads, liver and muscle of wild white seabream males and females was studied at different stages of the reproductive cycle. Samples were taken from mature white seabream at pre-spawning (November), mid-spawning (March) and post-spawning (June) stages. The results showed that lipid accumulates in gonads and muscle from November to March. The gonadosomatic index (GSI) was also increased during this period. Male gonads showed a greater increase in polar lipid (PL) than neutral (NL), while female gonads displayed the reverse. The increase in both neutral and polar lipid was higher in the muscle of males than in females. In the same period, male livers showed no changes either in lipid content or the hepatosomatic index (HSI), while female livers registered an increase in both lipid content and HSI. Between March and June, in both males and females, total, neutral and polar lipid decreased sharply in the gonads and muscle. Muscular lipid content reduction was more pronounced in males than females. On the other hand, the lipid content of the liver in males and females remained relatively constant. In general terms, the amounts of major fatty acids (16:0, 18:1n-9, 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3) in gonadal and muscular polar and neutral lipid in both males and females increased from November to March and declined thereafter. Variations of the liver fatty acid content were less extreme. In the period from mid-spawning to post-spawning, the presence of 20:4n-6 in polar and neutral lipid increased to a notable extent in all organs studied.

  11. Exploitable Lipids and Fatty Acids in the Invasive Oyster Crassostrea gigas on the French Atlantic Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flore Dagorn

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Economic exploitation is one means to offset the cost of controlling invasive species, such as the introduced Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas Thunberg on the French Atlantic coast. Total lipid and phospholipid (PL fatty acids (FAs and sterols were examined in an invasive population of C. gigas in Bourgneuf Bay, France, over four successive seasons, with a view to identify possible sources of exploitable substances. The total lipid level (% dry weight varied from 7.1% (winter to 8.6% (spring. Of this, PLs accounted for 28.1% (spring to 50.4% (winter. Phosphatidylcholine was the dominant PL throughout the year (up to 74% of total PLs in winter. Plasmalogens were identified throughout the year as a series of eleven dimethylacetals (DMAs with chain lengths between C16 and C20 (up to 14.5% of PL FAs + DMAs in winter. Thirty-seven FAs were identified in the PL FAs. Eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3 EPA/7.53% to 14.5% and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3 DHA/5.51% to 9.5% were the dominant polyunsaturated FAs in all seasons. Two non-methylene-interrupted dienoic (NMID FAs were identified in all seasons: 7,13-docosadienoic and 7,15-docosadienoic acids, the latter being present at relatively high levels (up to 9.6% in winter. Twenty free sterols were identified, including cholesterol at 29.9% of the sterol mixture and about 33% of phytosterols. C. gigas tissues thus contained exploitable lipids for health benefits or as a potential source of high-quality commercial lecithin.

  12. Effect of Copper on Fatty-Acid Composition and Peroxidation of Lipids in the Roots of Copper Tolerant and Sensitive Silene-Cucubalus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vos, C.H.R.; TenBookum, W.M.; Vooijs, R.; Schat, H.; De Kok, L.J.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of high copper exposure in vivo on the lipid and fatty acid composition and lipid peroxidation was studied in the roots of plants from one copper sensitive and two copper tolerant genotypes of Silene cucubalus. At 0.5 muM Cu (control treatment) the compositions of lipids and fatty acids i

  13. Volatile fatty acids derived from waste organics provide an economical carbon source for microbial lipids/biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Gwon Woo; Fei, Qiang; Jung, Kwonsu; Chang, Ho Nam; Kim, Yeu-Chun; Kim, Nag-jong; Choi, Jin-dal-rae; Kim, Sangyong; Cho, Jaehoon

    2014-12-01

    Volatile fatty acids (VFAs) derived from organic waste, were used as a low cost carbon source for high bioreactor productivity and titer. A multi-stage continuous high cell density culture (MSC-HCDC) process was employed for economic assessment of microbial lipids for biodiesel production. In a simulation study we used a lipid yield of 0.3 g/g-VFAs, cell mass yield of 0.5 g/g-glucose or wood hydrolyzates, and employed process variables including lipid contents from 10-90% of cell mass, bioreactor productivity of 0.5-48 g/L/h, and plant capacity of 20000-1000000 metric ton (MT)/year. A production cost of USD 1.048/kg-lipid was predicted with raw material costs of USD 0.2/kg for wood hydrolyzates and USD 0.15/kg for VFAs; 9 g/L/h bioreactor productivity; 100, 000 MT/year production capacity; and 75% lipids content. The variables having the highest impact on microbial lipid production costs were the cost of VFAs and lipid yield, followed by lipid content, fermenter cost, and lipid productivity. The cost of raw materials accounted for 66.25% of total operating costs. This study shows that biodiesel from microbial lipids has the potential to become competitive with diesels from other sources.

  14. Role of lipids and fatty acids in macrosomic offspring of diabetic pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Naim Akhtar

    2007-01-01

    Diabetic pregnancy frequently results in macrosomia or fetal obesity. It seems that the anomalies in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in macrosomic infants of diabetic mothers are due to maternal hyperglycemia, which leads to fetal hyperinsulinemia. We have developed a rat model of macrosomic offspring and assessed the onset of obesity in these animals. The macrosomic offspring born to diabetic mothers are prone to the development of glucose intolerance and obesity as a function of age. It seems that in utero programming during diabetic pregnancy creates a "metabolic memory" which is responsible for the development of obesity in macrosomic offspring. We have demonstrated that the metabolism of lipids, and altered anti-oxidant status and immune system are implicated in the etiopathology of obesity in these animals. We have reported beneficial effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in obese animals, born to diabetic dams.

  15. Design of a nanostructured lipid carrier intended to improve the treatment of tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinheiro M

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Marina Pinheiro,1,* Ricardo Ribeiro,1,* Alexandre Vieira,1,* Fernanda Andrade,2 Salette Reis1 1IUCIBIO, REQUIMTE, Chemistry Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, 2Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Technology, Department of Drug Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: This work aimed to design, develop, and characterize a lipid nanocarrier system for the selective delivery of rifabutin (RFB to alveolar macrophages. Lipid nanoparticles, specifically nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC, were synthetized by the high-shear homogenization and ultrasonication techniques. These nanoparticles were designed to exhibit both passive and active targeting strategies to be efficiently internalized by the alveolar macrophages, traffic to the acidified phagosomes and phagolysosomes, and release bactericidal concentrations of the antituberculosis drug intracellularly. NLC that could entrap RFB were prepared, characterized, and further functionalized with mannose. Particles’ diameter, zeta potential, morphology, drug% entrapping efficiency, and drug release kinetics were evaluated. The mannose coating process was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared. Further, the cytotoxicity of the formulations was evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5 diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay in A549, Calu-3, and Raw 264.7 cells. The diameter of NLC formulations was found to be in the range of 175–213 nm, and drug entrapping efficiency was found to be above 80%. In addition, high storage stability for the formulations was expected since they maintained the initial characteristics for 6 months. Moreover, the drug release was pH-sensitive, with a faster drug release at acidic pH than at neutral pH. These results pose a strong argument that the developed nanocarrier can be explored as a promising carrier for safer and more efficient management of tuberculosis by exploiting the pulmonary route of

  16. TOTAL LIPID AND FATTY ACID COMPOSITION OF EIGHT STRAINS OF MARINE DIATOMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Fatty acid composition and total lipid content of 8 strains of marine diatoms (Nitzschia frustrula, Nitzschia closterium, Nitzschia incerta, Navicula pelliculosa,Phaeodactylum tricornutum, Synedra fragilaroides) were examined. The microalgae were grown under defined conditions and harvested at the late exponential phase. The major fatty acids in most strains were 14:0 (1.0%-6.3%), 16:0 (13.5%-26.4%), 16:1n-7 (21.1%-46.3%) and 20:5n-3 (6.5%-19.5%). The polyunsaturated fatty acids 16:2n-4, 16:3n-4, 16:4n-1 and 20:4n-6 also comprised a significant proportion of the total fatty acids in some strains. The characteristic fatty acid composition of diatoms is readily distinguishable from those of other microalgal groups. Significant concentration of the polyunsaturated fatty acid 20:5n-3 (eicosapentaenoic acid) was present in each strain, with the highest proportion in B222 (19.5%).

  17. Growth Response and Fatty Acid Composition of Juvenile Procambarus clarkii Fed Different Sources of Dietary Lipid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEN Xiao-bo; KU Yao-mei; ZHOU Kai-ya

    2003-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of feeding various sources of dietary lipidon weight gain, feed conversion, survival and fatty acid composition of juvenile red swamp crawfish, Procam-barus clarkii. Six semi-purified diets containing vitamin-free casein, defatted soybean meal, 0.5% cholinechloride, 0.5 % glycine and 0.5 % cholesterol were supplemented with 6.0 % of either anchovy oil, linseed oil,soybean oil, rapeseed oil, safflower oil or pork lard. Each diet was fed to crawfish (3.07±0.21 g averageweight) in three replicate aquaria for 60 days. Survival rate, weight gain and feed conversion were best forcrawfish fed the diet containing anchovy oil. Crawfish fed the linseed oil diet had the second highest weightgain, followed by crawfish on soybean oil, repaseed oil, safflower oil and pork lard diets, respectively. Feedconversion values were a reflection of weight gain. Results showed that both n-6 and n-3 fatty acids are dietaryessential for juvenile Procambarus clarkii, although n-3 fatty acids promoted faster growth than n-6. Howev-er, highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA) (20 : 5n-3 and 22 : 6n-3) had better growth-promoting effect than18 : 3n-3, due probably to the limited ability of crawfish to bioconvert fatty acids to polyenoic forms of longerchain length. The fatty acid composition of the crawfish generally reflected that of the dietary lipids, especial-ly for the diets containing unsaturated fatty acids.

  18. The hydroperoxide moiety of aliphatic lipid hydroperoxides is not affected by hypochlorous acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zschaler, Josefin; Arnhold, Juergen

    2014-12-01

    The oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids to the corresponding hydroperoxide by plant and animal lipoxygenases is an important step for the generation of bioactive lipid mediators. Thereby fatty acid hydroperoxide represent a common intermediate, also in human innate immune cells, like neutrophil granulocytes. In these cells a further key component is the heme protein myeloperoxidase producing HOCl as a reactive oxidant. On the basis of different investigation a reaction of the fatty acid hydroperoxide and hypochlorous acid (HOCl) could be assumed. Here, chromatographic and spectrometric analysis revealed that the hydroperoxide moiety of 15S-​hydroperoxy-​5Z,​8Z,​11Z,​13E-​eicosatetraenoic acid (15-HpETE) and 13S-​hydroperoxy-​9Z,​11E-​octadecadienoic acid (13-HpODE) is not affected by HOCl. No reduction of the hydroperoxide group due to a reaction with HOCl could be measured. It could be demonstrated that the double bonds of the fatty acid hydroperoxides are the major target of HOCl, present either as reagent or formed by the myeloperoxidase-hydrogen peroxide-chloride system.

  19. Lysine and novel hydroxylysine lipids in soil bacteria: amino acid membrane lipid response to temperature and pH in Pseudopedobacter saltans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eli K. Moore

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Microbial decomposition of organic matter is an essential process in the global carbon cycle. The soil bacteria Pseudopedobacter saltans and Flavobacterium johnsoniae are both able to degrade complex organic molecules, but it is not fully known how their membrane structures are adapted to their environmental niche. The membrane lipids of these species were extracted and analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization/ion trap/mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI/IT/MS and high resolution accurate mass/mass spectrometry (HRAM/MS. Abundant unknown intact polar lipids (IPLs from P. saltans were isolated and further characterized using amino acid analysis and two dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopy. Ornithine IPLs (OLs with variable (hydroxy fatty acid composition were observed in both bacterial species. Lysine-containing IPLs (LLs were also detected in both species and were characterized here for the first time using HPLC-MS. Novel LLs containing hydroxy fatty acids and novel hydroxylysine lipids with variable (hydroxy fatty acid composition were identified in P. saltans. The confirmation of OL and LL formation in F. johnsoniae and P. saltans and the presence of OlsF putative homologues in P. saltans suggest the OlsF gene coding protein is possibly involved in OL and LL biosynthesis in both species, however, potential pathways of OL and LL hydroxylation in P. saltans are still undetermined. Triplicate cultures of P. saltans were grown at three temperature/pH combinations: 30°C/pH 7, 15°C/pH 7 and 15°C/pH 9. The fractional abundance of total amino acid containing IPLs containing hydroxylated fatty acids was significantly higher at higher temperature, and the fractional abundance of lysine-containing IPLs was significantly higher at lower temperature and higher pH. These results suggest that these amino acid-containing IPLs, including the novel hydroxylysine lipids, could be involved in temperature and p

  20. Roles played by acidic lipids in HIV-1 Gag membrane binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olety, Balaji; Ono, Akira

    2014-11-26

    The MA domain mediates plasma membrane (PM) targeting of HIV-1 Gag, leading to particle assembly at the PM. The interaction between MA and acidic phospholipids, in addition to N-terminal myristoyl moiety, promotes Gag binding to lipid membranes. Among acidic phospholipids, PI(4,5)P2, a PM-specific phosphoinositide, is essential for proper HIV-1 Gag localization to the PM and efficient virus particle production. Recent studies further revealed that MA-bound RNA negatively regulates HIV-1 Gag membrane binding and that PI(4,5)P2 is necessary to overcome this RNA-imposed block. In this review, we will summarize the current understanding of Gag-membrane interactions and discuss potential roles played by acidic phospholipids.

  1. Effect of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on the lipidic profile of healthy Mexican volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARVAJAL OCTAVIO

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The effect of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on the serum lipid profile in a Mexican population was evaluated. Material and methods. Three g of salmon oil was the daily intake during four weeks. Total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoproteins, high density lipoproteins and erythrocyte fatty acid composition were analyzed. Results. The hypertriglyceridemic group showed a statistically significant (p< 0.05 reduction of triglycerides and significant (p< 0.01 elevation of high density lipoproteins. The hypercholesterolemic group reduced significantly the levels of cholesterol and triglycerides; high density lipoproteins were augmented by 11.6%. Conclusions. The hipolipidemic effect of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids was manifest in the Mexican volunteers under the conditions here evaluated.

  2. Total and lipid-bound serum sialic acid in benign and malignant breast disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romppanen, J; Eskelinen, M; Tikanoja, S; Mononen, I

    1997-01-01

    Elevation in the total sialic acid (TSA), TSA/total protein (TSA/TP) and lipid-bound sialic acid (LASA) concentration in serum occurs in breast cancer and we have studied the applicability of the assays in classification of undefined breast tumors. Sialic acid was determined by HPLC and the statistical evaluation included the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) and Youden's index analyses. In cancer patients, the serum LASA and TSA concentration was significantly higher (p breast cancer and benign breast disease and at the specificity level of 0.95 the corresponding sensitivities were 0.32 (TSA), 0.14 (TSA/TP) and 0.23 (LASA). The results indicate that both breast cancer and benign breast disease cause elevation of TSA, TSA/TP and LASA values in serum and do not provide reliable classification of undefined breast tumors.

  3. Influence of abscisic acid on growth, biomass and lipid yield of Scenedesmus quadricauda under nitrogen starved condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulochana, Sujitha Balakrishnan; Arumugam, Muthu

    2016-08-01

    Scenedesmus quadricauda, accumulated more lipid but with a drastic reduction in biomass yield during nitrogen starvation. Abscisic acid (ABA) being a stress responsible hormone, its effect on growth and biomass with sustainable lipid yield during nitrogen depletion was studied. The result revealed that the ABA level shoots up at 24h (27.21pmol/L) during the onset of nitrogen starvation followed by a sharp decline. The external supplemented ABA showed a positive effect on growth pattern (38×10(6)cells/ml) at a lower concentration. The dry biomass yield is also increasing up to 2.1 fold compared to nitrogen deficient S. quadricauda. The lipid content sustains in 1 and 2μM concentration of ABA under nitrogen-deficient condition. The fatty acid composition of ABA treated S. quadricauda cultures with respect to nitrogen-starved cells showed 11.17% increment in saturated fatty acid content, the desired lipid composition for biofuel application.

  4. Rituximab therapy in pulmonary alveolar proteinosis improves alveolar macrophage lipid homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malur Anagha

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Rationale Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis (PAP patients exhibit an acquired deficiency of biologically active granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF attributable to GM-CSF specific autoantibodies. PAP alveolar macrophages are foamy, lipid-filled cells with impaired surfactant clearance and markedly reduced expression of the transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ and the PPARγ-regulated ATP binding cassette (ABC lipid transporter, ABCG1. An open label proof of concept Phase II clinical trial was conducted in PAP patients using rituximab, a chimeric murine-human monoclonal antibody directed against B lymphocyte specific antigen CD20. Rituximab treatment decreased anti-GM-CSF antibody levels in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluid, and 7/9 patients completing the trial demonstrated clinical improvement as measured by arterial blood oxygenation. Objectives This study sought to determine whether rituximab therapy would restore lipid metabolism in PAP alveolar macrophages. Methods BAL samples were collected from patients pre- and 6-months post-rituximab infusion for evaluation of mRNA and lipid changes. Results Mean PPARγ and ABCG1 mRNA expression increased 2.8 and 5.3-fold respectively (p ≤ 0.05 after treatment. Lysosomal phospholipase A2 (LPLA2 (a key enzyme in surfactant degradation mRNA expression was severely deficient in PAP patients pre-treatment but increased 2.8-fold post-treatment. In supplemental animal studies, LPLA2 deficiency was verified in GM-CSF KO mice but was not present in macrophage-specific PPARγ KO mice compared to wild-type controls. Oil Red O intensity of PAP alveolar macrophages decreased after treatment, indicating reduced intracellular lipid while extracellular free cholesterol increased in BAL fluid. Furthermore, total protein and Surfactant protein A were significantly decreased in the BAL fluid post therapy. Conclusions Reduction in GM

  5. Effect Of Gossypol, Apogossypol And Gossypolone On Fatty Acids Pattern Of Lipid Fractions In Rat Serum And Seminal Fluid

    OpenAIRE

    El sharaky, A. S. [احمد صبحي الشراكي; Sewedy, S. M.; El-Sayed, M. M.; El-Shahawy, I. N.

    1994-01-01

    he fatty acids pattern of the total lipid fractions of male rat serum and seminal fluids were studied under the effect of gossypol and some of its metabolites (Apogossypol and gossypolone). The applied dose of gossypol and its derivatives exhibits some metabolic effects such as significant decrease of the saturated fatty acids and a significant increase of polyunsaturated fatty acids. In the serum, eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5) in sterylester fraction was significantly increased under the eff...

  6. Targeting Adipose Tissue Lipid Metabolism to Improve Glucose Metabolism in Cardiometabolic Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan W.E. Jocken

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available With Type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease prevalence on the rise, there is a growing need for improved strategies to prevent or treat obesity and insulin resistance, both of which are major risk factors for these chronic diseases. Impairments in adipose tissue lipid metabolism seem to play a critical role in these disorders. In the classical picture of intracellular lipid breakdown, cytosolic lipolysis was proposed as the sole mechanism for triacylglycerol hydrolysis in adipocytes. Recent evidence suggests involvement of several hormones, membrane receptors, and intracellular signalling cascades, which has added complexity to the regulation of cytosolic lipolysis. Interestingly, a specific form of autophagy, called lipophagy, has been implicated as alternative lipolytic pathway. Defective regulation of cytosolic lipolysis and lipophagy might have substantial effects on lipid metabolism, thereby contributing to adipose tissue dysfunction, insulin resistance, and related cardiometabolic (cMet diseases. This review will discuss recent advances in our understanding of classical lipolysis and lipophagy in adipocyte lipid metabolism under normal and pathological conditions. Furthermore, the question of whether modulation of adipocyte lipolysis and lipophagy might be a potential therapeutic target to combat cMet disorders will be addressed.

  7. Preparation and evaluation of chitosan/ellagic acid/erythrocyte membrane lipid hemostatic composite sponge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺庆; 敖强; 王臻; 刘伟强; 龚锴; 公衍道; 张秀芳

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Some previous studies have indicated that the hemostatic effect of chitosan is limited when dealing with severe injuries. Therefore, the procoagulant activity of chitosan-based hemostatic agents needs to be enhanced. OBJECTIVE: To prepare a novel chitosan/el agic acid/erythrocyte membrane lipid composite sponge and to evaluate its procoagulant activity and cytotoxicity.METHODS: Chitosan sponge and chitosan acetate sponge were prepared by freeze-drying method. Then chitosan/el agic acid/erythrocyte membrane lipid composite sponge was prepared by electrostatic adsorption method. Procoagulant activity of the chitosan, chitosan acetate, and chitosan/el agic acid/erythrocyte membrane lipid sponges was evaluated by the plasma recalcification time method. Hemostatic effect of these sponges was evaluated in the Sprague Dawley rat liver bleeding model, and the cytotoxicity to L929 cel line was evaluated. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The plasma recalcification time, bleeding time and blood loss of the chitosan/el agic acid/erythrocyte membrane lipid composite sponge group were significantly lower than those of the chitosan sponge and chitosan acetate sponge groups (P < 0.01). Cel culture experiment showed that the chitosan/el agic acid/erythrocyte membrane lipid composite sponge did not have cytotoxicity. The results indicate that the chitosan/el agic acid/erythrocyte membrane lipid composite sponge has the enhanced procoagulant activity and non-cytotoxicity.%  背景:部分文献报道壳聚糖对严重创伤的止血效果有限,因此以壳聚糖为基础止血剂的促凝血活性还有待进一步增强。目的:制备一种新型的壳聚糖/鞣花酸/红细胞膜脂复合海绵,评价其促凝血活性和细胞毒性。方法:通过冻干法制备壳聚糖海绵和壳聚糖乙酸盐海绵,然后再通过静电吸附法制备壳聚糖/鞣花酸/红细胞膜脂复合海绵。血浆复钙时间法观察3种海绵的促凝血活性,并检测3

  8. Palmitoleic acid reduces intramuscular lipid and restores insulin sensitivity in obese sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duckett SK

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Susan K Duckett, Gabriela Volpi-Lagreca, Mariano Alende, Nathan M LongAnimal and Veterinary Sciences Department, Clemson University, Clemson, SC, USAAbstract: Obese sheep were used to assess the effects of palmitoleic (C16:1 cis-9 acid infusion on lipogenesis and circulating insulin levels. Infusion of 10 mg/kg body weight (BW/day C16:1 intravenously in obese sheep reduced (P<0.01 weight gain by 77%. Serum palmitoleic levels increased (P<0.05 in a linear manner with increasing levels of C16:1 infusion. Cis-11 vaccenic (C18:1 cis-11 acid, a known elongation product of palmitoleic acid, was also elevated (P<0.05 in serum after 14 days and 21 days of infusion. Plasma insulin levels were lower (P<0.05 (10 mg/kg BW/day C16:1 than controls (0 mg/kg BW/day C16:1 at 14 days and 28 days of infusion. Infusion of C16:1 resulted in linear increases in tissue concentrations of palmitoleic, cis-11 vaccenic, eicosapentaenoic, and docosapentaenoic acids in a dose-dependent manner. Total lipid content of the semitendinosus (ST muscle and mesenteric adipose tissue was reduced (P<0.01 in both 5 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg BW C16:1 dose levels. Total lipid content and mean adipocyte size in the longissimus muscle was reduced (P<0.05 in the 10 mg/kg BW C16:1 dose level only, whereas total lipid content and adipocyte size of the subcutaneous adipose tissue was not altered. Total lipid content of the liver was also unchanged with C16:1 infusion. Palmitoleic acid infusion upregulated (P<0.05 acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC, fatty acid elongase-6 (ELOVL6, and Protein kinase, AMP-activated, alpha 1 catalytic subunit, transcript variant 1 (AMPK mRNA expressions in liver, subcutaneous adipose, and ST muscle compared to the controls. However, mRNA expression of glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4 and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1b (CPT1B differed between tissues. In the subcutaneous adipose and liver, C16:1 infusion upregulated (P<0.05 GLUT4 and CPT1B, whereas these genes were

  9. Incorporation of conjugated linoleic acid and vaccenic acid into lipids from rat tissues and plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Pia; Sejrsen, Kristen; Straarup, Ellen Marie

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the incorporation of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) into triacylglycerols (TAG) and phospholipids (PL) of tissues and plasma, and to interpret the role of dietary-derived vaccenic acid (VA) in increasing the tissue content of CLA (c9,t11) and the influ...

  10. Lipid class and fatty acid content of the Leptocephalus larva of tropical eels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deibel, D.; Parrish, C.C.; Grønkjær, P.;

    2012-01-01

    The leptocephalus larva of eels distinguishes the elopomorph fishes from all other bony fishes. The leptocephalus is long lived and increases in size primarily through the synthesis and deposition of glycosaminoglycans. Energy stored during the larval stage, in the form of glycosaminoglycan...... storage and condition of leptocephali, we determined the lipid class and fatty acid concentration of larvae collected on a cross-shelf transect off Broome, northwestern Australia. The total lipid concentration of two families and four sub-families of leptocephali ranged from 2.7 to 7.0 mg g wet weight-1......:0 (23 mol%), 22:6n-3 (docosahexaenoic acid, DHA, 16 mol%), 18:0 (8.2 mol%), 20:5n-3 (eicosapentaenoic acid, EPA, 6.7 mol%), 18:1n-9 (6.4 mol%) and 16:1n-7 (6.3 mol%). The DHA:EPA ratio ranged from 2.4 to 2.9, sufficient for normal growth and development of fish larvae generally. The leptocephali had...

  11. Palmitoleic acid reduces intramuscular lipid and restores insulin sensitivity in obese sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duckett, Susan K; Volpi-Lagreca, Gabriela; Alende, Mariano; Long, Nathan M

    2014-01-01

    Obese sheep were used to assess the effects of palmitoleic (C16:1 cis-9) acid infusion on lipogenesis and circulating insulin levels. Infusion of 10 mg/kg body weight (BW)/day C16:1 intravenously in obese sheep reduced (Psubcutaneous adipose tissue was not altered. Total lipid content of the liver was also unchanged with C16:1 infusion. Palmitoleic acid infusion upregulated (Psubcutaneous adipose, and ST muscle compared to the controls. However, mRNA expression of glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4) and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1b (CPT1B) differed between tissues. In the subcutaneous adipose and liver, C16:1 infusion upregulated (P<0.05) GLUT4 and CPT1B, whereas these genes were downregulated (P<0.05) in ST muscle with C16:1 infusion. These results show that C16:1 infusion for 28 days reduced weight gain, intramuscular adipocyte size and total lipid content, and circulating insulin levels. These changes appear to be mediated through alterations in expression of genes regulating glucose uptake and fatty acid oxidation specifically in the muscles.

  12. Lipid and fatty acid metabolism in Ralstonia eutropha: relevance for the biotechnological production of value-added products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedel, Sebastian L; Lu, Jingnan; Stahl, Ulf; Brigham, Christopher J

    2014-02-01

    Lipid and fatty acid metabolism has been well studied in model microbial organisms like Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis. The major precursor of fatty acid biosynthesis is also the major product of fatty acid degradation (β-oxidation), acetyl-CoA, which is a key metabolite for all organisms. Controlling carbon flux to fatty acid biosynthesis and from β-oxidation allows for the biosynthesis of natural products of biotechnological importance. Ralstonia eutropha can utilize acetyl-CoA from fatty acid metabolism to produce intracellular polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA). R. eutropha can also be engineered to utilize fatty acid metabolism intermediates to produce different PHA precursors. Metabolism of lipids and fatty acids can be rerouted to convert carbon into other value-added compounds like biofuels. This review discusses the lipid and fatty acid metabolic pathways in R. eutropha and how they can be used to construct reagents for the biosynthesis of products of industrial importance. Specifically, how the use of lipids or fatty acids as the sole carbon source in R. eutropha cultures adds value to these biotechnological products will be discussed here.

  13. Lipid mixtures containing a very high proportion of saturated fatty acids only modestly impair insulin signaling in cultured muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsom, Sean A; Everett, Allison C; Park, Sanghee; Van Pelt, Douglas W; Hinko, Alexander; Horowitz, Jeffrey F

    2015-01-01

    In vitro examinations of the effect of saturated fatty acids on skeletal muscle insulin action often use only one or two different fatty acid species, which does not resemble the human plasma fatty acid profile. We compared graded concentrations (0.1-0.8 mM) of 3 different lipid mixtures: 1) a physiologic fatty acid mixture (NORM; 40% saturated fatty acids), 2) a physiologic mixture high in saturated fatty acids (HSFA; 60% saturated fatty acids), and 3) 100% palmitate (PALM) on insulin signaling and fatty acid partitioning into triacylglycerol (TAG) and diacylglycerol (DAG) in cultured muscle cells. As expected, PALM readily impaired insulin-stimulated pAktThr308/Akt and markedly increased intracellular DAG content. In contrast, the fatty acid mixtures only modestly impaired insulin-stimulated pAktThr308M/Akt, and we found no differences between NORM and HSFA. Importantly, NORM and HSFA did not increase DAG content, but instead dose-dependently increased TAG accumulation. Therefore, the robust impairment in insulin signaling found with palmitate exposure was attenuated with physiologic mixtures of fatty acids, even with a very high proportion of saturated fatty acids. This may be explained in part by selective partitioning of fatty acids into neutral lipid (i.e., TAG) when muscle cells were exposed to physiologic lipid mixtures.

  14. Effects of trans-10,cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid on body fat and serum lipids in young and adult hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, V; Miranda, J; Churruca, I; Fernández-Quintela, A; Rodríguez, V M; Portillo, M P

    2006-06-01

    The aim of the present work was to determine whether t-10, c-12 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) feeding was able to reduce body fat accumulation and improve the serum lipid profile in adult hamsters fed an atherogenic diet, in order to compare these effects with those observed in young growing hamsters. Young and adult hamsters were fed semi-purified atherogenic diets supplemented with 0.5 % linoleic acid or 0.5% t-10, c-12 CLA for 6 weeks. Body weight and food intake were measured every two days. Adipose tissue from different anatomical locations, liver and gastrocnemious muscle were dissected and weighed. Cholesterol, triacylglycerols, non-esterified fatty acids and proteins were determined spectrophotometrically and water content by gravimetry. In young hamsters, no significant differences were found in food intake, final body weight and gastrocnemious muscle weight. White adipose tissue weights were reduced, liver weight was increased and cholesterol and triacyl-glycerols in both serum and liver were reduced. In adult hamsters, CLA feeding decreased food intake and adipose tissue weights. No changes were observed in other parameters. The present study demonstrates that age has an influence in hamster responsiveness to t-10, c-12 CLA because, although when this isomer is added to an atherogenic diet it reduces body fat accumulation in both young and adults hamsters, the lessening of the effects on serum lipids brought about by atherogenic feeding is only observed in young animals. Moreover, it is clear that liver is a target for CLA in young but not in adult hamsters.

  15. Lepromatous leprosy patients produce antibodies that recognise non-bilayer lipid arrangements containing mycolic acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Baeza

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Non-bilayer phospholipid arrangements are three-dimensional structures that form when anionic phospholipids with an intermediate structure of the tubular hexagonal phase II are present in a bilayer of lipids. Antibodies that recognise these arrangements have been described in patients with antiphospholipid syndrome and/or systemic lupus erythematosus and in those with preeclampsia; these antibodies have also been documented in an experimental murine model of lupus, in which they are associated with immunopathology. Here, we demonstrate the presence of antibodies against non-bilayer phospholipid arrangements containing mycolic acids in the sera of lepromatous leprosy (LL patients, but not those of healthy volunteers. The presence of antibodies that recognise these non-bilayer lipid arrangements may contribute to the hypergammaglobulinaemia observed in LL patients. We also found IgM and IgG anti-cardiolipin antibodies in 77% of the patients. This positive correlation between the anti-mycolic-non-bilayer arrangements and anti-cardiolipin antibodies suggests that both types of antibodies are produced by a common mechanism, as was demonstrated in the experimental murine model of lupus, in which there was a correlation between the anti-non-bilayer phospholipid arrangements and anti-cardiolipin antibodies. Antibodies to non-bilayer lipid arrangements may represent a previously unrecognised pathogenic mechanism in LL and the detection of these antibodies may be a tool for the early diagnosis of LL patients.

  16. UVA-induced reset of hydroxyl radical ultradian rhythm improves temporal lipid production in Chlorella vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balan, Ranjini; Suraishkumar, G K

    2014-01-01

    We report for the first time that the endogenous, pseudo-steady-state, specific intracellular levels of the hydroxyl radical (si-OH) oscillate in an ultradian fashion (model system: the microalga, Chlorella vulgaris), and also characterize the various rhythm parameters. The ultradian rhythm in the endogenous levels of the si-OH occurred with an approximately 6 h period in the daily cycle of light and darkness. Further, we expected that the rhythm reset to a shorter period could rapidly switch the cellular redox states that could favor lipid accumulation. We reset the endogenous rhythm through entrainment with UVA radiation, and generated two new ultradian rhythms with periods of approximately 2.97 h and 3.8 h in the light phase and dark phase, respectively. The reset increased the window of maximum lipid accumulation from 6 h to 12 h concomitant with the onset of the ultradian rhythms. Further, the saturated fatty acid content increased approximately to 80% of total lipid content, corresponding to the peak maxima of the hydroxyl radical levels in the reset rhythm.

  17. Myocardial Lipid Profiling During Time Course of High Fat Diet and its Relationship to the Expression of Fatty Acid Transporters

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    Ewa Harasim

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: It is well documented that increased fatty acids (FA supply causes lipid accumulation and insulin resistance in skeletal muscles. Whether the same mechanism is present in the heart is still unclear. Therefore, the goal of our study was to determine the content of specific myocardial lipid fractions during feeding rats a high fat diet (HFD for 5 weeks. Moreover, the relation between changes in myocardial lipid content, whole body insulin resistance and the expression of fatty acid transporters in each week of HFD was established. Methods: Gas liquid chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography were used to determine the content of lipid fractions in the left ventricle. Expression of selected proteins was estimated by Western blot technique. All measurements were made after each week of HFD. Results: As expected, lipid profile in myocardium was altered by HFD in different weeks of the study with the most intense changes in triacylglycerols, long chain fatty acid-CoA and ceramide. Furthermore, there was a significant elevation of plasmalemmal (the 4th and the 5th week and mitochondrial expression (from the 3rd to the 5th week of fatty acid translocase. Conclusion: High fat diet affects myocardial lipid profile in each week of its duration and causes alternations in FA metabolism in cardiomyocytes.

  18. Ether- and ester-bound iso-diabolic acid and other lipids in members of Acidobacteria subdivision 4

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.; Rijpstra, W. Irene C; Hopmans, Ellen C.; Foesel, Bärbel U.; Wüst, Pia K.; Overmann, Jörg; Tank, Marcus; Bryant, Donald A.; Dunfield, Peter F.; Houghton, Karen; Stott, Matthew B.

    2014-01-01

    Recently, iso-diabolic acid (13,16-dimethyl octacosanedioic acid) has been identified as a major membrane-spanning lipid of subdivisions 1 and 3 of the Acidobacteria, a highly diverse phylum within the Bacteria. This finding pointed to the Acidobacteria as a potential source for the bacterial glycer

  19. Effects of Dietary Lipid Level on Growth Performance of Genetic Improvement of Farmed Tilapia (GIFT, Oreochromis niloticus) and Its Serum Biochemical Indices and Fatty Acid Composition under Cold Stress%饲料脂肪水平对吉富罗非鱼生长性能及其在低温应激下血清生化指标和肝脏脂肪酸组成的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石桂城; 董晓慧; 陈刚; 谭北平; 迟淑艳; 杨奇慧; 刘泓宇

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary lipid level on growth performance of genetic improvement of farmed tilapia (GIFT, Oreochromis niloticus) and its serum biochemical indices and fatty acid composition under cold stress. Fish with an average body weight of (37. 0 ± 1. 0) g were fed experimental diets containing 4 different levels (1. 95% , 6. 19% , 8. 03% and 9. 95% , respectively) of lipid which were supplemented with 0, 4% , 6% and 8% of soybean oil in basal diet (1. 95% lipid) for 8 weeks. Each treatment contained 3 replicates and each replicate contained 25 fish. After feeding experiment, experimental fish were acclimated at 28 ℃ as control, the water temperature was reduced from 28 ℃ to 15 ℃ at a rate of 1 t/h to proceed cold stress experiment. The results showed as follows; 1) the survival rate (SR) and feed conservation rate (FCR) were not significantly influenced by dietary lipid level (P > 0. 05). The weigh gain rate (WGR) and specific growth rate (SGR) increased significantly (P <0. 05) with dietary lipid level increasing until dietary lipid level arrived at 6. 19% . 2) Under the cold stress, dietary lipid level had significant influence on serum biochemical indices except glucose (GLU) and triglyceride (TG) levels (P <0. 05). With dietary lipid level increasing, the levels of GLU, total protein (TP) , TG, cholesterol (CHOL) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in serum gradually raised, and the serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) level showed a rising trend and then gradually descended, while the activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine transarninase (ALT) in serum slightly decreased and then increased. 3) Under the cold stress, the proportion of saturated fatty acid (SFA) in liver showed a descending trend and the proportion of unsaturated fatty acid (UFA) in liver showed a rising trend with dietary lipid level increasing. Dietary lipid level had significant influence on n

  20. Lipidomic profiling of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Zygosaccharomyces bailii reveals critical changes in lipid composition in response to acetic acid stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Lina; Santos, Aline Xs; Riezman, Howard; Olsson, Lisbeth; Bettiga, Maurizio

    2013-01-01

    When using microorganisms as cell factories in the production of bio-based fuels or chemicals from lignocellulosic hydrolysate, inhibitory concentrations of acetic acid, released from the biomass, reduce the production rate. The undissociated form of acetic acid enters the cell by passive diffusion across the lipid bilayer, mediating toxic effects inside the cell. In order to elucidate a possible link between lipid composition and acetic acid stress, the present study presents detailed lipidomic profiling of the major lipid species found in the plasma membrane, including glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids and sterols, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (CEN.PK 113_7D) and Zygosaccharomyces bailii (CBS7555) cultured with acetic acid. Detailed physiological characterization of the response of the two yeasts to acetic acid has also been performed in aerobic batch cultivations using bioreactors. Physiological characterization revealed, as expected, that Z. bailii is more tolerant to acetic acid than S. cerevisiae. Z. bailii grew at acetic acid concentrations above 24 g L(-1), while limited growth of S. cerevisiae was observed after 11 h when cultured with only 12 g L(-1) acetic acid. Detailed lipidomic profiling using electrospray ionization, multiple-reaction-monitoring mass spectrometry (ESI-MRM-MS) showed remarkable changes in the glycerophospholipid composition of Z. bailii, including an increase in saturated glycerophospholipids and considerable increases in complex sphingolipids in both S. cerevisiae (IPC 6.2×, MIPC 9.1×, M(IP)2C 2.2×) and Z. bailii (IPC 4.9×, MIPC 2.7×, M(IP)2C 2.7×), when cultured with acetic acid. In addition, the basal level of complex sphingolipids was significantly higher in Z. bailii than in S. cerevisiae, further emphasizing the proposed link between lipid saturation, high sphingolipid levels and acetic acid tolerance. The results also suggest that acetic acid tolerance is associated with the ability of a given strain to generate large

  1. Lipidomic profiling of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Zygosaccharomyces bailii reveals critical changes in lipid composition in response to acetic acid stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Lindberg

    Full Text Available When using microorganisms as cell factories in the production of bio-based fuels or chemicals from lignocellulosic hydrolysate, inhibitory concentrations of acetic acid, released from the biomass, reduce the production rate. The undissociated form of acetic acid enters the cell by passive diffusion across the lipid bilayer, mediating toxic effects inside the cell. In order to elucidate a possible link between lipid composition and acetic acid stress, the present study presents detailed lipidomic profiling of the major lipid species found in the plasma membrane, including glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids and sterols, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (CEN.PK 113_7D and Zygosaccharomyces bailii (CBS7555 cultured with acetic acid. Detailed physiological characterization of the response of the two yeasts to acetic acid has also been performed in aerobic batch cultivations using bioreactors. Physiological characterization revealed, as expected, that Z. bailii is more tolerant to acetic acid than S. cerevisiae. Z. bailii grew at acetic acid concentrations above 24 g L(-1, while limited growth of S. cerevisiae was observed after 11 h when cultured with only 12 g L(-1 acetic acid. Detailed lipidomic profiling using electrospray ionization, multiple-reaction-monitoring mass spectrometry (ESI-MRM-MS showed remarkable changes in the glycerophospholipid composition of Z. bailii, including an increase in saturated glycerophospholipids and considerable increases in complex sphingolipids in both S. cerevisiae (IPC 6.2×, MIPC 9.1×, M(IP2C 2.2× and Z. bailii (IPC 4.9×, MIPC 2.7×, M(IP2C 2.7×, when cultured with acetic acid. In addition, the basal level of complex sphingolipids was significantly higher in Z. bailii than in S. cerevisiae, further emphasizing the proposed link between lipid saturation, high sphingolipid levels and acetic acid tolerance. The results also suggest that acetic acid tolerance is associated with the ability of a given strain to

  2. Comparison of fatty acid composition in total lipid of diapause and non-diapause larvae of Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ABBAS KHANI; SAEID MOHARRAMIPOUR; MOHSEN BARZEGAR; HOSSEIN NADERI-MANESH

    2007-01-01

    Seasonal changes in the fatty acid composition of the total lipid extracted from the whole body of Cydia pomonella L. larvae were determined by gas chromatography. The six most abundant fatty acids in both non-diapause and diapause larvae of codling moth were oleic (35%-39%), palmitic (23%-33%), linoleic (16%-30%), palmitoleic (5%-10%),stearic (1.5%-3.0%) and linolenic acids (1.0%-2.5%). This represents a typical complement of Lepidopteran fatty acids. The fatty acid composition of total lipid of C. pomonella larvae was related to diapause. In similarity to most other reports, the proportion of unsaturated fatty acids increased in diapause initiation state. The total lipid of diapause larvae contained more linoleic acid (25.8% vs. 16.1%) and less palmitic acid (24.7% vs. 33.4%),than that ofnon-diapause larvae. The weight percentage of linoleic acid (C18:2) increased from 16% to 26% from early-August through early-September during transition to diapause,while palmitic acid (C16:0) decreased from 33% to 25% at the same time. These changes resulted in an increase in the ratio of unsaturated to saturated fatty acids (UFA/SFA) from 1.72 in non-diapause larvae to 2.63 in diapause larvae.

  3. Gallic acid improves glucose tolerance and triglyceride concentration in diet-induced obesity mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bak, Eun-Jung; Kim, Jinmoon; Jang, Sungil; Woo, Gye-Hyeong; Yoon, Ho-Geun; Yoo, Yun-Jung; Cha, Jeong-Heon

    2013-12-01

    Gallic acid, a phenolic phytochemical, has been shown to exert a variety of effects, including anti-oxidative, anti- carcinogenic, anti-allergic, and anti-inflammatory effects. In this study, we attempted to determine whether gallic acid affects metabolic syndrome such as obesity and diabetes. Diet-induced obesity mice were treated intraperitoneally once per day with gallic acid (10 mg/kg/day). After 2 weeks of treatment, the mice were sacrificed to collect the blood for metabolic parameter assessments, and the adipose tissues and liver to weigh and analyze. The triglyceride concentrations were significantly improved in the gallic acid group relative to those measured in the control group. And most importantly, the blood glucose concentrations in the gallic acid group were significantly improved. In the epididymal white adipose tissue of the gallic acid group, adipocyte size was reduced, PPARγ expression was induced, and the Akt signaling pathway was activated. Our results demonstrate that gallic acid improves glucose tolerance and lipid metabolism in the obesity mice, thereby showing evidence of anti-hyperglycemic activity. The findings of an upregulation of PPARγ expression and Akt activation also contribute to our current understanding of the mechanisms underlying the effects of gallic acid on glucose metabolism.

  4. Preparation, Characterization and Evaluation of Quetiapine Fumarate Solid Lipid Nanoparticles to Improve the Oral Bioavailability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjun Narala

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Quetiapine fumarate is an antipsychotic drug with poor oral bioavailability (9% due to first-pass metabolism. Present work is an attempt to improve oral bioavailability of quetiapine fumarate by incorporating in solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN. Six quetiapine fumarate SLN formulations were developed using three different lipids by hot homogenisation followed by ultrasonication. The drug excipient compatibility was studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. Stable quetiapine fumarate SLNs having a mean particle size of 200–250 nm with entrapment efficiency varying in between 80% and 92% were developed. The physical stability of optimized formulation F3 was checked at room temperature for 2 months. Comparative bioavailability studies were conducted in male Wistar rats after oral administration of quetiapine fumarate suspension and SLN formulation. The relative bioavailability of quetiapine fumarate from optimized SLN preparation was increased by 3.71 times when compared with the reference quetiapine fumarate suspension. The obtained results are indicative of SLNs as potential lipid carriers for improving the bioavailability of quetiapine fumarate by minimizing first-pass metabolism.

  5. Effect of glycyrrhetinic acid on lipid raft model at the air/water interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Seiichi; Uto, Takuhiro; Shoyama, Yukihiro

    2015-02-01

    To investigate an interfacial behavior of the aglycon of glycyrrhizin (GC), glycyrrhetinic acid (GA), with a lipid raft model consisting of equimolar ternary mixtures of N-palmitoyl sphingomyelin (PSM), dioleoylphosphatidylcholine (DOPC), and cholesterol (CHOL), Langmuir monolayer techniques were systematically conducted. Surface pressure (π)-molecular area (A) and surface potential (ΔV)-A isotherms showed that the adsorbed GA at the air/water interface was desorbed into the bulk upon compression of the lipid monolayer. In situ morphological analysis by Brewster angle microscopy and fluorescence microscopy revealed that the raft domains became smaller as the concentrations of GA in the subphase (CGA) increased, suggesting that GA promotes the formation of fluid networks related to various cellular processes via lipid rafts. In addition, ex situ morphological analysis by atomic force microscopy revealed that GA interacts with lipid raft by lying down at the surface. Interestingly, the distinctive striped regions were formed at CGA=5.0 μM. This phenomenon was observed to be induced by the interaction of CHOL with adsorbed GA and is involved in the membrane-disrupting activity of saponin and its aglycon. A quantitative comparison of GA with GC (Sakamoto et al., 2013) revealed that GA interacts more strongly with the raft model than GC in the monolayer state. Various biological activities of GA are known to be stronger than those of GC. This fact allows us to hypothesize that differences in the interactions of GA/GC with the model monolayer correlate to their degree of exertion for numerous activities.

  6. Engineering of lipid prodrug-based, hyaluronic acid-decorated nanostructured lipid carriers platform for 5-fluorouracil and cisplatin combination gastric cancer therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qu CY

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Chun-Ying Qu,1,* Min Zhou,1,* Ying-wei Chen,2 Mei-mei Chen,3 Feng Shen,1 Lei-Ming Xu11Digestive Endoscopic Diagnosis and Treatment Center, Xinhua Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 2Shanghai Key Laboratory of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 3Digestive Department, Xinhua Hospital, School of medicine, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workPurpose: The first-line chemotherapy treatment protocol for gastric cancer is combination chemotherapy of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU and cisplatin (CDDP. The aim of this study was to engineer prodrug-based nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC platform for codelivery of 5-FU and CDDP to enhance therapy and decrease toxicity.Methods: First, 5-FU-stearic acid lipid conjugate was synthesized by two steps. Second, 5-FU-stearic acid prodrug and CDDP were loaded in NLC. Finally, hyaluronic acid (HA was coated onto NLC surface. Average size, zeta potential, and drug loading capacity of NLC were evaluated. Human gastric cancer cell line BGC823 (BGC823 cells was used for the testing of in vitro cytotoxicity assays. In vivo antitumor activity of NLC was evaluated in mice bearing BGC823 cells model.Results: HA-coated 5-FU-stearic acid prodrug and CDDP-loaded NLC (HA-FU/C-NLC showed a synergistic effect in combination therapy and displayed the greatest antitumor activity than all of the free drugs or uncoated NLC in vitro and in vivo.Conclusion: This work reveals that HA-coated NLC could be used as a novel carrier to codeliver 5-FU and CDDP for gastric cancer therapy. HA-FU/C-NLC could be a promising targeted and combinational therapy in nanomedicine.Keywords: gastric cancer, nanostructured lipid carriers, hyaluronic acid, combination chemotherapy, lipid prodrug

  7. Identification of multiple lipid genes with modifications in expression and sequence associated with the evolution of hydroxy fatty acid accumulation in Physaria fendleri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Patrick J; Liu, Jinjie; Cocuron, Jean-Christophe; McGlew, Kathleen; Thrower, Nicholas A; Larson, Matt; Lu, Chaofu; Alonso, Ana P; Ohlrogge, John

    2016-05-01

    Two Brassicaceae species, Physaria fendleri and Camelina sativa, are genetically very closely related to each other and to Arabidopsis thaliana. Physaria fendleri seeds contain over 50% hydroxy fatty acids (HFAs), while Camelina sativa and Arabidopsis do not accumulate HFAs. To better understand how plants evolved new biochemical pathways with the capacity to accumulate high levels of unusual fatty acids, transcript expression and protein sequences of developing seeds of Physaria fendleri, wild-type Camelina sativa, and Camelina sativa expressing a castor bean (Ricinus communis) hydroxylase were analyzed. A number of potential evolutionary adaptations within lipid metabolism that probably enhance HFA production and accumulation in Physaria fendleri, and, in their absence, limit accumulation in transgenic tissues were revealed. These adaptations occurred in at least 20 genes within several lipid pathways from the onset of fatty acid synthesis and its regulation to the assembly of triacylglycerols. Lipid genes of Physaria fendleri appear to have co-evolved through modulation of transcriptional abundances and alterations within protein sequences. Only a handful of genes showed evidence for sequence adaptation through gene duplication. Collectively, these evolutionary changes probably occurred to minimize deleterious effects of high HFA amounts and/or to enhance accumulation for physiological advantage. These results shed light on the evolution of pathways for novel fatty acid production in seeds, help explain some of the current limitations to accumulation of HFAs in transgenic plants, and may provide improved strategies for future engineering of their production.

  8. Impact of Biochemical Composition on Susceptibility of Algal Biomass to Acid-Catalyzed Pretreatment for Sugar and Lipid Recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Tao; Van Wychen, Stefanie; Nagle, Nick; Pienkos, Philip T.; Laurens, Lieve M. L.

    2016-09-01

    One of the major challenges associated with algal biofuels production in a biorefinery-type setting is improving biomass utilization in its entirety, increasing the process energetic yields and providing economically viable and scalable co-product concepts. We focus on the impact of compositional characteristics of biomass on the susceptibility to pretreatment in order to maximize the valorization of algal biomass conversion for biofuels and bioproducts. The release of monomeric carbohydrates in the aqueous phase and extractability of the lipid fraction was measured based a response surface methodology to find significant explanatory variables and interaction terms. We studied the effect of harvest timing on the conversion yields, using three algal strains; Chlorella vulgaris and Scenedesmus acutus and Nannochloropsis granulata representing three different nutritional metabolic phases. Four cultivation conditions of high (= 90 gallon gasoline equivalent/ton biomass) value for a combined sugar- and lipid-based biofuels process were identified. These four conditions represent either mid or late stage harvest cultivation regimes. The results indicate that acid pretreatment has potential to be applicable for a vast range of biomass samples to obtain high energy yields, but that the exact conditions and optima are dependent on the strain and likely the starting composition of the biomass.

  9. Cationic Lipid-Nucleic Acid Complexes for Gene Delivery And Silencing: Pathways And Mechanisms for Plasmid Dna And Sirna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewert, K.K.; Zidovska, A.; Ahmad, A.; Bouxsein, N.F.; Evans, H.M.; McAllister, C.S.; Samuel, C.E.; Safinya, C.R.; /SLAC

    2012-07-17

    Motivated by the promises of gene therapy, there is great interest in developing non-viral lipid-based vectors for therapeutic applications due to their low immunogenicity, low toxicity, ease of production, and the potential of transferring large pieces of DNA into cells. In fact, cationic liposome (CL) based vectors are among the prevalent synthetic carriers of nucleic acids (NAs) currently used in gene therapy clinical trials worldwide. These vectors are studied both for gene delivery with CL-DNA complexes and gene silencing with CL-siRNA (short interfering RNA) complexes. However, their transfection efficiencies and silencing efficiencies remain low compared to those of engineered viral vectors. This reflects the currently poor understanding of transfection-related mechanisms at the molecular and self-assembled levels, including a lack of knowledge about interactions between membranes and double stranded NAs and between CL-NA complexes and cellular components. In this review we describe our recent efforts to improve the mechanistic understanding of transfection by CL-NA complexes, which will help to design optimal lipid-based carriers of DNA and siRNA for therapeutic gene delivery and gene silencing.

  10. Amino acid, lipid and red blood cell studies on selenium toxicity with the laboratory rat.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halverson, A W; Tsay, D -T; Triebwasser, K C; Whitehead, E I

    1966-01-01

    The amino acid and lipid analysis on blood and liver and the amino acid analysis on urine gave irregular values for each determination. Therefore, the average values which were presented in the 1966 Technical Progress report (C00-1449-2) were not considered valid and were not submitted for publication. However, experiments on the in vivo conversion of 75 Se-labeled selenite-Se to urinary metabolites led to the observance of an unknown metabolite. This metabolite, which was different from the ordinary selenium analogues of sulfur, was designated as "U-1" (C00-1449-3). The use of the 59 Fe was involved in the study of the anemia of chronic selenium toxicity. The findings because of the labeled iron led to the conclusion that the anemia was from massive hemolysis (C00-1449-3).

  11. Lipid binding protein response to a bile acid library: a combined NMR and statistical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaselli, Simona; Pagano, Katiuscia; Boulton, Stephen; Zanzoni, Serena; Melacini, Giuseppe; Molinari, Henriette; Ragona, Laura

    2015-11-01

    Primary bile acids, differing in hydroxylation pattern, are synthesized from cholesterol in the liver and, once formed, can undergo extensive enzyme-catalysed glycine/taurine conjugation, giving rise to a complex mixture, the bile acid pool. Composition and concentration of the bile acid pool may be altered in diseases, posing a general question on the response of the carrier (bile acid binding protein) to the binding of ligands with different hydrophobic and steric profiles. A collection of NMR experiments (H/D exchange, HET-SOFAST, ePHOGSY NOESY/ROESY and (15) N relaxation measurements) was thus performed on apo and five different holo proteins, to monitor the binding pocket accessibility and dynamics. The ensemble of obtained data could be rationalized by a statistical approach, based on chemical shift covariance analysis, in terms of residue-specific correlations and collective protein response to ligand binding. The results indicate that the same residues are influenced by diverse chemical stresses: ligand binding always induces silencing of motions at the protein portal with a concomitant conformational rearrangement of a network of residues, located at the protein anti-portal region. This network of amino acids, which do not belong to the binding site, forms a contiguous surface, sensing the presence of the bound lipids, with a signalling role in switching protein-membrane interactions on and off.

  12. Physicochemical analysis of Psophocarpus tetragonolobus (L.) DC seeds with fatty acids and total lipids compositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Chandra Sekhar; Pradhan, Rama Chandra; Singh, Vinayak; Singh, Neha; Pattanayak, Rojalin; Prakash, Om; Chanotiya, Chandan Singh; Rout, Prasant Kumar

    2015-06-01

    Psophocarpus tetragonolobus (L.) DC. is a tropical legume with potential nutritional properties. In present study, the physical properties and proximate composition of the seeds were evaluated. Besides, the physico-chemical properties of fatty oil from fully mature seeds were also studied. The fatty oil compositions of immature, mature and fully mature seeds were evaluated by GC-FID, GC/MS and (1)H-NMR. The study revealed that, fatty oil from fully mature seeds contained high proportion of unsaturated fatty acids (75.5 %), whereas immature seeds contained higher percentage of saturated fatty acid (61.3 %). In addition, unsaponification matter (0.25 %) of fatty oil was identified as stigmasterol (66.4 %) and β-sitosterol (25.1 %). Total lipids of fully mature seeds were extracted and isolated as neutral, glyco- and phospholipids. Overall, the fatty oil of fully mature seeds was enriched with mono-unsaturated fatty acids (38.6 %) and poly-unsaturated fatty acids (36.9 %) without trans-fatty acids, thus meeting the edible oil standard.

  13. TACN-based cationic lipids with amino acid backbone and double tails: materials for non-viral gene delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bing; Yi, Wen-Jing; Zhang, Ji; Zhang, Qin-Fang; Xun, Miao-Miao; Yu, Xiao-Qi

    2014-04-01

    Cationic lipids have become an efficient type of non-viral vectors for gene delivery. In this Letter, four cationic lipids containing 1,4,7-triazacyclononane (TACN) headgroup, glutamic/aspartic acid backbone and dioleyl tails were designed and synthesized. The TACN headgroup gives these lipids excellent pH buffering capacities, which were higher than branched 25 kDa PEI. Cationic liposomes prepared from these lipids and DOPE showed good DNA affinity, and full DNA condensation was found at N/P ratio of 3 via agarose gel electrophoresis. The lipoplexes were characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS) assay, which gave proper particle sizes and zeta-potentials for transfection. In vitro gene transfection results in two cell lines reveal that TAN (with aspartic acid and amide bond in the structure) shows the best transfection efficiency, which is close to commercially available transfection agent Lipofectamine 2000.

  14. Lipid membrane partitioning of lysolipids and fatty acids: Effects of membrane phase structure and detergent chain length

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyrup, Lise Pernille Kristine; Davidsen, Jesper; Jørgensen, Kent

    2001-01-01

    ) of the detergents. The calorimetric results reveal that the membrane partitioning of lysolipids depends strongly on the phase structure of the lipid membrane. This is manifested as a lysolipid partition coefficient, K, that is much larger for fluid-phase lipid membranes as compared to gel-phase lipid membranes....... Oppositely, the membrane partitioning of fatty acids depends only weakly on the phase structure of the phospholipid vesicles. In addition, the thermodynamic measurements show that the partition coefficients for both the lysolipids and fatty acids toward gel and fluid lipid membranes become almost an order...... of magnitude higher when the saturated acyl chain of the detergents increases by two carbon atoms. The obtained partition coefficients are of importance in relation to a deeper understanding of the interplay between global aqueous and local membrane concentrations of the detergents and the functional influence...

  15. The fatty acid transport protein Fat1p is involved in the export of fatty acids from lipid bodies in Yarrowia lipolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulermo, Rémi; Gamboa-Meléndez, Heber; Dulermo, Thierry; Thevenieau, France; Nicaud, Jean-Marc

    2014-09-01

    In order to live, cells need to import different molecules, such as sugars, amino acids or lipids, using transporters. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the ScFAT1 gene encodes the long-chain fatty acid transporter; however, the transport of fatty acids (FAs) in the oleaginous yeast Yarrowia lipolytica has not yet been studied. In contrast to what has previously been found for ΔScfat1 strains, ΔYlfat1 yeast was still able to grow on substrates containing short-, medium- or long-chain FAs. We observed a notable difference in cell lipid content between wild-type (WT) and deletion mutant strains after 24 h of culture in minimal oleate medium: in the WT strain, lipids represented 24% of cell dry weight (CDW), while they accounted for 37% of CDW in the ΔYlfat1 strain. This result indicates that YlFat1p is not involved in cell lipid uptake. Moreover, we also observed that fatty acid remobilisation was decreased in the ΔYlfat1 strain and that fluorescence-tagged YlFat1p proteins localised to the interfaces between lipid bodies, which suggests that YlFat1p may play a role in the export of FAs from lipid bodies.

  16. Kaempferol Isolated from Nelumbo nucifera Inhibits Lipid Accumulation and Increases Fatty Acid Oxidation Signaling in Adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bonggi; Kwon, Misung; Choi, Jae Sue; Jeong, Hyoung Oh; Chung, Hae Young; Kim, Hyeung-Rak

    2015-12-01

    Stamens of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn have been used as a Chinese medicine due to its antioxidant, hypoglycemic, and antiatherogenic activity. However, the effects of kaempferol, a main component of N. nucifera, on obesity are not fully understood. We examined the effect of kaempferol on adipogenesis and fatty acid oxidation signaling pathways in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Kaempferol reduced cytoplasmic triglyceride (TG) accumulation in dose and time-dependent manners during adipocyte differentiation. Accumulation of TG was rapidly reversed by retrieving kaempferol treatment. Kaempferol broadly decreased mRNA or protein levels of adipogenic transcription factors and their target genes related to lipid accumulation. Kaempferol also suppressed glucose uptake and glucose transporter GLUT4 mRNA expression in adipocytes. Furthermore, protein docking simulation suggests that Kaempferol can directly bind to and activate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-α by forming hydrophobic interactions with VAL324, THR279, and LEU321 residues of PPARα. The binding affinity was higher than a well-known PPARα agonist fenofibrate. Consistently, mRNA expression levels of PPARα target genes were increased. Our study indicates while kaempferol inhibits lipogenic transcription factors and lipid accumulation, it may bind to PPARα and stimulate fatty acid oxidation signaling in adipocytes.

  17. StAR-related lipid transfer domain protein 5 binds primary bile acids[S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Létourneau, Danny; Lorin, Aurélien; Lefebvre, Andrée; Frappier, Vincent; Gaudreault, Francis; Najmanovich, Rafael; Lavigne, Pierre; LeHoux, Jean-Guy

    2012-01-01

    Steroidogenic acute regulatory-related lipid transfer (START) domain proteins are involved in the nonvesicular intracellular transport of lipids and sterols. The STARD1 (STARD1 and STARD3) and STARD4 subfamilies (STARD4–6) have an internal cavity large enough to accommodate sterols. To provide a deeper understanding on the structural biology of this domain, the binding of sterols to STARD5, a member of the STARD4 subfamily, was monitored. The SAR by NMR [1H-15N heteronuclear single-quantum coherence (HSQC)] approach, complemented by circular dichroism (CD) and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), was used. Titration of STARD5 with cholic (CA) and chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), ligands of the farnesoid X receptor (FXR), leads to drastic perturbation of the 1H-15N HSQC spectra and the identification of the residues in contact with those ligands. The most perturbed residues in presence of ligands are lining the internal cavity of the protein. Ka values of 1.8·10−4 M−1 and 6.3·104 M−1 were measured for CA and CDCA, respectively. This is the first report of a START domain protein in complex with a sterol ligand. Our original findings indicate that STARD5 may be involved in the transport of bile acids rather than cholesterol. PMID:23018617

  18. Vitamin C fails to protect amino acids and lipids from oxidation during acute inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaut, Joseph P; Belaaouaj, Abderrazzaq; Byun, Jaeman; Roberts, L Jackson; Maeda, Nobuyo; Frei, Balz; Heinecke, Jay W

    2006-05-01

    The observation that antioxidant vitamins fail to confer protective benefits in large, well-designed randomized clinical trials has led many to question the role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of disease. However, there is little evidence that proposed antioxidants actually scavenge reactive intermediates in vivo. Ascorbate reacts rapidly with oxidants produced by activated neutrophils in vitro, and neutrophils markedly increase their oxidant production when mice are infected intraperitoneally with the gram-negative bacterium Klebsiella pneumoniae. To explore the antioxidant properties of ascorbate in vivo, we therefore used K. pneumoniae infection as a model of oxidative stress. When mice deficient in L-gulono-gamma-lactone oxidase (Gulo(-/-)), the rate-limiting enzyme in ascorbate synthesis, were depleted of ascorbate and infected with K. pneumoniae, they were three times as likely as ascorbate-replete Gulo(-/-)mice to die from infection. Mass spectrometric analysis of peritoneal lavage fluid revealed a marked increase in the levels of oxidized amino acids and of F2-isoprostanes (sensitive and specific markers of lipid oxidation) in infected animals. Surprisingly, there were no significant differences in the levels of the oxidation products in the ascorbate-deficient and -replete Gulo(-/-)mice. Our observations suggest that ascorbate plays a previously unappreciated role in host defense mechanisms against invading pathogens but that the vitamin does not protect amino acids and lipids from oxidative damage during acute inflammation. To examine the oxidation hypothesis of disease, optimal antioxidant regimens that block oxidative reactions in animals and humans need to be identified.

  19. Fatty acid composition of total lipids and phospholipids of muscular tissue and brain of rats under the impact of vibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. Kostyshyn

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acids are important structural components of biological membranes, energy substrate of cells involved in fixing phospholipid bilayer proteins, and acting as regulators and modulators of enzymatic activity. Under the impact of vibration oscillations there can occur shifts in the ratio of different groups of fatty acids, and degrees of their saturation may change. The imbalance between saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids, which occurs later in the cell wall, disrupts fluidity and viscosity of lipid phase and causes abnormal cellular metabolism. Aim. In order to study the impact of vibration on the level of fatty acids of total lipids in muscular tissue and fatty acid composition of phospholipids in muscles and brain, experimental animals have been exposed to vertical vibration oscillations with different frequency for 28 days. Methods and results. Tissues fragments of hip quadriceps and brain of rats were used for obtaining methyl esters of fatty acids studied by the method of gas-liquid chromatography. It was found that the lipid content, ratio of its separate factions and fatty acid composition in muscular tissue and brain of animals with the action of vibration considerably varies. With the increase of vibration acceleration tendency to increase in absolute quantity of total lipids fatty acids can be observed at the account of increased level of saturated and monounsaturated ones. These processes are caused by activation of self-defense mechanisms of the body under the conditions of deviations from stabilized physiological norm, since adaptation requires certain structural and energy costs. Increase in the relative quantity of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids in phospholipids of muscles and brain and simultaneous reduction in concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids are observed. Conclusion. These changes indicate worsening of structural and functional organization of muscles and brain cell membranes of

  20. Lipid Classes, Fatty Acid Composition, and Glycerolipid Molecular Species of the Red Alga Gracilaria vermiculophylla, a Prostaglandin-Producing Seaweed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Masaki; Ishimaru, Takashi; Itabashi, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    The red alga Gracilaria vermiculophylla is a well-known producer of prostaglandins, such as PGE2 and PGF2α. In this study, the characteristics of glycerolipids as substrates of prostaglandin production were clarified, and the lipid classes, fatty acid composition, and glycerolipid molecular species were investigated in detail. The major lipid classes were monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG), digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG), and sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol (SQDG), as well as phosphatidylcholine (PC), which accounted for 43.0% of the total lipid profile. Arachidonic acid (20:4n-6), a prostaglandin precursor, and palmitic acid (16:0) were the predominant fatty acids in the total lipid profile. The 20:4n-6 content was significantly high in MGDG and PC (more than 60%), and the 16:0 content was significantly high in DGDG and SQDG (more than 50%). Chiral-phase high-performance liquid chromatography determined that fatty acids were esterified at the sn-1 and sn-2 positions of those lipids. The main glycerolipid molecular species were 20:4n-6/20:4n-6 (sn-1/sn-2) for MGDG (56.5%) and PC (40.0%), and 20:4n-6/16:0 for DGDG (75.4%) and SQDG (58.4%). Thus, it was considered that the glycerolipid molecular species containing one or two 20:4n-6 were the major substrates for prostaglandin production in G. vermiculophylla.

  1. The effect of dietary Digestarom® herbal supplementation on rabbit meat fatty acid profile, lipid oxidation and antioxidant content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattioli, S; Dal Bosco, A; Szendrő, Zs; Cullere, M; Gerencsér, Zs; Matics, Zs; Castellini, C; Dalle Zotte, A

    2016-11-01

    The experiment tested the effect of Digestarom® herbal supplementation on the antioxidant content, lipid oxidation and fatty acid profile of rabbit meat. At kindling, rabbit does and litters were divided into two dietary groups (N=162 kits/dietary group) and fed either a control diet (C) or the C diet supplemented with Digestarom® (D: 300mg/kg). At weaning (35days) four experimental fattening groups (54 rabbits each) were considered: CC, CD, DC and DD. After slaughtering (12weeks of age), Longissimus thoracis et lumborum muscles were dissected from 20 rabbits/group and analyzed. Rabbit meat of DD group was enriched in essential C18:3 n-3 fatty acid and in other long-chain PUFA of n-3 series. Despite meat of DD group displayed the highest peroxidability index, TBARs value was the lowest. Meat antioxidant content followed the rank order: DD>CD>DC>CC. Digestarom® improved fatty acid composition and oxidative status of rabbit meat, particularly when administered from weaning throughout the growing period.

  2. Lipid extractions from docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-rich and oleaginous Chlorella sp. biomasses by organic-nanoclays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young-Chul; Huh, Yun Suk; Farooq, Wasif; Chung, Jane; Han, Jong-In; Shin, Hyun-Jae; Jeong, Sang Hwa; Lee, Jin-Suk; Oh, You-Kwan; Park, Ji-Yeon

    2013-06-01

    Microalgae biorefinement has attracted in intensive academic and industrial interest worldwide for its potential to replace petrol biofuels as economically and environmentally advantageous alternatives. However, harvesting and lipid extraction remain as critical and difficult issues to be resolved. In the present study, four amino-groups functionalized organic-nano clays were prepared. Specifically, Mg or Al or Ca backboned and covalently linked with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane or 3-[2-(2-aminoethylamino)ethylamino]propyltrimethoxysilane by sol-gel reaction under ambient conditions, resulted in Mg-APTES clay, Al-APTES clay, Ca-APTES clay, and Mg-N3 clay, respectively. Each organic-nanoclay was utilized for lipid extraction from wet microalgae biomass. As a result, the lipid-extraction efficiency of paste docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-rich Chlorella sp. with low lipid content was high, while one of paste oleaginous Chlorella sp. with high lipid content was relatively low. Despite the low lipid-extraction efficiencies in all of the wet microalgae biomass, the conversion of the extracted lipids' fatty acids to biodiesel was nearly 100%.

  3. The effects of temperature and growth rate on the proportion of unsaturated fatty acids in bacterial lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, C O; Suisted, J R

    1978-01-01

    The effects of temperature and growth rate on the fatty acid composition of the extractable lipids of four mesophilic and three psychotrophic bacteria were examined. Two of the mesophiles (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) increased the proportion of unsaturated fatty acids in their lipids with decreasing temperature over their whole growth temperature range. The other mesophiles (Enterobacter aerogenes and Lactobacillus casei) increased the proportion of unsaturated fatty acids with decreasing temperature only over the lower half of their growth temperature ranges. The psychrotrophs Pseudomonas fluorescens and Enterobacter sp. had a constant proportion of unsaturated acids over the lower half of their growth temperature range, while the psychotrophic Lactobacillus sp. showed no consistent change in its unsaturated fatty acid composition with temperature. All species showed some variation of unsaturated fatty acid composition with growth rate at the highest and lowest growth temperatures, although such variations were small in some species (Ent. aerogenes and Lactobacillus sp.).

  4. A role for lipid rafts in the protection afforded by docosahexaenoic acid against ethanol toxicity in primary rat hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliche-Djoudi, Fatiha; Podechard, Normand; Collin, Aurore; Chevanne, Martine; Provost, Emilie; Poul, Martine; Le Hégarat, Ludovic; Catheline, Daniel; Legrand, Philippe; Dimanche-Boitrel, Marie-Thérèse; Lagadic-Gossmann, Dominique; Sergent, Odile

    2013-10-01

    Previously, we demonstrated that eicosapentaenoic acid enhanced ethanol-induced oxidative stress and cell death in primary rat hepatocytes via an increase in membrane fluidity and lipid raft clustering. In this context, another n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), was tested with a special emphasis on physical and chemical alteration of lipid rafts. Pretreatment of hepatocytes with DHA reduced significantly ethanol-induced oxidative stress and cell death. DHA protection could be related to an alteration of lipid rafts. Indeed, rafts exhibited a marked increase in membrane fluidity and packing defects leading to the exclusion of a raft protein marker, flotillin. Furthermore, DHA strongly inhibited disulfide bridge formation, even in control cells, thus suggesting a disruption of protein-protein interactions inside lipid rafts. This particular spatial organization of lipid rafts due to DHA subsequently prevented the ethanol-induced lipid raft clustering. Such a prevention was then responsible for the inhibition of phospholipase C-γ translocation into rafts, and consequently of both lysosome accumulation and elevation in cellular low-molecular-weight iron content, a prooxidant factor. In total, the present study suggests that DHA supplementation could represent a new preventive approach for patients with alcoholic liver disease based upon modulation of the membrane structures.

  5. Overproduction and secretion of free fatty acids through disrupted neutral lipid recycle in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leber, Christopher; Polson, Brian; Fernandez-Moya, Ruben; Da Silva, Nancy A

    2015-03-01

    The production of fuels and chemicals from biorenewable resources is important to alleviate the environmental concerns, costs, and foreign dependency associated with the use of petroleum feedstock. Fatty acids are attractive biomolecules due to the flexibility of their iterative biosynthetic pathway, high energy content, and suitability for conversion into other secondary chemicals. Free fatty acids (FFAs) that can be secreted from the cell are particularly appealing due to their lower harvest costs and straightforward conversion into a broad range of biofuel and biochemical products. Saccharomyces cerevisiae was engineered to overproduce extracellular FFAs by targeting three native intracellular processes. β-oxidation was disrupted by gene knockouts in FAA2, PXA1 and POX1, increasing intracellular fatty acids levels up to 55%. Disruptions in the acyl-CoA synthetase genes FAA1, FAA4 and FAT1 allowed the extracellular detection of free fatty acids up to 490mg/L. Combining these two disrupted pathways, a sextuple mutant (Δfaa1 Δfaa4 Δfat1 Δfaa2 Δpxa1 Δpox1) was able to produce 1.3g/L extracellular free fatty acids. Further diversion of carbon flux into neutral lipid droplet formation was investigated by the overexpression of DGA1 or ARE1 and by the co-overexpression of a compatible lipase, TGL1, TGL3 or TGL5. The sextuple mutant overexpressing the diacylglycerol acyltransferase, DGA1, and the triacylglycerol lipase, TGL3, yielded 2.2g/L extracellular free fatty acids. This novel combination of pathway interventions led to 4.2-fold higher extracellular free fatty acid levels than previously reported for S. cerevisiae.

  6. Design, characterization, and clinical evaluation of argan oil nanostructured lipid carriers to improve skin hydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tichota, Deise Michele; Silva, Ana Catarina; Sousa Lobo, José Manuel; Amaral, Maria Helena

    2014-01-01

    Given its advantages in skin application (eg, hydration, antiaging, and protection), argan oil could be used in both dermatological and cosmetic formulations. Therefore, the preparation of nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) using argan oil as a liquid lipid is a promising technique, since the former constitute well-established systems for dermal delivery. The aim of this work was to develop a topical formulation of argan oil NLCs to improve skin hydration. Firstly an NLC dispersion was developed and characterized, and afterward an NLC-based hydrogel was prepared. The in vivo evaluation of the suitability of the prepared formulation for the proposed application was assessed in volunteers, by measuring different skin-surface parameters for 1 month. An argan oil NLC-based hydrogel formulation was successfully prepared and characterized. Moreover, the entrapment of the NLCs in the hydrogel net did not affect their colloidal sizes. Additionally, it was observed that this formulation precipitated an increase in skin hydration of healthy volunteers. Therefore, we concluded that the preparation of NLC systems using argan oil as the liquid lipid is a promising strategy, since a synergistic effect on the skin hydration was obtained (ie, NLC occlusion plus argan oil hydration).

  7. Long chain fatty acid acylated derivatives of quercetin-3-o-glucoside as antioxidants to prevent lipid oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnakulasuriya, Sumudu N; Ziaullah; Rupasinghe, H P Vasantha

    2014-11-06

    Flavonoids have shown promise as natural plant-based antioxidants for protecting lipids from oxidation. It was hypothesized that their applications in lipophilic food systems can be further enhanced by esterification of flavonoids with fatty acids. Quercetin-3-O-glucoside (Q3G) was esterified individually with six selected long chain fatty acids: stearic acid (STA), oleic acid (OLA), linoleic acid (LNA), α-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and decosahexaenoic acid (DHA), using Candida antarctica B lipase as the biocatalyst. The antioxidant activity of esterified flavonoids was evaluated using lipid oxidation model systems of poly-unsaturated fatty acids-rich fish oil and human low density lipoprotein (LDL), in vitro. In the oil-in-water emulsion, Q3G esters exhibited 50% to 100% inhibition in primary oxidation and 30% to 75% inhibition in secondary oxidation. In bulk oil, Q3G esters did not provide considerable protection from lipid oxidation; however, Q3G demonstrated more than 50% inhibition in primary oxidation. EPA, DHA and ALA esters of Q3G showed significantly higher inhibition in Cu2+- and peroxyl radical-induced LDL oxidation in comparison to Q3G.

  8. Long Chain Fatty Acid Acylated Derivatives of Quercetin-3-O-Glucoside as Antioxidants to Prevent Lipid Oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumudu N. Warnakulasuriya

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Flavonoids have shown promise as natural plant-based antioxidants for protecting lipids from oxidation. It was hypothesized that their applications in lipophilic food systems can be further enhanced by esterification of flavonoids with fatty acids. Quercetin-3-O-glucoside (Q3G was esterified individually with six selected long chain fatty acids: stearic acid (STA, oleic acid (OLA, linoleic acid (LNA, α-linolenic acid (ALA, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and decosahexaenoic acid (DHA, using Candida antarctica B lipase as the biocatalyst. The antioxidant activity of esterified flavonoids was evaluated using lipid oxidation model systems of poly-unsaturated fatty acids-rich fish oil and human low density lipoprotein (LDL, in vitro. In the oil-in-water emulsion, Q3G esters exhibited 50% to 100% inhibition in primary oxidation and 30% to 75% inhibition in secondary oxidation. In bulk oil, Q3G esters did not provide considerable protection from lipid oxidation; however, Q3G demonstrated more than 50% inhibition in primary oxidation. EPA, DHA and ALA esters of Q3G showed significantly higher inhibition in Cu2+- and peroxyl radical-induced LDL oxidation in comparison to Q3G.

  9. Hexadecenoic Fatty Acid Isomers in Human Blood Lipids and Their Relevance for the Interpretation of Lipidomic Profiles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Sansone

    Full Text Available Monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA are emerging health biomarkers, and in particular the ratio between palmitoleic acid (9cis-16:1 and palmitic acid (16:0 affords the delta-9 desaturase index that is increased in obesity. Recently, other positional and geometrical MUFA isomers belonging to the hexadecenoic family (C16 MUFA were found in circulating lipids, such as sapienic acid (6cis-16:1, palmitelaidic acid (9trans-16:1 and 6trans-16:1. In this work we report: i the identification of sapienic acid as component of human erythrocyte membrane phospholipids with significant increase in morbidly obese patients (n = 50 compared with age-matched lean controls (n = 50; and ii the first comparison of erythrocyte membrane phospholipids (PL and plasma cholesteryl esters (CE in morbidly obese patients highlighting that some of their fatty acid levels have opposite trends: increases of both palmitic and sapienic acids with the decrease of linoleic acid (9cis,12cis-18:2, omega-6 in red blood cell (RBC membrane PL were reversed in plasma CE, whereas the increase of palmitoleic acid was similar in both lipid species. Consequentially, desaturase enzymatic indexes gave different results, depending on the lipid class used for the fatty acid content. The fatty acid profile of morbidly obese subjects also showed significant increases of stearic acid (C18:0 and C20 omega-6, as well as decreases of oleic acid (9cis-18:1 and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6 omega-3 as compared with lean healthy controls. Trans monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids were also measured and found significantly increased in both lipid classes of morbidly obese subjects. These results highlight the C16 MUFA isomers as emerging metabolic marker provided that the assignment of the double bond position and geometry is correctly performed, thus identifying the corresponding lipidomic pathway. Since RBC membrane PL and plasma CE have different fatty acid trends, caution must also be used in

  10. Design, characterization, and clinical evaluation of argan oil nanostructured lipid carriers to improve skin hydration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tichota DM

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Deise Michele Tichota,1 Ana Catarina Silva,2,3 José Manuel Sousa Lobo,2 Maria Helena Amaral2 1Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, 2Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Technology/Centre of Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Porto, 3Faculty of Health Sciences, Fernando Pessoa University, Porto, Portugal Abstract: Given its advantages in skin application (eg, hydration, antiaging, and protection, argan oil could be used in both dermatological and cosmetic formulations. Therefore, the preparation of nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs using argan oil as a liquid lipid is a promising technique, since the former constitute well-established systems for dermal delivery. The aim of this work was to develop a topical formulation of argan oil NLCs to improve skin hydration. Firstly an NLC dispersion was developed and characterized, and afterward an NLC-based hydrogel was prepared. The in vivo evaluation of the suitability of the prepared formulation for the proposed application was assessed in volunteers, by measuring different skin-surface parameters for 1 month. An argan oil NLC-based hydrogel formulation was successfully prepared and characterized. Moreover, the entrapment of the NLCs in the hydrogel net did not affect their colloidal sizes. Additionally, it was observed that this formulation precipitated an increase in skin hydration of healthy volunteers. Therefore, we concluded that the preparation of NLC systems using argan oil as the liquid lipid is a promising strategy, since a synergistic effect on the skin hydration was obtained (ie, NLC occlusion plus argan oil hydration. Keywords: argan oil, nanostructured lipid carriers, NLC, hydrogels, skin hydration 

  11. Improvement of oral bioavailability of lovastatin by using nanostructured lipid carriers

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    Zhou J

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Jun Zhou,1,2 Daxin Zhou3 1Department of Medicine, Clinical Medical College of Soochow University, 2Department of Medicine, Tongren Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, 3Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs have been one of the systems of choice for improving the oral bioavailability of drugs with poor water solubility. In the present study, lovastatin (LVT-loaded NLCs (LVT-NLCs were successfully prepared by hot high-pressure homogenization method with high entrapment efficiency, drug loading, and satisfactory particle size distribution. The particles had almost spherical and uniform shapes and were well dispersed with a particle size of <50 nm (23.5±1.6 nm and a low polydispersity index (0.17±0.05 mV. The result of stability showed that the LVT-NLCs dispersion maintained excellent stability without exhibiting any aggregation, precipitation, or phase separation at 4°C for 6 months of storage. The LVT release data from all developed solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs and NLCs were best fitted to a Ritger–Peppas kinetic model (0.9832 and 0.9783 for NLCs and SLNs, respectively. This indicated that the release of LVT from the SLNs and NLCs was due to a combination of drug diffusion and erosion from the lipid matrix. The pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic results show that LVT-NLCs were better compared to free drug, which could be attributed to an increase in bioavailability. Keywords: nanostructured lipid carriers, lovastatin, in vitro release, pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic

  12. Correlation between blood lipids and serum uric acid in the elderly patients with coronary heart disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie; Geng; Bin; Yu; Shu; Tao; Chen; Qing; Liang; Chen; Hong; Liang; Cong; Bo; Li; Lin; Wang

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To explore the relationship between blood lipids and serum uric acid(UA)in the elderly patients with coronary heart disease(CHD).Method:Quartered patients according to their uric acid level.Systematic review and compare lipid level among this four groups.Polynary logistic stepwise regression analysis were employed to analyze independent risk factor of coronary heart disease.Results:Serum level of triglycerides(TAG)and very low density lipoprotein cholesterol(VLDL-C)increase significantly(F=7.42,p<0.01;F=5.42,p<0.01 respectively)while high density lipoprotein cholesterol(HDL-C)and Apolipoprotein A1(Apo A1)decrease(F=5.03,p<0.01;F=7.03,p<0.01)upon elevated serum uric acid level among coronary heart disease patients.Gender(OR=0.16,95%CI 0.078~0.315,p=0.001),Ccr(OR=0.95,CI=0.935~0.969,p=0.001),associated hypertension(OR=2.23,CI=1.156~4.285,p=0.017)or DM(OR=2.44,CI=1.154~5.168,p=0.02),TC(OR=1.56,CI=1.119~2.186,p=0.009),HDL-C(OR=0.02,CI=0.004~0.076,p=0.001),UA(OR=1.09,1.086~1.094,p=0.001)are all independent risk factors for coronary heart disease.Conclusion:TAG,VLDL-C were positively related to UA while HDL-C and Apo A1were negatively linked to UA among CHD patients.Gender,Ccr,Hypertension,DM,TC,HDL-C and UA are independent risk factors for CHD while BMI,TAG,LDL-C were not.

  13. Lipid and fatty acid composition of mesocarp and seed of avocado fruits harvested at northern range in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takenaga, Fumio; Matsuyama, Kaori; Abe, Shin; Torii, Yasuyoshi; Itoh, Shingo

    2008-01-01

    The lipid and fatty acid composition of the mesocarp and seed of avocado fruit grown and harvested in Japan, which is located at the northern range of the avacado, was investigated and compared to an imported avocado purchased commercially. The potential of the avocado mesocarp as an agricultural product in Japan was also explored. Total lipids (TL) accounted for approximately 20% of the mesocarp. Further analysis showed that the neutral lipid (NL) fraction accounted for at least 95% of the TL, and almost 90% of NL was triacylglycerol. Monoenoic acids accounted for at least 65% of the total fatty acids, and oleic acid, which is regarded as an especially important functional component of avacado accounted for approximately 50% of the monounsaturated fatty acids. A comparison of the Japanese avocado cultivars and an imported avocado cultivar in the present study revealed no significant differences in the lipid and fatty acid compositions. Therefore, production of avocado fruit, which is rich in various nutritional components, is expected to be increased on a larger number of farms in Japan in the future. It is believed to be necessary to carry out further verification, such as the establishment of a cultivation technique adoptable to Japan, examination of optimal soil and land features, and cultivar selection.

  14. Effects of Glycyrrhizic Acid on Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma (PPARγ, Lipoprotein Lipase (LPL, Serum Lipid and HOMA-IR in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia Yoke Yin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies on ligand binding potential of glycyrrhizic acid, a potential agonist to PPARγ, displayed encouraging results in amelioration of metabolic syndrome. The regulation of gene cassettes by PPARγ affects glucose homeostasis, lipid, lipoprotein metabolism and adipogenesis. This study was performed to determine the effects of GA on total PPARγ and LPL expression levels, lipid parameters and HOMA-IR. Oral administration of 100 mg/kg GA for 24 hours resulted in an increase in insulin sensitivity with decreases in blood glucose, serum insulin and HOMA-IR. Improvement in serum lipid parameters was also observed with a decrease in triacylglycerol, total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol and an elevation in HDL-cholesterol. GA administration also resulted in up-regulation of total PPARγ and LPL expression levels in the visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissues, abdominal and quadriceps femoris muscles, as well as liver and kidney, with a significant up-regulation only in the visceral adipose tissue, abdominal and quadriceps femoris muscles. Thus, oral administration of 100 mg/kg GA for 24 hours improved insulin sensitivity and lipid profiles and induced upregulation of total PPARγ and LPL expression levels in all studied tissues.

  15. Soluble CLEC2 Extracellular Domain Improves Glucose and Lipid Homeostasis by Regulating Liver Kupffer Cell Polarization

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    Xinle Wu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The polarization of tissue resident macrophages toward the alternatively activated, anti-inflammatory M2 phenotype is believed to positively impact obesity and insulin resistance. Here we show that the soluble form of the extracellular domain (ECD of C-type lectin-like receptor 2, CLEC2, regulates Kupffer cell polarization in the liver and improves glucose and lipid parameters in diabetic animal models. Over-expression of Fc-CLEC2(ECD in mice via in vivo gene delivery, or injection of recombinant Fc-CLEC2(ECD protein, results in a reduction of blood glucose and liver triglyceride levels and improves glucose tolerance. Furthermore, Fc-CLEC2(ECD treatment improves cytokine profiles and increases both the M2 macrophage population and the genes involved in the oxidation of lipid metabolism in the liver. These data reveal a previously unidentified role for CLEC2 as a regulator of macrophage polarity, and establish CLEC2 as a promising therapeutic target for treatment of diabetes and liver disease.

  16. Hexadecenoic Fatty Acid Isomers in Human Blood Lipids and Their Relevance for the Interpretation of Lipidomic Profiles

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Sansone; Evanthia Tolika; Maria Louka; Valentina Sunda; Simone Deplano; Michele Melchiorre; Dimitrios Anagnostopoulos; Chryssostomos Chatgilialoglu; Cesare Formisano; Rosa Di Micco; Maria Rosaria Faraone Mennella; Carla Ferreri

    2016-01-01

    Monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) are emerging health biomarkers, and in particular the ratio between palmitoleic acid (9cis-16:1) and palmitic acid (16:0) affords the delta-9 desaturase index that is increased in obesity. Recently, other positional and geometrical MUFA isomers belonging to the hexadecenoic family (C16 MUFA) were found in circulating lipids, such as sapienic acid (6cis-16:1), palmitelaidic acid (9trans-16:1) and 6trans-16:1. In this work we report: i) the identification of s...

  17. Viability of the microencapsulation of a casein hydrolysate in lipid microparticles of cupuacu butter and stearic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Cristina Pinho

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false PT-BR X-NONE X-NONE Solid lipid microparticles produced with a mixture of cupuacu butter and stearic acid were used to microencapsulate a commercial casein hydrolysate (Hyprol 8052. The composition of the lipid matrix used for the production of the lipid microparticles was chosen according to data on the wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC of bulk lipid mixtures, which indicated that the presence of 10 % cupuacu butter was sufficient to significantly change the crystalline arrangement of pure stearic acid. Preliminary tests indicated that a minimum proportion of 4 % of surfactant (polysorbate 80 was necessary to produce empty spherical lipid particles with average diameters below 10 mm. The lipid microparticles were produced using 20 % cupuacu butter and 80 % stearic acid and then stabilized with 4 % of polysorbate 80, exhibiting an encapsulation efficiency of approximately 74 % of the casein hydrolysate. The melting temperature of the casein hydrolysate-loaded lipid microparticles was detected at 65.2 °C, demonstrating that the particles were solid at room temperature as expected and indicating that the incorporation of peptides had not affected their thermal behavior. After 25 days of storage, however, there was a release of approximately 30 % of the initial amount of encapsulated casein hydrolysate. This release was not thought to have been caused by the liberation of encapsulated casein hydrolysate. Instead, it was attributed to the possible desorption of the adsorbed peptides present on the surface of the lipid microparticles.

  18. Cell type-specific modulation of lipid mediator's formation in murine adipose tissue by omega-3 fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuda, Ondrej; Rombaldova, Martina; Janovska, Petra; Flachs, Pavel; Kopecky, Jan

    2016-01-15

    Mutual interactions between adipocytes and immune cells in white adipose tissue (WAT) are involved in modulation of lipid metabolism in the tissue and also in response to omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), which counteract adverse effects of obesity. This complex interplay depends in part on in situ formed anti- as well as pro-inflammatory lipid mediators, but cell types engaged in the synthesis of the specific mediators need to be better characterized. We used tissue fractionation and metabolipidomic analysis to identify cells producing lipid mediators in epididymal WAT of mice fed for 5 weeks obesogenic high-fat diet (lipid content 35% wt/wt), which was supplemented or not by omega-3 PUFA (4.3 mg eicosapentaenoic acid and 14.7 mg docosahexaenoic acid per g of diet). Our results demonstrate selective increase in levels of anti-inflammatory lipid mediators in WAT in response to omega-3, reflecting either their association with adipocytes (endocannabinoid-related N-docosahexaenoylethanolamine) or with stromal vascular cells (pro-resolving lipid mediator protectin D1). In parallel, tissue levels of obesity-associated pro-inflammatory endocannabinoids were suppressed. Moreover, we show that adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs), which could be isolated using magnetic force from the stromal vascular fraction, are not the major producers of protectin D1 and that omega-3 PUFA lowered lipid load in ATMs while promoting their less-inflammatory phenotype. Taken together, these results further document specific roles of various cell types in WAT in control of WAT inflammation and metabolism and they suggest that also other cells but ATMs are engaged in production of pro-resolving lipid mediators in response to omega-3 PUFA.

  19. Lipid-Encapsulated Echium Oil (Echium plantagineum) Increases the Content of Stearidonic Acid in Plasma Lipid Fractions and Milk Fat of Dairy Cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bainbridge, Melissa L; Lock, Adam L; Kraft, Jana

    2015-05-20

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of feeding lipid-encapsulated echium oil (EEO) on animal performance and milk fatty acid profile. Twelve Holstein dairy cows were used in a 3 × 3 Latin Square design with 14 day periods. Treatments were a control diet (no supplemental fat), 1.5% dry matter (DM) as EEO and 3.0% DM as EEO. Treatments had no negative effect on animal performance (dry matter intake, milk yield, and fat yield). The milk fat content of total n-3 fatty acids and stearidonic acid (SDA) increased with EEO supplementation (P fat was 3.4 and 3.2% for the 1.5 and 3% EEO treatments, respectively. In conclusion, EEO increases the content of n-3 fatty acids in milk fat; however, the apparent transfer efficiency was low.

  20. Improvement in Mouse iPSC Induction by Rab32 Reveals the Importance of Lipid Metabolism during Reprogramming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Yangli; Yue, Liang; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Yanliang; Wen, Bingqiang; Zhong, Liang; Xiang, Jinzhu; Li, Junhong; Zhang, Shaopeng; Wang, Hanning; Mu, Haiyuan; Wei, Qingqing; Han, Jianyong

    2015-01-01

    Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have variable expression levels of a series of genes that affect their pluripotent potential, but the regulatory mechanisms controlling reprogramming remain unclear. By testing the efficiency of iPSC generation using Oct4, Sox2, Klf4 (termed OSK) plus one additional gene, we found that Rab32 improved reprogramming efficiency. We established a system for detecting the number and the size of lipid droplets and autophagosomes per cell for tracking their morphological changes during reprogramming. Our results showed that Rab32 increased lipid storage during the early and middle stages, and also increased autophagy during the middle stage of reprogramming. These findings were further confirmed by the up-regulation of lipid biosynthesis and autophagosome formation related genes, of which their expression could improve iPSC induction. The inhibition of lipid biosynthesis and autophagosome formation significantly reduced reprogramming efficiency, and the inhibition of lipid synthesis phenotype could be rescued by the overexpression of Rab32. In addition, the expression of pluripotency genes such as Klf2, Nr5a2 and Tbx3, was up-regulated by Rab32. These results demonstrated that Rab32 could improve the induction of iPSCs through the enhancement of lipid biosynthesis, highlighting the importance of lipid metabolism during reprogramming. PMID:26559473

  1. Lipids, fatty acids composition and carotenoids of Chlorella vulgaris cultivated in hydroponic wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barcelos Oliveira, Jorge Luiz

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Alternative culture media have been evaluated for the cultivation of microalgae, among them are, industrial and agriculture wastewaters, that make residue recycling possible by bioconverting it into a rich, nourishing biomass that can be used as a feeding complement in aquaculture and in diverse areas. The objective of this research is to determine the lipid, fatty acid profile and carotenoid produced by the microalgae Chlorella vulgaris cultivated in a hydroponic wastewater, with different dilutions. The results showed that lipid contents did not present significant differences. Fatty acids were predominantly 16:0, 18:0, 18:1 and 18:3n-6. For total carotenoids, the dilution of hydroponic wastewater did not stimulate the production of these pigments. From this study, it was determined that, the use of hydroponic wastewater as an alternative culture medium for  the cultivation of Chlorella vulgaris generates good perspectives for lipid, fatty acid and carotenoid production.Medios de cultivo alternativos vienen siendo evaluados para el cultivo de microalgas, entre ellos, están los afluentes industriales y agrícolas, que posibilitan la reciclaje del residuo, bioconvirtiéndose en una biomasa enriquecida bajo el punto de vista nutricional, que puede ser utilizada como complemento alimenticio, para la acuacultura y en varias otras áreas de actuación. El presente trabajo tuvo como objetivo determinar los contenidos de lípidos, composición de ácidos grasos y carotenoides producidos por la microalga Chlorella vulgaris cultivada en solución hidropónica residual, con diferentes diluciones. Los resultados de los contenidos de lípidos totales no presentaron diferencia significativa. Los ácidos grasos predominantes fueron los 16:0, 18:0, 18:1 e 18:3n-6. Para los carotenoides totales, la dilución de la solución hidropónica residual no estimuló la producción de estos pigmentos por la microalga. La utilización de la solución hidrop

  2. Vitamin E tocotrienol supplementation improves lipid profiles in chronic hemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daud ZAM

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Zulfitri A Mat Daud,1 Boniface Tubie,2 Marina Sheyman,2 Robert Osia,2 Judy Adams,2 Sharon Tubie,2 Pramod Khosla1 1Department of Nutrition and Food Science, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, USA; 2Great Lake Dialysis Clinic, LLC, Detroit, MI, USA Purpose: Chronic hemodialysis patients experience accelerated atherosclerosis contributed to by dyslipidemia, inflammation, and an impaired antioxidant system. Vitamin E tocotrienols possess anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. However, the impact of dietary intervention with Vitamin E tocotrienols is unknown in this population. Patients and methods: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel trial was conducted in 81 patients undergoing chronic hemodialysis. Subjects were provided daily with capsules containing either vitamin E tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF (180 mg tocotrienols, 40 mg tocopherols or placebo (0.48 mg tocotrienols, 0.88 mg tocopherols. Endpoints included measurements of inflammatory markers (C-reactive protein and interleukin 6, oxidative status (total antioxidant power and malondialdehyde, lipid profiles (plasma total cholesterol, triacylglycerols, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, as well as cholesteryl-ester transfer protein activity and apolipoprotein A1. Results: TRF supplementation did not impact any nutritional, inflammatory, or oxidative status biomarkers over time when compared with the baseline within the group (one-way repeated measures analysis of variance or when compared with the placebo group at a particular time point (independent t-test. However, the TRF supplemented group showed improvement in lipid profiles after 12 and 16 weeks of intervention when compared with placebo at the respective time points. Normalized plasma triacylglycerols (cf baseline in the TRF group were reduced by 33 mg/dL (P=0.032 and 36 mg/dL (P=0.072 after 12 and 16 weeks of intervention but no significant improvement was seen in the placebo group. Similarly

  3. Alpha linolenic acid in maternal diet halts the lipid disarray due to saturated fatty acids in the liver of mice offspring at weaning

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Background Alpha linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3) in maternal diets has been shown to attenuate obesity associated insulin resistance (IR) in adult offspring in mice. The objective in the present study was to detect the early effects of maternal dietary saturated fatty acids (SFA) and their partial substitution with ω-3 ALA, docosa hexenoic acid (DHA,22:6) and eicosapentenoic acid 20:5 (EPA,20:5) on the HOMA index, liver lipids and fatty acid desaturases in the offspring at weaning. Methods 3 month...

  4. Delivery of retinoic acid to LNCap human prostate cancer cells using solid lipid nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akanda, Mushfiq H; Rai, Rajeev; Slipper, Ian J; Chowdhry, Babur Z; Lamprou, Dimitrios; Getti, Giulia; Douroumis, Dennis

    2015-09-30

    In this study retinoic acid (RTA) loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) were optimized by tuning the process parameters (pressure/temperature) and using different lipids to develop nanodispersions with enhanced anticancer activity. The RTA-SLN dispersions were produced by high-pressure homogenization and characterized in terms of particle size, zeta potential, drug entrapment efficiency, stability, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and in vitro drug release. Thermal and X-ray analysis showed the RTA to be in the amorphous state, whilst microscopic images revealed a spherical shape and uniform particle size distribution of the nanoparticles. Anticancer efficiency was evaluated by incubating RTA-SLNs with human prostate cancer (LNCap) cells, which demonstrated reduced cell viability with increased drug concentrations (9.53% at 200 ug/ml) while blank SLNs displayed negligible cytotoxicity. The cellular uptake of SLN showed localization within the cytoplasm of cells and flow cytometry analysis indicated an increase in the fraction of cells expressing early apoptotic markers, suggesting that the RTA loaded SLNs are able to induce apoptosis in LNCap cells. The RTA-SLN dispersions have the potential to be used for prostate anticancer treatment.

  5. Palmitic acid induces central leptin resistance and impairs hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Licai; Yu, Yinghua; Szabo, Alexander; Wu, Yizhen; Wang, Hongqin; Camer, Danielle; Huang, Xu-Feng

    2015-05-01

    The consumption of diets rich in saturated fat largely contributes to the development of obesity in modern societies. A diet high in saturated fats can induce inflammation and impair leptin signaling in the hypothalamus. However, the role of saturated fatty acids on hypothalamic leptin signaling, and hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism remains largely undiscovered. In this study, we investigated the effects of intracerebroventricular (icv) administration of a saturated fatty acid, palmitic acid (PA, C16:0), on central leptin sensitivity, hypothalamic leptin signaling, inflammatory molecules and hepatic energy metabolism in C57BL/6J male mice. We found that the icv administration of PA led to central leptin resistance, evidenced by the inhibition of central leptin's suppression of food intake. Central leptin resistance was concomitant with impaired hypothalamic leptin signaling (JAK2-STAT3, PKB/Akt-FOXO1) and a pro-inflammatory response (TNF-α, IL1-β, IL-6 and pIκBa) in the mediobasal hypothalamus and paraventricular hypothalamic nuclei. Furthermore, the pre-administration of icv PA blunted the effect of leptin-induced decreases in mRNA expression related to gluconeogenesis (G6Pase and PEPCK), glucose transportation (GLUT2) and lipogenesis (FAS and SCD1) in the liver of mice. Therefore, elevated central PA concentrations can induce pro-inflammatory responses and leptin resistance, which are associated with disorders of energy homeostasis in the liver as a result of diet-induced obesity.

  6. Conversion of polar and non-polar algae oil lipids to fatty acid methyl esters with solid acid catalysts--A model compound study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asikainen, Martta; Munter, Tony; Linnekoski, Juha

    2015-09-01

    Bio-based fuels are becoming more and more important due to the depleting fossil resources. The production of biodiesel from algae oil is challenging compared to terrestrial vegetable oils, as algae oil consists of polar fatty acids, such as phospholipids and glycolipids, as well as non-polar triglycerides and free fatty acids common in vegetable oils. It is shown that a single sulphonated solid acid catalyst can perform the esterification and transesterification reactions of both polar and non-polar lipids. In mild reaction conditions (60-70 °C) Nafion NR50 catalyst produces methyl palmitate (FAME) from the palmitic acid derivatives of di-, and tri-glyceride, free fatty acid, and phospholipid with over 80% yields, with the glycolipid derivative giving nearly 40% yields of FAME. These results demonstrate how the polar and non-polar lipid derivatives of algal oil can be utilised as feedstocks for biodiesel production with a single catalyst in one reaction step.

  7. Serum lipid-bound sialic acid as a marker in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dnistrian, A M; Schwartz, M K; Katopodis, N; Fracchia, A A; Stock, C C

    1982-11-01

    The reliability of lipid-bound sialic acid (LSA) as a marker in breast cancer was evaluated in 78 normal subjects, 106 patients with benign breast disease, 64 patients with primary operable breast cancer, and 61 patients with recurrent metastatic breast cancer. LSA levels were determined before and after mastectomy and during chemotherapy in selected patients to determine the value of LSA in monitoring therapy and predicting response. LSA levels greater than 20 mg/dl were not seen in normal subjects but were present in patients with benign breast disease (13%), primary breast cancer (47%) and recurrent metastatic breast cancer (62%). LSA levels decreased after initiation of chemotherapy and remained low in patients clinically disease-free. Recurrences were associated with elevated LSA in patients failing chemotherapy or endocrine ablative surgery. LSA measurements appeared to be of limited value in the detection of breast cancer but serial measurements may be useful in assessing disease progression and identifying patients resistant to therapy.

  8. Cyanine-loaded lipid nanoparticles for improved in vivo fluorescence imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texier, Isabelle; Goutayer, Mathieu; da Silva, Anabela; Guyon, Laurent; Djaker, Nadia; Josserand, Véronique; Neumann, Emmanuelle; Bibette, Jérôme; Vinet, Françoise

    2009-09-01

    Fluorescence is a very promising radioactive-free technique for functional imaging in small animals and, in the future, in humans. However, most commercial near-infrared dyes display poor optical properties, such as low fluorescence quantum yields and short fluorescence lifetimes. In this paper, we explore whether the encapsulation of infrared cyanine dyes within the core of lipid nanoparticles (LNPs) could improve their optical properties. Lipophilic dialkylcarbocyanines DiD and DiR are loaded very efficiently in 30-35-nm-diam lipid droplets stabilized in water by surfactants. No significant fluorescence autoquenching is observed up to 53 dyes per particle. Encapsulated in LNP, which are stable for more than one year at room temperature in HBS buffer (HEPES 0.02 M, EDTA 0.01 M, pH 5.5), DiD and DiR display far improved fluorescence quantum yields Φ (respectively, 0.38 and 0.25) and longer fluorescence lifetimes τ (respectively, 1.8 and 1.1 ns) in comparison to their hydrophilic counterparts Cy5 (φ=0.28, τ=1.0 ns) and Cy7 (φ=0.13, τ=0.57 ns). Moreover, dye-loaded LNPs are able to accumulate passively in various subcutaneous tumors in mice, thanks to the enhanced permeability and retention effect. These new fluorescent nanoparticles therefore appear as very promising labels for in vivo fluorescence imaging.

  9. Droplet immobilization within a polymeric organogel improves lipid bilayer durability and portability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesan, Guru A; Sarles, Stephen A

    2016-05-24

    The droplet interface bilayer (DIB) is a promising technique for assembling lipid membrane-based materials and devices using water droplets in oil, but it has largely been limited to laboratory environments due to its liquid construction. With a vision to transform this lab-based technique into a more-durable embodiment, we investigate the use of a polymer-based organogel to encapsulate DIBs within a more-solid material matrix to improve their handling and portability. Specifically, a temperature-sensitive organogel formed from hexadecane and poly[styrene-b-(ethylene-co-butylene)-b-styrene] (SEBS) triblock copolymer is used to replace the liquid solvent that surrounds the lipid-coated droplets to establish a novel liquid-in-gel DIB system. Through specific capacitance measurements and single-channel recordings of the pore forming peptide alamethicin, we verify that the structural and functional membrane properties are retained when DIBs are assembled within SEBS organogel. In addition, we demonstrate that organogel encapsulation offers improved handling of droplets and yields DIBs with a near 3× higher bilayer durability, as quantified by the lateral acceleration required to rupture the membrane, compared to liquid-in-liquid DIBs in oil. This encapsulated DIB system provides a barrier against contamination from the environment and offers a new material platform for supporting multilayered DIB-based devices as well as other digital microfluidic systems that feature water droplets in oil.

  10. Development of solid lipid nanoparticles as carriers for improving oral bioavailability of glibenclamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, L M D; Maestrelli, F; Di Cesare Mannelli, L; Ghelardini, C; Almeida, A J; Mura, P

    2016-05-01

    A solid lipid nanoparticle (SLN) formulation was developed with the aim of improving the oral bioavailability and the therapeutic effectiveness of glibenclamide (GLI), a poorly water-soluble drug used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. The SLN was prepared using different lipid components (Precirol® and Compritol®) and preparation procedures. Precirol-based SLN, obtained with the emulsion of solvent evaporation technique gave the best results and was selected for drug loading. Addition of lecithin to the SLN core or PEG coating was effective in increasing the nanoparticles stability in simulated gastric solution. Both such formulations were stable after one month storage at 5±3°C, exhibited the absence of in vitro cytotoxicity, and presented a similar in vitro prolonged-release, reaching 100% release after 24h. The lecithin-containing GLI-loaded SLN formulation, selected for in vivo studies in virtue of its higher EE% than the PEG-coated formulation (70.3% vs 19.6%), showed a significantly stronger hypoglycemic effect with respect to the drug alone, in terms of both shorter onset time and longer duration of the effect. These positive results indicated that the proposed SLN approach was successful in improving GLI oral bioavailability, confirming its potential as an effective delivery system for a suitable therapy of diabetes.

  11. Pistachio diet improves erectile function parameters and serum lipid profiles in patients with erectile dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldemir, M; Okulu, E; Neşelioğlu, S; Erel, O; Kayıgil, O

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the effects of Antep pistachio on International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) scores, penile color Doppler ultrasound (PCDU) parameters and serum lipid levels in patients with ED. A total of 17 married male patients with ED for at least 12 months were included in this prospective study. Patients were put on a 100 g pistachio nuts diet for 3 weeks. IIEF and PCDU were evaluated before and after the pistachio diet. In addition, plasma total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and triglyceride were measured before and after dietary modifications from all subjects. Mean IIEF-15 score was 36 ± 7.5 before the diet and 54.2 ± 4.9 after the diet (P=0.001). Similarly, an increase in all five domains of IIEF was observed after the diet (Ppistachio diet were 35.5 ± 15.2 and 43.3 ± 12.4 cm s(-1), respectively (P=0.018). After the pistachio diet, TC and LDL levels decreased significantly, whereas HDL level increased (P=0.008, 0.007 and 0.001, respectively). We demonstrated that a pistachio diet improved IIEF scores and PCDU parameters without any associated side effects in patients with ED. Furthermore, the lipid parameters showed statistically significant improvements after this diet.

  12. Improved Processes to Remove Naphthenic Acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aihua Zhang; Qisheng Ma; Kangshi Wang; Yongchun Tang; William A. Goddard

    2005-12-09

    In the past three years, we followed the work plan as we suggested in the proposal and made every efforts to fulfill the project objectives. Based on our large amount of creative and productive work, including both of experimental and theoretic aspects, we received important technical breakthrough on naphthenic acid removal process and obtained deep insight on catalytic decarboxylation chemistry. In detail, we established an integrated methodology to serve for all of the experimental and theoretical work. Our experimental investigation results in discovery of four type effective catalysts to the reaction of decarboxylation of model carboxylic acid compounds. The adsorption experiment revealed the effectiveness of several solid materials to naphthenic acid adsorption and acidity reduction of crude oil, which can be either natural minerals or synthesized materials. The test with crude oil also received promising results, which can be potentially developed into a practical process for oil industry. The theoretical work predicted several possible catalytic decarboxylation mechanisms that would govern the decarboxylation pathways depending on the type of catalysts being used. The calculation for reaction activation energy was in good agreement with our experimental measurements.

  13. [Usefulness and controversial issues of middle-chain fatty acids consumption on lipid-protein metabolism and obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáyago-Ayerdi, S G; Vaquero, M P; Schultz-Moreira, A; Bastida, S; Sánchez-Muniz, F J

    2008-01-01

    Middle-chain fatty acids (MCFA) contain 6-12 carbon atoms and are digested, absorbed and metabolized differently than long-chain fatty acids (LCFA). This work reviews some of the potential and real utilities of MCFA and their role on health. For this reason, they are used in enteral and parenteral nutrition because of their good absorption, and in premature-feeding milk-based formulas in order to improve calcium absorption. MCFA have become particularly important because of their possible role in treating and preventing obesity. Since they are more water soluble, they are taken-up by chylomicrons, and it is believed that they do not directly participate in lipogenesis. They are able to increase the thermogenic effect of foods, and its metabolism increases the production of ketonic agents with the subsequent anorexigenic effect. However, high doses of MCFA are required to obtain significant effects on weight reduction. The effects on lipid-protein metabolism are controversial. So, although they seem to reduce the post-prandial triglyceridemic response, the results their effects are not uniform regarding triglyceridemia and cholesterolemia. In spite of this, more and more products are being designed incorporating MCFA to treat obesity and overweight, having been considered as "GRAS" (Generally Recommended as Safe") components by the ADA. Further long-term studies are needed to warrant the usefulness of consumption of these compounds, particularly in the treatment and prevention of obesity.

  14. Topographical body fat distribution links to amino acid and lipid metabolism in healthy obese women [corrected].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francois-Pierre J Martin

    Full Text Available Visceral adiposity is increasingly recognized as a key condition for the development of obesity related disorders, with the ratio between visceral adipose tissue (VAT and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT reported as the best correlate of cardiometabolic risk. In this study, using a cohort of 40 obese females (age: 25-45 y, BMI: 28-40 kg/m(2 under healthy clinical conditions and monitored over a 2 weeks period we examined the relationships between different body composition parameters, estimates of visceral adiposity and blood/urine metabolic profiles. Metabonomics and lipidomics analysis of blood plasma and urine were employed in combination with in vivo quantitation of body composition and abdominal fat distribution using iDXA and computerized tomography. Of the various visceral fat estimates, VAT/SAT and VAT/total abdominal fat ratios exhibited significant associations with regio-specific body lean and fat composition. The integration of these visceral fat estimates with metabolic profiles of blood and urine described a distinct amino acid, diacyl and ether phospholipid phenotype in women with higher visceral fat. Metabolites important in predicting visceral fat adiposity as assessed by Random forest analysis highlighted 7 most robust markers, including tyrosine, glutamine, PC-O 44∶6, PC-O 44∶4, PC-O 42∶4, PC-O 40∶4, and PC-O 40∶3 lipid species. Unexpectedly, the visceral fat associated inflammatory profiles were shown to be highly influenced by inter-days and between-subject variations. Nevertheless, the visceral fat associated amino acid and lipid signature is proposed to be further validated for future patient stratification and cardiometabolic health diagnostics.

  15. Increased adhesion between neutral lipid bilayers: interbilayer bridges formed by tannic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, S A; Disalvo, E A; Gawrisch, K; Borovyagin, V; Toone, E; Schiffman, S S; Needham, D; McIntosh, T J

    1994-06-01

    Tannic acid (TA) is a naturally occurring polyphenolic compound that aggregates membranes and neutral phosolipid vesicles and precipitates many proteins. This study analyzes TA binding to lipid membranes and the ensuing aggregation. The optical density of dispersions of phosphatidylcholine (PC) vesicles increased upon the addition of TA and electron micrographs showed that TA caused the vesicles to aggregate and form stacks of tightly packed disks. Solution calorimetry showed that TA bound to PC bilayers with a molar binding enthalpy of -8.3 kcal/mol and zeta potential measurements revealed that TA imparted a small negative charge to PC vesicles. Monolayer studies showed that TA bound to PC with a dissociation constant of 1.5 microM and reduced the dipole potential by up to 250 mV. Both the increase in optical density and decrease in dipole potential produced by TA could be reversed by the addition of polyvinylpyrrolidone, a compound that chelates TA by providing H-bond acceptor groups. NMR, micropipette aspiration, and x-ray diffraction experiments showed that TA incorporated into liquid crystalline PC membranes, increasing the area per lipid molecule and decreasing the bilayer thickness by 2 to 4%. 2H-NMR quadrupole splitting measurements also showed that TA associated with a PC molecule for times much less than 10(-4) s. In gel phase bilayers, TA caused the hydrocarbon chains from apposing monolayers to fully interdigitate. X-ray diffraction measurements of both gel and liquid crystalline dispersions showed that TA, at a critical concentration of about 1 mM, reduced the fluid spacing between adjacent bilayers by 8-10 A. These data place severe constraints on how TA can pack between adjacent bilayers and cause vesicles to adhere. We conclude that TA promotes vesicle aggregation by reducing the fluid spacing between bilayers by the formation of transient interbilayer bridges by inserting its digallic acid residues into the interfacial regions of adjacent bilayers

  16. A combined supplementation of vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids across two generations improves cardiometabolic variables in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaire, Amrita; Rathod, Richa; Randhir, Karuna; Kale, Anvita; Joshi, Sadhana

    2016-09-14

    Our earlier studies indicate that micronutrients (vitamin B12, folic acid) and omega-3 fatty acids especially docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are interlinked in one carbon cycle. The present study examines the effects of a sustained vitamin B12 deficiency/supplementation in the presence of omega-3 fatty acids across two generations on the pregnancy outcome and cardiometabolic profile [blood pressure, plasma lipid profile (cholesterol and triglycerides), plasma/liver fatty acid profile and hepatic lipid metabolism] in the second generation adult Wistar rat offspring. Two generations of animals were fed the following diets: control; vitamin B12 deficient; vitamin B12 supplemented; vitamin B12 deficient diet supplemented with omega-3 fatty acids; vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acid supplemented diets. Male offspring were sacrificed at 3 months of age. Vitamin B12 deficiency lowered the weight gain (p B12 supplementation showed weight gain, blood pressure and the fatty acid profile similar to the control. However, it increased (p B12 deficient group lowered the weight gain although the levels of cardiometabolic variables were comparable to the control. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in the presence of vitamin B12 improved the pregnancy outcome and all cardio-metabolic variables. Our study highlights the adverse effects of sustained vitamin B12 deficiency across two generations on the pregnancy outcome, fatty acid profile and blood pressure while a combined supplementation of vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids is beneficial.

  17. Lipid malnutrition of patients with liver cirrhosis: effect of low intake of dietary lipid on plasma fatty acid composition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okita,Misako

    1989-02-01

    Full Text Available The plasma fatty acid composition of cirrhotic patients and their dietary intake of fatty acids were determined. Significantly lower plasma arachidonic, docosahexaenoic, dihomo-gamma-linolenic and eicosapentaenoic acid levels were observed in cirrhotic patients than in healthy controls. A remarkably low dietary intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids supplied from fish, vegetable oil and pulses was shown in cirrhotic patients. Positive correlations were observed between plasma arachidonic acid concentrations and clearance rate of indocyanine green (KICG (r = 0.826, p less than 0.05 and between dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid levels and cholinesterase activities (r = 0.841, p less than 0.05. From these results, we conclude that a supply of polyunsaturated fatty acids is necessary for the nutritional treatment of patients with liver cirrhosis.

  18. Membrane lipid composition of pancreatic AR42J cells: modification by exposure to different fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audi, Nama'a; Mesa, María D; Martínez, María A; Martínez-Victoria, Emilio; Mañas, Mariano; Yago, María D

    2007-04-01

    Dietary fat type influences fatty acids in rat pancreatic membranes, in association with modulation of secretory activity and cell signalling in viable acini. We aimed to confirm whether AR42J cells are a valid model to study the interactions between lipids and pancreatic acinar cell function. For this purpose we have (i) compared the baseline fatty acid composition of AR42J cells with that of pancreatic membranes from rats fed a standard chow; (ii) investigated if fatty acids in AR42J membranes can be modified in culture; and (iii) studied if similar compositional variations that can be evoked in rats when dietary fat type is altered occur in AR42J cells. Weaning Wistar rats were fed for 8 weeks either a commercial chow (C) or semi-purified diets containing virgin olive oil (VOO) or sunflower oil (SO) as fat source. AR42J cells were incubated for 72 hrs in medium containing unmodified fetal calf serum (FCS, AR42J-C cells), FCS enriched with 18:1 n-9 (AR42J-O cells), or FCS enriched with 18:2 n-6 (AR42J-L cells). Fatty acids in crude membranes from rat pancreas and AR42J cells were determined by gas-liquid chromatography. Differences in membrane fatty acids between C rats and AR42J-C cells can be explained in part by variations in the amount of fatty acids in the extracellular environment. Supplementation of FCS with 18:1 n-9 or 18:2 n-6 changed the fatty acid spectrum of AR42J cells in a manner that resembles the pattern found, respectively, in VOO and SO rats, although AR42J-L cells were unable to accumulate 20:4 n-6. The AR42J cell line can be a useful tool to assess the effect of membrane compositional changes on acinar cell function. However, differences in baseline characteristics, and perhaps fatty acid metabolism, indicate that results obtained in AR42J cells should be confirmed with experiments in the whole animal.

  19. Retinoic acid regulates several genes in bile acid and lipid metabolism via upregulation of small heterodimer partner in hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamoon, Abulkhair; Subauste, Angela; Subauste, Maria C; Subauste, Jose

    2014-10-25

    Retinoic acid (RA) affects multiple aspects of development, embryogenesis and cell differentiation processes. The liver is a major organ that stores RA suggesting that retinoids play an important role in the function of hepatocytes. In our previous studies, we have demonstrated the involvement of small heterodimer partner (SHP) in RA-induced signaling in a non-transformed hepatic cell line AML 12. In the present study, we have identified several critical genes in lipid homeostasis (Apoa1, Apoa2 and ApoF) that are repressed by RA-treatment in a SHP dependent manner, in vitro and also in vivo with the use of the SHP null mice. In a similar manner, RA also represses several critical genes involved in bile acid metabolism (Cyp7a1, Cyp8b1, Mdr2, Bsep, Baat and Ntcp) via upregulation of SHP. Collectively our data suggest that SHP plays a major role in RA-induced potential changes in pathophysiology of metabolic disorders in the liver.

  20. Determination of free fatty acids in pharmaceutical lipids by ¹H NMR and comparison with the classical acid value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skiera, Christina; Steliopoulos, Panagiotis; Kuballa, Thomas; Diehl, Bernd; Holzgrabe, Ulrike

    2014-05-01

    Indices like acid value, peroxide value, and saponification value play an important role in quality control and identification of lipids. Requirements on these parameters are given by the monographs of the European pharmacopeia. (1)H NMR spectroscopy provides a fast and simple alternative to these classical approaches. In the present work a new (1)H NMR approach to determine the acid value is described. The method was validated using a statistical approach based on a variance components model. The performance under repeatability and in-house reproducibility conditions was assessed. We applied this (1)H NMR assay to a wide range of different fatty oils. A total of 305 oil and fat samples were examined by both the classical and the NMR method. Except for hard fat, the data obtained by the two methods were in good agreement. The (1)H NMR method was adapted to analyse waxes and oleyloleat. Furthermore, the effect of solvent and in the case of castor oil the effect of the oil matrix on line broadening and chemical shift of the carboxyl group signal are discussed.

  1. Metformin reduces lipid accumulation in macrophages by inhibiting FOXO1-mediated transcription of fatty acid-binding protein 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Jun [Qilu Hospital, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong (China); Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Michael E. DeBakey Department of Surgery, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States); Texas Heart Institute at St. Luke' s Episcopal Hospital, Houston, TX (United States); Ren, Pingping; Zhang, Lin [Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Michael E. DeBakey Department of Surgery, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States); Texas Heart Institute at St. Luke' s Episcopal Hospital, Houston, TX (United States); Wang, Xing Li [Qilu Hospital, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong (China); Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Michael E. DeBakey Department of Surgery, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States); Texas Heart Institute at St. Luke' s Episcopal Hospital, Houston, TX (United States); Chen, Li [Qilu Hospital, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong (China); Shen, Ying H., E-mail: hyshen@bcm.edu [Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Michael E. DeBakey Department of Surgery, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States); Texas Heart Institute at St. Luke' s Episcopal Hospital, Houston, TX (United States)

    2010-02-26

    Objective: The accumulation of lipids in macrophages contributes to the development of atherosclerosis. Strategies to reduce lipid accumulation in macrophages may have therapeutic potential for preventing and treating atherosclerosis and cardiovascular complications. The antidiabetic drug metformin has been reported to reduce lipid accumulation in adipocytes. In this study, we examined the effects of metformin on lipid accumulation in macrophages and investigated the mechanisms involved. Methods and results: We observed that metformin significantly reduced palmitic acid (PA)-induced intracellular lipid accumulation in macrophages. Metformin promoted the expression of carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (CPT-1), while reduced the expression of fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4) which was involved in PA-induced lipid accumulation. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that metformin regulates FABP4 expression at the transcriptional level. We identified forkhead transcription factor FOXO1 as a positive regulator of FABP4 expression. Inhibiting FOXO1 expression with FOXO1 siRNA significantly reduced basal and PA-induced FABP4 expression. Overexpression of wild-type FOXO1 and constitutively active FOXO1 significantly increased FABP4 expression, whereas dominant negative FOXO1 dramatically decreased FABP4 expression. Metformin reduced FABP4 expression by promoting FOXO1 nuclear exclusion and subsequently inhibiting its activity. Conclusions: Taken together, these results suggest that metformin reduces lipid accumulation in macrophages by repressing FOXO1-mediated FABP4 transcription. Thus, metformin may have a protective effect against lipid accumulation in macrophages and may serve as a therapeutic agent for preventing and treating atherosclerosis in metabolic syndrome.

  2. Development of nanostructured lipid carriers containing salicyclic acid for dermal use based on the Quality by Design method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, A; Berkó, Sz; Csányi, E; Csóka, I

    2017-03-01

    The aim of our present work was to evaluate the applicability of the Quality by Design (QbD) methodology in the development and optimalization of nanostructured lipid carriers containing salicyclic acid (NLC SA). Within the Quality by Design methology, special emphasis is layed on the adaptation of the initial risk assessment step in order to properly identify the critical material attributes and critical process parameters in formulation development. NLC SA products were formulated by the ultrasonication method using Compritol 888 ATO as solid lipid, Miglyol 812 as liquid lipid and Cremophor RH 60® as surfactant. LeanQbD Software and StatSoft. Inc. Statistica for Windows 11 were employed to indentify the risks. Three highly critical quality attributes (CQAs) for NLC SA were identified, namely particle size, particle size distribution and aggregation. Five attributes of medium influence were identified, including dissolution rate, dissolution efficiency, pH, lipid solubility of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) and entrapment efficiency. Three critical material attributes (CMA) and critical process parameters (CPP) were identified: surfactant concentration, solid lipid/liquid lipid ratio and ultrasonication time. The CMAs and CPPs are considered as independent variables and the CQAs are defined as dependent variables. The 2(3) factorial design was used to evaluate the role of the independent and dependent variables. Based on our experiments, an optimal formulation can be obtained when the surfactant concentration is set to 5%, the solid lipid/liquid lipid ratio is 7:3 and ultrasonication time is 20min. The optimal NLC SA showed narrow size distribution (0.857±0.014) with a mean particle size of 114±2.64nm. The NLC SA product showed a significantly higher in vitro drug release compared to the micro-particle reference preparation containing salicylic acid (MP SA).

  3. Cultivation of Chlorella vulgaris in wastewater with waste glycerol: Strategies for improving nutrients removal and enhancing lipid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaochen; Zheng, Hongli; Addy, Min; Anderson, Erik; Liu, Yuhuan; Chen, Paul; Ruan, Roger

    2016-05-01

    To improve nutrients removal from wastewater and enhance lipid production, cultivation of Chlorella vulgaris in wastewater with waste glycerol generated from biodiesel production using scum derived oil as feedstock was studied. The results showed that nutrients removal was improved and lipid production of C. vulgaris was enhanced with the addition of waste glycerol into wastewater to balance its C/N ratio. The optimal concentration of the pretreated glycerol for C. vulgaris was 10gL(-1) with biomass concentration of 2.92gL(-1), lipid productivity of 163mgL(-1)d(-1), and the removal of 100% ammonia and 95% of total nitrogen. Alkaline conditions prompted cell growth and lipid accumulation of C. vulgaris while stimulating nutrients removal. The application of the integration process can lower both wastewater treatment and biofuel feedstock costs.

  4. In vitro bile acid-binding capacity of dietary fibre sources and their effects with bile acid on broiler chicken performance and lipid digestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemati Matin, H R; Shariatmadari, F; Karimi Torshizi, M A; Chiba, L I

    2016-06-01

    A 4 × 2 factorial experiment was conducted to study the effect of feeding diets-containing dietary fibre (DF) sources and a source of bile acid (BA) on growth performance and lipid metabolism. In addition, in vitro BA-binding capacity of fibre sources was investigated. A total of 256 one-d-old male broiler chickens (Ross 308) were assigned to DF sources [maize-soybean meal (control, C), or 30 g/kg of wheat bran (WB), barley bran (BB) or soybean hulls (SH)] and BA (with or without 1.5 g Na-deoxycholate/kg). Each treatment was replicated 4 times with 8 broiler chickens per cage. The highest in vitro BA-binding capacity was observed with BB (8.76 mg/g BB). From 0 to 21 d, with the addition of BA, the average daily feed intake (ADFI) decreased in broiler chickens fed on the C, WB or BB diets, while there was no difference with the SH diet. With added BA, the average daily gain decreased in broiler chickens fed on the C or SH diets, but it did not change in those fed on the other diets. The addition of BA decreased feed conversion ratio (FCR) in broiler chickens fed on the BB or WB diets, but it increased in those fed on the C or SH diets. Interaction results indicated that the apparent ileal digestibility of lipid increased in broiler chickens fed the C and other DF diets with BA compared to those fed the diets without BA. The addition of BA decreased the pancreas lipase activity (PLA) in broiler chickens fed on the C diet compared to those fed the C diet without BA, while no changes observed in those fed the DF diets with or without BA. No interaction was observed in total liver bile acid (TLBA). The WB, BB and SH with little Na-deoxycholate-binding capacity (chickens. The magnitude of improvement in digestibility of lipid with the addition of BA depends on the source of fibre used and the addition of BA in DF diets had little effect on growth performance in young broiler chicken diets.

  5. Counteracting foaming caused by lipids or proteins in biogas reactors using rapeseed oil or oleic acid as antifoaming agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kougias, Panagiotis; Boe, Kanokwan; Einarsdottir, E. S.;

    2015-01-01

    Foaming is one of the major operational problems in biogas plants, and dealing with foaming incidents is still based on empirical practices. Various types of antifoams are used arbitrarily to combat foaming in biogas plants, but without any scientific support this action can lead to serious...... deterioration of the methanogenic process. Many commercial antifoams are derivatives of fatty acids or oils. However, it is well known that lipids can induce foaming in manure based biogas plants. This study aimed to elucidate the effect of rapeseed oil and oleic acid on foam reduction and process performance...... in biogas reactors fed with protein or lipid rich substrates. The results showed that both antifoams efficiently suppressed foaming. Moreover rapeseed oil resulted in stimulation of the biogas production. Finally, it was reckoned that the chemical structure of lipids, and more specifically their carboxylic...

  6. Bioorthogonal chemical reporters for analyzing protein lipidation and lipid trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hang, Howard C; Wilson, John P; Charron, Guillaume

    2011-09-20

    Protein lipidation and lipid trafficking control many key biological functions in all kingdoms of life. The discovery of diverse lipid species and their covalent attachment to many proteins has revealed a complex and regulated network of membranes and lipidated proteins that are central to fundamental aspects of physiology and human disease. Given the complexity of lipid trafficking and the protein targeting mechanisms involved with membrane lipids, precise and sensitive methods are needed to monitor and identify these hydrophobic molecules in bacteria, yeast, and higher eukaryotes. Although many analytical methods have been developed for characterizing membrane lipids and covalently modified proteins, traditional reagents and approaches have limited sensitivity, do not faithfully report on the lipids of interest, or are not readily accessible. The invention of bioorthogonal ligation reactions, such as the Staudinger ligation and azide-alkyne cycloadditions, has provided new tools to address these limitations, and their use has begun to yield fresh insight into the biology of protein lipidation and lipid trafficking. In this Account, we discuss how these new bioorthogonal ligation reactions and lipid chemical reporters afford new opportunities for exploring the biology of lipid-modified proteins and lipid trafficking. Lipid chemical reporters from our laboratory and several other research groups have enabled improved detection and large-scale proteomic analysis of fatty-acylated and prenylated proteins. For example, fatty acid and isoprenoid chemical reporters in conjunction with bioorthogonal ligation methods have circumvented the limited sensitivity and hazards of radioactive analogues, allowing rapid and robust fluorescent detection of lipidated proteins in all organisms tested. These chemical tools have revealed alterations in protein lipidation in different cellular states and are beginning to provide unique insights in mechanisms of regulation. Notably, the

  7. Electron spin resonance studies on intact cells and isolated lipid droplets from fatty acid-modified L1210 murine leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, I; Burns, C P; Spector, A A

    1982-07-01

    It has been suggested that the formation of cytoplasmic lipid droplets may produce an artifact and be responsible for the differences in membrane physical properties detected in lipid-modified cells using fluorescence polarization or spin label probes. To investigate this, the electron spin resonance spectra of lipid droplets isolated from the cytoplasm of L1210 leukemia cells were compared with spectra obtained from the intact cell. Mice bearing the L1210 leukemia were fed diets containing either 16% sunflower oil or 16% coconut oil in order to modify the fatty acid composition of the tumor. A microsome-rich fraction prepared from L1210 cells grown in animals fed the sunflower oil-rich diet contained more polyenoic fatty acids (52 versus 29%), while microsomes from L1210 cells grown in animals fed the coconut oil-rich diets contained more monoenoic fatty acids (37 versus 12%). The order parameter calculated for lipid droplets labeled with the 5-nitroxystearic acid spin probe was only about one-half that of intact cells, whereas it was similar to that obtained for pure triolein droplets suspended in buffer. Order parameters of the inner hyperfine splittings calculated from the spectra of cells grown in the sunflower oil-fed animals [0.543 +/- 0.001 (S.E.)] were lower than those from the cells grown in animals fed the coconut oil diets (0.555 +/- 0.002) (p less than 0.005). In contrast, the order parameters of the lipid droplets isolated from the cells grown in animals fed sunflower oil (0.303 +/- 0.029) or coconut oil (0.295 +/- 0.021) were not significantly different, indicating that motion of a spin label probe in the highly fluid cytoplasmic lipid droplets is not affected by these types of modifications in cellular fatty acid composition. Therefore, the electron spin resonance changes that are observed in the intact cells cannot be due to localization of the probe in cytoplasmic lipid droplets. These results support the conclusion that the electron spin

  8. [Combined effect of environmental temperature and trematodes on fatty acids composition of lipids of Littorina saxatilis (Olivi 1792) (Gastropoda, Prosobranchia)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakelova, E S; Chebotareva, M A; Zabelinskiĭ, S A

    2004-01-01

    An effect of environmental temperatures and invasion by helminthes larvae on fatty acids composition of digestive gland lipids of marine littoral gastropod Littorina saxatilis from White Sea and Barents Sea was investigated. We have compared gastropods from boreal and subarctic populations. It was found that gastropods from waters of lower temperature have increased omega3/omega6 fatty acids ratio. However, saturation index of individual membrane phospholipids was not affected. Also, content of eicosenoic acid (20:1) in individual phospholipids was not affected by temperature. Invasion increases the omega3/omega6 ratio of common lipids but not the omega3/omega6 ratio of common and individual phospholipids with the exception of phosphatidilcholine of cold water mollusks from Barents Sea that had this ratio doubled. In contrast to temperature, invasion affects the content of eicosenoic acid that was increased in the investigated organs. Adaptability of these effects is discussed regarding parasite-host system.

  9. Orlistat in polycystic ovarian syndrome reduces weight with improvement in lipid profile and pregnancy rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratap Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The effects of exercise, metformin, and orlistat on anthropometric parameters, lipid profile, endocrine parameters, and ovulation in polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS women were compared. AIM: The aim was to study the efficacy of orlistat compared with metformin and exercise in PCOS. DESIGN: Randomized control trial. Methods: A total of 90 eligible PCOS women were randomly assigned to receive either of the two drugs (orlistat or metformin in combination with lifestyle interventions or as controls where they received lifestyle interventions alone. Anthropometric parameters were assessed at baseline and 4 weekly intervals for 3 months. Androgen levels, insulin resistance, ovulation and conception rates and lipid profile were also assessed at the end of study. Statistical Analysis: Statistical analysis was performed using the SPSS version 17.0. Results: The levels of fasting blood sugar, fasting insulin and homeostatic model assessment insulin resistance were comparable in three treatment groups. Mean total testosterone, serum hormone binding globulin, free androgen index, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate in all arms were comparable and statistically nonsignificant. However, orlistat and metformin were more effective in reducing weight, body mass index, waist circumference and waist-hip ratio. However, side-effects were less with orlistat. Ovulation rate was 33.3%, 23.35% with orlistat and metformin group respectively, but were not statistically significant. In orlistat group, significant improvement was observed in lipid profile at the end of 3 months. Conception rates were 40% and 16.7% and 3.3% in orlistat, metformin group and control group respectively (P - 0.003. Weight loss was found to be the best predictor of ovulation with sensitivity with good sensitivity. Conclusion: Orlistat is as effective as metformin in reducing weight and achieves similar ovulation rates in obese PCOS patients. However, orlistat has minimal side

  10. Dietary Lipid Levels Influence Lipid Deposition in the Liver of Large Yellow Croaker (Larimichthys crocea) by Regulating Lipoprotein Receptors, Fatty Acid Uptake and Triacylglycerol Synthesis and Catabolism at the Transcriptional Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jing; Liao, Kai; Wang, Tianjiao; Mai, Kangsen; Xu, Wei; Ai, Qinghui

    2015-01-01

    Ectopic lipid accumulation has been observed in fish fed a high-lipid diet. However, no information is available on the mechanism by which dietary lipid levels comprehensively regulate lipid transport, uptake, synthesis and catabolism in fish. Therefore, the present study aimed to gain further insight into how dietary lipids affect lipid deposition in the liver of large yellow croaker(Larimichthys crocea). Fish (150.00±4.95 g) were fed a diet with a low (6%), moderate (12%, the control diet) or high (18%) crude lipid content for 10 weeks. Growth performance, plasma biochemical indexes, lipid contents and gene expression related to lipid deposition, including lipoprotein assembly and clearance, fatty acid uptake and triacylglycerol synthesis and catabolism, were assessed. Growth performance was not significantly affected. However, the hepato-somatic and viscera-somatic indexes as well as plasma triacylglycerol, non-esterified fatty acids and LDL-cholesterol levels were significantly increased in fish fed the high-lipid diet. In the livers of fish fed the high-lipid diet, the expression of genes related to lipoprotein clearance (LDLR) and fatty acid uptake (FABP11) was significantly up-regulated, whereas the expression of genes involved in lipoprotein assembly (apoB100), triacylglycerol synthesis and catabolism (DGAT2, CPT I) was significantly down-regulated compared with fish fed the control diet, and hepatic lipid deposition increased. In fish fed the low-lipid diet, the expression of genes associated with lipoprotein assembly and clearance (apoB100, LDLR, LRP-1), fatty acid uptake (CD36, FATP1, FABP3) and triacylglycerol synthesis (FAS) was significantly increased, whereas the expression of triacylglycerol catabolism related genes (ATGL, CPT I) was reduced compared with fish fed the control diet. However, hepatic lipid content in fish fed the low-lipid diet decreased mainly due to low dietary lipid intake. In summary, findings of this study provide molecular

  11. High yields of fatty acid and neutral lipid production from cassava bagasse hydrolysate (CBH) by heterotrophic Chlorella protothecoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Junhui; Liu, Xiaoguang; Wei, Dong; Chen, Gu

    2015-09-01

    The fermentation process for high yields of fatty acid and neutral lipid production from cassava bagasse hydrolysate (CBH) was developed by heterotrophic Chlorella protothecoides. An efficient single-step enzymatic hydrolysis of cassava bagasse (CB) by cellulase was firstly developed to produce >30 g/L of reducing sugars. The concentrated CBH was subsequently applied in a batch culture, producing 7.9 g/L of dry biomass with yield of 0.44 g/g reducing sugar and 34.3 wt% of fatty acids and 48.6 wt% of neutral lipids. Furthermore, fed-batch fermentation using CBH achieved higher yields of fatty acids (41.0 wt% and a titer of 5.83 g/L) and neutral lipids (58.4 wt% and yield of 0.22 g/g reducing sugar). Additionally, the fatty acid profile analysis showed that the intercellular lipid was suitable to prepare high-quality biodiesel. This study demonstrated the feasibility of using CBH as low-cost feedstock to produce crude algal oil for sustainable biodiesel production.

  12. Elucidation and identification of amino acid containing membrane lipids using liquid chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moore, E.K.; Hopmans, E.C.; Rijpstra, W.I.C.; Villanueva, L.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.

    2016-01-01

    RATIONALE: Intact polar lipids (IPLs) are the building blocks of cell membranes, and amino acid containing IPLs havebeen observed to be involved in response to changing environmental conditions in various species of bacteri a. High-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS) has be

  13. BIOCHEMISTRY OF DINOFLAGELLATE LIPIDS, WITH PARTICULAR REFERENCE TO THE FATTY ACID AND STEROL COMPOSITION OF A KARENIA BREVIS BLOOM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblond, Jeffrey D., Terence J. Evens and Peter J. Chapman. 2003. Biochemistry of Dinoflagellate Lipids, with Particular Reference to the Fatty Acid and Sterol Composition of a Karenia brevis Bloom. Phycologia. 42(4):324-331. (ERL,GB 1160). The harmful marine dinoflagella...

  14. FATTY ACIDS MODULATE TOLL-LIKE RECEPTOR 4 ACTIVATION THROUGH REGULATION OF RECEPTOR DIMERIZATION AND RECRUITMENT INTO LIPID RAFTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The saturated fatty acids acylated on Lipid A of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or bacterial lipoproteins play critical roles in ligand recognition and receptor activation for Toll-like Receptor 4 (TLR4) and TLR2. The results from our previous studies (J Biol Chem 2003, 2004) demonstrated that saturated ...

  15. Model studies on the pattern of volatiles generated in mixtures of amino acids, lipid-oxidation-derived aldehydes, and glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, An; Kitryté, Vaida; Venskutonis, Rimantas; De Kimpe, Norbert

    2011-02-23

    The development of flavor and browning in thermally treated foods results mainly from the Maillard reaction and lipid degradation but also from the interactions between both reaction pathways. To study these interactions, we analyzed the volatile compounds resulting from model reactions of lysine or glycine with aldehydes originating from lipid oxidation [hexanal, (E)-2-hexenal, or (2E,4E)-decadienal] in the presence and absence of glucose. The main reaction products identified in these model mixtures were carbonyl compounds, resulting essentially from amino-acid-catalyzed aldol condensation reactions. Several 2-alkylfurans were detected as well. Only a few azaheterocyclic compounds were identified, in particular 5-butyl-2-propylpyridine from (E)-2-hexenal model systems and 2-pentylpyridine from (2E,4E)-decadienal model reactions. Although few reaction products were found resulting from the condensation of an amino acid with a lipid-derived aldehyde, the amino acid plays an important role in catalyzing the degradation and further reaction of these carbonyl compounds. These results suggest that amino-acid-induced degradations and further reactions of lipid oxidation products may be of considerable importance in thermally processed foods.

  16. Hypocoagulant and lipid-lowering effects of dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids with unchanged platelet activation in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuys, C.M.A.; Béguin, S.; Offermans, R.F.G.; Emeis, J.J.; Hornstra, G.; Heemskerk, J.W.M.

    1998-01-01

    We investigated the effects of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on blood lipids and processes that determine hemostatic potential: platelet activation, coagulation, and fibrinolysis. For 8 to 10 weeks, Wistar rats were fed a high-fat diet containing various amounts (2% to 16%) of n-3 PUFA

  17. Lipid oxidation in fish oil enriched mayonnaise : Calcium disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate, but not gallic acid, strongly inhibited oxidative deterioration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Charlotte; Hartvigsen, Karsten; Thomsen, Mikael Holm;

    2001-01-01

    The antioxidative effects of gallic acid, EDTA, and extra emulsifier Panodan DATEM TR in mayonnaise enriched with 16% fish oil were investigated. EDTA reduced the formation of free radicals, lipid hydroperoxides, volatiles, and fishy and rancid off-flavors. The antioxidative effect of EDTA...

  18. Unusual fatty acid substitution in lipids and lipopolysaccharides of Helicobacter pylori.

    OpenAIRE

    Geis, G; Leying, H; Suerbaum, S; Opferkuch, W

    1990-01-01

    Cellular fatty acids, phospholipid fatty acids, and lipopolysaccharide fatty acids of four strains of Helicobacter pylori were analyzed by gas-liquid chromatography. The presence of myristic acid, palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, 19-carbon cyclopropane fatty acid, beta-hydroxypalmitic acid, and beta-hydroxystearic acid was confirmed. In phospholipids, myristic acid and 19-carbon cyclopropane fatty acid were the major fatty acids. Hydroxy fatty acids and unsaturated fatt...

  19. FadD Is Required for Utilization of Endogenous Fatty Acids Released from Membrane Lipids ▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pech-Canul, Ángel; Nogales, Joaquina; Miranda-Molina, Alfonso; Álvarez, Laura; Geiger, Otto; Soto, María José; López-Lara, Isabel M.

    2011-01-01

    FadD is an acyl coenzyme A (CoA) synthetase responsible for the activation of exogenous long-chain fatty acids (LCFA) into acyl-CoAs. Mutation of fadD in the symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti promotes swarming motility and leads to defects in nodulation of alfalfa plants. In this study, we found that S. meliloti fadD mutants accumulated a mixture of free fatty acids during the stationary phase of growth. The composition of the free fatty acid pool and the results obtained after specific labeling of esterified fatty acids with a Δ5-desaturase (Δ5-Des) were in agreement with membrane phospholipids being the origin of the released fatty acids. Escherichia coli fadD mutants also accumulated free fatty acids released from membrane lipids in the stationary phase. This phenomenon did not occur in a mutant of E. coli with a deficient FadL fatty acid transporter, suggesting that the accumulation of fatty acids in fadD mutants occurs inside the cell. Our results indicate that, besides the activation of exogenous LCFA, in bacteria FadD plays a major role in the activation of endogenous fatty acids released from membrane lipids. Furthermore, expression analysis performed with S. meliloti revealed that a functional FadD is required for the upregulation of genes involved in fatty acid degradation and suggested that in the wild-type strain, the fatty acids released from membrane lipids are degraded by β-oxidation in the stationary phase of growth. PMID:21926226

  20. Proximate composition, fatty acid and lipid class composition of the muscle from deep-sea teleosts and elasmobranchs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Økland, Hege M W; Stoknes, Iren S; Remme, Jannicke F; Kjerstad, Margareth; Synnes, Marianne

    2005-03-01

    Proximate composition of muscle was determined for the following deep-sea fish species: roughhead grenadier (Macrourus berglax), mora/deep-sea cod (Mora moro), Portuguese dogfish (Centroscymnus coelolepis), black dogfish (Centroscyllium fabricii), leafscale gulper shark (Centrophorus squamosus), greater lantern shark (Etmopterus princeps), smalleyed rabbitfish/ghostshark (Hydrolagus affinis), birdbeak dogfish (Deania calcea) and two species of smooth head (Alepocephalus bairdii and Alepocephalus agassizii). The first eight species contained less than 1% fat in the muscle, while the last two contained 3.0% and 3.6% fat, respectively. Fatty acid and lipid class composition was determined for the first five fish species and showed that the dominant class of lipids was phospholipids. The lipids consisted mainly of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) was the dominant fatty acid. Roughhead grenadier and mora showed resemblance to cod (Gadus morhua) regarding protein content, fat content and fatty acid composition. However, the muscle from the deep-sea fish species did contain a higher proportion of arachidonic acid (20:4n-6) than cod muscle.

  1. INTERESTERIFIKASI ENZIMATIS MINYAK IKAN DENGAN ASAM LAURAT UNTUK SINTESIS LIPID TERSTRUKTUR [Enzymatic Interesterification of Fish Oil with Lauric Acid for the Synthesis of Structured Lipid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edy Subroto1

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Structured lipid (SL containing of medium chain fatty acid (MCFA at outer position and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA at sn-2 position has superior dietary and absorption characteristics. The most methods for the enzymatic synthesis of SL were through two steps process, so that it was inefficient. Caprilic acid was usually used as a source of MCFA. In this research, SL was synthesized by enzymatic interesterification between fish oil and lauric acid. The specific lipase from Mucor miehei was used as catalyzed. Factors, such as the incubation time, substrate mole ratio, and reaction temperature were evaluated. The incorporation and the position of lauric acid on glycerol backbone and glyceride profile were determined. The results showed that SL containing of lauric acid at the outer position and PUFA at sn-2 was successfully synthesized, and it was done through one step process. From regiospecific determination, it showed that the position of lauric acid incorporation was only at the sn-1 and sn-3. Only 0.87% of lauric acid was incorporated at the sn-2. The optimum time and temperature of the reaction, and the substrate mole ratio were 12 h, 50C and 1:10, respectively, in which the incorporation of lauric acid was 62.8% (mol. Glyceride profile was affected by incubation time, substrate mole ratio and reaction temperature. Triglyceride concentration decreased with an increase in the incubation time (> 12 h. In contrast, the diglyceride concentration increased at longer incubation time (> 12 h. Beside, triglyceride concentration increased with an increase in substrate mole ratio to 1:10, but it decreased when mole ratio of substrate was 1:15. At higher temperature (50C, triglyceride decreased with an increase in the reaction temperature. In summary, the SL was successfully synthesized by the interesterification of fish oil and lauric acid using specific lipase of Mucor miehei.

  2. Oxidative stability during storage of structured lipids produced from fish oil and caprylic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Nina Skall; Xu, Xuebing; Timm Heinrich, Maike;

    2004-01-01

    Structured lipids produced by enzymatic or chemical methods for different applications have been receiving considerable attention. The oxidative stability of a randomized structured lipid (RFO), produced by chemical interesterification from fish oil (FO) and tricaprylin, and a specific structured...

  3. A Single Consumption of High Amounts of the Brazil Nuts Improves Lipid Profile of Healthy Volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisângela Colpo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. This study investigates the effects of Brazil nut ingestion on serum lipid profile in healthy volunteers. Methods. Ten healthy subjects were enrolled in the study. Each subject was tested 4 times in a randomized crossover in relation to the ingestion of different serving sizes of the Brazil nut: 0, 5, 20, or 50 g. At each treatment point, peripheral blood was drawn before and at 1, 3, 6, 9, 24, and 48 hours and 5 and 30 days. Blood samples were tested for total cholesterol, high- and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c and LDL-c, resp., triglycerides, selenium, aspartate and alanine aminotransferases, albumin, total protein, alkaline phosphatase, gamma GT, urea, creatinine, and C-reactive protein. Results. A significant increase of the plasma selenium levels was observed at 6 hours within the groups receiving the nuts. Serum LDL-c was significantly lower, whereas HDL-c was significantly higher 9 hours after the ingestion of 20 or 50 g of nuts. The biochemical parameters of liver and kidney function were not modified by ingestion of nuts. Conclusions. This study shows that the ingestion of a single serving of Brazil nut can acutely improve the serum lipid profile of healthy volunteers.

  4. Identifying lipidic emulsomes for improved oxcarbazepine brain targeting: In vitro and rat in vivo studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Zaafarany, Ghada M; Soliman, Mahmoud E; Mansour, Samar; Awad, Gehanne A S

    2016-04-30

    Lipid-based nanovectors offer effective carriers for brain delivery by improving drug potency and reducing off-target effects. Emulsomes are nano-triglyceride (TG) carriers formed of lipid cores supported by at least one phospholipid (PC) sheath. Due to their surface active properties, PC forms bilayers at the aqueous interface, thereby enabling encapsulated drug to benefit from better bioavailability and stability. Emulsomes of oxcarbazepine (OX) were prepared, aimed to offer nanocarriers for nasal delivery for brain targeting. Different TG cores (Compritol(®), tripalmitin, tristearin and triolein) and soya phosphatidylcholine in different amounts and ratios were used for emulsomal preparation. Particles were modulated to generate nanocarriers with suitable size, charge, encapsulation efficiency and prolonged release. Cytotoxicity and pharmacokinetic studies were also implemented. Nano-spherical OX-emulsomes with maximal encapsulation of 96.75% were generated. Stability studies showed changes within 30.6% and 11.2% in the size and EE% after 3 months. MTT assay proved a decrease in drug toxicity by its encapsulation in emulsomes. Incorporation of OX into emulsomes resulted in stable nanoformulations. Tailoring emulsomes properties by modulating the surface charge and particle size produced a stable system for the lipophilic drug with a prolonged release profile and mean residence time and proved direct nose-to-brain transport in rats.

  5. Soy Germ Protein With or Without-Zn Improve Plasma Lipid Profile in Metabolic Syndrome Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SIWI PRAMATAMA MARS WIJAYANTI

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to determine the effect of soy germ protein on lipid profile of metabolic syndrome (MetS patients. Respondents were 30 women with criteria, i.e. blood glucose level > normal, body mass index > 25 kg/m2, hypertriglyceridemia, low cholesterol-HDL level, 40-65 years old, living in Purwokerto, and signed the informed consent. The project was approved by the ethics committee of the Medical Faculty from Gadjah Mada University-Yogyakarta. Respondents were divided into three randomly chosen groups consisting of ten women each. The first, second, and third groups were treated, respectively, with milk enriched soy germ protein plus Zn, milk enriched soy germ protein (without Zn, and placebo for two months. Blood samples were taken at baseline, one and two months after observation. Two months after observation the groups consuming milk enriched with soy germ protein, both with or without Zn, had their level of cholesterol-total decrease from 215.8 to 180.2 mg/dl (P = 0.03, triglyceride from 240.2 to 162.5 mg/dl (P = 0.02, and LDL from 154.01 to 93.85 mg/dl (P = 0.03. In contrast, HDL increased from 38.91 to 49.49 mg/dl (P = 0.0008. In conclusion, soy germ protein can improve lipid profile, thus it can inhibit atherosclerosis incident.

  6. CTRP2 overexpression improves insulin and lipid tolerance in diet-induced obese mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan M Peterson

    Full Text Available CTRP2 is a secreted plasma protein of the C1q family that enhances glycogen deposition and fat oxidation in cultured myotubes. Its in vivo metabolic function, however, has not been established. We show here that acute and chronic metabolic perturbations induced by fasting or high-fat feeding up-regulated the mRNA expression of Ctrp2 in white adipose tissue without affecting its circulating plasma levels. We generated a transgenic mouse model with elevated circulating levels of CTRP2 to determine its metabolic function in vivo. When fed a low-fat diet, wild-type and CTRP2 transgenic mice exhibited no metabolic phenotypes. When challenged with a high-fat diet to induce obesity, wild-type and CTRP2 transgenic mice had similar weight gain, adiposity, food intake, metabolic rate, and energy expenditure. Fasting serum lipid and adipokine profiles were also similar between the two groups of mice. However, while glucose and insulin levels in the fasted state were comparable between wild-type and CTRP2 transgenic mice, insulin levels in the fed state were consistently lower in transgenic mice. Notably, CTRP2 transgenic mice had improved insulin tolerance and a greater capacity to handle acute lipid challenge relative to littermate controls. Our results highlight, for the first time, the in vivo role of CTRP2 in modulating whole-body metabolism.

  7. Does creatine supplementation improve the plasma lipid profile in healthy male subjects undergoing aerobic training?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scagliusi Fernanda B

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We aimed to investigate the effects of creatine (Cr supplementation on the plasma lipid profile in sedentary male subjects undergoing aerobic training. Methods Subjects (n = 22 were randomly divided into two groups and were allocated to receive treatment with either creatine monohydrate (CR (~20 g·day-1 for one week followed by ~10 g·day-1 for a further eleven weeks or placebo (PL (dextrose in a double blind fashion. All subjects undertook moderate intensity aerobic training during three 40-minute sessions per week, over 3 months. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL, very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL, total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TAG, fasting insulin and fasting glycemia were analyzed in plasma. Thereafter, the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA was calculated. Tests were performed at baseline (Pre and after four (Post 4, eight (Post 8 and twelve (Post 12 weeks. Results We observed main time effects in both groups for HDL (Post 4 versus Post 8; P = 0.01, TAG and VLDL (Pre versus Post 4 and Post 8; P = 0.02 and P = 0.01, respectively. However, no between group differences were noted in HDL, LDL, CT, VLDL and TAG. Additionally, fasting insulin, fasting glycemia and HOMA did not change significantly. Conclusion These findings suggest that Cr supplementation does not exert any additional effect on the improvement in the plasma lipid profile than aerobic training alone.

  8. Fucoidan improves serum lipid levels and atherosclerosis through hepatic SREBP-2-mediated regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jinhee; Yeom, Mijung; Hahm, Dae-Hyun

    2016-06-01

    Hyperlipidemia is associated with increased risk of the development of cardiovascular diseases. Although a great deal of attention has been paid to the hypolipidemic activity of fucoidan, complex polysaccharides from brown seaweeds, the underlying mechanism is still unclear. This study was performed to investigate whether and how fucoidan has lipid-lowering potential in poloxamer-407 (P407)-induced hyperlipidemic mice. Fucoidan treatment 2 h after acute administration of P407 in these mice significantly reduced serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, and LDL cholesterol levels, but increased the levels of HDL cholesterol. In HepG2 hepatocytes and the liver, fucoidan decreased the expression of FAS and ACC mRNA with no or only a moderate inhibitory effect on SREBP-1c mRNA expression. Furthermore, fucoidan attenuated the hepatic expression of mature SREBP-2 protein with a subsequent decrease in hepatic HMG-CoA reductase mRNA expression and an increase in hepatic LDL receptor mRNA expression. In addition, atherosclerotic lesions in the aorta of chronically P407-treated mice were also reduced by fucoidan. These findings indicate that fucoidan improves serum lipid levels by regulating the expression of key enzymes of cholesterol and triglyceride syntheses in the liver through modulation of SREBP-2.

  9. The use of genetic engineering techniques to improve the lipid composition in meat, milk and fish products: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Świątkiewicz, S; Świątkiewicz, M; Arczewska-Włosek, A; Józefiak, D

    2015-04-01

    The health-promoting properties of dietary long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFAs) for humans are well-known. Products of animal-origin enriched with n-3 LCPUFAs can be a good example of functional food, that is food that besides traditionally understood nutritional value may have a beneficial influence on the metabolism and health of consumers, thus reducing the risk of various lifestyle diseases such as atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease. The traditional method of enriching meat, milk or eggs with n-3 LCPUFA is the manipulation of the composition of animal diets. Huge progress in the development of genetic engineering techniques, for example transgenesis, has enabled the generation of many kinds of genetically modified animals. In recent years, one of the aims of animal transgenesis has been the modification of the lipid composition of meat and milk in order to improve the dietetic value of animal-origin products. This article reviews and discusses the data in the literature concerning studies where techniques of genetic engineering were used to create animal-origin products modified to contain health-promoting lipids. These studies are still at the laboratory stage, but their results have demonstrated that the transgenesis of pigs, cows, goats and fishes can be used in the future as efficient methods of production of healthy animal-origin food of high dietetic value. However, due to high costs and a low level of public acceptance, the introduction of this technology to commercial animal production and markets seems to be a distant prospect.

  10. Folic acid mediated solid lipid nanocarriers loaded with docetaxel and oxidized single-walled carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiali; Huang, Shengnan; Xie, Yingxia; Zhang, Huijuan; Hou, Lin; Zhang, Yingjie; Huang, Heqing; Shi, Jinjin; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Zhenzhong

    2014-01-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) possess high-near-infrared absorption coefficient, large surface area, and have great potential in drug delivery. In this study, we obtained ultrashort oxidized SWNT (OSWNT) using mixed acid oxidation method. Then, docetaxel (DTX) and folic acid (FA) are conjugated with OSWNT via π- π accumulation and amide linkage, respectively. A targeting and photothermal sensitive drug delivery system FA-DTX-OSWNT-SLN was prepared following a microemulsion technique. The size and zeta potential of FA-DTX-OSWNT-SLN were 182.8 ± 2.8 nm and -34.59 ± 1.50 mV, respectively. TEM images indicated that FA-DTX-OSWNT-SLN was spherical and much darker than general solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN). Furthermore, OSWNT may wind round, insert into or be encapsulated into the nanocarriers. Compared with free DTX, FA-DTX-OSWNT-SLN could efficiently cross cell membranes and afford higher antitumor efficacy in MCF-7 cells in vitro. Meanwhile, the combination of near-infrared laser (NIR) irradiation at 808 nm significantly enhanced cell inhibition. In conclusion, FA-DTX-OSWNT-SLN drug delivery system in combination with 808 nm NIR laser irradiation may be promising for targeting and photothermal cancer therapy with multiple mechanisms in future.

  11. Chlorinated Phospholipids and Fatty Acids: (Patho)physiological Relevance, Potential Toxicity, and Analysis of Lipid Chlorohydrins

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Chlorinated phospholipids are formed by the reaction of hypochlorous acid (HOCl), generated by the enzyme myeloperoxidase under inflammatory conditions, and the unsaturated fatty acyl residues or the head group. In the first case the generated chlorohydrins are both proinflammatory and cytotoxic, thus having a significant impact on the structures of biomembranes. The latter case leads to chloramines, the properties of which are by far less well understood. Since HOCl is also widely used as a disinfecting and antibacterial agent in medicinal, industrial, and domestic applications, it may represent an additional source of danger in the case of abuse or mishandling. This review discusses the reaction behavior of in vivo generated HOCl and biomolecules like DNA, proteins, and carbohydrates but will focus on phospholipids. Not only the beneficial and pathological (toxic) effects of chlorinated lipids but also the importance of these chlorinated species is discussed. Some selected cleavage products of (chlorinated) phospholipids and plasmalogens such as lysophospholipids, (chlorinated) free fatty acids and α-chloro fatty aldehydes, which are all well known to massively contribute to inflammatory diseases associated with oxidative stress, will be also discussed. Finally, common analytical methods to study these compounds will be reviewed with focus on mass spectrometric techniques. PMID:28090245

  12. Pattern formation in fatty acid-nanoparticle and lipid-nanoparticle mixed monolayers at water surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhuri, M.; Datta, A.; Iyengar, A. N. Sekar; Janaki, M. S.

    2015-06-01

    Dodecanethiol-capped gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are self-organized in two different amphiphilic monolayers one of which is a single-tailed fatty acid Stearic acid (StA) and the other a double-tailed lipid 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC). In the StA-AuNP film the AuNPs self-organize to form an interconnected network of nanoclusters on compression while in the DMPC-AuNP film the AuNPs aggregate to form random, isolated clusters in the film. The long time evolution of the films at constant surface pressure reveals ring structures in the former and diffusion limited aggregates in the latter that with time evolve into an irregular porous maze of AuNPs in the DMPC film. The difference in structure of the AuNP patterns in the two films can be attributed to a difference in the lipophilic interactions between the NPs and the amphiphilic molecules. The mean square intensity fluctuations f(ln) calculated along a typical line for the 2D structures in both the films at initial and final stages of long time evolution reflect the structural changes in the films over time.

  13. Methamphetamine absorption by skin lipids: accumulated mass, partition coefficients, and the influence of fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, K; Morrison, G

    2016-08-01

    Occupants of former methamphetamine laboratories, often residences, may experience increased exposure through the accumulation of the methamphetamine in the organic films that coat skin and indoor surfaces. The objectives of this study were to determine equilibrium partition coefficients of vapor-phase methamphetamine with artificial sebum (AS-1), artificial sebum without fatty acids (AS-2), and real skin surface films, herein called skin oils. Sebum and skin oil-coated filters were exposed to vapor-phase methamphetamine at concentrations ranging from 8 to 159 ppb, and samples were analyzed for exposure time periods from 2 h to 60 days. For a low vapor-phase methamphetamine concentration range of ~8-22 ppb, the equilibrium partition coefficient for AS-1 was 1500 ± 195 μg/g/ppb. For a high concentration range of 98-112 ppb, the partition coefficient was lower, 459 ± 80 μg/g/ppb, suggesting saturation of the available absorption capacity. The low partition coefficient for AS-2 (33 ± 6 μg/g/ppb) suggests that the fatty acids in AS-1 and skin oil are responsible for much high partition coefficients. We predict that the methamphetamine concentration in skin lipids coating indoor surfaces can exceed recommended surface remediation standards even for air concentrations well below 1 ppb.

  14. Chlorinated Phospholipids and Fatty Acids: (Pathophysiological Relevance, Potential Toxicity, and Analysis of Lipid Chlorohydrins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Schröter

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlorinated phospholipids are formed by the reaction of hypochlorous acid (HOCl, generated by the enzyme myeloperoxidase under inflammatory conditions, and the unsaturated fatty acyl residues or the head group. In the first case the generated chlorohydrins are both proinflammatory and cytotoxic, thus having a significant impact on the structures of biomembranes. The latter case leads to chloramines, the properties of which are by far less well understood. Since HOCl is also widely used as a disinfecting and antibacterial agent in medicinal, industrial, and domestic applications, it may represent an additional source of danger in the case of abuse or mishandling. This review discusses the reaction behavior of in vivo generated HOCl and biomolecules like DNA, proteins, and carbohydrates but will focus on phospholipids. Not only the beneficial and pathological (toxic effects of chlorinated lipids but also the importance of these chlorinated species is discussed. Some selected cleavage products of (chlorinated phospholipids and plasmalogens such as lysophospholipids, (chlorinated free fatty acids and α-chloro fatty aldehydes, which are all well known to massively contribute to inflammatory diseases associated with oxidative stress, will be also discussed. Finally, common analytical methods to study these compounds will be reviewed with focus on mass spectrometric techniques.

  15. [Effect of acute stress on the fatty acid composition of lipids of adrenal and heart mitochondria in rabbits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandrik, K A; Doroshkevich, N A; Buko, V U; Vinogradov, V V

    1985-01-01

    A comparative study of changes in the fatty acid composition of rabbit heart and adrenal mitochondria was carried out after acute (1h) immobilization stress. In heart mitochondria the stress induced a decrease in the content of capric, lauric, myristic and pentadecanic acids. A statistically significant reduction of the amount of heptadecanoic, linoleic, arachidonic acids and an increase in the level of palmitic acid was noted in adrenal mitochondria. The acute stress resulted in differently directed shifts in the saturation of fatty acids. An elevation of the sum of unsaturated fatty acids was observed in the heart, and a decrease was detected in the adrenal glands. The above shifts in the fatty acid composition of adrenal and heart mitochondria provide evidence for different directions of lipid metabolism in these organs following stress.

  16. Skeletal muscle structural lipids improve during weight-maintenance after a very low calorie dietary intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaag Allan

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective was to investigate in a group of obese subjects the course in skeletal muscle phospholipid (SMPL fatty acids (FA during a 24-weeks weight maintenance program, which was preceded by a successful very low calorie dietary intervention (VLCD. Special focus was addressed to SMPL omega-3 FA, which is a lipid entity that influences insulin action. Methods Nine obese subjects (BMI = 35.7 ± 1.0 kg/m2, who had completed an 8 weeks VLCD (weight-loss = -9.7 ± 1.6 kg, P Results HOMA-IR and HbA1c stabilized and SMPL total omega-3 FA, docosahexaenoic acid and ratio of n-3/n-6 polyunsaturated FA increased by 24% (P Conclusion The data are consistent with the notion that greater SMPL omega-3 FA obtained during a weight-maintenance program may play a role for preserving insulin sensitivity and glycemic control being generated during a preceding VLCD.

  17. Cardiac lipid content is unresponsive to a physical activity training intervention in type 2 diabetic patients, despite improved ejection fraction

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    Leiner Tim

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increased cardiac lipid content has been associated with diabetic cardiomyopathy. We recently showed that cardiac lipid content is reduced after 12 weeks of physical activity training in healthy overweight subjects. The beneficial effect of exercise training on cardiovascular risk is well established and the decrease in cardiac lipid content with exercise training in healthy overweight subjects was accompanied by improved ejection fraction. It is yet unclear whether diabetic patients respond similarly to physical activity training and whether a lowered lipid content in the heart is necessary for improvements in cardiac function. Here, we investigated whether exercise training is able to lower cardiac lipid content and improve cardiac function in type 2 diabetic patients. Methods Eleven overweight-to-obese male patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (age: 58.4 ± 0.9 years, BMI: 29.9 ± 0.01 kg/m2 followed a 12-week training program (combination endurance/strength training, three sessions/week. Before and after training, maximal whole body oxygen uptake (VO2max and insulin sensitivity (by hyperinsulinemic, euglycemic clamp was determined. Systolic function was determined under resting conditions by CINE-MRI and cardiac lipid content in the septum of the heart by Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy. Results VO2max increased (from 27.1 ± 1.5 to 30.1 ± 1.6 ml/min/kg, p = 0.001 and insulin sensitivity improved upon training (insulin stimulated glucose disposal (delta Rd of glucose improved from 5.8 ± 1.9 to 10.3 ± 2.0 μmol/kg/min, p = 0.02. Left-ventricular ejection fraction improved after training (from 50.5 ± 2.0 to 55.6 ± 1.5%, p = 0.01 as well as cardiac index and cardiac output. Unexpectedly, cardiac lipid content in the septum remained unchanged (from 0.80 ± 0.22% to 0.95 ± 0.21%, p = 0.15. Conclusions Twelve weeks of progressive endurance/strength training was effective in improving VO2max, insulin sensitivity

  18. Design and evaluation of polymer coated carvedilol loaded solid lipid nanoparticles to improve the oral bioavailability: a novel strategy to avoid intraduodenal administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venishetty, Vinay Kumar; Chede, Raghavendra; Komuravelli, Rojarani; Adepu, Laxminarayana; Sistla, Ramakrishna; Diwan, Prakash V

    2012-06-15

    Solid lipid nanoparticles are most promising delivery systems for the enhancement of bioavailability of highly lipophilic drugs those prone to the first pass metabolism. But burst release of drug from solid lipid nanoparticles in acidic environment such as gastric milieu precludes its usage as oral delivery system. Studies on SLN revealed intraduodenal administration as an alternative route for SLN administration. But clinically it is an inappropriate route for repeated administration of drugs to patients. Hence, we prepared N-carboxymethyl chitosan (MCC) coated carvedilol loaded SLN to protect the rapid release of carvedilol in acidic environment. Positively charged carvedilol loaded SLN were developed using monoglyceride as lipid and soya lecithin and poloxamer 188 as surfactants and stearylamine as charge modifier. These SLN were characterized for particle size, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency, crystallinity and stability studies. Further these SLN were coated with N-carboxymethyl chitosan and confirmed by change in zetapotential and X-ray Photon Spectroscopic analysis. Effect of polymer coating on drug release profiles were studied simulated gastric and intestinal fluids. Effect of polymer coating on oral bioavailability of carvedilol loaded SLN were studied in rats after oral administration. MCC coated SLN improved the bioavailability of carvedilol compared uncoated SLN after oral administration. Insignificant difference in bioavailability was observed compared to intraduodenal administration of SLN. Hence, MCC coated SLN is a novel strategy to avoid intrduodenal administration.

  19. Effect of saturated fatty acid-rich dietary vegetable oils on lipid profile, antioxidant enzymes and glucose tolerance in diabetic rats

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    Kochikuzhyil Benson

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective : To study the effect of saturated fatty acid (SFA-rich dietary vegetable oils on the lipid profile, endogenous antioxidant enzymes and glucose tolerance in type 2 diabetic rats. Materials and Methods : Type 2 diabetes was induced by administering streptozotocin (90 mg/kg, i.p. in neonatal rats. Twenty-eight-day-old normal (N and diabetic (D male Wistar rats were fed for 45 days with a fat-enriched special diet (10% prepared with coconut oil (CO - lauric acid-rich SFA, palm oil (PO - palmitic acid-rich SFA and groundnut oil (GNO - control (N and D. Lipid profile, endogenous antioxidant enzymes and oral glucose tolerance tests were monitored. Results : D rats fed with CO (D + CO exhibited a significant decrease in the total cholesterol and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Besides, they also showed a trend toward improving antioxidant enzymes and glucose tolerance as compared to the D + GNO group, whereas D + PO treatment aggravated the dyslipidemic condition while causing a significant decrease in the superoxide dismutase levels when compared to N rats fed with GNO (N + GNO. D + PO treatment also impaired the glucose tolerance when compared to N + GNO and D + GNO. Conclusion : The type of FA in the dietary oil determines its deleterious or beneficial effects. Lauric acid present in CO may protect against diabetes-induced dyslipidemia.

  20. Comparative evaluation of labelling patterns and turnover of lipids, tagged by 15 (p-/sup 123/I-phenyl-)pentadecanoic and 1-/sup 14/C-palmitic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reske, S.N.; Sauer, W.; Reichmann, K.; Winkler, C. (Bonn Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Klinische und Experimentelle Nuklearmedizin); Machulla, H.J.; Knust, E.J. (Essen Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Medizinische Strahlenphysik und Strahlenbiologie)

    1984-06-15

    Uptake and turnover of chloroform/methanol extractable tissue lipids labelled in vivo simultaneously with 15(p-/sup 123/I-phenyl-)pentadecanoic and 1-/sup 14/C-palmitic acid were compared. Lipid turnover studies were performed in fasted pentobarbital-anaesthetized Wistar rats in tissues with highly varying free fatty acid turnover rates. In all tissues investigated, i.e. heart, lung, liver, spleen and kidney, both tracers labelled nearly identical lipid fractions. The main tracer uptake was found in free fatty acids, phospholipids, diglycerides and triglycerides. A highly significant correlation of uptake and turnover in main tissue lipid fractions indicated an essentially identical metabolic pathway of both tracers in intermediary tissue lipid metabolism. Concordant tracer uptake and turnover patterns in tissue of lipids with highly varying fatty acid metabolic rates suggested that intrinsic metabolic activity of the tissue and respective lipid fraction was the major determinant of metabolic handling of both iodophenyl fatty- and palmitic acid. Thus, the feasibility of iodophenylpentadecanoic acid as free fatty acid tracer for studying tissue lipid metabolism is demonstrated. 21 refs.

  1. Improved Coarse-Grained Modeling of Cholesterol-Containing Lipid Bilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daily, Michael D.; Olsen, Brett N.; Schlesinger, Paul H.; Ory, Daniel S.; Baker, Nathan A.

    2014-03-24

    In mammalian cells cholesterol is essential for membrane function, but in excess can be cytototoxic. The cellular response to acute cholesterol loading involves biophysical-based mechanisms that regulate cholesterol levels, through modulation of the “activity” or accessibility of cholesterol to extra-membrane acceptors. Experiments and united atom (UA) simulations show that at high concentrations of cholesterol, lipid bilayers thin significantly and cholesterol availability to external acceptors increases substantially. Such cholesterol activation is critical to its trafficking within cells. Here we aim to reduce the computational cost to enable simulation of large and complex systems involved in cholesterol regulation, such as those including oxysterols and cholesterol-sensing proteins. To accomplish this, we have modified the published MARTINI coarse-grained force field to improve its predictions of cholesterol-induced changes in both macroscopic and microscopic properties of membranes. Most notably, MARTINI fails to capture both the (macroscopic) area condensation and membrane thickening seen at less than 30% cholesterol and the thinning seen above 40% cholesterol. The thinning at high concentration is critical to cholesterol activation. Microscopic properties of interest include cholesterol-cholesterol radial distribution functions (RDFs), tilt angle, and accessible surface area. First, we develop an “angle-corrected” model wherein we modify the coarse-grained bond angle potentials based on atomistic simulations. This modification significantly improves prediction of macroscopic properties, most notably the thickening/thinning behavior, and also slightly improves microscopic property prediction relative to MARTINI. Second, we add to the angle correction a “volume correction” by also adjusting phospholipid bond lengths to achieve a more accurate volume per molecule. The angle + volume correction substantially further improves the quantitative

  2. Dithranol-loaded lipid-core nanocapsules improve the photostability and reduce the in vitro irritation potential of this drug

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savian, Ana L. [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Av. Roraima, 1000, Santa Maria, RS 97105-900 (Brazil); Rodrigues, Daiane [Curso de Farmácia, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Av. Roraima, 1000, Santa Maria, RS 97105-900 (Brazil); Weber, Julia; Ribeiro, Roseane F. [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Av. Roraima, 1000, Santa Maria, RS 97105-900 (Brazil); Motta, Mariana H. [Curso de Farmácia, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Av. Roraima, 1000, Santa Maria, RS 97105-900 (Brazil); Schaffazick, Scheila R.; Adams, Andréa I.H. [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Av. Roraima, 1000, Santa Maria, RS 97105-900 (Brazil); Andrade, Diego F. de; Beck, Ruy C.R. [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Ipiranga, 2752, Porto Alegre, RS 90610-000 (Brazil); and others

    2015-01-01

    Dithranol is a very effective drug for the topical treatment of psoriasis. However, it has some adverse effects such as irritation and stain in the skin that make its application and patient adherence to treatment difficult. The aims of this work were to prepare and characterize dithranol-loaded nanocapsules as well as to evaluate the photostability and the irritation potential of these nanocarriers. Lipid-core nanocapsules containing dithranol (0.5 mg/mL) were prepared by interfacial deposition of preformed polymer. EDTA (0.05%) or ascorbic acid (0.02%) was used as antioxidants. After preparation, dithranol-loaded lipid-core nanocapsules showed satisfactory characteristics: drug content close to the theoretical concentration, encapsulation efficiency of about 100%, nanometric mean size (230–250 nm), polydispersity index below 0.25, negative zeta potential, and pH values from 4.3 to 5.6. In the photodegradation study against UVA light, we observed a higher stability of the dithranol-loaded lipid-core nanocapsules comparing to the solution containing the free drug (half-life times around 4 and 1 h for the dithranol-loaded lipid-core nanocapsules and free drug solution containing EDTA, respectively; half-life times around 17 and 7 h for the dithranol-loaded lipid-core nanocapsules and free drug solution containing ascorbic acid, respectively). Irritation test by HET-CAM method was conducted to evaluate the safety of the formulations. From the results it was found that the nanoencapsulation of the drug decreased its toxicity compared to the effects observed for the free drug. - Highlights: • Strategy to prepare lipid-core nanocapsules containing dithranol • Evaluation of the nanoencapsulation effect on the photostability and irritation • Evaluation of the in vitro release of dithranol-loaded lipid-core nanocapsules.

  3. La sustitución eucalórica de triglicéridos de cadena larga por triglicéridos de cadena media mejora la composición corporal y el perfil lipídico en un paciente con lipodistrofia asociada al virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana Eucaloric substitution of medium chain triglycerides for dietary long chain fatty acids improves body composition and lipid profile in a patient with human immunodeficiency virus lipodystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Vázquez

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes: La lipodistrofia asociada a la infección por el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH es una patología frecuente, caracterizada por una pérdida de tejido adiposo en las extremidades, región glútea y cara, junto con un depósito excesivo del mismo en el cuello y abdomen. La coexistencia de dislipemia y diabetes mellitus en la lipodistrofia asociada al VIH es también frecuente, y aumenta el riesgo cardiovascular de los pacientes que la padecen. Aunque hay tratamientos disponibles para las alteraciones metabólicas asociadas, hasta la fecha no existen terapias con un claro beneficio demostrado para la lipodistrofia. Caso clínico: Un paciente de 42 años con lipodistrofia asociada al VIH fue inicialmente tratado con dieta hipocalórica (Background: Lipodystrophy is a frequent disorder among patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection, characterized by a loss of adipose tissue from the extremities, gluteal region and face, with excess fat in the neck and abdominal region. Metabolic abnormalities such as hyperlipidaemia and diabetes mellitus frequently coexist, posing these patients to an increased cardiovascular risk. Drug therapy may improve some of these metabolic disturbances, but to date there are no treatments for lipodystrophy with proven benefit. Case report: A 42 year old man with HIV lipodystrophy was started on a standard low caloric diet with <30% of total fat and < 10% of saturated fat, together with rosiglitazone 8 mg daily. After five months of treatment, given that lipodystrophic features and dyslipidaemia were still present in our patient, we tried to further improve therapeutic results by eucaloric substitution of medium chain triglycerides for dietary long chain fatty acids. Three months later, a dramatic change in body composition was shown with an increase in lean mass and a decrease in fat mass, together with an improvement in lipid profile. Conclusion: Eucaloric substitution of medium chain

  4. RESEARCHES ON THE PRODUCTIVE EFFECT OF A LIPID ABSORPTION IMPROVER, USED IN BROILERS FEEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.M. POP

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available According to the researches results, the chickens within the experimental groups performed better values for the live weight gain and for the feed conversion rate, as compared to those in the control group. Economically speaking, the revenue was 2,30-7,35% higher in the E2 group, which yield the best production parameters (highest live weight and lowest FCR, than those obtained by the chickens in the other studied groups.The best performances, considering all the parameters, were observed in E2 group, which received a concentration of 500 g feed additive (LB/tone of mixed fodder, in order to improve the lipids absorption rate in chickens gut.

  5. Dietary conjugated linoleic acid changes belly and bacon quality from pigs fed varied lipid sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, S T; Wiegand, B R; Parrish, F C; Swan, J E; Sparks, J C

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of dietary lipid source with or without the addition of CLA on bacon composition and quality. Forty-eight barrows at a beginning BW of 55 kg +/- 2.2 were fed 1 of 6 diets for 56 d. These diets consisted of: 1) normal corn (NC), 2) NC + 1.25% CLA-60 oil (NC + CLA), 3) high-oil corn (HOC), 4) HOC + 1.25% CLA-60 oil (HOC-CLA), 5) NC + choice white grease (CWG; NC + CWG), and 6) NC + CWG + 1.25% CLA-60 oil (NC + CWG + CLA). The CLA-60 contains 60% CLA isomers in the oil, and therefore, 1.25% oil was needed to achieve 0.75% CLA in the diet. Soy oil replaced CLA in control diets. Choice white grease and high-oil corn were selected as fat sources for this study because of their utility in energy density for growing-finishing pigs, especially in hot weather. Pigs were slaughtered at an average BW of 113 kg +/- 4.1, and carcasses were fabricated at 24 h postmortem. Statistical analysis was performed using the mixed model procedure of SAS, and the main effects tested were dietary lipid source, CLA, and 2-way interaction. The addition of CLA to each basal diet improved (P bacon slabs showed that bacon from CLA-supplemented pigs was approximately 20% firmer than that from controls. Pigs fed the HOC diets had softer bellies compared (P bacon sliceability. No differences were observed for moisture, protein, or lipid percentages between any treatments. Overall, there was a CLA effect (P bacon oxidation (0.1498 CLA vs. 0.1638 no CLA). Dietary CLA increased the percentage of SFA in tissues from pigs supplemented with CLA. Dietary inclusion of CLA increased the concentration of all measured isomers of CLA in bacon. Sensory scores of bacon showed no differences for any of the sensory attributes measured between any of the treatments. Our results indicate that inclusion of dietary CLA will improve belly firmness, extend the shelf life stability of bacon, and increase the degree of fat saturation.

  6. Exposure to TBT increases accumulation of lipids and alters fatty acid homeostasis in the ramshorn snail Marisa cornuarietis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janer, Gemma; Navarro, Juan Carlos; Porte, Cinta

    2007-09-01

    Recent studies have shown that organotin compounds affect lipid homeostasis in vertebrates, probably through interaction with RXR and/or PPARgamma receptors. Molluscs are sensitive species to the toxic effects of tributyltin (TBT), particularly to masculinization, and TBT has been recently shown to bind to molluscs RXR. Thus, we hypothesized that exposure to TBT could affect lipid homeostasis in the ramshorn snail Marisa cornuarietis. For comparative purposes, the synthetic androgen methyl-testosterone (MT) was included in the study due to its masculinization effects, but its lack of binding to the RXR receptor. M. cornuarietis was exposed to different concentrations of TBT (30, 125, 500 ng/L as Sn) and MT (30, 300 ng/L) for 100 days. Females exposed to 500 ng/L TBT showed increased percentage of lipids and increased levels of fatty acids in the digestive gland/gonad complex (2- to 3-fold). In addition, fatty acid profiles were altered in both males and females exposed to 125 and 500 ng/L TBT. These effects were not observed in females exposed to MT. Overall, this work suggest that TBT acts as a potent inducer of lipid and fatty acid accumulation in M. cornuarietis as shown in vertebrate studies earlier, and that sex differences in sensitivity do exist.

  7. Metabolic encephalopathy and lipid storage myopathy associated with a presumptive mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation defect in a dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa R Biegen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A 1-year-old spayed female Shih Tzu presented for episodic abnormalities of posture and mentation. Neurologic examination was consistent with a bilaterally symmetric multifocal encephalopathy. The dog had a waxing-and-waning hyperlactemia and hypoglycemia. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed bilaterally symmetric cavitated lesions of the caudate nuclei with less severe abnormalities in the cerebellar nuclei. Empirical therapy was unsuccessful and the patient was euthanized. Post-mortem histopathology revealed bilaterally symmetric necrotic lesions of the caudate and cerebellar nuclei and multi-organ lipid accumulation, including a lipid storage myopathy. Malonic aciduria and ketonuria were found on urinary organic acid screen. Plasma acylcarnitine analysis suggested a fatty acid oxidation defect. Fatty acid oxidation disorders are inborn errors of metabolism documented in humans, but poorly described in dogs. Although neurologic signs have been described in humans with this group of diseases, descriptions of advanced imaging and histopathology are severely lacking. This report suggests that abnormalities of fatty acid metabolism may cause severe, bilateral gray matter necrosis and lipid accumulation in multiple organs including the skeletal muscles, liver, and kidneys. Veterinarians should be aware that fatty acid oxidation disorders, although potentially fatal, may be treatable. A timely definitive diagnosis is essential in guiding therapy.

  8. Lipid content and fatty acid composition of Mediterranean macro-algae as dynamic factors for biodiesel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dahlia M. El Maghraby

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Using the total lipid contents and fatty acid profiles, the marine macro-algae Jania rubens (Rhodophyceae, Ulva linza (Chlorophyceae and Padina pavonica (Phaeophyceae were evaluated for biodiesel production during the spring, summer and autumn. Seawater parameters such as pH, salinity and temperature were measured. The total lipid content varied from 1.56% (J. rubens to 4.14% (U. linza of dry weight, with the highest values occurring in spring. The fatty acid methyl ester profiles were analysed using gas chromatography. The highest percentage of total fatty acids was recorded in P. pavonica, with 6.2% in autumn, whereas the lowest was in J. rubens, with 68.6% in summer. The relative amount of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids was significantly higher in P. pavonica than in the other macro-algae. Seasonal variations in pH, salinity and temperature had no significant effect on the total lipid and fatty acid contents. Principal component analysis grouped brown and green algae together, whereas red alga grouped out. Furthermore, methyl ester profiles indicate that brown and green seaweeds are preferred, followed by red seaweeds, which appears to have little potential for oil-based products. Therefore, these seaweeds are not targets for biodiesel production.

  9. Value-added lipid production from brown seaweed biomass by two-stage fermentation using acetic acid bacterium and thraustochytrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arafiles, Kim Hazel V; Iwasaka, Hiroaki; Eramoto, Yuri; Okamura, Yoshiko; Tajima, Takahisa; Matsumura, Yukihiko; Nakashimada, Yutaka; Aki, Tsunehiro

    2014-11-01

    Thraustochytrid production of polyunsaturated fatty acids and xanthophylls have been generally sourced from crop-derived substrates, making the exploration of alternative feedstocks attractive since they promise increased sustainability and lower production costs. In this study, a distinct two-stage fermentation system was conceptualized for the first time, using the brown seaweed sugar mannitol as substrate for the intermediary biocatalyst Gluconobacter oxydans, an acetic acid bacterium, along with the marine thraustochytrid Aurantiochytrium sp. to produce the value-added lipids and xanthophylls. Jar fermenter culture resulted in seaweed mannitol conversion to fructose with an efficiency of 83 % by G. oxydans and, after bacteriostasis with sea salts, production of astaxanthin and docosahexaenoic acid by Aurantiochytrium sp. KH105. Astaxanthin productivity was high at 3.60 mg/L/day. This new system, therefore, widens possibilities of obtaining more varieties of industrially valuable products including foods, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, and biofuel precursor lipids from seaweed fermentation upon the use of suitable thraustochytrid strains.

  10. Caveolin-1 is necessary for hepatic oxidative lipid metabolism: evidence for crosstalk between caveolin-1 and bile acid signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Rojo, Manuel A; Gongora, Milena; Fitzsimmons, Rebecca L; Martel, Nick; Martin, Sheree D; Nixon, Susan J; Brooks, Andrew J; Ikonomopoulou, Maria P; Martin, Sally; Lo, Harriet P; Myers, Stephen A; Restall, Christina; Ferguson, Charles; Pilch, Paul F; McGee, Sean L; Anderson, Robin L; Waters, Michael J; Hancock, John F; Grimmond, Sean M; Muscat, George E O; Parton, Robert G

    2013-07-25

    Caveolae and caveolin-1 (CAV1) have been linked to several cellular functions. However, a model explaining their roles in mammalian tissues in vivo is lacking. Unbiased expression profiling in several tissues and cell types identified lipid metabolism as the main target affected by CAV1 deficiency. CAV1-/- mice exhibited impaired hepatic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα)-dependent oxidative fatty acid metabolism and ketogenesis. Similar results were recapitulated in CAV1-deficient AML12 hepatocytes, suggesting at least a partial cell-autonomous role of hepatocyte CAV1 in metabolic adaptation to fasting. Finally, our experiments suggest that the hepatic phenotypes observed in CAV1-/- mice involve impaired PPARα ligand signaling and attenuated bile acid and FXRα signaling. These results demonstrate the significance of CAV1 in (1) hepatic lipid homeostasis and (2) nuclear hormone receptor (PPARα, FXRα, and SHP) and bile acid signaling.

  11. Caveolin-1 Is Necessary for Hepatic Oxidative Lipid Metabolism: Evidence for Crosstalk between Caveolin-1 and Bile Acid Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel A. Fernández-Rojo

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Caveolae and caveolin-1 (CAV1 have been linked to several cellular functions. However, a model explaining their roles in mammalian tissues in vivo is lacking. Unbiased expression profiling in several tissues and cell types identified lipid metabolism as the main target affected by CAV1 deficiency. CAV1−/− mice exhibited impaired hepatic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα-dependent oxidative fatty acid metabolism and ketogenesis. Similar results were recapitulated in CAV1-deficient AML12 hepatocytes, suggesting at least a partial cell-autonomous role of hepatocyte CAV1 in metabolic adaptation to fasting. Finally, our experiments suggest that the hepatic phenotypes observed in CAV1−/− mice involve impaired PPARα ligand signaling and attenuated bile acid and FXRα signaling. These results demonstrate the significance of CAV1 in (1 hepatic lipid homeostasis and (2 nuclear hormone receptor (PPARα, FXRα, and SHP and bile acid signaling.

  12. Effect of trans-fatty acid intake on insulin sensitivity and intramuscular lipids - a randomized trial in overweight postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendsen, Nathalie Tommerup; Haugaard, Steen; Larsen, Thomas Meinert;

    2011-01-01

    lipid deposition in abdominally obese women. In a double-blind, parallel dietary intervention study, 52 healthy but overweight postmenopausal women were randomized to receive either partially hydrogenated soybean oil (15 g/d TFA) or a control oil (mainly oleic and palmitic acid) for 16 weeks. Three......Intake of industrially produced trans-fatty acids (TFA) has been linked to increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in observational studies. We investigated the causality of this association by examining if a high intake of TFA impairs measures of glucose homeostasis and induces intramuscular...... markers of glucose homeostasis and 4 markers of lipolysis were derived from glucose, insulin, C-peptide, nonesterified fatty acid, and glycerol concentrations during a 3-hour frequent sampling oral glucose tolerance test. Intramuscular lipids were assessed by magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Forty...

  13. Exploring developmental and physiological functions of fatty acid and lipid variants through worm and fly genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Huanhu; Han, Min

    2014-01-01

    Lipids are more than biomolecules for energy storage and membrane structure. With ample structural variation, lipids critically participate in nearly all aspects of cellular function. Lipid homeostasis and metabolism are closely related to major human diseases and health problems. However, lipid functional studies have been significantly underdeveloped, partly because of the difficulty in applying genetics and common molecular approaches to tackle the complexity associated with lipid biosynthesis, metabolism, and function. In the past decade, a number of laboratories began to analyze the roles of lipid metabolism in development and other physiological functions using animal models and combining genetics, genomics, and biochemical approaches. These pioneering efforts have not only provided valuable insights regarding lipid functions in vivo but have also established feasible methodology for future studies. Here, we review a subset of these studies using Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster.

  14. The effects of season on fatty acid composition and ω3/ω6 ratios of northern pike ( Esox lucius L., 1758) muscle lipids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mert, Ramazan; Bulut, Sait; Konuk, Muhsin

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, the effects of season on fatty acid composition, total lipids, and ω3/ω6 ratios of northern pike muscle lipids in Kizilirmak River (Kirikkale, Turkey) were investigated. A total of 35 different fatty acids were determined in gas chromatography. Among these, palmitic, oleic, and palmitoleic acids had the highest proportion. The main polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) were found to be docosahexaenoic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and arachidonic acid. There were more PUFAs than monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) in all seasons. Similarly, the percentages of ω3 fatty acids were higher than those of total ω6 fatty acids in the fatty acid composition. ω3/ω6 ratios were calculated as 1.53, 1.32, 1.97, and 1.71 in spring, summer, autumn and winter, respectively. Overall, we found that the fatty acid composition and ω3/ω6 fatty acid ratio in the muscle of northern pike were significantly influenced by season.

  15. Characterization of fatty acids, bioactive lipids, and radical scavenging activity of Canterbury bells seed oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassanien, M. F.R.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to characterize the chemical composition and radical scavenging activity of Canterbury bells (Campanula medium seed oil. C. medium seeds contained 9.2% extractable oil. The lipid classes, fatty acids, phytosterol and tocopherol composition of C. medium seed oil were determined. The amount of neutral lipids in the oil was the highest, followed by glycolipids and phospholipids. Linoleic and oleic were the main fatty acids. C. medium oil is characterized by high levels of phytosterols and β-sitosterol was the main compound. β-Tocopherol constituted 42.5% of the total tocopherol content followed by γ-tocopherol. The radical scavenging activity (RSA toward 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radicals and galvinoxyl radicals of C. medium oil were higher than those of extra virgin olive oil. The diverse potential uses of C. medium oil may make this plant industrially important.El objetivo de este estudio fue caracterizar la composición química y la actividad de captación de radicales de aceites de semillas de campanillas de Canterbury (Campanula medium. Las semillas de C. medium contenían 9,2 % de aceite extraíble. Se determinó la composición de las diferentes clases de lípidos, ácidos grasos, fitoesteroles y tocoferoles. La cantidad de lípidos neutros en el aceite fue mayoritario, seguido de glicolípidos y fosfolípidos. Linoleico y oleico fueron los ácidos grasos principales. El aceite de C. medium se caracteriza por altos niveles de fitoesteroles y β-sitosterol fue el compuesto principal. β-tocoferol constituía 42,5 % del contenido total de tocoferol seguido de γ-tocoferol. La actividad de captación de radicales (RSA a 1,1-difenil-2- picrilhidrazil (DPPH y radicales galvinoxil de C. medium fueron superiores a las de aceite de oliva virgen extra. Los diversos usos potenciales de los aceites de C. medium pueden hacer que esta planta pueda ser importante industrialmente.

  16. Pulmonary surfactant protein A inhibits the lipid peroxidation stimulated by linoleic acid hydroperoxide of rat lung mitochondria and microsomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrasa, Ana M; Guajardo, Margarita H; de Armas Sanabria, Elizabeth; Catalá, Angel

    2005-07-15

    Reactive oxygen species play an important role in several acute lung injuries. The lung tissue contains polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) that are substrates of lipid peroxidation that may lead to loss of the functional integrity of the cell membranes. In this study, we compare the in vitro protective effect of pulmonary surfactant protein A (SP-A), purified from porcine surfactant, against ascorbate-Fe(2+) lipid peroxidation stimulated by linoleic acid hydroperoxide (LHP) of the mitochondria and microsomes isolated from rat lung; deprived organelles of ascorbate and LHP were utilized as control. The process was measured simultaneously by chemiluminescence as well as by PUFA degradation of the total lipids isolated from these organelles. The addition of LHP to rat lung mitochondria or microsomes produces a marked increase in light emission; the highest value of activation was produced in microsomes (total chemiluminescence: 20.015+/-1.735 x 10(5) cpm). The inhibition of lipid peroxidation (decrease of chemiluminescence) was observed with the addition of increasing amounts (2.5 to 5.0 microg) of SP-A in rat lung mitochondria and 2.5 to 7.5 microg of SP-A in rat lung microsomes. The inhibitory effect reaches the highest values in the mitochondria, thus, 5.0 microg of SP-A produces a 100% inhibition in this membranes whereas 7.5 microg of SP-A produces a 51.25+/-3.48% inhibition in microsomes. The major difference in the fatty acid composition of total lipids isolated from native and peroxidized membranes was found in the arachidonic acid content; this decreased from 9.68+/-1.60% in the native group to 5.72+/-1.64% in peroxidized mitochondria and from 7.39+/-1.14% to 3.21+/-0.77% in microsomes. These changes were less pronounced in SP-A treated membranes; as an example, in the presence of 5.0 microg of SP-A, we observed a total protection of 20:4 n-6 (9.41+/-3.29%) in mitochondria, whereas 7.5 microg of SP-A produced a 65% protection in microsomes (5

  17. Effects of plant species, stage of maturity, and level of formic acid addition on lipolysis, lipid content, and fatty acid composition during ensiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koivunen, E; Jaakkola, S; Heikkilä, T; Lampi, A-M; Halmemies-Beauchet-Filleau, A; Lee, M R F; Winters, A L; Shingfield, K J; Vanhatalo, A

    2015-09-01

    Forage type and management influences the nutritional quality and fatty acid composition of ruminant milk. Replacing grass silage with red clover (RC; L.) silage increases milk fat 18:3-3 concentration. Red clover has a higher polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity compared with grasses, which has been suggested to decrease lipolysis and . The present study characterized the abundance and fatty acid composition of esterified lipid and NEFA before and after ensiling of grass and RC to investigate the influence of forage species, growth stage, and extent of fermentation on lipolysis. A randomized block design with a 2 × 3 × 4 factorial arrangement of treatments was used. Treatments comprised RC or a mixture of timothy ( L.) and meadow fescue ( Huds.) harvested at 3 growth stages and treated with 4 levels of formic acid (0, 2, 4, and 6 L/t). Lipid in silages treated with 0 or 6 L/t formic acid were extracted and separated into 4 fractions by TLC. Total PPO activity in fresh herbage and the content of soluble bound phenols in all silages were determined. Concentrations of 18:3-3 and total fatty acids (TFA) were higher ( ensilage of RC decreases lipolysis . For both plant species, total PPO activity was not associated with the extent of lipolysis . However, bound phenols formed via PPO activity appear to have a role in protecting lipid and protein against degradation in grass and lowering proteolysis of RC during ensiling.

  18. Adipose tissue transcriptional response of lipid metabolism genes in growing Iberian pigs fed oleic acid v. carbohydrate enriched diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benítez, R; Núñez, Y; Fernández, A; Isabel, B; Rodríguez, C; Daza, A; López-Bote, C; Silió, L; Óvilo, C

    2016-06-01

    Diet influences animal body and tissue composition due to direct deposition and to the nutrients effects on metabolism. The influence of specific nutrients on the molecular regulation of lipogenesis is not well characterized and is known to be influenced by many factors including timing and physiological status. A trial was performed to study the effects of different dietary energy sources on lipogenic genes transcription in ham adipose tissue of Iberian pigs, at different growth periods and on feeding/fasting situations. A total of 27 Iberian male pigs of 28 kg BW were allocated to two separate groups and fed with different isocaloric feeding regimens: standard diet with carbohydrates as energy source (CH) or diet enriched with high oleic sunflower oil (HO). Ham subcutaneous adipose tissue was sampled by biopsy at growing (44 kg mean BW) and finishing (100 kg mean BW) periods. The first sampling was performed on fasted animals, while the last sampling was performed twice, with animals fasted overnight and 3 h after refeeding. Effects of diet, growth period and feeding/fasting status on gene expression were explored quantifying the expression of a panel of key genes implicated in lipogenesis and lipid metabolism processes. Quantitative PCR revealed several differentially expressed genes according to diet, with similar results at both timings: RXRG, LEP and FABP5 genes were upregulated in HO group while ME1, FASN, ACACA and ELOVL6 were upregulated in CH. The diet effect on ME1 gene expression was conditional on feeding/fasting status, with the higher ME1 gene expression in CH than HO groups, observed only in fasting samples. Results are compatible with a higher de novo endogenous synthesis of fatty acids (FA) in the carbohydrate-supplemented group and a higher FA transport in the oleic acid-supplemented group. Growth period significantly affected the expression of most of the studied genes, with all but PPARG showing higher expression in finishing pigs according to

  19. Effects of Docosahexaenoic Acid Supplementation on Blood Pressure, Heart Rate, and Serum Lipids in Scottish Men with Hypertension and Hypercholesterolemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miki Sagara

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effects of daily supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA on coronary heart disease risks in 38 middle-aged men with hypertension and/or hypercholesterolemia in Scotland, a five-week double-blind placebo-controlled dietary supplementation with either 2 g of DHA or active placebo (1 g of olive oil was conducted. Percent composition of DHA in plasma phospholipids increased significantly in DHA group. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure and heart rate decreased significantly in DHA group, but not in placebo group. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C increased significantly, and total cholesterol (TC/HDL-C and non-HDL-C/HDL-C ratios decreased significantly in both groups. There was no change in TC and non-HDL-C. We conclude that 2 g/day of DHA supplementation reduced coronary heart disease risk factor level improving blood pressure, heart rate, and lipid profiles in hypertensive, hypercholesterolemic Scottish men who do not eat fish on a regular basis.

  20. Lipids and Composition of Fatty Acids of Saccharina latissima Cultivated Year-Round in Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinho, Gonçalo S; Holdt, Susan L; Jacobsen, Charlotte; Angelidaki, Irini

    2015-07-15

    This study is evaluating the seasonal lipid and fatty acid composition of the brown seaweed Saccharina latissima. Biomass was sampled throughout the year (bi-monthly) at the commercial cultivation site near a fish farm in an integrated multi-trophic aquaculture (IMTA) and at a reference site in Denmark (2013-2014). Generally, there was no difference in the biomass composition between sites; however, significant seasonal changes were found. The lipid concentration varied from 0.62%-0.88% dry weight (DW) in July to 3.33%-3.35% DW in November (p seaweed species contains higher proportions of ARA and SDA, but lower EPA (only cod) and DHA. Conclusively, the season of harvest is important for the choice of lipid quantity and quality, but the marine vegetables provide better sources of EPA, DHA and long-chain (LC)-PUFA's in general compared to traditional vegetables.

  1. Lipids in grain tissues of oat (Avena sativa): differences in content, time of deposition, and fatty acid composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banas, Antoni; Debski, Henryk; Banas, Walentyna; Heneen, Waheeb K; Dahlqvist, Anders; Bafor, Maureen; Gummeson, Per-Olov; Marttila, Salla; Ekman, Asa; Carlsson, Anders S; Stymne, Sten

    2007-01-01

    Oat (Avena sativa) is unusual in comparison with other cereals since there are varieties with up to 18% oil content. The lipid content and fatty acid composition in different parts of the grain during seed development were characterized in cultivars Freja (6% oil) and Matilda (10% oil), using thin-layer and gas chromatography, and light and electron microscopy. The majority of lipids (86-90%) were found in the endosperm. Ninety-five per cent of the higher oil content of cv. Matilda compared with cv. Freja was due to increased oil content of the endosperm. Up to 84% of the lipids were deposited during the first half of seed development, when seeds where still green with a milky endosperm. Microscopy studies revealed that whereas oil bodies of the embryo and scutellum still contained a discrete shape upon grain maturation, oil bodies of the endosperms fused upon maturation and formed smears of oil.

  2. Palmitic acid, verified by lipid profiling using secondary ion mass spectrometry, demonstrates anti-multiple myeloma activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Yasuyuki; Ishizaki, Itsuko; Waki, Michihiko; Ide, Yoshimi; Hossen, Md Amir; Ohnishi, Kazunori; Miyayama, Takuya; Setou, Mitsutoshi

    2015-06-01

    Recent studies indicate that lipid metabolic changes affect the survival of multiple myeloma (MM) cells. Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS), an imaging mass spectrometry technique, is used to visualize the subcellular distribution of biomolecules including lipids. We therefore applied this method to human clinical specimens to analyze the membrane fatty acid composition and determine candidate molecules for MM therapies. We isolated MM cells and normal plasma cells (PCs) from bone marrow aspirates of MM patients and healthy volunteers, respectively, and these separated cells were analyzed by TOF-SIMS. Multiple ions including fatty acids were detected and their ion counts were estimated. In MM cells, the mean intensity of palmitic acid was significantly lower than the mean intensity in PCs. In a cell death assay, palmitic acid reduced U266 cell viability dose-dependently at doses between 50 and 1000 μM. The percentage of apoptotic cells increased from 24h after palmitic acid administration. In contrast, palmitic acid had no effect on the viability of normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). The results of this study indicated that palmitic acid is a potential candidate for novel therapeutic agents that specifically attack MM cells.

  3. Synergie et acides gras – XXIe siècle : une ère nouvelle pour les lipides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendy François

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The various disciplins of Science reveal a complex, consistent, and flexible world of lipids, which moreover allows for most of the biological world resilience. Marketing of Science, Commercial and Political marketing, have wanted to simplify this complex world at the most, reaching the limits of binary reduction of black and white, of Opposition and Exclusion. The Communication Mediatory Mask has ceased fulfilling its social function of interpreter, transmitter of truth. It became reducer, letting appearance to be confused with reality, disinformer by fact. Thus, the way to cognitive dissociation and repeated inconsistencies, was fully mapped out. Children of the century, researchers became heavily contaminated, and scientists were accused of inconsistancy. In the food and agri-business field, as well as in the pharmaceutical field, the sanction has been, is or will be severe (animal flours and new variants of prion disease, coxiBs or anti-Cox2. The real scientific discourse is actually very consistant, provided no acquisition, no question, neither from past nor for present time, is ignored, provided one’s accepts its complexity. Several ignored questions or problems about to be solved or renewed, are raised :- Tendency to take a part for the whole, the concept of flux speed, of endogenous synthesis speed, concept of the influence of a different man made environment – Excess of exogenous or endogenous oleic acid, danger of cholesterol oleate, but requirement for a little amount of endogenous oleic acid - Phytosterols and 25-OH vitamin D- Requirement for a saturated fatty acids minimal amount. -Confusion between Vaccenic acid :-C18 :1n-7trans, natural parent of Rumenic acid, and Elaidic acid (C18 :1n-9trans product of industrial hydrogenation. Furthermore new and old data on the confusion between alphalinolenic acid (in general and alpha-linolenic in sn-2 position, the only one to be indispensable, are emerging together with the

  4. Acanthoic Acid Can Partially Prevent Alcohol Exposure-Induced Liver Lipid Deposition and Inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, You-Li; Han, Xin; Li, Zhi-Man; Lian, Li-Hua; Nan, Ji-Xing; Wu, Yan-Ling

    2017-01-01

    Aims: The present study aims to detect the effect of acanthoic acid (AA) on alcohol exposure-induced liver lipid deposition and inflammation, and to explore the mechanisms. Methods: C57BL/6 mice were pretreated with single dose of AA (20 and 40 mg/kg) by oral gavage or equal volume of saline, and then exposed to three doses of ethanol (5 g/kg body weight, 25%, w/v) by gavage within 24 h. The mice were sacrificed at 6 h after the last ethanol dosing. Serum and hepatic indexes were detected by western blot, RT-PCR, and histopathological assay. AML-12 cells were pretreated with AA (5, 10, 20 μM), or AICAR (500 μM), GW3965 (1 μM), SRT1720 (6 μM), Nicotinamide (20 mM) for 2 h, respectively, and then following treated with EtOH (200 mM) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (10 ng/ml) for additional 48 h. Cell protein and mRNA were collected for western blot and RT-PCR. Cytokines interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) release were detected by ELISA assay. Results: It was found that AA significantly decreased acute ethanol-induced increasing of the serum ALT/AST, LDH, ALP levels, and hepatic and serum triglyceride levels, and reduced fat droplets accumulation in mice liver. AA significantly suppressed the levels of sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 (SREBP-1), cytochrome P4502E1 (CYP2E1), IL-1β, and caspase-1 induced by ethanol. Furthermore, a significant decline of sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) and liver X receptors (LXRs) levels was observed in EtOH group, compared with normal group mice. And AA pretreatment increased the Sirt1 and LXRs levels, and also ameliorated phosphorylation of liver kinase B-1 (LKB-1), adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACC) proteins, compared with EtOH group. However, the levels of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor -α or -γ (PPAR-α or PPAR-γ) induced by acute ethanol were reversed by AA. In EtOH/LPS cultivated AML-12 cells, AA decreased IL-1β and TNF-α levels, lipid

  5. Improvement of friable callus production of Boerhaavia paniculata Rich and the investigation of its lipid profile by GC/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Joanne M M; Berkov, Strahill; Santos, Alberdan S

    2014-09-01

    In this study, a protocol to induce high amount of friable callus of Boerhaavia paniculata RICH and a lipidomics technique were applied to investigate the profile of lipids to relate to those present in the roots of this plant that presented anti-inflammatory activity in the crude hexane extract. The callus culture was induced from seeds in solidified Murashige and Skoog medium containing different amounts of glucose and different concentrations of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. The explants were kept in a germination chamber at 30±2°C with a photoperiod of 16 h under light intensity of 27 µmol m-2 s-1 for 4 weeks. The best results for friable callus formation and development of the biomass were obtained in the treatment containing 2.26 µM 2.4-D and glucose (1.5 %; w/v). Lipidomics techniques were applied in hexane fraction showing higher concentrations of the steroids β-sitosterol (3.53 mg/100 g dc-dry cells), and fatty acids, especially 2-hydroxy-tetracosanoic acid (0.34 mg/100 g dc), eicosanoic acid (86.25 mg/100 g dc), stearic acid (420.83 mg/100 g dc), tetradecanoic acid (10.74 mg/100 g dc) and linoleic acid (100.61 mg/100 g dc). The lipid profile of callus versus that found in the roots of wild plant is described in this work.

  6. Improvement of friable callus production of Boerhaavia paniculata Rich and the investigation of its lipid profile by GC/MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOANNE M.M. SOUZA

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a protocol to induce high amount of friable callus of Boerhaavia paniculata RICH and a lipidomics technique were applied to investigate the profile of lipids to relate to those present in the roots of this plant that presented anti-inflammatory activity in the crude hexane extract. The callus culture was induced from seeds in solidified Murashige and Skoog medium containing different amounts of glucose and different concentrations of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. The explants were kept in a germination chamber at 30±2°C with a photoperiod of 16 h under light intensity of 27 µmol m–2 s–1 for 4 weeks. The best results for friable callus formation and development of the biomass were obtained in the treatment containing 2.26 µM 2.4-D and glucose (1.5 %; w/v. Lipidomics techniques were applied in hexane fraction showing higher concentrations of the steroids β-sitosterol (3.53 mg/100 g dc–dry cells, and fatty acids, especially 2-hydroxy-tetracosanoic acid (0.34 mg/100 g dc, eicosanoic acid (86.25 mg/100 g dc, stearic acid (420.83 mg/100 g dc, tetradecanoic acid (10.74 mg/100 g dc and linoleic acid (100.61 mg/100 g dc. The lipid profile of callus versus that found in the roots of wild plant is described in this work.

  7. The Use ofa Hydrophobic Binding Peptide Modified Lipid Nanocarrier Improving Tumor Distribution and Antitumor Efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wei; Yang, Xiucong; Lin, Zhiqiang; Gao, Shanyun; He, Bing; Mei, Bong; Wang, Dan; Yuan, Lan; Zhang, Hua; Dai, Wenbing; Wang, Xueqing; Wang, Jiancheng; Zhang, Xuan; Zhang, Qiang

    2016-06-01

    In addition to showing the specific interaction between a generalized ligand and its receptor and the electrostatic effect between positive cell-penetrating peptides and negative cell membranes, our last study demonstrated the hydrophobic interactivity between a hydrophobic binding peptide (HBP) and biomembranes to be favorable in drug delivery. To yield more evidence for this new strategy and to find more effective HBPs, here we designed and established a novel nanomedicine associated with cyclosporin A (CsA) because this peptide is electrically neutral, highly hydrophobic, very stable in vivo and safe at the given dose. First, isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) studies showed a strong hydrophobic interaction between the CsA molecules and the lipid membrane. The lactate dehydrogenase release assay proved that CsA exhibited low toxicity to cell membranes. These facts encouraged us to explore the potential application of CsA as an HBP to actualize intracellular delivery of nanomedicines for tumor therapy. When conjugated to lipid nanocarriers, CsA significantly enhanced their binding with cells and,. consequently, increased the internalization of recoded nanomedicines into cells. The in vivo experiments further showed that the CsA-associated nanocarriers could achieve better delivery to tumor tissues and improve the tumor therapy of doxorubicin (DOX) compared to the nonmodified control; these findings were identical to the observations-in cell studies. In conclusion, CsA, a readily obtainable molecule with favorable characteristics, is indeed a good candidate for an HBP, and this study provides solid, novel evidence for the use of HBP-based nanocarriers as effective antitumor drug delivery systems.

  8. Development of ionic-complex-based nanostructured lipid carriers to improve the pharmacokinetic profiles of breviscapine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mei LI; Yong ZHENG; Feng-ying SHAN; Jing ZHOU; Tao GONG; Zhi-rong ZHANG

    2013-01-01

    Aim:Breviscapine isolated from the Chinese herb Erigeron breviscapus (Vant) Hand-Mazz is widely used to treat cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases.The aim of this study was to improve the pharmacokinetic profiles of breviscapine using nanostructured lipid carrier based on an ionic complex formation.Methods:Breviscapine nanostructured lipid carrier (Bre-NLC) was prepared using the thin film homogenization method.The morphology of Bre-NLCs was determined using transmission electron microscopy.The mean particle size,polydispersity index,zeta-potential analysis and entrapment efficiency were analized.In vitro release was studied using the dialysis method.In vitro stability was studied in fresh plasma and liver slurry of rats.In vivo pharmacokinetics was analyzed in rats after intravenous injection of a dose equivalent to breviscapine (10 mg/kg).Results:The Bre-NLCs were spherical with a mean particle size of ~170 nm,a zeta potential of ~20 mV and a high entrapment efficiency of ~89%.Compared with a commercially available solution,a substantial decrease in the cumulative release of breviscapine was found for the Bre-NLCs.The NLC has a significantly protective effect against the liver enzyme degradation of breviscapine.After intravenous administration in rats,the Bre-NLCs exhibited a 32 times increase in the AUC0-t and a 12 times increase in T1/2 as compared to the commercially available breviscapine solution.Conclusion:The results demonstrate that the NLC has great potential to use as a novel sustained release system for breviscapine.

  9. Impact of methods used to express levels of circulating fatty acids on the degree and direction of associations with blood lipids in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergeant, Susan; Ruczinski, Ingo; Ivester, Priscilla; Lee, Tammy C; Morgan, Timothy M; Nicklas, Barbara J; Mathias, Rasika A; Chilton, Floyd H

    2016-01-28

    Numerous studies have examined relationships between disease biomarkers (such as blood lipids) and levels of circulating or cellular fatty acids. In such association studies, fatty acids have typically been expressed as the percentage of a particular fatty acid relative to the total fatty acids in a sample. Using two human cohorts, this study examined relationships between blood lipids (TAG, and LDL, HDL or total cholesterol) and circulating fatty acids expressed either as a percentage of total or as concentration in serum. The direction of the correlation between stearic acid, linoleic acid, dihomo-γ-linolenic acid, arachidonic acid and DHA and circulating TAG reversed when fatty acids were expressed as concentrations v. a percentage of total. Similar reversals were observed for these fatty acids when examining their associations with the ratio of total cholesterol:HDL-cholesterol. This reversal pattern was replicated in serum samples from both human cohorts. The correlations between blood lipids and fatty acids expressed as a percentage of total could be mathematically modelled from the concentration data. These data reveal that the different methods of expressing fatty acids lead to dissimilar correlations between blood lipids and certain fatty acids. This study raises important questions about how such reversals in association patterns impact the interpretation of numerous association studies evaluating fatty acids and their relationships with disease biomarkers or risk.

  10. Counteracting foaming caused by lipids or proteins in biogas reactors using rapeseed oil or oleic acid as antifoaming agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kougias, P G; Boe, K; Einarsdottir, E S; Angelidaki, I

    2015-08-01

    Foaming is one of the major operational problems in biogas plants, and dealing with foaming incidents is still based on empirical practices. Various types of antifoams are used arbitrarily to combat foaming in biogas plants, but without any scientific support this action can lead to serious deterioration of the methanogenic process. Many commercial antifoams are derivatives of fatty acids or oils. However, it is well known that lipids can induce foaming in manure based biogas plants. This study aimed to elucidate the effect of rapeseed oil and oleic acid on foam reduction and process performance in biogas reactors fed with protein or lipid rich substrates. The results showed that both antifoams efficiently suppressed foaming. Moreover rapeseed oil resulted in stimulation of the biogas production. Finally, it was reckoned that the chemical structure of lipids, and more specifically their carboxylic ends, is responsible for their foam promoting or foam counteracting behaviour. Thus, it was concluded that the fatty acids and oils could suppress foaming, while salt of fatty acids could generate foam.

  11. The effects of anaerobic training in serum lipids and arachidonic acid metabolites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GEORGIOS KIPREOS

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Coronary arteries are subjected daily in high shear stress and manifest atherosclerosis very early in life in comparison to other arteries in the human body. Some factors that are implicated in the evolution and progress of this process are the concentration of lipids and arachidonic acid metabolites, such prostacyclin and thromboxane. It has been reported that those who participate in aerobic activities such as walking, cycling, jogging or brisk walking might have normal values of the mentioned chemical substances. On the other hand, it is reported that the effects of anaerobic and strength activities has negative effects on the vascular endothelium, which is essential for the maintenance of hemostatic balance and the local regulation of vascular tone.Therefore, even although extensive research has been conducted in this field, there are crucial gaps in our knowledge. Consequently, the purpose of this brief review is to describe what is known about the effects of anaerobic activities in which the competitive athletes have participated on the following blood parameters: Total cholesterol, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL - C, low density lipoproteins cholesterol (LDL - C, prostacyclin & thromboxane.

  12. Maintenance of improved lipid levels following attendance at a cardiovascular risk reduction clinic: a 10-year experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glen J Pearson

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Glen J Pearson1,5, Kari L Olson6, Nicole E Panich1, Sumit R Majumdar2,5, Ross T Tsuyuki1,4, Dawna M Gilchrist2,5, Ali Damani4, Gordon A Francis3,5The MILLARR Study (Maintenance of Improved Lipid Levels Following Attendance at a Cardiovascular Risk Reduction Clinic 1Department of Medicine, Divisions of Cardiology; 2General Internal Medicine; 3Endocrinology and Metabolism; Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences; 4University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada; 5Cardiovascular Risk Reduction Clinic (CRRC, University of Alberta Hospital, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada; 6University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, Colorado, USA; 7Family Medicine (Private Practice, Calgary, Alberta, CanadaBackground: Specialty cardiovascular risk reduction clinics (CRRC increase the proportion of patients attaining recommended lipid targets; however, it is not known if the benefits are sustained after discharge. We evaluated the impact of a CRRC on lipid levels and assessed the long-term effect of a CRRC in maintaining improved lipid levels following discharge.Methods: The medical records of consecutive dyslipidemic patients discharged >6 months from a tertiary hospital CRRC from January 1991 to January 2001 were retrospectively reviewed. The primary outcome was the change in patients’ lipid levels between the final CRRC visit and the most recent primary care follow-up. A worst-case analysis was conducted to evaluate the potential impact of the patients in whom the follow-up lipid profiles post-discharge from the CRRC were not obtained.Results: Within the CRRC (median follow-up = 1.28 years in 1064 patients, we observed statistically significant improvements in all lipid parameters. In the 411 patients for whom post-discharge lipid profiles were available (median follow-up = 2.41 years, there were no significant differences observed in low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, total cholesterol (TC, or triglycerides since CRRC discharge; however, there

  13. Unraveling the impact of hydroxylation on interactions of bile acid cationic lipids with model membranes by in-depth calorimetry studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Manish; Bajaj, Avinash

    2014-09-28

    We used eight bile acid cationic lipids differing in the number of hydroxyl groups and performed in-depth differential scanning calorimetry studies on model membranes doped with different percentages of these cationic bile acids. These studies revealed that the number and positioning of free hydroxyl groups on bile acids modulate the phase transition and co-operativity of membranes. Lithocholic acid based cationic lipids having no free hydroxyl groups gel well with dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) membranes. Chenodeoxycholic acid lipids having one free hydroxyl group at the 7'-carbon position disrupt the membranes and lower their co-operativity. Deoxycholic acid and cholic acid based cationic lipids have free hydroxyl groups at the 12'-carbon position, and at 7'- and 12'-carbon positions respectively. Doping of these lipids at high concentrations increases the co-operativity of membranes suggesting that these lipids might induce self-assembly in DPPC membranes. These different modes of interactions between cationic lipids and model membranes would help in future for exploring their use in DNA/drug delivery.

  14. Lipid droplets in activated mast cells - a significant source of triglyceride-derived arachidonic acid for eicosanoid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dichlberger, Andrea; Schlager, Stefanie; Kovanen, Petri T; Schneider, Wolfgang J

    2016-08-15

    Mast cells are potent effectors of immune reactions and key players in various inflammatory diseases such as atherosclerosis, asthma, and rheumatoid arthritis. The cellular defense response of mast cells represents a unique and powerful system, where external signals can trigger cell activation resulting in a stimulus-specific and highly coordinated release of a plethora of bioactive mediators. The arsenal of mediators encompasses preformed molecules stored in cytoplasmic secretory granules, as well as newly synthesized proteinaceous and lipid mediators. The release of mediators occurs in strict chronological order and requires proper coordination between the endomembrane system and various enzymatic machineries. For the generation of lipid mediators, cytoplasmic lipid droplets have been shown to function as a major intracellular pool of arachidonic acid, the precursor for eicosanoid biosynthesis. Recent studies have revealed that not only phospholipids in mast cell membranes, but also triglycerides in mast cell lipid droplets are a substrate source for eicosanoid formation. The present review summarizes current knowledge about mast cell lipid droplet biology, and discusses expansions and challenges of traditional mechanistic models for eicosanoid production.

  15. Enhanced intracellular delivery and antibacterial efficacy of enrofloxacin-loaded docosanoic acid solid lipid nanoparticles against intracellular Salmonella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Shuyu; Yang, Fei; Tao, Yanfei; Chen, Dongmei; Qu, Wei; Huang, Lingli; Liu, Zhenli; Pan, Yuanhu; Yuan, Zonghui

    2017-01-01

    Enrofloxacin-loaded docosanoic acid solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) with different physicochemical properties were developed to enhance activity against intracellular Salmonella. Their cellular uptake, intracellular elimination and antibacterial activity were studied in RAW 264.7 cells. During the experimental period, SLN-encapsulated enrofloxacin accumulated in the cells approximately 27.06–37.71 times more efficiently than free drugs at the same extracellular concentration. After incubation for 0.5 h, the intracellular enrofloxacin was enhanced from 0.336 to 1.147 μg/mg of protein as the sizes of nanoparticles were increased from 150 to 605 nm, and from 0.960 to 1.147 μg/mg of protein when the charge was improved from −8.1 to −24.9 mv. The cellular uptake was more significantly influenced by the size than it was by the charge, and was not affected by whether the charge was positive or negative. The elimination of optimal SLN-encapsulated enrofloxacin from the cells was significantly slower than that of free enrofloxacin after removing extracellular drug. The inhibition effect against intracellular Salmonella CVCC541 of 0.24 and 0.06 μg/mL encapsulated enrofloxacin was stronger than 0.6 μg/mL free drug after all of the incubation periods and at 48 h, respectively. Docosanoic acid SLNs are thus considered as a promising carrier for intracellular bacterial treatment. PMID:28112240

  16. Production of lipids and docosahexasaenoic acid (DHA) by a native Thraustochytrium strain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shene, Carolina; Leyton, Allison; Rubilar, Mónica

    2013-01-01

    conditions for (i) biomass production, (ii) lipid content of the biomass, and (iii) DHA content in the lipids was determined. Taguchi's design of experiments was used to study the influence of two discrete – carbon and nitrogen sources – and six continuous – concentrations of the carbon and nitrogen sources....... In this work the production of DHA by a native Labyrinthulomycetes strain was scaled from shaken flask to a laboratory fermentor with the aid of Taguchi's methodology, process in which biomass concentration, lipid content in the biomass, and DHA content in the lipids were increased....

  17. Effect of conjugated linoleic acid mixtures and different edible oils on body composition and lipid regulation in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Victoria Scalerandi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Evidences suggest that commercial and natural conjugated linoleic acids (CLA differentially affect nutritional status and lipid metabolism. Objective: To investigate the differential effect of two types of CLA preparations supplemented to dietary fats containing different proportions of n-9, n-6 and n-3 fatty acids (FA on body composition, triacylglycerol (TG levels and lipid metabolism in mice. Methods: Growing mice were fed diets containing olive, maize and rapeseed oils supplemented with an equimolecular mixture of CLA (mix-CLA or a rumenic acid (RA-rich oil for 30 days. Body weight gain, carcass composition, tissue weights, plasma and tissue TG levels, and lipid regulation parameters were evaluated. Results: Independently of the dietary fats, mix-CLA decreased body weight gain and fat depots related to lower energy efficiency, hepatomegaly, increase of serum TG and decrease of muscle TG. Rapeseed oil prevented the hepatic steatosis observed with mix-CLA supplementation to olive and maize oils by increasing TG secretion. RA-rich oil supplementation decreased fat depots without hepatomegaly, hepatic steatosis and hypertriglyceridemia. Olive oil, by an equilibrium between FA uptake/oxidation, prevented the increase of muscle TG induced by the RA-rich oil supplementation to maize and rapeseed oils. Discussion and conclusion: The proportions of dietary unsaturated FA modulated the different mix-CLA and RA-rich oil response to lipid metabolism in mice. Finally, rapeseed oil prevented the hepatic steatosis induced by mix-CLA, and the most beneficial effects of RA-rich oil were observed when supplemented to olive oil, due to the reduced lipid accretion without changes in TG levels.

  18. Blood lipids and fatty acid composition of abdominal fat in castrated and intact male common pheasant (Colchicus colchicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petar Džaja

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The study was undertaken to examine the effects of castration on plasma lipids and on the fatty acid profile of abdominal fat in male pheasants. Thirty pheasants reared in a commercial pheasantry were included in the experiment. Half the pheasants were castrated at 8 weeks of age and the other half underwent sham surgery at the same age. Plasma levels of triglycerides and high density lipoproteins (HDL were significantly higher in the castrated pheasants. Values for cholesterol tended to be higher in castrated pheasants although without statistical significance. The fatty acid content of the abdominal fat from castrated and intact pheasants were primarily composed of oleic acid (42.58%-40.33%, followed by palmitic acid (25.25%-27.33%, linoleic (14.05%-12.65% and stearic acid (8.95%-9.40%. Castration also significantly influenced the fatty acid composition of abdominal fat. Compared to the intact pheasants, the fatty acid content of abdominal fat from castrated pheasants contained higher values for saturated fatty acids (SFA and lower values for unsaturated fatty acids (UFA, unsaturated to saturated fatty acids ratio (UFA/SFA and polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acids ratio (PUFA/SFA.

  19. Solid Lipid Nanoparticles Improve the Diclofenac Availability in Vitreous after Intraocular Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrishami, Majid; Vakili Ahrari Roodi, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. In order to improve the drug availability after intravitreal administration, solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) containing diclofenac were prepared. Methods. In this experimental study, 18 albino rabbits were included. In right and left eyes of all rabbits, SLNs containing diclofenac and commercial form of diclofenac (0.3 mg drug) were intravitreally injected, respectively. One, four, twelve, twenty-four, and forty-eight hours after injection, vitreous and aqueous humor samples were obtained in all cases. Then, the concentration of diclofenac sodium was evaluated in all samples. Results. Size of nanoparticles was around 170 nm after preparation. Drug concentration in eyes injected with SLNs was significantly higher than left eyes injected with commercial formulation up to 4 hours after intravitreal injection (p < 0.05). Diclofenac was quantified in samples up to 48 hours after intraocular injection. Four hours after intravitreal injection, the concentration of diclofenac in vitreous and aqueous humor of eyes receiving SLNs was, respectively, 2.5 and 6.5 times higher than eyes injected with commercial form of drug. Conclusions. Here, we demonstrate the potential of SLNs as a carrier of diclofenac for intraocular injection in order to prevent the systemic effects of the drug, increase the injection intervals, and improve the patient compliance. PMID:27803815

  20. Cationic Lipid Content in Liposome-Encapsulated Nisin Improves Sustainable Bactericidal Activity against Streptococcus mutans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamakami, Kazuo; Tsumori, Hideaki; Shimizu, Yoshitaka; Sakurai, Yutaka; Nagatoshi, Kohei; Sonomoto, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    An oral infectious disease, dental caries, is caused by the cariogenic streptococci Streptococcus mutans. The expected preventive efficiency for prophylactics against dental caries is not yet completely observed. Nisin, a bacteriocin, has been demonstrated to be microbicidal against S. mutans, and liposome-encapsulated nisin improves preventive features that may be exploited for human oral health. Here we examined the bactericidal effect of charged lipids on nisin-loaded liposomes against S. mutans and inhibitory efficiency for insoluble glucan synthesis by the streptococci for prevention of dental caries. Cationic liposome, nisin-loaded dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine/phytosphingosine, exhibited higher bactericidal activities than those of electroneutral liposome and anionic liposome. Bactericidal efficiency of the cationic liposome revealed that the vesicles exhibited sustained inhibition of glucan synthesis and the lowest rate of release of nisin from the vesicles. The optimizing ability of cationic liposome-encapsulated nisin that exploit the sustained preventive features of an anti-streptococcal strategy may improve prevention of dental caries. PMID:27583045

  1. Chronic leucine supplementation improves lipid metabolism in C57BL/6J mice fed with a high-fat/cholesterol diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Jiao

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Leucine supplementation has been reported to improve lipid metabolism. However, lipid metabolism in adipose tissues and liver has not been extensively studied for leucine supplementation in mice fed with a high-fat/cholesterol diet (HFCD. Design: C57BL/6J mice were fed a chow diet, HFCD, HFCD supplemented with 1.5% leucine (HFCD+1.5% Leu group or 3% leucine (HFCD+3% Leu group for 24 weeks. The body weight, peritoneal adipose weight, total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride in serum and liver, and serum adipokines were analyzed. In addition, expression levels of proteins associated with hepatic lipogenesis, adipocyte lipolysis, and white adipose tissue (WAT browning were determined. Results: Mice in the HFCD group developed obesity and deteriorated lipid metabolism. Compared with HFCD, leucine supplementation lowered weight gain and TC levels in circulation and the liver without changing energy intake. The decrease in body fat was supported by histological examination in the WAT and liver. Furthermore, serum levels of proinflammatory adipokines, such as leptin, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha, were significantly decreased by supplemented leucine. At the protein level, leucine potently decreased the hepatic lipogenic enzymes (fatty acid synthase and acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase and corresponding upstream proteins. In epididymal WAT, the reduced expression levels of two major lipases by HFCD, namely phosphorylated hormone-sensitive lipase and adipose triglyceride lipase, were reversed when leucine was supplemented. Uncoupling protein 1, β3 adrenergic receptors, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor g coactivator-1α, and fibroblast growth factor 21 were involved in the thermogenic program and WAT browning. Leucine additionally upregulated their protein expression in both WAT and interscapular brown adipose tissue. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that chronic leucine supplementation reduced the body weight and improved the

  2. Chronic leucine supplementation improves lipid metabolism in C57BL/6J mice fed with a high-fat/cholesterol diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Jun; Han, Shu-Fen; Zhang, Wei; Xu, Jia-Ying; Tong, Xing; Yin, Xue-Bin; Yuan, Lin-Xi; Qin, Li-Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Background Leucine supplementation has been reported to improve lipid metabolism. However, lipid metabolism in adipose tissues and liver has not been extensively studied for leucine supplementation in mice fed with a high-fat/cholesterol diet (HFCD). Design C57BL/6J mice were fed a chow diet, HFCD, HFCD supplemented with 1.5% leucine (HFCD+1.5% Leu group) or 3% leucine (HFCD+3% Leu group) for 24 weeks. The body weight, peritoneal adipose weight, total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride in serum and liver, and serum adipokines were analyzed. In addition, expression levels of proteins associated with hepatic lipogenesis, adipocyte lipolysis, and white adipose tissue (WAT) browning were determined. Results Mice in the HFCD group developed obesity and deteriorated lipid metabolism. Compared with HFCD, leucine supplementation lowered weight gain and TC levels in circulation and the liver without changing energy intake. The decrease in body fat was supported by histological examination in the WAT and liver. Furthermore, serum levels of proinflammatory adipokines, such as leptin, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha, were significantly decreased by supplemented leucine. At the protein level, leucine potently decreased the hepatic lipogenic enzymes (fatty acid synthase and acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase) and corresponding upstream proteins. In epididymal WAT, the reduced expression levels of two major lipases by HFCD, namely phosphorylated hormone-sensitive lipase and adipose triglyceride lipase, were reversed when leucine was supplemented. Uncoupling protein 1, β3 adrenergic receptors, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor g coactivator-1α, and fibroblast growth factor 21 were involved in the thermogenic program and WAT browning. Leucine additionally upregulated their protein expression in both WAT and interscapular brown adipose tissue. Conclusion This study demonstrated that chronic leucine supplementation reduced the body weight and improved the lipid profile of

  3. Troxerutin improves hepatic lipid homeostasis by restoring NAD(+)-depletion-mediated dysfunction of lipin 1 signaling in high-fat diet-treated mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zi-Feng; Fan, Shao-Hua; Zheng, Yuan-Lin; Lu, Jun; Wu, Dong-Mei; Shan, Qun; Hu, Bin

    2014-09-01

    Recent evidences suggest that NAD(+) depletion leads to abnormal hepatic lipid metabolism in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD); however, the contributing mechanism is not well understood. Our previous study showed that troxerutin, a trihydroxyethylated derivative of natural bioflavonoid rutin, effectively inhibited obesity, and normalized hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia in high-cholesterol diet-induced diabetic mice. Here we investigated whether troxerutin improved hepatic lipid metabolism via preventing NAD(+) depletion in HFD-induced NAFLD mouse model and the mechanisms underlying these effects. Our results showed that troxerutin markedly prevented obesity, liver steatosis and injury in HFD-fed mice. Troxerutin largely suppressed oxidative stress-mediated NAD(+)-depletion by increasing nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) protein expression and decreasing poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP1) protein expression and activity in HFD-treated mouse livers. Consequently, troxerutin remarkably restored Silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog1 (SirT1) protein expression and activity in HFD-treated mouse livers. Therefore, troxerutin promoted SirT1-mediated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation to inhibit mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling, which enhanced nuclear lipin 1 localization, lowered cytoplasmic lipin 1 localization and the ratio of hepatic Lpin 1β/α. Ultimately, troxerutin improved lipid homeostasis by enhancing fatty acid oxidation and triglyceride secretion, and suppressing lipogenesis in HFD-fed mouse livers. In conclusion, troxerutin displayed beneficial effects on hepatic lipid homeostasis in HFD-induced NAFLD by blocking oxidative stress to restore NAD(+)-depletion-mediated dysfunction of lipin 1 signaling. This study provides novel mechanistic insights into NAFLD pathogenesis and indicates that troxerutin is a candidate for pharmacological intervention of NAFLD

  4. EFFECT OF LIGHT INTENSITY ON THE TOTAL LIPID AND FATTY ACID COMPOSITION OF SIX STRAINS OF MARINE DIATOMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁英; 麦康森; 孙世春; 于道展

    2001-01-01

    The effect of light intensity ( 1500 Ix and 5000 Ix) on the total lipid and fatty acid composition of six strains of marine diatoms Cylindrotheca fusiformis (B211 ), Phaeodactylum tricornutum (Bl14, Bl18 and B221) Nitzschia closterium (B222) and Chaetoceros gracilis (B13) was investigated.The total lipids of B13, Bl14, and B211 grown at 5000 Ix were lower than those grown at 1500 Ix. No evident changes were observed in Bl18, B221 and B222. Fatty acid composition changed considerably at different light intensity although no consistent correlation between the relative proportion of a single FA and light intensity. The major fatty acids of the 6 strains were 14:0, 16:0, 16:l(n- 7) and 20:5(n-3) . Cylindrothecafusiformis had high percentage of 20:4n - 6 (9.2 - 10.9% ) . The total polyunsaturated fatty acid /rl all 6 strains decreased with increasing light intensity. The percentage of the highly unsaturated fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) decreased with increasing light intensity in all strains except Chaetoceros gracilis.

  5. Plasma and tissue levels of lipids, fatty acids and plasma carnitine in neonates receiving a new fat emulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnusson, G; Boberg, M; Cederblad, G; Meurling, S

    1997-06-01

    This study was undertaken to compare Intralipid with a new fat emulsion containing gamma-linolenic acid and carnitine, named Pediatric Fat Emulsion 4501, in neonates with regard to lipid and carnitine metabolism over a short period of total parenteral nutrition. There were 10 neonates in each group and they tolerated the total parenteral nutrition well. In spite of the gamma-linolenic acid supplementation in the new emulsion, arachidonic acid decreased significantly in plasma lipid esters and adipose tissue in both groups after 5 d of treatment. Also, there was a decrease in plasma docosahexaenoic acid which was more pronounced in the treatment group. The relative percentage values of linoleic and linolenic acids in adipose tissue were increased, indicating that newborns have a rapid accretion of fatty acids. Plasma-triglycerides were effectively cleared during the periods without fat infusion. In the group that received Pediatric Fat Emulsion 4501 the means of both free and total plasma carnitine concentrations increased significantly, whereas they tended to decrease in the Intralipid group.

  6. Dietary Conjugated Linoleic Acid and Hepatic Steatosis: Species-Specific Effects on Liver and Adipose Lipid Metabolism and Gene Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diwakar Vyas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To summarize the recent studies on effect of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA on hepatic steatosis and hepatic and adipose lipid metabolism highlighting the potential regulatory mechanisms. Methods. Sixty-four published experiments were summarized in which trans-10, cis-12 CLA was fed either alone or in combination with other CLA isomers to mice, rats, hamsters, and humans were compared. Summary and Conclusions. Dietary trans-10, cis-12 CLA induces a severe hepatic steatosis in mice with a more muted response in other species. Regardless of species, when hepatic steatosis was present, a concurrent decrease in body adiposity was observed, suggesting that hepatic lipid accumulation is a result of uptake of mobilized fatty acids (FA from adipose tissue and the liver's inability to sufficiently increase FA oxidation and export of synthesized triglycerides. The potential role of liver FA composition, insulin secretion and sensitivity, adipokine, and inflammatory responses are discussed as potential mechanisms behind CLA-induced hepatic steatosis.

  7. Cytotoxic lipidic {alpha}-amino acids from the zoanthid Protopalythoa variabilis from the Northeastern coast of Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilke, Diego Veras; Jimenez, Paula Christine; Pessoa, Claudia; Moraes, Manoel Odorico de; Costa-Lotufo, Leticia Veras [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Fisiologia e Farmacologia], e-mail: lvcosta@secrel.com.br, e-mail: lvcosta@ufc.br; Araujo, Renata Mendonca; Silva, Wildson Max Barbosa da; Silveira, Edilberto Rocha; Pessoa, Otilia Deusdenia Loiola; Braz-Filho, Raimundo [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Organica e Inorganica; Lopes, Norberto Peporine [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas. Dept. de Fisica e Quimica

    2009-07-01

    Two lipidic {alpha}-amino acids 1a and 1b were isolated from the zoanthid Protopalythoa variabilis using a bioguided fractionation for cytotoxic activity. The structures of the metabolites were determined by spectroscopic methods, including NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C, IR infrared) and high resolution mass spectrometry (positive mode). The cytotoxic activity of the crude extract, as well as of the mixture of 1a and 1b were measured in vitro using the MTT assay for four human tumor cell lines. This finding has important biological and chemical implications for this type of compound. This is the first report of lipidic {alpha}-amino acids from natural sources, as well as of their cytotoxic activity. (author)

  8. Dietary linseed oil in the maternal diet affects immunoglobulins, tissue fatty acid composition and expression of lipid metabolism-related genes in piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X L; Wang, N; Tian, M L; Wang, L; Liu, T; Zhang, X W; Shi, B M; Shan, A S

    2016-11-21

    This experiment investigated the effects of supplementing the maternal diet with linseed oil (LSO) and soya bean oil (SBO) on immunoglobulins, the fatty acid composition and hepatic expression of lipid metabolism-related genes in piglets. Multiparous sows (twenty-four per diet) were fed on diets containing a supplement of either SBO or LSO during last week of gestation and lactation. The results indicated that supplementation of maternal diet with LSO could improve the weaning weight of piglets and average daily gain (ADG) (p plasma, colostrum and milk by the addition of LSO (p plasma IgG, IgA and the tissues n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) in piglets (p composition and affects the gene of D5D and D6D expression of piglets.

  9. Alteration of the phospho- or neutral lipid content and fatty acid composition in Listeria monocytogenes due to acid adaptation mechanisms for hydrochloric, acetic and lactic acids at pH 5.5 or benzoic acid at neutral pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastronicolis, Sofia K; Berberi, Anita; Diakogiannis, Ioannis; Petrova, Evanthia; Kiaki, Irene; Baltzi, Triantafillia; Xenikakis, Polydoros

    2010-10-01

    This study provides a first approach to observe the effects on Listeria monocytogenes of cellular exposure to acid stress at low or neutral pH, notably how phospho- or neutral lipids are involved in this mechanism, besides the fatty acid profile alteration. A thorough investigation of the composition of polar and neutral lipids from L. monocytogenes grown at pH 5.5 in presence of hydrochloric, acetic and lactic acids, or at neutral pH 7.3 in presence of benzoic acid, is described relative to cells grown in acid-free medium. The results showed that only low pH values enhance the antimicrobial activity of an acid. We suggest that, irrespective of pH, the acid adaptation response will lead to a similar alteration in fatty acid composition [decreasing the ratio of branched chain/saturated straight fatty acids of total lipids], mainly originating from the neutral lipid class of adapted cultures. Acid adaptation in L. monocytogenes was correlated with a decrease in total lipid phosphorus and, with the exception of cells adapted to benzoic acid, this change in the amount of phosphorus reflected a higher content of the neutral lipid class. Upon acetic or benzoic acid stress the lipid phosphorus proportion was analysed in the main phospholipids present: cardiolipin, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphoaminolipid and phosphatidylinositol. Interestingly only benzoic acid had a dramatic effect on the relative quantities of these four phospholipids.

  10. Effect of a novel insulinotropic agent, succinic acid monoethyl ester, on lipids and lipoproteins levels in rats with streptozotocin-nicotinamideinduced type 2 diabetes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ramalingam Saravanan; Leelavinothan Pari

    2006-12-01

    In the present study, the effect of succinic acid monoethyl ester (EMS) on the pattern of lipids and lipoproteins in streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced type 2 diabetes was investigated. Type 2 diabetes was induced in male Wistar rats by single intraperitoneal injection (i.p.) of 45 mg/kg streptozotocin, 15 min after the i.p administration of 110 mg/kg body weight of nicotinamide. The carboxylic nutrient EMS was administered intraperitonially at a dose of 8 mol/g body weight for 30 days. At the end of experimental period, the effect of EMS on plasma glucose, insulin, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and hydroperoxide (HP) and serum triglycerides (TG), phospholipids (PL), free fatty acids (FFA), total cholesterol (TC), very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (VLDL-C) and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) and the percentage of antiatherogenic index (AAI) (ratio of HDL-C to total cholesterol) were studied. Administration of EMS to diabetic rats resulted in a significant reduction in the elevated levels of plasma glucose, TBARS and hydroperoxides as well as TG, PL, FFA, TC, VLDL-C and LDC-C levels. The decreased plasma insulin and serum HDL-C and percentage of AAI in diabetic rats were also reversed towards near normal. The effect produced by EMS was compared with metformin, a reference drug. The results indicates that the administration of EMS and metformin to nicotinamide-streptozotocin diabetic rats normalized plasma glucose, insulin concentrations and caused marked improvement in altered lipids, lipoprotein and lipid peroxidation markers during diabetes. Our results show the antihyperlipidemic properties of EMS and metformin in addition to its antidiabetic action. Moreover, the antihyperlipidemic effect could represent a protective mechanism against the development of atherosclerosis.

  11. Eicosapentaenoic acid improves glycemic control in elderly bedridden patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Susumu; Abe, Takaaki; Nako, Kazuhiro; Okamura, Masashi; Senda, Miho; Sakamoto, Takuya; Ito, Sadayoshi

    2013-01-01

    Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are ω3-polyunsaturated fatty acids mainly contained in the blue-backed fish oil, and are effective in decreasing the lipids disorder and the cardiovascular incidence among diabetic patients. Moreover, it has been suggested that EPA and DHA may improve the insulin resistance and glucose metabolism. However, the clinical effects of EPA and DHA on glucose metabolism remain unclear. We aimed to clarify the effects of EPA/DHA treatment on glycemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus. This study was a multicenter prospective randomized controlled trial involving 30 elderly type 2 diabetic patients on a liquid diet. Their exercises were almost zero and the content of their meals was strictly managed and understood well. Therefore, the difference by the individual's life was a minimum. The subjects were divided into two groups: those receiving EPA/DHA-rich liquid diet [EPA/DHA (+)] or liquid diet lacking EPA/DHA [EPA/DHA (-)]. Changes in factors related to glucose and lipid metabolism were assessed after the three-month study. Serum concentrations of EPA rose in EPA/DHA (+), although the levels of DHA and fasting C-peptide remained unchanged in EPA/DHA (+). In addition, there was a significant decline in the fasting plasma glucose (FPG), hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), fasting remnant-like particles and apolipoprotein (apo) B in EPA/DHA (+), compared with the values in EPA/DHA (-). EPA/DHA-rich diet might improve glucose metabolism in elderly type 2 diabetic patients on a liquid diet. This phenomenon may be due to the improved insulin resistance mediated by the rise in serum EPA concentrations.

  12. Identification of marine-derived lipids in juvenile coho salmon and aquatic insects through fatty acid analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heintz, Ron A.; Wipfli, Mark S.; Hudson, John P.

    2010-01-01

    The energetic benefits enjoyed by consumers in streams with salmon runs depend on how those benefits are accrued. Adult Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp. deliver significant amounts of nutrients (i.e., nitrogen and phosphorus) and carbon to streams when they spawn and die; these nutrient additions can have demonstrable effects on primary production in streams. Consumption of carcass tissues or eggs provides for direct energy subsidies to consumers and may have significant effects on their condition. In this study, comparisons of juvenile coho salmon O. kisutch and aquatic insects exposed to terrestrial and marine energy sources demonstrated that direct consumption of marine-derived lipids had a significant effect on the lipid reserves of consumers. Direct consumption of marine-derived tissues was verified through fatty acid analysis. Selected aquatic insects and juvenile coho salmon were reared for 6 weeks in experimental streams supplied with terrestrial or marine energy sources. Chironomid midges, nemourid stoneflies, and juvenile coho salmon exposed to the marine energy source altered their fatty acid compositions by incorporating the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids that are characteristic of marine fish. The fatty acid composition of baetid mayflies was unaffected. The direct movement of specific fatty markers indicated that direct consumption of marine-derived tissues led to increased energy reserves (triacylglycerols) in consumers. Similar results were obtained for juvenile coho salmon sampled from natural streams before and after the arrival of adult salmon runs. These data indicate that marine-derived lipids from anadromous fish runs are an important source of reserve lipids for consumers that overwinter in streams.

  13. Linoleic acid-induced ultra-weak photon emission from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii as a tool for monitoring of lipid peroxidation in the cell membranes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankush Prasad

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species formed as a response to various abiotic and biotic stresses cause an oxidative damage of cellular component such are lipids, proteins and nucleic acids. Lipid peroxidation is considered as one of the major processes responsible for the oxidative damage of the polyunsaturated fatty acid in the cell membranes. Various methods such as a loss of polyunsaturated fatty acids, amount of the primary and the secondary products are used to monitor the level of lipid peroxidation. To investigate the use of ultra-weak photon emission as a non-invasive tool for monitoring of lipid peroxidation, the involvement of lipid peroxidation in ultra-weak photon emission was studied in the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Lipid peroxidation initiated by addition of exogenous linoleic acid to the cells was monitored by ultra-weak photon emission measured with the employment of highly sensitive charged couple device camera and photomultiplier tube. It was found that the addition of linoleic acid to the cells significantly increased the ultra-weak photon emission that correlates with the accumulation of lipid peroxidation product as measured using thiobarbituric acid assay. Scavenging of hydroxyl radical by mannitol, inhibition of intrinsic lipoxygenase by catechol and removal of molecular oxygen considerably suppressed ultra-weak photon emission measured after the addition of linoleic acid. The photon emission dominated at the red region of the spectrum with emission maximum at 680 nm. These observations reveal that the oxidation of linoleic acid by hydroxyl radical and intrinsic lipoxygenase results in the ultra-weak photon emission. Electronically excited species such as excited triplet carbonyls are the likely candidates for the primary excited species formed during the lipid peroxidation, whereas chlorophylls are the final emitters of photons. We propose here that the ultra-weak photon emission can be used as a non

  14. Effects of conjugated linoleic acid supplementation on blood lipids and adiposity of rats fed diets rich in saturated versus unsaturated fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloss, Rebecca; Linscheid, Janna; Johnson, Amy; Lawson, Brian; Edwards, Kylie; Linder, Travis; Stocker, Kelly; Petitte, Jeremy; Kern, Mark

    2005-06-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) may decrease adiposity and improve blood lipid profiles under some conditions. The goal of this study was to determine the effects of CLA supplementation on blood lipid profiles and adiposity of rats fed a diet containing a primarily saturated fat versus a diet containing a primarily unsaturated fat. Twenty-eight male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to one of four diets containing coconut oil, coconut oil with CLA, corn oil or corn oil with CLA. After 28 days, blood was collected and serum concentrations of total cholesterol (TC), HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), and triacylglycerols (TG) were assessed. Food intake, body weights, and epididymal fat pads were measured. No significant differences (p>0.05) were noted among groups for amount of food consumed, weight gained, food efficiency ratio or serum TG concentrations. TC concentrations were lower (pHDL-C was lower (p0.05) for CLA supplemented groups. Epididymal fat pads weighed significantly more (p0.05) between the corn oil and coconut oil + CLA group. Overall, this study suggests that CLA is more beneficial for control of blood lipids and adiposity when supplemented to a diet rich in saturated versus unsaturated fat.

  15. Ethanol Extract of Persimmon Tree Leaves Improves Blood Circulation and Lipid Metabolism in Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Ri; Kim, Hye-Jin; Moon, Byeongseok; Jung, Un Ju; Lee, Mi-Kyung; Lee, Dong Gun; Ryoo, ZaeYoung; Park, Yong Bok

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The leaves of the persimmon tree (PL) are known to have beneficial effects on hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. We recently demonstrated that PL had antithrombotic properties in vitro. However, little is known about the antiplatelet and anticoagulant properties of PL in vivo. Omega-3 fatty acid (n-3 FA)-containing fish oil has been widely prescribed to improve blood circulation. This study compared the effects of dietary supplementation with an ethanol extract of PL or n-3 FA on blood coagulation, platelet activation, and lipid levels in vivo. Sprague–Dawley rats were fed a high-fat diet with either PL ethanol extract (0.5% w/w) or n-3 FA (2.5% w/w) for 9 weeks. Coagulation was examined by monitoring the activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) and prothrombin time. We examined plasma thromboxane B2 (TXB2), serotonin, and soluble P-selectin (sP-selectin) levels. The aPTT was significantly prolonged in the PL and n-3 FA supplement groups. PL also attenuated the TXB2 level and lowered arterial serotonin transporter mRNA expression, although it did not alter plasma serotonin or sP-selectin levels. C-reactive protein and leptin levels were significantly reduced by PL and n-3 FA supplementation. In addition, PL decreased plasma total- and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels, as did n-3 FA treatment. These results indicated that the PL ethanol extract may have the potential to improve circulation by inhibiting blood coagulation and platelet activation and by reducing plasma cholesterol levels. PMID:26061228

  16. Further characterization of theobroma oil-beeswax admixtures as lipid matrices for improved drug delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attama, A A; Schicke, B C; Müller-Goymann, C C

    2006-11-01

    There is an increasing interest in lipid based drug delivery systems due to factors such as better characterization of lipidic excipients and formulation versatility and the choice of different drug delivery systems. It is important to know the thermal characteristics, crystal habit, texture, and appearance of a new lipid matrix when determining its suitability for use in certain pharmaceutical application. It is line with this that this research was embarked upon to characterize mixtures of beeswax and theobroma oil with a view to applying their admixtures in drug delivery systems such as solid lipid nanoparticles and nanostructured lipid carriers. Admixtures of theobroma oil and beeswax were prepared to contain 25% w/w, 50% w/w, and 75% w/w of theobroma oil. The admixtures were analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), small angle X-ray diffraction (SAXD), wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD), and isothermal heat conduction microcalorimetry (IMC). The melting behavior and microstructures of the lipid admixtures were monitored by polarized light microscopy (PLM). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to study the internal structures of the lipid bases. DSC traces indicated that the higher melting peaks were roughly constant for the different admixtures, but lower melting peaks significantly increased (p beeswax in all the lipid matrix admixtures at all stages of the study. PLM micrographs revealed differences with regard to the thermal and optical behaviors depending on the composition of the matrix. The lipid matrix consisting of 75% w/w of theobroma oil showed a spherulite texture after 4 weeks of isothermal storage. Crystallization exotherms of lipid matrices containing 50% w/w and 25% w/w of theobroma oil showed change in modification after 30 min with the latter having a greater time-dependent crystallization. Generally, low non-integral Avrami exponents and growth rate constants were obtained for all the lipid matrices, with the admixture

  17. Combined nitrogen limitation and cadmium stress stimulate total carbohydrates, lipids, protein and amino acid accumulation in Chlorella vulgaris (Trebouxiophyceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chia, Mathias Ahii, E-mail: chia28us@yahoo.com [Department of Botany, Federal University of São Carlos, Rodovia Washington Luis km 235, São Carlos, SP Cep 13565905 (Brazil); Lombardi, Ana Teresa [Department of Botany, Federal University of São Carlos, Rodovia Washington Luis km 235, São Carlos, SP Cep 13565905 (Brazil); Graça Gama Melão, Maria da [Department of Hydrobiology, Federal University of São Carlos, Rodovia Washington Luis km 235, São Carlos, SP Cep 13565905 (Brazil); Parrish, Christopher C. [Department of Ocean Sciences, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John’s, Newfoundland A1C 5S7 (Canada)

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • Chlorella vulgaris was exposed to Cd under varying N concentrations. • Growth rate and cell density decreased with increasing Cd stress and N limitation. • Dry weight, chlorophyll a, total lipid, carbohydrate and protein were accumulated. • Amino acids like proline and glutamine were accumulated under N and Cd stress. • Changes in amino acid composition are sensitive biomarkers for Cd and N stress. - Abstract: Metals have interactive effects on the uptake and metabolism of nutrients in microalgae. However, the effect of trace metal toxicity on amino acid composition of Chlorella vulgaris as a function of varying nitrogen concentrations is not known. In this research, C. vulgaris was used to investigate the influence of cadmium (10{sup −7} and 2.0 × 10{sup −8} mol L{sup −1} Cd) under varying nitrogen (2.9 × 10{sup −6}, 1.1 × 10{sup −5} and 1.1 × 10{sup −3} mol L{sup −1} N) concentrations on its growth rate, biomass and biochemical composition. Total carbohydrates, total proteins, total lipids, as well as individual amino acid proportions were determined. The combination of Cd stress and N limitation significantly inhibited growth rate and cell density of C. vulgaris. However, increasing N limitation and Cd stress stimulated higher dry weight and chlorophyll a production per cell. Furthermore, biomolecules like total proteins, carbohydrates and lipids increased with increasing N limitation and Cd stress. Ketogenic and glucogenic amino acids were accumulated under the stress conditions investigated in the present study. Amino acids involved in metal chelation like proline, histidine and glutamine were significantly increased after exposure to combined Cd stress and N limitation. We conclude that N limitation and Cd stress affects the physiology of C. vulgaris by not only decreasing its growth but also stimulating biomolecule production.

  18. Esterification of essential and non-essential fatty acids into distinct lipid classes in ruminant and non-ruminant tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldari-Torres, Cristina; McGilliard, Michael L; Corl, Benjamin A

    2016-10-01

    Extensive microbial biohydrogenation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in the rumen reduces the essential fatty acids (EFA) available for absorption in ruminant animals, but there is no published documentation of ruminants developing EFA deficiency. In ruminants, most circulating PUFA are found in the phospholipid (PL) and cholesteryl ester lipid classes that have slow turn-over compared to other lipid classes. The objective of this experiment was to measure fatty acid esterification patterns of the non-EFA palmitic (16:0) and oleic acid (18:1), and the EFA linoleic (18:2) and linolenic acid (18:3) in small intestine, liver, and muscle tissue of cows and pigs to identify tissues participating in sequestration of these FA in less metabolically active lipid classes in ruminants. Bovine and porcine small intestine, liver, and muscle explants were prepared and incubated in media containing radiolabeled 16:0, 18:1, 18:2, or 18:3 to measure esterification of fatty acids into PL and TG. Neither bovine nor porcine small intestine explants preferentially incorporated non-EFA compared to EFA into PL vs TG. Bovine liver explants esterified a larger proportion of EFA than non-EFA into PL compared to TG, while incorporation was similar among the FA tested in porcine liver explants. Bovine muscle explants showed preferential incorporation of EFA into PL rather than TG. Results show that bovine and porcine liver and muscle esterify EFA and non-EFA differently and that the conservation of EFA in ruminants is a result of preferential incorporation of EFA into PL mediated by bovine liver and muscle, but not the small intestine.

  19. Influence of finishing diet on fatty acid profiles of intramuscular lipids, triglycerides and phospholipids in muscles of the Iberian pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cava, R; Ruiz, J; López-Bote, C; Martín, L; García, C; Ventanas, J; Antequera, T

    1997-02-01

    Thirty Iberian × Duroc pigs allotted in groups of ten animals were fed in three traditional different management systems ('Montanera' (MO), fed on acorns; 'Recebo' (RE), fed on acorns and a commercial diet; and 'Cebo' (CE), fed on a commercial diet). Masseter muscle was obtained to evaluate the influence of management system on fatty acid (FA) composition of lean. The FA composition of the intramuscular total lipids, triglyceride (TG) and phospholipid (PL) fractions was evaluated. Muscle from MO pigs had greater quantities of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) in the total lipids, triglyceride and phospholipid fractions than the other feedings. The percentage of saturated fatty acids (SFA) of i.m. total lipids and TGs increased (P < .05) with duration of feeding on RE and CE, from 35.13-35.10% in MO pigs to 37.47-37.84% in RE pigs and 39.98-41.11% in CE pigs. PLs from RE and CE pigs contained more C(18:2) and C(20:4) and less C(18:1) than MO pigs.

  20. Betaine alleviates hepatic lipid accumulation via enhancing hepatic lipid export and fatty acid oxidation in rats fed with a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Li; Huang, Danping; Hu, Qiaolin; Wu, Jing; Wang, Yizhen; Feng, Jie

    2015-06-28

    To assess the effects of betaine on hepatic lipid accumulation and investigate the underlying mechanism, thirty-two male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 100 (sd 2·50) g were divided into four groups, and started on one of four treatments: basal diet, basal diet with betaine administration, high-fat diet and high-fat diet with betaine administration. The results showed that no significant difference of body weight was found among experimental groups. Compared with high-fat diet-fed rats, a betaine supplementation decreased (Pbetaine-homocysteine methyltransferase concentration [corrected] as well as its mRNA abundance and lecithin level were found increased (Pbetaine supplementation in both basal diet-fed rats and high-fat diet-fed rats. Betaine administration in high-fat diet-fed rats exhibited a higher (Pbetaine administration in high-fat diet-fed rats elevated (Pbetaine administration in high-fat diet group; meanwhile the gene expression of hepatic AMP-activated protein kinase was increased (Pbetaine administration enhanced hepatic lipid export and fatty acid oxidation in high-fat diet-fed rats, thus effectively alleviating fat accumulation in the liver.

  1. Dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids alter the fatty acid composition of hepatic and plasma bioactive lipids in C57BL/6 mice: a lipidomic approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayode A Balogun

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Omega (n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA are converted to bioactive lipid components that are important mediators in metabolic and physiological pathways; however, which bioactive compounds are metabolically active, and their mechanisms of action are still not clear. We investigated using lipidomic techniques, the effects of diets high in n-3 PUFA on the fatty acid composition of various bioactive lipids in plasma and liver. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Female C57BL/6 mice were fed semi-purified diets (20% w/w fat containing varying amounts of n-3 PUFA before mating, during gestation and lactation, and until weaning. Male offspring were continued on their mothers' diets for 16 weeks. Hepatic and plasma lipids were extracted in the presence of non-naturally occurring internal standards, and tandem electrospray ionization mass spectrometry methods were used to measure the fatty acyl compositions. There was no significant difference in total concentrations of phospholipids in both groups. However, there was a significantly higher concentration of eicosapentaenoic acid containing phosphatidylcholine (PC, lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC, and cholesteryl esters (CE (p < 0.01 in the high n-3 PUFA group compared to the low n-3 PUFA group in both liver and plasma. Plasma and liver from the high n-3 PUFA group also had a higher concentration of free n-3 PUFA (p < 0.05. There were no significant differences in plasma concentrations of different fatty acyl species of phosphatidylethanolamine, triglycerides, sphingomyelin and ceramides. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings reveal for the first time that a diet high in n-3 PUFA caused enrichment of n-3 PUFA in PC, LPC, CE and free fatty acids in the plasma and liver of C57BL/6 mice. PC, LPC, and unesterified free n-3 PUFA are important bioactive lipids, thus altering their fatty acyl composition will have important metabolic and physiological roles.

  2. Vitamin C improves basal metabolic rate and lipid profile in alloxan-induced diabetes mellitus in rats

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D U Owu; A B Antai; K H Udofia; A O Obembe; K O Obasi; M U Eteng

    2006-12-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a multi-factorial disease which is characterized by hyperglycaemia, lipoprotein abnormalities and oxidative stress. This study evaluated effect of oral vitamin C administration on basal metabolic rate and lipid profile of alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Vitamin C was administered at 200 mg/kg body wt. by gavage for four weeks to diabetic rats after which the resting metabolic rate and plasma lipid profile was determined. The results showed that vitamin C administration significantly ( < 0.01) reduced the resting metabolic rate in diabetic rats; and also lowered plasma triglyceride, total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. These results suggest that the administration of vitamin C in this model of established diabetes mellitus might be beneficial for the restoration of basal metabolic rate and improvement of lipid profile. This may at least in part reduce the risk of cardiovascular events seen in diabetes mellitus.

  3. Effect of Tween 80 on the growth, lipid accumulation and fatty acid composition of Thraustochytrium aureum ATCC 34304.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taoka, Yousuke; Nagano, Naoki; Okita, Yuji; Izumida, Hitoshi; Sugimoto, Shinichi; Hayashi, Masahiro

    2011-04-01

    Thraustochytrium aureum ATCC 34304 was grown in the presence and absence of polyoxyethylene sorbitan monooleate (Tween 80). The aim of this work was to obtain basic knowledge about the effect of Tween 80 on growth, lipid accumulation and fatty acid composition in T. aureum. The addition of Tween 80 to a culture medium significantly enhanced the growth of T. aureum, and the biomass increased with an increase of Tween 80 content. Total lipid content and total fatty acid content were significantly higher in 1.0% Tween 80 in comparison with the control (absence of Tween 80). The fatty acid profile showed that the content of C18:1n-9 (oleic acid) significantly increased as a result of the addition of Tween 80. These results indicated that part of the Tween 80 added to the medium was utilized as a carbon source or that the oleate included in Tween 80 was directly incorporated into T. aureum cells as a fatty acid. Neither the DHA content nor the percentage of DHA did not change in spite of the addition of Tween 80. However, the DHA yield significantly increased because the biomass increased due to the addition of Tween 80.

  4. Evaluation of lipid-bound sialic acid (LSA) as a tumor marker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Sáez, J J; Senra-Varela, A

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this study is the evaluation of serum levels of lipid-bound sialic acid (LSA) as a of marker cancer. This is a case-control study, and the levels of LSA were determined with blinded duplicates of cases and controls. Histologic verification of all cancer cases was used to confirm the diagnosis. The study included 135 patients with cancer (breast carcinoma, head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, lung cancer and gastrointestinal cancer) and 95 controls (57 normal subjects and 38 with chronic non-malignant diseases). Marker determination was done by the spectrophotometric procedure of Katopodis with resorcinol. The mean LSA level in the 57 healthy individuals was 15.09 mg/dl(95% C.I., 13.51-16.67), in the entire control group of 95 non-tumoral individuals it was 19.21 mg/dl (17.18-21.24), and in the 135 cancer patients it was 26.64 mg/dl (24.42-28.87). There was a statistically significant difference between patients with chronic non-tumoral diseases and healthy individuals (p 0.001), but not between cancer patients and patients with chronic non-tumoral diseases (p> 0.05). The mean LSA serum values related to tumor site were (mg/dl): breast cancer, 21.49; gastrointestinal tumors, 28.45; head and neck cancer, 28.61 and lung cancer, 32.54. The means according to clinical stage were: complete remission, 18.50 significantly higher than the healthy controls (p< 0.05); local disease, 23.50 (p < 0.01); locoregional disease, (p < 0.05); local disease, 23.50 (p < 0.01); locoregional disease, 27.21 (p < 0.001); metastatic disease, 34.49 (p < 0.001), and relapses, 20.87 (p< 0.05).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Argan Oil Exerts an Antiatherogenic Effect by Improving Lipids and Susceptibility of LDL to Oxidation in Type 2 Diabetes Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Ould Mohamedou

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigate the effect of argan oil consumption on serum lipids, apolipoproteins (AI and B, CRP, and LDL susceptibility to oxidation in type 2 diabetic patients which are known to have a high level of cardiovascular risk due to lipid abnormalities and lipid peroxidation. For that, 86 type 2 diabetic patients with dyslipidemia were randomized to one group consuming 25 mL/day of argan oil during 3 weeks and control group consuming 20 g/day of butter in breakfast. After argan oil intervention, serum triglycerides decreased by 11.84%, (P=0.001, total chol by 9.13%, (P=0.01, and LDL-chol by 11.81%, (P=0.02. However, HDL-chol and Apo AI increased (10.51%, P=0.01 and 9.40%,  P=0.045, resp.. Susceptibility of LDL to lipid peroxidation was significantly reduced by increasing of 20.95%, (P=0.038 in lag phase after argan oil consumption. In conclusion, we show for the first time that consumption of argan oil may have an antiatherogenic effect by improving lipids, and the susceptibility of LDL to oxidation in type 2 diabetes patients with dyslipidemia, and can therefore be recommended in the nutritional management of type 2 diabetes.

  6. Argan Oil Exerts an Antiatherogenic Effect by Improving Lipids and Susceptibility of LDL to Oxidation in Type 2 Diabetes Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ould Mohamedou, M M; Zouirech, K; El Messal, M; El Kebbaj, M S; Chraibi, A; Adlouni, A

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we investigate the effect of argan oil consumption on serum lipids, apolipoproteins (AI and B), CRP, and LDL susceptibility to oxidation in type 2 diabetic patients which are known to have a high level of cardiovascular risk due to lipid abnormalities and lipid peroxidation. For that, 86 type 2 diabetic patients with dyslipidemia were randomized to one group consuming 25 mL/day of argan oil during 3 weeks and control group consuming 20 g/day of butter in breakfast. After argan oil intervention, serum triglycerides decreased by 11.84%, (P = 0.001), total chol by 9.13%, (P = 0.01), and LDL-chol by 11.81%, (P = 0.02). However, HDL-chol and Apo AI increased (10.51%, P = 0.01 and 9.40%,  P = 0.045, resp.). Susceptibility of LDL to lipid peroxidation was significantly reduced by increasing of 20.95%, (P = 0.038) in lag phase after argan oil consumption. In conclusion, we show for the first time that consumption of argan oil may have an antiatherogenic effect by improving lipids, and the susceptibility of LDL to oxidation in type 2 diabetes patients with dyslipidemia, and can therefore be recommended in the nutritional management of type 2 diabetes.

  7. Inhibition of SREBP transcriptional activity by a boron-containing compound improves lipid homeostasis in diet-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaoping; Xiaoli; Zong, Haihong; Abdulla, Arian; Yang, Ellen S T; Wang, Qun; Ji, Jun-Yuan; Pessin, Jeffrey E; Das, Bhaskar C; Yang, Fajun

    2014-07-01

    Dysregulation of lipid homeostasis is intimately associated with obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases. Sterol regulatory-element binding proteins (SREBPs) are the master regulators of lipid biosynthesis. Previous studies have shown that the conserved transcriptional cofactor Mediator complex is critically required for the SREBP transcriptional activity, and recruitment of the Mediator complex to the SREBP transactivation domains (TADs) is through the MED15-KIX domain. Recently, we have synthesized several boron-containing small molecules. Among these novel compounds, BF175 can specifically block the binding of MED15-KIX to SREBP1a-TAD in vitro, resulting in an inhibition of the SREBP transcriptional activity and a decrease of SREBP target gene expression in cultured hepatocytes. Furthermore, BF175 can improve lipid homeostasis in the mouse model of diet-induced obesity. Compared with the control, BF175 treatment decreased the expression of SREBP target genes in mouse livers and decreased hepatic and blood levels of lipids. These results suggest that blocking the interaction between SREBP-TADs and the Mediator complex by small molecules may represent a novel approach for treating diseases with aberrant lipid homeostasis.

  8. Lipase-catalyzed acidolysis of canola oil with caprylic acid to produce medium-, long- and medium-chain-type structured lipids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yingyao; Xia, Luan; Xu, Xuebing

    2012-01-01

    Lipase-catalyzed acidolysis of canola oil with caprylic acid was performed to produce structured lipids (SLs) containing medium-chain fatty acid (M) at position sn-1,3 and long-chain fatty acid (L) at the sn-2 position in a solvent-free system. Six commercial lipases from different sources were s...

  9. L-Carnitine supplementation improved clinical status without changing oxidative stress and lipid profile in women with knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malek Mahdavi, Aida; Mahdavi, Reza; Kolahi, Sousan; Zemestani, Maryam; Vatankhah, Amir-Mansour

    2015-08-01

    Considering the pathologic importance of oxidative stress and altered lipid metabolism in osteoarthritis (OA), this study aimed to investigate the effect of l-carnitine supplementation on oxidative stress, lipid profile, and clinical status in women with knee OA. We hypothesized that l-carnitine would improve clinical status by modulating serum oxidative stress and lipid profile. In this randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 72 overweight or obese women with mild to moderate knee OA were randomly allocated into 2 groups to receive 750 mg/d l-carnitine or placebo for 8 weeks. Dietary intake was evaluated using 24-hour recall for 3 days. Serum malondialdehyde (MDA), total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and lipid profile, visual analog scale for pain intensity, and patient global assessment of severity of disease were assessed before and after supplementation. Only 69 patients (33 in the l-carnitine group and 36 in the placebo group) completed the study. l-Carnitine supplementation resulted in significant reductions in serum MDA (2.46 ± 1.13 vs 2.16 ± 0.94 nmol/mL), total cholesterol (216.09 ± 34.54 vs 206.12 ± 39.74 mg/dL), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (129.45 ± 28.69 vs 122.05 ± 32.76 mg/dL) levels compared with baseline (P .05). No significant differences were observed in dietary intake, serum lipid profile, MDA, and TAC levels between groups after adjusting for baseline values and covariates (P > .05). There were significant intragroup and intergroup differences in pain intensity and patient global assessment of disease status after supplementation (P carnitine improved clinical status without changing oxidative stress and lipid profile significantly in women with knee OA.

  10. Lentivirus-ABCG1 instillation reduces lipid accumulation and improves lung compliance in GM-CSF knock-out mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malur, Anagha; Huizar, Isham [Program in Lung Cell Biology and Translational Research, Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC (United States); Wells, Greg [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC (United States); Barna, Barbara P. [Program in Lung Cell Biology and Translational Research, Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC (United States); Malur, Achut G. [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC (United States); Thomassen, Mary Jane, E-mail: thomassenm@ecu.edu [Program in Lung Cell Biology and Translational Research, Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC (United States); Department of Microbiology and Immunology, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC (United States)

    2011-11-18

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lentivirus-ABCG1 reduces lipid accumulation in lungs of GM-CSF knock-out mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Up-regulation of ABCG1 improves lung function. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Upregulation of ABCG1 improves surfactant metabolism. -- Abstract: We have shown decreased expression of the nuclear transcription factor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR{gamma}) and the PPAR{gamma}-regulated ATP-binding cassette transporter G1 (ABCG1) in alveolar macrophages from patients with pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP). PAP patients also exhibit neutralizing antibodies to granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), an upregulator of PPAR{gamma}. In association with functional GM-CSF deficiency, PAP lung is characterized by surfactant-filled alveolar spaces and lipid-filled alveolar macrophages. Similar pathology characterizes GM-CSF knock-out (KO) mice. We reported previously that intratracheal instillation of a lentivirus (lenti)-PPAR{gamma} plasmid into GM-CSF KO animals elevated ABCG1 and reduced alveolar macrophage lipid accumulation. Here, we hypothesized that instillation of lenti-ABCG1 might be sufficient to decrease lipid accumulation and improve pulmonary function in GM-CSF KO mice. Animals received intratracheal instillation of lenti-ABCG1 or control lenti-enhanced Green Fluorescent Protein (eGFP) plasmids and alveolar macrophages were harvested 10 days later. Alveolar macrophage transduction efficiency was 79% as shown by lenti-eGFP fluorescence. Quantitative PCR analyses indicated a threefold (p = 0.0005) increase in ABCG1 expression with no change of PPAR{gamma} or ABCA1 in alveolar macrophages of lenti-ABCG1 treated mice. ABCG1 was unchanged in control lenti-eGFP and PBS-instilled groups. Oil Red O staining detected reduced intracellular neutral lipid in alveolar macrophages from lenti-ABCG1 treated mice. Extracellular cholesterol and phospholipids were also decreased as shown by

  11. A Simple Method for Measuring Carbon-13 Fatty Acid Enrichment in the Major Lipid Classes of Microalgae Using GC-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheik Nadeem Elahee Doomun

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A simple method for tracing carbon fixation and lipid synthesis in microalgae was developed using a combination of solid-phase extraction (SPE and negative ion chemical ionisation gas chromatography mass spectrometry (NCI-GC-MS. NCI-GC-MS is an extremely sensitive technique that can produce an unfragmented molecular ion making this technique particularly useful for stable isotope enrichment studies. Derivatisation of fatty acids using pentafluorobenzyl bromide (PFBBr allows the coupling of the high separation efficiency of GC and the measurement of unfragmented molecular ions for each of the fatty acids by single quadrupole MS. The key is that isotope spectra can be measured without interference from co-eluting fatty acids or other molecules. Pre-fractionation of lipid extracts by SPE allows the measurement of 13C isotope incorporation into the three main lipid classes (phospholipids, glycolipids, neutral lipids in microalgae thus allowing the study of complex lipid biochemistry using relatively straightforward analytical technology. The high selectivity of GC is necessary as it allows the collection of mass spectra for individual fatty acids, including cis/trans isomers, of the PFB-derivatised fatty acids. The combination of solid-phase extraction and GC-MS enables the accurate determination of 13C incorporation into each lipid pool. Three solvent extraction protocols that are commonly used in lipidomics were also evaluated and are described here with regard to extraction efficiencies for lipid analysis in microalgae.

  12. Protective effect of chenodeoxycholic acid against lipid kidney injury induced by high-fructose feeding in rats and the underlying mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡志娟

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the intervention of chenodeoxycholic acid(CDCA) on kidney of high-fructose-fed rats,and investigate the mechanism of CDCA on lipid kidney injury.Methods Forty-eight healthy male Wistar

  13. Total lipids and fatty acid profile in the liver of wild and farmed Catla catla fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussain, Bilal

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This experimental work was aimed to study the moisture content, total lipids and fatty acid profile in the liver of wild and farmed freshwater major carp Catla catla of three different weight categories designated as W1 (601-900g, W2 (901- 1200g and W3 (1201-1500g. Seven fish specimens of each of the three weight categories of wild and farmed Catla catla were obtained from Trimu Head, Jhang and Fish Hatchery, Satiana Road and Faisalabad, respectively. The fish were dissected to remove the liver and after weighing, liver samples were prepared and subjected to chemical analysis. Wild Catla catla liver had a significantly (p Catla catla deposited significantly (p Catla catla. Saturated fatty acids C12:0, C14:0, C16:0, C18:0, C20:0 and C22:0 were identified with considerable percentages in the liver of Catla catla from both habitats and monounsaturated fatty acid C18:1 was found in considerable amounts in the liver of both major carp. Polyunsaturated fatty acids such as C18:3 (n-6 and C20: 2 (n-6 were detected in the liver of the wild fish of W2 and W3 and was similar in the W3 weight category of the farmed species.Este trabajo experimental tiene como objetivo estudiar el contenido de humedad, lípidos totales y perfil de ácidos grasos de hígado de carpa de agua dulce Catla catla de tres categorías con peso diferentes designadas como W1 (601- 900g, W2 (901-1200g and W3 (1201-1500g. Siete muestras de pescados por cada una de las tres categorías de peso para Catla catla salvajes y criados fueron obtenidos de Trimu Head, Jhang and Fish Hatchery, Satiana Road y Faisalabad, respectivamente. Los pescados fueron diseccionados para obtener el hígado y las muestras de hígado fueron preparadas y sujetas a análisis químico. Catla catla salvaje tuvo un contenido de humedad significativamente mayor (p Catla catla criadas se depositaron mayores contenidos de lípidos en el hígado. La proporción de ácidos grasos saturados vario irregularmente en los l

  14. Growth, Fatty Acid, and Lipid Composition of Marine Microalgae Skeletonema costatum Available in Bangladesh Coast: Consideration as Biodiesel Feedstock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Sharmin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the various potential sources of renewable energy, biofuels are of most interest. Marine microalgae are the most promising oil sources for making biofuels, which can grow very rapidly and convert solar energy to chemical energy via CO2 fixation. The fatty acid profile of almost all the microalgal oil is suitable for the synthesis of biofuel. In this research, fatty acid and lipid contents of Bangladeshi strains of marine microalgae Skeletonema costatum were performed. For this, the crude oil was extracted by Soxhlet extraction method, using three most common solvent systems, pure hexane and mixture of CHCl3 : MeOH (2 : 1 and hexane : EtOH (3 : 1 one by one. Highest oil recovery (15.37% came from CHCl3 : MeOH (2 : 1 solvent system from dry biomass whereas the lowest (2.49% came from n-hexane from wet biomass. The qualitative analysis of the extracted oil by GC/MS analysis revealed that it contained significant amount of myristic acid (C14:0, palmitic acid (C16:0, stearic acid (C18:0, and palmitoleic acid (C16:1. It also indicated presence of hexadecatrienoic acid, benzenedicarboxylic acid, oleic acid, arachidonic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 9-Octadecenoic acid methyl ester (C19H36O2, and so forth. The obtained fatty acid profile indicates high potentiality of S. costatum species to be used as promising biofuel feedstock a little improvisation and substantially it can replace diesel in near future.

  15. Optimization of aeration and agitation rate for lipid and gamma linolenic acid production by Cunninghamella bainieri 2A1 in submerged fermentation using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, Normah; Abdeshahian, Peyman; Kalil, Mohd Sahaid; Yusoff, Wan Mohtar Wan; Hamid, Aidil Abdul

    2014-01-01

    The locally isolated filamentous fungus Cunninghamella bainieri 2A1 was cultivated in a 5 L bioreactor to produce lipid and gamma-linolenic acid (GLA). The optimization was carried out using response surface methodology based on a central composite design. A statistical model, second-order polynomial model, was adjusted to the experimental data to evaluate the effect of key operating variables, including aeration rate and agitation speed on lipid production. Process analysis showed that linear and quadratic effect of agitation intensity significantly influenced lipid production process (P production (P production of lipid in the bioreactor.

  16. Quality Improvement of an Acid Treated Fuel Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Jumoke ETERIGHO

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The work on the quality improvement of fuel oil using acid treatment was carried out. The improvement of the fuel oil was done using sulphuric acid to remove contaminants. Sulphuric acid at different concentrations were mixed with the oil and kept at 45°C for four hours in the agitator vessel to allow reaction to take place. Acidic sludge was then drained off from the agitator and the oil was neutralized with sodium hydroxide. Centrifugation operation was used to extract the sulphonate dispersed in the oil. The treated and untreated oils were characterized for various properties and the results showed that the viscosity, total sulphur of fuel oil decreased from 6.0 to before 5.0 cst after acid treatment and 2.57 to 1.2225% w/w respectively while the flash point increased from 248 to 264°F. The water and sediment content increased from trace before to 0.6 after treatment. In addition, the calorific value increased from initial value of 44,368 to 44,805 and 44,715 kJ/kg at 50% and 75% conc. H2SO4 while decreasing with 85% and 90% conc. H2SO4. However, both carbon residue and ash content decreases with an increase in acid concentration.

  17. Fatty acids modulate Toll-like receptor 4 activation through regulation of receptor dimerization and recruitment into lipid rafts in a reactive oxygen species-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Scott W; Kwon, Myung-Ja; Choi, Augustine M K; Kim, Hong-Pyo; Nakahira, Kiichi; Hwang, Daniel H

    2009-10-02

    The saturated fatty acids acylated on Lipid A of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or bacterial lipoproteins play critical roles in ligand recognition and receptor activation for Toll-like Receptor 4 (TLR4) and TLR2. The results from our previous studies demonstrated that saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids reciprocally modulate the activation of TLR4. However, the underlying mechanism has not been understood. Here, we report for the first time that the saturated fatty acid lauric acid induced dimerization and recruitment of TLR4 into lipid rafts, however, dimerization was not observed in non-lipid raft fractions. Similarly, LPS and lauric acid enhanced the association of TLR4 with MD-2 and downstream adaptor molecules, TRIF and MyD88, into lipid rafts leading to the activation of downstream signaling pathways and target gene expression. However, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, inhibited LPS- or lauric acid-induced dimerization and recruitment of TLR4 into lipid raft fractions. Together, these results demonstrate that lauric acid and DHA reciprocally modulate TLR4 activation by regulation of the dimerization and recruitment of TLR4 into lipid rafts. In addition, we showed that TLR4 recruitment to lipid rafts and dimerization were coupled events mediated at least in part by NADPH oxidase-dependent reactive oxygen species generation. These results provide a new insight in understanding the mechanism by which fatty acids differentially modulate TLR4-mediated signaling pathway and consequent inflammatory responses which are implicated in the development and progression of many chronic diseases.

  18. A novel microalgal lipid extraction method using biodiesel (fatty acid methyl esters) as an extractant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wen-Can; Park, Chan Woo; Kim, Jong-Duk

    2017-02-01

    Although microalgae are considered promising renewable sources of biodiesel, the high cost of the downstream process is a significant obstacle in large-scale biodiesel production. In this study, a novel approach for microalgal biodiesel production was developed by using the biodiesel as an extractant. First, wet microalgae with 70% water content were incubated with a mixture of biodiesel/methanol and penetration of the mixture through the cell membrane and swelling of the lipids contained in microalgae was confirmed. Significant increases of lipid droplets were observed by confocal microscopy. Second, the swelled lipid droplets in microalgae were squeezed out using mechanical stress across the cell membrane and washed with methanol. The lipid extraction efficiency reached 68%. This process does not require drying of microalgae or solvent recovery, which the most energy-intensive step in solvent-based biodiesel production.

  19. Omega-3 fatty acids plus rosuvastatin improves endothelial function in South Asians with dyslipidemia

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    Catalin Mindrescu

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Catalin Mindrescu1,2,3, Rakesh P Gupta1,3, Eileen V Hermance1, Mary C DeVoe1, Vikas R Soma1, John T Coppola1,2, Cezar S Staniloae1,21Comprehensive Cardiovascular Center, Saint Vincent’s Hospital Manhattan, New York, NY, USA; 2New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY, USA; 3Rakesh P Gupta and Catalin Mindrescu contributed equally to this article.Background: The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of statins plus omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs on endothelial function and lipid profile in South Asians with dyslipidemia and endothelial dysfunction, a population at high risk for premature coronary artery disease.Methods: Thirty subjects were randomized to rosuvastatin 10 mg and omega-3-PUFAs 4 g or rosuvastatin 10 mg. After 4 weeks, omega-3-PUFAs were removed from the first group and added to subjects in the second group. All subjects underwent baseline, 4-, and 8-week assessment of endothelial function and lipid profile.Results: Compared to baseline, omega-3-PUFAs plus rosuvastatin improved endothelial-dependent vasodilation (EDV: −1.42% to 11.36%, p = 0.001, and endothelial-independent vasodilation (EIV: 3.4% to 17.37%, p = 0.002. These effects were lost when omega-3-PUFAs were removed (EDV: 11.36% to 0.59%, p = 0.003. In the second group, rosuvastatin alone failed to improve both EDV and EIV compared to baseline. However, adding omega-3-PUFAs to rosuvastatin, significantly improved EDV (−0.66% to 14.73%, p = 0.001 and EIV (11.02% to 24.5%, p = 0.001. Addition of omega-3-PUFAs further improved the lipid profile (triglycerides 139 to 91 mg/dl, p = 0.006, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol 116 to 88 mg/dl, p = 0.014.Conclusions: Combined therapy with omega-3-PUFAs and rosuvastatin improves endothelial function in South Asian subjects with dyslipidemia and endothelial dysfunction.Keywords: omega-3 fatty acids, endothelial function, South Asians, dyslipidemia, rosuvastatin

  20. Physiologic growth hormone replacement improves fasting lipid kinetics in patients with HIV lipodystrophy syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    HIV lipodystrophy syndrome (HLS) is characterized by accelerated lipolysis, inadequate fat oxidation, increased hepatic reesterification, and a high frequency of growth hormone deficiency (GHD). The effect of growth hormone (GH) replacement on these lipid kinetic abnormalities is unknown. We aimed ...

  1. Fish oil supplementation improves docosahexaenoic acid status of malnourished infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, EN; Oelen, EA; Seerat, E; Boersma, ER; Muskiet, FAJ

    2000-01-01

    Aim-To investigate whether the low docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) status of malnourished, mostly breast fed, Pakistani children can be improved by fish oil (FO) supplementation. Methods-Ten malnourished children (aged 8-30 months) received 500 mg FO daily for nine weeks. The supplement contained 62.8 mo

  2. Influence of in vitro supplementation with lipids from conventional and Alpine milk on fatty acid distribution and cell growth of HT-29 cells

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    Dänicke Sven

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To date, the influence of milk and dairy products on carcinogenesis remains controversial. However, lipids of ruminant origin such as conjugated linoleic acids (CLA are known to exhibit beneficial effects in vitro and in vivo. The aim of the present study was to determine the influence of milk lipids of different origin and varying quality presenting as free fatty acid (FFA solutions on cellular fatty acid distribution, cellular viability, and growth of human colon adenocarcinoma cells (HT-29. Methods FAME of conventional and Alpine milk lipids (MLcon, MLalp and cells treated with FFA derivatives of milk lipids were analyzed by means of GC-FID and Ag+-HPLC. Cellular viability and growth of the cells were determined by means of CellTiter-Blue®-assay and DAPI-assay (4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole dihydrochloride, respectively. Results Supplementation with milk lipids significantly decreased viability and growth of HT-29 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. MLalp showed a lower SFA/MUFA ratio, a 8 fold increased CLA content, and different CLA profile compared to MLcon but did not demonstrate additional growth-inhibitory effects. In addition, total concentration and fatty acid distribution of cellular lipids were altered. In particular, treatment of the cells yielded highest amounts of two types of milk specific major fatty acids (μg FA/mg cellular protein after 8 h of incubation compared to 24 h; 200 μM of MLcon (C16:0, 206 ± 43, 200 μM of MLalp (C18:1 c9, (223 ± 19. Vaccenic acid (C18:1 t11 contained in milk lipids was converted to c9,t11-CLA in HT-29 cells. Notably, the ratio of t11,c13-CLA/t7,c9-CLA, a criterion for pasture feeding of the cows, was significantly changed after incubation for 8 h with lipids from MLalp (3.6 - 4.8, compared to lipids from MLcon (0.3 - 0.6. Conclusions Natural lipids from conventional and Alpine milk showed similar growth inhibitory effects. However, different changes in cellular

  3. Reproductive Cycle and Seasonal Variations in Lipid Content and Fatty Acid Composition in Gonad of the Cockle Fulvia mutica in Relation to Temperature and Food

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Wenguang; LI Qi; KONG Lingfeng

    2013-01-01

    From March 2004 to February 2005,seasonal variations in lipid content and fatty acid composition of gonad of the cockle Fulvia mutica (Reeve) were studied on the eastern coast of China in relation to the reproductive cycle and environment conditions (e.g.,temperature and food availability).Histological analysis as well as lipid and fatty acid analyses were performed on neutral and polar lipids of the gonad.Results showed that gametogenesis occurred in winter and spring at the expense of lipids previously accumulated in summer and autumn,whereas spawning occurred in summer (20.4-24.6℃).The seasonal variation in lipid content was similar to that of the mean oocyte diameter.In both neutral and polar lipids,the 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 levels were relatively higher than saturated fatty acids,and polyunsaturated fatty acids were abundant,with series n-3 as the predominant component.Seasonal variations in the 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 levels and the principal n-3 fatty acids were clearly related to the reproductive cycle.The ∑(n-3)and ∑(n-6) values were relatively high during January-May,and the associated unsaturation index was significantly higher than that in other months.The results suggest that fatty acids play an important role in the gametogenesis of F.mutica.

  4. Reproductive cycle and seasonal variations in lipid content and fatty acid composition in gonad of the cockle Fulvia mutica in relation to temperature and food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenguang; Li, Qi; Kong, Lingfeng

    2013-09-01

    From March 2004 to February 2005, seasonal variations in lipid content and fatty acid composition of gonad of the cockle Fulvia mutica (Reeve) were studied on the eastern coast of China in relation to the reproductive cycle and environment conditions ( e.g., temperature and food availability). Histological analysis as well as lipid and fatty acid analyses were performed on neutral and polar lipids of the gonad. Results showed that gametogenesis occurred in winter and spring at the expense of lipids previously accumulated in summer and autumn, whereas spawning occurred in summer (20.4-24.6°C). The seasonal variation in lipid content was similar to that of the mean oocyte diameter. In both neutral and polar lipids, the 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 levels were relatively higher than saturated fatty acids, and polyunsaturated fatty acids were abundant, with series n-3 as the predominant component. Seasonal variations in the 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 levels and the principal n-3 fatty acids were clearly related to the reproductive cycle. The Σ(n-3) and Σ(n-6) values were relatively high during January-May, and the associated unsaturation index was significantly higher than that in other months. The results suggest that fatty acids play an important role in the gametogenesis of F. mutica.

  5. Increased hepatic fatty acids uptake and oxidation by LRPPRC-driven oxidative phosphorylation reduces blood lipid levels

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    Ping Zhou

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Hyperlipidemia is one of the major risk factors of atherosclerosis and other cardiovascular diseases. This study aimed to investigate the impact of leucine rich pentatricopeptide repeat containing protein (LRPPRC-driven hepatic oxidative phoshorylation on blood lipid levels. The hepatic LRPPRC level was modulated by liver-specific transgenic or adeno-associated virus 8 carried shRNA targeting Lrpprc (aav-shLrpprc. Mice were fed with a high fat diet to induce obesity. Gene expression was analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR and / or western blot. The hepatic ATP level, hepatic and serum lipids contents, and mitochondria oxidative phosphorylation complex activities were measured using specific assay kits. The uptake and oxidation of fatty acid by hepatocytes were assessed using 14C-palmitate. LRPPRC regulated the expression of genes encoded by mitochondrial genome but not those by nuclear genome involved in mitochondria biogenesis, oxidative phosphorylation, and lipid metabolism. Increased oxidative phosphorylation in liver mediated by LRPPRC resulted in the increase of hepatic ATP level. Lrpprc promoted palmitate uptake and oxidation by hypatocytes. The hepatic and serum triglyceride and total cholesterol levels were inversely associated with the hepatic LRPPRC level. These data demonstrated that LRPPRC-driven hepatic oxidative phosphorylation could promote fatty acids uptake and oxidation by hepatocytes and reduce both hepatic and circulating triglyceride and cholesterol levels.

  6. Metabonomics reveals drastic changes in anti-inflammatory/pro-resolving polyunsaturated fatty acids-derived lipid mediators in leprosy disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio J Amaral

    Full Text Available Despite considerable efforts over the last decades, our understanding of leprosy pathogenesis remains limited. The complex interplay between pathogens and hosts has profound effects on host metabolism. To explore the metabolic perturbations associated with leprosy, we analyzed the serum metabolome of leprosy patients. Samples collected from lepromatous and tuberculoid patients before and immediately after the conclusion of multidrug therapy (MDT were subjected to high-throughput metabolic profiling. Our results show marked metabolic alterations during leprosy that subside at the conclusion of MDT. Pathways showing the highest modulation were related to polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA metabolism, with emphasis on anti-inflammatory, pro-resolving omega-3 fatty acids. These results were confirmed by eicosanoid measurements through enzyme-linked immunoassays. Corroborating the repertoire of metabolites altered in sera, metabonomic analysis of skin specimens revealed alterations in the levels of lipids derived from lipase activity, including PUFAs, suggesting a high lipid turnover in highly-infected lesions. Our data suggest that omega-6 and omega-3, PUFA-derived, pro-resolving lipid mediators contribute to reduced tissue damage irrespectively of pathogen burden during leprosy disease. Our results demonstrate the utility of a comprehensive metabonomic approach for identifying potential contributors to disease pathology that may facilitate the development of more targeted treatments for leprosy and other inflammatory diseases.

  7. Metabonomics Reveals Drastic Changes in Anti-Inflammatory/Pro-Resolving Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids-Derived Lipid Mediators in Leprosy Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Julio J.; Antunes, Luis Caetano M.; de Macedo, Cristiana S.; Mattos, Katherine A.; Han, Jun; Pan, Jingxi; Candéa, André L. P.; Henriques, Maria das Graças M. O.; Ribeiro-Alves, Marcelo; Borchers, Christoph H.; Sarno, Euzenir N.; Bozza, Patrícia T.; Finlay, B. Brett; Pessolani, Maria Cristina V.

    2013-01-01

    Despite considerable efforts over the last decades, our understanding of leprosy pathogenesis remains limited. The complex interplay between pathogens and hosts has profound effects on host metabolism. To explore the metabolic perturbations associated with leprosy, we analyzed the serum metabolome of leprosy patients. Samples collected from lepromatous and tuberculoid patients before and immediately after the conclusion of multidrug therapy (MDT) were subjected to high-throughput metabolic profiling. Our results show marked metabolic alterations during leprosy that subside at the conclusion of MDT. Pathways showing the highest modulation were related to polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) metabolism, with emphasis on anti-inflammatory, pro-resolving omega-3 fatty acids. These results were confirmed by eicosanoid measurements through enzyme-linked immunoassays. Corroborating the repertoire of metabolites altered in sera, metabonomic analysis of skin specimens revealed alterations in the levels of lipids derived from lipase activity, including PUFAs, suggesting a high lipid turnover in highly-infected lesions. Our data suggest that omega-6 and omega-3, PUFA-derived, pro-resolving lipid mediators contribute to reduced tissue damage irrespectively of pathogen burden during leprosy disease. Our results demonstrate the utility of a comprehensive metabonomic approach for identifying potential contributors to disease pathology that may facilitate the development of more targeted treatments for leprosy and other inflammatory diseases. PMID:23967366

  8. Effects of various dietary lipid additives on lamb performance, carcass characteristics, adipose tissue fatty acid composition, and wool characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meale, S J; Chaves, A V; He, M L; Guan, L L; McAllister, T A

    2015-06-01

    Tasco (Ascophyllum nodosum; TA) was compared to canola (CO), flax (FO), and safflower oils (SO) for effects on performance, carcass characteristics, and fatty acid profiles of adipose tissue in skirt muscle (SM), subcutaneous and perirenal adipose tissues, and wool production and quality characteristics of Canadian Arcott lambs. Fifty-six lambs were randomly assigned to dietary treatments (n = 14 per treatment). Diets consisted of a pelleted, barley-based finishing diet containing either TA, CO, FO, or SO (2% of dietary DM). Feed deliveries and orts were recorded daily. Lambs were weighed weekly and slaughtered once they reached ≥ 45 kg BW. Carcass characteristics, rumen pH, and liver weights were determined at slaughter. Wool yield was determined on mid-side patches of 100 cm2 shorn at d 0 and on the day before slaughter (d 105 or 140). Dye-bands were used to determine wool growth, micrometer and staple length. Adipose tissues and SM samples were taken at slaughter and analyzed for FA profiles. No effects were observed on intake, growth, or carcass characteristics. A greater (P = 0.02) staple strength of lambs fed CO was the only effect observed in wool. Flax oil increased total n-3 and decreased the n-6/n-3 ratio in tissue FA profiles (P < 0.001) in comparison to other diets. Tasco increased (P ≤ 0.001) SFA/PUFA in all tissues, whereas concentrations of CLA c-9, t-11 were greatest with SO in all tissues (P ≤ 0.02), compared to other diets. These results suggest Tasco supplementation did not improve the n-3/n-6 or SFA/PUFA ratios of lamb adipose tissues compared to other dietary lipid additives.

  9. Lipid and fatty acid fractions in Lingula anatina (Brachiopoda: an intertidal benthic fauna in the West Bengal-Orissa coast, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samaresh Samanta

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To record the fractional components of lipid and polyunsaturated fatty acids of Lingula anatina (L. anatina, a Precambrian intertidal benthic brachiopod, giving emphasis on -ω series group especially eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA alongside assessing their biotransformation within the population and mangrove-estuarine associated community. Methods: Different biological samples after being collected from three contrasting study sites viz. SI, SII and SIII at Talsari (Longitude 87°5′ E to 88°5′ E and Latitude 20°30′ N to 22°2′ N were stored at -20 °C until analyzed. Total lipids were extracted from each sample following Bligh and Dryer method. Identification and conformation of fatty acids were done by following Ackman method. Results: On analyzing different collected samples, muscles of L. anatina exhibited the highest amount of total lipids (2.95% of which 54.03% belongs to phospholipid groups. Different body parts of studied species contained appreciable and greater amount of EPA and DHA than α-linolenic acid. Conclusions: Different collected samples exhibited variabilities in respect of total lipids and its fractional fatty acid components. The muscles of L. anatina showed maximum storage of lipids and fatty acids. Differential occurrences of EPA and DHA in different body parts of L. anatina are supposed to be due to the biotransformation process converting the α-linolenic acid from its primary food sources.

  10. Lipid and fatty acid fractions in Lingula anatina (Brachiopoda):an intertidal benthic fauna in the West Bengal-Orissa coast, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Samaresh Samanta; Tapas Kumar Das; Amalesh Choudhury; Susanta Kumar Chakraborty

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To record the fractional components of lipid and polyunsaturated fatty acids of Lingula anatina (L. anatina), a Precambrian intertidal benthic brachiopod, giving emphasis on-ωseries group especially eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) alongside assessing their biotransformation within the population and mangrove-estuarine associated community. Methods:Different biological samples after being collected from three contrasting study sites viz. SI, SII and SIII at Talsari (Longitude 87°5′E to 88°5′E and Latitude 20°30′N to 22°2′N) were stored at-20 °C until analyzed. Total lipids were extracted from each sample following Bligh and Dryer method. Identification and conformation of fatty acids were done by following Ackman method. Results:On analyzing different collected samples, muscles of L. anatina exhibited the highest amount of total lipids (2.95%) of which 54.03%belongs to phospholipid groups. Different body parts of studied species contained appreciable and greater amount of EPA and DHA than α-linolenic acid. Conclusions:Different collected samples exhibited variabilities in respect of total lipids and its fractional fatty acid components. The muscles of L. anatina showed maximum storage of lipids and fatty acids. Differential occurrences of EPA and DHA in different body parts of L. anatina are supposed to be due to the biotransformation process converting theα-linolenic acid from its primary food sources.

  11. Conditions optimising on the yield of biomass, total lipid, and valuable fatty acids in two strains of Skeletonema menzelii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiamin; Han, Qingxi; Gao, Xiuzhi; Gao, Guang

    2016-03-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) are essential for the health of aquaculture organisms and human beings. A total of 9 species of diatoms were screened and two strains of Skeletonema menzelii were selected for further study due to their high growth rates, PUFA and EPA contents. The culture conditions for the yield of biomass, total lipid, EPA and PUFA were optimised. The quickest growth rates (0.28-0.41d(-1)) were achieved with moderate supplement of nitrogen, phosphorus, iron and silicon. The accumulation of total lipid (17.85-22.70% of dry weight) benefitted from deprivation of nitrogen, phosphorus and silicon, but a moderate iron supplement. Highest PUFA (38.26-50.48% of total fatty acids) or EPA (14.26-18.39% of total fatty acids) contents were observed under high nitrogen and phosphorus supplement, moderate available iron but deprivation of silicon. These findings make tangible contributions to culture S. menzelii for commercial production of PUFA or EPA.

  12. Combined nitrogen limitation and cadmium stress stimulate total carbohydrates, lipids, protein and amino acid accumulation in Chlorella vulgaris (Trebouxiophyceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, Mathias Ahii; Lombardi, Ana Teresa; da Graça Gama Melão, Maria; Parrish, Christopher C

    2015-03-01

    Metals have interactive effects on the uptake and metabolism of nutrients in microalgae. However, the effect of trace metal toxicity on amino acid composition of Chlorella vulgaris as a function of varying nitrogen concentrations is not known. In this research, C. vulgaris was used to investigate the influence of cadmium (10(-7) and 2.0×10(-8)molL(-1) Cd) under varying nitrogen (2.9×10(-6), 1.1×10(-5) and 1.1×10(-3)molL(-1)N) concentrations on its growth rate, biomass and biochemical composition. Total carbohydrates, total proteins, total lipids, as well as individual amino acid proportions were determined. The combination of Cd stress and N limitation significantly inhibited growth rate and cell density of C. vulgaris. However, increasing N limitation and Cd stress stimulated higher dry weight and chlorophyll a production per cell. Furthermore, biomolecules like total proteins, carbohydrates and lipids increased with increasing N limitation and Cd stress. Ketogenic and glucogenic amino acids were accumulated under the stress conditions investigated in the present study. Amino acids involved in metal chelation like proline, histidine and glutamine were significantly increased after exposure to combined Cd stress and N limitation. We conclude that N limitation and Cd stress affects the physiology of C. vulgaris by not only decreasing its growth but also stimulating biomolecule production.

  13. Changes in Unsaturated Levels of Fatty Acids in Thylakoid PSⅡ Membrane Lipids During Chilling-induced Resistance in Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su-Qin Zhu; Chun-Mei Yu; Xin-Yan Liu; Ben-Hua Ji; De-Mao Jiao

    2007-01-01

    Temperature is one of the abiotic factors limiting growth and productivity of plants. In the present work, the effect of low non-freezing temperature, as an inducer of "chilling resistance", was studied in three cultivars of rice (Oryza sativa L.), japonica cv. 9516 (j-9516), the two parental lines of superhigh-yield hybrid rice between subspecies,Peiai/E32 (ji-PE), and the traditional indica hybrid rice Shanyou 63 (i-SY63). Leaves of chill-treated rice showed chilling-induced resistance, as an increase of their low-temperature tolerance was measured using chlorophyll fluorescence measurements, revealing a change in photosystem Ⅱ (PSⅡ) efficiency. After 5 d of exposure to 11℃ under low light (100 μ mol·m-2·s-1), levels of unsaturated fatty acids in PSⅡ thylakoid membrane lipids decreased during the initial 1-2 d, then increased slowly and reached 99.2%, 95.3% and 90.1% of the initial value (0 d) in j-9516,ji-PE and i-SY63, respectively, on the fifth day. However, under medium light (600 μmol·m-2·s-1), all cultivars experienced similar substantial photoinhibition, which approached steady state levels after a decline in levels of unsaturated fatty acids in PSII thylakoid membrane lipids to about 57.1%, 53.8% and 44.5% of the initial values (0 d) in j-9516,ji-PE and i-SY63 on the fifth day. Under either chilling-induced resistance (the former) or low temperature photoinhibition (the latter) conditions, the changes of other physiological parameters such as D1 protein contents,electron transport activities of PSII (ETA), Fv/Fm, xanthophyl cycle activities expressed by DES (deepoxide state)were consistent with that of levels of unsaturated fatty acids in PSⅡ thylakoid membrane lipids. So there were negative correlations between saturated levels of fatty acids (16:1(3t), 16:0, 18:0), especially the 16:1(3t) fatty acid on thylakoid membrane and other physiological parameters, such as D1 protein contents, ETA and (A+Z)/(A+V+Z). A specific role of

  14. Low fish oil intake improves insulin sensitivity, lipid profile and muscle metabolism on insulin resistant MSG-obese rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iagher Fabiola

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is commonly associated with diabetes, cardiovascular